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Sample records for basin czech republic

  1. Moldavites from the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouska, V. J.; Mottl, V.; Rost, R.; Sevcik, J.

    1995-09-01

    Thirteen moladvites have been found on the surf side of the gravel beaches on the shore of the Jesenice water reservoir on the Odrava River. This spur lies about 1 250 m NW of the village Okrouhl at Cheb in Western Bohemia, Czech Republic, where only slightly rounded Pliocene gravels of the Vildgtejn Formation outcrop on the surface and form the bottom of the reservoir at this point. These gravels are also uncovered at the Tekaz Cheb gravel pit, 2 350 m to the NW from the find site. The bottom of the gravel pit and the basement of the moldavite-bearing gravel sands consist of the Miocene Cypris claystones. Red-brown andalusite and feldspar grains are typical minerals of the sandy gravels. The moldavites are lat in shape with deep sculpture, formed in a weakly acidic environment. Moldavites did not undergo prolonged transportation from the site of fall. Two samples have sharp grooves. The moldavites from the Cheb Basin are somewhat smoother to the touch and not as sharp as the moldavites from the Ceske Budejovice-Trebon area in Southern Bohemia. In a microscope, very fine secondary sculpture can be seen, probably formed in the water of the reservoir. The glass-matter is pure inside the samples and thus this is apparently repeated emphasizing of the original sculpture. The biggest specimens are No. 1 (5.44 g; 3 x 1.6 x 0.7 cm) and No. 8 (4.855 g; 3.2 x 1.7 x 0.5 cm). Their color ranges from bottle green to light bottle green to olive green or olive brown in two samples. In the shape, color, high content of bubbles and lechatelierite grains, density (rho = 2.34 - 2.38), refractive index (n = 1.4888 - 1.4936), and chemical composition of sample No. 5 (microprobe analysis: SiO2 - 78.70 wt. %, TiO2 - 0.35, Al2O3 - 10.13, FeO - 1.62, MnO - 0.12, MgO - 2.03, CaO - 3.11, Na2O - 0.42, K2O - 2.61) the moldavites of the Cheb Basin correspond to moldavites from the Ceske Budejovice-Trebon area in Southern Bohemia (1,2). The finds of moldavites in the Cheb Basin reflect the

  2. How do different parts of a basin contribute to discharge? Case study Rokytka Brook, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2015-04-01

    How do different parts of a basin contribute to discharge? Case study Rokytka Brook, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic Lukáš Vlček, Jan Kocum, Bohumír Janský, Luděk Šefrna Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Prague, Czech Republic Runoff formation is a very important issue within a flood protection and drought prevention. To solve this topic a lot of parameters, which affect the outflow, need to be known. Especially it is necessary to find out which part of a catchment contributes mostly to discharge during flood events or during drought periods. Optimal conditions for such a research are provided by our study in Šumava Mts., where a number of former floods has been created. In near future this area can play role within the water storage enhancement in SW Czech Republic during drought periods. Central part of Šumava Mts. is covered with peat bogs and other peaty soil types which are mostly supplied by rain water. This study takes place in the small catchment (1 km²) in Šumava Mts. It is created by 2 main slopes with different vegetation and soil coverage. First slope is covered by well-developed peat bog where 3 springs were found, the second slope is covered by dead spruce forest and soil type of entic Podzol, where one spring was found. Each specific part of the catchment was mapped and equipped by devices such as water level probe or tensiometers. Spring discharges and outflow have been observed. For consecutive analyses water silica, stable isotopes and temperature observations have been carried out as well. Results of this research should help to better understand the runoff process taking place in the core zone of Šumava Mts. Moreover it should improve a flood forecasting and the knowledge about retention ability of Czech mountains.

  3. Ecological persistence in the Late Mississippian (Serpukhovian, Namurian A) Megafloral record of the Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Gastaldo, R.A.; Purkynova, E.; Simunek, Z.; Schmitz, M.D.

    2009-05-15

    The Serpukhovian (Namurian A) stratigraphy of the Ostrava Formation, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Czech Republic, consists of coal-bearing paralic sediments underlain by marine deposits in a cyclothemic nature similar to those in the Pennsylvanian of Euramerica. The thickness of the formation exceeds 3000 m, in which >170 coals are identified in a foreland basin setting. Fifty-five genetic cycles are identified in the present study, using transgressional erosional surfaces as lower and upper boundaries. Terrestrial plant-macrofossil assemblages are preserved within each cycle, mostly associated with coals, and these represent a sampling of the coastal plain vegetation. New high-precision isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Pb ages on zircons from tonsteins of two coals provide chronometric constraints for the Serpukhovian. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean clustering and Bayesian statistical classification group macrofloral assemblages into four distinct stratigraphic clusters, with assemblages persisting for <18 cycles before compositional change. Cycle duration, based on Ludmila (328.84{+-}0.16 Ma) and Karel (328.01{+-}0.08 Ma) tonsteins, overlaps the short-period (100 kyr) eccentricity cycle at the 95% confidence interval. These dates push the beginning of the Serpukhovian several million years deeper in time. An estimate for the Visean-Serpukhovian boundary is proposed at similar to 330 Ma. Late Mississippian wetland ecosystems persisted for >1.8 million years before regional perturbation, extirpation, or extinction of taxa occurred. Significant changes in the composition of macrofloral clusters occur across major marine intervals.

  4. The possible regional impact of climate change on water quality: eco-hydrological modeling in the Jizera Basin (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinkova, Marta; Hesse, Cornelia; Krysanova, Valentina

    2010-05-01

    The possible impact of climate change on water is well recognized and has been widely reported. Despite this recent progress, the research of impact of climate change on water quality has started only recently. Additionally, the consequences of climate change on water quality are important and are supposed to heavily influence the water resources management. In this sudy, the water quality modeling was done in order to evaluate the possible impact of climate change on water quality in selected mesoscale basin regarding nitrogen pollution and to assess the influence of atmospheric deposition on nitrogen pollution. The research was done by using the eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model, http://www.pik-potsdam.de/research/research-domains/climate-impacts-and-vulnerabilities/models/swim), which simulates water and nutrient fluxes in soil and vegetation, as well as transport of water and nutrients to and within the river network. The modeling period was from 1981 until 2003. The Jizera Basin, which is situated in NW Bohemia, Czech Republic, was selected as a study area. To setup the model of the Jizera Basin, the study area was characterized by several raster datasets: digital elevation model, soil map, land use map and subbasin map. Climate data, such as temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and air humidity, were interpolated to the 203 subbasin centroids by an inverse distance weighted method using data of 10 climate stations in and around the Jizera Basin. The discharge at the outlet of the Jizera Basin was calibrated for the period 1981 - 1990. After the adjustments of snowmelt processes in SWIM model, the model reproduces discharge at the outlet quite satisfactorily. The Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency for whole calibration period is 0.78. The period 1991-1995 was used for validation of discharge. The Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency for whole validation period is 0.73. After the calibration of the hydrological processes in the basin

  5. Applicability of hydromorphological monitoring data to locate flood risk reduction measures: Blanice River basin, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Jakub

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a new methodological approach, using hydromorphological monitoring data from river networks, to identify stream elements that may negatively influence the course of floods, as well as elements suitable for modifications that will reinforce the natural retention potential of the floodplain. The approach uses data derived from hydromorphological monitoring that conforms to the EN 14614 standard "Water quality--Guidance standard for assessing the hydromorphological features of rivers." Four major aspects of stream modifications that can potentially affect the course and consequences of floods, and that can be derived from hydromorphological monitoring, were identified. These are: (1) modifications that increase the speed of runoff, (2) modifications that restrict the retention potential of the floodplain, (3) potential obstacles to the flood course, and (4) improper alterations of stream route modifications. A GIS is used to identify and locate these critical aspects of stream and floodplain modification. This method was applied in the Blanice River basin, an area in central Europe hit by a severe flood in August 2002. The critical modifications identified were compared with geomorphological mapping to display the different effects of individual types of modifications. PMID:18521715

  6. Czech Republic: health system review.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Jan; Recka, Lukas; Votapkova, Jana; van Ginneken, Ewout; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Czech health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Czech health-care system is based on compulsory statutory health insurance providing virtually universal coverage and a broad range of benefits, and doing so at 7.7 % of GDP in 2012 - well below the EU average - of which a comparatively high 85 % was publicly funded. Some important health indicators are better than the EU averages (such as mortality due to respiratory disease) or even among the best in the world (in terms of infant mortality, for example). On the other hand, mortality rates for diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms are well above the EU average, as are a range of health-care utilization rates, such as outpatient contacts and average length of stay in acute care hospitals. In short, there is substantial potential in the Czech Republic for efficiency gains and to improve health outcomes. Furthermore, the need for reform in order to financially sustain the system became evident again after the global financial crisis, but there is as yet no consensus about how to achieve this. PMID:26106825

  7. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and

  8. Czech Republic 20 years after Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rosina, Jozef; Kvasnák, Eugen; Suta, Daniel; Kostrhun, Tomás; Drábová, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The territory of the Czech Republic was contaminated as a result of the breakdown in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The Czech population received low doses of ionising radiation which, though it could not cause a deterministic impact, could have had stochastic effects expressed in the years following the accident. Twenty years after the accident is a long enough time to assess its stochastic effects, primarily tumours and genetic impairment. The moderate amount of radioactive fallout received by the Czech population in 1986 increased thyroid cancer in the following years; on the other hand, no obvious genetic impact was found. PMID:18375464

  9. Language Management in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neustupny, J. V.; Nekvapil, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    This monograph, based on the Language Management model, provides information on both the "simple" (discourse-based) and "organised" modes of attention to language problems in the Czech Republic. This includes but is not limited to the language policy of the State. This approach does not satisfy itself with discussing problems of language varieties…

  10. An indicative method for determination of the most hazardous changes in slopes of the subsidence basins in underground coal mining area in Ostrava (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Marschalko, Marian; Yilmaz, Isik; Křístková, Veronika; Fuka, Matěj; Kubečka, Karel; Bouchal, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Considering growing population and decreasing mineral resource reserves, the issue of undermining has been and shall remain very topical. This study aims to identify the mutual connections between mined out panels of a deposit and the final manifestations on the ground surface related to deep black coal mining. On the grounds of the identified connections, the study describes a method to simplify a common evaluation of undermined areas according to building site categories. Within the study, a demarcation of the areas was conducted in two localities in Czech Republic influenced by the effects of undermining in the Upper-Silesian Basin. In the allotment of the CSM Mine, an area unsuitable for founding structures was defined from the centre of the worked out workings to the distance of 175 m from the panel's edge, for which the corresponding break angle is 78.3°. Similarly, in the allotment of the Paskov Mine, an area unsuitable for founding structures was determined to the distance of 500 m from the panel's edge, for which the corresponding break angle is 50.2°. This demarcation may be implemented prior to deposit mining being aware of several physical-mechanical parameters of rocks in the deposit's overburden. Having mined out a particular section of a deposit, it is recommended to verify the values of break angle using the method described herein. The study may be applied as a relatively fast and effective method to evaluate future land use for planning. PMID:22371037

  11. Epigenetic dolomitization of the Přaídolí formation (Upper Silurian), the Barrandian basin, Czech Republic: implications for burial history of Lower Paleozoic strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchý, V.; Rozkošný, I.; Žák, K.; Franců, J.

    1996-06-01

    Stratabound epigenetic dolomite occurs in carbonate facies of the Barrandian basin (Silurian and Devonian), Czech Republic. The most intense dolomitization is developed in bioclastic calcarenites within the transition between micritic limestone and shaledominated Přídolí and Lochkov formations deposited on a carbonate slope. Medium-crystalline (100-400 µm), inclusion-rich, xenotopic matrix dolomite ( δ 18O=-4.64 to -3.40‰ PDB; δ 13C=+1.05 to +1.85‰ PDB) which selectively replaced most of the bioclastic precursor is volumetrically the most important dolomite type. Coarse crystalline saddle dolomite ( δ 18O=-8.04 to -5.14‰ PDB; δ 18C=+0.49 to +1.49 PDB) which precipitated in fractures and vugs within the matrix dolomite represents a later diagenetic dolomitization event. In some vugs, saddle dolomite coprecipitated with petroleum inclusion-rich authigenic quartz crystals and minor sulfides which, in turn, were post-dated by semisolid asphaltic bitumen. The interpretation of the dolomitization remains equivocal. Massive xenotopic dolomite, although generally characteristic of a deeper burial setting, may have been formed by a recrystallization of an earlier, possibly shallow burial dolomite. Deeper burial recrystallization by reactive basinal pore fluids that presumably migrated through the more permeable upper portion of the Přídolí sequence appears as a viable explanation for this dolomitization overprint. Saddle dolomite cement of the matrix dolomite is interpreted as the last dolomitization event that occurred during deep burial at the depth of the oil window zone. The presence of saddle dolomite, the fluid inclusion composition of associated quartz crystals, and vitrinite paleogeothermometry of adjacent sediments imply diagenetic burial temperatures as high as 160°C. Although high geothermal gradients in the past or the involvement of hydrothermally influenced basinal fluids can account for these elevated temperatures, burial heating beneath

  12. Epigenetic dolomitization of the Přídolí formation (Upper Silurian), the Barrandian basin, Czech Republic: implications for burial history of Lower Paleozoic strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchý, V.; Rozkošný, I.; Žák, K.; Franců, J.

    Stratabound epigenetic dolomite occurs in carbonate facies of the Barrandian basin (Silurian and Devonian), Czech Republic. The most intense dolomitization is developed in bioclastic calcarenites within the transition between micritic limestone and shale-dominated Přídolí and Lochkov formations deposited on a carbonate slope. Medium-crystalline (100-400μm), inclusion-rich, xenotopic matrix dolomite (δ18O=-4.64 to -3.40ö PDBδ13C=+1.05 to +1.85ö PDB) which selectively replaced most of the bioclastic precursor is volumetrically the most important dolomite type. Coarse crystalline saddle dolomite (δ18O=-8.04 to -5.14ö PDBδ18C=+0.49 to +1.49 PDB) which precipitated in fractures and vugs within the matrix dolomite represents a later diagenetic dolomitization event. In some vugs, saddle dolomite coprecipitated with petroleum inclusion-rich authigenic quartz crystals and minor sulfides which, in turn, were postdated by semisolid asphaltic bitumen. The interpretation of the dolomitization remains equivocal. Massive xenotopic dolomite, although generally characteristic of a deeper burial setting, may have been formed by a recrystallization of an earlier, possibly shallow burial dolomite. Deeper burial recrystallization by reactive basinal pore fluids that presumably migrated through the more permeable upper portion of the Přídolí sequence appears as a viable explanation for this dolomitization overprint. Saddle dolomite cement of the matrix dolomite is interpreted as the last dolomitization event that occurred during deep burial at the depth of the oil window zone. The presence of saddle dolomite, the fluid inclusion composition of associated quartz crystals, and vitrinite paleogeothermometry of adjacent sediments imply diagenetic burial temperatures as high as 160 °C. Although high geothermal gradients in the past or the involvement of hydrothermally influenced basinal fluids can account for these elevated temperatures, burial heating beneath approximately 3

  13. [Solid organ transplantation in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Kuman, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation (heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, small interesting and their combinations) are standard therapy of terminal organ failure. Czech Republic belongs to the states with developed transplantation program. The results correspond with current knowledge and results of leading centers in the world, as demostrated in this article. Organ donor shortage is major factor limiting development of organ transplantations as elsewhere in the Europe or in the world. PMID:26375707

  14. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cerny, M.

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  15. Landscape changes as a factor affecting the course and consequences of extreme floods in the Otava river basin, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Jakub; Vilímek, Vít

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents the analysis of anthropogenical modifications of the landscape in relation to the course and consequences of floods. The research was conducted in the Otava river basin which represents the core zone of the extreme flood in August 2002 in Central Europe. The analysis was focused on the key indicators of landscape modification potentially affecting the runoff process - the long-term changes of land-use, changes of land cover structure, land drainage, historical shortening of the river network and the modifications of streams and floodplains. The information on intensity and spatial distribution of modifications was derived from different data sources--historical maps, available GIS data, remote sensing and field mapping. The results revealed a high level of spatial diversity of anthropogenical modifications in different parts of the river basin. The intensive modifications in most of indicators were concentrated in the lowland region of the river basin due to its agricultural use; however important changes were also recorded in the headwater region of the basin. The high spatial diversity of the modifications may result in their varying effect on the course and consequences of floods in different parts of the river basin. This effect is demonstrated by the cluster analysis based on the matrix of indicators of stream and floodplain modification, physiogeographical characteristics and geomorphological evidences of the flood in August 2002, derived from the individual thematic layers using GIS. PMID:17885817

  16. Morphometric analysis of a reactivated Variscan fault in the southern Bohemian Massif (Budějovice basin, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popotnig, Angelika; Tschegg, Dana; Decker, Kurt

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative geomorphic parameters are used to assess active vertical displacements at the NW-SE striking Hluboká fault and the NNE-SSW striking Rudolfov fault in the southern Bohemian Massif. The faults are part of a late Variscan fault system that was repeatedly reactivated in Mesozoic, Miocene, and Pliocene times forming the margins of the Budějovice basin. This basin is filled with up to 340-m-thick Cretaceous to Quaternary sediments and forms morphological lowland surrounded by hill country. We compared the basin-facing hillslopes along the faults with other slopes that are not fault-controlled. All creeks and drainage basins share similar geological and hydrological settings and the common base level of the Vltava River. Morphological differences in valley shapes, stream profiles, and drainage basin geometry therefore are likely to reflect different uplift of the crystalline basement with respect to the Budějovice basin. All calculated geomorphic parameters characterise the hillslope along the Hluboká fault as a very straight mountain-piedmont junction with a morphology that is influenced by uplift along the fault. Differential uplift is indicated by extremely low values of mountain front sinuosity (Smf 1.01 to 1.06), high stream length gradients (SL up to 200), and very low valley floor width to height ratios (Vf 0.05 to 0.26). The values are clearly distinct from the values observed at the other hillslopes. Streams showing convex-up thalweg sections with marked single knickpoints close to the Hluboká fault and previously published geodetic data (Vyskočil, 1973) support the interpretation of active vertical fault displacement. Values observed at the Hillslope crossing the Rudolfov fault (Smf 1.17 to 2.20, SL up to 130, Vf 0.29 to 2.5) and convex-up stream profiles of creeks crossing the fault may classify the slope along the Rudolfov fault as moderately active. The interpretation is again corroborated by published geodetic data. The analysed part of

  17. Climatology of lightning in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Petr; Kyznarová, Hana

    2011-06-01

    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) has utilized lightning data from the Central European Lightning Detection Network (CELDN) since 1999. The CELDN primarily focuses on the detection of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning but intra-cloud (IC) lightning detection is also available. Lightning detection is used by the CHMI forecasters as an additional source to radar and satellite data for nowcasting of severe storms. Lightning data are also quantitatively used in automatic nowcasting applications. The quality of lightning data can be evaluated using their climatological characteristics. Climatological characteristics are also useful for defining decision thresholds that are valuable for human forecasters as well as for automatic nowcasting applications. The seven-year period from 2002 to 2008, which had relatively even-quality lightning data, was used to calculate the spatial and temporal distributions of lightning. The monthly number of CG strokes varies depending on the season. The highest number of CG strokes occurs during summer, with more than 20 days of at least five detected CG strokes on the Czech Republic territory in June and July. The least number of CG stokes occurs in winter, with less than three days per month having at least five detected CG stokes. The mean diurnal distribution of CG strokes peaks between 1500 and 1600 UTC and reaches a minimum between 0500 and 0800 UTC. The average spatial distribution of CG strokes shows sharp local maxima corresponding with the locations of the TV broadcast towers. The average spatial distribution of CG flash density, calculated on a 20 × 20 km grid, shows the maximum (3.23 flashes km - 2 year - 1 ) in the western part of Czech Republic and the minimum (0.92 flashes km - 2 year - 1 ) in the south-southeast of the Czech Republic. In addition, lightning characteristics related to the identified convective cells, such as distribution of the lightning stroke rates or relation to the radar derived by Vertically

  18. Striving for Inclusive Education in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadova, Iva; Hajkova, Vanda

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education does not have a strong history in the Czech Republic. Initial efforts to educate students with different types of disabilities within the mainstream education system in the Czech Republic date back to the mid-20th century. These efforts were primarily from parent initiatives, which in some cases resulted in ensuring that the…

  19. Vocational Education and Training Reform in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in the Czech Republic consists of a condensed description of the present situation in VET and analysis of the main challenges facing VET reform in the country. Chapter 1 offers basic data on the Czech Republic. Chapter 2 describes main features of the VET system, strategic objectives for VET,…

  20. Conditions for veining in the Barrandian Basin (Lower Palaeozoic), Czech Republic: evidence from fluid inclusion and apatite fission track analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, V.; Dobes, P.; Filip, J.; Stejskal, M.; Zeman, A.

    2002-04-01

    The interplay between fracture propagation and fluid composition and circulation has been examined by deciphering vein sequences in Silurian and Devonian limestones and shales at Kosov quarry in the Barrandian Basin. Three successive vein generations were recognised that can be attributed to different stages of a basinal cycle. Almost all generations of fracture cements host abundant liquid hydrocarbon inclusions that indicate repeated episodes of petroleum migration through the strata during burial, tectonic compression and uplift. The earliest veins that propagated prior to folding were displacive fibrous "beef" calcite veins occurring parallel to the bedding of some shale beds. Hydrocarbon inclusions within calcite possess homogenisation temperatures between 58 and 68 °C and show that the "beef" calcites originated in the deeper burial environment, during early petroleum migration from overpressured shales. E-W-striking extension veins that postdate "beef" calcite formed in response to Variscan orogenic deformations. Based on apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) data and other geological evidence, the veins probably formed 380-315 Ma ago, roughly coinciding with peak burial heating of the strata, folding and the intrusion of Variscan synorogenic granites. The veins that crosscut diagenetic cements and low-amplitude stylolites in host limestones are oriented semi-vertically to the bedding plane and are filled with cloudy, twinned calcite, idiomorphic smoky quartz and residues of hardened bitumen. Calcite and quartz cements contain abundant blue and blue-green-fluorescing primary inclusions of liquid hydrocarbons that homogenise between 50 and 110 °C. Geochemical characteristics of the fluids as revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, particularly the presence of olefins and parent aromatic hydrocarbons (phenonthrene), suggest that the oil entrapped in the inclusions experienced intense but geologically fast heating that resulted in thermal pyrolysis

  1. Counseling in the Czech Republic: History, Status, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jack D.; Hutchison, Brian; Bastecka, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history and current status of counseling in the Czech Republic. Recommendations for advancement of the profession in a postcommunist era are offered, including the incorporation of social justice principals for the benefit of Gypsies and immigrants, collaboration between Czech and non-Czech counselors, and counseling…

  2. Human and climatic impact on the Morava River behavior during last millennium (Lower Moravian Basin, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Stehlik, Filip; Man, Otakar; Benes, Vojtech; Svetlik, Ivo; Rybnicek, Michal; Svitavska-Svobodova, Helena

    2010-05-01

    The floodplain of the lower course of the Morava River in the Straznicke Pomoravi area located in the Lower Moravian Basin is an excellent example of an environmental archive of which a detailed study could help understanding of the interplay between regional environmental changes, global climatic changes and human activities. The length of the meandering course of the Morava River through the study area is approximately 12 km and it is one of the last river segment modified by minimal channel regulations. River behavior and changes of the fluvial styles are reconstructed based on floodplain architecture analysis supported by geophysical survey. The age of sediments is specified using radiocarbon and dendrochronological datings completed with 137Cs and persistent organic pollutant concentrations. Pollen analyses allow us to reconstruct the local vegetation changes. Lithology of the floodplain deposits is conformable along a modern river channel. Sections exposed in erosional river banks reveal basal sands and sandy gravels often containing tree trunk or branch fragments. Charcoal or tree branches are preserved in overlaying greenish, sandy clay or clayey sand, usually with reductimorphic stains. The upper part of the sections is composed of sandy or clayey silts with intercalated smaller lenses or sand layers up to 20 cm thick. Geophysical survey suggests that the clayey cohesive sediments are present in whole area of the studied floodplain overlaying basal sand and sandy gravel. Most of these fine sediments were deposited in a low-energy river system during last millennium based on radiocarbon dating. These deposits were later partly eroded and replaced by medium-energy river system sediments in the northern part of the studied floodplain. First human impact on the river behavior should be traced back to 9th century AD when people of the Great Moravian Empire constructed their fortified settlements in the Morava River floodplain. However, we did not find

  3. An Energy Overview of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-17

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is the Czech Republic. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need an d resources permit.

  4. Privatization and Business Education Needs in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Marilyn M.

    1996-01-01

    As the Czech Republic undergoes massive economic restructuring, education and training in capitalism and management are needed. The Czechoslovakian Management Center uses international advisors in developing its master's of business administration programs for executive development. (SK)

  5. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an…

  6. Assessment in the School Systems of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strakova, Jana; Simonová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Student assessment in the Czech Republic is still rather traditional, with classroom practice continuing to focus on summative assessment. The country has regularly participated in international surveys, but the findings from these only started to influence educational policy during the past decade, when Czech students' performance fell…

  7. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tichy, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  8. [Human prion diseases in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Rohan, Z; Rusina, R; Marešová, M; Matěj, R

    2015-09-01

    Human prion diseases are a group of very rare diseases with a unique pathogenesis and, due to an inauspicious prognosis and unavailability of therapy, with fatal consequences. The etiopathogenetic background is the presence of pathologically misfolded prion protein, highly resistant to denaturation, the aggregation and presence of which in the brain tissue causes irreversible neuronal damage. The most frequent prion disease in humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which occurs in sporadic, hereditary/familial, or acquired/infectious/iatrogenic forms. A new form of CJD, variant CJD, is considered to be linked to dietary exposure to beef products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and to infection via blood transfusion. The clinical picture of these diseases is characterized by a rapidly progressing dementia, cerebellar and extrapyramidal symptoms, and rather specific MRI, EEG, and CSF findings. Clinically, the diagnosis is described as possible or probable prion disease and needs to be confirmed by neuropathological or immunological investigation of the brain tissue. Epidemiological data from the Czech Republic spanning the last decade are presented. PMID:26448298

  9. Geophysical research in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, Vladimir

    General interest in Earth studies has a long tradition in the Czech Republic that dates back to the German physician, Georg Agricola, a pioneer in scientific classifications of minerals collected in North Bohemia's Ore Mountains during the early 16th century. Astronomy flourished during the rule of Hapsburg Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612). Modern geophysics developed in the middle of the 18th century from systematic meteorological observations and continued in the 19th century with H. Benndorfs seismological experiment in the mining town of Pribram.In 1920, the State Geophysical Institute was created, with Vaclav Laska as its first director. The institute's research activities concentrated on seismology and geomagnetism. In 1945, the Chair of Geophysics was established at the Charles University in Prague, reflecting the increasing interest in geophysical studies. The Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences was founded in 1952, the same year that the first Conference of Czechoslovak Geophysicists passed the resolution that an institute of geophysics should be reestablished within the new academy as the coordinating and leading institution of basic geophysical research.

  10. The August 2002 flood in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercl, P.; Stehlik, J.

    2003-04-01

    course of the flood has been analysed. It is clear that the cascade cannot protect Prague during such an extreme flood. Below the confluence of the Moldau and Elbe rivers the flood wave propagated in the Elbe and flooded a large area along the river. Therefore the peak discharge decreased a little. The flood caused enormous damage and losses in all regions including the towns of Budweis, Pilsen and Prague. About 100 towns and villages were completely flooded and 350 were partly flooded. 1.6 million people were affected by the flood, 220 thousand were moved from their houses, 15 people died. The total losses are assessed to be 2 to 3 billion Euro. The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is a governmental institution responsible for monitoring and forecasting the weather and hydrological conditions in the Czech Republic. During the flood in August 2002, the CHMI was continually preparing information, forecasts and reports for decision-making bodies, the public and the rescue system. Overall, the flood protection and rescue system worked very well and many protective measures were performed during the flood, including the evacuation of people. In general, the system was more effective than it was during the previous catastrophic flood in 1997 in the Oder basin. The experience from the 1997 event and the adoption of new laws on crisis management and the integrated rescue system had a positive influence the response of people.

  11. Overview of healthcare system in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The healthcare system in the Czech Republic underwent and still is undergoing dramatic changes since the Velvet revolution in 1989. History of the Czech healthcare system, main healthcare laws, and the current status of healthcare documented in the main healthcare indicators is described based on the several main sources as well as delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in healthcare system. The material is based mainly on Czech Health Statistics 2009, and HiT Summary, Health Care Systems in Translation, 2005, public information of Ministry of Health CR. PMID:22738178

  12. School Psychology in the Czech Republic: Development, Status and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavenská, Veronika; Smékalová, Eleonora; Šmahaj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This intensive exploratory research maps the working conditions of school psychologists in the Czech Republic. An electronic questionnaire consisting of 71 questions (58 quantitative, 13 qualitative) from nine fields was used as a research tool. The respondent sample ("N"?=?63; 53 females, 10 males) indicate that they are largely…

  13. Situation of School Self-Evaluation in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan; Vastatkova, Jana

    2005-01-01

    This paper is focused on school self-evaluation in the Czech Republic. It offers the overview of main changes which took place after 1989 and provided a broad social framework for operation of schools. Also, it links self-evaluation to recent legislation which explicitly determines its state of art and also steps to be taken in the near future.…

  14. GLOBE in the Czech Republic: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan; Maskova, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The article presents results of the evaluation of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) in the Czech Republic. The evaluation explores the implementation of the program in schools and its impact on research skills. Four hundred and sixty six pupils, aged 13, from 28 different schools participated in the…

  15. Innovative Physics Teaching Conferences in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrandt, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Even today, with all of the instant communication technologies available, we are still often unaware of all that happens in other parts of the world. In the middle of Europe, in the Czech Republic, physics teachers have created a couple of innovative conferences--or "workshops" might be a better term. Having attended two of each, I think they're…

  16. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  17. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  18. Some trace elements in coal of the Czech Republic, environment and health protection implications.

    PubMed

    Pesek, J; Bencko, V; Sýkorová, I; Vasícek, M; Michna, O; Martínek, K

    2005-09-01

    Mining for coal and its utilization have various impacts on the surrounding environment. Huge volumes of waste materials which are by-products of both the underground and open cast coal mining, pose one of the major environmental hazards in addition to air pollution caused by coal burning in power plants in the Czech Republic. Some of these risks could be reduced when having accurate and comprehensive data on coal quality. Statistical data processing of almost 35,000 coal samples from Late Paleozoic and Tertiary coal basins of the Czech Republic provided a unique information on the quality of lignite, sub-bituminous and bituminous coals and anthracites including the content of toxic trace elements (As, Be, Hg, Pb and Se). In this context related environment and health risks and protection implications are discussed. PMID:16218333

  19. Radiocesium in mushrooms from selected locations in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Dvorák, Petr; Kunová, Veronika; Benová, Katarína; Ohera, Marcel

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, activity concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms from various locations in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic in the years 2000-2004 are presented. Summary reports of Czech regulatory bodies have judged the average activity concentrations in mushrooms to be remarkably below the maximum permissible level of contamination. However, there are certain regions where radiocesium activities have approached the maximum permissible level for contamination of basic foodstuff. For example, the highest activity concentration of (137)Cs measured by gamma-spectrometry was 2,263 Bq kg(-1) (on a dry mass basis), in Xerocomus badius from Staré Ransko (a locality in the Czech-Moravian Highlands, Czech Republic). The highest activity concentration of (137)Cs measured in Slovakia was 966 Bq kg(-1) (on a dry mass basis), for Suillus luteus from Senica. For comparison, the corresponding activity concentration in a sample taken within the 30 km zone around Chernobyl was measured to be 6,000 Bq kg(-1) (on a dry mass basis). Our results have also demonstrated remarkably lower activity concentrations of (137)Cs in Slovakia compared to those in the Czech Republic. PMID:16628432

  20. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. PMID:24867257

  1. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of parasitological examinations of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic, carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) within the period of 50 years (1958-2008). Even though this survey is limited to the Czech Republic, it provides extensive data probably incomparable with any other study anywhere regarding the number of eels examined and parasites found. A total of 723 eels was examined from 42 localities that belong to all of the three main river drainage systems in the country, i.e. the Elbe, Danube and Oder river basins. Of the 31 species of adult and larval macroparasites including Monogenea (4 species), Trematoda (3), Cestoda (3), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Bivalvia (1), Copepoda (1), Branchiura (1) and Acariformes (1), most of them (30) were recorded from the Elbe River basin. These parasites can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for eels (26%), non-specific adult parasites occurring also in other fishes (61%) and non-specific larvae (13%). The highest number (19) of parasite species was recorded in the Mácha Lake fishpond system in northern Bohemia. The parasite communities in eels from the individual localities exhibited large differences in their species composition and diversity depending on local ecological conditions. The parasite fauna of A. anguilla in the Czech Republic is compared with that in other European countries. The nematode Cucullanus egyptae Abdel-Ghaffar, Bashtar, Abdel-Gaber, Morsy, Mehlhorn, Al Quraishy et Mohammed, 2014 is designated as a species inquirenda. PMID:26130652

  2. Combined tectonic-sediment supply-driven cycles in a Lower Carboniferous deep-marine foreland basin, Moravice Formation, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bábek, Ondřej; Mikuláš, Radek; Zapletal, Jan; Lehotský, Tomáš

    The Lower Carboniferous Moravian-Silesian Culm Basin (MSCB) represents the easternmost part of the Rhenohercynian system of collision-related, deep-water foreland basins (Culm facies). The Upper Viséan Moravice Formation (MF) of the MSCB shows a distinct cyclic stratigraphic arrangement. Two major asymmetric megacycles bounded by basal sequence boundary, each about 500 to 900 m thick, have been revealed. The megacycles start with 50- to 250-m-thick, basal segments of erosive channels: overbank successions and slope apron deposits interpreted as lowstand turbidite systems. Up-section they pass into hundred metre-thick, fine-grained, low-efficiency turbidite systems. Palaeocurrent data show two prominent directions, basin axis-parallel, SSW-NNE directions, which are abundant in the whole MF, and basin axis-perpendicular to oblique, W-E to NW-SE directions, which tend to be confined to the basal parts of the megacycles or channel-lobe transition systems in their upper parts. Based on the facies characteristics, palaeocurrent data, sandstone composition data and trace-fossil distribution data, we suggest a combined tectonics-sediment supply-driven model for the MF basin fill. Periods of increased tectonic activity resulted in slope oversteepening probably combined with increased rate of lateral W-E sediment supply into the basin, producing the basal sequence boundary and the subsequent lowstand turbidite systems. During subsequent periods of tectonic quiescence, the system was filled mainly from a distant southern point source, producing the thick, low efficiency turbidite systems. Consistently with the previous models, our own sediment composition data indicate a progressively increasing sediment input from high-grade metamorphic and magmatic sources up-section, most probably related to an uplift in the source area and progressive unroofing of its structurally deeper crustal parts. The first occurrence of the Cruziana-Nereites ichnofacies in sand-rich turbidite

  3. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  4. Effects of global change in the Czech Part of the River Elbe Basin and adaptation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Hagen; Kaltofen, Michael; Kaden, Stefan; Grünewald, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    In Integrated Water Resources Management planning the effects of changing natural conditions (natural water availability) and socio-economic development (water demand) must be taken into consideration. Climate change will influence the water availability. In some sectors, e.g. agricultural irrigation, also the water demand is influenced by climatic conditions. Both, the development of natural water availability and water demand, are connected with certain levels of uncertainty. Therefore, scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change are required for Integrated Water Resources Management planning. The river Elbe basin (catchment area approximately 150,000 km²) is located in central Europe. The river Elbe basin is a trans boundary river basin. One third is located in the Czech Republic upstream of Germany, where two thirds of the basin is located. Therefore, inflows from the Czech part are important for instance for navigation in the German part. For navigation an inflow to Germany of 100 m3/s is required. Due to climate change the inflows are expected to decline. In the project GLOWA-Elbe a water management model for the whole river Elbe basin was developed. The model for the Czech part includes among others 52 reservoirs, 20 thermoelectric power plants, 70 hydroelectric power plants, 30 industrial users, 15 agricultural irrigation users, 40 public water utilities, and 160 waste water treatment plants. Two global socio-economic trends are renationalized and used in the simulations. Renationalized climate data are used to simulate the effects of climate change on natural discharges. Using the water management model the effects of global change on inflows from the Czech Republic to Germany are simulated. Using this model is it analyzed, if reservoir management in the Czech part can sustain a required inflow of 100 m3/s to Germany.

  5. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacakova, Marketa

    2011-01-01

    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  6. 75 FR 2858 - Negotiation of a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding With the Czech Republic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...DoD is contemplating a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic. DoD is requesting industry feedback regarding its experience in public defense procurements conducted by or on behalf of the Czech Republic Ministry of Defense or Armed...

  7. The White Book Launched: On the Prospects of Education in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan; Rabusicova, Milada

    2003-01-01

    This article wants to present the National Education Development Programme of the Czech Republic, also known as the White Book, to large international audiences. The vision of Czech education is hereunder discussed within the framework of the development of the Czech educational policy in the 1990's, pointing out the Programme's essential ideas.…

  8. Influence of mineralogical, petrographical, and geochemical characteristics of impure limestones on the composition of fired hydraulic lime: a case study on Lower Palaeozoic limestones from the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Prague Basin, making part of the Barrandian area (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), is a rift-like depression filled with non-metamorphosed sedimentary series of Upper Proterozoic - Lower Palaeozoic age. Among other sedimentary rocks, different types of limestones are present. These limestone were historically exploited and used for various purposes including natural and decorative stone, common construction material, and also a raw material for firing of inorganic binders: aerial lime, hydraulic lime and/or, more recently, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Lithotypes with higher amount of silica and/or clay component were of special interest due to the hydraulicity of fired product known as "pasta di Praga" in Baroque. However, our recent knowledge of these limestones is incomplete in terms of the contribution of mineralogical, geochemical, and petrographical characteristics on the properties of fired hydraulic lime. In the recent study, representative samples of 4 facies of the Lower Devonian limestone (Kosoř ls., Řeporyje ls., Dvorce-Prokop ls., and Zlíchov ls.) were subjected to a detailed mineralogical and petrographic study of raw material by means of polarizing microscopy, cathodoluminiscence of thin sections and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) of insoluble residues obtained by treatment with both the hydrochloric acid and the acetic acid solution was used. Wet silicate analysis provided data on the content of major elements from which standard cement and lime indexes and modules were calculated. Laboratory firing experiments of these limestone were performed by a calcination at temperature ranging from 850 to 1200°C (after 50°C). XRD of fired products shows that limestones with high content of silica (some of the Dvorce-Prokop ls.) produced binder with high amount of newly formed calcium silicates (larnite). Gehlenite and others calcium aluminates and aluminosilicates are typical for

  9. President of Czech Republic visits ESO's Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    On 6 April 2011, the ESO Paranal Observatory was honoured with a visit from the President of the Czech Republic, Václav Klaus, and his wife Livia Klausová, who also took the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones, the future site of the planned E-ELT. The distinguished visitor was shown the technical installations at the observatory, and was present when the dome of one of the four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope opened for a night's observing at Cerro Paranal, the world's most advanced visible-light observatory. "I'm delighted to welcome President Klaus to the Paranal Observatory and to show him first-hand the world-leading astronomical facility that ESO has designed, has built, and operates for European astronomy," said ESO's Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. President Klaus replied, "I am very impressed by the remarkable technology that ESO has built here in the heart of the desert. Czech astronomers are already making good use of these facilities and we look forward to having Czech industry and its scientific community contribute to the future E-ELT." From the VLT platform, the President had the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones as well as other spectacular views of Chile's Atacama Desert surrounding Paranal. Adjacent to Cerro Paranal, Armazones has been chosen as the site for the future E-ELT (see eso1018). ESO is seeking approval from its governing bodies by the end of 2011 for the go-ahead for the 1-billion euro E-ELT. Construction is expected to begin in 2012 and the start of operations is planned for early in the next decade. President Klaus was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Karel Schwarzenberg, the Czech Ambassador in Chile, Zdenek Kubánek, dignitaries of the government, and a Czech industrial delegation. The group was hosted at Paranal by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Massimo Tarenghi, the Director of Operations, Andreas Kaufer, and Jan Palous

  10. [Surgical treatment of strabismus in the Czech Republic in 1998].

    PubMed

    Dostálek, M

    2000-04-01

    For the first time an anonymous survey by means of questionnaires on the scope and surgical treatment of strabism was used in the Czech Republic in 1998. In 54 departments of the Czech Republic 3167 operations of strabism were made. 80% of the operated patients were children under 15 years of age. The most frequent primary surgical operation was modification of the strength of horizontal muscles. This surgical procedure was implemented in 81.7%. The ratio of primary operations and re-operations in child patients was 10:1. The mean age of child patients during the primary operation of strabism was 4.3 years, on re-operation 7.2 years, the mean period of hospitalization during the primary operation was 4.4 days. Two surgical centres performed more than 20 operations per month. As a matter of routine a surgical microscope was used only by some departments which made less than 5 operations of children suffering from strabism per month. In order to follow up national trends of surgery of strabism the authors will repeat similar investigations in future. PMID:10874792

  11. Experiences of the first PICC team in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lisova, Katerina; Paulinova, Vendula; Zemanova, Katerina; Hromadkova, Jaroslava

    The first specialist nursing team placing peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in the Czech Republic was established in September 2012. During 2013 the team placed 167 PICCs and 162 midline catheters. In another 6 patients the insertion was not successful. PICCs were inserted mainly for oncology patients; while midline catheters were inserted for patients admitted to general wards. Average duration of catheter insertion was 91 days (range 7-285 days) for PICCs and 14 days (range 2-40 days) for midline catheters. During follow up of PICCs, catheter infection rate was 0.3/1000 days, vein thrombosis rate 0.4/1000 days, catheter occlusion 0.4/1000 days, and catheter displacement 0.33/1000 days. For midline catheters infection rate was 1.4/1000 days, vein thrombosis 5.2/1000 days, catheter occlusion 2.6/1000 days, and catheter displacement 2.2/1000 days. The authors hope that these results will motivate other hospitals in the Czech republic to establish PICC teams, as in other European countries. PMID:25616129

  12. GPR use and activities in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryk, Josef; Matula, Radek

    2014-05-01

    In the field of civil engineering applications in the Czech Republic, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used particularly for the diagnostics of roads and bridges. There is no producer of GPR in the Czech Republic, sets of different producers are used, particularly Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (USA) and MALÅ GeoScience (Sweden). The measurement results are mostly processed by software Radan, Road Doctor Pro, ReflexW and RadEx. The only technical specification in the Czech Republic is TP 233 issued by the Ministry of Transport, which describes the diagnostics of roads by GPR. Apart from a basic description of the method and a measurement system, it mentions possible applications. The only application where accuracy is mentioned is the locating of dowels and tie bars in concrete road pavements, which states that if calibration is performed, the expected depth accuracy is up to 1.0 cm. The following R&D project is currently in progress: New diagnostics methods as a supporting decision tool for maintenance and repair of road pavements - their contribution and ways of their usage (2012-2014) The project aims to test possible non-destructive methods (particularly GPR and laser scanning), make recommendations when and how to use specific methods for individual applications and for changes in technical specifications. The following R&D projects have been recently completed: Position of dowels and tie bars in rigid pavements and importance of their correct placement to pavement performance and service life (2012-2013) The project included an analysis of individual NDT methods used for the location of dowels and tie bars and for testing of their accuracy - GPR, MIT-scan and GPR in combination with a metal detector. Multichannel ground penetrating radar as a tool for monitoring of road and bridge structures (2009-2011) The project included detection of hollow spaces under non-reinforced concrete pavements, detection of excessive amount of water in road construction

  13. 40Ar- 39Ar laser dating of tektites from the Cheb Basin (Czech Republic): Evidence for coevality with moldavites and influence of the dating standard on the age of the Ries impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Skála, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Moldavites (Central European tektites) are genetically related to the impact event that produced the ˜24-km diameter Ries crater in Germany, representing one of the youngest large impact structures on Earth. Although several geochronological studies have been completed, there is still no agreement among 40Ar- 39Ar ages on both moldavites and glasses from Ries suevites. Even recently published data yielded within-sample mean ages with a nominal spread of more than 0.6 Ma (14.24-14.88 Ma). This age spread, which significantly exceeds current internal errors, must be in part ascribed to geological and/or analytical causes. This study reports the results of a detailed geochronological investigation of moldavites from the Cheb area (Czech Republic), which have never been dated before, and, for comparison, of two samples from type localities, one in southern Bohemia and the other in western Moravia. We used 40Ar- 39Ar laser step-heating and total fusion techniques in conjunction with microscale petrographic and chemical characterization. In addition, with the purpose of ascertaining the influence of the dating standards on the age of the Ries impact and making data from this study and literature consistent with the now widely used Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) standard, we performed a direct calibration of multi-grain splits of the Fish Canyon biotite (FCT-3) with FCs. The intercalibration factors ( RFCsFCT-3), determined for eight stack positions in one of the three performed irradiations, were indistinguishable within errors and gave an arithmetic mean and a standard deviation of 1.0086 ± 0.0031 (±2 σ), in agreement with previous works suggesting that biotite from the Fish Canyon Tuff is somewhat older (˜0.8%) than the coexisting sanidine. Laser total fusion analysis of milligram to sub-milligram splits of five tektite samples from the Cheb area yielded mostly concordant intrasample 40Ar- 39Ar ages, and within-sample weighted mean ages of 14.66 ± 0.08-14.75 ± 0

  14. Trichomonosis in Eurasian sparrowhawks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kunca, Tomas; Smejkalova, Pavla; Cepicka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon, doves and songbirds are hosts of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), which causes avian trichomonosis. Raptors are infected when they digest infected prey. A high percentage of the diet of Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus) is comprised of birds. During the breeding season 2012 and 2013, we clinically tested 298 nestling Eurasian sparrowhawks from urban and rural areas of the Czech Republic for the presence of trichomonads. Sparrowhawk nestlings in the urban area were more infected (32.9%) than in the rural area (12.2%) in 2012 (χ(2) = 6.184, P = 0.045). The number of infected nestlings dropped in the urban area (5.4%) and remained similar in the rural area (16.6%) in 2013. Sequences of ITS region and SSU rDNA confirmed that the isolates from infected sparrowhawk nestlings belonged to Trichomonas gallinae. PMID:26198549

  15. Pornography and sex crimes in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Milton; Jozifkova, Eva; Weiss, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Pornography continues to be a contentious matter with those on the one side arguing it detrimental to society while others argue it is pleasurable to many and a feature of free speech. The advent of the Internet with the ready availability of sexually explicit materials thereon particularly has seemed to raise questions of its influence. Following the effects of a new law in the Czech Republic that allowed pornography to a society previously having forbidden it allowed us to monitor the change in sex related crime that followed the change. As found in all other countries in which the phenomenon has been studied, rape and other sex crimes did not increase. Of particular note is that this country, like Denmark and Japan, had a prolonged interval during which possession of child pornography was not illegal and, like those other countries, showed a significant decrease in the incidence of child sex abuse. PMID:21116701

  16. [Pharmacoeconomy of diabetes mellitus--trends in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Horák, P

    2009-04-01

    Since 2002, we found relatively stable number of diabetes mellitus cases among clients of General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic. This means, after calculating incidence rate with respect to decline in total numbers of insured during the same period, a 6% increase in real incidence rate. On the doctors side, outpatient, mostly private diabetologists have about the same capacity of their offices, 2.9 physicians (WTE)/100 000 citizens over the last years. Analysis of costs and volume of services provided, clearly demonstrate, that diabetology is medical specialization of a great importance not only from the point of view of number of patients and services provided but also of its influence on the overall health care costs. Data show not only higher average expenses for treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus compared to average expenses incurred for treatments of all other diagnoses, but show also a crucial relationship of costs with presence or absence of diabetes mellitus complications. Money spend by the medical insurance system and also and more importantly health profit to patients can thus be substantially influenced via improvements in organization of care, via higher involvement, compliance of patients to the treatment and to necessary change in their lifestyles and last but not least via increase in quality of care. Cost control can be achieved by strengthening the role of pharmacoeconomics in decisions making processes of health insurance companies, importance of which is demonstrated on the past developments on drug market in the Czech Republic. General Health Insurance Company will target these goals in coming years and in its business plans will also include expected increases of costs for organization of care and for higher renumeration of physicians as well. PMID:19449745

  17. The National Register of Joint Replacements of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vavřík, P; Landor, I; Popelka, S; Fialka, R; Hach, J

    2014-01-01

    The National Register of Joint Replacements of the Czech Republic was established as part of the National Health Information System in 2002. The register's administrator is the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic, the Czech Society for Orthopaedics and Traumatology acts as its guarantor of scientific quality. The register is financed from governmental sources. It was launched into full operation in 2003 and it currently focuses on hip joint replacements. Register of knee and shoulder joint replacements is in the process of preparation. The register provides aggregate epidemiological data and other statistics, including the Revision Rate (RR) and curves of cumulative survival probability (Kaplan-Meier) for the main monitored groups of patients and implants used. In years 2003-2012 there were 101,734 primary implantations and 13,459 revision surgeries registered. In terms of gender distribution there is a predominance of females amounting to 59.4% in primary implantations and to 63.49% in revision surgeries. The age structure covers the entire range of adult population; however, more than 50% of the replacements are being implanted between 60-74 years of age. Most frequent indications for primary implantation are primary coxarthrosis (69.85%), post-fracture conditions (13.41%) and post-dysplasia arthritis (8.73%). The most frequent indications for revision surgery are aseptic loosening of acetabular component (38.15%), aseptic loosening of femoral component (22.01%) and recurrent dislocation (6.5%). 45,450 (44.68%) of primary implantations were cemented, 36,477 (35.86%) uncemented, 16,559 (16.28%) hybrid with cemented femur and 656 (0.64%) hybrid with cemented acetabulum. There were also records of 2,592 cervicocapital prostheses (2.55%). Most commonly used is the classic anterolateral approach 75.86% in primary implantations and 50.06% in revision surgeries. Mini-invasive approaches in primary implantations did not exceed 3.2% of all

  18. Teachers and School Culture in the Czech Republic before and after 1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of research on school culture in post-totalitarian society in the Czech Republic. The research explored restructuralisation and reculturalisation in the Czech school education system through analysis of school culture in one school located in a midsized town in the central part of the country. In-depth…

  19. Diversity in Language: Outdoor Terminology in the Czech Republic and Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcova, Ivana; Martin, Andy; Neuman, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews literature related to outdoor terminology as it is used within the languages of British English and Czech. It provides the background to the outdoors in the Czech Republic where terminology has adopted and adapted many English language outdoor terms. The paper analyses the differences and similarities between terms and deals…

  20. Policies to Promote Innovation in the Czech Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 498

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goglio, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    The Czech government considers innovation policy a key component of the effort to improve the business environment. This paper underscores the importance for the Czech Republic of expanding R&D activities that have a potential for commercial innovation. It also points to the relevance of good general business conditions in encouraging research and…

  1. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    SciTech Connect

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  2. Modeling Floods under Climate Change Condition in Otava River, Czech Republic: A Time Scale Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhelka, J.; Krejci, J.; Vlasak, T.

    2009-04-01

    While modeling of climate change (CC) impact on low flow and water balance is commonly done using daily time series of Global Circulation models (GCM) outputs, assessing CC impact on rare events as floods demands for special methodology. Paper demonstrates methodology, results and its sensitivity to the length of simulation in meso-scale basin. Multiple regional projection of temperature and precipitation under A2, A1B a B1 scenarios for 2040-2069 were evaluated in study of Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Charles University (Pretel et al. 2008) for the Czech Republic. Daily time series of length of 30 years and 100 years (precipitation, Tmax, Tmin) were generated using LARS-WG (Semenov, 2008) based on expected monthly change of temperature and precipitation amount and variability for upper Otava river basin in mountainous region in SW Bohemia. Daily precipitation data were distributed into 6h time step using three step random generator. Spatial distribution of precipitation was based on random sampling of relevant historical analogues while temperature was distributed using simple vertical gradient rule. Derived time series of A2, A1B, B1 and recent climate (RC) scenarios inputted calibrated hydrological modeling system AquaLog (using SAC-SMA for rainfall-runoff modeling). Correction of SAC-SMA parameter defining potential evapotranspiration for changed climate was applied. Evaluation was made for Susice profile (534.5 km2), representing the mountainous part of the basin, and downstream Katovice profile (1133.4 km2). Results proved expected decrease of annual flow by 5-10 % (10-15 % in summer, 0-5 % in winter) for all modeled CC scenarios (for period 2040-2069) compared to recent climate. Design flows were computed based on yearly peaks using standard methodology. Decrease in design flow curves was observed for Katovice while no change (A1B, B1) or increase (A2) was found for Susice in 100 years time series. Estimates of 100y floods based on 30 or 100 years

  3. Theory and practice of informed consent in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Krizova, Eva; Simek, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    The large‐scale change of Czech society since 1989 has involved the democratic transformation of the health system. To empower the patient was one important goal of the healthcare reform launched immediately after the Velvet Revolution. The process has been enhanced by the accession of the Czech Republic to the European Union and the adoption of important European conventions regulating the area. The concept of informed consent and a culture of negotiation are being inserted into a traditionally paternalistic culture. Our article describes the current situation on the issue of the communication of information on state of health and treatment, and on the question of the participation of the patient in decisions on treatment. We present empirical results of a public opinion survey on this issue. The results show a still prevailing submissive attitude towards the physicians, despite the fact that the concept of informed consent has become more and more publicly familiar (42% of respondents gave the completely correct answer regarding informed consent). The impact of age, education and sex on answers to the questionnaire was analysed. Men, younger and more educated respondents were more likely to show the autonomous attitude, whereas women, older and less educated people tended to show the traditional submissive attitude. Further, our article raises the question of the cultural and historical background within which the current ethically and legally binding norms (products of western democracies, in fact) are interpreted. The question is how far cultural modifications are tolerable in the practical implementation of universal ethical constructs (informed consent). PMID:17470503

  4. Charging systems for municipal solid waste: experience from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Petr; Parízková, Libuse; Hadrabová, Alena

    2008-12-01

    The paper presents results of research into municipal waste treatment in the Czech Republic. Its special focus is on the impacts of various municipal solid waste charging systems on separating and recycling efforts of municipalities and households. The municipal solid waste charging systems are shortly described first, including the principles of the relevant Czech legislation. It shows that the Czech waste legislation provides space for implementing Pay-as-You-Throw (PAYT) models in the Czech Republic. The main results of representative surveys conducted by the authors within the EU PAYT project in 2003 in selected Czech municipalities and Prague households are shown. The survey confirmed that in municipalities that apply the PAYT charging system, citizens separate more waste and produce less residual waste. The survey data analysis has also shown which factors contributing to satisfactory waste separation are relevant and should be taken into the account when providing policy recommendations for introducing PAYT charging systems in other cities. PMID:18804364

  5. Development of the local quasigeoid model for the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvadba, Otakar; Holota, Petr; Lederer, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Increasing demands for precise GNSS levelling in the Czech Republic as well as exclusively available gravity and terrain data raised up the realization of a more accurate transformation between the ETRS and the vertical reference system Bpv (Baltic after adjustment), known also as a quasigeoid model. In order to meet high accuracy requirements for the model, the setting and the solution of the geodetic boundary value problem were reconsidered. The problem is formulated for gravity disturbances and the representation formula for the solution was derived by means of the Green's function method constructed for an oblate ellipsoid of revolution. Resulting integral kernel, as an analogue to the so-called Hotine function, was used in the convolution for numerical evaluation of the disturbing potential. The difference between the ellipsoid and the terrain was taken into account through successive approximations. The resulting solution leads to a detailed knowledge of the residual disturbing potential T on the Earth's surface in the area of interest. In addition, restoring the global low-frequency part of T and inserting non-gravitational systematical effects associated with Bpv, that have been identified too, make it possible to interpret the results in terms of height anomalies or quasigeoid heights within the Bpv system. The resolution, accuracy and precision of the transformation between ETRS and Bpv is discussed and compared with the quasigeoid models available today.

  6. Manganese biogeochemistry in a central Czech Republic catchment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Navratil, T.; Shanley, J.B.; Skrivan, P.; Kram, P.; Mihaljevic, M.; Drahota, P.

    2007-01-01

    Mn biogeochemistry was studied from 1994 to 2003 in a small forested catchment in the central Czech Republic using the watershed mass balance approach together with measurements of internal stores and fluxes. Mn inputs in bulk deposition were relatively constant during a period of sharply decreasing acidic deposition, suggesting that the Mn source was terrestrial, and not from fossil fuel combustion. Mn inputs in bulk deposition and Mn supplied by weathering each averaged 13 mg m-2 year-1 (26 mg m -2 year-1 total input), whereas Mn export in streamwater and groundwater averaged 43 mg m-2 year-1. Thus an additional Mn source is needed to account for 17 mg m-2 year -1. Internal fluxes and pools of Mn were significantly greater than annual inputs and outputs. Throughfall Mn flux was 70 mg m-2 year-1, litterfall Mn flux was 103 mg m-2 year -1, and Mn net uptake by vegetation was 62 mg m-2 year-1. Large pools of labile or potentially labile Mn were present in biomass and surficial soil horizons. Small leakages from these large pools likely supply the additional Mn needed to close the watershed mass balance. This leakage may reflect an adjustment of the ecosystem to recent changes in atmospheric acidity. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Luděk; Landa, Martin; Neuman, Martin; Kožant, Petr; Muller, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this contribution is to introduce the recently started three year's project named "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Its main goal is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The outcomes of the project will especially be helpful in modelling hydrological or soil erosion problems when designing common measures for promoting water retention or landscape drainage systems in or out of the scope of Landscape consolidation projects. The precipitation scenarios will be derived from 10 years of observed data from point gauging stations and radar data. The analysis is focused on events' return period, rainfall total amount, internal intensity distribution and spatial distribution over the area of Czech Republic. The methodology will account for the choice of the simulation model. Several representatives of practically oriented models will be tested for the output sensitivity to selected precipitation scenario comparing to variability connected with other inputs uncertainty. The variability of the outputs will also be assessed in the context of economic impacts in design of landscape water structures or mitigation measures. The research was supported by the grant QJ1520265 of the Czech Ministry of Agriculture, using data provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute.

  8. Reported and intended behaviour towards those with mental health problems in the Czech Republic and England.

    PubMed

    Winkler, P; Csémy, L; Janoušková, M; Mladá, K; Bankovská Motlová, L; Evans-Lacko, S

    2015-09-01

    This is one of the first studies, which compares the level of stigmatizing behaviour in countries that used to be on the opposite sides of the Iron Curtain. The aim was to identify the prevalence of reported and intended stigmatizing behaviour towards those with mental health problems in the Czech Republic and to compare these findings with the findings from England. The 8-item Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) was used to assess stigmatising behaviour among a representative sample of the Czech population (n=1797). Results were compared with the findings of an analogous survey from England (n=1720), which also used the RIBS. The extent of reported behaviour (i.e., past and present experiences with those with mental health problems) was lower in the Czech Republic than in England. While 12.7% of Czechs reported that they lived, 12.9% that they worked, and 15.3% that they were acquainted with someone who had mental health problems, the respective numbers for England were 18.5%, 26.3% and 32.5% (P<0.001 in each of these items). On the other hand, the extent of intended stigmatizing behaviour towards those with mental health problems is considerably higher in the Czech Republic. Out of maximum 20 points attached to possible responses to the RIBS items 5-8, Czechs had a lower total score (x=11.0, SD=4.0) compared to English respondents (x=16.1, SD=3.6), indicating lower willingness to accept a person with mental health problems (P<0.001). The prevalence of stigmatizing behaviour in the Czech Republic is worrying. Both, further research and evidence based anti-stigma interventions, should be pursued in order to better understand and decrease stigmatizing behaviour in the Czech Republic and possibly across the post-communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:26113172

  9. Radiocaesium levels in game in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Škrkal, Jan; Rulík, Petr; Fantínová, Karin; Mihalík, Ján; Timková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of monitoring of (137)Cs activities in game species roaming in the woods over the territory of the Czech Republic for the time interval of 1986-2012. Geometric means and other statistical characteristics were estimated from the data sets on the assumption of log-normal distribution of the data from the time interval 2004-2012 where the character of data distribution had displayed no significant change. Geometric means (in Bq/kg) in meat were: wild boar 5.1, red deer 1.9, roe deer 0.77 and feathered game 0.14. The mean value in the less frequent game amounted to 0.36 Bq/kg. The geometrical standard deviation (GSD) widely varied from 1.6 to 21 for the studied species. Based on mass activity dependence on time, we assessed the effective and environmental half-lives of activity decline. For red deer and roe deer, the effective (137)Cs half-life was 2.9 and 3.2 years, and environmental half-life 3.2 and 3.6 years respectively. The effective half-life of (137)Cs in wild boar of 38 years was determined with large uncertainty and it shows constant influx of (137)Cs activity to the digestive tract of wild boars. A statistically significant season-based (137)Cs level was found in red deer and wild boar. Higher winter and spring activities of (137)Cs in wild boar are linked with decreasing access to naturally occurring food with lower (137)Cs content (chestnuts, acorns, and beech nuts), making boar grub around for ground-deposited food (often for mushrooms with higher activity). Higher winter activities of (137)Cs in red deer meat, most probably, are due to lower access to green diet in winter. The average annual committed effective dose for Czech population based on estimates of game species meat consumption between 2004 and 2012 was insignificant, only 0.03 μSv. PMID:25464037

  10. Biological monitoring of child lead exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cikrt, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Blaha, K; Nerudova, J; Sediva, V; Fornuskova, H; Knotkova, J; Roth, Z; Kodl, M; Fitzgerald, E

    1997-04-01

    The area around the Pribram lead smelter has been recognized to be heavily contaminated by lead (Pb). In the early 1970s, several episodes of livestock lead intoxication were reported in this area; thereafter, several epidemiological and ecological studies focused on exposure of children. In contrast to earlier studies, the recent investigation (1992-1994) revealed significantly lower exposure to lead. From 1986-1990, recorded average blood lead levels were about 37.2 micrograms lead (Pb)/100 ml in an elementary school population living in a neighborhood close to the smelter (within 3 km of the plant). The present study, however, has found mean blood lead levels of 11.35 micrograms/100 ml (95% CI = 9.32; 13.82) among a comparable group of children. In addition to blood lead, tooth lead was used to assess exposure among children. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the geometric mean tooth lead level of 6.44 micrograms Pb/g (n = 13; 95% CI = 3.95; 10.50) in the most contaminated zone and 1.43 micrograms Pb/g (n = 35; 95% CI = 1.11; 1.84) in zones farther away from the point source. Both biomarkers, blood and tooth lead levels, reflect a similar pattern of lead exposure in children. This study has attempted a quantitative assessment of risk factors associated with elevated lead exposure in the Czech Republic. Content of lead in soil, residential distance from the smelter, consumption of locally grown vegetables or fruits, drinking water from local wells, the mother's educational level, cigarette consumption among family members, and the number of children in the family were factors positively related (p < 0.05) to blood lead levels. The resulting blood lead level was found to be inversely proportional to the child's age. PMID:9189705

  11. Biological monitoring of child lead exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Cikrt, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Blaha, K; Nerudova, J; Sediva, V; Fornuskova, H; Knotkova, J; Roth, Z; Kodl, M; Fitzgerald, E

    1997-01-01

    The area around the Pribram lead smelter has been recognized to be heavily contaminated by lead (Pb). In the early 1970s, several episodes of livestock lead intoxication were reported in this area; thereafter, several epidemiological and ecological studies focused on exposure of children. In contrast to earlier studies, the recent investigation (1992-1994) revealed significantly lower exposure to lead. From 1986-1990, recorded average blood lead levels were about 37.2 micrograms lead (Pb)/100 ml in an elementary school population living in a neighborhood close to the smelter (within 3 km of the plant). The present study, however, has found mean blood lead levels of 11.35 micrograms/100 ml (95% CI = 9.32; 13.82) among a comparable group of children. In addition to blood lead, tooth lead was used to assess exposure among children. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the geometric mean tooth lead level of 6.44 micrograms Pb/g (n = 13; 95% CI = 3.95; 10.50) in the most contaminated zone and 1.43 micrograms Pb/g (n = 35; 95% CI = 1.11; 1.84) in zones farther away from the point source. Both biomarkers, blood and tooth lead levels, reflect a similar pattern of lead exposure in children. This study has attempted a quantitative assessment of risk factors associated with elevated lead exposure in the Czech Republic. Content of lead in soil, residential distance from the smelter, consumption of locally grown vegetables or fruits, drinking water from local wells, the mother's educational level, cigarette consumption among family members, and the number of children in the family were factors positively related (p < 0.05) to blood lead levels. The resulting blood lead level was found to be inversely proportional to the child's age. Images Figure 1. PMID:9189705

  12. Geospatial Data for Computerisation of Public Administration in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cada, V.; Mildorf, T.

    2011-08-01

    The main aim of the eGovernment programme in the Czech Republic is to enhance the efficiency of public administration. The Digital Map of Public Administration (DMVS) should be composed of digital orthophotographs of the Czech Republic, digital and digitised cadastral maps, digital purpose cadastral map (ÚKM) and a technical map of municipality, if available. The DMVS project is a part of computerisation of public administration in the Czech Republic. The project enhances the productivity of government administration and also simplifies the processes between citizens and public administration. The DMVS project, that should be compliant with the INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community) initiative, generates definite demand for geodata on the level of detail of land data model. The user needs that are clearly specified and required are not met due to inconsistencies in terminology, data management and level of detail.

  13. Newly identified historical tornadoes in the Czech Republic from 16th to the 20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacinová, Martina; Munzar, Jan; Franc, Marek

    2007-02-01

    Tornadoes have occurred in the territory of the Czech Republic throughout history. Although their frequency and intensity are not as high as in the USA, they can cause severe damage as well. That is why a systematic effort to document individual occurrences of this dangerous meteorological phenomenon as far as possible back into the past began in the 1990s. The aim of this investigation is to extend the first European catalogue of tornadoes originally published by Wegener [Wegener A., 1917. Wind-und Wasserhosen in Europe], by the addition of these cases from the Czech Republic. This paper adds further to Setvák, Šálek and Munzar [ Setvák M., Šálek M., Munzar J., 2003. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic—from medieval chronicles to the internet society. Atmos. Res. 67-68, 589-605], who reported the earliest documented tornado in the land of the Czech Republic which occurred in AD 1119 in Prague. In so doing, it presents recently discovered tornado cases from the 16th to the early 20th centuries, found in a variety of historical sources since the last ECSS conference held in Prague in 2002. In particular we will focus on the case from Jablonec nad Nisou (northern Bohemia) in 1925, which was probably the first case in the Czech Republic with accompanying photographic documentation of damage caused by a tornado.

  14. Privatisation, Decentralisation And Governance In Education In The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany And Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daun, Holger

    2004-07-01

    The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden differ culturally and economically, but they commonly exhibit general trends of decentralisation in the control of educational processes and outcomes. The present contribution looks at these five European countries as the venue for case studies in educational restructuring as well as evaluation, assessment and reporting. It shows that such trends have been most radical in the Czech Republic and Sweden, while England has centralised curriculum policy and France has devolved some decision-making to bodies at lower levels, but as representatives of the central state.

  15. The role of coal in the economy of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Doruska, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with high total reserves of hard coal and lignite. Therefore coal always had and still has a significant role in covering the power demand of the Czech Republic. Transition of the national economy, based on the principles of the market economy and private ownership, affects among others also behavior of the mining companies. A strong emphasis is also aimed at the environmental aspects concerning both the process of coal mining and the process of its utilization. Within these intentions the power policy of the Czech Republic is formulated. The Czech Republic, which has 10 mil. inhabitants, ranks among the countries with a high share of industry in the process of creating the gross national product. This state has its historical roots as on the present territory of the Czech Republic there had been concentrated a majority of industrial and mining capacities of the Hapsburg Empire. The First World War resulted among others in the decline of the Hapsburg Empire. Within this process Czechoslovak Republic was established (apart from other things the center of democracy in the Central Europe). In that republic the industry had an important position. The industrial potential had been expanded even during the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in the years 1939 - 1945. After the Second World War when Europe was divided into two political spheres Czechoslovakia became a significant industrial base of so called East Bloc. Such a development and the needs of the Eastern Bloc resulted in the intensive development of the heavy industry on the territory of Czechoslovakia.

  16. Tertiary Education in the Czech Republic: The Pathway to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesik, Richard; Gounko, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes recent policy proposals to reform Czech tertiary education. A brief overview of the evolution of Czech tertiary education presents the background against which emerging policy trends in education are examined. We relate the changes in tertiary education to the policy framework and recommendations of the OECD, underpinned by…

  17. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-01

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the "cave factor" 1.5. The value of "cave factor" which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  18. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-07

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free {sup 218}Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin

  19. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of the Concept was required, amongst other reasons in

  20. Managing Cognitive Dissonance: Experience from an Environmental Education Teachers' Training Course in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of seven in-service environmental education teacher training courses conducted in the Czech Republic in 2009-2011. The evaluation applied a grounded theory approach. 14 focus groups, 13 interviews and two post-programme questionnaires were used. The evaluation describes a process of managing cognitive…

  1. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Czech Republic 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajdova, Andrea; Slavik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Czech Republic's arts and cultural education. The decisions related to cultural and creative dimension of education are made at the central level, by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The Ministry is responsible for the development of the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE). One of the aims…

  2. Home Education in the Post-Communist Countries: Case Study of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additional information about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever…

  3. Educational Leadership Development in England and the Czech Republic: Comparing Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundrett, Mark; Slavikova, Lenka; Karabec, Stanislav; Murden, Brendan; Dering, Ann; Nicolaido, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The development of educational leadership programmes and qualifications has become an international phenomenon in recent years. This article is one of a series that springs out of a British Council sponsored conference held in the Czech Republic in 2003, organized jointly by the Educational Management Centre of the Faculty of Education at Charles…

  4. Lost in Translation: Ever Changing and Competing Purposes for National Examinations in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greger, D.; Kifer, E.

    2012-01-01

    In reaction to central control of schooling by the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic countered with what some say was the most decentralized system in Europe. While the political move to democracy was extraordinarily successful, there were numerous governments between 1989 and the present. The combination of the decentralized control of schooling…

  5. Reported Prevalence of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices by Special Educators in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark; Strnadova, Iva; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The reported level of use of eight instructional strategies in a sample of 531 special educators in the Czech Republic was examined in this study. Consistent with recent parallel studies in North America and Australia, the respondents reported that they used a combination of evidence-based instructional practices (such as direct instruction and…

  6. Personality and Religion among Secondary School Pupils in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Quesnell, Michael; Lewis, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The short-form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 1,780 boys and 1,634 girls attending secondary schools in the Czech Republic, together with the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity. On the one hand, two of the findings are consistent with those from a series of studies employing the same measure of religiosity…

  7. Adolescents during and after Times of Social Change: The Case of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macek, Petr; Ježek, Stanislav; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a set of four studies focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic. In the first part, authors reflect on the cultural background, the political, social, and psychological factors that have had influence on several generations of adolescents in the period of the communist totalitarian regime. They also describe the social…

  8. Privatisation, Decentralisation and Governance in Education in The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden differ culturally and economically, but they commonly exhibit general trends of decentralisation in the control of educational processes and outcomes. The present contribution looks at these five European countries as the venue for case studies in educational restructuring as well as…

  9. Solving the "Gypsy Problem": "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William S.; Merry, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the "discourse moment" constituted by "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic" might affect the future of schooling for Roma youth. In this article, the authors follow the scheme proposed by Lilie Chouliaraki and Norman Fairclough, who suggest a five-part framework for critical discourse analysis: statement of the problem,…

  10. A Dynamic Model of Forces Affecting the Implementation of Educational Change in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Cerna, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Examines the educational change process in the Czech Republic since 1989, focusing on persistence of past attitudes, change complexity, external factors facilitating change, role of national reform organizations, absence of conceptually coherent educational policy, growing advocacy for special education, and parent and teacher attitudes. Explores…

  11. Digitization of Manuscripts in the National Library of the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psohlavec, Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    Considers the relationship of the quality of images with the needs of users of digitized manuscripts. Highlights include goals of digitization; for whom to digitize; experiences of the National Library of the Czech Republic digitizing and providing electronic access to historical documents; preparation of manuscript descriptions; usability of…

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Posture in School Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratenova, Jana; Zejglicova, Kristyna; Maly, Marek; Filipova, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and the main risk factors of poor posture in school children in the Czech Republic. Methods: The cross-sectional study examined representative sample of children aged 7, 11, and 15 years in the year 2003. From the overall number of 3600 children, 3520 (97.7%) attended and were…

  13. Higher Education Finance Reform in the Czech Republic: Transitions in Thought and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education in the Czech Republic is going through an important transition, both politically and economically. New methods of financing university operations are necessary during the transition to a market economy as government funds are increasingly being drawn to other areas. Government and academic officials have worked together in the…

  14. Civic Education in the Czech Republic: Curriculum Reform for Democratic Citizenship. Evaluator's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    This report evaluates a project undertaken in the Czech Republic to create lesson scenarios to revise the existing social studies curricular framework for the third form of secondary school (ages 17-18) with special reference to the overarching objectives for civic education reform started in 1989. These objectives included the elimination of…

  15. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munich, Daniel; Jurajda, Stepan; Cihak, Martin

    The current recession in the Czech Republic is driven by aggregate demand, unsustainable growth of wages, weak enforcement of the legal system, non-operational bankruptcy law, and poor corporate governance. The wage dispersion has been growing continuously, and wage setting has become increasingly more responsive to market forces. Education has…

  16. The Role of Parents in Relation to School: Case of the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabusicova, Milada; Emmerova, Katerina; Cihacek, Vlastimil; Sedova, Klara

    This paper is a sequel to the paper titled "The Role of Parents as Educational and Social Partners of the School in the Czech Republic: Legislation and Media Analysis." This paper presents the results of the second stage of a 3-year study that sought to learn how the schools perceive parents. This segment of the study looked at four possible…

  17. Usutu virus in blackbirds (Turdus merula), Czech Republic, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I; Čapek, M; Bakonyi, T; Betášová, L; Nowotny, N

    2014-06-01

    The central European lineage of Usutu virus was isolated from a blackbird (Turdus merula), which was found dead in the city of Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011. The virus RNA was detected in two other dead blackbirds in Brno during 2012. PMID:23095331

  18. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation

    PubMed Central

    Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

  19. The state of psychiatry in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Höschl, Cyril; Winkler, Petr; Pěč, Ondřej

    2012-08-01

    This overview of Czech psychiatry begins with a brief review of its history; outlines its social, political and economic determinants and then describes the field itself. Both epidemiological and service-related information are discussed, together with the issues for mental health personnel, education and research. The heavy burden of communist history pervades most areas and must be taken into account in the specific characteristics that influence both the current situation and future prospects of Czech psychiatry. This consideration is essential for orientation in the field and to understand Czech particularities. The greatest challenges, however, originate from the fundamental changes that are going on in the world today. These challenges reach beyond national boundaries and include such phenomena as globalization, migration, ageing population, growing burden of mental ill health, the still prevailing stigma towards psychiatry, and the psychological roots and consequences of current financial and societal crises. PMID:22950765

  20. [European action plan on alcohol in the Czech Republic--no substantial progress].

    PubMed

    Csémy, L; Nespor, K

    2004-01-01

    Czech Republic joined European action plan on alcohol for years 2000 to 2004 and signed its accomplishment. However, since 2000 situation has worsened. Alcohol consumption raised in 2001 (the last known data) to 10.0 litters of 100% alcohol (that is 159.9 litters of beer, 8.2 litters of distillates and 16.2 litters of wine per person per year). The only positive aspect was the small rise of consumption tax in distillates and that some thesis of the European action plan on alcohol were included into the governmental document "Long-term improvement of the health status of the population in Czech republic--Health for everybody in the 21st century". The proclamation has had no practical effect. Highly adverse is the situation with alcohol consumption in children and adolescents, which was described in the last study. Risks related to the high alcohol consumption in Czech republic include: High incidence of alcohol related death, including children, adolescents and young people (injuries, traffic accidents, poisonings, suicides, liver and tumor diseases); higher morbidity; lower productivity at work and worse position of Czech workers in concurrent environment; worse reproduction health, higher incidence of inborn defects caused by alcohol taken during pregnancy (including its beginning, when women do not know it); frequent social and family problems caused by alcohol abuses; increased risk of consumption of non-alcoholic drugs in children and adolescents. Alcohol belong to throughway drugs and its consumption in early age represents for children and adolescents a risk factor for other addictive drugs; alcohol is related namely to violent and negligent delicts; flagrant alcohol excesses together with alcohol related criminality harm the prestige of Czech Republic to foreign visitors and can drive them back. PMID:15305772

  1. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... by their foreign language curriculum. English is the first choice for a second language in this... while technical areas rank as their third choice. English is the standard second language in the Czech... recent government decision that will make English language mandatory for primary school students...

  2. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Dolejš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies), of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereuawilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobiusalenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobiuscorrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; Lithobiuscreticus Dobroruka, 1977; Lithobiuserythrocephalusmohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; Lithobiusevae Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobiusmagurensis Dobroruka, 1971; Lithobiuspurkynei Dobroruka, 1957; Lithobiustatricus Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobiustatricusmonounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobiushomolaci Dobroruka, 1971; Monotarsobiuskrali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymeriumdilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; Pachymeriumhanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendraaztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamiaolympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan). The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid. PMID:26257531

  3. [Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in the Czech Republic and in other countries].

    PubMed

    Grillová, L; Mikalová, L; Zákoucká, H; Židlická, J; Šmajs, D

    2015-03-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. In the Czech Republic, several hundred cases of syphilis are reported annually; e.g. in 2012, 696 syphilis cases were documented. In the last decades, an increasing prevalence of macrolide resistant TPA strains harboring A2058G or A2059G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene has been reported. Macrolides were used (and rarely are still being used) in the Czech Republic for the treatment of syphilis in patients allergic to penicillin. While 37% of TPA strains were resistant to macrolides between 2004 and 2010, this rate increased to 67% between 2011-2013. High prevalence of A2058G or A2059G mutations and increasing rates of macrolide resistant TPA strains have also been documented in other developed countries. Therefore, macrolides should not be used in the treatment of syphilis. PMID:25872989

  4. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D.

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  5. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    Dolejš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies), of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereua wilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobius alenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobius corrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; Lithobius creticus Dobroruka, 1977; Lithobius erythrocephalus mohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; Lithobius evae Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobius magurensis Dobroruka, 1971; Lithobius purkynei Dobroruka, 1957; Lithobius tatricus Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobius tatricus monounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobius homolaci Dobroruka, 1971; Monotarsobius krali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymerium dilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; Pachymerium hanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendra aztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamia olympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan). The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid. PMID:26257531

  6. Reproductive agency and projects: Germans searching for egg donation in Spain and the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Sven

    2011-11-01

    German patients in search of IVF with egg donation (which is prohibited by German law) are increasingly deciding to travel to clinics in other countries (mostly to the Czech Republic and Spain) that are able to provide them with the eggs of other women. Through three case studies of German couples who crossed international borders for IVF with egg donation, this article provides insight into these transnational practices aiming to circumvent restrictions in reproduction, whatever they may be. The material for this article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews conducted in Germany, Spain and the Czech Republic, as well as research undertaken on IVF internet bulletin boards. The concepts of 'reproductive agency' and 'reproductive projects' are used to analyse the ways in which people search for information about treatments and clinics in other countries, how they embed the practice into their daily lives and how they deal with and position themselves regarding the need for reproductive travel. PMID:21840759

  7. Relationship between drought severity and observed regional yields in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Možný, Martin; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Although the Czech Republic is not generally characterized as a drought prone region within European context, drought occurs and is one of the most important climatic extremes in terms of economic damages. Crop production is highly sensitive to soil water availability and the rainfed agriculture almost dominantly prevails in the Czech Republic. Generally we can observe trends towards drier conditions with more often and more severe drought episodes. Based on this, the impact analyzes are very important. The relationship between drought episodes (with various timing and severity) and observed decrease of yields at district level (NUTS4) during the period from 2000 to 2014 was analyzed within submitted study. The observed yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape from 14 districts were used (210 seasons are included). All districts are positioned within southeastern part of the Czech Republic and represent various agro-climatic conditions. The regressions between various drought indicators (as independent variables) and yields (dependent variable) were established. For this purpose the several drought indicators in monthly time step were derived as spatial average for arable land (each district separately). The difference between precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ET0), average soil moisture content available for crops up to 40 cm and 100 cm depth, percent of time with soil moisture below 50 % and below 30 % of available soil moisture up to 100 cm depth were used. For reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and soil water estimates SoilClim model was used. This software is the main module used within Drought monitoring system in the Czech Republic (www.intersucho.cz). Within this study SoilClim was used in resolution 500 x 500 meters within grids of arable land. The soil water holding capacity as well as vegetation development was considered. By this way the yield losses due to various drought intensity was identified and compared. In case

  8. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  9. Steady increase of lymphogranuloma venereum cases, Czech Republic, 2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rob, Filip; Jůzlová, Kateřina; Krutáková, Helena; Zákoucká, Hana; Vaňousová, Daniela; Kružicová, Zuzana; Machala, Ladislav; Veselý, Dan; Jilich, David; Hercogová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Since the notification of the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in the Czech Republic in 2010, the numbers of LGV cases have steadily increased in the country. In 2015, 40 LGV cases were diagnosed, bringing the total for 2010-2015, to 88 cases. The profile of the most affected group, HIV-positive men who have sex with men with a previous sexually transmitted infection, matches that of those described in LGV outbreaks in western Europe. PMID:27020297

  10. Novel Cryptosporidium bat genotypes III and IV in bats from the USA and Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Hořická, Anna; Sak, Bohumil; Prediger, Jitka; Salát, Jiří; Širmarová, Jana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Clark, Mark; Chelladurai, Jeba Rose Jennifer Jesudoss; Gillam, Erin; McEvoy, John

    2015-10-01

    Bats from the families Rhinolophidae (n = 90) and Vespertilionidae (n = 191) in the USA and Czech Republic were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by microscopic and molecular analysis of faecal samples collected from rectum of dissected animals and from the ground beneath roosting sites. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 281 faecal specimens examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Nested PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA and actin genes were used to identify isolates and infer evolutionary relationships. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in a western small-footed bat (Myotis ciliolabrum) from the USA and a common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) from the Czech Republic. Two novel genotypes were identified and named Cryptosporidium bat genotype III and IV. Bat genotype III was found in two big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) from the USA. Bat genotype IV was detected in two common pipistrelle bats from the Czech Republic. PMID:26255170

  11. [Mortality evolution in the Czech Socialist Republic, by sex and age in 1950-1984].

    PubMed

    Rychtarikova, J

    1987-01-01

    Postwar mortality evolution in the Czech Socialist Republic has run through 2 different stages with the turning point being 1960. Since about the beginning of the 1960s, the mortality level in the Czech Socialist Republic has quickly declined for both sexs and in each age category. The rate of decline has slowed with increasing age. Since the 1960s, the mortality of the older population has ceased to decline or has worsened; with men, this phenomenon spread even as low as 40 years old. Infant and child mortality, male mortality under 40 years of age, and female mortality under 50 years of age positively contributed to a longer life span, except between 1960 and 1970. The present mortality situation in the Czech Socialist Republic is the result of the unfavorable developments of the last 20 years, especially in the decade 1960-1970. The present age structure of mortality is characterized by higher infant mortality, higher male mortality above 40 years of age, and higher female mortality at 50-55 years of age. A certain improvement observed in the last few years is relative, as the mortality of the male population over 30 is the same today as it was 35 years ago and the mortality of the female population is the same as it was in the mid-1960s. PMID:12314972

  12. Management of Spent and Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in the Czech Republic - 12124

    SciTech Connect

    Podlaha, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Czech Republic is a country with a well-developed peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. Sealed Radioactive Sources (further also SRS) are broadly used in many areas in the Czech Republic, e.g. in research, industry, medicine, education, agriculture, etc. Legislation in the field of ionizing radiation source utilization has been fully harmonized with European Community legislation. SRS utilization demands a proper system which must ensure the safe use of SRS, including the management of disused (spent) and orphaned SRS. In the Czech Republic, a comprehensive system of SRS management has been established that is comparable with systems in other developed countries. The system covers both legal and institutional aspects. The Central Register of Ionizing Radiation Sources is an important part of the system. It is a tracking system that covers all activities related to SRS, from their production or import to the end of their use (recycling or disposal). Many spent SRS are recycled and can be used for other purposes after inspection, repacking or reprocessing. When the disused SRS are not intended for further use, they are managed as radioactive waste (RAW). The system of SRS management also ensures the suitable resolution of situations connected with improper SRS handling (in the case of orphaned sources, accidents, etc.). (author)

  13. Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae) from Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej; Pavlásek, Ivan; Vorel, Aleš

    2015-08-01

    Between March 2012 and April 2014, we performed post-mortem parasitological examinations of 11 Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) from the basins of four main rivers (Dyje, Labe, Morava, Vltava) in the Czech Republic. The cause of death of five adult animals was unknown, three adult animals died after being hit by cars, while one young and one adult as a result of serious injuries and one juvenile male drowned. The trematode Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Rudolphi, 1814) Lühe, 1909 was only found in the caecum body and caecum apex of nine beavers (82%), with no significant differences in parasite intensity among beavers. The highest number of trematodes (271) occurred in an adult female in July 2013; while a range of 1-57 individuals were found in other positive beavers. S. subtriquetrus size in both parts of the caecum was 11.0-17.0 × 5.5-8.0 mm (mean 14.3 × 6.9 mm). Results demonstrated that for the optimal detection of eggs, it was necessary to examine at least 10 g of faeces with a new modified method of sedimentation. The size range of 30 eggs was 157.1-182.5 × 99.3-109.8 μm (mean 168.0 × 104.4 μm). There were no differences in prevalence and seasonal occurrence of S. subtriquetrus between male and female beavers. We did not find any other intestinal endoparasites or tissue parasites (Sarcocystis spp., Trichinella spp.). PMID:25916466

  14. Previously expressed wishes in the Czech republic--a missed chance of the Czech legislator.

    PubMed

    Peterková, Helena

    2013-12-01

    By ratification of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, previously expressed wishes as a completely new institute have been, via Article 9, implemented in the Czech legal system. With no history of practical experience with previously expressed wishes, and after more than 6 years of legislative work on the new Act on Healthcare Service, a unique provision was enacted which is actually not meant to serve as an instrument enabling withdrawal of the mechanical support of vital functions. In this paper, the great paradox of the Czech legal provision on previously expressed wishes is to be discussed and critically analyzed in order to explain the seriousness of the consequences of initial misunderstanding of the purposes and context of previously expressed wishes. PMID:24552106

  15. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia that are alleged to be sold in the United States...

  16. Alzheimer's disease and its treatment costs: case study in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mohelska, Hana; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the costs, applied, for example, when treating specific diseases - an important aid in prioritizing the process of resource allocation. In our review, the specific disease is dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease. This paper aims to provide more information on the partial costs per patient that are calculated according to the aggregated data from publicly available sources as well as from the results of authors' own investigation. The University Hospital in Hradec Králové and the General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic participated in this research. The elementary research objective was to compare the costs per patient diagnosed early onset, to those of the patient diagnosed later. The Czech Republic lacks information regarding dementia. Therefore, these issues require attention. The methods used in this paper included time series analyses, methods of direct questioning, interviews with experts, and analyses of medical documentation. These methods were combined to exploit their particular advantages and to ensure the issues discussed, were covered. The investigation showed that the underpinning of patients with Alzheimer's disease at early onset is advantageous from an economic perspective, because the cost of outpatient care is much lower compared with that of inpatient care. The international comparisons of the volume of care provided should be approached with great caution. These are based solely on the facts of various expert estimates and are not usually supported by hard data. Yet, they still illustrate the overall view of our ability to take care of people with dementia. According to experts, care in the Czech Republic significantly lags behind the rest of developed Europe. While services are provided to 26% of people with dementia in Germany and 50% in France, the experts estimate that services are provided to only 10% of the population in the Czech Republic. If we were to offer a similar volume of

  17. Alzheimer’s disease and its treatment costs: case study in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mohelska, Hana; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the costs, applied, for example, when treating specific diseases – an important aid in prioritizing the process of resource allocation. In our review, the specific disease is dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease. This paper aims to provide more information on the partial costs per patient that are calculated according to the aggregated data from publicly available sources as well as from the results of authors’ own investigation. The University Hospital in Hradec Králové and the General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic participated in this research. The elementary research objective was to compare the costs per patient diagnosed early onset, to those of the patient diagnosed later. The Czech Republic lacks information regarding dementia. Therefore, these issues require attention. The methods used in this paper included time series analyses, methods of direct questioning, interviews with experts, and analyses of medical documentation. These methods were combined to exploit their particular advantages and to ensure the issues discussed, were covered. The investigation showed that the underpinning of patients with Alzheimer’s disease at early onset is advantageous from an economic perspective, because the cost of outpatient care is much lower compared with that of inpatient care. The international comparisons of the volume of care provided should be approached with great caution. These are based solely on the facts of various expert estimates and are not usually supported by hard data. Yet, they still illustrate the overall view of our ability to take care of people with dementia. According to experts, care in the Czech Republic significantly lags behind the rest of developed Europe. While services are provided to 26% of people with dementia in Germany and 50% in France, the experts estimate that services are provided to only 10% of the population in the Czech Republic. If we were to offer a similar

  18. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    PubMed

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs. PMID:15068204

  19. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  20. Changing level of vulnerability and risk due to floods - case study of the Becva River, the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubinsky, Jiri

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays flood risk management is different in each risk zone. But are these zones define correctly? In the Czech Republic there exist three flood risk areas - high, low, and no; but only along major rivers. In the last few years we witnessed an upward trend flooding on the small streams. And therefore we should determine which variables influence the level of flood risk. The main goal of this paper is to compare pattern of flood risk areas due to diverse defined variables by GIS. Among the basic variables there can be included flood areas, social perception of flood risk, and vulnerability presented by damages, quality / quantity of flood protection measures, and inhabitants' demographic structure. All these factors result from the risk equation. The integrated approach in our study is a significant added value. This requirement is contained in many disaster research strategies of international organizations, e.g. IRDR, ICSU as well as the EU itself. The case study was carried out in the Becva River basin in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. The study area represents landscape along middle section of the river, in the foothills of the Beskids Mountain. We made there the interdisciplinary questionnaire and field mapping research, where we asked over 300 households and mapped about 184 square kilometres. We confirmed decreasing of deaths and increasing of economic losses. This new concept of flood risk areas assessment has a high potential to improve risk management strategies. Especially for prediction, prevention, and preparedness phase. And we try to apply these results to improve river management in the national level.

  1. First experience with the application of the METRo model in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr; Sedlák, Pavel; Hošek, Jiří; Bližňák, Vojtěch; Chládová, Zuzana; Pešice, Petr; Škuthan, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents our first experience with the application of the METRo model, which forecasts road surface temperature and road conditions (e.g., wet or dry surface, ice) in the Czech Republic. In our version, the model uses online measurements from road weather stations (RWS) in the Czech Republic and weather forecasts from ALADIN, the operational numerical weather prediction NWP model of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. The METRo model was quasi-operationally tested during the winter season (November 2012-February 2013) using data from 25 RWS. We compared three model runs with an emphasis on road surface temperature. The first run used the original model and served as a reference. The second run applied model output statistics (MOS) to ALADIN forecasts of temperature and humidity at 2 m above the ground, which are required by METRo. The third run applied METRo in a nowcasting mode by starting the model every hour and using new measurements available from the RWS. The results indicated that MOS improved the accuracy of the temperature and humidity at 2 m but had little impact on the forecasted road surface temperature. However, the nowcasting scheme significantly improved the accuracy of the forecasts for the initial 3 to 4 h. The evaluation of the METRo results suggests that the radiation flux forecast is crucial for an accurate road surface temperature forecast.

  2. Factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies: the case of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Čábelková, Inna; Abrhám, Josef; Strielkowski, Wadim

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies on the example of the Czech Republic. Our research shows that women reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to men. Education proved to be statistically significant in one of three indicators of job satisfaction. Personal income and workplace relationships proved to be positively and significantly related to all the three indicators of job satisfaction. Most of the occupational dummies were significantly related to two out of three indicators of job satisfaction. In addition, we found that Czech entrepreneurs enjoy and value their job, which indicates strong self-selection for doing business in post-transition economies. However, human capital expressed by the level of education was significant factor for job satisfaction, meaning that well-educated people might not be satisfied with their jobs or feel that their education and experience are wasted in the market economy. PMID:26693997

  3. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. PMID:26650830

  4. Long-term fluctuations of hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic: synthesis of different data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Valášek, Hubert; Zahradníček, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Hailstorms belong to natural phenomena causing great material damage in present time, similarly as it was in the past. In Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of hailstorms, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. Different types of documentary evidence are used in historical climatology, such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence of economic and administrative character (e.g. taxation records) has particular importance. This study aims to create a long-term series of hailstorms in South Moravia using various types of documentary evidence (such as taxation records, family archives, chronicles and newspapers which are the most important) and systematic meteorological observations in the station network. Although available hailstorm data cover the 1541-2014 period, incomplete documentary evidence allows reasonable analysis of fluctuations in hailstorm frequency only since the 1770s. The series compiled from documentary data and systematic meteorological observations is used to identify periods of lower and higher hailstorm frequency. Existing data may be used also for the study of spatial hailstorm variability. Basic uncertainties of compiled hailstorm series are discussed. Despite some bias in hailstorm data, South-Moravian hailstorm series significantly extends our knowledge about this phenomenon in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia derived from documentary evidence" supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, reg. no. 13-19831S.

  5. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: the case study of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Polák, Miloš; Drápalová, Lenka

    2012-08-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets targets on collection and recycling of WEEE in general, but no specific collection target for EoL mobile phone exists. In the year 2010 only about 3-6% of Czech EoL mobile phones were collected for recovery and recycling. If we make similar estimation using an estimated average EU value, then within the next 10 years about 1.3 billion of EoL mobile phones would be available for recycling in the EU. This amount contains about 31 tonnes of gold and 325 tonnes of silver. Since Europe is dependent on import

  6. PERUN system and its application for assessing the crop yield potential of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Zalud, Z.; Eitzinger, J.; Trnka, M.; Semeradova, D.

    2003-04-01

    The main purpose of the first version of the computer system PERUN, which has been developed in 2001-2002 (presented in EGS 2002), is the probabilistic seasonal crop yield forecasting for a given site. The system is based on the crop growth model WOFOST (version 7, slightly modified) and the six-variate version of the stochastic weather generator Met&Roll. The system is now being enhanced to allow assessment of the crop yield potential of a larger area. As this assessment requires a great amount of meteorological, pedological and crop data to be gathered, but these data are not yet all available to the authors, the presentation will rather focus on the methodological aspects and the results of the sensitivity analysis. The presentation will consist of the following points: (i) Overview of the PERUN system. The results of the validation experiments (spring barley and winter wheat at selected Czech locations) will be presented, too. (ii) Methodology used for a spatial assessment. The assessment is based on integrating model crop yields simulated at multiple sub-regions with region-specific climatic and pedological conditions. The input daily weather series are produced by the stochastic generator. The multi-year crop model simulation is performed for each sub-region to assess the mean and variability of the model yields. (iii) Sensitivity of the regional crop production potential to uncertainties in selected input characteristics: crop cultivar, soil type, hydrological characteristics (e.g. amount of available water at the beginning of the simulation), and climatic conditions (e.g temperature, precipitation). In assessing sensitivity to climate, the climatic characteristics will be varied within the range of values typical for the territory of the Czech Republic. The crops applied in the analysis are spring barley and winter wheat. Acknowledgement: The system PERUN has been developed within the frame of project QC1316 sponsored by the Czech National Agency for

  7. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD2) include a number of disorders with heterogeneous etiology that cause predominantly weakness and wasting of the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles. In this study, we determined the frequency of LGMD subtypes within a cohort of Czech LGMD2 patients using mutational analysis of the CAPN3, FKRP, SGCA, and ANO5 genes. Methods PCR-sequencing analysis; sequence capture and targeted resequencing. Results Mutations of the CAPN3 gene are the most common cause of LGMD2, and mutations in this gene were identified in 71 patients in a set of 218 Czech probands with a suspicion of LGMD2. Totally, we detected 37 different mutations of which 12 have been described only in Czech LGMD2A patients. The mutation c.550delA is the most frequent among our LGMD2A probands and was detected in 47.1% of CAPN3 mutant alleles. The frequency of particular forms of LGMD2 was 32.6% for LGMD2A (71 probands), 4.1% for LGMD2I (9 probands), 2.8% for LGMD2D (6 probands), and 1.4% for LGMD2L (3 probands). Further, we present the first results of a new approach established in the Czech Republic for diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases: sequence capture and targeted resequencing. Using this approach, we identified patients with mutations in the DYSF and SGCB genes. Conclusions We characterised a cohort of Czech LGMD2 patients on the basis of mutation analysis of genes associated with the most common forms of LGMD2 in the European population and subsequently compared the occurrence of particular forms of LGMD2 among countries on the basis of our results and published studies. PMID:25135358

  8. Environmental security in the Czech Republic: Status and concerns in the post Communist era

    SciTech Connect

    Valley, P.J.

    1998-10-01

    The Czech Republic has made great strides toward reconciling its political and economic development with environmental protection and security issues since its recent democratization. Although new technological and legislative efforts continue to work at reducing emissions from automobiles, industries, power plants and coal mining, the Republic is committed to continuing its battle against air and water pollution, poor waste management, and needless destruction of nature. Shifting the structure of primary energy sources to qualitatively better fuels, along with the introduction of less energy-consuming technologies and the activation of new nuclear reactors, would eventually replace most of the output of coal burning power plants. However, the use of nuclear power has been opposed by several political and environmental activists groups. At the international level, Austria`s opposition to the Temelin Nuclear Power plant is of great concern since Austria, as a non-nuclear state, propagates negative information about nuclear power to its citizens and other countries.

  9. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  10. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: The case study of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, Milos Drapalova, Lenka

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this paper, we define lifespan of mobile phones and estimate their average total lifespan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The estimation of lifespan distribution is based on large sample of EoL mobile phones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the years 2010-20, about 26.3 million pieces of EoL mobile phones will be generated in the Czech Republic. - Abstract: The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets

  11. Rpas Accuracy Testing for Using it in the Cadastre of Real Estates of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housarová, E.; Pavelka, K.; Šedina, J.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, interest in the collection of data using remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) has sharply risen. RPAS technology has a very wide area of use; one of its main advantages is its accuracy, timeliness of data, frequency of collecting data and low operating costs. RPAS can be used for the mapping of small, dangerous and inaccessible areas in contrast with ordinary aerial photogrammetry. In the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic, it is possible to map out areas by using aerial photogrammetry, so it has been done in the past. However, this is a relatively expensive and complex technology, and therefore we are looking for new alternatives. An alternative would be to use RPAS technology for data acquisition. The testing of the possibility of using RPAS for the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic is the subject of this paper. When evaluating results we compared point coordinates measured by geodetic method, GNSS technology and RPAS technology.

  12. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-03-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994-2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  13. Monitoring radionuclides in the atmosphere over the Czech Republic after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Rulík, Petr; Hýža, Miroslav; Bečková, Věra; Borecký, Zdeněk; Havránek, Jiří; Hölgye, Zoltán; Lušňák, Jan; Malá, Helena; Matzner, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rada, Jiří; Schlesingerová, Eva; Šindelková, Eva; Dragounová, Lenka; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring over the Czech Republic, as obtained by the Radiation Monitoring Network, following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Maximum values for (131)I were 5.6 mBq m(-3) in aerosol form and 13 mBq m(-3) in gaseous form. The maximum values for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.64 and 0.72 mBq m(-3), respectively. The estimated effective half-time for removing the activity from the atmosphere was 6-7 d and 3.5 d for caesium and iodine, respectively. The gaseous-to-total activity ratios of (131)I ranged between 0.3 and 0.9, with an arithmetic mean value of 0.77. The mean value for the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratios was close to 1.0. The effective inhalation dose due to the accident for an adult living in the Czech Republic was estimated at <4 × 10(-5) mSv, out of which the proportion of (131)I was 88%. PMID:24813185

  14. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-01-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994–2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  15. Engineering of a 110 MW atmospheric CFB for the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, J.R.; Brzezeina, P.; Strach, F.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the engineering considerations related to the design of a new 110 MWe atmospheric fluidized bed boiler (CFB) and boiler island auxiliaries for installation at the CEZ, a.s. (Czech Republic Utility) Ledvice Power Station. The plant is located in the northwest Bohemia area of the Czech Republic in the foothills of the Krusne Hory Mountains, between the towns of Bilina and Teplice. The type of fuel to be burned in the CFB is brown coal which requires unique design considerations in as well as the particular boiler operational parameters. The impetus behind the addition of this new CFB at the plant is that the existing pulverized coal fired steam generator which was put in service in 1969 is unable to meet new regulations and laws regarding compliance with the protection of the environment and will be replaced once the new CFB unit is brought into service. A technical-economic study conducted by CEZ, a.s. evaluated CFB technology as the most advantageous from a long-term standpoint. The following variations were considered in the study: boiler retrofit and construction of new ash handling equipment; implementation of the combined cycle based upon natural gas; and reconstruction of the boiler equipment with transition to atmospheric fluid-bed combustion. The selection of the supplier of fluid-bed boiler was performed with an emphasis of the bidders` references as for the construction and operation of fluid-bed boilers with the outputs of min. 300 t/hr.

  16. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  17. Estimation of Biogenic VOC Emissions From Ecosystems in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemankova, K.; Brechler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are one of the crucial elements in photochemical reactions in the atmosphere which lead to tropospheric ozone formation. While modelling concentration of low-level ozone proper information about VOC sources and sinks is necessary. VOC are emitted into the atmosphere both from anthropogenic and natural sources. It has been shown in previous studies (e.g. Simpson et al, 1995) that contribution of volatile organic compounds emitted from biogenic sources to total amount of VOC in the atmosphere can be significant. Our work focuses on estimation of VOC emissions from natural ecosystems, most importantly from forests, and its application in photochemical modelling. Preliminary results have shown that inclusion of biogenic emissions in model input data leads to improvement of resulting ozone concentration which encouraged us to work on detailed biogenic VOC emission estimation. Using grid of 1x1km CORINE Land Cover over the area of the Czech Republic, emissions from deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests were estimated aplying the algorithm of Guenther et al., 1995. According to data from Forest Management Institute each cell of model grid has been assigned a proportional composition of each of thirteen tree species which are the the main forest constituents in the Czech Republic. Aggregating data of tree species composition with land cover category emission factor of particular chemical compound (isoprene, monoterpenes) has been obtained for each cell. Annual emissions of VOC on hourly basis have been calculated for domain of the Czech Republic. Biogenic emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes were compared with the emission inventory of anthropogenic sources. The inventory is provided by Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and covers emissions from major stationary sources, area sources (including domestic heating) and mobile sources. Our results show that natural emissions are approximately half the amount of organic compounds emitted

  18. Long-term hospitalizations for schizophrenia in the Czech Republic 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Petr; Mladá, Karolína; Krupchanka, Dzmitry; Agius, Mark; Ray, Manaan Kar; Höschl, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Deinstitutionalization has not been pursued in the post-communist Europe until recently. The population of psychiatric patients institutionalized in the regional mental hospitals is, however, largely understudied. The aim of this study is to assess discharges of long-term inpatients with schizophrenia from Czech psychiatric hospitals and to analyse re-hospitalizations within this group. The nationwide register of all-cause inpatient hospitalizations was merged with the nationwide register of all-cause deaths on an individual level basis. Descriptive statistics, survival analysis and logistic regression were performed. 3601 patients with schizophrenia previously hospitalized for more than a year were discharged from Czech mental hospitals between 1998 and 2012. This included 260 patients hospitalized for >20years. Nearly one fifth (n=707) of the long-term patients died during the hospitalization; and discharges of 19.36% (n=697) were only administrative in their nature. Out of 2197 truly discharged patients, 14.88% (n=327) were re-hospitalized within 2weeks after the discharge. The highest odds of rehospitalization were associated with being discharged against medical advice (OR 5.27, CI: 3.77-7.35, p<0.001). These data are important for the ongoing mental health care reforms in the Czech Republic and other countries in the Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:27094718

  19. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities. PMID:22504401

  20. Family archives as a source of information about past hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina

    2014-05-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (hydrometeorological extremes - HMEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, as well as it was in the past. For the study of their temporal and spatial variability in periods with only natural forcing factors in comparison with those combining also anthropogenic effects it is essential to have the longest possible series of HMEs. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. There exist different types of documentary evidence used in historical climatology and hydrology, represented by various sources such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence (of economic and administrative character) has particular importance (e.g. taxation records). Documents in family archives represent further promising source of data related to HMEs. The documents kept by the most important lord families in Moravia (e.g. Liechtensteins, Dietrichsteins) are located in Moravian Land Archives in Brno. Besides data about family members, industrial and agricultural business, military questions, travelling and social events, they contain direct or indirect information about HMEs. It concerns descriptions of catastrophic phenomena on the particular demesne (mainly with respect to damage) as well as correspondence related to tax reductions (i.e. they can overlap with taxation records of particular estates). This contribution shows the potential of family archives as a source of information about HMEs, up to now only rarely used, which may extend our knowledge about them. Several examples of such documents are presented. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern

  1. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, P.

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  2. An approach to the implementation of European Directive 2007/60/EC on flood risk management in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dráb, A.; Říha, J.

    2010-09-01

    Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (the Flood Risk Directive) signifies that flood risk analysis methods are gaining ground in EC Member States and, therefore, also in the Czech Republic (CR). Procedures of flood risk analysis have been developed in the Czech Republic since the catastrophic floods of 1997 in line with European and worldwide trends and have been tested and applied in hundreds of case studies to date. Currently, the Flood Risk Directive Guideline based on past experience with flood risk analysis applications is being processed. The aim of the paper is to present flood risk analysis procedures and specially developed techniques for the assembly of flood hazard, danger and flood risk maps. Methods related to flood risk management plans are briefly mentioned as well. The following particular problems are discussed in more detail: an application and extension of the "danger matrix" approach, the definition of residual danger, the formulation of efficiency criteria and preliminary multi-criteria flood risk assessment. These issues were tested in practical applications at pilot locations in the Czech Republic. Present experience provides evidence that the flood risk analysis methods used in the Czech Republic are in harmony with the requirements of the Flood Risk Directive. The proposed and applied methods are based primarily on existing available data such as flood extent maps, cadastral maps, the Register of Census Districts and Structures and others.

  3. From "Cage Beds" to Inclusion: The Long Road for Individuals with Intellectual Disability in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, Barbara H.; Siska, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, individuals with intellectual disabilities continue to be institutionalized in large, remote, state-run institutions and as a result are isolated from community interaction. Some practices associated with these institutions are coming to be seen as human rights violations. Although non-governmental organizations (NGOs) offer…

  4. Student Expectations of the Financial Returns to Higher Education in the Czech Republic and England: Evidence from Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchor, John R.; Fiserova, Jana; Marsikova, Katerina; Urbanek, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the short-cut method is used to estimate expected rates of financial returns to higher education in the Czech Republic and a modified version of the method is used to suit the current English system of deferred tuition fees. First year university students were asked to estimate their expected earnings with and without a university…

  5. The Right to Be Included: Homeschoolers Combat the Structural Discrimination Embodied in Their Lawful Protection in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kašparová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    There is a 240-year tradition of compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic. To many, compulsory school attendance is synonymous with the right to be educated. After the collapse of communism in 1989, along with the democratization of the government, the education system was slowly opened to alternatives, including the right to educate…

  6. Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

  7. Broilers as a source of quinolone-resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Reitschmied, Tomas; Bujnakova, Dobroslava; Dolejska, Monika; Cizek, Alois; Bardon, Jan; Pokludova, Lucie; Alexa, Pavel; Halova, Dana; Jamborova, Ivana

    2013-02-01

    Extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections are associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains. A total of 114 E. coli isolates were characterized regarding their antimicrobial resistance in a prospective study of 319 broilers from 12 slaughterhouses in the Czech Republic, a European Union member, during 2008. PCR-based assays to define ExPEC-associated traits were performed in resistant strains. Consumption of antimicrobial drugs by poultry in the Czech Republic was also analyzed. Antibiotic resistance was detected in 82% of isolates. Resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was predominant. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnrB19 and qnrS1, were detected in 1 and 3 of 93 resistant isolates, respectively. Twenty-three percent of resistant isolates were considered as ExPEC. In total, 972 kg of flumequine, enrofloxacin, and difloxacin were used in poultry in the Czech Republic during 2008. High prevalence of broilers with ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates was linked to consumption of quinolones in poultry. Broilers may comprise an important vehicle for community-wide dissemination of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli and ExPEC. Withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in chicken production should be seriously considered in the Czech Republic and the European Union as well. PMID:23020862

  8. Source apportionment with uncertainty estimates of fine particulate matter in Ostrava, Czech Republic using Positive Matrix Factorization

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week investigation during a warm and cold seasons was conducted to improve understanding of air pollution sources that might be impacting air quality in Ostrava, the Czech Republic. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in consecutive 12-h day and night incr...

  9. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on September 25, 2013 ((78 FR 59059), as revised on October 21, 2013 (78 FR 64011, October 25, 2013)). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on October 25, 2013... COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland,...

  10. European Standards for Quality Assurance and Institutional Practices of Student Assessment in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the student assessment procedures of 12 universities in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic with respect to their alignment with the European standards and guidelines on the quality of assessing higher education students (European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance [ESG] 1.3). Based on qualitative…

  11. An investigation of local and regional sources of fine particulate matter in the Ostrava,the Czech Republic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite efforts to reduce air pollutants, particularly in the coal power plant and industrial sectors, the Ostrava region of the Czech Republic continues to experience episodes of high pollutant concentrations, especially during the fall and winter seasons. A short-term investig...

  12. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  13. Social wasps trapped in the Czech Republic with syrup and fermented fruit and comparison with similar studies (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight species of social wasps were trapped in the Czech Republic and Slovakia with syrup as bait. Vespa crabro L, Vespula germanica (Fabricius), and Vespula vulgaris (L.) dominated trap catches at most sites, comprising 32, 28, and 35% of the wasps trapped respectively. Nearly all wasps captured wer...

  14. MONITORING AND MODELING METHODS FOR DEVELOPING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY IN THE NORTHWEST CZECH REPUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from the United States and the Czech Republic recently completed a study to investigate the ambient air quality impact of industrial and motor vehicle sources in Teplice. ir pollution measurements made from 1992 through 1993 provide data on ambient concentrations of su...

  15. [On teaching the chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliary substances within the framework of pharmaceutical education in the Czech and Slovak Republics].

    PubMed

    Jan, Subert

    2011-02-01

    The paper emphasizes the need of the introduction of the subject Chemistry of Pharmaceutical Auxiliaries into the Pharmacy study programme at more colleges in the Czech and Slovak Republics. It also introduces and discusses some topics for possible extension of the content of the courses of the subject (the presented examples are taken form the field of analytical chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliaries). PMID:21650013

  16. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  17. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli as Causes of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Marejková, Monika; Bláhová, Květa; Janda, Jan; Fruth, Angelika; Petráš, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cause diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS) worldwide, but no systematic study of EHEC as the causative agents of HUS was performed in the Czech Republic. We analyzed stools of all patients with D+ HUS in the Czech Republic between 1998 and 2012 for evidence of EHEC infection. We determined virulence profiles, phenotypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and phylogeny of the EHEC isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Virulence loci were identified using PCR, phenotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using standard procedures, and phylogeny was assessed using multilocus sequence typing. During the 15-year period, EHEC were isolated from stools of 39 (69.4%) of 56 patients. The strains belonged to serotypes [fliC types] O157:H7/NM[fliCH7] (50% of which were sorbitol-fermenting; SF), O26:H11/NM[fliCH11], O55:NM[fliCH7], O111:NM[fliCH8], O145:H28[fliCH28], O172:NM[fliCH25], and Orough:NM[fliCH25]. O26:H11/NM[fliCH11] was the most common serotype associated with HUS (41% isolates). Five stx genotypes were identified, the most frequent being stx2a (71.1% isolates). Most strains contained EHEC-hlyA encoding EHEC hemolysin, and a subset (all SF O157:NM and one O157:H7) harbored cdt-V encoding cytolethal distending toxin. espPα encoding serine protease EspPα was found in EHEC O157:H7, O26:H11/NM, and O145:H28, whereas O172:NM and Orough:NM strains contained espPγ. All isolates contained eae encoding adhesin intimin, which belonged to subtypes β (O26), γ (O55, O145, O157), γ2/θ (O111), and ε (O172, Orough). Loci encoding other adhesins (efa1, lpfAO26, lpfAO157OI-141, lpfAO157OI-154, iha) were usually associated with particular serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated nine sequence types (STs) which correlated with serotypes. Of these, two STs (ST660 and ST1595) were not found in HUS-associated EHEC before. Conclusions/Significance EHEC strains, including O157:H7 and non

  18. Projected changes in the evolution of drought assessed with the SPEI over the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potop, V.; Boroneana, C.; Stepanek, P.; Skalak, P.; Mozny, M.

    2012-04-01

    In previous studies the spatial and temporal evolution of drought events in the Czech Republic were extensively analyzed by comparing results from the most advanced drought indices (e.g. the SPI and SPEI), which take into account the role of antecedent conditions in quantifying drought severity. In the present study, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was adopted to assess and project drought characteristics in the Czech Republic based on the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulated data. The simulations were conducted at high resolution (10km) for the current (1961-2000) and two future climates (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). First, the observed data of air temperature and precipitation totals was transferred into a regular grid of ALADIN-Climate/CZ model. The bias correction was applied on the scenario runs. The bias correction method is based on variable correction using individual percentiles whose relationship is derived from observations and control RCM simulation. The SPEI was calculated based on observed monthly data of mean temperature and precipitation totals for the period 1961-1990, as reference period, and for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, as future climates under A1B SRES scenario. The SPEI were calculated with various lags, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months because the drought at these time scales is relevant for agricultural, hydrological and socio-economic impact, respectively. The study refers at the warm season of the year (April to September). As in the case of observational study, we have identified three climatically homogeneous regions, corresponding to the altitudes below 400 m, between 401 and 700 m and, above 700 m. For these three regions the frequency distribution of the SPEI values in 7 classes of drought category (%) were calculated based on grid point data falling in each region, both for the observed data and scenario runs. The paper presents the projected changes in frequency distribution of SPEI at

  19. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors.

    PubMed

    Marek, Michal V; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Věroslav; Marková, Irena

    2011-05-01

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. PMID:21345558

  20. Shedding of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by Felidae in zoos in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lukesová, D; Literák, I

    1998-01-15

    In 1995 and 1996, the shedding of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts was monitored in the faeces of Felidae in six zoos in the Czech Republic. In all, 2287 samples of faeces from 19 species of Felidae were examined. In Ostrava Zoo, four episodes of shedding of Toxoplasma-like oocysts were identified, using a flotation examination, in a pair of wild cats (Felis silvestris), six episodes in a wild cat held separately, and three episodes in a pair of Amur leopard cats (F. euptilurus). After the passage of sporulated oocysts through laboratory mice, T. gondii was confirmed in the pair of wild cats (three episodes), in the wild cat held separately (three episodes) and in the pair of Amur leopard cats (one episode). In Jihlava Zoo, one episode of shedding of T. gondii oocyst was identified in Geoffroy's cat (Oncifelis geoffroyi) using flotation and isolation examination. The possible sources of toxoplasmosis of the Felidae in zoos are discussed. PMID:9493305

  1. Sub-slab depressurisation systems used in the Czech Republic and verification of their efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, M

    2014-11-01

    Design principles for sub-slab depressurisation systems recently used in the Czech Republic for remediating existing buildings are described. Results of an efficiency analysis performed on the basis of data from >60 single-family houses are presented. It was found out that the efficiency varies between 70 and 98 %, which is twice greater than when additionally applied radon-proof insulation is used. The efficiency is mainly influenced by the vertical profile of the soil permeability and by the air-tightness of floors resting on the soil. Higher efficiency was found for houses with greater air-tightness of the floors and with a sub-floor layer with permeability higher than the permeability of the subsoil. PMID:25004940

  2. Molecular identification of the occurrence of magnetotactic bacteria in fresh water sediments (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    Rulík, Martin; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are of considerable interest because of their importance in the manufacture of various bioinspired materials. In order to find out the status of magnetotactic bacteria at three different sediment in Czech Republic, samples collected from both standing and running freshwaters were subjected to molecular diversity analysis by using 16S rRNA gene approach. Total community DNA from sediment sample was isolated and used for PCR, cloning and sequence analysis. Of the 24 analyzed sequences, six clones are closely related to Magnetobacterium sp. affiliated with the Nitrospira phylum which showed the dominance of Magnetobacterium phylotypes in the sample. This study will provide useful insight about the community structure of MTB in this particular geographical region. However more detailed and specific studies are warranted in order to properly assess the community structure of MTB’s in fresh water sediments. PMID:25763029

  3. Ice hockey lung - a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Brat, Kristian; Merta, Zdenek; Plutinsky, Marek; Skrickova, Jana; Stanek, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO₂ poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO₂ poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 - three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas. PMID:24032121

  4. Ice hockey lung – a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Brat, Kristian; Merta, Zdenek; Plutinsky, Marek; Skrickova, Jana; Ing, Miroslav Stanek

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 – three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas. PMID:24032121

  5. Land adjustment and is impact on landscape stability increase in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravcová, Jana; Pavlicek, Tomas; Koupilova, Monika; Ondr, Pavel; Bystricky, Vaclav; Vachal, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Land adjustment in Czech Republic is the instrument of landscape transformation, ecological stability consolidation, real property ownership restoration and land register arrangement. This instrument has been based in our legal order since 1990, and it is still actively used. Through this process it is possible to project new aquiculturing measurements, erosion control measurements, new components of ecological network or new field roads, which are the most common measurement of all. Here will be presented the inventory of projected and realized measurements of all mentioned types in several cadastral territories. Also there will be mentioned their impact on ecological stability, flood management or erosion control. This article is based on results of grant of Ministry of Agriculture QI91C200 Evaluation of complex land consolidation realization efficiency.

  6. Spatial modelling of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic using auxiliary geographical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moliba Bankanza, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the spatial model of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic using auxiliary geographical variables in order to produce gridded data needed for various applications. Daily precipitation data from 203 stations for the period 1971 - 2003 are used. Model is performed at different time steps (year, ten-years, and entire period). Considering that models performed at different time steps can vary significantly, it was necessary to verify two assumptions before the development of spatial prediction: (1) whether geographical variables control significantly the spatial distribution of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic; (2) and whether the effects of significant geographical variables (model parameters) do not vary significantly in time. Various candidate geographical predictors are evaluated in the stepwise regression models for summer precipitation: (1) a set of omnidirectional parameters of the elevation characterizing an area of 3 km x 3 km around meteorological stations, (2) various cross products calculated between geographical coordinates and elevation or topographic parameters, (3) slope and four facets of slope aspect which characterize the orographic regimes over the Czech Republic, (4) land cover parameters describing areas of about 10 km by 10 km around meteorological stations and (5) geographical coordinates. The orographic parameters are derived from the 1 km resolution digital elevation model (DEM), while the land cover parameters are derived from the 1 km resolution CORINE (Coordination of information on the environment) land cover data. To assure stability of the regression equations and comparability of regression models in time, both orthogonally rotated Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and frequency of significant predictors - selected using stepwise regression at each time step - are used to select identical significant independent variables for various time steps. Multivariate regression

  7. Mathematical aspects of the kriging applied on landslide in Halenkovice (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zůvala, Robert; Fišerová, Eva; Marek, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    Kriging is one of the geostatistical techniques for spatial data analysis that is usually used for a modelling of natural phenomena or a creation of digital elevation models. In this paper, we introduce kriging methods in the context of a landslide modelling in time. The proposed procedure, as well as most of the statistical methods, is designed for complete data sets, i.e. the observations at the beginning and the end of the study are available. In order to use all the information from the data and to avoid the loss of information after omitting observations with missing values, the algorithm for imputation of missing data values based on kriging techniques is proposed. The methodology was verified by the landslide modelling in Halenkovice, Czech Republic, during the period from June 2008 to March 2010. The obtained results showed a potential of kriging methods for the landslide modelling.

  8. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period

    PubMed Central

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Podzemný, P.; Harmat, P.; Hrabák, R.

    2011-01-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in prebreeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds. PMID:21395201

  9. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period.

    PubMed

    Sychra, O; Literák, I; Podzemný, P; Harmat, P; Hrabák, R

    2011-02-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in pre-breeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds. PMID:21395201

  10. Early Badenian ostracod assemblage of the Židlochovice stratotype(Carpathian Foredeep, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Michal; Pipík, Radovan; Doláková, Nela

    2012-03-01

    Fifty-two ostracod taxa were identified from two sediment cores collected from the early Badenian Židlochovice stratotype. Ostracod assemblages were analyzed with a focus on taxonomy, paleoecology, distribution of taxa along the sediment cores, quantification of valve/carapace ratios, and species richness by Simpson's Reciprocal Index. The changes in ostracod assemblages identified in these cores reflect a shallowing of the marine water-depth from circalittoral/epibathyal to shallow infralittoral, and an increase in the sedimentation rate upwards through time. A comparison of all Badenian ostracod assemblages in the Carpathian Foredeep indicates a high proportion of deep-water ostracod species in Židlochovice and its surroundings, suggesting that the deepest part of the Carpathian Foredeep was probably situated in this part of the Czech Republic.

  11. Epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic 1970-2008.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Bohumir; Maly, Marek; Benes, Cestmir; Daniel, Milan

    2012-11-01

    This article presents major epidemiologic features of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Czech Republic, using data of laboratory-confirmed cases since 1970. A total of 17,053 cases of TBE were reported in the Czech Republic (population 10 million) in 1970-2008. The data show several important features. First, the pattern of TBE incidence changed over time. Until the end of the 1970s, TBE was characterized by periods of alternately higher and lower incidence (between 180 and 595 cases per year); the 1980s were a period of low incidence with minimum variability; since the beginning of the 1990 s, there has been a steep rise in incidence, with marked year-to-year variation (e.g., 745 cases were registered in 1995, and a maximum of 1029 cases were registered in 2006). Second, the age distribution of TBE incidence has changed. Until the end of 1990 s, incidence peaked among those 15-19 years of age, with a gradual decline with age. In the 2000s, however, TBE incidence has been rising in those aged 60-64 years, with a sharp decline in those older than 65 years. Third, the seasonal pattern of TBE has changed markedly over time. In the earlier period, incidence had a clear peak in July/August; since the 1990 s, more cases have occurred in earlier and later months of the year. The proportion of cases occurring in April, May, October, and November increased from 9% in the 1970s to 23% in 2000-2008. Fourth, the geographical distribution of TBE also changed over time, with TBE increasingly occurring in the mountainous districts at higher altitudes. These changes in incidence patterns appear to be linked with changes in climatic and meteorological conditions. The link between climate change and TBE incidence is plausible, since TBE is a recreation-related infection associated with outdoor activities, and since climatic changes affect the life cycle of the vector. PMID:23025693

  12. Horseweed with reduced susceptibility to glyphosate found in the czech republic.

    PubMed

    Chodová, Daniela; Salava, Jaroslav; Martincová, Olga; Cvikrová, Milena

    2009-08-12

    The physiological and molecular basis of apparent resistance to glyphosate in horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) plants that had survived being sprayed with the herbicide at Prague-Bubny railway station in the Czech Republic was investigated. For the sake of comparison, plants expected to be susceptible were collected in areas where no herbicides had been used. Plants of both sets were treated, at the rosette stage (10-25 leaves, diameter of 3-5 cm), with herbicide at the rate recommended for use in the Czech Republic to control horseweed (960 g of glyphosate-IPA/ha; Roundup Klasik, Monsanto, 480 g of glyphosate-IPA ae L(-1)). Phytotoxic symptoms of the treated plants varied substantially, both between and within these sets of plants. Leaves of susceptible (S) plants wilted and turned yellow, and the plants subsequently died; leaves of plants with reduced susceptibility (RS) remained green, or new leaves were created in the center of their rosettes a few weeks after glyphosate application. There were no significant differences in the accumulation of shikimate between S and RS plants 3 days after treatment (DAT). However, the time course of changes in shikimic acid contents differed between the two biotypes; from 3 to 10 DAT, they decreased more than 4-fold in RS plants, while in S plants, they increased (3-fold, on average) from 3 to 7 DAT. A conserved region of the epsps gene, in which mutations are known to confer resistance in several plant species, was amplified from samples of both S and RS plants and sequenced, but no changes in the encoded amino acid sequence were found, indicating that mutations at another epsps site were responsible for the observed resistance, or that the mechanism may be at least partially non-target-based. Our results suggest that the reduced susceptibility to glyphosate may be due to impaired herbicide translocation, as previously found in studies of horseweed in the United States. PMID:19722578

  13. Present-Day Vegetation Helps Quantifying Past Land Cover in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3–4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  14. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  15. Twenty year development of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic: medical and geographical aspects.

    PubMed

    Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    The study analysed occupational diseases in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of occupational medicine and medical geography. It used a dataset consisting of 32,646 cases of occupational diseases reported during the period of 1994-2013. The descriptive part of the study analysed occupational diseases according to their spatial distribution, occurrence in different branches of economic activities, employees' gender, and according to chapters of the List of occupational diseases. The incidence of occupational diseases showed an overall decreasing trend, which can be related to several factors--transformation of the national economy (shift from heavy industry to manufacturing industry and services), an improvement in access to occupational healthcare services, increased responsibility of employers for safe working conditions, but also a concealment of health problems by employees for fear of losing job. An exception to the decreasing trend is the automotive industry, in which the upward trend in occupational diseases occurrence was noted. The analytical part of the study focused on the relation between unemployment and occupational diseases incidence rates in different regions of the Czech Republic. In most regions, a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The situation is described in more detail for the Moravia-Silesia and Ustí nad Labem Regions and the Capital City of Prague, wherein a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The theory of marginal utility can explain the phenomenon. To certain degree of health problems, employees tend to prefer employment stability, especially if the unemployment is on rise in their region. On the other hand, if losing their job, they often try to claim benefits connected with occupational diseases. PMID:25622483

  16. The use of taxation records in assessing historical floods in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Řezníčková, L.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Soukalová, E.; Dobrovolný, P.

    2014-10-01

    Since the second half of the 17th century, tax relief has been available to farmers and landowners to offset flood damage to property (buildings) and land (fields, meadows, pastures, gardens) in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Historically, the written applications for this were supported by a relatively efficient bureaucratic process that left a clear data trail of documentation, preserved at several levels: in the communities affected, in regional offices, and in the Moravian Land Office, all of which are to be found in estate and family collections in the Moravian Land Archives in the city of Brno, the provincial capital. As well as detailed information about damage done and administrative responses to it, data are often preserved as to the flood event itself, the time of its occurrence and its impacts, sometimes together with causes and stages. The final flood database based on taxation records is used here to describe the temporal and spatial density of both flood events and the records themselves. The information derived is used to help create long-term flood chronologies for the rivers Dyje, Jihlava, Svratka and Morava, combining floods interpreted from taxation records with other documentary data and floods derived from later systematic hydrological measurements (water levels, discharges). Common periods of higher flood frequency appear largely in the periods 1821-1850 and 1921-1950, although this shifts to several other decades for individual rivers. A number of uncertainties are inseparable from flood data taxation records: their spatial and temporal incompleteness; the inevitable limitation to larger-scale damage and restriction to the summer half-year; and the different characters of rivers, including land-use changes and channel modifications. Taxation data have considerable potential for extending our knowledge of past floods for the rest of the Czech Republic, not to mention other European countries in which records have survived.

  17. Increasing Incidence of Geomyces destructans Fungus in Bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Natália; Bačkor, Peter; Bartonička, Tomáš; Blažková, Pavla; Červený, Jaroslav; Falteisek, Lukáš; Gaisler, Jiří; Hanzal, Vladimír; Horáček, Daniel; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Jahelková, Helena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Korytár, L'uboš; Kubátová, Alena; Lehotská, Blanka; Lehotský, Roman; Lučan, Radek K.; Májek, Ondřej; Matějů, Jan; Řehák, Zdeněk; Šafář, Jiří; Tájek, Přemysl; Tkadlec, Emil; Uhrin, Marcel; Wagner, Josef; Weinfurtová, Dita; Zima, Jan; Zukal, Jan; Horáček, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Background White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme. PMID:21079781

  18. The abolition of user charges and the demand for ambulatory visits: evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Votapkova, Jana; Zilova, Pavlina

    2016-12-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the abolition of user charges for children's outpatient care (30 CZK/1.2 EUR) in 2009 on the demand for ambulatory doctor visits in the Czech Republic. Because the reform applied only to children, we can employ the difference-in-differences approach, where children constitute a treatment group and adults serve as a control group. The dataset covers 1841 observations. Aside from the treatment effect, we control for a number of personal characteristics using micro-level data (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions). Using the zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found no significant effect from the abolition of user charges on doctor visits, suggesting either that user charges are ineffective in the Czech environment or that their value was set too low. On the contrary, personal income, the number of household members and gender have a significant effect. A number of robustness checks using restricted samples confirm the results. PMID:27422120

  19. Mental Health and Sexual Identity in a Sample of Male Sex Workers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Johnson, Michael; Weiss, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous qualitative research has examined male sex workers in the Czech Republic, but this mapping study is the first to investigate male sex work in a quantitative research design and focus on the mental health of these sex workers. This study also examines male sex workers’ mental health problems in relation to their sexual identity or orientation. Material/Methods A sample of Czech male sex workers (N=40) were examined on a range of sexual and psychological variables using a quantitative survey administered face-to-face. The study employed locally validated versions of Beck’s Depression Inventory and Zung’s Self-Report Anxiety Scale. Results The results indicate that for homosexuals, working as a male sex worker is not related to any serious mental health problems. However, those identifying as heterosexual and bisexual more frequently reported symptoms of depression and bisexuals showed significantly more anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest sexual identity is an important issue to consider when addressing the mental health needs of this population. PMID:25239091

  20. Experience in non-conventional wastewater treatment techniques used in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Felberova, L; Kucera, J; Mlejnska, E

    2007-01-01

    Among the most common non-conventional wastewater treatment techniques used in the Czech Republic are waste stabilisation ponds (WSP), subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands (CW) and vertical flow groundfilters (GF). These extensive systems can be advantageously used for treatment of waters coming from sewerages where the ballast weighting commonly makes more than half of dry-weather flow. The monitoring was focused at 14 different extensive systems. Organics removal efficiencies were favourable (CW-82%; GF-88%); in the case of WSP only 57% due to the algal bloom. Total nitrogen removal efficiencies were 43 and 47% for WSP and GF; in the case of CW only 32% due to often occurring anaerobic conditions in filter beds. Total phosphorus removal efficiencies were 37, 35 and 22% for WSP, GF and CW, respectively. Often occurring problems are the ice-blockage of surface aerators at WSP during wintertimes, the pond duckweed-cover or the algal bloom at WSP during summers; a gradual colmatage of filter systems; and the oxygen deficiency in beds of subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands. Czech legal regulations do not allow treated wastewater disposal into underground waters. There is only an exception for individual family houses. Up to now, knowledge gained by monitoring of a village (which uses the infiltration upon a permission issued according to earlier legal regulations) have not shown an unacceptable groundwater quality deterioration into the infiltration areas. PMID:17881848

  1. Y-chromosomal diversity of the Valachs from the Czech Republic: model for isolated population in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Edvard; Vaněk, Daniel; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Vančata, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate Y-chromosomal diversity of the Moravian Valachs of the Czech Republic and compare them with a Czech population sample and other samples from Central and South-Eastern Europe, and to evaluate the effects of genetic isolation and sampling. Methods The first sample set of the Valachs consisted of 94 unrelated male donors from the Valach region in northeastern Czech Republic border-area. The second sample set of the Valachs consisted of 79 men who originated from 7 paternal lineages defined by surname. No close relatives were sampled. The third sample set consisted of 273 unrelated men from the whole of the Czech Republic and was used for comparison, as well as published data for other 27 populations. The total number of samples was 3244. Y-short tandem repeat (STR) markers were typed by standard methods using PowerPlex® Y System (Promega) and Yfiler® Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems) kits. Y-chromosomal haplogroups were estimated from the haplotype information. Haplotype diversity and other intra- and inter-population statistics were computed. Results The Moravian Valachs showed a lower genetic variability of Y-STR markers than other Central European populations, resembling more to the isolated Balkan populations (Aromuns, Csango, Bulgarian, and Macedonian Roma) than the surrounding populations (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Saxons). We illustrated the effect of sampling on Valach paternal lineages, which includes reduction of discrimination capacity and variability inside Y-chromosomal haplogroups. Valach modal haplotype belongs to R1a haplogroup and it was not detected in the Czech population. Conclusion The Moravian Valachs display strong substructure and isolation in their Y chromosomal markers. They represent a unique Central European population model for population genetics. PMID:21674832

  2. Remotely sensed vegetation indices for seasonal crop yields predictions in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Bohovic, Roman; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices by satellites are valuable tool for vegetation conditions assessment also in the case of field crops. This study is based on the use of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard Terra satellite. Data available from the year 2000 were analyzed and tested for seasonal yields predictions within selected districts of the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Namely the yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape during the period from 2000 to 2014 were assessed. Observed yields from 14 districts (NUTS 4) were collected and thus 210 seasons were included. Selected districts differ considerably in their soil fertility and terrain configuration and represent transect across various agroclimatic conditions (from warm and dry to relative cool and wet regions). Two approaches were tested: 1) using of composite remotely sensed data (available in 16 day time step) provided by the USGS (https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/); 2) using daily remotely sensed data in combination with originally developed smoothing method. The yields were successfully predicted based on established regression models (remotely sensed data used as independent parameter). Besides others the impact of severe drought episodes within vegetation were identified and yield reductions at district level predicted (even before harvest). As a result the periods with the best relationship between remotely sensed data and yields were identified. The impact of drought conditions as well as normal or above normal yields of field crops could be predicted by proposed method within study region up to 30 days prior to the harvest. It could be concluded that remotely sensed vegetation conditions assessment should be important part of early warning systems focused on drought. Such information should be widely available for various users (decision makers, farmers, etc.) in

  3. The Perceived Value of Education and Educational Aspirations in the Czech Republic: Changes in the Determination of Educational Aspirations between 1989 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares the changes in the determination of educational aspirations from the end of the communist period in 1989 to 2003, focusing on a single postcommunist country, the Czech Republic. The Czech case is particularly relevant for comparative research on educational inequality and aspirations, as previous studies have shown…

  4. Annual dynamics of perfluorinated compounds in sediment: A case study in the Morava River in Zlín district, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bečanová, Jitka; Komprdová, Klára; Vrana, Branislav; Klánová, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Two groups of perfluorined compounds (PFCs), i.e. perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analysed during a period of 1 year in monthly collected riverbed sediment samples from five sampling sites in an industrial region in Morava River catchment in Czech Republic. Levels of PFCs determined in sediment samples were up to 6.8 μg kg(-1) of dry weight. Among PFCs analysed, mainly short-chain PFASs (C6 to C8) including PFOS were found in sediment samples and their levels were similar to those found in comparable river basins in other parts of Europe. Concentrations of PFCs were correlated with organic carbon content and their variations were mainly correlated by high flow events on Morava River and its tributaries. The changes in PFC concentrations were induced by displacing of PFCs containing particles to the river sediment during these elevated flow events. PMID:26945239

  5. TerraSAR-X Staring Spotlight Monitoring of a Highway Bridge in the Czech Republic (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacova, Ivana; Kolomaznik, Jan; Halounova, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Highway bridge in the southern part of Prague, Czech republic, is the longest bridge in the Czech republic and it is architectonically unique in Europe. It was built above the valley with confluence of two big rivers, Vltava and Berounka, in an area of frequent floods. On top, there is a five-lane highway with an important, circle-shape crossroad, and both ends of the bridge end up in a tunnel. During construction, steel was partially replaced by concrete in comparison to the plan, and first cracks arose just after opening of the bridge in September 2010, and are progressively getting bigger. We try to monitor this bridge using the InSAR technique with 22 TerraSAR-X scenes, acquired in the Staring Spotlight mode with a resolution of approximately 0.3 meters during June 2014 - February 2015 (11 days interval).

  6. Genetic and biological diversity of the Pea seed-borne mosaic virus isolates occurring in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Safárová, D; Navrátil, M; Petrusová, J; Pokorný, R; Piáková, Z

    2008-01-01

    Eight isolates of the Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV) from the Czech Republic were studied regarding their biological and molecular characteristics. Molecular characterization using RT-PCR was done on the 5'(Nter)NIb-CP-UTR3' region amplified using universal CPUP/P9502 primer pair and the newly designed PSB8812/PSB944, and PSB8800/PSB9440 primer pairs, respectively. Sequential and phylogenetic analysis of CP-UTR3' region from all isolates showed that the available Czech and GenBank PSbMV isolates were distributed into 4 clusters in agreement with their diversification and according to their biological characteristics (i.e. pathotype). The molecular data were confirmed by biological testing on different pea cultivars. The Czech isolates were distributed into two pathotypes, the P-1 (7 isolates) and P-4 (1 isolate). PMID:18459836

  7. A New Movement in an Old Bureaucracy: The Development of Self-Advocacy in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siska, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I describe how self-advocacy has grown in the Czech Republic. First, I talk about how services for people with learning disabilities have begun to change in the last few years. This is because voluntary groups have lobbied and campaigned for change. I learned about self-advocacy during a visit to the UK in the 1990s. I went back to…

  8. [The incidence of obesity and its complications in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Matoulek, M; Svacina, S; Lajka, J

    2010-10-01

    Over the recent years, the incidence of obesity is continuously rising. A research conducted in 2008-2009 on a representative sample of Czech population (n = 2,058) suggests that 23% of adult population of the Czech Republic are obese and 34% are overweight. This represents an increase of 5% in the number of obese people (17% vs. 22%), while the number of overweight remains practically the same (35% vs. 34%). A more significant shift in female waist circumference compared to male has also been shown. The incidence of hypertension in the evaluated sample was more than a two-fold higher in obese participants (48% vs. 21%) and as much as 3-fold higher in type 2 diabetes mellitus (7% vs. 20%). The risk of body weight increase is the highest between 50th and 59th year of age, where hypertension and diabetes are the most frequently diagnosed. The risk of obesity in adulthood is mostly carried over from childhood and more than 3/4 (77%) of those, who were overweight or obese as children, are in these categories as adults. Quality of life and satisfaction with own health is more related to BMI than age. Even though body weigh is increasing with the same amplitude in sportsman and physically active people, they are reaching lower final BMI due to their lower starting body weight. It is clear that physically active lifestyle in younger age is the best predictor of lower BMI in adult life. Consumption of secondary processed meat and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables are important factors in adulthood. PMID:21105446

  9. Soil moisture trends in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Dobrovolný, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Balek, Jan; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Wardlow, Brian; Svoboda, Mark; Hayes, Michael; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Central Europe is generally not considered a drought-prone region, and the drought research and support is traditionally focused on the Mediterranean and southeastern part of the continent and drying trends there. However, Central Europe, including the Czech Republic, recently experienced a series of drought events with substantial impacts, especially on crop production. Because agriculture systems, and vegetation in general, have adapted to evenly distributed precipitation, the region is susceptible to even short-term droughts. The recent drought events may be the result of multi-decadal climate variability or a more general trend, with some studies showing a link to a more frequent occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns that are conducive to drought. This study introduces an innovation to the standard methodological approaches in evaluating drought climatology by analyzing soil moisture conditions over more than fifty years. This approach relies on state-of-the art observed weather data and tested soil moisture model, and focuses on the dynamic simulation of soil moisture content with high temporal (daily) and spatial (500 m) resolution in a diverse landscape. Statistically significant trends of decreasing soil moisture content were found, notably during May and June between 1961 and 2012. In contrast, trends toward higher soil moisture content were noted during the October-March time period. When the periods of 2001-2012 and 1961-1980 were compared, the probability of drought between April and June was found to increase by 50%. This indicates a loading of the "climate dice" toward drier conditions. The probability of extreme drought events has been also found to increase. These results support the concerns about the potentially increased severity of drought events in Central Europe under projected climate change and has been submitted to International Journal of Climatology. The study was funded by project "Establishment of International Scientific Team

  10. Relationship between soil properties and forest health status in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek, O.; Šrámek, V.; Tejnecky, V.; Nikodem, A.; Sebek, O.; Fadrhonsová, V.; Boruvka, L.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected soil characteristics on tree vitality at representative forest monitoring plots. We have chosen 20 stands with prevailing Norway spruce and 20 plots with dominance of European beech across the Czech Republic. Following soil characteristics were determined: pH, content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), content of exchangeable (extracted by 0.1 M BaCl2) Ca, Mg and K, and major organic (formic, acetic and oxalic) and inorganic (e.g. sulphate and nitrate) anions in the aqueous extracts. Moreover, major Al forms in aqueous and 0.5 M KCl soil extracts were determined by means of HPLC/IC. Health of forest stands, expressed as crown defoliation, was assessed repeatedly. Overall, Al speciation in aqueous extracts was significantly affected by the DOC content and by the concentration of low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOA). The DOC content and composition is strongly dependent on tree species. We have observed higher proportion of organically bound Al in soil aqueous extracts under Norway spruce compared to European beech. This is probably caused by higher share of LMMOA from the total DOC content under Norway spruce. The health status of forest stands expressed as defoliation was negatively influenced by the contents of exchangeable Al3+ species and positively by the contents of exchangeable Ca and Mg in soils (Fig. 1). Potentially phytotoxic Al3+ was assessed as the prevailing Al exchangeable form. The beach stands is generally showed higher presence of Al3+, compared to the spruce stands. The Norway spruce stands exhibited different composition of DOC in soil, showing a higher share of LMMOA which might mitigate Al toxicity there. This study was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (project no. QI92A216). Fig. 1 The relationship between the crown defoliation and the content of exchangeable Al forms (left) and contents of exchangeable Ca, Mg and K (right); based on results

  11. Stray dog and cat laws and enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy.

    PubMed

    Voslárová, Eva; Passantino, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    The growing numbers of stray dogs and cats have posed serious public-health, socioeconomic, political and animal-welfare problems in many EU countries. Stray animal population control is a complex issue and there are no easy solutions. Recognising the importance of the issue the European Commission has, since 2007, actively contributed to the elaboration of the first global welfare standards for the control of dog populations in the framework of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Problem-solving approaches vary in different countries as there is no common European Community legislation dealing with stray animal control. In this paper the authors describe the characteristics of the stray dog and cat problem in general and focus on existing European legislation. A comparative overview of policies and measures in place in the Czech Republic and in Italy is made to observe the differences between the two countries and understand the different needs in each, considering their historical and social differences (i.e. a post-communist eastern country vs a western country and founder member of what is now the European Union). PMID:22456023

  12. Significance of Geological Units of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, as Seen by Ambient Noise Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Valentová, Lubica; Gallovič, František

    2016-05-01

    Broadband recordings of 88 seismic stations distributed in the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, and covering the time period of up to 12 years were processed by a cross-correlation technique. All correlograms were analyzed by a novel approach to get both group and phase dispersion of Rayleigh and Love waves. Individual dispersion curves were averaged in five distinct geological units which constitute the Bohemian Massif (Saxothuringian, Teplá-Barrandean, Sudetes, Moravo-Silesian, and Moldanubian). Estimated error of the averaged dispersion curves are by an order smaller than the inherent variability due to the 3D distribution of seismic velocities within the units. The averaged dispersion data were inverted for 1D layered velocity models including their uncertainty, which are characteristic for each of the geological unit. We found that, overall, the differences between the inverted velocity models are of similar order as the variability inside the geological units, suggesting that the geological specification of the units is not fully reflected into the S-wave propagation velocities on a regional scale. Nevertheless, careful treatment of the dispersion data allowed us to identify some robust characteristics of the area. The vp to vs ratio is anomalously low (~1.6) for all the units. The Moldanubian is the most rigid and most homogeneous part of the Bohemian Massif. Middle crust in the depth range of ~3-15 km is relatively homogeneous across the investigated region, while both uppermost horizon (0-3 km) and lower crust (>15 km) exhibit lower degree of homogeneity.

  13. Late Holocene evolution of the Bečva River floodplain (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacke, Václav; Pánek, Tomáš; Sedláček, Jan

    2014-02-01

    To reconstruct the geomorphic imprint of the anthropogenic and natural environmental changes in the Late Holocene, we studied the alluvial record of the Bečva River floodplain (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic). Coring, geophysical sounding and lithological analysis of floodplain deposits supported by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) dating enabled the establishment of the primary evolutionary stages of Late Holocene floodplain evolution. During the Late Atlantic and Early Subboreal periods, gravel aggradation and braided environments occurred in the studied floodplain. The Late Subboreal and Early Subatlantic are characterised by overbank sedimentation, and the Middle Subatlantic is marked by the recurrence of gravel aggradation. A major incision phase took place during the Mediaeval Warm Period. The onset of overbank sedimentation in the 15th century correlated with ongoing deforestation of the lower parts of catchment, and colonisation of the mountain ridges during the 16th-17th centuries further accelerated this process. During the 20th century, reforestation of mountains and river-channel training resulted in a significant incision phase. Our data suggest that climate fluctuations were major driving factors for the morpho-sedimentary evolution of the floodplain approximately up to the 12th century, whereas in the latter evolution period, anthropogenic activity superseded natural factors. This transition occurred more than one millennium later than in other Central and Western European catchments.

  14. Spatial expression of potential wind erosion threats to arable soils in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spáčilová, Bronislava; Středa, Tomáš; Thonnová, Pavlína

    2014-09-01

    Wind erosion risk strongly depends on soil surface conditions. Aridity or dryness of the climate in the Czech Republic is a typical property for Southern Moravia and Central Bohemia. The study aims to map and assess qualitatively the areas vulnerable to wind erosion using available data and intelligible methodology. The evaluation is based on the number of days when at least once a day dry condition of bare soil surface was recorded. Daily data of soil surface state from 70 climatological stations to 500 m altitude from 1981 to 2010 are used. First, soil conditions from 1st March to 30th April and from 1st September to 31st October were evaluated. Evaluation of erosion risk in May is presented separately in the second phase, because only thermophilous crops (late-sowing crops) can be affected in that time. The results show that mainly in the South and Southeast Moravia, there are areas where up to 60 days with dry soil surface in the spring and autumn occurred. Occurrence of such conditions may represent potential risk of wind erosion for arable soils and therefore potential risk for sown crops and loss of fertile soil surface which is irreplaceable for agricultural activities. The results are applicable for preparation of a concept of wind erosion control measures in the threatened regions.

  15. Knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards affected people among teachers in training in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Dana; Kohout, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare knowledge about, confidence with, and attitudes towards epilepsy and affected people between groups of freshmen and senior teachers in training (preservice teachers) at the Faculty of Education in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Two hundred thirty-six freshmen and 138 seniors completed the 21-item Scale of Attitudes Towards People with Epilepsy (ATPE), an 18-item multiple-choice test measuring their knowledge about epilepsy, and a 5-item questionnaire focused on confidence with epilepsy in a school environment. We found that despite a higher level of knowledge about epilepsy among seniors (mean score of 9.6 points compared with 8.48 points for freshmen, p<0.001), attitudes towards epilepsy, and also confidence in how to manage children affected with this disease did not differ significantly. The presented findings suggest that epilepsy-related training of preservice teachers should be more effective especially with respect to their ability to resolve problems that may happen to children with epilepsy in a class. PMID:26687292

  16. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in soils in the Region of Valasske Mezirici, the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of urban, agricultural and forest soil samples was investigated from samples obtained in the surroundings of Valasske Mezirici. Valasske Mezirici is a town located in the north-east mountainous part of the Czech Republic, where a coal tar refinery is situated. 16 PAHs listed in the US EPA were investigated. Organic oxidizable carbon was also observed in the forest soils. The PAH concentrations ranged from 0.86-10.84 (with one anomalous value of 35.14) and 7.66-79.39 mg/kg dm in the urban/agricultural and forest soils, respectively. While the PAH levels in the urban/agricultural soils are within the range typically found in industrialized areas, the forest soils showed elevated PAH concentrations compared to other forest soils in Western and Northern Europe. The PAH concentrations and their molecular distribution ratios were studied as functions of the sample location and the meteorological history. The soils from localities at higher altitudes above sea level have the highest PAH concentrations, and the PAH concentrations decrease with increasing distance from the town. PMID:20003407

  17. Molecular characterization of 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini' in Ixodes arboricola from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Marketa; Bulkova, Alexandra; Costa, Francisco B; Kristin, Anton; Krist, Milos; Krause, Frantisek; Liznarova, Eva; Labruna, Marcelo B; Literak, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of rickettsiae in the tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. During May to September of 2009 and 2013, bird boxes belonging to three different areas were screened for ticks. In total, 454 nestlings and 109 nests of 10 hole-breeding bird species were examined. Ticks were found on Ficedula albicollis, Parus major, Cyanistes caeruleus and Sitta europaea and/or in their nests. In total, 166 ticks (17 nymphs, 10 males and 139 females) were found at 3 areas (arithmetic mean±standard error: 55.3±45.9). All ticks were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, ompB and htrA and amplicon sequencing. All individuals except 3 nymphs were infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini'. Multilocus sequence typing showed closest proximity to Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cluster. The presence of 'Ca. R. vini' is reported for the first time in Slovakia. PMID:25769386

  18. [Occurrence of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pavlásek, I; Chalupský, J; Kolárová, L; Horyna, B; Ritter, J

    1997-12-01

    During the period between December 1994 and December 1996 the authors examined, using the method of helminthological dissection of the intestinal tract in 15 districts of four regions in the Czech Republic a total of 824 foxes from 350 land registers. Echinococcus multilocularis was found in the following regions: South Bohemian (districts Jindrichův Hradec, Ceský Krumlov, Prachatice and Strakonice), Central Bohemian (Benesov district) and North Bohemian (district Teplice and Chomutov). There were 87 positive (10.6%) foxes in 56 places (16%). In some areas of the South Bohemian region examinations of foxes were repeated. It was found that there are places where the prevalence of E. multilocularis varied between 28.6 and 75% (mean 53.7%) but also areas which were repeatedly negative. In 1996 after one-week intervals foxes from the Prachatice district (South Bohemian region) were sent for parasitological examination. During different months of the year the prevalence of E. multilocularis varied between 2.6 and 33.3%. A similar investigation was made during May to October 1996 (except September) also in the district of Ceský Krumlov (South Bohemian region). Tapeworms were found in 7.14 to 66.7% of foxes. PMID:9471307

  19. New technologies of waste disposal in Czech Republic, evoked by new laws

    SciTech Connect

    Peleska, L.

    1995-12-01

    Of the utmost importance for the conception of waste disposal in any country is the fact how rich the respective country is and how realistic its legislators are. The apparently ideal approach to solving this problem is that chosen by more affluent European countries where wastes are recycled, are charged with taxes and duties, and where wastes that necessitate to be disposed are handled similarly as the nuclear wastes. The benefits are evident. The amounts of wastes to be deposited are minimalized. The waste repositories can be sealed by using layers of clay, foil and clay, and during a period of 50 to 100 years, any communication of the repository with the ambient environments can be eliminated. The disadvantage of such waste repositories, if applied to most of wastes, are the high costs associated with their depositioning. The prices of products, which the costs of waste disposal are being reflected in, are thus increasing, and, for this reason, many of products are becoming unmarketable, even on the domestic market. These financial means are often spent for nothing because the service life of some protective elements being at present used for construction of waste repositories is limited in time (for example, the service life of isolating foil is 50 to 1 00 years). Waste disposal in the Czech Republic, particulary from power plants, is discussed.

  20. The Association Between Belief in God and Fertility Desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Cranney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Context Research on the association between religiosity and fertility—and, particularly, on the effects of secularization on fertility desires and outcomes—has been concerned primarily with mechanisms that are fundamentally institutional and are embedded in formal religious structures. Supplementary explanations focused on noninstitutional dimensions of religiosity have never been tested. Methods Conventional ordinary least-squares regression was used to test the association between belief in God (i.e., a personal God or some sort of life force) and fertility desires among 2,251 women aged 18–45 in Slovenia and 951 women aged 15–44 in the Czech Republic who participated in the European Family and Fertility Survey in the mid-1990s. Results In both samples, substantial proportions of women either were nonbelievers or believed in God but were not institutionally religious. Belief in God was independently associated with fertility desires even in analyses controlling for self-reported religiosity. Women who believed in a personal God wanted approximately 0.2 more children, and those who believed in a life force wanted approximately 0.1 more children, than nonbelievers. Results were similar across several alternative measures of religiosity. Conclusions At least some of the connection between religiosity and fertility apparently is attributable to metaphysical beliefs. Future research on the effect of secularization on fertility decline should investigate the potentially distinct effects of different dimensions of religiosity. PMID:25682844

  1. Declining impacts of hot spells on mortality in the Czech Republic: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, Jan; Plavcova, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Extreme temperature events have pronounced negative impacts on ecosystems and society, including human health effects. The study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (central Europe) during 1986-2006. Declining trends in the mortality impacts are found in summer as well as in transition seasons, in spite of rising temperature trends (warming by 1.4 deg. C in summer over the 21-year period). The finding remains unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability. The results suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that influence vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address associated uncertainties in studies dealing with climate change projections of temperature-related mortality.

  2. Decreased impacts of the 2003 heat waves on mortality in the Czech Republic: an improved response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyselý, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír

    2008-11-01

    The paper examines impacts on mortality of heat waves in 2003, the hottest summer on record in the Czech Republic, and compares them with previous similar events. While most summer heat waves over the period since 1986 were associated with significantly elevated mortality, this was not the case for three out of the four heat waves in 2003. The relatively weak mortality response was particularly noteworthy for the most severe heat wave which occurred in the first 10 days of August 2003 and resulted in enormous excess mortality in some western European countries. A mortality displacement effect and short-term adaptation to heat contributed to the reduced mortality impacts of the heat waves that followed after previous relatively warm periods. However, the decreased mortality response of the 2003 heat waves compared to previous heat waves in the 1990s is also likely to have arisen from positive health-care and other socio-economic changes in the post-communist central European region over the past decade, as well as a better public awareness of heat-related risks due to enhanced media coverage and regular biometeorological forecast and warnings.

  3. Oral contraception in the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republic: attitudes and use.

    PubMed

    Ketting, E; Visser, A P; Uzel, R; Lehert, P

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents and discusses data on oral contraception from a national representative survey (n = 1072) on knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to contraceptive use in the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR). Only 7% of the women at risk of unplanned pregnancy used the pill. The low rate of use seems to be due to the general negative image of oral contraception, reinforced by the experiences of past users and opinions expressed by relative, friends, doctors, and the media. In particular, perceived psychological disadvantages have an important bearing on the decision not to use the method, whereas perceived advantages have hardly any impact. It is likely that this negative image is closely linked with the types of oral contraceptives that have been available in the country and also with the limited choice. Second- and third-generation oral contraceptives have only very recently become available. It is recommended that balanced information on the advantages and disadvantages of oral contraception be made available to doctors and to the general public on a large scale and through a variety of channels. PMID:8237567

  4. Exposer Intensity, Vulnerability Index And Landscape Change Assessment In Olomouc, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boori, M. S.; Vozenilek, V.; Choudhary, K.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is vulnerability and exposer intensity due to land use change in Olomouc, Czech Republic. Vulnerability assessment with exposer intensity to land use/cover change is an important step for enhancing the understanding and decision-making to reduce vulnerability. This study work includes quantification of Exposure Index (EI), Sensitivity Index (SI) and Adaptive Capacity Index (AI). EI is based on intensity of land use/cover change, SI and AI based on natural factors such as elevation, slope, vegetation and land use/cover. Vulnerability Index (VI) derived on the quantification of SI and AI and compared from 1991, 2001 and 2013. Comparing of EI and VI for last three decades, settlements have highest vulnerability index due to high socio-economic activities and water have lowest vulnerability index due to less human interferences. Agriculture has highest exposer index and second highest vulnerability, which show its high rate of exploitation and production. In the study areas, vulnerability tends to increase with the increase of exposure to land use change, but can peak off once the land use start to benefit socio-economically from development. Only in this way we can enhance the adaptive capacity of study area to use change of land.

  5. Textural and chemical evolution of a fractionated granitic system: the Podlesí stock, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Karel; Müller, Axel; Leichmann, Jaromír; Gabašová, Ananda

    2005-03-01

    The Podlesí granite stock (Czech Republic) is a fractionated, peraluminous, F-, Li- and P-rich, and Sn, W, Nb, Ta-bearing rare-metal granite system. Its magmatic evolution involved processes typical of intrusions related to porphyry type deposits (explosive breccia, comb layers), rare-metal granites (stockscheider), and rare metal pegmatites (extreme F-P-Li enrichment, Nb-Ta-Sn minerals, layering). Geological, textural and mineralogical data suggest that the Podlesí granites evolved from fractionated granitic melt progressively enriched in H 2O, F, P, Li, etc. Quartz, K-feldspar, Fe-Li mica and topaz bear evidence of multistage crystallization that alternated with episodes of resorption. Changes in chemical composition between individual crystal zones and/or populations provide evidence of chemical evolution of the melt. Variations in rock textures mirror changes in the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization. Equilibrium crystallization was interrupted several times by opening of the system and the consequent adiabatic decrease of pressure and temperature resulted in episodes of nonequilibrium crystallization. The Podlesí granites demonstrate that adiabatic fluctuation of pressure ("swinging eutectic") and boundary-layer crystallization of undercooled melt can explain magmatic layering and unidirectional solidification textures (USTs) in highly fractionated granites.

  6. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dragano, Nico; Bobak, Martin; Wege, Natalia; Peasey, Anne; Verde, Pablo E; Kubinova, Ruzena; Weyers, Simone; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Stang, Andreas; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Siegrist, Johannes; Pikhart, Hynek

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study'), and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) Study'). Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES). The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education) and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29–1.98] in Germany

  7. What was driving land-scape drying in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Balek, Jan; Semerádová, Daniela; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Dobrovolný, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Fuchs, Brian; Svoboda, Mark; Hayes, Michael; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    The drying trends in the Czech Republic especially during May and June are of great concern as they influence the key part of growing season in the region. The fact that April-June period of 2001-2012 showed 50% increase of drought probability compared to 1961-1980 is alarming. In the same time the probability of extreme drought was found to be also rising significantly. This study tries to understand what has driven reported changes in the soil moisture especially during the warm half of the year. Therefore trends of global radiation, temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, reference and actual evapotranspiration, snow cover but also start of key phenology phases were assessed and their relationship with the changes in the soil moisture analyzed. In addition measured pan-evaporation data as well as results of studies were used to assess reliability of the reported trends. We have found that increased global radiation and air temperature together with decreased relative humidity (all significant at 0.05) lead the increase of the reference evapotranspiration in all months of growing season. That was the case especially in April, May and August when over 80% of the territory showed statistically significant trends in reference evapotranspiration values. This finding was shown to be consistent with the observed pan evaporation (1968-2012) that was characterized by increasing trends especially during April-June period. These changes in combination with the earlier end of snow cover and earlier start of growing season (in some regions by up to 20 days) led to increased actual evapotranspiration at the start of growing season that tends to deplete the soil moisture earlier, leaving landscape more exposed to impacts of rainfall variability. These results support the concerns about the potentially increased severity of drought events in Central Europe. While the evaporative demand is clearly increasing, it is not matched by the similar increase of

  8. Contamination of fish in important fishing grounds of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cerveny, Daniel; Zlabek, Vladimir; Velisek, Josef; Turek, Jan; Grabic, Roman; Grabicova, Katerina; Fedorova, Ganna; Rosmus, Jan; Lepic, Pavel; Randak, Tomas

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the contamination levels of certain important fishing grounds in the Czech Republic and to assess the health risk of consuming the fish from these localities. The assessment was performed from 2006 to 2010 in 27 fishing grounds. Within this project, 707 fish from 14 different species were sampled. The concentration of selected toxic metals (Hg, Pb, Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (o,p´-DDE; p,p´-DDE; o,p´-DDD; p,p´-DDD; o,p´-DDT; p,p´-DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were analysed in the muscle tissue of the sampled fish. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for the analysis of toxic metals. All of the POPs were analysed using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC/ECD). Common bream (Abramis brama) was chosen as a reference fish species for the comparison of fishing grounds. Mercury was found as a major pollutant in fish flesh at all of the sampling sites. Concentrations in excess of the maximum level (ML) of mercury in the muscle tissue of fish (0.5 mg kg(-1)) were registered in 32 samples. Concentrations of other monitored toxic metals in fish muscle were low, typically below the limit of quantification (LOQ). From the tested POPs, DDTs and NDL-PCBs were found as major pollutants. ML for NDL-PCBs (ICES-6) in muscle tissue of fish (0.125 mg kg(-1)) was exceeded in 7 samples. In case of tested pesticides, concentrations in excess of the MRL were not registered. PMID:25173745

  9. Environmental and health impact by dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Havlikova, M; Kroeze, C; Huijbregts, M A J

    2008-06-25

    In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NO) to acidification and terrestrial eutrophication, nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) to aquatic eutrophication, nitrogen oxides (NO), particulate matter (PM10) and (PM2.5) to human toxicity and methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO) to global warming. We present large regional differences in the environmental and health impact per unit of agricultural production. The regional acidifying, eutrophying and global warming impact of dairy cattle is calculated to be up to three times the national average, depending on the dairy cattle intensity. Aquatic eutrophication is found to be a problem in regions with relatively high eutrophying emissions per hectare of so-called nitrate vulnerable zones. Human toxicity problems caused by dairy cattle livestock and manure management are problematic in regions with a high population density in rural areas. The strength of our approach is the use of country-specific characterisation factors to assess the potential environmental and health impact of agriculture at the sub-national scale. We were able to analyse the potential environmental impact without explicit quantification of specific effects on humans and ecosystems. The results can be used to identify the most polluted areas as well as appropriate targets for emission reduction. PMID:18394682

  10. Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef; Sir, David; Mudra, Josef

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles going through the borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore a relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to the application of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. However, in accordance to our experience, the number of cases of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the public domain was lower, but not negligible, in the municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic Act No. 18/1997 Coll. will apply to everybody who provides activities leading to exposure, mandatory assurance as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low as reasonably achievable in according to social and economic aspects. Hence, attention on the examination of all cases of the radioactive material seizure based on detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arising from the other information is important. Therefore, a service carried out by group of workers who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. This service has covered also transport, storage, processing and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service has arisen especially for municipal disposal sites, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State Office for Nuclear Safety, etc. Our experience in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials

  11. Impacts of temperature extremes on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Plavcová, E.; Urban, A.; Kriz, B.; Kyncl, J.

    2012-04-01

    Elevated mortality associated with high ambient temperatures in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather extremes on human society. Increases in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves have been reported in many European countries; much less is known about which particular cardiovascular disorders are most affected during heat waves, and whether similar patterns are found for morbidity (hospital admissions). Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study analyses relationships between temperature extremes and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We make use of the datasets on hospital admissions and daily mortality in the population of the Czech Republic (about 10.3 million) over 1994-2009. The data have been standardized to remove the effects of the long-term trend and the seasonal and weekly cycles. Periods when the morbidity/mortality data were affected by epidemics of influenza and other acute respiratory infections have been removed from the analysis. We use analogous definitions for hot and cold spells based on quantiles of daily average temperature anomalies, which allows for a comparison of the findings for summer hot spells and winter cold spells. The main aims of the study are (i) to identify deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline associated with hot and cold spells, (ii) to compare the hot- and cold-spell effects for individual cardiovascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic heart disease I20-I25, cerebrovascular disease I60-I69, hypertension I10, aterosclerosis I70) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to temperature extremes, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to temperature extremes, and (iv) to compare the links to temperature extremes for morbidity and

  12. Anthropogenic influence of small urban watercourses - Case study from the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svobodova, Eva; Jakubinsky, Jiri; Bacova, Radka; Kubicek, Petr; Herber, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Rivers and streams in the urban areas are losing natural environmental values. There is especially small watercourses issue, where there exists the lack of river management and interest of municipalities. The main used methods are based on the field research of river landscape, mapping and inventory of anthropogenic landforms and determination of Channel Capacity Coefficient (CCC). We establish the list of anthropogenic landforms, which we divide to the five categories - industrial, agrarian, urban, transport network, and water management structures. Values of the channel morphologic parameters - width of channel, width of riverbed, and the degree of countersink - are measured for Channel Capacity Coefficient calculation. Pattern of objects shrinking transverse profile and limiting the smooth flow are investigated beside the morphological features. Resulting from the application of these theoretical methods are several practical outputs. Firstly, we construct thematic grid cell monitoring maps (a) count of anthropogenic landforms in the floodplain; (b) weighted average of landform, whose weight was determined on the basis of their influence on the impact of floods. Secondly, we identify pattern distribution of the watercourses channel capacity in the selected study areas. Thirdly, we confirm existence of the urban stream syndrome which is characterized by consistently observed ecological degradation of brooks. The main symptoms of degradation are the altered channel morphology, occurrence of flashfloods, and the rate of ecological stability. Above mentioned characteristics were applied in two different catchments in the Czech Republic - the Leskava Brook and the Lacnovsky Brook. Both streams flow through the urban area in the diverse natural conditions and with various historical development. The Leskava Brook is situated in the southern part of Brno in the Southern Moravia, and the Lacnovsky Brook, lies in the northern part of Svitavy town on the border of Moravia

  13. Remote sensing of forest damage in the Czech Republic using hyperspectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entcheva, Petya K.

    The current study assesses the potential of hyperspectral data for monitoring the initial stages of damage in Norway spruce forests characterized by subtle changes in foliar chlorophyll and chemistry. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution reflectance measurements were obtained for selected study sites in the Krusne hory, Czech Republic. High spectral resolution airborne canopy data and field foliar samples were acquired simultaneously in August 1998 for a total of 51 study sites within the Krusne hory. The sites were selected to represent a full range of damage conditions in even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands located between 820--920m elevation. Reflectance, foliar pigments, nitrogen and chemical constituents were determined for first-, second- and third-year needles. A strong correlation to damage was established for the foliar chemistry. A significant increase in polar compounds (such as tannins, sugars and starch) and a reduced needle lignification occurs with increasing damage. Foliar chemical constituents appear to be effective indicators of long-term environmental conditions. The strong relationship between damage level and polar compounds suggests high potential for use of these constituents as bio-indicators of stress. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution data separate the initial forest damage classes. Based on field reflectance measurements for third-year needles, derivative indices from the red edge region were most strongly correlated to damage level, followed by indices ratioing damage-sensitive and damage-insensitive bands and a parameter describing the fit of an Inverted Gaussian curve. Red/red edge spectral data from the Airborne Solid State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) had the highest potential for separation of initial levels of damage, which corresponds with the region suggested as most sensitive to damage as seen in conducting the field reflectance measurements. Both optical and derivative indices

  14. Trace elements in the blood of institutionalized elderly in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rambousková, Jolana; Krsková, Andrea; Slavíková, Miroslava; Cejchanová, Mája; Wranová, Kateřina; Procházka, Bohumír; Cerná, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Whole blood selenium, copper, zinc and manganese concentrations of 197 institutionalized senior citizens (46 males, 151 females) aged 61-100 years (mean age 83.6 years) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry from two localities in the Czech Republic (Prague and Teplice) from 2009 through 2011. Geometric means (GM) of whole blood selenium (B-Se), copper (B-Cu), zinc (B-Zn) and manganese (B-Mn) levels were 74.0 μg/l, 941.0 μg/l, 5898.0 μg/l and 10.9 μg/l, respectively. Gender-related differences were found with significantly higher B-Cu levels in women and significantly higher B-Zn levels in men. The percentage of seniors with B-Se levels lower than 56 μg/l (which is equivalent to the critical value of 45 μg/l of Se in serum (S-Se)) was 8.6%. A negative correlation between age and B-Se levels was found. B-Zn positively correlated with serum albumin and prealbumin whereas a negative correlation between age and B-Zn was observed. Seniors with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis had higher B-Cu and B-Mn levels, respectively, than those without these diagnoses. The elderly from Prague had significantly higher B-Mn concentrations than those from Teplice. We found no evidence of serious essential elements deficiencies or excesses in the seniors who participated in this study. PMID:23245729

  15. Last 250 years climate reconstruction inferred from geothermal measurements in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodri, L.; Čermák, V.

    1998-06-01

    The subsurface of the Earth has a certain capability to remember what has happened on its surface tens to hundreds of years ago. Ground surface temperature (GST) history, reflecting past climate conditions, can be evaluated by analysing the excursions left on the present-day temperature-depth distribution measured by precise temperature loggings in the boreholes. Temperature logs from fifteen selected holes were inverted into GST histories to assess the corresponding climatic changes. These temperature records generally represent typical conditions existing on the territory of the Czech Republic. In combination with the GST reconstructions from our previous works, these data were used to assess the regional pattern of the last 250-year climatic change. The GSTs were obtained by applying the generalized least-squares inversion method [Jackson, D.D., 1972. Interpretation of inaccurate, insufficient and inconsistent data. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 28, 97-109], whereby the additional information on interdependence of both measured data and climate changes can be incorporated into the model in the form of covariance matrices. Three main episodes can be distinguished in the last 250 years: a warm period between 1790 and 1830, a slightly colder period in 1940-1960, and a general warming with the average rates of 0.01-0.03 K/year since then. The geographical distribution of the recent warming rate may indicate an impact of human activities. The verification of the GST assessment was accomplished by the independent past climate reconstructions gained by the use of historical sources and instrumental records.

  16. National monitoring of nicotine use in Czech and Slovak Republic based on wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Birošová, Lucia; Grabic, Roman; Škubák, Jaroslav; Bodík, Igor

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare estimation of nicotine use in Slovakia (SR) and the Czech Republic (CR) based on cotinine analysis in wastewater from seven selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with conventional estimation based on tobacco product sales. Urinary bio-markers of nicotine use were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study was performed concurrently at all the WWTPs (from 11 to 18 March 2014). Representative 24 h composite samples were analyzed with on line SPE/LC-MS/MS method. Based on the average residence time of wastewater in the sewers and the average time in the sampling device, specific correction coefficients were designed to improve estimation of nicotine consumption. Nicotine ingestion level was back-calculated and expressed as mass of pure drug consumed per day and per 1000 inhabitants for selected cities of both countries (mean, 2.2 g for Piešťany and 8.0 g for Nitra, respectively). Consequently, the cigarette consumption results were recalculated for each country separately and compared with the data of both national statistical offices (2362 cigarettes/year/person--SR and 2088 cigarettes/year/person--CR). Our results highly correspond to the data of national statistical offices (up to 99.9% in SR and to 96% in CR). The average amount of money invested in cigarette sales was estimated in the capitals of both countries. It is about 1 million EUR/day for Prague and about 0.3 million EUR/day for Bratislava. The calculation of nicotine consumption, utilizing a specific correction coefficient, is the correct way to obtain more accurate data in drug studies of this kind, thus allowing a better drug abuse assessment. PMID:25956519

  17. The rare earth element potential of kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, S.; Frimmel, H. E.; Pašava, J.

    2014-12-01

    Four kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif were studied in order to assess the potential for the recovery of rare earth elements (REE) as by-products from the residue after extraction and refining of the raw kaolin. The behaviour of REE + Y during kaolinitization was found to be largely a function of pre-alteration mineralogy. In the examples studied, i.e. granite-derived deposits of Kriechbaum (Austria) and Božičany, and arkose-derived deposits of Kaznějov and Podbořany (all Czech Republic), the REE + Y are predominantly hosted by monazite which has remained unaffected by kaolinitization. The overall REE + Y content of the variably kaolinitized rocks is strongly dependent on their genesis. While ion adsorption plays only a minor role in the concentration of REE + Y in the studied kaolinitized rocks, the processing and refining of the raw kaolin leads to residues that are enriched in REE + Y by a factor of up to 40. The use of a magnetic separator and a hydrocyclone in the processing of the raw material can yield REE + Y contents of as much as 0.77 wt%. Although this value compares well with the REE + Y concentration in some potentially economic REE + Y projects elsewhere, the overall tonnage of the (REE + Y)-enriched residue is by far not sufficient to consider economic extraction of REE + Y as by-product. Our results are most probably applicable also to other kaolin deposits derived from the weathering of Hercynian basement granites elsewhere (e.g. in Saxonia and Bavaria, Germany). Overall, the potential for REE + Y production as by-product from kaolin mining has to be regarded as minimal.

  18. [Warning about risk of invasive infections in splenectomized patients. Experiences from University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011].

    PubMed

    Polák, P; Freibergerová, M; Husa, P; Slesinger, P; Svoboda, R; Sťásek, J; Frola, L; Macháček, C

    2012-09-01

    Syndrome of fulminant sepsis in splenectomized (overwhelming postsplenectomy infection - OPSI) is feared and often fatal infectious complication in patients after splenectomy. The risk of syndrome of fulminant sepsis in splenectomized in these persons persists lifelong and doesn't diminish during the time. Etiologically, encapsulated bacterias like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae group b and Neisseria meningitidis are involved. As the mortality of syndrome of fulminant sepsis in splenectomized is very high, it is indispensable to educate and vaccinate persons in risk. The authors present case reports of three splenectomized patients who were hospitalized for invasive pneumococcal infection in the University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011. PMID:23094812

  19. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) on chickens (Gallus gallus) from small backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sychra, O; Harmat, P; Literák, I

    2008-04-15

    One hundred and sixty chickens (Gallus gallus) from 31 small, private backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera). At least one species of chewing lice was found on every bird examined. Seven species of chewing lice were identified in all; they had the following prevalences and mean intensities: Goniocotes gallinae (100%; 110 lice), Menopon gallinae (88%; 50), Menacanthus stramineus (48%; 17), Lipeurus caponis (35%; 12), Menacanthus cornutus (12%; 9), Cuclotogaster heterographus (1%; 4) and Goniocotes microthorax (1%; 3). Just two birds from a single flock were heavily infested with the ischnoceran species G. gallinae. PMID:18280661

  20. West Nile virus lineage 2 isolated from Culex modestus mosquitoes in the Czech Republic, 2013: expansion of the European WNV endemic area to the North?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, I; Bakonyi, T; Sebesta, O; Mendel, J; Peško, J; Betášová, L; Blažejová, H; Venclíková, K; Straková, P; Nowotny, N; Hubálek, Z

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection and isolation of four almost identical strains of West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2from Culex modestus mosquitoes collected at three fish ponds in South Moravia, Czech Republic, during August 2013. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Czech WNV strains isolated are closely related to Austrian, Italian and Serbian strains reported in 2008,2011 and 2012, respectively. Our findings show the current northernmost range of lineage 2 WNV in Europe. PMID:25138970

  1. Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia M.L. Poucques 1952, a morphologically interesting, rare euglenoid new to the algal flora of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Juráň, Josef

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the discovery of the rare euglenoid taxon Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia in a small mesotrophic pond in the Czech Republic. Only limited data are available on the distribution of this taxon as same as for typical variety of Trachelomonas bituricensis, even though this taxon is morphologically very well defined. I provide a brief discussion of the taxonomic validity of this taxon based only on morphological features, which are characteristic for the taxonomy of the genus Trachelomonas. This finding is completely new for the algal flora of the Czech Republic. This report provides new information about the worldwide distribution of this taxon and its ecology. PMID:27081352

  2. Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia M.L. Poucques 1952, a morphologically interesting, rare euglenoid new to the algal flora of the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Juráň, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report describes the discovery of the rare euglenoid taxon Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia in a small mesotrophic pond in the Czech Republic. Only limited data are available on the distribution of this taxon as same as for typical variety of Trachelomonas bituricensis, even though this taxon is morphologically very well defined. I provide a brief discussion of the taxonomic validity of this taxon based only on morphological features, which are characteristic for the taxonomy of the genus Trachelomonas. This finding is completely new for the algal flora of the Czech Republic. This report provides new information about the worldwide distribution of this taxon and its ecology. PMID:27081352

  3. Mercury in forest ecosystems near chlor-alkali plant in the Czech republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimeček, Martin; Navratil, Tomas; Rohovec, Jan

    2016-04-01

    A mercury electrolysis chlor-alkali plant has been operating in Neratovice, the central Czech Republic since year 1948. We focused on the assessment of mercury contamination in the plant surroundings. To assess the contamination extent we sampled organic and mineral soils, bedrock, bark, needles and tree rings from several forest sites with variable distance from plant. The soils were predominately arenic cambisol and the vegetation cover composed of mixed to coniferous forests (majorly Pinus sylvestris). At all the sites, the highest concentrations occurred in the organic rich O horizons of the forest soils. The Hg concentrations increased from Oi horizon (up to 252 μg/kg) with fresh organic matter, through Oe horizons (up to 617 μg/kg) to the Oa horizons (up to 813 μg/kg) with relatively highly decomposed organic matter. The Hg concentrations in mineral soil were significantly lower in range from 3 to 44 μg/kg. Sandstone bedrock contained low Hg concentrations from 2.7 to 4.7 μg/kg. The difference between the high Hg in organic and low Hg in mineral horizons results from order of magnitude different content of soil organic matter. In the same time low Hg in mineral soil indicates low level of Hg migration down the soil profile. Apart from the simple comparison of Hg concentrations, insight into the patterns of soil Hg distribution can be gained by examining the stoichiometric ratios of Hg to C. Soil Hg/C should be greater in areas with greater atmospheric Hg deposition. O horizons of sites closer to plant up to 4.5 km exhibited elevated Hg/C ratios (2.0 - 2.2 μg/g) with respect to those at more distant sites (0.7 - 0.9 μg/g). Values of mineral soil Hg/C ratios varied irrespective to the distance from the plant. Organic soil Hg pool decreased from 13.6 mg/m2 in distance of 1.9 km from the plant to 2.6 mg/m2 in distance of 9 km. But the mineral soil Hg pool ranging from 7.6 to 12.3 mg/m2 exhibited no trend with distance. The polluted sites up to 2.5 km from

  4. Impact of bark beetle calamity on soil moisture dynamics during floods and droughts in 2013 - case study of Rokytka Brook catchment, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of soil moisture in the experimental catchment of Rokytka Brook, Otava River basin, Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. This area has a long-term problems with bark beetle which results predominantly in the spruce forest perdition. This phenomenon has resulted not only in a change of a vegetation composition, but also it has impacted the development of local land cover, soil moisture dynamics or the storage capacity of soils and the potential retention conditions within the basin . The experimental catchment, where the research was carried out, consists by 2/3 of terrestrial soil (Entic Podzol). The soil is covered by the dead forest (former spuce forest before bark beetle calamity) and by the beech forest (former spruce-beech forest). The rest of the basin consists of well-developed peatbogs that represents a typical example of a peatbog in Šumava Mts. In terms of vegetation, the area can be divided into a lower part consisting of healthy waterlogged spruce forest, the mountain pine covers the middle part and the upper part is covered mostly by the cotton grass. In the part where terrestrial soils predominate, measuring of soil pressures and temperatures at two depths (20 and 60 cm) at two sites (former spruce-beech and spruce forest) has been carried out since 2012. Due to the bark beetle calamity, the spruce forest has become withered and thus the vegetation cover has changed. Meteorological data (precipitation, air temperature, humidity) are collected by meteorological stations located within the basin or used from nearby stations (solar radiation, wind speed). The outflow from the experimental catchment is also measured. The aim of this paper is to simulate the dynamics of a soil moisture condition before bark beetle outbreak, to compare the differences and changes of a soil moisture and retention ability of a typical soil type in the case of a characteristic headwater catchment in Šumava Mts. For the simulation of a soil

  5. The Surname Space of the Czech Republic: Examining Population Structure by Network Analysis of Spatial Co-Occurrence of Surnames

    PubMed Central

    Novotný, Josef; Cheshire, James A.

    2012-01-01

    In the majority of countries, surnames represent a ubiquitous cultural attribute inherited from an individual's ancestors and predominantly only altered through marriage. This paper utilises an innovative method, taken from economics, to offer unprecedented insights into the “surname space” of the Czech Republic. We construct this space as a network based on the pairwise probabilities of co-occurrence of surnames and find that the network representation has clear parallels with various ethno-cultural boundaries in the country. Our inductive approach therefore formalizes a simple assumption that the more frequently the bearers of two surnames concentrate in the same locations the higher the probability that these two surnames can be related (considering ethno-cultural relatedness, common co-ancestry or genetic relatedness, or some other type of relatedness). Using the Czech Republic as a case study this paper offers a fresh perspective on surnames as a quantitative data source and provides a methodology that can be easily incorporated within wider cultural, ethnic, geographic and population genetics studies already utilizing surnames. PMID:23119060

  6. [Surgical treatment of complicated hepatic echinococcosis in two Bulgarian citizens at two surgical departments in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Vávra, P; Třeška, V; Ostruszka, P; Sutnar, A; Fichtl, J; Hozáková, L; Mitták, M; Horáček, J

    2012-07-01

    Echinococcosis, also referred to as hydatidosis, is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus in its larval stage. It has worldwide distribution and endemic areas in Europe include especially the regions surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. In the Czech Republic, its incidence tends to be quite rare. Although it may affect any organ or tissue in the human body, the liver (60%) and lungs (20%) are the most frequently affected sites. The authors present two cases of Bulgarian patients with hepatic echinococcosis operated on the same day at two different surgical departments in the Czech Republic. Treatment is based on the surgical removal of the cysts in combination with anti-parasite treatment by benzimidazoles (Albendazol, Mebendazol). Treatment with anti-parasitic drugs needs to be started preoperatively and should continue for at least 1-2 months after surgery. The success of the treatment can be monitored by imaging methods, especially PET/CT and serology. Patients after surgical as well as conservative therapy need to be followed up on an outpatient basis due to the long-term risk of recurrence. PMID:23078257

  7. Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 176 - the common denominator of C. difficile infection epidemiology in the Czech Republic, 2014.

    PubMed

    Krutova, Marcela; Matejkova, Jana; Kuijper, Ed J; Drevinek, Pavel; Nyc, Otakar

    2016-07-21

    In 2014, 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic participated in a survey of the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the country. The mean CDI incidence was 6.1 (standard deviation (SD):7.2) cases per 10,000 patient bed-days and 37.8 cases (SD: 41.4) per 10,000 admissions. The mean CDI testing frequency was 39.5 tests (SD: 25.4) per 10,000 patient bed-days and 255.8 tests (SD: 164.0) per 10,000 admissions. A total of 774 C. difficile isolates were investigated, of which 225 (29%) belonged to PCR ribotype 176, and 184 isolates (24%) belonged to PCR ribotype 001. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed 27 clonal complexes formed by 84% (190/225) of PCR ribotype 176 isolates, and 14 clonal complexes formed by 77% (141/184) of PCR ribotype 001 isolates. Clonal clusters of PCR ribotypes 176 and 001 were observed in 11 and 7 hospitals, respectively. Our data demonstrate the spread of two C. difficile PCR ribotypes within 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic, stressing the importance of standardising CDI testing protocols and implementing mandatory CDI surveillance in the country. PMID:27484171

  8. Coal upgrading program for Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic: Task 8.3. Topical report, October 1994--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Coal has been a major energy source in the Czech Republic given its large coal reserves, especially brown coal and lignite (almost 4000 million metric tons) and smaller reserves of hard, mainly bituminous, coal (over 800 million tons). Political changes since 1989 have led to the reassessment of the role of coal in the future economy as increasing environmental regulations affect the use of the high-sulfur and high-ash brown coal and lignite as well as the high-ash hard coal. Already, the production of brown coal has declined from 87 million metric tons per year in 1989 to 67 million metric tons in 1993 and is projected to decrease further to 50 million metric tons per year of brown coal by the year 2000. As a means of effectively utilizing its indigenous coal resources, the Czech Republic is upgrading various technologies, and these are available at different stages of development, demonstration, and commercialization. The purpose of this review is to provide a database of information on applicable technologies that reduce the impact of gaseous (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, volatile organic compounds) and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal in district and residential heating systems.

  9. [Early diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia in Czech Republic in pursuance of MedPed Project].

    PubMed

    Freiberger, Tomáš; Vrablík, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have revealed the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is approximately twice higher than previously estimated and, thus, the disease affects one in 250 persons from the general population. Therefore FH remains the most frequent inherited metabolic disorder. Due to the genetic defect LDL-cholesterol accumulates both in the plasma and tissues leading to premature and accelerated atherosclerosis. Untreated patients with FH might suffer from myocardial infarction in the third or fourth decade, one third of these events being fatal. The disease is under-diagnosed and undertreated worldwide. In the Czech Republic the MedPed project focused on early diagnosis and initiation of proper treatment of FH aiming at lowering of the above mentioned risks was initiated in 1998. A crucial part of the project is so called cascade screening among the relatives of identified FH probands. There are 6,350 registered FH subjects in the nationwide registry, which represents 16% of the expected number of FH patients in the Czech Republic. This result of screening efforts ranks among the top countries in the world, however, also in spite of the recent expansion of FH treatment options early detection and initiation of treatment of FH remains in the centre of our attention. PMID:26652781

  10. Tapping the Potential for Energy Efficiency: The Role of ESCOs in the Czech Republic, Ukraine and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd

    2000-12-31

    Energy service companies have played a significant role in stimulating energy efficiency in many industrialized countries, including the United States. Many policymakers and development experts consider energy performance contracting an important mechanism for boosting energy efficiency in other countries as well. The experience of ESCOs in transition economies, however, is decidedly mixed. The Czech Republic has been able to foster a thriving ESCO industry with numerous players competing for business, although ESCOs have encountered problems along the way. In Russia and Ukraine, ESCOs have developed slowly, and few true performance contracts exist. This paper reviews the experience of ESCOs in the Czech Republic, Ukraine and Russia and then explores the factors shaping the diverse trends in these countries. The paper draws on the experience of the national energy efficiency centers, development banks, bilateral assistance organizations and individual ESCOs in promoting ESCO industries. Factors that have influenced ESCOs to date include the economy, the price of energy, the financial situation of potential clients, the legislative basis for ESCO activities, the business experience of ESCO staff and access to information about the ESCO concept. Financing has also proven to be a critical factor in developing ESCOs. Lack of project financing and guarantees, for example, is a major problem in the former Soviet Union. The paper concludes by drawing recommendations for policymakers and industry on promoting ESCOs.

  11. The significance of sediment contamination in the Elbe River floodplain (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupová, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír; Langhammer, Jakub; Šobr, Miroslav; Jiři, Medek; Král, Stanislav; Jiřinec, Petr; Kaiglova, Jana; Černý, Michal; Žáček, Miroslav; Leontovyčova, Drahomíra; Halířová, Jarmila

    2015-04-01

    The abstract brings the information about the research that was focused on anthropogenic pollution of river and lake sediments in the middle course of the Elbe River (Czech Republic). The main aim was to identify and to evaluate the significance of old polluted sediments in the river and its side structures (old meanders, cut lakes, oxbow lakes) between Hradec Králové and Mělník (confluence with the Moldau River) and to assess the risk coming from the remobilization of the contaminated matter. The Elbe River floodplain has been highly inhabited since the Middle Ages, and, especially in the 20th century, major industrial plants were founded here. Since that time, the anthropogenic load of the river and it`s floodplain has grown. Although the contaminants bound to the sediment particles are usually stable, the main risk is coming from the fact that under changes in hydrological regime and water quality (floods, changes in pH, redox-potential, presence of complex substances etc.), the pollution can be released and remobilized again. The most endangered areas are: the surroundings of Pardubice (chemical factory Synthesia, Inc.; refinery PARAMO), and Neratovice (chemical factory Spolana, Inc.). The chemical factories situated close to these towns represented the most problematic polluters of the Elbe River especially during 2nd half of 20th century. In the research, the main attention was aimed at subaquatic sediments of selected cut lakes situated in the vicinity of the above mentioned sources of pollution. To describe the outreach of contamination, several further fluvial lakes were taken into account too. Sediment sampling was carried out from boats on lakes and with the help of drilling rig in the floodplain. Gained sediment cores were divided into several parts which were analysed separately. Chemical analyses included substances identified by ICPER (International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River) as well as chemicals considered as significant in

  12. Agricolaite, a new mineral of uranium from Jáchymov, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skála, Roman; Ondruš, Petr; Veselovský, František; Císařová, Ivana; Hloušek, Jan

    2011-11-01

    The new mineral agricolaite, a potassium uranyl carbonate with ideal formula K4(UO2)(CO3)3, occurs in vugs of ankerite gangue in gneisses in the abandoned Giftkiesstollen adit at Jáchymov, Czech Republic. The name is after Georgius Agricola (1494-1555), German scholar and scientist. Agricolaite occurs as isolated equant irregular translucent grains to 0.3 mm with yellow color, pale yellow streak, and vitreous luster. It is brittle with uneven fracture and displays neither cleavage nor parting. Agricolaite is non-fluorescent. Mohs hardness is ~4. It is associated with aragonite, brochantite, posnjakite, malachite, rutherfordine, and "pseudo-voglite". Experimental density is higher than 3.3 g.cm-3, Dcalc is 3.531 g. cm-3. The mineral is monoclinic, space group C2/ c, with a 10.2380(2), b 9.1930(2), c 12.2110(3) Å, β 95.108(2)°, V 1144.71(4) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are d( I)( hkl): 6.061(55)(002), 5.087(57)(200), 3.740(100)(202), 3.393(43)(113), 2.281(52)(402). Average composition based on ten electron microprobe analyses corresponds to (in wt.%) UO3 48.53, K2O 31.49, CO2(calc) 22.04 which gives the empirical formula K3.98(UO2)1.01(CO3)3.00. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined to R 1 = 0.0184 on the basis of the 1,308 unique reflections with F o > 4 σF o. The structure of agricolaite is identical to that of synthetic K4(UO2)(CO3)3 and consists of separate UO2(CO3)3 groups organized into layers parallel to (100) and two crystallographically non-equivalent sites occupied by K+ cations. Both the mineral and its name were approved by the IMA-CNMNC.

  13. Climatological Data Rescue from historic meteorological stations in the Czech Republic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repka, M.

    2010-09-01

    quality control by comparison of data with surrounding stations. Data of mostly meteorological elements and stations are now controlled since 1961. For errors detection and data quality control in frontier regions is very useful data from Slovak meteorological stations. Acknowledgements An author would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic for project no KJB300420905.

  14. Morphology and Environmental Significance of Relict Sorted Polygons, Krkonoše Mountains, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uxa, Tomáš; Křížek, Marek

    2014-05-01

    The development of sorted polygons is driven by several interconnected processes related to freeze-thaw cycles, the frequency and/or intensity of which is determined by regional climatic factors and site-specific factors that influence local microclimate, such as relief, lithology, snow cover, drainage and vegetation. The interplay of the above factors generates different ground thermal and moisture regimes and therefore influences the spatial distribution and morphology of sorted polygons. In this paper, we describe relict large-scale sorted polygons in the Krkonoše Mountains (Czech Republic) and we aim (1) to determine the relations between polygon morphology and clast distribution; (2) to determine the extent to which the morphology and clast distribution of the polygons were influenced by past microclimates; and (3) to present palaeoenvironmental evidence from the periglacial environment of the summit area of the Krkonoše Mountains during the Last Glacial/Holocene period. Sixty-two sorted polygons with an average length of 194 cm and an average height of 21.5 cm and in total 7740 clasts were measured at four sites on Mt Luční hora (50°43'40"N; 15°40'57"E), at elevations of 1455 to 1555 m asl. Larger sorted polygons are formed by larger clasts and tend to occur in poorly drained sites at lower altitudes. Smaller polygons and polygons with greater relative height are better sorted. More up-domed and better sorted polygons are located at higher altitudes suggesting more severe and longer-lasting microclimates suitable for the development of sorted polygons. The altitudinal gradient in polygon morphology and sorting, preserved since the Last Glacial period, indicates the high palaeoenvironmental potential of the relict large-scale sorted polygons located on flat or convex parts of the terrain. Polygon development probably involves positive feedback between morphology and frost susceptibility, driven by microclimate. The proposed method for evaluating frost

  15. Application of electrical resistivity tomography to map lithological differences and subsurface structures (Eastern Sudetes, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Dominika; Stan-Kłeczek, Iwona

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the subsurface lithological variability and thickness of each metamorphic rocks unit by means of geophysical methods, which were presented within the framework of SEDIBUD. Research was performed on the ridge and the steep eastern slope of the Orlik massif (1204 m) in the Hrubý Jesenik range of the Eastern Sudetes, the Czech Republic. To obtain a spatial image of a geological rock mass, the non-invasive and relatively rapid method of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used, which resulted in the creation of six profiles using the Dipole-Dipole and Wenner-Schlumberger arrays. As complementary methods, vertical electrical sounding (VES) and seismic refraction tomography were chosen. Fifteen measuring points along two profiles obtained by vertical electrical sounding allowed the determination of the following in the vertical section layers of different resistivity and thickness at direct points in contact primarily with Devonian quartzite rocks and weathered covers. In a series of field studies, a four-layered rock mass was examined in which the first layer is of fine-grained materials with medium- and large-size clasts, the second layer is quartzite, the third is gneiss and the fourth is phyllite. The five profiles measured by seismic refraction tomography made it possible to draw the boundary between the studied phyllites, gneisses and quartzites. In addition, geophysical surveys and the results of mineralogical composition analysis allowed us to determine the nature and thickness of the weathered layers present on the massif area, which, in the upper sections, are predominantly a clayey loam partially covered with blocks. The inclination of the slope is associated with an increase in the fraction of coarse material. The majority of the thickness of these layers is related to the local flattened surfaces and the presence of numerous streams, which contributed to the accumulation of the sediments that were also

  16. Climate change impact on the occurrence of selected pests in the regional scale in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocmankova, E.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Semeradova, D.; Dubrovsky, M.; Juroch, J.; Mozny, M.

    2009-04-01

    Climate conditions exert significant influence over the the population dynamic, life cycle duration, infestation pressure and the overall occurrence of majority of agricultural pests and diseases. Particularly in the case of those pest species whose development is directly linked with the climate conditions the shift of their climatic niche or their infestation capability is to be expected under the changing climate. Te presented study is focused on the most important potato pest i.e Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say 1824) and most important pest of grain maize i.e. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, Hübner 1796). Simulations of potential distribution of pests in the Czech Republic in the conditions of climate change were made with the usage of dynamical model CLIMEX and by the interpolation of output EI from 43 locations there are climate conditions of almost whole area of the Czech Republic considered as favorable for pest' survival. The models validation was based on the comparison of the modeled potential pests' distribution with the field observations in the current climate conditions. Under the expected climate conditions the pests will most likely be able to complete their development earlier and in higher population densities. Both mechanisms might cause a subsequent increase of the severity of the pest infestation. In addition to this the higher temperature and its earlier coming in the beginning of the vegetative season may support the mobility and faster local spread of some species. The estimates of the future climate is based on the assumption of slow increase of green house gases emissions and low climate sensitivity to their rising concentration (LOW B1) as well as the "opposite" scenario assuming rapid growth of emissions and the high sensitivity of the climate system (HIGH A2). Three GCM models that were driven by these emission scenarios included HadCM3, NCAR-PCM and ECHAM4. For Colorado potato beetle the realization of

  17. Does an increasing resolution of RCM leads to more accurate simulation of climate elements over Czech Republic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorna, Lucie; Kliegrova, Stanislava; Huth, Radan; Farda, Ales; Stepanek, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Regional climate models (RCM) are a useful tool for a simulation of surface climate with respect to conditions of individual regions. The need of the realistic representation of surface elements at the local scale is important particularly in terrain with complex orography. The Czech Republic with the mountain chains along its border and highlands as well as lowlands in the inland seems to be a good representation of such region. A good performance of the models in reproducing recent temporal and spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation can enhance our confidence in the changes projected for future climate conditions. In this study, we compare two versions of the RCM ALARO covering a 30-year climate period (1961-1990); a simulation with a common resolution 25-km and a simulation with a very high resolution 6-km. The ALARO-Climate RCM has been developed in recent years in the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute on the basis of the numerical weather prediction model ALADIN and is already operated at other five national meteorological services. Both presented simulations are driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis and run on the large pan-European integration domain ("ENSEMBLES / Euro-Cordex domain"). As the reference dataset we use technical homogenized series based on time series from stations in the Czech Republic interpolated to the same network as both model simulations but with real altitude of the grid points (GriSt). The seasonal and monthly values of mean, maximum and minimum temperature as well as precipitation amounts are examined. We display a spatial distribution of biases of seasonal means and the temporal distribution of biases based on monthly values with respect to the altitude for both simulations. The results indicate that a higher resolution of model tends to improve the simulation of present day climate, with larger improvements in areas affected by mountains.

  18. Twenty-Five Years After--Rebuilding the Lifelong Learning System in the Czech and Slovak Republic: Progress, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from a Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprlak, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The lifelong learning system in the Czech Republic and Slovakia share some common traits: traditional model with the dominant role of the initial education, low participation rates, lack of incentives and fragmentation. The results of the narrative research on 15 low-skilled persons demonstrated that negative attitudes towards education are often…

  19. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013). The e-Learning 2013 conference aims to…

  20. The Dramaturgy Approach to Education in Nature: Reflections of a Decade of International Vacation School Lipnice Courses, Czech Republic, 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an auto-ethnography or narrative of self related to the development of international experiential education programmes in nature developed by Vacation School Lipnice (VSL) in the Czech Republic. The paper provides the cultural background that influences the course design and provides examples, through participant observation,…

  1. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  2. Dealing with Diversity: A Key Issue for Educational Management. Proceedings of the ENIRDEM Conference (14th, Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, September 22-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    An anthology of speeches of the 14th conference of the European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Management (ENIRDEM), held on 22 to 25 September 2005 in Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, this book contains 13 contributions by 19 speakers and co-authors, covering various questions related to the topic of diversity in…

  3. Assessment of three classes of DNA adducts in human placentas from smoking and non-snoking women in the Czech Republic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three classes of DNA damage were assessed in human placentas collected (2000-2004) from 51 women living in the Teplice region of the Czech Republic, a mining area considered to have some of the worst environmental pollution in Europe in the 1980s. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ...

  4. Analysis of Actual Soil Degradation by Erosion Using Satellite Imagery and Terrain Attributes in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zizala, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Soil water and wind erosion (possibly tillage erosion) is the most significant soil degradation factor in the Czech Republic. Moreover, this phenomenon also affects seriously quality of water sources., About 50 % of arable land are endangered by water erosion and about 10 % of arable land are endangered wind erosion in the Czech Republic. These processes have been accelerated by human activity. Specific condition of agriculture land in the Czech Republic including highland relief and particularly size of land parcel and intensification of agriculture does not enable to reduce flow of runoff water. Insufficient protection against accelerated erosion processes is related to lack of landscape and hydrographic elements and large area of agricultural plots. Currently, this issue is solved at plot scale by field investigation or at regional scale using numerical and empirical erosion models. Nevertheless, these models enable only to predict the potential of soil erosion. Large scale assessment of actual degradation level of soils is based on expert knowledge. However, there are still many uncertainties in this issue. Therefore characterization of actual degradation level of soil is required especially for assessment of long-term impact of soil erosion on soil fertility. Soil degradation by erosion can be effectively monitored or quantified by modern tools of remote sensing with variable level of detail accessible. Aims of our study is to analyse the applicability of remote sensing for monitoring of actual soil degradation by erosion. Satellite and aerial image data (multispectral and hyperspectral), terrain attributes and data from field investigation are the main source for this analyses. The first step was the delimitation of bare soils using supervised classification of the set of Landsat scenes from 2000 - 2014. The most suitable period of time for obtaining spectral image data with the lowest vegetation cover of soil was determined. The results were verified by

  5. Fates of pollutants from uranium mining in floodplain of a meandering river (the Ploucnice, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Majerova, Lucie; Babek, Ondrej; Kiss, Timea; Havelcova, Martina; Hosek, Michal

    2014-05-01

    The Ploucnice River (Czech Republic) received two groups of element pollutants. The first was Pb-Cu-Sb-Zn association with the onset early in 20th century; we attribute it to diffuse pollution at levels of the river watershed and/or mid European region with both atmospheric and fluvial transports. The second group was U-Zn-Ni-Co-Ba association related to uranium mining and mine-water processing during the 1970s and 1980s. Pollution hence allowed for identifying two chemostratigraphic units in 20th century floodplain fill, whose lower boundaries we interpret as isochronous at a given river reach. Historical and current maps and aerial photographs and current aerial lidar scanning allowed reconstructing the floodplain development. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) produced insight into the floodplain architecture. Three geomorphic levels were identified in the studied river reach: active floodplain, abandoned floodplain (paleochannels there are now inundated at >Q50), and pre-Holocene or early Holocene terrace. Each level has its own pattern of pollution by Pb, U and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The terrace and abandoned floodplain sediments together with deeper sediments from active floodplain allowed construction of background functions for pre-industrial concentrations of target elements and subsequent calculation of enrichment factors. That approach corrects for grain-size effects and thus coarser unsorted terrace sediments, finer silty sands of the abandoned floodplain, and the finest muds of the active floodplain were jointly processed. Such data processing was a pre-requisite for evaluation of weak diffuse pollution from early 20th century and recognition of post-depositional changes in pollutant concentrations. The main portion of pollutants related to uranium mining got into the river system in 1970s with peak in 1981 during a summer flood with >Q50 discharge. The pollution impacted the entire river system (enhanced Ra-226 activities were detected at

  6. 78 FR 65283 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From the People's Republic of China, the Czech Republic, Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...; Countervailing Duties; Final rule, 62 FR 27296, 27323 (May 19, 1997). Filing Requirements All submissions to the... Procedures, 76 FR 39263 (July 6, 2011) for details of the Department's electronic filing requirements, which... Racks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 2010-2011, 77...

  7. Rapid regional recovery from sulfate and nitrate pollution in streams of the western Czech Republic - Comparison to other recovering areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majer, V.; Kram, P.; Shanley, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrochemical changes between 1991 and 2001 were assessed based on two synoptic stream surveys from the 820-km2 region of the Slavkov Forest and surrounding area, western Czech Republic. Marked declines of sulfate, nitrate, chloride, calcium and magnesium in surface waters were compared with other areas of Europe and North America recovering from acidification. Declines of sulfate concentration in the Slavkov Forest (-30 ??eq L-1 yr-1) were more dramatic than declines reported from other sites. However, these dramatic declines of strong acid anions did not generate a widespread increase of stream water pH in the Slavkov Forest. Only the most acidic streams experienced a slight increase of pH by 0.5 unit. An unexpected decline of stream water pH occurred in slightly alkaline streams. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boar (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758) in south regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Forejtek, P; Hutarova, Z; Vodnansky, M

    2013-10-18

    From March 2012 to February 2013, 221 wild boar carcasses obtained from regular hunts in the Czech Republic were tested for Alaria alata mesocercariae using the Alaria-migration-technique. Most samples originated from South Moravia (173), and all 15 positive samples were found in this region, in particular in Tvrdonice (3/10) and Lanžhot (12/28), close to the site of the first description of this parasitic stage in wild boars in the territory of former ČSSR. These hunting grounds are located between the rivers March and Thaya, and rich in floodplains. Among the 38 carcasses tested in this area, higher carcass weights were associated with higher frequency of positive carcasses (P<0.05). Overall frequency of positive carcasses was 15/221 (6.8%). In positive samples (adipose and glandular tissue and muscle), the median number of mesocercariae was 14.3 per 100 g (range 3-69). PMID:23806746

  9. Labour mobility and housing: the impact of housing tenure and housing affordability on labour migration in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether housing tenure and regional differences in housing affordability have an impact on labour mobility. This relationship is important for understanding the sources of structural unemployment and impediments to economic growth. Using two sample surveys from the Czech Republic, this research reveals that at the individual level housing tenure is the most powerful factor determining willingness to change residence for employment reasons. A time-series regression analysis reveals that the impact of housing affordability on observed interregional migration patterns is relatively weak and that this effect is concentrated among the highly educated seeking employment in the capital, Prague. These results demonstrate that housing tenure has a significant impact on labour migration plans in case of unemployment and that the dynamic impact of regional differences in housing affordability on labour mobility is concentrated within the most highly skilled segment of the labour force. PMID:22500343

  10. Assessment of the future climate change in the Czech Republic based on ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ and AR4 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvova, J.; Holtanova, E.; Crhova, L.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.; Motl, M.

    2010-09-01

    The regional climate model ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ (25 km resolution) is going to be used for the new climate change scenarios for the Czech Republic. However, for effective use of such scenario for impact studies, it is necessary to provide an estimate of related uncertainty. The driving global model is an important source of uncertainty in RCM simulations. We present a comparison of changes in basic climate characteristics simulated by ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ and a set of eight AR4 models for the periods of 2010-39, 2040-69, 2070-99. The global climate models were chosen based on its ability to simulate observed climate characteristics in the reference period (1961-1990).