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Sample records for basin czech republic

  1. Moldavites from the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouska, V. J.; Mottl, V.; Rost, R.; Sevcik, J.

    1995-09-01

    Thirteen moladvites have been found on the surf side of the gravel beaches on the shore of the Jesenice water reservoir on the Odrava River. This spur lies about 1 250 m NW of the village Okrouhl at Cheb in Western Bohemia, Czech Republic, where only slightly rounded Pliocene gravels of the Vildgtejn Formation outcrop on the surface and form the bottom of the reservoir at this point. These gravels are also uncovered at the Tekaz Cheb gravel pit, 2 350 m to the NW from the find site. The bottom of the gravel pit and the basement of the moldavite-bearing gravel sands consist of the Miocene Cypris claystones. Red-brown andalusite and feldspar grains are typical minerals of the sandy gravels. The moldavites are lat in shape with deep sculpture, formed in a weakly acidic environment. Moldavites did not undergo prolonged transportation from the site of fall. Two samples have sharp grooves. The moldavites from the Cheb Basin are somewhat smoother to the touch and not as sharp as the moldavites from the Ceske Budejovice-Trebon area in Southern Bohemia. In a microscope, very fine secondary sculpture can be seen, probably formed in the water of the reservoir. The glass-matter is pure inside the samples and thus this is apparently repeated emphasizing of the original sculpture. The biggest specimens are No. 1 (5.44 g; 3 x 1.6 x 0.7 cm) and No. 8 (4.855 g; 3.2 x 1.7 x 0.5 cm). Their color ranges from bottle green to light bottle green to olive green or olive brown in two samples. In the shape, color, high content of bubbles and lechatelierite grains, density (rho = 2.34 - 2.38), refractive index (n = 1.4888 - 1.4936), and chemical composition of sample No. 5 (microprobe analysis: SiO2 - 78.70 wt. %, TiO2 - 0.35, Al2O3 - 10.13, FeO - 1.62, MnO - 0.12, MgO - 2.03, CaO - 3.11, Na2O - 0.42, K2O - 2.61) the moldavites of the Cheb Basin correspond to moldavites from the Ceske Budejovice-Trebon area in Southern Bohemia (1,2). The finds of moldavites in the Cheb Basin reflect the

  2. How do different parts of a basin contribute to discharge? Case study Rokytka Brook, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2015-04-01

    How do different parts of a basin contribute to discharge? Case study Rokytka Brook, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic Lukáš Vlček, Jan Kocum, Bohumír Janský, Luděk Šefrna Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Prague, Czech Republic Runoff formation is a very important issue within a flood protection and drought prevention. To solve this topic a lot of parameters, which affect the outflow, need to be known. Especially it is necessary to find out which part of a catchment contributes mostly to discharge during flood events or during drought periods. Optimal conditions for such a research are provided by our study in Šumava Mts., where a number of former floods has been created. In near future this area can play role within the water storage enhancement in SW Czech Republic during drought periods. Central part of Šumava Mts. is covered with peat bogs and other peaty soil types which are mostly supplied by rain water. This study takes place in the small catchment (1 km²) in Šumava Mts. It is created by 2 main slopes with different vegetation and soil coverage. First slope is covered by well-developed peat bog where 3 springs were found, the second slope is covered by dead spruce forest and soil type of entic Podzol, where one spring was found. Each specific part of the catchment was mapped and equipped by devices such as water level probe or tensiometers. Spring discharges and outflow have been observed. For consecutive analyses water silica, stable isotopes and temperature observations have been carried out as well. Results of this research should help to better understand the runoff process taking place in the core zone of Šumava Mts. Moreover it should improve a flood forecasting and the knowledge about retention ability of Czech mountains.

  3. Ecological persistence in the Late Mississippian (Serpukhovian, Namurian A) Megafloral record of the Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Gastaldo, R.A.; Purkynova, E.; Simunek, Z.; Schmitz, M.D.

    2009-05-15

    The Serpukhovian (Namurian A) stratigraphy of the Ostrava Formation, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Czech Republic, consists of coal-bearing paralic sediments underlain by marine deposits in a cyclothemic nature similar to those in the Pennsylvanian of Euramerica. The thickness of the formation exceeds 3000 m, in which >170 coals are identified in a foreland basin setting. Fifty-five genetic cycles are identified in the present study, using transgressional erosional surfaces as lower and upper boundaries. Terrestrial plant-macrofossil assemblages are preserved within each cycle, mostly associated with coals, and these represent a sampling of the coastal plain vegetation. New high-precision isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry U-Pb ages on zircons from tonsteins of two coals provide chronometric constraints for the Serpukhovian. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean clustering and Bayesian statistical classification group macrofloral assemblages into four distinct stratigraphic clusters, with assemblages persisting for <18 cycles before compositional change. Cycle duration, based on Ludmila (328.84{+-}0.16 Ma) and Karel (328.01{+-}0.08 Ma) tonsteins, overlaps the short-period (100 kyr) eccentricity cycle at the 95% confidence interval. These dates push the beginning of the Serpukhovian several million years deeper in time. An estimate for the Visean-Serpukhovian boundary is proposed at similar to 330 Ma. Late Mississippian wetland ecosystems persisted for >1.8 million years before regional perturbation, extirpation, or extinction of taxa occurred. Significant changes in the composition of macrofloral clusters occur across major marine intervals.

  4. The possible regional impact of climate change on water quality: eco-hydrological modeling in the Jizera Basin (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinkova, Marta; Hesse, Cornelia; Krysanova, Valentina

    2010-05-01

    The possible impact of climate change on water is well recognized and has been widely reported. Despite this recent progress, the research of impact of climate change on water quality has started only recently. Additionally, the consequences of climate change on water quality are important and are supposed to heavily influence the water resources management. In this sudy, the water quality modeling was done in order to evaluate the possible impact of climate change on water quality in selected mesoscale basin regarding nitrogen pollution and to assess the influence of atmospheric deposition on nitrogen pollution. The research was done by using the eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model, http://www.pik-potsdam.de/research/research-domains/climate-impacts-and-vulnerabilities/models/swim), which simulates water and nutrient fluxes in soil and vegetation, as well as transport of water and nutrients to and within the river network. The modeling period was from 1981 until 2003. The Jizera Basin, which is situated in NW Bohemia, Czech Republic, was selected as a study area. To setup the model of the Jizera Basin, the study area was characterized by several raster datasets: digital elevation model, soil map, land use map and subbasin map. Climate data, such as temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and air humidity, were interpolated to the 203 subbasin centroids by an inverse distance weighted method using data of 10 climate stations in and around the Jizera Basin. The discharge at the outlet of the Jizera Basin was calibrated for the period 1981 - 1990. After the adjustments of snowmelt processes in SWIM model, the model reproduces discharge at the outlet quite satisfactorily. The Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency for whole calibration period is 0.78. The period 1991-1995 was used for validation of discharge. The Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency for whole validation period is 0.73. After the calibration of the hydrological processes in the basin

  5. Applicability of hydromorphological monitoring data to locate flood risk reduction measures: Blanice River basin, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Jakub

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a new methodological approach, using hydromorphological monitoring data from river networks, to identify stream elements that may negatively influence the course of floods, as well as elements suitable for modifications that will reinforce the natural retention potential of the floodplain. The approach uses data derived from hydromorphological monitoring that conforms to the EN 14614 standard "Water quality--Guidance standard for assessing the hydromorphological features of rivers." Four major aspects of stream modifications that can potentially affect the course and consequences of floods, and that can be derived from hydromorphological monitoring, were identified. These are: (1) modifications that increase the speed of runoff, (2) modifications that restrict the retention potential of the floodplain, (3) potential obstacles to the flood course, and (4) improper alterations of stream route modifications. A GIS is used to identify and locate these critical aspects of stream and floodplain modification. This method was applied in the Blanice River basin, an area in central Europe hit by a severe flood in August 2002. The critical modifications identified were compared with geomorphological mapping to display the different effects of individual types of modifications. PMID:18521715

  6. Czech Republic: health system review.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Jan; Recka, Lukas; Votapkova, Jana; van Ginneken, Ewout; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Czech health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Czech health-care system is based on compulsory statutory health insurance providing virtually universal coverage and a broad range of benefits, and doing so at 7.7 % of GDP in 2012 - well below the EU average - of which a comparatively high 85 % was publicly funded. Some important health indicators are better than the EU averages (such as mortality due to respiratory disease) or even among the best in the world (in terms of infant mortality, for example). On the other hand, mortality rates for diseases of the circulatory system and malignant neoplasms are well above the EU average, as are a range of health-care utilization rates, such as outpatient contacts and average length of stay in acute care hospitals. In short, there is substantial potential in the Czech Republic for efficiency gains and to improve health outcomes. Furthermore, the need for reform in order to financially sustain the system became evident again after the global financial crisis, but there is as yet no consensus about how to achieve this. PMID:26106825

  7. Czech Republic to Become Member of ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Today, an agreement was signed in Prague between ESO and the Czech Republic, aiming to make the latter become a full member of ESO as of 1 January 2007. "The future membership of the Czech Republic in ESO opens for the Czech astronomers completely new opportunities and possibilities. It will foster this discipline on the highest quality level and open new opportunities for Czech industry to actively cooperate in research and development of high-tech instruments for astronomical research," said Miroslava Kopicová, Minister of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. ESO PR Photo 52/06 ESO PR Photo 52/06 Signing Ceremony "We warmly welcome the Czech Republic as the thirteenth member of ESO," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "The timing couldn't be better chosen: with the Very Large Telescope, Europe is now at the forefront of ground-based astronomy, and with the construction of ALMA and the final studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope, we will ensure that this will remain so for several decades. We look forward to working together with our Czech colleagues towards these successes." The signing event took place at the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports in Prague. Following ratification by the Czech Parliament, the Czech Republic with thus join the twelve present member states of ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere: Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The Czech Republic is the first country from Central and Eastern Europe to join ESO. Astronomy in the Czech Republic has a very long tradition that dates from as far back as 3500 BC. Four centuries ago, Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler established themselves in Prague at the invitation of the emperor Rudolph II, laying the ground for the first golden age in astronomy. Later, eminent scientists such as Christian Doppler, Ernst Mach and

  8. Czech Republic 20 years after Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rosina, Jozef; Kvasnák, Eugen; Suta, Daniel; Kostrhun, Tomás; Drábová, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The territory of the Czech Republic was contaminated as a result of the breakdown in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The Czech population received low doses of ionising radiation which, though it could not cause a deterministic impact, could have had stochastic effects expressed in the years following the accident. Twenty years after the accident is a long enough time to assess its stochastic effects, primarily tumours and genetic impairment. The moderate amount of radioactive fallout received by the Czech population in 1986 increased thyroid cancer in the following years; on the other hand, no obvious genetic impact was found. PMID:18375464

  9. Language Management in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neustupny, J. V.; Nekvapil, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    This monograph, based on the Language Management model, provides information on both the "simple" (discourse-based) and "organised" modes of attention to language problems in the Czech Republic. This includes but is not limited to the language policy of the State. This approach does not satisfy itself with discussing problems of language varieties…

  10. An indicative method for determination of the most hazardous changes in slopes of the subsidence basins in underground coal mining area in Ostrava (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Marschalko, Marian; Yilmaz, Isik; Křístková, Veronika; Fuka, Matěj; Kubečka, Karel; Bouchal, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Considering growing population and decreasing mineral resource reserves, the issue of undermining has been and shall remain very topical. This study aims to identify the mutual connections between mined out panels of a deposit and the final manifestations on the ground surface related to deep black coal mining. On the grounds of the identified connections, the study describes a method to simplify a common evaluation of undermined areas according to building site categories. Within the study, a demarcation of the areas was conducted in two localities in Czech Republic influenced by the effects of undermining in the Upper-Silesian Basin. In the allotment of the CSM Mine, an area unsuitable for founding structures was defined from the centre of the worked out workings to the distance of 175 m from the panel's edge, for which the corresponding break angle is 78.3°. Similarly, in the allotment of the Paskov Mine, an area unsuitable for founding structures was determined to the distance of 500 m from the panel's edge, for which the corresponding break angle is 50.2°. This demarcation may be implemented prior to deposit mining being aware of several physical-mechanical parameters of rocks in the deposit's overburden. Having mined out a particular section of a deposit, it is recommended to verify the values of break angle using the method described herein. The study may be applied as a relatively fast and effective method to evaluate future land use for planning. PMID:22371037

  11. Epigenetic dolomitization of the Přaídolí formation (Upper Silurian), the Barrandian basin, Czech Republic: implications for burial history of Lower Paleozoic strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchý, V.; Rozkošný, I.; Žák, K.; Franců, J.

    1996-06-01

    Stratabound epigenetic dolomite occurs in carbonate facies of the Barrandian basin (Silurian and Devonian), Czech Republic. The most intense dolomitization is developed in bioclastic calcarenites within the transition between micritic limestone and shaledominated Přídolí and Lochkov formations deposited on a carbonate slope. Medium-crystalline (100-400 µm), inclusion-rich, xenotopic matrix dolomite ( δ 18O=-4.64 to -3.40‰ PDB; δ 13C=+1.05 to +1.85‰ PDB) which selectively replaced most of the bioclastic precursor is volumetrically the most important dolomite type. Coarse crystalline saddle dolomite ( δ 18O=-8.04 to -5.14‰ PDB; δ 18C=+0.49 to +1.49 PDB) which precipitated in fractures and vugs within the matrix dolomite represents a later diagenetic dolomitization event. In some vugs, saddle dolomite coprecipitated with petroleum inclusion-rich authigenic quartz crystals and minor sulfides which, in turn, were post-dated by semisolid asphaltic bitumen. The interpretation of the dolomitization remains equivocal. Massive xenotopic dolomite, although generally characteristic of a deeper burial setting, may have been formed by a recrystallization of an earlier, possibly shallow burial dolomite. Deeper burial recrystallization by reactive basinal pore fluids that presumably migrated through the more permeable upper portion of the Přídolí sequence appears as a viable explanation for this dolomitization overprint. Saddle dolomite cement of the matrix dolomite is interpreted as the last dolomitization event that occurred during deep burial at the depth of the oil window zone. The presence of saddle dolomite, the fluid inclusion composition of associated quartz crystals, and vitrinite paleogeothermometry of adjacent sediments imply diagenetic burial temperatures as high as 160°C. Although high geothermal gradients in the past or the involvement of hydrothermally influenced basinal fluids can account for these elevated temperatures, burial heating beneath

  12. Epigenetic dolomitization of the Přídolí formation (Upper Silurian), the Barrandian basin, Czech Republic: implications for burial history of Lower Paleozoic strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchý, V.; Rozkošný, I.; Žák, K.; Franců, J.

    Stratabound epigenetic dolomite occurs in carbonate facies of the Barrandian basin (Silurian and Devonian), Czech Republic. The most intense dolomitization is developed in bioclastic calcarenites within the transition between micritic limestone and shale-dominated Přídolí and Lochkov formations deposited on a carbonate slope. Medium-crystalline (100-400μm), inclusion-rich, xenotopic matrix dolomite (δ18O=-4.64 to -3.40ö PDBδ13C=+1.05 to +1.85ö PDB) which selectively replaced most of the bioclastic precursor is volumetrically the most important dolomite type. Coarse crystalline saddle dolomite (δ18O=-8.04 to -5.14ö PDBδ18C=+0.49 to +1.49 PDB) which precipitated in fractures and vugs within the matrix dolomite represents a later diagenetic dolomitization event. In some vugs, saddle dolomite coprecipitated with petroleum inclusion-rich authigenic quartz crystals and minor sulfides which, in turn, were postdated by semisolid asphaltic bitumen. The interpretation of the dolomitization remains equivocal. Massive xenotopic dolomite, although generally characteristic of a deeper burial setting, may have been formed by a recrystallization of an earlier, possibly shallow burial dolomite. Deeper burial recrystallization by reactive basinal pore fluids that presumably migrated through the more permeable upper portion of the Přídolí sequence appears as a viable explanation for this dolomitization overprint. Saddle dolomite cement of the matrix dolomite is interpreted as the last dolomitization event that occurred during deep burial at the depth of the oil window zone. The presence of saddle dolomite, the fluid inclusion composition of associated quartz crystals, and vitrinite paleogeothermometry of adjacent sediments imply diagenetic burial temperatures as high as 160 °C. Although high geothermal gradients in the past or the involvement of hydrothermally influenced basinal fluids can account for these elevated temperatures, burial heating beneath approximately 3

  13. [Solid organ transplantation in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Kuman, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation (heart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, small interesting and their combinations) are standard therapy of terminal organ failure. Czech Republic belongs to the states with developed transplantation program. The results correspond with current knowledge and results of leading centers in the world, as demostrated in this article. Organ donor shortage is major factor limiting development of organ transplantations as elsewhere in the Europe or in the world. PMID:26375707

  14. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cerny, M.

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  15. Landscape changes as a factor affecting the course and consequences of extreme floods in the Otava river basin, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Jakub; Vilímek, Vít

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents the analysis of anthropogenical modifications of the landscape in relation to the course and consequences of floods. The research was conducted in the Otava river basin which represents the core zone of the extreme flood in August 2002 in Central Europe. The analysis was focused on the key indicators of landscape modification potentially affecting the runoff process - the long-term changes of land-use, changes of land cover structure, land drainage, historical shortening of the river network and the modifications of streams and floodplains. The information on intensity and spatial distribution of modifications was derived from different data sources--historical maps, available GIS data, remote sensing and field mapping. The results revealed a high level of spatial diversity of anthropogenical modifications in different parts of the river basin. The intensive modifications in most of indicators were concentrated in the lowland region of the river basin due to its agricultural use; however important changes were also recorded in the headwater region of the basin. The high spatial diversity of the modifications may result in their varying effect on the course and consequences of floods in different parts of the river basin. This effect is demonstrated by the cluster analysis based on the matrix of indicators of stream and floodplain modification, physiogeographical characteristics and geomorphological evidences of the flood in August 2002, derived from the individual thematic layers using GIS. PMID:17885817

  16. Morphometric analysis of a reactivated Variscan fault in the southern Bohemian Massif (Budějovice basin, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popotnig, Angelika; Tschegg, Dana; Decker, Kurt

    2013-09-01

    Quantitative geomorphic parameters are used to assess active vertical displacements at the NW-SE striking Hluboká fault and the NNE-SSW striking Rudolfov fault in the southern Bohemian Massif. The faults are part of a late Variscan fault system that was repeatedly reactivated in Mesozoic, Miocene, and Pliocene times forming the margins of the Budějovice basin. This basin is filled with up to 340-m-thick Cretaceous to Quaternary sediments and forms morphological lowland surrounded by hill country. We compared the basin-facing hillslopes along the faults with other slopes that are not fault-controlled. All creeks and drainage basins share similar geological and hydrological settings and the common base level of the Vltava River. Morphological differences in valley shapes, stream profiles, and drainage basin geometry therefore are likely to reflect different uplift of the crystalline basement with respect to the Budějovice basin. All calculated geomorphic parameters characterise the hillslope along the Hluboká fault as a very straight mountain-piedmont junction with a morphology that is influenced by uplift along the fault. Differential uplift is indicated by extremely low values of mountain front sinuosity (Smf 1.01 to 1.06), high stream length gradients (SL up to 200), and very low valley floor width to height ratios (Vf 0.05 to 0.26). The values are clearly distinct from the values observed at the other hillslopes. Streams showing convex-up thalweg sections with marked single knickpoints close to the Hluboká fault and previously published geodetic data (Vyskočil, 1973) support the interpretation of active vertical fault displacement. Values observed at the Hillslope crossing the Rudolfov fault (Smf 1.17 to 2.20, SL up to 130, Vf 0.29 to 2.5) and convex-up stream profiles of creeks crossing the fault may classify the slope along the Rudolfov fault as moderately active. The interpretation is again corroborated by published geodetic data. The analysed part of

  17. Climatology of lightning in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Petr; Kyznarová, Hana

    2011-06-01

    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) has utilized lightning data from the Central European Lightning Detection Network (CELDN) since 1999. The CELDN primarily focuses on the detection of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning but intra-cloud (IC) lightning detection is also available. Lightning detection is used by the CHMI forecasters as an additional source to radar and satellite data for nowcasting of severe storms. Lightning data are also quantitatively used in automatic nowcasting applications. The quality of lightning data can be evaluated using their climatological characteristics. Climatological characteristics are also useful for defining decision thresholds that are valuable for human forecasters as well as for automatic nowcasting applications. The seven-year period from 2002 to 2008, which had relatively even-quality lightning data, was used to calculate the spatial and temporal distributions of lightning. The monthly number of CG strokes varies depending on the season. The highest number of CG strokes occurs during summer, with more than 20 days of at least five detected CG strokes on the Czech Republic territory in June and July. The least number of CG stokes occurs in winter, with less than three days per month having at least five detected CG stokes. The mean diurnal distribution of CG strokes peaks between 1500 and 1600 UTC and reaches a minimum between 0500 and 0800 UTC. The average spatial distribution of CG strokes shows sharp local maxima corresponding with the locations of the TV broadcast towers. The average spatial distribution of CG flash density, calculated on a 20 × 20 km grid, shows the maximum (3.23 flashes km - 2 year - 1 ) in the western part of Czech Republic and the minimum (0.92 flashes km - 2 year - 1 ) in the south-southeast of the Czech Republic. In addition, lightning characteristics related to the identified convective cells, such as distribution of the lightning stroke rates or relation to the radar derived by Vertically

  18. Vocational Education and Training Reform in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in the Czech Republic consists of a condensed description of the present situation in VET and analysis of the main challenges facing VET reform in the country. Chapter 1 offers basic data on the Czech Republic. Chapter 2 describes main features of the VET system, strategic objectives for VET,…

  19. Striving for Inclusive Education in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strnadova, Iva; Hajkova, Vanda

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education does not have a strong history in the Czech Republic. Initial efforts to educate students with different types of disabilities within the mainstream education system in the Czech Republic date back to the mid-20th century. These efforts were primarily from parent initiatives, which in some cases resulted in ensuring that the…

  20. Conditions for veining in the Barrandian Basin (Lower Palaeozoic), Czech Republic: evidence from fluid inclusion and apatite fission track analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, V.; Dobes, P.; Filip, J.; Stejskal, M.; Zeman, A.

    2002-04-01

    The interplay between fracture propagation and fluid composition and circulation has been examined by deciphering vein sequences in Silurian and Devonian limestones and shales at Kosov quarry in the Barrandian Basin. Three successive vein generations were recognised that can be attributed to different stages of a basinal cycle. Almost all generations of fracture cements host abundant liquid hydrocarbon inclusions that indicate repeated episodes of petroleum migration through the strata during burial, tectonic compression and uplift. The earliest veins that propagated prior to folding were displacive fibrous "beef" calcite veins occurring parallel to the bedding of some shale beds. Hydrocarbon inclusions within calcite possess homogenisation temperatures between 58 and 68 °C and show that the "beef" calcites originated in the deeper burial environment, during early petroleum migration from overpressured shales. E-W-striking extension veins that postdate "beef" calcite formed in response to Variscan orogenic deformations. Based on apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) data and other geological evidence, the veins probably formed 380-315 Ma ago, roughly coinciding with peak burial heating of the strata, folding and the intrusion of Variscan synorogenic granites. The veins that crosscut diagenetic cements and low-amplitude stylolites in host limestones are oriented semi-vertically to the bedding plane and are filled with cloudy, twinned calcite, idiomorphic smoky quartz and residues of hardened bitumen. Calcite and quartz cements contain abundant blue and blue-green-fluorescing primary inclusions of liquid hydrocarbons that homogenise between 50 and 110 °C. Geochemical characteristics of the fluids as revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, particularly the presence of olefins and parent aromatic hydrocarbons (phenonthrene), suggest that the oil entrapped in the inclusions experienced intense but geologically fast heating that resulted in thermal pyrolysis

  1. Counseling in the Czech Republic: History, Status, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jack D.; Hutchison, Brian; Bastecka, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history and current status of counseling in the Czech Republic. Recommendations for advancement of the profession in a postcommunist era are offered, including the incorporation of social justice principals for the benefit of Gypsies and immigrants, collaboration between Czech and non-Czech counselors, and counseling…

  2. Human and climatic impact on the Morava River behavior during last millennium (Lower Moravian Basin, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Stehlik, Filip; Man, Otakar; Benes, Vojtech; Svetlik, Ivo; Rybnicek, Michal; Svitavska-Svobodova, Helena

    2010-05-01

    The floodplain of the lower course of the Morava River in the Straznicke Pomoravi area located in the Lower Moravian Basin is an excellent example of an environmental archive of which a detailed study could help understanding of the interplay between regional environmental changes, global climatic changes and human activities. The length of the meandering course of the Morava River through the study area is approximately 12 km and it is one of the last river segment modified by minimal channel regulations. River behavior and changes of the fluvial styles are reconstructed based on floodplain architecture analysis supported by geophysical survey. The age of sediments is specified using radiocarbon and dendrochronological datings completed with 137Cs and persistent organic pollutant concentrations. Pollen analyses allow us to reconstruct the local vegetation changes. Lithology of the floodplain deposits is conformable along a modern river channel. Sections exposed in erosional river banks reveal basal sands and sandy gravels often containing tree trunk or branch fragments. Charcoal or tree branches are preserved in overlaying greenish, sandy clay or clayey sand, usually with reductimorphic stains. The upper part of the sections is composed of sandy or clayey silts with intercalated smaller lenses or sand layers up to 20 cm thick. Geophysical survey suggests that the clayey cohesive sediments are present in whole area of the studied floodplain overlaying basal sand and sandy gravel. Most of these fine sediments were deposited in a low-energy river system during last millennium based on radiocarbon dating. These deposits were later partly eroded and replaced by medium-energy river system sediments in the northern part of the studied floodplain. First human impact on the river behavior should be traced back to 9th century AD when people of the Great Moravian Empire constructed their fortified settlements in the Morava River floodplain. However, we did not find

  3. An Energy Overview of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-17

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is the Czech Republic. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need an d resources permit.

  4. Privatization and Business Education Needs in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Marilyn M.

    1996-01-01

    As the Czech Republic undergoes massive economic restructuring, education and training in capitalism and management are needed. The Czechoslovakian Management Center uses international advisors in developing its master's of business administration programs for executive development. (SK)

  5. Language Planning for Romani in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, Romani language planning has long been a controversial subject. The question informing the current research is whether the European Charter's goal of protecting, maintaining and invigorating Romani is attainable in a culture driven by standard language ideology, Czech society's aversion to multiculturalism and an…

  6. Assessment in the School Systems of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strakova, Jana; Simonová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Student assessment in the Czech Republic is still rather traditional, with classroom practice continuing to focus on summative assessment. The country has regularly participated in international surveys, but the findings from these only started to influence educational policy during the past decade, when Czech students' performance fell…

  7. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tichy, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  8. [Human prion diseases in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Rohan, Z; Rusina, R; Marešová, M; Matěj, R

    2015-09-01

    Human prion diseases are a group of very rare diseases with a unique pathogenesis and, due to an inauspicious prognosis and unavailability of therapy, with fatal consequences. The etiopathogenetic background is the presence of pathologically misfolded prion protein, highly resistant to denaturation, the aggregation and presence of which in the brain tissue causes irreversible neuronal damage. The most frequent prion disease in humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) which occurs in sporadic, hereditary/familial, or acquired/infectious/iatrogenic forms. A new form of CJD, variant CJD, is considered to be linked to dietary exposure to beef products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and to infection via blood transfusion. The clinical picture of these diseases is characterized by a rapidly progressing dementia, cerebellar and extrapyramidal symptoms, and rather specific MRI, EEG, and CSF findings. Clinically, the diagnosis is described as possible or probable prion disease and needs to be confirmed by neuropathological or immunological investigation of the brain tissue. Epidemiological data from the Czech Republic spanning the last decade are presented. PMID:26448298

  9. Geophysical research in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, Vladimir

    General interest in Earth studies has a long tradition in the Czech Republic that dates back to the German physician, Georg Agricola, a pioneer in scientific classifications of minerals collected in North Bohemia's Ore Mountains during the early 16th century. Astronomy flourished during the rule of Hapsburg Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612). Modern geophysics developed in the middle of the 18th century from systematic meteorological observations and continued in the 19th century with H. Benndorfs seismological experiment in the mining town of Pribram.In 1920, the State Geophysical Institute was created, with Vaclav Laska as its first director. The institute's research activities concentrated on seismology and geomagnetism. In 1945, the Chair of Geophysics was established at the Charles University in Prague, reflecting the increasing interest in geophysical studies. The Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences was founded in 1952, the same year that the first Conference of Czechoslovak Geophysicists passed the resolution that an institute of geophysics should be reestablished within the new academy as the coordinating and leading institution of basic geophysical research.

  10. The August 2002 flood in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercl, P.; Stehlik, J.

    2003-04-01

    course of the flood has been analysed. It is clear that the cascade cannot protect Prague during such an extreme flood. Below the confluence of the Moldau and Elbe rivers the flood wave propagated in the Elbe and flooded a large area along the river. Therefore the peak discharge decreased a little. The flood caused enormous damage and losses in all regions including the towns of Budweis, Pilsen and Prague. About 100 towns and villages were completely flooded and 350 were partly flooded. 1.6 million people were affected by the flood, 220 thousand were moved from their houses, 15 people died. The total losses are assessed to be 2 to 3 billion Euro. The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is a governmental institution responsible for monitoring and forecasting the weather and hydrological conditions in the Czech Republic. During the flood in August 2002, the CHMI was continually preparing information, forecasts and reports for decision-making bodies, the public and the rescue system. Overall, the flood protection and rescue system worked very well and many protective measures were performed during the flood, including the evacuation of people. In general, the system was more effective than it was during the previous catastrophic flood in 1997 in the Oder basin. The experience from the 1997 event and the adoption of new laws on crisis management and the integrated rescue system had a positive influence the response of people.

  11. Overview of healthcare system in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The healthcare system in the Czech Republic underwent and still is undergoing dramatic changes since the Velvet revolution in 1989. History of the Czech healthcare system, main healthcare laws, and the current status of healthcare documented in the main healthcare indicators is described based on the several main sources as well as delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in healthcare system. The material is based mainly on Czech Health Statistics 2009, and HiT Summary, Health Care Systems in Translation, 2005, public information of Ministry of Health CR. PMID:22738178

  12. School Psychology in the Czech Republic: Development, Status and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavenská, Veronika; Smékalová, Eleonora; Šmahaj, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This intensive exploratory research maps the working conditions of school psychologists in the Czech Republic. An electronic questionnaire consisting of 71 questions (58 quantitative, 13 qualitative) from nine fields was used as a research tool. The respondent sample ("N"?=?63; 53 females, 10 males) indicate that they are largely…

  13. Situation of School Self-Evaluation in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan; Vastatkova, Jana

    2005-01-01

    This paper is focused on school self-evaluation in the Czech Republic. It offers the overview of main changes which took place after 1989 and provided a broad social framework for operation of schools. Also, it links self-evaluation to recent legislation which explicitly determines its state of art and also steps to be taken in the near future.…

  14. GLOBE in the Czech Republic: A Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan; Maskova, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The article presents results of the evaluation of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) in the Czech Republic. The evaluation explores the implementation of the program in schools and its impact on research skills. Four hundred and sixty six pupils, aged 13, from 28 different schools participated in the…

  15. Innovative Physics Teaching Conferences in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrandt, Rod

    2010-01-01

    Even today, with all of the instant communication technologies available, we are still often unaware of all that happens in other parts of the world. In the middle of Europe, in the Czech Republic, physics teachers have created a couple of innovative conferences--or "workshops" might be a better term. Having attended two of each, I think they're…

  16. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  17. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  18. Some trace elements in coal of the Czech Republic, environment and health protection implications.

    PubMed

    Pesek, J; Bencko, V; Sýkorová, I; Vasícek, M; Michna, O; Martínek, K

    2005-09-01

    Mining for coal and its utilization have various impacts on the surrounding environment. Huge volumes of waste materials which are by-products of both the underground and open cast coal mining, pose one of the major environmental hazards in addition to air pollution caused by coal burning in power plants in the Czech Republic. Some of these risks could be reduced when having accurate and comprehensive data on coal quality. Statistical data processing of almost 35,000 coal samples from Late Paleozoic and Tertiary coal basins of the Czech Republic provided a unique information on the quality of lignite, sub-bituminous and bituminous coals and anthracites including the content of toxic trace elements (As, Be, Hg, Pb and Se). In this context related environment and health risks and protection implications are discussed. PMID:16218333

  19. Radiocesium in mushrooms from selected locations in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Dvorák, Petr; Kunová, Veronika; Benová, Katarína; Ohera, Marcel

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, activity concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms from various locations in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic in the years 2000-2004 are presented. Summary reports of Czech regulatory bodies have judged the average activity concentrations in mushrooms to be remarkably below the maximum permissible level of contamination. However, there are certain regions where radiocesium activities have approached the maximum permissible level for contamination of basic foodstuff. For example, the highest activity concentration of (137)Cs measured by gamma-spectrometry was 2,263 Bq kg(-1) (on a dry mass basis), in Xerocomus badius from Staré Ransko (a locality in the Czech-Moravian Highlands, Czech Republic). The highest activity concentration of (137)Cs measured in Slovakia was 966 Bq kg(-1) (on a dry mass basis), for Suillus luteus from Senica. For comparison, the corresponding activity concentration in a sample taken within the 30 km zone around Chernobyl was measured to be 6,000 Bq kg(-1) (on a dry mass basis). Our results have also demonstrated remarkably lower activity concentrations of (137)Cs in Slovakia compared to those in the Czech Republic. PMID:16628432

  20. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. PMID:24867257

  1. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of parasitological examinations of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic, carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) within the period of 50 years (1958-2008). Even though this survey is limited to the Czech Republic, it provides extensive data probably incomparable with any other study anywhere regarding the number of eels examined and parasites found. A total of 723 eels was examined from 42 localities that belong to all of the three main river drainage systems in the country, i.e. the Elbe, Danube and Oder river basins. Of the 31 species of adult and larval macroparasites including Monogenea (4 species), Trematoda (3), Cestoda (3), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Bivalvia (1), Copepoda (1), Branchiura (1) and Acariformes (1), most of them (30) were recorded from the Elbe River basin. These parasites can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for eels (26%), non-specific adult parasites occurring also in other fishes (61%) and non-specific larvae (13%). The highest number (19) of parasite species was recorded in the Mácha Lake fishpond system in northern Bohemia. The parasite communities in eels from the individual localities exhibited large differences in their species composition and diversity depending on local ecological conditions. The parasite fauna of A. anguilla in the Czech Republic is compared with that in other European countries. The nematode Cucullanus egyptae Abdel-Ghaffar, Bashtar, Abdel-Gaber, Morsy, Mehlhorn, Al Quraishy et Mohammed, 2014 is designated as a species inquirenda. PMID:26130652

  2. Combined tectonic-sediment supply-driven cycles in a Lower Carboniferous deep-marine foreland basin, Moravice Formation, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bábek, Ondřej; Mikuláš, Radek; Zapletal, Jan; Lehotský, Tomáš

    The Lower Carboniferous Moravian-Silesian Culm Basin (MSCB) represents the easternmost part of the Rhenohercynian system of collision-related, deep-water foreland basins (Culm facies). The Upper Viséan Moravice Formation (MF) of the MSCB shows a distinct cyclic stratigraphic arrangement. Two major asymmetric megacycles bounded by basal sequence boundary, each about 500 to 900 m thick, have been revealed. The megacycles start with 50- to 250-m-thick, basal segments of erosive channels: overbank successions and slope apron deposits interpreted as lowstand turbidite systems. Up-section they pass into hundred metre-thick, fine-grained, low-efficiency turbidite systems. Palaeocurrent data show two prominent directions, basin axis-parallel, SSW-NNE directions, which are abundant in the whole MF, and basin axis-perpendicular to oblique, W-E to NW-SE directions, which tend to be confined to the basal parts of the megacycles or channel-lobe transition systems in their upper parts. Based on the facies characteristics, palaeocurrent data, sandstone composition data and trace-fossil distribution data, we suggest a combined tectonics-sediment supply-driven model for the MF basin fill. Periods of increased tectonic activity resulted in slope oversteepening probably combined with increased rate of lateral W-E sediment supply into the basin, producing the basal sequence boundary and the subsequent lowstand turbidite systems. During subsequent periods of tectonic quiescence, the system was filled mainly from a distant southern point source, producing the thick, low efficiency turbidite systems. Consistently with the previous models, our own sediment composition data indicate a progressively increasing sediment input from high-grade metamorphic and magmatic sources up-section, most probably related to an uplift in the source area and progressive unroofing of its structurally deeper crustal parts. The first occurrence of the Cruziana-Nereites ichnofacies in sand-rich turbidite

  3. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  4. Effects of global change in the Czech Part of the River Elbe Basin and adaptation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Hagen; Kaltofen, Michael; Kaden, Stefan; Grünewald, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    In Integrated Water Resources Management planning the effects of changing natural conditions (natural water availability) and socio-economic development (water demand) must be taken into consideration. Climate change will influence the water availability. In some sectors, e.g. agricultural irrigation, also the water demand is influenced by climatic conditions. Both, the development of natural water availability and water demand, are connected with certain levels of uncertainty. Therefore, scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change are required for Integrated Water Resources Management planning. The river Elbe basin (catchment area approximately 150,000 km²) is located in central Europe. The river Elbe basin is a trans boundary river basin. One third is located in the Czech Republic upstream of Germany, where two thirds of the basin is located. Therefore, inflows from the Czech part are important for instance for navigation in the German part. For navigation an inflow to Germany of 100 m3/s is required. Due to climate change the inflows are expected to decline. In the project GLOWA-Elbe a water management model for the whole river Elbe basin was developed. The model for the Czech part includes among others 52 reservoirs, 20 thermoelectric power plants, 70 hydroelectric power plants, 30 industrial users, 15 agricultural irrigation users, 40 public water utilities, and 160 waste water treatment plants. Two global socio-economic trends are renationalized and used in the simulations. Renationalized climate data are used to simulate the effects of climate change on natural discharges. Using the water management model the effects of global change on inflows from the Czech Republic to Germany are simulated. Using this model is it analyzed, if reservoir management in the Czech part can sustain a required inflow of 100 m3/s to Germany.

  5. Developing Inclusive Educational Practices for Refugee Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacakova, Marketa

    2011-01-01

    All children in the Czech Republic have the legal right to primary education, regardless of nationality and legal status. This article is based on a study of refugee children and their educational situation. The study reveals that refugee students in the Czech Republic are not benefiting fully from this fundamental right and that their educational…

  6. 75 FR 2858 - Negotiation of a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding With the Czech Republic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...DoD is contemplating a Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic. DoD is requesting industry feedback regarding its experience in public defense procurements conducted by or on behalf of the Czech Republic Ministry of Defense or Armed...

  7. The White Book Launched: On the Prospects of Education in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan; Rabusicova, Milada

    2003-01-01

    This article wants to present the National Education Development Programme of the Czech Republic, also known as the White Book, to large international audiences. The vision of Czech education is hereunder discussed within the framework of the development of the Czech educational policy in the 1990's, pointing out the Programme's essential ideas.…

  8. Influence of mineralogical, petrographical, and geochemical characteristics of impure limestones on the composition of fired hydraulic lime: a case study on Lower Palaeozoic limestones from the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Prague Basin, making part of the Barrandian area (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic), is a rift-like depression filled with non-metamorphosed sedimentary series of Upper Proterozoic - Lower Palaeozoic age. Among other sedimentary rocks, different types of limestones are present. These limestone were historically exploited and used for various purposes including natural and decorative stone, common construction material, and also a raw material for firing of inorganic binders: aerial lime, hydraulic lime and/or, more recently, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Lithotypes with higher amount of silica and/or clay component were of special interest due to the hydraulicity of fired product known as "pasta di Praga" in Baroque. However, our recent knowledge of these limestones is incomplete in terms of the contribution of mineralogical, geochemical, and petrographical characteristics on the properties of fired hydraulic lime. In the recent study, representative samples of 4 facies of the Lower Devonian limestone (Kosoř ls., Řeporyje ls., Dvorce-Prokop ls., and Zlíchov ls.) were subjected to a detailed mineralogical and petrographic study of raw material by means of polarizing microscopy, cathodoluminiscence of thin sections and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) of insoluble residues obtained by treatment with both the hydrochloric acid and the acetic acid solution was used. Wet silicate analysis provided data on the content of major elements from which standard cement and lime indexes and modules were calculated. Laboratory firing experiments of these limestone were performed by a calcination at temperature ranging from 850 to 1200°C (after 50°C). XRD of fired products shows that limestones with high content of silica (some of the Dvorce-Prokop ls.) produced binder with high amount of newly formed calcium silicates (larnite). Gehlenite and others calcium aluminates and aluminosilicates are typical for

  9. President of Czech Republic visits ESO's Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    On 6 April 2011, the ESO Paranal Observatory was honoured with a visit from the President of the Czech Republic, Václav Klaus, and his wife Livia Klausová, who also took the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones, the future site of the planned E-ELT. The distinguished visitor was shown the technical installations at the observatory, and was present when the dome of one of the four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope opened for a night's observing at Cerro Paranal, the world's most advanced visible-light observatory. "I'm delighted to welcome President Klaus to the Paranal Observatory and to show him first-hand the world-leading astronomical facility that ESO has designed, has built, and operates for European astronomy," said ESO's Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. President Klaus replied, "I am very impressed by the remarkable technology that ESO has built here in the heart of the desert. Czech astronomers are already making good use of these facilities and we look forward to having Czech industry and its scientific community contribute to the future E-ELT." From the VLT platform, the President had the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones as well as other spectacular views of Chile's Atacama Desert surrounding Paranal. Adjacent to Cerro Paranal, Armazones has been chosen as the site for the future E-ELT (see eso1018). ESO is seeking approval from its governing bodies by the end of 2011 for the go-ahead for the 1-billion euro E-ELT. Construction is expected to begin in 2012 and the start of operations is planned for early in the next decade. President Klaus was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Karel Schwarzenberg, the Czech Ambassador in Chile, Zdenek Kubánek, dignitaries of the government, and a Czech industrial delegation. The group was hosted at Paranal by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Massimo Tarenghi, the Director of Operations, Andreas Kaufer, and Jan Palous

  10. [Surgical treatment of strabismus in the Czech Republic in 1998].

    PubMed

    Dostálek, M

    2000-04-01

    For the first time an anonymous survey by means of questionnaires on the scope and surgical treatment of strabism was used in the Czech Republic in 1998. In 54 departments of the Czech Republic 3167 operations of strabism were made. 80% of the operated patients were children under 15 years of age. The most frequent primary surgical operation was modification of the strength of horizontal muscles. This surgical procedure was implemented in 81.7%. The ratio of primary operations and re-operations in child patients was 10:1. The mean age of child patients during the primary operation of strabism was 4.3 years, on re-operation 7.2 years, the mean period of hospitalization during the primary operation was 4.4 days. Two surgical centres performed more than 20 operations per month. As a matter of routine a surgical microscope was used only by some departments which made less than 5 operations of children suffering from strabism per month. In order to follow up national trends of surgery of strabism the authors will repeat similar investigations in future. PMID:10874792

  11. Experiences of the first PICC team in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lisova, Katerina; Paulinova, Vendula; Zemanova, Katerina; Hromadkova, Jaroslava

    The first specialist nursing team placing peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in the Czech Republic was established in September 2012. During 2013 the team placed 167 PICCs and 162 midline catheters. In another 6 patients the insertion was not successful. PICCs were inserted mainly for oncology patients; while midline catheters were inserted for patients admitted to general wards. Average duration of catheter insertion was 91 days (range 7-285 days) for PICCs and 14 days (range 2-40 days) for midline catheters. During follow up of PICCs, catheter infection rate was 0.3/1000 days, vein thrombosis rate 0.4/1000 days, catheter occlusion 0.4/1000 days, and catheter displacement 0.33/1000 days. For midline catheters infection rate was 1.4/1000 days, vein thrombosis 5.2/1000 days, catheter occlusion 2.6/1000 days, and catheter displacement 2.2/1000 days. The authors hope that these results will motivate other hospitals in the Czech republic to establish PICC teams, as in other European countries. PMID:25616129

  12. GPR use and activities in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryk, Josef; Matula, Radek

    2014-05-01

    In the field of civil engineering applications in the Czech Republic, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used particularly for the diagnostics of roads and bridges. There is no producer of GPR in the Czech Republic, sets of different producers are used, particularly Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (USA) and MALÅ GeoScience (Sweden). The measurement results are mostly processed by software Radan, Road Doctor Pro, ReflexW and RadEx. The only technical specification in the Czech Republic is TP 233 issued by the Ministry of Transport, which describes the diagnostics of roads by GPR. Apart from a basic description of the method and a measurement system, it mentions possible applications. The only application where accuracy is mentioned is the locating of dowels and tie bars in concrete road pavements, which states that if calibration is performed, the expected depth accuracy is up to 1.0 cm. The following R&D project is currently in progress: New diagnostics methods as a supporting decision tool for maintenance and repair of road pavements - their contribution and ways of their usage (2012-2014) The project aims to test possible non-destructive methods (particularly GPR and laser scanning), make recommendations when and how to use specific methods for individual applications and for changes in technical specifications. The following R&D projects have been recently completed: Position of dowels and tie bars in rigid pavements and importance of their correct placement to pavement performance and service life (2012-2013) The project included an analysis of individual NDT methods used for the location of dowels and tie bars and for testing of their accuracy - GPR, MIT-scan and GPR in combination with a metal detector. Multichannel ground penetrating radar as a tool for monitoring of road and bridge structures (2009-2011) The project included detection of hollow spaces under non-reinforced concrete pavements, detection of excessive amount of water in road construction

  13. 40Ar- 39Ar laser dating of tektites from the Cheb Basin (Czech Republic): Evidence for coevality with moldavites and influence of the dating standard on the age of the Ries impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Skála, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Moldavites (Central European tektites) are genetically related to the impact event that produced the ˜24-km diameter Ries crater in Germany, representing one of the youngest large impact structures on Earth. Although several geochronological studies have been completed, there is still no agreement among 40Ar- 39Ar ages on both moldavites and glasses from Ries suevites. Even recently published data yielded within-sample mean ages with a nominal spread of more than 0.6 Ma (14.24-14.88 Ma). This age spread, which significantly exceeds current internal errors, must be in part ascribed to geological and/or analytical causes. This study reports the results of a detailed geochronological investigation of moldavites from the Cheb area (Czech Republic), which have never been dated before, and, for comparison, of two samples from type localities, one in southern Bohemia and the other in western Moravia. We used 40Ar- 39Ar laser step-heating and total fusion techniques in conjunction with microscale petrographic and chemical characterization. In addition, with the purpose of ascertaining the influence of the dating standards on the age of the Ries impact and making data from this study and literature consistent with the now widely used Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) standard, we performed a direct calibration of multi-grain splits of the Fish Canyon biotite (FCT-3) with FCs. The intercalibration factors ( RFCsFCT-3), determined for eight stack positions in one of the three performed irradiations, were indistinguishable within errors and gave an arithmetic mean and a standard deviation of 1.0086 ± 0.0031 (±2 σ), in agreement with previous works suggesting that biotite from the Fish Canyon Tuff is somewhat older (˜0.8%) than the coexisting sanidine. Laser total fusion analysis of milligram to sub-milligram splits of five tektite samples from the Cheb area yielded mostly concordant intrasample 40Ar- 39Ar ages, and within-sample weighted mean ages of 14.66 ± 0.08-14.75 ± 0

  14. Pornography and sex crimes in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Milton; Jozifkova, Eva; Weiss, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Pornography continues to be a contentious matter with those on the one side arguing it detrimental to society while others argue it is pleasurable to many and a feature of free speech. The advent of the Internet with the ready availability of sexually explicit materials thereon particularly has seemed to raise questions of its influence. Following the effects of a new law in the Czech Republic that allowed pornography to a society previously having forbidden it allowed us to monitor the change in sex related crime that followed the change. As found in all other countries in which the phenomenon has been studied, rape and other sex crimes did not increase. Of particular note is that this country, like Denmark and Japan, had a prolonged interval during which possession of child pornography was not illegal and, like those other countries, showed a significant decrease in the incidence of child sex abuse. PMID:21116701

  15. Trichomonosis in Eurasian sparrowhawks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kunca, Tomas; Smejkalova, Pavla; Cepicka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon, doves and songbirds are hosts of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), which causes avian trichomonosis. Raptors are infected when they digest infected prey. A high percentage of the diet of Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus) is comprised of birds. During the breeding season 2012 and 2013, we clinically tested 298 nestling Eurasian sparrowhawks from urban and rural areas of the Czech Republic for the presence of trichomonads. Sparrowhawk nestlings in the urban area were more infected (32.9%) than in the rural area (12.2%) in 2012 (χ(2) = 6.184, P = 0.045). The number of infected nestlings dropped in the urban area (5.4%) and remained similar in the rural area (16.6%) in 2013. Sequences of ITS region and SSU rDNA confirmed that the isolates from infected sparrowhawk nestlings belonged to Trichomonas gallinae. PMID:26198549

  16. [Pharmacoeconomy of diabetes mellitus--trends in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Horák, P

    2009-04-01

    Since 2002, we found relatively stable number of diabetes mellitus cases among clients of General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic. This means, after calculating incidence rate with respect to decline in total numbers of insured during the same period, a 6% increase in real incidence rate. On the doctors side, outpatient, mostly private diabetologists have about the same capacity of their offices, 2.9 physicians (WTE)/100 000 citizens over the last years. Analysis of costs and volume of services provided, clearly demonstrate, that diabetology is medical specialization of a great importance not only from the point of view of number of patients and services provided but also of its influence on the overall health care costs. Data show not only higher average expenses for treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus compared to average expenses incurred for treatments of all other diagnoses, but show also a crucial relationship of costs with presence or absence of diabetes mellitus complications. Money spend by the medical insurance system and also and more importantly health profit to patients can thus be substantially influenced via improvements in organization of care, via higher involvement, compliance of patients to the treatment and to necessary change in their lifestyles and last but not least via increase in quality of care. Cost control can be achieved by strengthening the role of pharmacoeconomics in decisions making processes of health insurance companies, importance of which is demonstrated on the past developments on drug market in the Czech Republic. General Health Insurance Company will target these goals in coming years and in its business plans will also include expected increases of costs for organization of care and for higher renumeration of physicians as well. PMID:19449745

  17. The National Register of Joint Replacements of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vavřík, P; Landor, I; Popelka, S; Fialka, R; Hach, J

    2014-01-01

    The National Register of Joint Replacements of the Czech Republic was established as part of the National Health Information System in 2002. The register's administrator is the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic, the Czech Society for Orthopaedics and Traumatology acts as its guarantor of scientific quality. The register is financed from governmental sources. It was launched into full operation in 2003 and it currently focuses on hip joint replacements. Register of knee and shoulder joint replacements is in the process of preparation. The register provides aggregate epidemiological data and other statistics, including the Revision Rate (RR) and curves of cumulative survival probability (Kaplan-Meier) for the main monitored groups of patients and implants used. In years 2003-2012 there were 101,734 primary implantations and 13,459 revision surgeries registered. In terms of gender distribution there is a predominance of females amounting to 59.4% in primary implantations and to 63.49% in revision surgeries. The age structure covers the entire range of adult population; however, more than 50% of the replacements are being implanted between 60-74 years of age. Most frequent indications for primary implantation are primary coxarthrosis (69.85%), post-fracture conditions (13.41%) and post-dysplasia arthritis (8.73%). The most frequent indications for revision surgery are aseptic loosening of acetabular component (38.15%), aseptic loosening of femoral component (22.01%) and recurrent dislocation (6.5%). 45,450 (44.68%) of primary implantations were cemented, 36,477 (35.86%) uncemented, 16,559 (16.28%) hybrid with cemented femur and 656 (0.64%) hybrid with cemented acetabulum. There were also records of 2,592 cervicocapital prostheses (2.55%). Most commonly used is the classic anterolateral approach 75.86% in primary implantations and 50.06% in revision surgeries. Mini-invasive approaches in primary implantations did not exceed 3.2% of all

  18. Diversity in Language: Outdoor Terminology in the Czech Republic and Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcova, Ivana; Martin, Andy; Neuman, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews literature related to outdoor terminology as it is used within the languages of British English and Czech. It provides the background to the outdoors in the Czech Republic where terminology has adopted and adapted many English language outdoor terms. The paper analyses the differences and similarities between terms and deals…

  19. Policies to Promote Innovation in the Czech Republic. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 498

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goglio, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    The Czech government considers innovation policy a key component of the effort to improve the business environment. This paper underscores the importance for the Czech Republic of expanding R&D activities that have a potential for commercial innovation. It also points to the relevance of good general business conditions in encouraging research and…

  20. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    SciTech Connect

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  1. Teachers and School Culture in the Czech Republic before and after 1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of research on school culture in post-totalitarian society in the Czech Republic. The research explored restructuralisation and reculturalisation in the Czech school education system through analysis of school culture in one school located in a midsized town in the central part of the country. In-depth…

  2. Modeling Floods under Climate Change Condition in Otava River, Czech Republic: A Time Scale Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhelka, J.; Krejci, J.; Vlasak, T.

    2009-04-01

    While modeling of climate change (CC) impact on low flow and water balance is commonly done using daily time series of Global Circulation models (GCM) outputs, assessing CC impact on rare events as floods demands for special methodology. Paper demonstrates methodology, results and its sensitivity to the length of simulation in meso-scale basin. Multiple regional projection of temperature and precipitation under A2, A1B a B1 scenarios for 2040-2069 were evaluated in study of Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Charles University (Pretel et al. 2008) for the Czech Republic. Daily time series of length of 30 years and 100 years (precipitation, Tmax, Tmin) were generated using LARS-WG (Semenov, 2008) based on expected monthly change of temperature and precipitation amount and variability for upper Otava river basin in mountainous region in SW Bohemia. Daily precipitation data were distributed into 6h time step using three step random generator. Spatial distribution of precipitation was based on random sampling of relevant historical analogues while temperature was distributed using simple vertical gradient rule. Derived time series of A2, A1B, B1 and recent climate (RC) scenarios inputted calibrated hydrological modeling system AquaLog (using SAC-SMA for rainfall-runoff modeling). Correction of SAC-SMA parameter defining potential evapotranspiration for changed climate was applied. Evaluation was made for Susice profile (534.5 km2), representing the mountainous part of the basin, and downstream Katovice profile (1133.4 km2). Results proved expected decrease of annual flow by 5-10 % (10-15 % in summer, 0-5 % in winter) for all modeled CC scenarios (for period 2040-2069) compared to recent climate. Design flows were computed based on yearly peaks using standard methodology. Decrease in design flow curves was observed for Katovice while no change (A1B, B1) or increase (A2) was found for Susice in 100 years time series. Estimates of 100y floods based on 30 or 100 years

  3. Theory and practice of informed consent in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Krizova, Eva; Simek, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    The large‐scale change of Czech society since 1989 has involved the democratic transformation of the health system. To empower the patient was one important goal of the healthcare reform launched immediately after the Velvet Revolution. The process has been enhanced by the accession of the Czech Republic to the European Union and the adoption of important European conventions regulating the area. The concept of informed consent and a culture of negotiation are being inserted into a traditionally paternalistic culture. Our article describes the current situation on the issue of the communication of information on state of health and treatment, and on the question of the participation of the patient in decisions on treatment. We present empirical results of a public opinion survey on this issue. The results show a still prevailing submissive attitude towards the physicians, despite the fact that the concept of informed consent has become more and more publicly familiar (42% of respondents gave the completely correct answer regarding informed consent). The impact of age, education and sex on answers to the questionnaire was analysed. Men, younger and more educated respondents were more likely to show the autonomous attitude, whereas women, older and less educated people tended to show the traditional submissive attitude. Further, our article raises the question of the cultural and historical background within which the current ethically and legally binding norms (products of western democracies, in fact) are interpreted. The question is how far cultural modifications are tolerable in the practical implementation of universal ethical constructs (informed consent). PMID:17470503

  4. Charging systems for municipal solid waste: experience from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Petr; Parízková, Libuse; Hadrabová, Alena

    2008-12-01

    The paper presents results of research into municipal waste treatment in the Czech Republic. Its special focus is on the impacts of various municipal solid waste charging systems on separating and recycling efforts of municipalities and households. The municipal solid waste charging systems are shortly described first, including the principles of the relevant Czech legislation. It shows that the Czech waste legislation provides space for implementing Pay-as-You-Throw (PAYT) models in the Czech Republic. The main results of representative surveys conducted by the authors within the EU PAYT project in 2003 in selected Czech municipalities and Prague households are shown. The survey confirmed that in municipalities that apply the PAYT charging system, citizens separate more waste and produce less residual waste. The survey data analysis has also shown which factors contributing to satisfactory waste separation are relevant and should be taken into the account when providing policy recommendations for introducing PAYT charging systems in other cities. PMID:18804364

  5. Development of the local quasigeoid model for the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvadba, Otakar; Holota, Petr; Lederer, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Increasing demands for precise GNSS levelling in the Czech Republic as well as exclusively available gravity and terrain data raised up the realization of a more accurate transformation between the ETRS and the vertical reference system Bpv (Baltic after adjustment), known also as a quasigeoid model. In order to meet high accuracy requirements for the model, the setting and the solution of the geodetic boundary value problem were reconsidered. The problem is formulated for gravity disturbances and the representation formula for the solution was derived by means of the Green's function method constructed for an oblate ellipsoid of revolution. Resulting integral kernel, as an analogue to the so-called Hotine function, was used in the convolution for numerical evaluation of the disturbing potential. The difference between the ellipsoid and the terrain was taken into account through successive approximations. The resulting solution leads to a detailed knowledge of the residual disturbing potential T on the Earth's surface in the area of interest. In addition, restoring the global low-frequency part of T and inserting non-gravitational systematical effects associated with Bpv, that have been identified too, make it possible to interpret the results in terms of height anomalies or quasigeoid heights within the Bpv system. The resolution, accuracy and precision of the transformation between ETRS and Bpv is discussed and compared with the quasigeoid models available today.

  6. Manganese biogeochemistry in a central Czech Republic catchment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Navratil, T.; Shanley, J.B.; Skrivan, P.; Kram, P.; Mihaljevic, M.; Drahota, P.

    2007-01-01

    Mn biogeochemistry was studied from 1994 to 2003 in a small forested catchment in the central Czech Republic using the watershed mass balance approach together with measurements of internal stores and fluxes. Mn inputs in bulk deposition were relatively constant during a period of sharply decreasing acidic deposition, suggesting that the Mn source was terrestrial, and not from fossil fuel combustion. Mn inputs in bulk deposition and Mn supplied by weathering each averaged 13 mg m-2 year-1 (26 mg m -2 year-1 total input), whereas Mn export in streamwater and groundwater averaged 43 mg m-2 year-1. Thus an additional Mn source is needed to account for 17 mg m-2 year -1. Internal fluxes and pools of Mn were significantly greater than annual inputs and outputs. Throughfall Mn flux was 70 mg m-2 year-1, litterfall Mn flux was 103 mg m-2 year -1, and Mn net uptake by vegetation was 62 mg m-2 year-1. Large pools of labile or potentially labile Mn were present in biomass and surficial soil horizons. Small leakages from these large pools likely supply the additional Mn needed to close the watershed mass balance. This leakage may reflect an adjustment of the ecosystem to recent changes in atmospheric acidity. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Luděk; Landa, Martin; Neuman, Martin; Kožant, Petr; Muller, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this contribution is to introduce the recently started three year's project named "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Its main goal is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The outcomes of the project will especially be helpful in modelling hydrological or soil erosion problems when designing common measures for promoting water retention or landscape drainage systems in or out of the scope of Landscape consolidation projects. The precipitation scenarios will be derived from 10 years of observed data from point gauging stations and radar data. The analysis is focused on events' return period, rainfall total amount, internal intensity distribution and spatial distribution over the area of Czech Republic. The methodology will account for the choice of the simulation model. Several representatives of practically oriented models will be tested for the output sensitivity to selected precipitation scenario comparing to variability connected with other inputs uncertainty. The variability of the outputs will also be assessed in the context of economic impacts in design of landscape water structures or mitigation measures. The research was supported by the grant QJ1520265 of the Czech Ministry of Agriculture, using data provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute.

  8. Reported and intended behaviour towards those with mental health problems in the Czech Republic and England.

    PubMed

    Winkler, P; Csémy, L; Janoušková, M; Mladá, K; Bankovská Motlová, L; Evans-Lacko, S

    2015-09-01

    This is one of the first studies, which compares the level of stigmatizing behaviour in countries that used to be on the opposite sides of the Iron Curtain. The aim was to identify the prevalence of reported and intended stigmatizing behaviour towards those with mental health problems in the Czech Republic and to compare these findings with the findings from England. The 8-item Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) was used to assess stigmatising behaviour among a representative sample of the Czech population (n=1797). Results were compared with the findings of an analogous survey from England (n=1720), which also used the RIBS. The extent of reported behaviour (i.e., past and present experiences with those with mental health problems) was lower in the Czech Republic than in England. While 12.7% of Czechs reported that they lived, 12.9% that they worked, and 15.3% that they were acquainted with someone who had mental health problems, the respective numbers for England were 18.5%, 26.3% and 32.5% (P<0.001 in each of these items). On the other hand, the extent of intended stigmatizing behaviour towards those with mental health problems is considerably higher in the Czech Republic. Out of maximum 20 points attached to possible responses to the RIBS items 5-8, Czechs had a lower total score (x=11.0, SD=4.0) compared to English respondents (x=16.1, SD=3.6), indicating lower willingness to accept a person with mental health problems (P<0.001). The prevalence of stigmatizing behaviour in the Czech Republic is worrying. Both, further research and evidence based anti-stigma interventions, should be pursued in order to better understand and decrease stigmatizing behaviour in the Czech Republic and possibly across the post-communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:26113172

  9. Radiocaesium levels in game in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Škrkal, Jan; Rulík, Petr; Fantínová, Karin; Mihalík, Ján; Timková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of monitoring of (137)Cs activities in game species roaming in the woods over the territory of the Czech Republic for the time interval of 1986-2012. Geometric means and other statistical characteristics were estimated from the data sets on the assumption of log-normal distribution of the data from the time interval 2004-2012 where the character of data distribution had displayed no significant change. Geometric means (in Bq/kg) in meat were: wild boar 5.1, red deer 1.9, roe deer 0.77 and feathered game 0.14. The mean value in the less frequent game amounted to 0.36 Bq/kg. The geometrical standard deviation (GSD) widely varied from 1.6 to 21 for the studied species. Based on mass activity dependence on time, we assessed the effective and environmental half-lives of activity decline. For red deer and roe deer, the effective (137)Cs half-life was 2.9 and 3.2 years, and environmental half-life 3.2 and 3.6 years respectively. The effective half-life of (137)Cs in wild boar of 38 years was determined with large uncertainty and it shows constant influx of (137)Cs activity to the digestive tract of wild boars. A statistically significant season-based (137)Cs level was found in red deer and wild boar. Higher winter and spring activities of (137)Cs in wild boar are linked with decreasing access to naturally occurring food with lower (137)Cs content (chestnuts, acorns, and beech nuts), making boar grub around for ground-deposited food (often for mushrooms with higher activity). Higher winter activities of (137)Cs in red deer meat, most probably, are due to lower access to green diet in winter. The average annual committed effective dose for Czech population based on estimates of game species meat consumption between 2004 and 2012 was insignificant, only 0.03 μSv. PMID:25464037

  10. Biological monitoring of child lead exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cikrt, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Blaha, K; Nerudova, J; Sediva, V; Fornuskova, H; Knotkova, J; Roth, Z; Kodl, M; Fitzgerald, E

    1997-04-01

    The area around the Pribram lead smelter has been recognized to be heavily contaminated by lead (Pb). In the early 1970s, several episodes of livestock lead intoxication were reported in this area; thereafter, several epidemiological and ecological studies focused on exposure of children. In contrast to earlier studies, the recent investigation (1992-1994) revealed significantly lower exposure to lead. From 1986-1990, recorded average blood lead levels were about 37.2 micrograms lead (Pb)/100 ml in an elementary school population living in a neighborhood close to the smelter (within 3 km of the plant). The present study, however, has found mean blood lead levels of 11.35 micrograms/100 ml (95% CI = 9.32; 13.82) among a comparable group of children. In addition to blood lead, tooth lead was used to assess exposure among children. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the geometric mean tooth lead level of 6.44 micrograms Pb/g (n = 13; 95% CI = 3.95; 10.50) in the most contaminated zone and 1.43 micrograms Pb/g (n = 35; 95% CI = 1.11; 1.84) in zones farther away from the point source. Both biomarkers, blood and tooth lead levels, reflect a similar pattern of lead exposure in children. This study has attempted a quantitative assessment of risk factors associated with elevated lead exposure in the Czech Republic. Content of lead in soil, residential distance from the smelter, consumption of locally grown vegetables or fruits, drinking water from local wells, the mother's educational level, cigarette consumption among family members, and the number of children in the family were factors positively related (p < 0.05) to blood lead levels. The resulting blood lead level was found to be inversely proportional to the child's age. PMID:9189705

  11. Biological monitoring of child lead exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Cikrt, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Blaha, K; Nerudova, J; Sediva, V; Fornuskova, H; Knotkova, J; Roth, Z; Kodl, M; Fitzgerald, E

    1997-01-01

    The area around the Pribram lead smelter has been recognized to be heavily contaminated by lead (Pb). In the early 1970s, several episodes of livestock lead intoxication were reported in this area; thereafter, several epidemiological and ecological studies focused on exposure of children. In contrast to earlier studies, the recent investigation (1992-1994) revealed significantly lower exposure to lead. From 1986-1990, recorded average blood lead levels were about 37.2 micrograms lead (Pb)/100 ml in an elementary school population living in a neighborhood close to the smelter (within 3 km of the plant). The present study, however, has found mean blood lead levels of 11.35 micrograms/100 ml (95% CI = 9.32; 13.82) among a comparable group of children. In addition to blood lead, tooth lead was used to assess exposure among children. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the geometric mean tooth lead level of 6.44 micrograms Pb/g (n = 13; 95% CI = 3.95; 10.50) in the most contaminated zone and 1.43 micrograms Pb/g (n = 35; 95% CI = 1.11; 1.84) in zones farther away from the point source. Both biomarkers, blood and tooth lead levels, reflect a similar pattern of lead exposure in children. This study has attempted a quantitative assessment of risk factors associated with elevated lead exposure in the Czech Republic. Content of lead in soil, residential distance from the smelter, consumption of locally grown vegetables or fruits, drinking water from local wells, the mother's educational level, cigarette consumption among family members, and the number of children in the family were factors positively related (p < 0.05) to blood lead levels. The resulting blood lead level was found to be inversely proportional to the child's age. Images Figure 1. PMID:9189705

  12. Geospatial Data for Computerisation of Public Administration in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cada, V.; Mildorf, T.

    2011-08-01

    The main aim of the eGovernment programme in the Czech Republic is to enhance the efficiency of public administration. The Digital Map of Public Administration (DMVS) should be composed of digital orthophotographs of the Czech Republic, digital and digitised cadastral maps, digital purpose cadastral map (ÚKM) and a technical map of municipality, if available. The DMVS project is a part of computerisation of public administration in the Czech Republic. The project enhances the productivity of government administration and also simplifies the processes between citizens and public administration. The DMVS project, that should be compliant with the INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community) initiative, generates definite demand for geodata on the level of detail of land data model. The user needs that are clearly specified and required are not met due to inconsistencies in terminology, data management and level of detail.

  13. Newly identified historical tornadoes in the Czech Republic from 16th to the 20th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacinová, Martina; Munzar, Jan; Franc, Marek

    2007-02-01

    Tornadoes have occurred in the territory of the Czech Republic throughout history. Although their frequency and intensity are not as high as in the USA, they can cause severe damage as well. That is why a systematic effort to document individual occurrences of this dangerous meteorological phenomenon as far as possible back into the past began in the 1990s. The aim of this investigation is to extend the first European catalogue of tornadoes originally published by Wegener [Wegener A., 1917. Wind-und Wasserhosen in Europe], by the addition of these cases from the Czech Republic. This paper adds further to Setvák, Šálek and Munzar [ Setvák M., Šálek M., Munzar J., 2003. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic—from medieval chronicles to the internet society. Atmos. Res. 67-68, 589-605], who reported the earliest documented tornado in the land of the Czech Republic which occurred in AD 1119 in Prague. In so doing, it presents recently discovered tornado cases from the 16th to the early 20th centuries, found in a variety of historical sources since the last ECSS conference held in Prague in 2002. In particular we will focus on the case from Jablonec nad Nisou (northern Bohemia) in 1925, which was probably the first case in the Czech Republic with accompanying photographic documentation of damage caused by a tornado.

  14. Privatisation, Decentralisation And Governance In Education In The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany And Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daun, Holger

    2004-07-01

    The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden differ culturally and economically, but they commonly exhibit general trends of decentralisation in the control of educational processes and outcomes. The present contribution looks at these five European countries as the venue for case studies in educational restructuring as well as evaluation, assessment and reporting. It shows that such trends have been most radical in the Czech Republic and Sweden, while England has centralised curriculum policy and France has devolved some decision-making to bodies at lower levels, but as representatives of the central state.

  15. The role of coal in the economy of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Doruska, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with high total reserves of hard coal and lignite. Therefore coal always had and still has a significant role in covering the power demand of the Czech Republic. Transition of the national economy, based on the principles of the market economy and private ownership, affects among others also behavior of the mining companies. A strong emphasis is also aimed at the environmental aspects concerning both the process of coal mining and the process of its utilization. Within these intentions the power policy of the Czech Republic is formulated. The Czech Republic, which has 10 mil. inhabitants, ranks among the countries with a high share of industry in the process of creating the gross national product. This state has its historical roots as on the present territory of the Czech Republic there had been concentrated a majority of industrial and mining capacities of the Hapsburg Empire. The First World War resulted among others in the decline of the Hapsburg Empire. Within this process Czechoslovak Republic was established (apart from other things the center of democracy in the Central Europe). In that republic the industry had an important position. The industrial potential had been expanded even during the occupation of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in the years 1939 - 1945. After the Second World War when Europe was divided into two political spheres Czechoslovakia became a significant industrial base of so called East Bloc. Such a development and the needs of the Eastern Bloc resulted in the intensive development of the heavy industry on the territory of Czechoslovakia.

  16. Tertiary Education in the Czech Republic: The Pathway to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesik, Richard; Gounko, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes recent policy proposals to reform Czech tertiary education. A brief overview of the evolution of Czech tertiary education presents the background against which emerging policy trends in education are examined. We relate the changes in tertiary education to the policy framework and recommendations of the OECD, underpinned by…

  17. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-01

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the "cave factor" 1.5. The value of "cave factor" which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  18. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-07

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free {sup 218}Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin

  19. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of the Concept was required, amongst other reasons in

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Posture in School Children in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratenova, Jana; Zejglicova, Kristyna; Maly, Marek; Filipova, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence and the main risk factors of poor posture in school children in the Czech Republic. Methods: The cross-sectional study examined representative sample of children aged 7, 11, and 15 years in the year 2003. From the overall number of 3600 children, 3520 (97.7%) attended and were…

  1. Higher Education Finance Reform in the Czech Republic: Transitions in Thought and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education in the Czech Republic is going through an important transition, both politically and economically. New methods of financing university operations are necessary during the transition to a market economy as government funds are increasingly being drawn to other areas. Government and academic officials have worked together in the…

  2. Civic Education in the Czech Republic: Curriculum Reform for Democratic Citizenship. Evaluator's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    This report evaluates a project undertaken in the Czech Republic to create lesson scenarios to revise the existing social studies curricular framework for the third form of secondary school (ages 17-18) with special reference to the overarching objectives for civic education reform started in 1989. These objectives included the elimination of…

  3. Managing Cognitive Dissonance: Experience from an Environmental Education Teachers' Training Course in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincera, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of seven in-service environmental education teacher training courses conducted in the Czech Republic in 2009-2011. The evaluation applied a grounded theory approach. 14 focus groups, 13 interviews and two post-programme questionnaires were used. The evaluation describes a process of managing cognitive…

  4. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Czech Republic 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajdova, Andrea; Slavik, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Czech Republic's arts and cultural education. The decisions related to cultural and creative dimension of education are made at the central level, by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The Ministry is responsible for the development of the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE). One of the aims…

  5. Home Education in the Post-Communist Countries: Case Study of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additional information about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever…

  6. Educational Leadership Development in England and the Czech Republic: Comparing Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundrett, Mark; Slavikova, Lenka; Karabec, Stanislav; Murden, Brendan; Dering, Ann; Nicolaido, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The development of educational leadership programmes and qualifications has become an international phenomenon in recent years. This article is one of a series that springs out of a British Council sponsored conference held in the Czech Republic in 2003, organized jointly by the Educational Management Centre of the Faculty of Education at Charles…

  7. Lost in Translation: Ever Changing and Competing Purposes for National Examinations in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greger, D.; Kifer, E.

    2012-01-01

    In reaction to central control of schooling by the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic countered with what some say was the most decentralized system in Europe. While the political move to democracy was extraordinarily successful, there were numerous governments between 1989 and the present. The combination of the decentralized control of schooling…

  8. Reported Prevalence of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices by Special Educators in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark; Strnadova, Iva; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The reported level of use of eight instructional strategies in a sample of 531 special educators in the Czech Republic was examined in this study. Consistent with recent parallel studies in North America and Australia, the respondents reported that they used a combination of evidence-based instructional practices (such as direct instruction and…

  9. Personality and Religion among Secondary School Pupils in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Quesnell, Michael; Lewis, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    The short-form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 1,780 boys and 1,634 girls attending secondary schools in the Czech Republic, together with the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity. On the one hand, two of the findings are consistent with those from a series of studies employing the same measure of religiosity…

  10. Adolescents during and after Times of Social Change: The Case of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macek, Petr; Ježek, Stanislav; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a set of four studies focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic. In the first part, authors reflect on the cultural background, the political, social, and psychological factors that have had influence on several generations of adolescents in the period of the communist totalitarian regime. They also describe the social…

  11. Privatisation, Decentralisation and Governance in Education in The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The Czech Republic, England, France, Germany and Sweden differ culturally and economically, but they commonly exhibit general trends of decentralisation in the control of educational processes and outcomes. The present contribution looks at these five European countries as the venue for case studies in educational restructuring as well as…

  12. Solving the "Gypsy Problem": "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New, William S.; Merry, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the "discourse moment" constituted by "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic" might affect the future of schooling for Roma youth. In this article, the authors follow the scheme proposed by Lilie Chouliaraki and Norman Fairclough, who suggest a five-part framework for critical discourse analysis: statement of the problem,…

  13. A Dynamic Model of Forces Affecting the Implementation of Educational Change in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Cerna, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Examines the educational change process in the Czech Republic since 1989, focusing on persistence of past attitudes, change complexity, external factors facilitating change, role of national reform organizations, absence of conceptually coherent educational policy, growing advocacy for special education, and parent and teacher attitudes. Explores…

  14. The Role of Parents in Relation to School: Case of the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabusicova, Milada; Emmerova, Katerina; Cihacek, Vlastimil; Sedova, Klara

    This paper is a sequel to the paper titled "The Role of Parents as Educational and Social Partners of the School in the Czech Republic: Legislation and Media Analysis." This paper presents the results of the second stage of a 3-year study that sought to learn how the schools perceive parents. This segment of the study looked at four possible…

  15. Usutu virus in blackbirds (Turdus merula), Czech Republic, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I; Čapek, M; Bakonyi, T; Betášová, L; Nowotny, N

    2014-06-01

    The central European lineage of Usutu virus was isolated from a blackbird (Turdus merula), which was found dead in the city of Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011. The virus RNA was detected in two other dead blackbirds in Brno during 2012. PMID:23095331

  16. Background Study on Employment and Labour Market in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munich, Daniel; Jurajda, Stepan; Cihak, Martin

    The current recession in the Czech Republic is driven by aggregate demand, unsustainable growth of wages, weak enforcement of the legal system, non-operational bankruptcy law, and poor corporate governance. The wage dispersion has been growing continuously, and wage setting has become increasingly more responsive to market forces. Education has…

  17. Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation

    PubMed Central

    Modrá, Helena; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the most frequent cases of poisoning in farm animals, horses, cats, dogs, wild animals, fish and honey-bees in the Czech Republic. At present, there are fewer cases of acute poisoning caused by high doses of toxic substances but there are more and more cases of chronic poisoning as a consequence of environmental pollution. PMID:21217846

  18. Digitization of Manuscripts in the National Library of the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psohlavec, Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    Considers the relationship of the quality of images with the needs of users of digitized manuscripts. Highlights include goals of digitization; for whom to digitize; experiences of the National Library of the Czech Republic digitizing and providing electronic access to historical documents; preparation of manuscript descriptions; usability of…

  19. The state of psychiatry in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Höschl, Cyril; Winkler, Petr; Pěč, Ondřej

    2012-08-01

    This overview of Czech psychiatry begins with a brief review of its history; outlines its social, political and economic determinants and then describes the field itself. Both epidemiological and service-related information are discussed, together with the issues for mental health personnel, education and research. The heavy burden of communist history pervades most areas and must be taken into account in the specific characteristics that influence both the current situation and future prospects of Czech psychiatry. This consideration is essential for orientation in the field and to understand Czech particularities. The greatest challenges, however, originate from the fundamental changes that are going on in the world today. These challenges reach beyond national boundaries and include such phenomena as globalization, migration, ageing population, growing burden of mental ill health, the still prevailing stigma towards psychiatry, and the psychological roots and consequences of current financial and societal crises. PMID:22950765

  20. [European action plan on alcohol in the Czech Republic--no substantial progress].

    PubMed

    Csémy, L; Nespor, K

    2004-01-01

    Czech Republic joined European action plan on alcohol for years 2000 to 2004 and signed its accomplishment. However, since 2000 situation has worsened. Alcohol consumption raised in 2001 (the last known data) to 10.0 litters of 100% alcohol (that is 159.9 litters of beer, 8.2 litters of distillates and 16.2 litters of wine per person per year). The only positive aspect was the small rise of consumption tax in distillates and that some thesis of the European action plan on alcohol were included into the governmental document "Long-term improvement of the health status of the population in Czech republic--Health for everybody in the 21st century". The proclamation has had no practical effect. Highly adverse is the situation with alcohol consumption in children and adolescents, which was described in the last study. Risks related to the high alcohol consumption in Czech republic include: High incidence of alcohol related death, including children, adolescents and young people (injuries, traffic accidents, poisonings, suicides, liver and tumor diseases); higher morbidity; lower productivity at work and worse position of Czech workers in concurrent environment; worse reproduction health, higher incidence of inborn defects caused by alcohol taken during pregnancy (including its beginning, when women do not know it); frequent social and family problems caused by alcohol abuses; increased risk of consumption of non-alcoholic drugs in children and adolescents. Alcohol belong to throughway drugs and its consumption in early age represents for children and adolescents a risk factor for other addictive drugs; alcohol is related namely to violent and negligent delicts; flagrant alcohol excesses together with alcohol related criminality harm the prestige of Czech Republic to foreign visitors and can drive them back. PMID:15305772

  1. 76 FR 76384 - U.S. Education Mission to Poland and Czech Republic Warsaw, Poland and Prague, Czech Republic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... by their foreign language curriculum. English is the first choice for a second language in this... while technical areas rank as their third choice. English is the standard second language in the Czech... recent government decision that will make English language mandatory for primary school students...

  2. Overview of large scale experiments performed within the LBB project in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Kadecka, P.; Lauerova, D.

    1997-04-01

    During several recent years NRI Rez has been performing the LBB analyses of safety significant primary circuit pipings of NPPs in Czech and Slovak Republics. The analyses covered the NPPs with reactors WWER 440 Type 230 and 213 and WWER 1000 Type 320. Within the relevant LBB projects undertaken with the aim to prove the fulfilling of the requirements of LBB, a series of large scale experiments were performed. The goal of these experiments was to verify the properties of the components selected, and to prove the quality and/or conservatism of assessments used in the LBB-analyses. In this poster, a brief overview of experiments performed in Czech Republic under guidance of NRI Rez is presented.

  3. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    Dolejš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies), of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereua wilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobius alenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobius corrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; Lithobius creticus Dobroruka, 1977; Lithobius erythrocephalus mohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; Lithobius evae Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobius magurensis Dobroruka, 1971; Lithobius purkynei Dobroruka, 1957; Lithobius tatricus Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobius tatricus monounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobius homolaci Dobroruka, 1971; Monotarsobius krali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymerium dilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; Pachymerium hanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendra aztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamia olympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan). The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid. PMID:26257531

  4. [Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in the Czech Republic and in other countries].

    PubMed

    Grillová, L; Mikalová, L; Zákoucká, H; Židlická, J; Šmajs, D

    2015-03-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. In the Czech Republic, several hundred cases of syphilis are reported annually; e.g. in 2012, 696 syphilis cases were documented. In the last decades, an increasing prevalence of macrolide resistant TPA strains harboring A2058G or A2059G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene has been reported. Macrolides were used (and rarely are still being used) in the Czech Republic for the treatment of syphilis in patients allergic to penicillin. While 37% of TPA strains were resistant to macrolides between 2004 and 2010, this rate increased to 67% between 2011-2013. High prevalence of A2058G or A2059G mutations and increasing rates of macrolide resistant TPA strains have also been documented in other developed countries. Therefore, macrolides should not be used in the treatment of syphilis. PMID:25872989

  5. Reproductive agency and projects: Germans searching for egg donation in Spain and the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Sven

    2011-11-01

    German patients in search of IVF with egg donation (which is prohibited by German law) are increasingly deciding to travel to clinics in other countries (mostly to the Czech Republic and Spain) that are able to provide them with the eggs of other women. Through three case studies of German couples who crossed international borders for IVF with egg donation, this article provides insight into these transnational practices aiming to circumvent restrictions in reproduction, whatever they may be. The material for this article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews conducted in Germany, Spain and the Czech Republic, as well as research undertaken on IVF internet bulletin boards. The concepts of 'reproductive agency' and 'reproductive projects' are used to analyse the ways in which people search for information about treatments and clinics in other countries, how they embed the practice into their daily lives and how they deal with and position themselves regarding the need for reproductive travel. PMID:21840759

  6. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Dolejš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies), of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereuawilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobiusalenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobiuscorrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; Lithobiuscreticus Dobroruka, 1977; Lithobiuserythrocephalusmohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; Lithobiusevae Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobiusmagurensis Dobroruka, 1971; Lithobiuspurkynei Dobroruka, 1957; Lithobiustatricus Dobroruka, 1958; Lithobiustatricusmonounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobiushomolaci Dobroruka, 1971; Monotarsobiuskrali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymeriumdilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; Pachymeriumhanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendraaztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamiaolympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan). The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid. PMID:26257531

  7. Relationship between drought severity and observed regional yields in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Možný, Martin; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Although the Czech Republic is not generally characterized as a drought prone region within European context, drought occurs and is one of the most important climatic extremes in terms of economic damages. Crop production is highly sensitive to soil water availability and the rainfed agriculture almost dominantly prevails in the Czech Republic. Generally we can observe trends towards drier conditions with more often and more severe drought episodes. Based on this, the impact analyzes are very important. The relationship between drought episodes (with various timing and severity) and observed decrease of yields at district level (NUTS4) during the period from 2000 to 2014 was analyzed within submitted study. The observed yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape from 14 districts were used (210 seasons are included). All districts are positioned within southeastern part of the Czech Republic and represent various agro-climatic conditions. The regressions between various drought indicators (as independent variables) and yields (dependent variable) were established. For this purpose the several drought indicators in monthly time step were derived as spatial average for arable land (each district separately). The difference between precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ET0), average soil moisture content available for crops up to 40 cm and 100 cm depth, percent of time with soil moisture below 50 % and below 30 % of available soil moisture up to 100 cm depth were used. For reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and soil water estimates SoilClim model was used. This software is the main module used within Drought monitoring system in the Czech Republic (www.intersucho.cz). Within this study SoilClim was used in resolution 500 x 500 meters within grids of arable land. The soil water holding capacity as well as vegetation development was considered. By this way the yield losses due to various drought intensity was identified and compared. In case

  8. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  9. Steady increase of lymphogranuloma venereum cases, Czech Republic, 2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rob, Filip; Jůzlová, Kateřina; Krutáková, Helena; Zákoucká, Hana; Vaňousová, Daniela; Kružicová, Zuzana; Machala, Ladislav; Veselý, Dan; Jilich, David; Hercogová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Since the notification of the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in the Czech Republic in 2010, the numbers of LGV cases have steadily increased in the country. In 2015, 40 LGV cases were diagnosed, bringing the total for 2010-2015, to 88 cases. The profile of the most affected group, HIV-positive men who have sex with men with a previous sexually transmitted infection, matches that of those described in LGV outbreaks in western Europe. PMID:27020297

  10. [Mortality evolution in the Czech Socialist Republic, by sex and age in 1950-1984].

    PubMed

    Rychtarikova, J

    1987-01-01

    Postwar mortality evolution in the Czech Socialist Republic has run through 2 different stages with the turning point being 1960. Since about the beginning of the 1960s, the mortality level in the Czech Socialist Republic has quickly declined for both sexs and in each age category. The rate of decline has slowed with increasing age. Since the 1960s, the mortality of the older population has ceased to decline or has worsened; with men, this phenomenon spread even as low as 40 years old. Infant and child mortality, male mortality under 40 years of age, and female mortality under 50 years of age positively contributed to a longer life span, except between 1960 and 1970. The present mortality situation in the Czech Socialist Republic is the result of the unfavorable developments of the last 20 years, especially in the decade 1960-1970. The present age structure of mortality is characterized by higher infant mortality, higher male mortality above 40 years of age, and higher female mortality at 50-55 years of age. A certain improvement observed in the last few years is relative, as the mortality of the male population over 30 is the same today as it was 35 years ago and the mortality of the female population is the same as it was in the mid-1960s. PMID:12314972

  11. Novel Cryptosporidium bat genotypes III and IV in bats from the USA and Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Hořická, Anna; Sak, Bohumil; Prediger, Jitka; Salát, Jiří; Širmarová, Jana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Clark, Mark; Chelladurai, Jeba Rose Jennifer Jesudoss; Gillam, Erin; McEvoy, John

    2015-10-01

    Bats from the families Rhinolophidae (n = 90) and Vespertilionidae (n = 191) in the USA and Czech Republic were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by microscopic and molecular analysis of faecal samples collected from rectum of dissected animals and from the ground beneath roosting sites. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 281 faecal specimens examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Nested PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA and actin genes were used to identify isolates and infer evolutionary relationships. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in a western small-footed bat (Myotis ciliolabrum) from the USA and a common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) from the Czech Republic. Two novel genotypes were identified and named Cryptosporidium bat genotype III and IV. Bat genotype III was found in two big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) from the USA. Bat genotype IV was detected in two common pipistrelle bats from the Czech Republic. PMID:26255170

  12. Management of Spent and Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in the Czech Republic - 12124

    SciTech Connect

    Podlaha, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Czech Republic is a country with a well-developed peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. Sealed Radioactive Sources (further also SRS) are broadly used in many areas in the Czech Republic, e.g. in research, industry, medicine, education, agriculture, etc. Legislation in the field of ionizing radiation source utilization has been fully harmonized with European Community legislation. SRS utilization demands a proper system which must ensure the safe use of SRS, including the management of disused (spent) and orphaned SRS. In the Czech Republic, a comprehensive system of SRS management has been established that is comparable with systems in other developed countries. The system covers both legal and institutional aspects. The Central Register of Ionizing Radiation Sources is an important part of the system. It is a tracking system that covers all activities related to SRS, from their production or import to the end of their use (recycling or disposal). Many spent SRS are recycled and can be used for other purposes after inspection, repacking or reprocessing. When the disused SRS are not intended for further use, they are managed as radioactive waste (RAW). The system of SRS management also ensures the suitable resolution of situations connected with improper SRS handling (in the case of orphaned sources, accidents, etc.). (author)

  13. Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae) from Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej; Pavlásek, Ivan; Vorel, Aleš

    2015-08-01

    Between March 2012 and April 2014, we performed post-mortem parasitological examinations of 11 Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) from the basins of four main rivers (Dyje, Labe, Morava, Vltava) in the Czech Republic. The cause of death of five adult animals was unknown, three adult animals died after being hit by cars, while one young and one adult as a result of serious injuries and one juvenile male drowned. The trematode Stichorchis subtriquetrus (Rudolphi, 1814) Lühe, 1909 was only found in the caecum body and caecum apex of nine beavers (82%), with no significant differences in parasite intensity among beavers. The highest number of trematodes (271) occurred in an adult female in July 2013; while a range of 1-57 individuals were found in other positive beavers. S. subtriquetrus size in both parts of the caecum was 11.0-17.0 × 5.5-8.0 mm (mean 14.3 × 6.9 mm). Results demonstrated that for the optimal detection of eggs, it was necessary to examine at least 10 g of faeces with a new modified method of sedimentation. The size range of 30 eggs was 157.1-182.5 × 99.3-109.8 μm (mean 168.0 × 104.4 μm). There were no differences in prevalence and seasonal occurrence of S. subtriquetrus between male and female beavers. We did not find any other intestinal endoparasites or tissue parasites (Sarcocystis spp., Trichinella spp.). PMID:25916466

  14. Previously expressed wishes in the Czech republic--a missed chance of the Czech legislator.

    PubMed

    Peterková, Helena

    2013-12-01

    By ratification of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, previously expressed wishes as a completely new institute have been, via Article 9, implemented in the Czech legal system. With no history of practical experience with previously expressed wishes, and after more than 6 years of legislative work on the new Act on Healthcare Service, a unique provision was enacted which is actually not meant to serve as an instrument enabling withdrawal of the mechanical support of vital functions. In this paper, the great paradox of the Czech legal provision on previously expressed wishes is to be discussed and critically analyzed in order to explain the seriousness of the consequences of initial misunderstanding of the purposes and context of previously expressed wishes. PMID:24552106

  15. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia that are alleged to be sold in the United States...

  16. Alzheimer's disease and its treatment costs: case study in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mohelska, Hana; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the costs, applied, for example, when treating specific diseases - an important aid in prioritizing the process of resource allocation. In our review, the specific disease is dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease. This paper aims to provide more information on the partial costs per patient that are calculated according to the aggregated data from publicly available sources as well as from the results of authors' own investigation. The University Hospital in Hradec Králové and the General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic participated in this research. The elementary research objective was to compare the costs per patient diagnosed early onset, to those of the patient diagnosed later. The Czech Republic lacks information regarding dementia. Therefore, these issues require attention. The methods used in this paper included time series analyses, methods of direct questioning, interviews with experts, and analyses of medical documentation. These methods were combined to exploit their particular advantages and to ensure the issues discussed, were covered. The investigation showed that the underpinning of patients with Alzheimer's disease at early onset is advantageous from an economic perspective, because the cost of outpatient care is much lower compared with that of inpatient care. The international comparisons of the volume of care provided should be approached with great caution. These are based solely on the facts of various expert estimates and are not usually supported by hard data. Yet, they still illustrate the overall view of our ability to take care of people with dementia. According to experts, care in the Czech Republic significantly lags behind the rest of developed Europe. While services are provided to 26% of people with dementia in Germany and 50% in France, the experts estimate that services are provided to only 10% of the population in the Czech Republic. If we were to offer a similar volume of

  17. Alzheimer’s disease and its treatment costs: case study in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mohelska, Hana; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the costs, applied, for example, when treating specific diseases – an important aid in prioritizing the process of resource allocation. In our review, the specific disease is dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease. This paper aims to provide more information on the partial costs per patient that are calculated according to the aggregated data from publicly available sources as well as from the results of authors’ own investigation. The University Hospital in Hradec Králové and the General Health Insurance Company of the Czech Republic participated in this research. The elementary research objective was to compare the costs per patient diagnosed early onset, to those of the patient diagnosed later. The Czech Republic lacks information regarding dementia. Therefore, these issues require attention. The methods used in this paper included time series analyses, methods of direct questioning, interviews with experts, and analyses of medical documentation. These methods were combined to exploit their particular advantages and to ensure the issues discussed, were covered. The investigation showed that the underpinning of patients with Alzheimer’s disease at early onset is advantageous from an economic perspective, because the cost of outpatient care is much lower compared with that of inpatient care. The international comparisons of the volume of care provided should be approached with great caution. These are based solely on the facts of various expert estimates and are not usually supported by hard data. Yet, they still illustrate the overall view of our ability to take care of people with dementia. According to experts, care in the Czech Republic significantly lags behind the rest of developed Europe. While services are provided to 26% of people with dementia in Germany and 50% in France, the experts estimate that services are provided to only 10% of the population in the Czech Republic. If we were to offer a similar

  18. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    PubMed

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs. PMID:15068204

  19. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  20. Changing level of vulnerability and risk due to floods - case study of the Becva River, the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubinsky, Jiri

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays flood risk management is different in each risk zone. But are these zones define correctly? In the Czech Republic there exist three flood risk areas - high, low, and no; but only along major rivers. In the last few years we witnessed an upward trend flooding on the small streams. And therefore we should determine which variables influence the level of flood risk. The main goal of this paper is to compare pattern of flood risk areas due to diverse defined variables by GIS. Among the basic variables there can be included flood areas, social perception of flood risk, and vulnerability presented by damages, quality / quantity of flood protection measures, and inhabitants' demographic structure. All these factors result from the risk equation. The integrated approach in our study is a significant added value. This requirement is contained in many disaster research strategies of international organizations, e.g. IRDR, ICSU as well as the EU itself. The case study was carried out in the Becva River basin in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. The study area represents landscape along middle section of the river, in the foothills of the Beskids Mountain. We made there the interdisciplinary questionnaire and field mapping research, where we asked over 300 households and mapped about 184 square kilometres. We confirmed decreasing of deaths and increasing of economic losses. This new concept of flood risk areas assessment has a high potential to improve risk management strategies. Especially for prediction, prevention, and preparedness phase. And we try to apply these results to improve river management in the national level.

  1. First experience with the application of the METRo model in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Zacharov, Petr; Sedlák, Pavel; Hošek, Jiří; Bližňák, Vojtěch; Chládová, Zuzana; Pešice, Petr; Škuthan, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents our first experience with the application of the METRo model, which forecasts road surface temperature and road conditions (e.g., wet or dry surface, ice) in the Czech Republic. In our version, the model uses online measurements from road weather stations (RWS) in the Czech Republic and weather forecasts from ALADIN, the operational numerical weather prediction NWP model of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. The METRo model was quasi-operationally tested during the winter season (November 2012-February 2013) using data from 25 RWS. We compared three model runs with an emphasis on road surface temperature. The first run used the original model and served as a reference. The second run applied model output statistics (MOS) to ALADIN forecasts of temperature and humidity at 2 m above the ground, which are required by METRo. The third run applied METRo in a nowcasting mode by starting the model every hour and using new measurements available from the RWS. The results indicated that MOS improved the accuracy of the temperature and humidity at 2 m but had little impact on the forecasted road surface temperature. However, the nowcasting scheme significantly improved the accuracy of the forecasts for the initial 3 to 4 h. The evaluation of the METRo results suggests that the radiation flux forecast is crucial for an accurate road surface temperature forecast.

  2. Factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies: the case of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Čábelková, Inna; Abrhám, Josef; Strielkowski, Wadim

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of factors influencing job satisfaction in post-transition economies on the example of the Czech Republic. Our research shows that women reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to men. Education proved to be statistically significant in one of three indicators of job satisfaction. Personal income and workplace relationships proved to be positively and significantly related to all the three indicators of job satisfaction. Most of the occupational dummies were significantly related to two out of three indicators of job satisfaction. In addition, we found that Czech entrepreneurs enjoy and value their job, which indicates strong self-selection for doing business in post-transition economies. However, human capital expressed by the level of education was significant factor for job satisfaction, meaning that well-educated people might not be satisfied with their jobs or feel that their education and experience are wasted in the market economy. PMID:26693997

  3. Long-term fluctuations of hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic: synthesis of different data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Valášek, Hubert; Zahradníček, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Hailstorms belong to natural phenomena causing great material damage in present time, similarly as it was in the past. In Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of hailstorms, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. Different types of documentary evidence are used in historical climatology, such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence of economic and administrative character (e.g. taxation records) has particular importance. This study aims to create a long-term series of hailstorms in South Moravia using various types of documentary evidence (such as taxation records, family archives, chronicles and newspapers which are the most important) and systematic meteorological observations in the station network. Although available hailstorm data cover the 1541-2014 period, incomplete documentary evidence allows reasonable analysis of fluctuations in hailstorm frequency only since the 1770s. The series compiled from documentary data and systematic meteorological observations is used to identify periods of lower and higher hailstorm frequency. Existing data may be used also for the study of spatial hailstorm variability. Basic uncertainties of compiled hailstorm series are discussed. Despite some bias in hailstorm data, South-Moravian hailstorm series significantly extends our knowledge about this phenomenon in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia derived from documentary evidence" supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, reg. no. 13-19831S.

  4. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. PMID:26650830

  5. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: the case study of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Polák, Miloš; Drápalová, Lenka

    2012-08-01

    The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets targets on collection and recycling of WEEE in general, but no specific collection target for EoL mobile phone exists. In the year 2010 only about 3-6% of Czech EoL mobile phones were collected for recovery and recycling. If we make similar estimation using an estimated average EU value, then within the next 10 years about 1.3 billion of EoL mobile phones would be available for recycling in the EU. This amount contains about 31 tonnes of gold and 325 tonnes of silver. Since Europe is dependent on import

  6. PERUN system and its application for assessing the crop yield potential of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Zalud, Z.; Eitzinger, J.; Trnka, M.; Semeradova, D.

    2003-04-01

    The main purpose of the first version of the computer system PERUN, which has been developed in 2001-2002 (presented in EGS 2002), is the probabilistic seasonal crop yield forecasting for a given site. The system is based on the crop growth model WOFOST (version 7, slightly modified) and the six-variate version of the stochastic weather generator Met&Roll. The system is now being enhanced to allow assessment of the crop yield potential of a larger area. As this assessment requires a great amount of meteorological, pedological and crop data to be gathered, but these data are not yet all available to the authors, the presentation will rather focus on the methodological aspects and the results of the sensitivity analysis. The presentation will consist of the following points: (i) Overview of the PERUN system. The results of the validation experiments (spring barley and winter wheat at selected Czech locations) will be presented, too. (ii) Methodology used for a spatial assessment. The assessment is based on integrating model crop yields simulated at multiple sub-regions with region-specific climatic and pedological conditions. The input daily weather series are produced by the stochastic generator. The multi-year crop model simulation is performed for each sub-region to assess the mean and variability of the model yields. (iii) Sensitivity of the regional crop production potential to uncertainties in selected input characteristics: crop cultivar, soil type, hydrological characteristics (e.g. amount of available water at the beginning of the simulation), and climatic conditions (e.g temperature, precipitation). In assessing sensitivity to climate, the climatic characteristics will be varied within the range of values typical for the territory of the Czech Republic. The crops applied in the analysis are spring barley and winter wheat. Acknowledgement: The system PERUN has been developed within the frame of project QC1316 sponsored by the Czech National Agency for

  7. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD2) include a number of disorders with heterogeneous etiology that cause predominantly weakness and wasting of the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles. In this study, we determined the frequency of LGMD subtypes within a cohort of Czech LGMD2 patients using mutational analysis of the CAPN3, FKRP, SGCA, and ANO5 genes. Methods PCR-sequencing analysis; sequence capture and targeted resequencing. Results Mutations of the CAPN3 gene are the most common cause of LGMD2, and mutations in this gene were identified in 71 patients in a set of 218 Czech probands with a suspicion of LGMD2. Totally, we detected 37 different mutations of which 12 have been described only in Czech LGMD2A patients. The mutation c.550delA is the most frequent among our LGMD2A probands and was detected in 47.1% of CAPN3 mutant alleles. The frequency of particular forms of LGMD2 was 32.6% for LGMD2A (71 probands), 4.1% for LGMD2I (9 probands), 2.8% for LGMD2D (6 probands), and 1.4% for LGMD2L (3 probands). Further, we present the first results of a new approach established in the Czech Republic for diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases: sequence capture and targeted resequencing. Using this approach, we identified patients with mutations in the DYSF and SGCB genes. Conclusions We characterised a cohort of Czech LGMD2 patients on the basis of mutation analysis of genes associated with the most common forms of LGMD2 in the European population and subsequently compared the occurrence of particular forms of LGMD2 among countries on the basis of our results and published studies. PMID:25135358

  8. Environmental security in the Czech Republic: Status and concerns in the post Communist era

    SciTech Connect

    Valley, P.J.

    1998-10-01

    The Czech Republic has made great strides toward reconciling its political and economic development with environmental protection and security issues since its recent democratization. Although new technological and legislative efforts continue to work at reducing emissions from automobiles, industries, power plants and coal mining, the Republic is committed to continuing its battle against air and water pollution, poor waste management, and needless destruction of nature. Shifting the structure of primary energy sources to qualitatively better fuels, along with the introduction of less energy-consuming technologies and the activation of new nuclear reactors, would eventually replace most of the output of coal burning power plants. However, the use of nuclear power has been opposed by several political and environmental activists groups. At the international level, Austria`s opposition to the Temelin Nuclear Power plant is of great concern since Austria, as a non-nuclear state, propagates negative information about nuclear power to its citizens and other countries.

  9. Total Petroleum Systems of the North Carpathian Province of Poland, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three total petroleum systems were identified in the North Carpathian Province (4047) that includes parts of Poland, Ukraine, Austria, and the Czech Republic. They are the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System, the Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, and the Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System. The Foreland Basin Assessment Unit of the Isotopically Light Gas Total Petroleum System is wholly contained within the shallow sedimentary rocks of Neogene molasse in the Carpathian foredeep. The biogenic gas is generated locally as the result of bacterial activity on dispersed organic matter. Migration is also believed to be local, and gas is believed to be trapped in shallow stratigraphic traps. The Mesozoic-Paleogene Composite Total Petroleum System, which includes the Deformed Belt Assessment Unit, is structurally complex, and source rocks, reservoirs, and seals are juxtaposed in such a way that a single stratigraphic section is insufficient to describe the geology. The Menilite Shale, an organic-rich rock widespread throughout the Carpathian region, is the main hydrocarbon source rock. Other Jurassic to Cretaceous formations also contribute to oil and gas in the overthrust zone in Poland and Ukraine but in smaller amounts, because those formations are more localized than the Menilite Shale. The Paleozoic Composite Total Petroleum System is defined on the basis of the suspected source rock for two oil or gas fields in western Poland. The Paleozoic Reservoirs Assessment Unit encompasses Devonian organic-rich shale believed to be a source of deep gas within the total petroleum system. East of this field is a Paleozoic oil accumulation whose source is uncertain; however, it possesses geochemical similarities to oil generated by Upper Carboniferous coals. The undiscovered resources in the North Carpathian Province are, at the mean, 4.61 trillion cubic feet of gas and 359 million barrels of oil. Many favorable parts of the province have been

  10. Estimation of end of life mobile phones generation: The case study of the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, Milos Drapalova, Lenka

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this paper, we define lifespan of mobile phones and estimate their average total lifespan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The estimation of lifespan distribution is based on large sample of EoL mobile phones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the years 2010-20, about 26.3 million pieces of EoL mobile phones will be generated in the Czech Republic. - Abstract: The volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been rapidly growing in recent years. In the European Union (EU), legislation promoting the collection and recycling of WEEE has been in force since the year 2003. Yet, both current and recently suggested collection targets for WEEE are completely ineffective when it comes to collection and recycling of small WEEE (s-WEEE), with mobile phones as a typical example. Mobile phones are the most sold EEE and at the same time one of appliances with the lowest collection rate. To improve this situation, it is necessary to assess the amount of generated end of life (EoL) mobile phones as precisely as possible. This paper presents a method of assessment of EoL mobile phones generation based on delay model. Within the scope of this paper, the method has been applied on the Czech Republic data. However, this method can be applied also to other EoL appliances in or outside the Czech Republic. Our results show that the average total lifespan of Czech mobile phones is surprisingly long, exactly 7.99 years. We impute long lifespan particularly to a storage time of EoL mobile phones at households, estimated to be 4.35 years. In the years 1990-2000, only 45 thousands of EoL mobile phones were generated in the Czech Republic, while in the years 2000-2010 the number grew to 6.5 million pieces and it is estimated that in the years 2010-2020 about 26.3 million pieces will be generated. Current European legislation sets

  11. Monitoring radionuclides in the atmosphere over the Czech Republic after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Rulík, Petr; Hýža, Miroslav; Bečková, Věra; Borecký, Zdeněk; Havránek, Jiří; Hölgye, Zoltán; Lušňák, Jan; Malá, Helena; Matzner, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rada, Jiří; Schlesingerová, Eva; Šindelková, Eva; Dragounová, Lenka; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring over the Czech Republic, as obtained by the Radiation Monitoring Network, following the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Maximum values for (131)I were 5.6 mBq m(-3) in aerosol form and 13 mBq m(-3) in gaseous form. The maximum values for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.64 and 0.72 mBq m(-3), respectively. The estimated effective half-time for removing the activity from the atmosphere was 6-7 d and 3.5 d for caesium and iodine, respectively. The gaseous-to-total activity ratios of (131)I ranged between 0.3 and 0.9, with an arithmetic mean value of 0.77. The mean value for the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratios was close to 1.0. The effective inhalation dose due to the accident for an adult living in the Czech Republic was estimated at <4 × 10(-5) mSv, out of which the proportion of (131)I was 88%. PMID:24813185

  12. Rpas Accuracy Testing for Using it in the Cadastre of Real Estates of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housarová, E.; Pavelka, K.; Šedina, J.

    2016-06-01

    In the last few years, interest in the collection of data using remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) has sharply risen. RPAS technology has a very wide area of use; one of its main advantages is its accuracy, timeliness of data, frequency of collecting data and low operating costs. RPAS can be used for the mapping of small, dangerous and inaccessible areas in contrast with ordinary aerial photogrammetry. In the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic, it is possible to map out areas by using aerial photogrammetry, so it has been done in the past. However, this is a relatively expensive and complex technology, and therefore we are looking for new alternatives. An alternative would be to use RPAS technology for data acquisition. The testing of the possibility of using RPAS for the cadastre of real estates of the Czech Republic is the subject of this paper. When evaluating results we compared point coordinates measured by geodetic method, GNSS technology and RPAS technology.

  13. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-03-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994-2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  14. Engineering of a 110 MW atmospheric CFB for the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, J.R.; Brzezeina, P.; Strach, F.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the engineering considerations related to the design of a new 110 MWe atmospheric fluidized bed boiler (CFB) and boiler island auxiliaries for installation at the CEZ, a.s. (Czech Republic Utility) Ledvice Power Station. The plant is located in the northwest Bohemia area of the Czech Republic in the foothills of the Krusne Hory Mountains, between the towns of Bilina and Teplice. The type of fuel to be burned in the CFB is brown coal which requires unique design considerations in as well as the particular boiler operational parameters. The impetus behind the addition of this new CFB at the plant is that the existing pulverized coal fired steam generator which was put in service in 1969 is unable to meet new regulations and laws regarding compliance with the protection of the environment and will be replaced once the new CFB unit is brought into service. A technical-economic study conducted by CEZ, a.s. evaluated CFB technology as the most advantageous from a long-term standpoint. The following variations were considered in the study: boiler retrofit and construction of new ash handling equipment; implementation of the combined cycle based upon natural gas; and reconstruction of the boiler equipment with transition to atmospheric fluid-bed combustion. The selection of the supplier of fluid-bed boiler was performed with an emphasis of the bidders` references as for the construction and operation of fluid-bed boilers with the outputs of min. 300 t/hr.

  15. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-01-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994–2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  16. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  17. Estimation of Biogenic VOC Emissions From Ecosystems in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemankova, K.; Brechler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are one of the crucial elements in photochemical reactions in the atmosphere which lead to tropospheric ozone formation. While modelling concentration of low-level ozone proper information about VOC sources and sinks is necessary. VOC are emitted into the atmosphere both from anthropogenic and natural sources. It has been shown in previous studies (e.g. Simpson et al, 1995) that contribution of volatile organic compounds emitted from biogenic sources to total amount of VOC in the atmosphere can be significant. Our work focuses on estimation of VOC emissions from natural ecosystems, most importantly from forests, and its application in photochemical modelling. Preliminary results have shown that inclusion of biogenic emissions in model input data leads to improvement of resulting ozone concentration which encouraged us to work on detailed biogenic VOC emission estimation. Using grid of 1x1km CORINE Land Cover over the area of the Czech Republic, emissions from deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests were estimated aplying the algorithm of Guenther et al., 1995. According to data from Forest Management Institute each cell of model grid has been assigned a proportional composition of each of thirteen tree species which are the the main forest constituents in the Czech Republic. Aggregating data of tree species composition with land cover category emission factor of particular chemical compound (isoprene, monoterpenes) has been obtained for each cell. Annual emissions of VOC on hourly basis have been calculated for domain of the Czech Republic. Biogenic emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes were compared with the emission inventory of anthropogenic sources. The inventory is provided by Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and covers emissions from major stationary sources, area sources (including domestic heating) and mobile sources. Our results show that natural emissions are approximately half the amount of organic compounds emitted

  18. Long-term hospitalizations for schizophrenia in the Czech Republic 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Petr; Mladá, Karolína; Krupchanka, Dzmitry; Agius, Mark; Ray, Manaan Kar; Höschl, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Deinstitutionalization has not been pursued in the post-communist Europe until recently. The population of psychiatric patients institutionalized in the regional mental hospitals is, however, largely understudied. The aim of this study is to assess discharges of long-term inpatients with schizophrenia from Czech psychiatric hospitals and to analyse re-hospitalizations within this group. The nationwide register of all-cause inpatient hospitalizations was merged with the nationwide register of all-cause deaths on an individual level basis. Descriptive statistics, survival analysis and logistic regression were performed. 3601 patients with schizophrenia previously hospitalized for more than a year were discharged from Czech mental hospitals between 1998 and 2012. This included 260 patients hospitalized for >20years. Nearly one fifth (n=707) of the long-term patients died during the hospitalization; and discharges of 19.36% (n=697) were only administrative in their nature. Out of 2197 truly discharged patients, 14.88% (n=327) were re-hospitalized within 2weeks after the discharge. The highest odds of rehospitalization were associated with being discharged against medical advice (OR 5.27, CI: 3.77-7.35, p<0.001). These data are important for the ongoing mental health care reforms in the Czech Republic and other countries in the Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:27094718

  19. Consumers' beliefs and behavioural intentions towards organic food. Evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Zagata, Lukas

    2012-08-01

    Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities. PMID:22504401

  20. Family archives as a source of information about past hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina

    2014-05-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (hydrometeorological extremes - HMEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, as well as it was in the past. For the study of their temporal and spatial variability in periods with only natural forcing factors in comparison with those combining also anthropogenic effects it is essential to have the longest possible series of HMEs. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. There exist different types of documentary evidence used in historical climatology and hydrology, represented by various sources such as annals, chronicles, diaries, private letters, newspapers etc. Besides them, institutional documentary evidence (of economic and administrative character) has particular importance (e.g. taxation records). Documents in family archives represent further promising source of data related to HMEs. The documents kept by the most important lord families in Moravia (e.g. Liechtensteins, Dietrichsteins) are located in Moravian Land Archives in Brno. Besides data about family members, industrial and agricultural business, military questions, travelling and social events, they contain direct or indirect information about HMEs. It concerns descriptions of catastrophic phenomena on the particular demesne (mainly with respect to damage) as well as correspondence related to tax reductions (i.e. they can overlap with taxation records of particular estates). This contribution shows the potential of family archives as a source of information about HMEs, up to now only rarely used, which may extend our knowledge about them. Several examples of such documents are presented. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern

  1. Electricity industry development trends and the environmental programs in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, P.

    1995-12-01

    The process of industrialization in the Czech Republic, which is more intensive than in other parts of central Europe, has been under way since the mid-nineteenth century. Over the last 40 years, large-scale industrial activity was based on extensive use of domestic primary energy sources, especially brown-coal/lignite. The escalation of this usage inflicted heavy devastation to large portions of industrial zones and, as a result, worsened living conditions through atmospheric pollution and other environmental impacts in large regions of central Europe. The Czech electricity industry and CEZ, a.s. (the nation`s principal electricity generator, responsible for meeting eighty percent of national electricity demand, and operator of the nationwide EHV transmission system) has been challenged to cope with all environmental issues by the end of 1997, in compliance with the strict limits set by the Clean Air Act of 1991, which are comparable to standard implemented in advanced industrial countries. A review of the critical environmental issues is presented and the role of the individual and of the State is analyzed. The approach of CEZ, a.s., towards a better natural environment and its response to legal environment provisions have been incorporated into the company`s development program. It comprises decommissioning the most obsolete fossil-fuel fired power stations; rehabilitation of thermal power plants; supplementing the coal/lignite-fired units selected for future operation with FGD systems and retrofitting them with DENOX equipment; a larger share of nuclear electricity generation after the completion of the Temelin NPP (2 units of 1000MW each) and, last but not least, initiating DSM (demand-side management) programs of energy-electricity savings in the Czech Republic.

  2. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on September 25, 2013 ((78 FR 59059), as revised on October 21, 2013 (78 FR 64011, October 25, 2013)). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on October 25, 2013... COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland,...

  3. European Standards for Quality Assurance and Institutional Practices of Student Assessment in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the student assessment procedures of 12 universities in the UK, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic with respect to their alignment with the European standards and guidelines on the quality of assessing higher education students (European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance [ESG] 1.3). Based on qualitative…

  4. An investigation of local and regional sources of fine particulate matter in the Ostrava,the Czech Republic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite efforts to reduce air pollutants, particularly in the coal power plant and industrial sectors, the Ostrava region of the Czech Republic continues to experience episodes of high pollutant concentrations, especially during the fall and winter seasons. A short-term investig...

  5. An approach to the implementation of European Directive 2007/60/EC on flood risk management in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dráb, A.; Říha, J.

    2010-09-01

    Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (the Flood Risk Directive) signifies that flood risk analysis methods are gaining ground in EC Member States and, therefore, also in the Czech Republic (CR). Procedures of flood risk analysis have been developed in the Czech Republic since the catastrophic floods of 1997 in line with European and worldwide trends and have been tested and applied in hundreds of case studies to date. Currently, the Flood Risk Directive Guideline based on past experience with flood risk analysis applications is being processed. The aim of the paper is to present flood risk analysis procedures and specially developed techniques for the assembly of flood hazard, danger and flood risk maps. Methods related to flood risk management plans are briefly mentioned as well. The following particular problems are discussed in more detail: an application and extension of the "danger matrix" approach, the definition of residual danger, the formulation of efficiency criteria and preliminary multi-criteria flood risk assessment. These issues were tested in practical applications at pilot locations in the Czech Republic. Present experience provides evidence that the flood risk analysis methods used in the Czech Republic are in harmony with the requirements of the Flood Risk Directive. The proposed and applied methods are based primarily on existing available data such as flood extent maps, cadastral maps, the Register of Census Districts and Structures and others.

  6. From "Cage Beds" to Inclusion: The Long Road for Individuals with Intellectual Disability in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vann, Barbara H.; Siska, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In the Czech Republic, individuals with intellectual disabilities continue to be institutionalized in large, remote, state-run institutions and as a result are isolated from community interaction. Some practices associated with these institutions are coming to be seen as human rights violations. Although non-governmental organizations (NGOs) offer…

  7. Student Expectations of the Financial Returns to Higher Education in the Czech Republic and England: Evidence from Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchor, John R.; Fiserova, Jana; Marsikova, Katerina; Urbanek, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the short-cut method is used to estimate expected rates of financial returns to higher education in the Czech Republic and a modified version of the method is used to suit the current English system of deferred tuition fees. First year university students were asked to estimate their expected earnings with and without a university…

  8. The Right to Be Included: Homeschoolers Combat the Structural Discrimination Embodied in Their Lawful Protection in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kašparová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    There is a 240-year tradition of compulsory school attendance in the Czech Republic. To many, compulsory school attendance is synonymous with the right to be educated. After the collapse of communism in 1989, along with the democratization of the government, the education system was slowly opened to alternatives, including the right to educate…

  9. Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of High School Students from Four Countries-Austria, Czech Republic, England, and USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelzer, Jiri; Ernest, James M.; Fenster, Mark J.; Langford, George

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude toward physical education of 1107 high school students from four countries, Czech Republic, Austria, England, and the United States. Survey data were gathered and measured using the Adams Scale survey instrument (Adams, 1963). While the data revealed individual differences, the overall sample indicated a…

  10. Broilers as a source of quinolone-resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Reitschmied, Tomas; Bujnakova, Dobroslava; Dolejska, Monika; Cizek, Alois; Bardon, Jan; Pokludova, Lucie; Alexa, Pavel; Halova, Dana; Jamborova, Ivana

    2013-02-01

    Extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections are associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains. A total of 114 E. coli isolates were characterized regarding their antimicrobial resistance in a prospective study of 319 broilers from 12 slaughterhouses in the Czech Republic, a European Union member, during 2008. PCR-based assays to define ExPEC-associated traits were performed in resistant strains. Consumption of antimicrobial drugs by poultry in the Czech Republic was also analyzed. Antibiotic resistance was detected in 82% of isolates. Resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was predominant. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnrB19 and qnrS1, were detected in 1 and 3 of 93 resistant isolates, respectively. Twenty-three percent of resistant isolates were considered as ExPEC. In total, 972 kg of flumequine, enrofloxacin, and difloxacin were used in poultry in the Czech Republic during 2008. High prevalence of broilers with ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates was linked to consumption of quinolones in poultry. Broilers may comprise an important vehicle for community-wide dissemination of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli and ExPEC. Withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in chicken production should be seriously considered in the Czech Republic and the European Union as well. PMID:23020862

  11. Source apportionment with uncertainty estimates of fine particulate matter in Ostrava, Czech Republic using Positive Matrix Factorization

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 14-week investigation during a warm and cold seasons was conducted to improve understanding of air pollution sources that might be impacting air quality in Ostrava, the Czech Republic. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in consecutive 12-h day and night incr...

  12. MONITORING AND MODELING METHODS FOR DEVELOPING AIR POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY IN THE NORTHWEST CZECH REPUBLIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from the United States and the Czech Republic recently completed a study to investigate the ambient air quality impact of industrial and motor vehicle sources in Teplice. ir pollution measurements made from 1992 through 1993 provide data on ambient concentrations of su...

  13. Social wasps trapped in the Czech Republic with syrup and fermented fruit and comparison with similar studies (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight species of social wasps were trapped in the Czech Republic and Slovakia with syrup as bait. Vespa crabro L, Vespula germanica (Fabricius), and Vespula vulgaris (L.) dominated trap catches at most sites, comprising 32, 28, and 35% of the wasps trapped respectively. Nearly all wasps captured wer...

  14. [On teaching the chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliary substances within the framework of pharmaceutical education in the Czech and Slovak Republics].

    PubMed

    Jan, Subert

    2011-02-01

    The paper emphasizes the need of the introduction of the subject Chemistry of Pharmaceutical Auxiliaries into the Pharmacy study programme at more colleges in the Czech and Slovak Republics. It also introduces and discusses some topics for possible extension of the content of the courses of the subject (the presented examples are taken form the field of analytical chemistry of pharmaceutical auxiliaries). PMID:21650013

  15. Humboldt Goes to the Labour Market: How Academic Higher Education Fuels Labour Market Success in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Sima, Karel; Kyncilova, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The Czech Republic is one of the post-communist countries where the transformation from late industrial to knowledge economies and knowledge societies was complicated by the simultaneous transformations from communist centrally planned economies to democratic regimes and market economies. Furthermore, the transformation of higher education itself…

  16. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  17. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli as Causes of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Marejková, Monika; Bláhová, Květa; Janda, Jan; Fruth, Angelika; Petráš, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) cause diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS) worldwide, but no systematic study of EHEC as the causative agents of HUS was performed in the Czech Republic. We analyzed stools of all patients with D+ HUS in the Czech Republic between 1998 and 2012 for evidence of EHEC infection. We determined virulence profiles, phenotypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and phylogeny of the EHEC isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Virulence loci were identified using PCR, phenotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using standard procedures, and phylogeny was assessed using multilocus sequence typing. During the 15-year period, EHEC were isolated from stools of 39 (69.4%) of 56 patients. The strains belonged to serotypes [fliC types] O157:H7/NM[fliCH7] (50% of which were sorbitol-fermenting; SF), O26:H11/NM[fliCH11], O55:NM[fliCH7], O111:NM[fliCH8], O145:H28[fliCH28], O172:NM[fliCH25], and Orough:NM[fliCH25]. O26:H11/NM[fliCH11] was the most common serotype associated with HUS (41% isolates). Five stx genotypes were identified, the most frequent being stx2a (71.1% isolates). Most strains contained EHEC-hlyA encoding EHEC hemolysin, and a subset (all SF O157:NM and one O157:H7) harbored cdt-V encoding cytolethal distending toxin. espPα encoding serine protease EspPα was found in EHEC O157:H7, O26:H11/NM, and O145:H28, whereas O172:NM and Orough:NM strains contained espPγ. All isolates contained eae encoding adhesin intimin, which belonged to subtypes β (O26), γ (O55, O145, O157), γ2/θ (O111), and ε (O172, Orough). Loci encoding other adhesins (efa1, lpfAO26, lpfAO157OI-141, lpfAO157OI-154, iha) were usually associated with particular serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated nine sequence types (STs) which correlated with serotypes. Of these, two STs (ST660 and ST1595) were not found in HUS-associated EHEC before. Conclusions/Significance EHEC strains, including O157:H7 and non

  18. Projected changes in the evolution of drought assessed with the SPEI over the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potop, V.; Boroneana, C.; Stepanek, P.; Skalak, P.; Mozny, M.

    2012-04-01

    In previous studies the spatial and temporal evolution of drought events in the Czech Republic were extensively analyzed by comparing results from the most advanced drought indices (e.g. the SPI and SPEI), which take into account the role of antecedent conditions in quantifying drought severity. In the present study, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was adopted to assess and project drought characteristics in the Czech Republic based on the regional climate model ALADIN-Climate/CZ simulated data. The simulations were conducted at high resolution (10km) for the current (1961-2000) and two future climates (2021-2050 and 2071-2100). First, the observed data of air temperature and precipitation totals was transferred into a regular grid of ALADIN-Climate/CZ model. The bias correction was applied on the scenario runs. The bias correction method is based on variable correction using individual percentiles whose relationship is derived from observations and control RCM simulation. The SPEI was calculated based on observed monthly data of mean temperature and precipitation totals for the period 1961-1990, as reference period, and for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, as future climates under A1B SRES scenario. The SPEI were calculated with various lags, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months because the drought at these time scales is relevant for agricultural, hydrological and socio-economic impact, respectively. The study refers at the warm season of the year (April to September). As in the case of observational study, we have identified three climatically homogeneous regions, corresponding to the altitudes below 400 m, between 401 and 700 m and, above 700 m. For these three regions the frequency distribution of the SPEI values in 7 classes of drought category (%) were calculated based on grid point data falling in each region, both for the observed data and scenario runs. The paper presents the projected changes in frequency distribution of SPEI at

  19. Molecular identification of the occurrence of magnetotactic bacteria in fresh water sediments (Czech Republic)

    PubMed Central

    Rulík, Martin; Chaudhary, Prem Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are of considerable interest because of their importance in the manufacture of various bioinspired materials. In order to find out the status of magnetotactic bacteria at three different sediment in Czech Republic, samples collected from both standing and running freshwaters were subjected to molecular diversity analysis by using 16S rRNA gene approach. Total community DNA from sediment sample was isolated and used for PCR, cloning and sequence analysis. Of the 24 analyzed sequences, six clones are closely related to Magnetobacterium sp. affiliated with the Nitrospira phylum which showed the dominance of Magnetobacterium phylotypes in the sample. This study will provide useful insight about the community structure of MTB in this particular geographical region. However more detailed and specific studies are warranted in order to properly assess the community structure of MTB’s in fresh water sediments. PMID:25763029

  20. Ice hockey lung - a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Brat, Kristian; Merta, Zdenek; Plutinsky, Marek; Skrickova, Jana; Stanek, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO₂ poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO₂ poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 - three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas. PMID:24032121

  1. Ice hockey lung – a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Brat, Kristian; Merta, Zdenek; Plutinsky, Marek; Skrickova, Jana; Ing, Miroslav Stanek

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice-resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic. All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November 2010 – three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November 2011. Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December 2010. None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough. Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice-resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas. PMID:24032121

  2. Shedding of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by Felidae in zoos in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lukesová, D; Literák, I

    1998-01-15

    In 1995 and 1996, the shedding of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts was monitored in the faeces of Felidae in six zoos in the Czech Republic. In all, 2287 samples of faeces from 19 species of Felidae were examined. In Ostrava Zoo, four episodes of shedding of Toxoplasma-like oocysts were identified, using a flotation examination, in a pair of wild cats (Felis silvestris), six episodes in a wild cat held separately, and three episodes in a pair of Amur leopard cats (F. euptilurus). After the passage of sporulated oocysts through laboratory mice, T. gondii was confirmed in the pair of wild cats (three episodes), in the wild cat held separately (three episodes) and in the pair of Amur leopard cats (one episode). In Jihlava Zoo, one episode of shedding of T. gondii oocyst was identified in Geoffroy's cat (Oncifelis geoffroyi) using flotation and isolation examination. The possible sources of toxoplasmosis of the Felidae in zoos are discussed. PMID:9493305

  3. Sub-slab depressurisation systems used in the Czech Republic and verification of their efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiránek, M

    2014-11-01

    Design principles for sub-slab depressurisation systems recently used in the Czech Republic for remediating existing buildings are described. Results of an efficiency analysis performed on the basis of data from >60 single-family houses are presented. It was found out that the efficiency varies between 70 and 98 %, which is twice greater than when additionally applied radon-proof insulation is used. The efficiency is mainly influenced by the vertical profile of the soil permeability and by the air-tightness of floors resting on the soil. Higher efficiency was found for houses with greater air-tightness of the floors and with a sub-floor layer with permeability higher than the permeability of the subsoil. PMID:25004940

  4. Mathematical aspects of the kriging applied on landslide in Halenkovice (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zůvala, Robert; Fišerová, Eva; Marek, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    Kriging is one of the geostatistical techniques for spatial data analysis that is usually used for a modelling of natural phenomena or a creation of digital elevation models. In this paper, we introduce kriging methods in the context of a landslide modelling in time. The proposed procedure, as well as most of the statistical methods, is designed for complete data sets, i.e. the observations at the beginning and the end of the study are available. In order to use all the information from the data and to avoid the loss of information after omitting observations with missing values, the algorithm for imputation of missing data values based on kriging techniques is proposed. The methodology was verified by the landslide modelling in Halenkovice, Czech Republic, during the period from June 2008 to March 2010. The obtained results showed a potential of kriging methods for the landslide modelling.

  5. Early Badenian ostracod assemblage of the Židlochovice stratotype(Carpathian Foredeep, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Michal; Pipík, Radovan; Doláková, Nela

    2012-03-01

    Fifty-two ostracod taxa were identified from two sediment cores collected from the early Badenian Židlochovice stratotype. Ostracod assemblages were analyzed with a focus on taxonomy, paleoecology, distribution of taxa along the sediment cores, quantification of valve/carapace ratios, and species richness by Simpson's Reciprocal Index. The changes in ostracod assemblages identified in these cores reflect a shallowing of the marine water-depth from circalittoral/epibathyal to shallow infralittoral, and an increase in the sedimentation rate upwards through time. A comparison of all Badenian ostracod assemblages in the Carpathian Foredeep indicates a high proportion of deep-water ostracod species in Židlochovice and its surroundings, suggesting that the deepest part of the Carpathian Foredeep was probably situated in this part of the Czech Republic.

  6. Spatial modelling of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic using auxiliary geographical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moliba Bankanza, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the spatial model of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic using auxiliary geographical variables in order to produce gridded data needed for various applications. Daily precipitation data from 203 stations for the period 1971 - 2003 are used. Model is performed at different time steps (year, ten-years, and entire period). Considering that models performed at different time steps can vary significantly, it was necessary to verify two assumptions before the development of spatial prediction: (1) whether geographical variables control significantly the spatial distribution of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic; (2) and whether the effects of significant geographical variables (model parameters) do not vary significantly in time. Various candidate geographical predictors are evaluated in the stepwise regression models for summer precipitation: (1) a set of omnidirectional parameters of the elevation characterizing an area of 3 km x 3 km around meteorological stations, (2) various cross products calculated between geographical coordinates and elevation or topographic parameters, (3) slope and four facets of slope aspect which characterize the orographic regimes over the Czech Republic, (4) land cover parameters describing areas of about 10 km by 10 km around meteorological stations and (5) geographical coordinates. The orographic parameters are derived from the 1 km resolution digital elevation model (DEM), while the land cover parameters are derived from the 1 km resolution CORINE (Coordination of information on the environment) land cover data. To assure stability of the regression equations and comparability of regression models in time, both orthogonally rotated Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and frequency of significant predictors - selected using stepwise regression at each time step - are used to select identical significant independent variables for various time steps. Multivariate regression

  7. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors.

    PubMed

    Marek, Michal V; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Věroslav; Marková, Irena

    2011-05-01

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. PMID:21345558

  8. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period

    PubMed Central

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Podzemný, P.; Harmat, P.; Hrabák, R.

    2011-01-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in prebreeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds. PMID:21395201

  9. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period.

    PubMed

    Sychra, O; Literák, I; Podzemný, P; Harmat, P; Hrabák, R

    2011-02-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in pre-breeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds. PMID:21395201

  10. Land adjustment and is impact on landscape stability increase in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravcová, Jana; Pavlicek, Tomas; Koupilova, Monika; Ondr, Pavel; Bystricky, Vaclav; Vachal, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Land adjustment in Czech Republic is the instrument of landscape transformation, ecological stability consolidation, real property ownership restoration and land register arrangement. This instrument has been based in our legal order since 1990, and it is still actively used. Through this process it is possible to project new aquiculturing measurements, erosion control measurements, new components of ecological network or new field roads, which are the most common measurement of all. Here will be presented the inventory of projected and realized measurements of all mentioned types in several cadastral territories. Also there will be mentioned their impact on ecological stability, flood management or erosion control. This article is based on results of grant of Ministry of Agriculture QI91C200 Evaluation of complex land consolidation realization efficiency.

  11. Present-Day Vegetation Helps Quantifying Past Land Cover in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3–4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  12. Epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic 1970-2008.

    PubMed

    Kriz, Bohumir; Maly, Marek; Benes, Cestmir; Daniel, Milan

    2012-11-01

    This article presents major epidemiologic features of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Czech Republic, using data of laboratory-confirmed cases since 1970. A total of 17,053 cases of TBE were reported in the Czech Republic (population 10 million) in 1970-2008. The data show several important features. First, the pattern of TBE incidence changed over time. Until the end of the 1970s, TBE was characterized by periods of alternately higher and lower incidence (between 180 and 595 cases per year); the 1980s were a period of low incidence with minimum variability; since the beginning of the 1990 s, there has been a steep rise in incidence, with marked year-to-year variation (e.g., 745 cases were registered in 1995, and a maximum of 1029 cases were registered in 2006). Second, the age distribution of TBE incidence has changed. Until the end of 1990 s, incidence peaked among those 15-19 years of age, with a gradual decline with age. In the 2000s, however, TBE incidence has been rising in those aged 60-64 years, with a sharp decline in those older than 65 years. Third, the seasonal pattern of TBE has changed markedly over time. In the earlier period, incidence had a clear peak in July/August; since the 1990 s, more cases have occurred in earlier and later months of the year. The proportion of cases occurring in April, May, October, and November increased from 9% in the 1970s to 23% in 2000-2008. Fourth, the geographical distribution of TBE also changed over time, with TBE increasingly occurring in the mountainous districts at higher altitudes. These changes in incidence patterns appear to be linked with changes in climatic and meteorological conditions. The link between climate change and TBE incidence is plausible, since TBE is a recreation-related infection associated with outdoor activities, and since climatic changes affect the life cycle of the vector. PMID:23025693

  13. Horseweed with reduced susceptibility to glyphosate found in the czech republic.

    PubMed

    Chodová, Daniela; Salava, Jaroslav; Martincová, Olga; Cvikrová, Milena

    2009-08-12

    The physiological and molecular basis of apparent resistance to glyphosate in horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) plants that had survived being sprayed with the herbicide at Prague-Bubny railway station in the Czech Republic was investigated. For the sake of comparison, plants expected to be susceptible were collected in areas where no herbicides had been used. Plants of both sets were treated, at the rosette stage (10-25 leaves, diameter of 3-5 cm), with herbicide at the rate recommended for use in the Czech Republic to control horseweed (960 g of glyphosate-IPA/ha; Roundup Klasik, Monsanto, 480 g of glyphosate-IPA ae L(-1)). Phytotoxic symptoms of the treated plants varied substantially, both between and within these sets of plants. Leaves of susceptible (S) plants wilted and turned yellow, and the plants subsequently died; leaves of plants with reduced susceptibility (RS) remained green, or new leaves were created in the center of their rosettes a few weeks after glyphosate application. There were no significant differences in the accumulation of shikimate between S and RS plants 3 days after treatment (DAT). However, the time course of changes in shikimic acid contents differed between the two biotypes; from 3 to 10 DAT, they decreased more than 4-fold in RS plants, while in S plants, they increased (3-fold, on average) from 3 to 7 DAT. A conserved region of the epsps gene, in which mutations are known to confer resistance in several plant species, was amplified from samples of both S and RS plants and sequenced, but no changes in the encoded amino acid sequence were found, indicating that mutations at another epsps site were responsible for the observed resistance, or that the mechanism may be at least partially non-target-based. Our results suggest that the reduced susceptibility to glyphosate may be due to impaired herbicide translocation, as previously found in studies of horseweed in the United States. PMID:19722578

  14. The use of taxation records in assessing historical floods in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Řezníčková, L.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Soukalová, E.; Dobrovolný, P.

    2014-10-01

    Since the second half of the 17th century, tax relief has been available to farmers and landowners to offset flood damage to property (buildings) and land (fields, meadows, pastures, gardens) in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Historically, the written applications for this were supported by a relatively efficient bureaucratic process that left a clear data trail of documentation, preserved at several levels: in the communities affected, in regional offices, and in the Moravian Land Office, all of which are to be found in estate and family collections in the Moravian Land Archives in the city of Brno, the provincial capital. As well as detailed information about damage done and administrative responses to it, data are often preserved as to the flood event itself, the time of its occurrence and its impacts, sometimes together with causes and stages. The final flood database based on taxation records is used here to describe the temporal and spatial density of both flood events and the records themselves. The information derived is used to help create long-term flood chronologies for the rivers Dyje, Jihlava, Svratka and Morava, combining floods interpreted from taxation records with other documentary data and floods derived from later systematic hydrological measurements (water levels, discharges). Common periods of higher flood frequency appear largely in the periods 1821-1850 and 1921-1950, although this shifts to several other decades for individual rivers. A number of uncertainties are inseparable from flood data taxation records: their spatial and temporal incompleteness; the inevitable limitation to larger-scale damage and restriction to the summer half-year; and the different characters of rivers, including land-use changes and channel modifications. Taxation data have considerable potential for extending our knowledge of past floods for the rest of the Czech Republic, not to mention other European countries in which records have survived.

  15. Increasing Incidence of Geomyces destructans Fungus in Bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Natália; Bačkor, Peter; Bartonička, Tomáš; Blažková, Pavla; Červený, Jaroslav; Falteisek, Lukáš; Gaisler, Jiří; Hanzal, Vladimír; Horáček, Daniel; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Jahelková, Helena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Korytár, L'uboš; Kubátová, Alena; Lehotská, Blanka; Lehotský, Roman; Lučan, Radek K.; Májek, Ondřej; Matějů, Jan; Řehák, Zdeněk; Šafář, Jiří; Tájek, Přemysl; Tkadlec, Emil; Uhrin, Marcel; Wagner, Josef; Weinfurtová, Dita; Zima, Jan; Zukal, Jan; Horáček, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Background White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme. PMID:21079781

  16. Twenty year development of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic: medical and geographical aspects.

    PubMed

    Jarolímek, Jan; Urban, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    The study analysed occupational diseases in the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of occupational medicine and medical geography. It used a dataset consisting of 32,646 cases of occupational diseases reported during the period of 1994-2013. The descriptive part of the study analysed occupational diseases according to their spatial distribution, occurrence in different branches of economic activities, employees' gender, and according to chapters of the List of occupational diseases. The incidence of occupational diseases showed an overall decreasing trend, which can be related to several factors--transformation of the national economy (shift from heavy industry to manufacturing industry and services), an improvement in access to occupational healthcare services, increased responsibility of employers for safe working conditions, but also a concealment of health problems by employees for fear of losing job. An exception to the decreasing trend is the automotive industry, in which the upward trend in occupational diseases occurrence was noted. The analytical part of the study focused on the relation between unemployment and occupational diseases incidence rates in different regions of the Czech Republic. In most regions, a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The situation is described in more detail for the Moravia-Silesia and Ustí nad Labem Regions and the Capital City of Prague, wherein a statistically significant inverse association was shown between the rate of unemployment and occupational disease incidence. The theory of marginal utility can explain the phenomenon. To certain degree of health problems, employees tend to prefer employment stability, especially if the unemployment is on rise in their region. On the other hand, if losing their job, they often try to claim benefits connected with occupational diseases. PMID:25622483

  17. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  18. Experience in non-conventional wastewater treatment techniques used in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Felberova, L; Kucera, J; Mlejnska, E

    2007-01-01

    Among the most common non-conventional wastewater treatment techniques used in the Czech Republic are waste stabilisation ponds (WSP), subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands (CW) and vertical flow groundfilters (GF). These extensive systems can be advantageously used for treatment of waters coming from sewerages where the ballast weighting commonly makes more than half of dry-weather flow. The monitoring was focused at 14 different extensive systems. Organics removal efficiencies were favourable (CW-82%; GF-88%); in the case of WSP only 57% due to the algal bloom. Total nitrogen removal efficiencies were 43 and 47% for WSP and GF; in the case of CW only 32% due to often occurring anaerobic conditions in filter beds. Total phosphorus removal efficiencies were 37, 35 and 22% for WSP, GF and CW, respectively. Often occurring problems are the ice-blockage of surface aerators at WSP during wintertimes, the pond duckweed-cover or the algal bloom at WSP during summers; a gradual colmatage of filter systems; and the oxygen deficiency in beds of subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands. Czech legal regulations do not allow treated wastewater disposal into underground waters. There is only an exception for individual family houses. Up to now, knowledge gained by monitoring of a village (which uses the infiltration upon a permission issued according to earlier legal regulations) have not shown an unacceptable groundwater quality deterioration into the infiltration areas. PMID:17881848

  19. The abolition of user charges and the demand for ambulatory visits: evidence from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Votapkova, Jana; Zilova, Pavlina

    2016-12-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the abolition of user charges for children's outpatient care (30 CZK/1.2 EUR) in 2009 on the demand for ambulatory doctor visits in the Czech Republic. Because the reform applied only to children, we can employ the difference-in-differences approach, where children constitute a treatment group and adults serve as a control group. The dataset covers 1841 observations. Aside from the treatment effect, we control for a number of personal characteristics using micro-level data (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions). Using the zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found no significant effect from the abolition of user charges on doctor visits, suggesting either that user charges are ineffective in the Czech environment or that their value was set too low. On the contrary, personal income, the number of household members and gender have a significant effect. A number of robustness checks using restricted samples confirm the results. PMID:27422120

  20. Mental Health and Sexual Identity in a Sample of Male Sex Workers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Johnson, Michael; Weiss, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous qualitative research has examined male sex workers in the Czech Republic, but this mapping study is the first to investigate male sex work in a quantitative research design and focus on the mental health of these sex workers. This study also examines male sex workers’ mental health problems in relation to their sexual identity or orientation. Material/Methods A sample of Czech male sex workers (N=40) were examined on a range of sexual and psychological variables using a quantitative survey administered face-to-face. The study employed locally validated versions of Beck’s Depression Inventory and Zung’s Self-Report Anxiety Scale. Results The results indicate that for homosexuals, working as a male sex worker is not related to any serious mental health problems. However, those identifying as heterosexual and bisexual more frequently reported symptoms of depression and bisexuals showed significantly more anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest sexual identity is an important issue to consider when addressing the mental health needs of this population. PMID:25239091

  1. Y-chromosomal diversity of the Valachs from the Czech Republic: model for isolated population in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Edvard; Vaněk, Daniel; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Vančata, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate Y-chromosomal diversity of the Moravian Valachs of the Czech Republic and compare them with a Czech population sample and other samples from Central and South-Eastern Europe, and to evaluate the effects of genetic isolation and sampling. Methods The first sample set of the Valachs consisted of 94 unrelated male donors from the Valach region in northeastern Czech Republic border-area. The second sample set of the Valachs consisted of 79 men who originated from 7 paternal lineages defined by surname. No close relatives were sampled. The third sample set consisted of 273 unrelated men from the whole of the Czech Republic and was used for comparison, as well as published data for other 27 populations. The total number of samples was 3244. Y-short tandem repeat (STR) markers were typed by standard methods using PowerPlex® Y System (Promega) and Yfiler® Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems) kits. Y-chromosomal haplogroups were estimated from the haplotype information. Haplotype diversity and other intra- and inter-population statistics were computed. Results The Moravian Valachs showed a lower genetic variability of Y-STR markers than other Central European populations, resembling more to the isolated Balkan populations (Aromuns, Csango, Bulgarian, and Macedonian Roma) than the surrounding populations (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Saxons). We illustrated the effect of sampling on Valach paternal lineages, which includes reduction of discrimination capacity and variability inside Y-chromosomal haplogroups. Valach modal haplotype belongs to R1a haplogroup and it was not detected in the Czech population. Conclusion The Moravian Valachs display strong substructure and isolation in their Y chromosomal markers. They represent a unique Central European population model for population genetics. PMID:21674832

  2. Remotely sensed vegetation indices for seasonal crop yields predictions in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Semerádová, Daniela; Balek, Jan; Bohovic, Roman; Žalud, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    Remotely sensed vegetation indices by satellites are valuable tool for vegetation conditions assessment also in the case of field crops. This study is based on the use of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard Terra satellite. Data available from the year 2000 were analyzed and tested for seasonal yields predictions within selected districts of the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Namely the yields of spring barley, winter wheat and oilseed winter rape during the period from 2000 to 2014 were assessed. Observed yields from 14 districts (NUTS 4) were collected and thus 210 seasons were included. Selected districts differ considerably in their soil fertility and terrain configuration and represent transect across various agroclimatic conditions (from warm and dry to relative cool and wet regions). Two approaches were tested: 1) using of composite remotely sensed data (available in 16 day time step) provided by the USGS (https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/); 2) using daily remotely sensed data in combination with originally developed smoothing method. The yields were successfully predicted based on established regression models (remotely sensed data used as independent parameter). Besides others the impact of severe drought episodes within vegetation were identified and yield reductions at district level predicted (even before harvest). As a result the periods with the best relationship between remotely sensed data and yields were identified. The impact of drought conditions as well as normal or above normal yields of field crops could be predicted by proposed method within study region up to 30 days prior to the harvest. It could be concluded that remotely sensed vegetation conditions assessment should be important part of early warning systems focused on drought. Such information should be widely available for various users (decision makers, farmers, etc.) in

  3. The Perceived Value of Education and Educational Aspirations in the Czech Republic: Changes in the Determination of Educational Aspirations between 1989 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares the changes in the determination of educational aspirations from the end of the communist period in 1989 to 2003, focusing on a single postcommunist country, the Czech Republic. The Czech case is particularly relevant for comparative research on educational inequality and aspirations, as previous studies have shown…

  4. Annual dynamics of perfluorinated compounds in sediment: A case study in the Morava River in Zlín district, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Bečanová, Jitka; Komprdová, Klára; Vrana, Branislav; Klánová, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Two groups of perfluorined compounds (PFCs), i.e. perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analysed during a period of 1 year in monthly collected riverbed sediment samples from five sampling sites in an industrial region in Morava River catchment in Czech Republic. Levels of PFCs determined in sediment samples were up to 6.8 μg kg(-1) of dry weight. Among PFCs analysed, mainly short-chain PFASs (C6 to C8) including PFOS were found in sediment samples and their levels were similar to those found in comparable river basins in other parts of Europe. Concentrations of PFCs were correlated with organic carbon content and their variations were mainly correlated by high flow events on Morava River and its tributaries. The changes in PFC concentrations were induced by displacing of PFCs containing particles to the river sediment during these elevated flow events. PMID:26945239

  5. TerraSAR-X Staring Spotlight Monitoring of a Highway Bridge in the Czech Republic (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacova, Ivana; Kolomaznik, Jan; Halounova, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Highway bridge in the southern part of Prague, Czech republic, is the longest bridge in the Czech republic and it is architectonically unique in Europe. It was built above the valley with confluence of two big rivers, Vltava and Berounka, in an area of frequent floods. On top, there is a five-lane highway with an important, circle-shape crossroad, and both ends of the bridge end up in a tunnel. During construction, steel was partially replaced by concrete in comparison to the plan, and first cracks arose just after opening of the bridge in September 2010, and are progressively getting bigger. We try to monitor this bridge using the InSAR technique with 22 TerraSAR-X scenes, acquired in the Staring Spotlight mode with a resolution of approximately 0.3 meters during June 2014 - February 2015 (11 days interval).

  6. Genetic and biological diversity of the Pea seed-borne mosaic virus isolates occurring in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Safárová, D; Navrátil, M; Petrusová, J; Pokorný, R; Piáková, Z

    2008-01-01

    Eight isolates of the Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV) from the Czech Republic were studied regarding their biological and molecular characteristics. Molecular characterization using RT-PCR was done on the 5'(Nter)NIb-CP-UTR3' region amplified using universal CPUP/P9502 primer pair and the newly designed PSB8812/PSB944, and PSB8800/PSB9440 primer pairs, respectively. Sequential and phylogenetic analysis of CP-UTR3' region from all isolates showed that the available Czech and GenBank PSbMV isolates were distributed into 4 clusters in agreement with their diversification and according to their biological characteristics (i.e. pathotype). The molecular data were confirmed by biological testing on different pea cultivars. The Czech isolates were distributed into two pathotypes, the P-1 (7 isolates) and P-4 (1 isolate). PMID:18459836

  7. A New Movement in an Old Bureaucracy: The Development of Self-Advocacy in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siska, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I describe how self-advocacy has grown in the Czech Republic. First, I talk about how services for people with learning disabilities have begun to change in the last few years. This is because voluntary groups have lobbied and campaigned for change. I learned about self-advocacy during a visit to the UK in the 1990s. I went back to…

  8. [The incidence of obesity and its complications in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Matoulek, M; Svacina, S; Lajka, J

    2010-10-01

    Over the recent years, the incidence of obesity is continuously rising. A research conducted in 2008-2009 on a representative sample of Czech population (n = 2,058) suggests that 23% of adult population of the Czech Republic are obese and 34% are overweight. This represents an increase of 5% in the number of obese people (17% vs. 22%), while the number of overweight remains practically the same (35% vs. 34%). A more significant shift in female waist circumference compared to male has also been shown. The incidence of hypertension in the evaluated sample was more than a two-fold higher in obese participants (48% vs. 21%) and as much as 3-fold higher in type 2 diabetes mellitus (7% vs. 20%). The risk of body weight increase is the highest between 50th and 59th year of age, where hypertension and diabetes are the most frequently diagnosed. The risk of obesity in adulthood is mostly carried over from childhood and more than 3/4 (77%) of those, who were overweight or obese as children, are in these categories as adults. Quality of life and satisfaction with own health is more related to BMI than age. Even though body weigh is increasing with the same amplitude in sportsman and physically active people, they are reaching lower final BMI due to their lower starting body weight. It is clear that physically active lifestyle in younger age is the best predictor of lower BMI in adult life. Consumption of secondary processed meat and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables are important factors in adulthood. PMID:21105446

  9. Soil moisture trends in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Dobrovolný, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Balek, Jan; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Wardlow, Brian; Svoboda, Mark; Hayes, Michael; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Central Europe is generally not considered a drought-prone region, and the drought research and support is traditionally focused on the Mediterranean and southeastern part of the continent and drying trends there. However, Central Europe, including the Czech Republic, recently experienced a series of drought events with substantial impacts, especially on crop production. Because agriculture systems, and vegetation in general, have adapted to evenly distributed precipitation, the region is susceptible to even short-term droughts. The recent drought events may be the result of multi-decadal climate variability or a more general trend, with some studies showing a link to a more frequent occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns that are conducive to drought. This study introduces an innovation to the standard methodological approaches in evaluating drought climatology by analyzing soil moisture conditions over more than fifty years. This approach relies on state-of-the art observed weather data and tested soil moisture model, and focuses on the dynamic simulation of soil moisture content with high temporal (daily) and spatial (500 m) resolution in a diverse landscape. Statistically significant trends of decreasing soil moisture content were found, notably during May and June between 1961 and 2012. In contrast, trends toward higher soil moisture content were noted during the October-March time period. When the periods of 2001-2012 and 1961-1980 were compared, the probability of drought between April and June was found to increase by 50%. This indicates a loading of the "climate dice" toward drier conditions. The probability of extreme drought events has been also found to increase. These results support the concerns about the potentially increased severity of drought events in Central Europe under projected climate change and has been submitted to International Journal of Climatology. The study was funded by project "Establishment of International Scientific Team

  10. Relationship between soil properties and forest health status in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek, O.; Šrámek, V.; Tejnecky, V.; Nikodem, A.; Sebek, O.; Fadrhonsová, V.; Boruvka, L.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected soil characteristics on tree vitality at representative forest monitoring plots. We have chosen 20 stands with prevailing Norway spruce and 20 plots with dominance of European beech across the Czech Republic. Following soil characteristics were determined: pH, content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), content of exchangeable (extracted by 0.1 M BaCl2) Ca, Mg and K, and major organic (formic, acetic and oxalic) and inorganic (e.g. sulphate and nitrate) anions in the aqueous extracts. Moreover, major Al forms in aqueous and 0.5 M KCl soil extracts were determined by means of HPLC/IC. Health of forest stands, expressed as crown defoliation, was assessed repeatedly. Overall, Al speciation in aqueous extracts was significantly affected by the DOC content and by the concentration of low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOA). The DOC content and composition is strongly dependent on tree species. We have observed higher proportion of organically bound Al in soil aqueous extracts under Norway spruce compared to European beech. This is probably caused by higher share of LMMOA from the total DOC content under Norway spruce. The health status of forest stands expressed as defoliation was negatively influenced by the contents of exchangeable Al3+ species and positively by the contents of exchangeable Ca and Mg in soils (Fig. 1). Potentially phytotoxic Al3+ was assessed as the prevailing Al exchangeable form. The beach stands is generally showed higher presence of Al3+, compared to the spruce stands. The Norway spruce stands exhibited different composition of DOC in soil, showing a higher share of LMMOA which might mitigate Al toxicity there. This study was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (project no. QI92A216). Fig. 1 The relationship between the crown defoliation and the content of exchangeable Al forms (left) and contents of exchangeable Ca, Mg and K (right); based on results

  11. [Occurrence of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Pavlásek, I; Chalupský, J; Kolárová, L; Horyna, B; Ritter, J

    1997-12-01

    During the period between December 1994 and December 1996 the authors examined, using the method of helminthological dissection of the intestinal tract in 15 districts of four regions in the Czech Republic a total of 824 foxes from 350 land registers. Echinococcus multilocularis was found in the following regions: South Bohemian (districts Jindrichův Hradec, Ceský Krumlov, Prachatice and Strakonice), Central Bohemian (Benesov district) and North Bohemian (district Teplice and Chomutov). There were 87 positive (10.6%) foxes in 56 places (16%). In some areas of the South Bohemian region examinations of foxes were repeated. It was found that there are places where the prevalence of E. multilocularis varied between 28.6 and 75% (mean 53.7%) but also areas which were repeatedly negative. In 1996 after one-week intervals foxes from the Prachatice district (South Bohemian region) were sent for parasitological examination. During different months of the year the prevalence of E. multilocularis varied between 2.6 and 33.3%. A similar investigation was made during May to October 1996 (except September) also in the district of Ceský Krumlov (South Bohemian region). Tapeworms were found in 7.14 to 66.7% of foxes. PMID:9471307

  12. New technologies of waste disposal in Czech Republic, evoked by new laws

    SciTech Connect

    Peleska, L.

    1995-12-01

    Of the utmost importance for the conception of waste disposal in any country is the fact how rich the respective country is and how realistic its legislators are. The apparently ideal approach to solving this problem is that chosen by more affluent European countries where wastes are recycled, are charged with taxes and duties, and where wastes that necessitate to be disposed are handled similarly as the nuclear wastes. The benefits are evident. The amounts of wastes to be deposited are minimalized. The waste repositories can be sealed by using layers of clay, foil and clay, and during a period of 50 to 100 years, any communication of the repository with the ambient environments can be eliminated. The disadvantage of such waste repositories, if applied to most of wastes, are the high costs associated with their depositioning. The prices of products, which the costs of waste disposal are being reflected in, are thus increasing, and, for this reason, many of products are becoming unmarketable, even on the domestic market. These financial means are often spent for nothing because the service life of some protective elements being at present used for construction of waste repositories is limited in time (for example, the service life of isolating foil is 50 to 1 00 years). Waste disposal in the Czech Republic, particulary from power plants, is discussed.

  13. Stray dog and cat laws and enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy.

    PubMed

    Voslárová, Eva; Passantino, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    The growing numbers of stray dogs and cats have posed serious public-health, socioeconomic, political and animal-welfare problems in many EU countries. Stray animal population control is a complex issue and there are no easy solutions. Recognising the importance of the issue the European Commission has, since 2007, actively contributed to the elaboration of the first global welfare standards for the control of dog populations in the framework of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Problem-solving approaches vary in different countries as there is no common European Community legislation dealing with stray animal control. In this paper the authors describe the characteristics of the stray dog and cat problem in general and focus on existing European legislation. A comparative overview of policies and measures in place in the Czech Republic and in Italy is made to observe the differences between the two countries and understand the different needs in each, considering their historical and social differences (i.e. a post-communist eastern country vs a western country and founder member of what is now the European Union). PMID:22456023

  14. Significance of Geological Units of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, as Seen by Ambient Noise Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Valentová, Lubica; Gallovič, František

    2016-05-01

    Broadband recordings of 88 seismic stations distributed in the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, and covering the time period of up to 12 years were processed by a cross-correlation technique. All correlograms were analyzed by a novel approach to get both group and phase dispersion of Rayleigh and Love waves. Individual dispersion curves were averaged in five distinct geological units which constitute the Bohemian Massif (Saxothuringian, Teplá-Barrandean, Sudetes, Moravo-Silesian, and Moldanubian). Estimated error of the averaged dispersion curves are by an order smaller than the inherent variability due to the 3D distribution of seismic velocities within the units. The averaged dispersion data were inverted for 1D layered velocity models including their uncertainty, which are characteristic for each of the geological unit. We found that, overall, the differences between the inverted velocity models are of similar order as the variability inside the geological units, suggesting that the geological specification of the units is not fully reflected into the S-wave propagation velocities on a regional scale. Nevertheless, careful treatment of the dispersion data allowed us to identify some robust characteristics of the area. The vp to vs ratio is anomalously low (~1.6) for all the units. The Moldanubian is the most rigid and most homogeneous part of the Bohemian Massif. Middle crust in the depth range of ~3-15 km is relatively homogeneous across the investigated region, while both uppermost horizon (0-3 km) and lower crust (>15 km) exhibit lower degree of homogeneity.

  15. Late Holocene evolution of the Bečva River floodplain (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacke, Václav; Pánek, Tomáš; Sedláček, Jan

    2014-02-01

    To reconstruct the geomorphic imprint of the anthropogenic and natural environmental changes in the Late Holocene, we studied the alluvial record of the Bečva River floodplain (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic). Coring, geophysical sounding and lithological analysis of floodplain deposits supported by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) dating enabled the establishment of the primary evolutionary stages of Late Holocene floodplain evolution. During the Late Atlantic and Early Subboreal periods, gravel aggradation and braided environments occurred in the studied floodplain. The Late Subboreal and Early Subatlantic are characterised by overbank sedimentation, and the Middle Subatlantic is marked by the recurrence of gravel aggradation. A major incision phase took place during the Mediaeval Warm Period. The onset of overbank sedimentation in the 15th century correlated with ongoing deforestation of the lower parts of catchment, and colonisation of the mountain ridges during the 16th-17th centuries further accelerated this process. During the 20th century, reforestation of mountains and river-channel training resulted in a significant incision phase. Our data suggest that climate fluctuations were major driving factors for the morpho-sedimentary evolution of the floodplain approximately up to the 12th century, whereas in the latter evolution period, anthropogenic activity superseded natural factors. This transition occurred more than one millennium later than in other Central and Western European catchments.

  16. Spatial expression of potential wind erosion threats to arable soils in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spáčilová, Bronislava; Středa, Tomáš; Thonnová, Pavlína

    2014-09-01

    Wind erosion risk strongly depends on soil surface conditions. Aridity or dryness of the climate in the Czech Republic is a typical property for Southern Moravia and Central Bohemia. The study aims to map and assess qualitatively the areas vulnerable to wind erosion using available data and intelligible methodology. The evaluation is based on the number of days when at least once a day dry condition of bare soil surface was recorded. Daily data of soil surface state from 70 climatological stations to 500 m altitude from 1981 to 2010 are used. First, soil conditions from 1st March to 30th April and from 1st September to 31st October were evaluated. Evaluation of erosion risk in May is presented separately in the second phase, because only thermophilous crops (late-sowing crops) can be affected in that time. The results show that mainly in the South and Southeast Moravia, there are areas where up to 60 days with dry soil surface in the spring and autumn occurred. Occurrence of such conditions may represent potential risk of wind erosion for arable soils and therefore potential risk for sown crops and loss of fertile soil surface which is irreplaceable for agricultural activities. The results are applicable for preparation of a concept of wind erosion control measures in the threatened regions.

  17. Knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards affected people among teachers in training in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Dana; Kohout, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare knowledge about, confidence with, and attitudes towards epilepsy and affected people between groups of freshmen and senior teachers in training (preservice teachers) at the Faculty of Education in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Two hundred thirty-six freshmen and 138 seniors completed the 21-item Scale of Attitudes Towards People with Epilepsy (ATPE), an 18-item multiple-choice test measuring their knowledge about epilepsy, and a 5-item questionnaire focused on confidence with epilepsy in a school environment. We found that despite a higher level of knowledge about epilepsy among seniors (mean score of 9.6 points compared with 8.48 points for freshmen, p<0.001), attitudes towards epilepsy, and also confidence in how to manage children affected with this disease did not differ significantly. The presented findings suggest that epilepsy-related training of preservice teachers should be more effective especially with respect to their ability to resolve problems that may happen to children with epilepsy in a class. PMID:26687292

  18. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in soils in the Region of Valasske Mezirici, the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of urban, agricultural and forest soil samples was investigated from samples obtained in the surroundings of Valasske Mezirici. Valasske Mezirici is a town located in the north-east mountainous part of the Czech Republic, where a coal tar refinery is situated. 16 PAHs listed in the US EPA were investigated. Organic oxidizable carbon was also observed in the forest soils. The PAH concentrations ranged from 0.86-10.84 (with one anomalous value of 35.14) and 7.66-79.39 mg/kg dm in the urban/agricultural and forest soils, respectively. While the PAH levels in the urban/agricultural soils are within the range typically found in industrialized areas, the forest soils showed elevated PAH concentrations compared to other forest soils in Western and Northern Europe. The PAH concentrations and their molecular distribution ratios were studied as functions of the sample location and the meteorological history. The soils from localities at higher altitudes above sea level have the highest PAH concentrations, and the PAH concentrations decrease with increasing distance from the town. PMID:20003407

  19. Molecular characterization of 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini' in Ixodes arboricola from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Marketa; Bulkova, Alexandra; Costa, Francisco B; Kristin, Anton; Krist, Milos; Krause, Frantisek; Liznarova, Eva; Labruna, Marcelo B; Literak, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of rickettsiae in the tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. During May to September of 2009 and 2013, bird boxes belonging to three different areas were screened for ticks. In total, 454 nestlings and 109 nests of 10 hole-breeding bird species were examined. Ticks were found on Ficedula albicollis, Parus major, Cyanistes caeruleus and Sitta europaea and/or in their nests. In total, 166 ticks (17 nymphs, 10 males and 139 females) were found at 3 areas (arithmetic mean±standard error: 55.3±45.9). All ticks were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, ompB and htrA and amplicon sequencing. All individuals except 3 nymphs were infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini'. Multilocus sequence typing showed closest proximity to Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cluster. The presence of 'Ca. R. vini' is reported for the first time in Slovakia. PMID:25769386

  20. Oral contraception in the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republic: attitudes and use.

    PubMed

    Ketting, E; Visser, A P; Uzel, R; Lehert, P

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents and discusses data on oral contraception from a national representative survey (n = 1072) on knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to contraceptive use in the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR). Only 7% of the women at risk of unplanned pregnancy used the pill. The low rate of use seems to be due to the general negative image of oral contraception, reinforced by the experiences of past users and opinions expressed by relative, friends, doctors, and the media. In particular, perceived psychological disadvantages have an important bearing on the decision not to use the method, whereas perceived advantages have hardly any impact. It is likely that this negative image is closely linked with the types of oral contraceptives that have been available in the country and also with the limited choice. Second- and third-generation oral contraceptives have only very recently become available. It is recommended that balanced information on the advantages and disadvantages of oral contraception be made available to doctors and to the general public on a large scale and through a variety of channels. PMID:8237567

  1. Exposer Intensity, Vulnerability Index And Landscape Change Assessment In Olomouc, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boori, M. S.; Vozenilek, V.; Choudhary, K.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is vulnerability and exposer intensity due to land use change in Olomouc, Czech Republic. Vulnerability assessment with exposer intensity to land use/cover change is an important step for enhancing the understanding and decision-making to reduce vulnerability. This study work includes quantification of Exposure Index (EI), Sensitivity Index (SI) and Adaptive Capacity Index (AI). EI is based on intensity of land use/cover change, SI and AI based on natural factors such as elevation, slope, vegetation and land use/cover. Vulnerability Index (VI) derived on the quantification of SI and AI and compared from 1991, 2001 and 2013. Comparing of EI and VI for last three decades, settlements have highest vulnerability index due to high socio-economic activities and water have lowest vulnerability index due to less human interferences. Agriculture has highest exposer index and second highest vulnerability, which show its high rate of exploitation and production. In the study areas, vulnerability tends to increase with the increase of exposure to land use change, but can peak off once the land use start to benefit socio-economically from development. Only in this way we can enhance the adaptive capacity of study area to use change of land.

  2. Textural and chemical evolution of a fractionated granitic system: the Podlesí stock, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Karel; Müller, Axel; Leichmann, Jaromír; Gabašová, Ananda

    2005-03-01

    The Podlesí granite stock (Czech Republic) is a fractionated, peraluminous, F-, Li- and P-rich, and Sn, W, Nb, Ta-bearing rare-metal granite system. Its magmatic evolution involved processes typical of intrusions related to porphyry type deposits (explosive breccia, comb layers), rare-metal granites (stockscheider), and rare metal pegmatites (extreme F-P-Li enrichment, Nb-Ta-Sn minerals, layering). Geological, textural and mineralogical data suggest that the Podlesí granites evolved from fractionated granitic melt progressively enriched in H 2O, F, P, Li, etc. Quartz, K-feldspar, Fe-Li mica and topaz bear evidence of multistage crystallization that alternated with episodes of resorption. Changes in chemical composition between individual crystal zones and/or populations provide evidence of chemical evolution of the melt. Variations in rock textures mirror changes in the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization. Equilibrium crystallization was interrupted several times by opening of the system and the consequent adiabatic decrease of pressure and temperature resulted in episodes of nonequilibrium crystallization. The Podlesí granites demonstrate that adiabatic fluctuation of pressure ("swinging eutectic") and boundary-layer crystallization of undercooled melt can explain magmatic layering and unidirectional solidification textures (USTs) in highly fractionated granites.

  3. Declining impacts of hot spells on mortality in the Czech Republic: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, Jan; Plavcova, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Extreme temperature events have pronounced negative impacts on ecosystems and society, including human health effects. The study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (central Europe) during 1986-2006. Declining trends in the mortality impacts are found in summer as well as in transition seasons, in spite of rising temperature trends (warming by 1.4 deg. C in summer over the 21-year period). The finding remains unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability. The results suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that influence vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address associated uncertainties in studies dealing with climate change projections of temperature-related mortality.

  4. Decreased impacts of the 2003 heat waves on mortality in the Czech Republic: an improved response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyselý, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír

    2008-11-01

    The paper examines impacts on mortality of heat waves in 2003, the hottest summer on record in the Czech Republic, and compares them with previous similar events. While most summer heat waves over the period since 1986 were associated with significantly elevated mortality, this was not the case for three out of the four heat waves in 2003. The relatively weak mortality response was particularly noteworthy for the most severe heat wave which occurred in the first 10 days of August 2003 and resulted in enormous excess mortality in some western European countries. A mortality displacement effect and short-term adaptation to heat contributed to the reduced mortality impacts of the heat waves that followed after previous relatively warm periods. However, the decreased mortality response of the 2003 heat waves compared to previous heat waves in the 1990s is also likely to have arisen from positive health-care and other socio-economic changes in the post-communist central European region over the past decade, as well as a better public awareness of heat-related risks due to enhanced media coverage and regular biometeorological forecast and warnings.

  5. The Association Between Belief in God and Fertility Desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Cranney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Context Research on the association between religiosity and fertility—and, particularly, on the effects of secularization on fertility desires and outcomes—has been concerned primarily with mechanisms that are fundamentally institutional and are embedded in formal religious structures. Supplementary explanations focused on noninstitutional dimensions of religiosity have never been tested. Methods Conventional ordinary least-squares regression was used to test the association between belief in God (i.e., a personal God or some sort of life force) and fertility desires among 2,251 women aged 18–45 in Slovenia and 951 women aged 15–44 in the Czech Republic who participated in the European Family and Fertility Survey in the mid-1990s. Results In both samples, substantial proportions of women either were nonbelievers or believed in God but were not institutionally religious. Belief in God was independently associated with fertility desires even in analyses controlling for self-reported religiosity. Women who believed in a personal God wanted approximately 0.2 more children, and those who believed in a life force wanted approximately 0.1 more children, than nonbelievers. Results were similar across several alternative measures of religiosity. Conclusions At least some of the connection between religiosity and fertility apparently is attributable to metaphysical beliefs. Future research on the effect of secularization on fertility decline should investigate the potentially distinct effects of different dimensions of religiosity. PMID:25682844

  6. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dragano, Nico; Bobak, Martin; Wege, Natalia; Peasey, Anne; Verde, Pablo E; Kubinova, Ruzena; Weyers, Simone; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Stang, Andreas; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Siegrist, Johannes; Pikhart, Hynek

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study'), and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) Study'). Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES). The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education) and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29–1.98] in Germany

  7. What was driving land-scape drying in the Czech Republic between 1961 and 2012?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavinka, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Balek, Jan; Semerádová, Daniela; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Dobrovolný, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Dubrovský, Martin; Eitzinger, Josef; Fuchs, Brian; Svoboda, Mark; Hayes, Michael; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    The drying trends in the Czech Republic especially during May and June are of great concern as they influence the key part of growing season in the region. The fact that April-June period of 2001-2012 showed 50% increase of drought probability compared to 1961-1980 is alarming. In the same time the probability of extreme drought was found to be also rising significantly. This study tries to understand what has driven reported changes in the soil moisture especially during the warm half of the year. Therefore trends of global radiation, temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed, reference and actual evapotranspiration, snow cover but also start of key phenology phases were assessed and their relationship with the changes in the soil moisture analyzed. In addition measured pan-evaporation data as well as results of studies were used to assess reliability of the reported trends. We have found that increased global radiation and air temperature together with decreased relative humidity (all significant at 0.05) lead the increase of the reference evapotranspiration in all months of growing season. That was the case especially in April, May and August when over 80% of the territory showed statistically significant trends in reference evapotranspiration values. This finding was shown to be consistent with the observed pan evaporation (1968-2012) that was characterized by increasing trends especially during April-June period. These changes in combination with the earlier end of snow cover and earlier start of growing season (in some regions by up to 20 days) led to increased actual evapotranspiration at the start of growing season that tends to deplete the soil moisture earlier, leaving landscape more exposed to impacts of rainfall variability. These results support the concerns about the potentially increased severity of drought events in Central Europe. While the evaporative demand is clearly increasing, it is not matched by the similar increase of

  8. Anthropogenic influence of small urban watercourses - Case study from the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svobodova, Eva; Jakubinsky, Jiri; Bacova, Radka; Kubicek, Petr; Herber, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Rivers and streams in the urban areas are losing natural environmental values. There is especially small watercourses issue, where there exists the lack of river management and interest of municipalities. The main used methods are based on the field research of river landscape, mapping and inventory of anthropogenic landforms and determination of Channel Capacity Coefficient (CCC). We establish the list of anthropogenic landforms, which we divide to the five categories - industrial, agrarian, urban, transport network, and water management structures. Values of the channel morphologic parameters - width of channel, width of riverbed, and the degree of countersink - are measured for Channel Capacity Coefficient calculation. Pattern of objects shrinking transverse profile and limiting the smooth flow are investigated beside the morphological features. Resulting from the application of these theoretical methods are several practical outputs. Firstly, we construct thematic grid cell monitoring maps (a) count of anthropogenic landforms in the floodplain; (b) weighted average of landform, whose weight was determined on the basis of their influence on the impact of floods. Secondly, we identify pattern distribution of the watercourses channel capacity in the selected study areas. Thirdly, we confirm existence of the urban stream syndrome which is characterized by consistently observed ecological degradation of brooks. The main symptoms of degradation are the altered channel morphology, occurrence of flashfloods, and the rate of ecological stability. Above mentioned characteristics were applied in two different catchments in the Czech Republic - the Leskava Brook and the Lacnovsky Brook. Both streams flow through the urban area in the diverse natural conditions and with various historical development. The Leskava Brook is situated in the southern part of Brno in the Southern Moravia, and the Lacnovsky Brook, lies in the northern part of Svitavy town on the border of Moravia

  9. Remote sensing of forest damage in the Czech Republic using hyperspectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entcheva, Petya K.

    The current study assesses the potential of hyperspectral data for monitoring the initial stages of damage in Norway spruce forests characterized by subtle changes in foliar chlorophyll and chemistry. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution reflectance measurements were obtained for selected study sites in the Krusne hory, Czech Republic. High spectral resolution airborne canopy data and field foliar samples were acquired simultaneously in August 1998 for a total of 51 study sites within the Krusne hory. The sites were selected to represent a full range of damage conditions in even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands located between 820--920m elevation. Reflectance, foliar pigments, nitrogen and chemical constituents were determined for first-, second- and third-year needles. A strong correlation to damage was established for the foliar chemistry. A significant increase in polar compounds (such as tannins, sugars and starch) and a reduced needle lignification occurs with increasing damage. Foliar chemical constituents appear to be effective indicators of long-term environmental conditions. The strong relationship between damage level and polar compounds suggests high potential for use of these constituents as bio-indicators of stress. Both field and airborne high spectral resolution data separate the initial forest damage classes. Based on field reflectance measurements for third-year needles, derivative indices from the red edge region were most strongly correlated to damage level, followed by indices ratioing damage-sensitive and damage-insensitive bands and a parameter describing the fit of an Inverted Gaussian curve. Red/red edge spectral data from the Airborne Solid State Array Spectrometer (ASAS) had the highest potential for separation of initial levels of damage, which corresponds with the region suggested as most sensitive to damage as seen in conducting the field reflectance measurements. Both optical and derivative indices

  10. Trace elements in the blood of institutionalized elderly in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rambousková, Jolana; Krsková, Andrea; Slavíková, Miroslava; Cejchanová, Mája; Wranová, Kateřina; Procházka, Bohumír; Cerná, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Whole blood selenium, copper, zinc and manganese concentrations of 197 institutionalized senior citizens (46 males, 151 females) aged 61-100 years (mean age 83.6 years) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry from two localities in the Czech Republic (Prague and Teplice) from 2009 through 2011. Geometric means (GM) of whole blood selenium (B-Se), copper (B-Cu), zinc (B-Zn) and manganese (B-Mn) levels were 74.0 μg/l, 941.0 μg/l, 5898.0 μg/l and 10.9 μg/l, respectively. Gender-related differences were found with significantly higher B-Cu levels in women and significantly higher B-Zn levels in men. The percentage of seniors with B-Se levels lower than 56 μg/l (which is equivalent to the critical value of 45 μg/l of Se in serum (S-Se)) was 8.6%. A negative correlation between age and B-Se levels was found. B-Zn positively correlated with serum albumin and prealbumin whereas a negative correlation between age and B-Zn was observed. Seniors with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis had higher B-Cu and B-Mn levels, respectively, than those without these diagnoses. The elderly from Prague had significantly higher B-Mn concentrations than those from Teplice. We found no evidence of serious essential elements deficiencies or excesses in the seniors who participated in this study. PMID:23245729

  11. Environmental and health impact by dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Havlikova, M; Kroeze, C; Huijbregts, M A J

    2008-06-25

    In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a country-specific set of indicators to assess the environmental impact in nine regions with specific environmental characteristics. We estimate the contribution of emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NO) to acidification and terrestrial eutrophication, nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) to aquatic eutrophication, nitrogen oxides (NO), particulate matter (PM10) and (PM2.5) to human toxicity and methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO) to global warming. We present large regional differences in the environmental and health impact per unit of agricultural production. The regional acidifying, eutrophying and global warming impact of dairy cattle is calculated to be up to three times the national average, depending on the dairy cattle intensity. Aquatic eutrophication is found to be a problem in regions with relatively high eutrophying emissions per hectare of so-called nitrate vulnerable zones. Human toxicity problems caused by dairy cattle livestock and manure management are problematic in regions with a high population density in rural areas. The strength of our approach is the use of country-specific characterisation factors to assess the potential environmental and health impact of agriculture at the sub-national scale. We were able to analyse the potential environmental impact without explicit quantification of specific effects on humans and ecosystems. The results can be used to identify the most polluted areas as well as appropriate targets for emission reduction. PMID:18394682

  12. Experiences in the field of radioactive materials seizures in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, Karel; Podlaha, Josef; Sir, David; Mudra, Josef

    2007-07-01

    In recent years, the amount of radioactive materials seizures (captured radioactive materials) has been rising. It was above all due to newly installed detection facilities that were able to check metallic scrap during its collection in scrap yards or on the entrance to iron-mills, checking municipal waste upon entrance to municipal disposal sites, even incineration plants, or through checking vehicles going through the borders of the Czech Republic. Most cases bore a relationship to secondary raw materials or they were connected to the application of machines and installations made from contaminated metallic materials. However, in accordance to our experience, the number of cases of seizures of materials and devices containing radioactive sources used in the public domain was lower, but not negligible, in the municipal storage yards or incineration plants. Atomic Act No. 18/1997 Coll. will apply to everybody who provides activities leading to exposure, mandatory assurance as high radiation safety as risk of the endangering of life, personal health and environment is as low as reasonably achievable in according to social and economic aspects. Hence, attention on the examination of all cases of the radioactive material seizure based on detection facilities alarm or reasonably grounds suspicion arising from the other information is important. Therefore, a service carried out by group of workers who ensure assessment of captured radioactive materials and eventual retrieval of radioactive sources from the municipal waste has come into existence in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. This service has covered also transport, storage, processing and disposal of found radioactive sources. This service has arisen especially for municipal disposal sites, but later on even other companies took advantage of this service like incineration plants, the State Office for Nuclear Safety, etc. Our experience in the field of ensuring assessment of captured radioactive materials

  13. Impacts of temperature extremes on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Plavcová, E.; Urban, A.; Kriz, B.; Kyncl, J.

    2012-04-01

    Elevated mortality associated with high ambient temperatures in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather extremes on human society. Increases in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves have been reported in many European countries; much less is known about which particular cardiovascular disorders are most affected during heat waves, and whether similar patterns are found for morbidity (hospital admissions). Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study analyses relationships between temperature extremes and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We make use of the datasets on hospital admissions and daily mortality in the population of the Czech Republic (about 10.3 million) over 1994-2009. The data have been standardized to remove the effects of the long-term trend and the seasonal and weekly cycles. Periods when the morbidity/mortality data were affected by epidemics of influenza and other acute respiratory infections have been removed from the analysis. We use analogous definitions for hot and cold spells based on quantiles of daily average temperature anomalies, which allows for a comparison of the findings for summer hot spells and winter cold spells. The main aims of the study are (i) to identify deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline associated with hot and cold spells, (ii) to compare the hot- and cold-spell effects for individual cardiovascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic heart disease I20-I25, cerebrovascular disease I60-I69, hypertension I10, aterosclerosis I70) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to temperature extremes, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to temperature extremes, and (iv) to compare the links to temperature extremes for morbidity and

  14. Contamination of fish in important fishing grounds of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cerveny, Daniel; Zlabek, Vladimir; Velisek, Josef; Turek, Jan; Grabic, Roman; Grabicova, Katerina; Fedorova, Ganna; Rosmus, Jan; Lepic, Pavel; Randak, Tomas

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the contamination levels of certain important fishing grounds in the Czech Republic and to assess the health risk of consuming the fish from these localities. The assessment was performed from 2006 to 2010 in 27 fishing grounds. Within this project, 707 fish from 14 different species were sampled. The concentration of selected toxic metals (Hg, Pb, Cd) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (o,p´-DDE; p,p´-DDE; o,p´-DDD; p,p´-DDD; o,p´-DDT; p,p´-DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were analysed in the muscle tissue of the sampled fish. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for the analysis of toxic metals. All of the POPs were analysed using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC/ECD). Common bream (Abramis brama) was chosen as a reference fish species for the comparison of fishing grounds. Mercury was found as a major pollutant in fish flesh at all of the sampling sites. Concentrations in excess of the maximum level (ML) of mercury in the muscle tissue of fish (0.5 mg kg(-1)) were registered in 32 samples. Concentrations of other monitored toxic metals in fish muscle were low, typically below the limit of quantification (LOQ). From the tested POPs, DDTs and NDL-PCBs were found as major pollutants. ML for NDL-PCBs (ICES-6) in muscle tissue of fish (0.125 mg kg(-1)) was exceeded in 7 samples. In case of tested pesticides, concentrations in excess of the MRL were not registered. PMID:25173745

  15. National monitoring of nicotine use in Czech and Slovak Republic based on wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Birošová, Lucia; Grabic, Roman; Škubák, Jaroslav; Bodík, Igor

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare estimation of nicotine use in Slovakia (SR) and the Czech Republic (CR) based on cotinine analysis in wastewater from seven selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with conventional estimation based on tobacco product sales. Urinary bio-markers of nicotine use were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study was performed concurrently at all the WWTPs (from 11 to 18 March 2014). Representative 24 h composite samples were analyzed with on line SPE/LC-MS/MS method. Based on the average residence time of wastewater in the sewers and the average time in the sampling device, specific correction coefficients were designed to improve estimation of nicotine consumption. Nicotine ingestion level was back-calculated and expressed as mass of pure drug consumed per day and per 1000 inhabitants for selected cities of both countries (mean, 2.2 g for Piešťany and 8.0 g for Nitra, respectively). Consequently, the cigarette consumption results were recalculated for each country separately and compared with the data of both national statistical offices (2362 cigarettes/year/person--SR and 2088 cigarettes/year/person--CR). Our results highly correspond to the data of national statistical offices (up to 99.9% in SR and to 96% in CR). The average amount of money invested in cigarette sales was estimated in the capitals of both countries. It is about 1 million EUR/day for Prague and about 0.3 million EUR/day for Bratislava. The calculation of nicotine consumption, utilizing a specific correction coefficient, is the correct way to obtain more accurate data in drug studies of this kind, thus allowing a better drug abuse assessment. PMID:25956519

  16. Last 250 years climate reconstruction inferred from geothermal measurements in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodri, L.; Čermák, V.

    1998-06-01

    The subsurface of the Earth has a certain capability to remember what has happened on its surface tens to hundreds of years ago. Ground surface temperature (GST) history, reflecting past climate conditions, can be evaluated by analysing the excursions left on the present-day temperature-depth distribution measured by precise temperature loggings in the boreholes. Temperature logs from fifteen selected holes were inverted into GST histories to assess the corresponding climatic changes. These temperature records generally represent typical conditions existing on the territory of the Czech Republic. In combination with the GST reconstructions from our previous works, these data were used to assess the regional pattern of the last 250-year climatic change. The GSTs were obtained by applying the generalized least-squares inversion method [Jackson, D.D., 1972. Interpretation of inaccurate, insufficient and inconsistent data. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 28, 97-109], whereby the additional information on interdependence of both measured data and climate changes can be incorporated into the model in the form of covariance matrices. Three main episodes can be distinguished in the last 250 years: a warm period between 1790 and 1830, a slightly colder period in 1940-1960, and a general warming with the average rates of 0.01-0.03 K/year since then. The geographical distribution of the recent warming rate may indicate an impact of human activities. The verification of the GST assessment was accomplished by the independent past climate reconstructions gained by the use of historical sources and instrumental records.

  17. The rare earth element potential of kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, S.; Frimmel, H. E.; Pašava, J.

    2014-12-01

    Four kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif were studied in order to assess the potential for the recovery of rare earth elements (REE) as by-products from the residue after extraction and refining of the raw kaolin. The behaviour of REE + Y during kaolinitization was found to be largely a function of pre-alteration mineralogy. In the examples studied, i.e. granite-derived deposits of Kriechbaum (Austria) and Božičany, and arkose-derived deposits of Kaznějov and Podbořany (all Czech Republic), the REE + Y are predominantly hosted by monazite which has remained unaffected by kaolinitization. The overall REE + Y content of the variably kaolinitized rocks is strongly dependent on their genesis. While ion adsorption plays only a minor role in the concentration of REE + Y in the studied kaolinitized rocks, the processing and refining of the raw kaolin leads to residues that are enriched in REE + Y by a factor of up to 40. The use of a magnetic separator and a hydrocyclone in the processing of the raw material can yield REE + Y contents of as much as 0.77 wt%. Although this value compares well with the REE + Y concentration in some potentially economic REE + Y projects elsewhere, the overall tonnage of the (REE + Y)-enriched residue is by far not sufficient to consider economic extraction of REE + Y as by-product. Our results are most probably applicable also to other kaolin deposits derived from the weathering of Hercynian basement granites elsewhere (e.g. in Saxonia and Bavaria, Germany). Overall, the potential for REE + Y production as by-product from kaolin mining has to be regarded as minimal.

  18. [Warning about risk of invasive infections in splenectomized patients. Experiences from University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011].

    PubMed

    Polák, P; Freibergerová, M; Husa, P; Slesinger, P; Svoboda, R; Sťásek, J; Frola, L; Macháček, C

    2012-09-01

    Syndrome of fulminant sepsis in splenectomized (overwhelming postsplenectomy infection - OPSI) is feared and often fatal infectious complication in patients after splenectomy. The risk of syndrome of fulminant sepsis in splenectomized in these persons persists lifelong and doesn't diminish during the time. Etiologically, encapsulated bacterias like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae group b and Neisseria meningitidis are involved. As the mortality of syndrome of fulminant sepsis in splenectomized is very high, it is indispensable to educate and vaccinate persons in risk. The authors present case reports of three splenectomized patients who were hospitalized for invasive pneumococcal infection in the University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic, in 2011. PMID:23094812

  19. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) on chickens (Gallus gallus) from small backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sychra, O; Harmat, P; Literák, I

    2008-04-15

    One hundred and sixty chickens (Gallus gallus) from 31 small, private backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera). At least one species of chewing lice was found on every bird examined. Seven species of chewing lice were identified in all; they had the following prevalences and mean intensities: Goniocotes gallinae (100%; 110 lice), Menopon gallinae (88%; 50), Menacanthus stramineus (48%; 17), Lipeurus caponis (35%; 12), Menacanthus cornutus (12%; 9), Cuclotogaster heterographus (1%; 4) and Goniocotes microthorax (1%; 3). Just two birds from a single flock were heavily infested with the ischnoceran species G. gallinae. PMID:18280661

  20. West Nile virus lineage 2 isolated from Culex modestus mosquitoes in the Czech Republic, 2013: expansion of the European WNV endemic area to the North?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, I; Bakonyi, T; Sebesta, O; Mendel, J; Peško, J; Betášová, L; Blažejová, H; Venclíková, K; Straková, P; Nowotny, N; Hubálek, Z

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection and isolation of four almost identical strains of West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2from Culex modestus mosquitoes collected at three fish ponds in South Moravia, Czech Republic, during August 2013. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Czech WNV strains isolated are closely related to Austrian, Italian and Serbian strains reported in 2008,2011 and 2012, respectively. Our findings show the current northernmost range of lineage 2 WNV in Europe. PMID:25138970

  1. Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia M.L. Poucques 1952, a morphologically interesting, rare euglenoid new to the algal flora of the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Juráň, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report describes the discovery of the rare euglenoid taxon Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia in a small mesotrophic pond in the Czech Republic. Only limited data are available on the distribution of this taxon as same as for typical variety of Trachelomonas bituricensis, even though this taxon is morphologically very well defined. I provide a brief discussion of the taxonomic validity of this taxon based only on morphological features, which are characteristic for the taxonomy of the genus Trachelomonas. This finding is completely new for the algal flora of the Czech Republic. This report provides new information about the worldwide distribution of this taxon and its ecology. PMID:27081352

  2. Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia M.L. Poucques 1952, a morphologically interesting, rare euglenoid new to the algal flora of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Juráň, Josef

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the discovery of the rare euglenoid taxon Trachelomonas bituricensis var. lotharingia in a small mesotrophic pond in the Czech Republic. Only limited data are available on the distribution of this taxon as same as for typical variety of Trachelomonas bituricensis, even though this taxon is morphologically very well defined. I provide a brief discussion of the taxonomic validity of this taxon based only on morphological features, which are characteristic for the taxonomy of the genus Trachelomonas. This finding is completely new for the algal flora of the Czech Republic. This report provides new information about the worldwide distribution of this taxon and its ecology. PMID:27081352

  3. Mercury in forest ecosystems near chlor-alkali plant in the Czech republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimeček, Martin; Navratil, Tomas; Rohovec, Jan

    2016-04-01

    A mercury electrolysis chlor-alkali plant has been operating in Neratovice, the central Czech Republic since year 1948. We focused on the assessment of mercury contamination in the plant surroundings. To assess the contamination extent we sampled organic and mineral soils, bedrock, bark, needles and tree rings from several forest sites with variable distance from plant. The soils were predominately arenic cambisol and the vegetation cover composed of mixed to coniferous forests (majorly Pinus sylvestris). At all the sites, the highest concentrations occurred in the organic rich O horizons of the forest soils. The Hg concentrations increased from Oi horizon (up to 252 μg/kg) with fresh organic matter, through Oe horizons (up to 617 μg/kg) to the Oa horizons (up to 813 μg/kg) with relatively highly decomposed organic matter. The Hg concentrations in mineral soil were significantly lower in range from 3 to 44 μg/kg. Sandstone bedrock contained low Hg concentrations from 2.7 to 4.7 μg/kg. The difference between the high Hg in organic and low Hg in mineral horizons results from order of magnitude different content of soil organic matter. In the same time low Hg in mineral soil indicates low level of Hg migration down the soil profile. Apart from the simple comparison of Hg concentrations, insight into the patterns of soil Hg distribution can be gained by examining the stoichiometric ratios of Hg to C. Soil Hg/C should be greater in areas with greater atmospheric Hg deposition. O horizons of sites closer to plant up to 4.5 km exhibited elevated Hg/C ratios (2.0 - 2.2 μg/g) with respect to those at more distant sites (0.7 - 0.9 μg/g). Values of mineral soil Hg/C ratios varied irrespective to the distance from the plant. Organic soil Hg pool decreased from 13.6 mg/m2 in distance of 1.9 km from the plant to 2.6 mg/m2 in distance of 9 km. But the mineral soil Hg pool ranging from 7.6 to 12.3 mg/m2 exhibited no trend with distance. The polluted sites up to 2.5 km from

  4. Impact of bark beetle calamity on soil moisture dynamics during floods and droughts in 2013 - case study of Rokytka Brook catchment, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of soil moisture in the experimental catchment of Rokytka Brook, Otava River basin, Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. This area has a long-term problems with bark beetle which results predominantly in the spruce forest perdition. This phenomenon has resulted not only in a change of a vegetation composition, but also it has impacted the development of local land cover, soil moisture dynamics or the storage capacity of soils and the potential retention conditions within the basin . The experimental catchment, where the research was carried out, consists by 2/3 of terrestrial soil (Entic Podzol). The soil is covered by the dead forest (former spuce forest before bark beetle calamity) and by the beech forest (former spruce-beech forest). The rest of the basin consists of well-developed peatbogs that represents a typical example of a peatbog in Šumava Mts. In terms of vegetation, the area can be divided into a lower part consisting of healthy waterlogged spruce forest, the mountain pine covers the middle part and the upper part is covered mostly by the cotton grass. In the part where terrestrial soils predominate, measuring of soil pressures and temperatures at two depths (20 and 60 cm) at two sites (former spruce-beech and spruce forest) has been carried out since 2012. Due to the bark beetle calamity, the spruce forest has become withered and thus the vegetation cover has changed. Meteorological data (precipitation, air temperature, humidity) are collected by meteorological stations located within the basin or used from nearby stations (solar radiation, wind speed). The outflow from the experimental catchment is also measured. The aim of this paper is to simulate the dynamics of a soil moisture condition before bark beetle outbreak, to compare the differences and changes of a soil moisture and retention ability of a typical soil type in the case of a characteristic headwater catchment in Šumava Mts. For the simulation of a soil

  5. Coal upgrading program for Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic: Task 8.3. Topical report, October 1994--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Coal has been a major energy source in the Czech Republic given its large coal reserves, especially brown coal and lignite (almost 4000 million metric tons) and smaller reserves of hard, mainly bituminous, coal (over 800 million tons). Political changes since 1989 have led to the reassessment of the role of coal in the future economy as increasing environmental regulations affect the use of the high-sulfur and high-ash brown coal and lignite as well as the high-ash hard coal. Already, the production of brown coal has declined from 87 million metric tons per year in 1989 to 67 million metric tons in 1993 and is projected to decrease further to 50 million metric tons per year of brown coal by the year 2000. As a means of effectively utilizing its indigenous coal resources, the Czech Republic is upgrading various technologies, and these are available at different stages of development, demonstration, and commercialization. The purpose of this review is to provide a database of information on applicable technologies that reduce the impact of gaseous (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, volatile organic compounds) and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal in district and residential heating systems.

  6. [Early diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia in Czech Republic in pursuance of MedPed Project].

    PubMed

    Freiberger, Tomáš; Vrablík, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have revealed the prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is approximately twice higher than previously estimated and, thus, the disease affects one in 250 persons from the general population. Therefore FH remains the most frequent inherited metabolic disorder. Due to the genetic defect LDL-cholesterol accumulates both in the plasma and tissues leading to premature and accelerated atherosclerosis. Untreated patients with FH might suffer from myocardial infarction in the third or fourth decade, one third of these events being fatal. The disease is under-diagnosed and undertreated worldwide. In the Czech Republic the MedPed project focused on early diagnosis and initiation of proper treatment of FH aiming at lowering of the above mentioned risks was initiated in 1998. A crucial part of the project is so called cascade screening among the relatives of identified FH probands. There are 6,350 registered FH subjects in the nationwide registry, which represents 16% of the expected number of FH patients in the Czech Republic. This result of screening efforts ranks among the top countries in the world, however, also in spite of the recent expansion of FH treatment options early detection and initiation of treatment of FH remains in the centre of our attention. PMID:26652781

  7. [Surgical treatment of complicated hepatic echinococcosis in two Bulgarian citizens at two surgical departments in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Vávra, P; Třeška, V; Ostruszka, P; Sutnar, A; Fichtl, J; Hozáková, L; Mitták, M; Horáček, J

    2012-07-01

    Echinococcosis, also referred to as hydatidosis, is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus in its larval stage. It has worldwide distribution and endemic areas in Europe include especially the regions surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. In the Czech Republic, its incidence tends to be quite rare. Although it may affect any organ or tissue in the human body, the liver (60%) and lungs (20%) are the most frequently affected sites. The authors present two cases of Bulgarian patients with hepatic echinococcosis operated on the same day at two different surgical departments in the Czech Republic. Treatment is based on the surgical removal of the cysts in combination with anti-parasite treatment by benzimidazoles (Albendazol, Mebendazol). Treatment with anti-parasitic drugs needs to be started preoperatively and should continue for at least 1-2 months after surgery. The success of the treatment can be monitored by imaging methods, especially PET/CT and serology. Patients after surgical as well as conservative therapy need to be followed up on an outpatient basis due to the long-term risk of recurrence. PMID:23078257

  8. Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 176 - the common denominator of C. difficile infection epidemiology in the Czech Republic, 2014.

    PubMed

    Krutova, Marcela; Matejkova, Jana; Kuijper, Ed J; Drevinek, Pavel; Nyc, Otakar

    2016-07-21

    In 2014, 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic participated in a survey of the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the country. The mean CDI incidence was 6.1 (standard deviation (SD):7.2) cases per 10,000 patient bed-days and 37.8 cases (SD: 41.4) per 10,000 admissions. The mean CDI testing frequency was 39.5 tests (SD: 25.4) per 10,000 patient bed-days and 255.8 tests (SD: 164.0) per 10,000 admissions. A total of 774 C. difficile isolates were investigated, of which 225 (29%) belonged to PCR ribotype 176, and 184 isolates (24%) belonged to PCR ribotype 001. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed 27 clonal complexes formed by 84% (190/225) of PCR ribotype 176 isolates, and 14 clonal complexes formed by 77% (141/184) of PCR ribotype 001 isolates. Clonal clusters of PCR ribotypes 176 and 001 were observed in 11 and 7 hospitals, respectively. Our data demonstrate the spread of two C. difficile PCR ribotypes within 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic, stressing the importance of standardising CDI testing protocols and implementing mandatory CDI surveillance in the country. PMID:27484171

  9. Tapping the Potential for Energy Efficiency: The Role of ESCOs in the Czech Republic, Ukraine and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd

    2000-12-31

    Energy service companies have played a significant role in stimulating energy efficiency in many industrialized countries, including the United States. Many policymakers and development experts consider energy performance contracting an important mechanism for boosting energy efficiency in other countries as well. The experience of ESCOs in transition economies, however, is decidedly mixed. The Czech Republic has been able to foster a thriving ESCO industry with numerous players competing for business, although ESCOs have encountered problems along the way. In Russia and Ukraine, ESCOs have developed slowly, and few true performance contracts exist. This paper reviews the experience of ESCOs in the Czech Republic, Ukraine and Russia and then explores the factors shaping the diverse trends in these countries. The paper draws on the experience of the national energy efficiency centers, development banks, bilateral assistance organizations and individual ESCOs in promoting ESCO industries. Factors that have influenced ESCOs to date include the economy, the price of energy, the financial situation of potential clients, the legislative basis for ESCO activities, the business experience of ESCO staff and access to information about the ESCO concept. Financing has also proven to be a critical factor in developing ESCOs. Lack of project financing and guarantees, for example, is a major problem in the former Soviet Union. The paper concludes by drawing recommendations for policymakers and industry on promoting ESCOs.

  10. The Surname Space of the Czech Republic: Examining Population Structure by Network Analysis of Spatial Co-Occurrence of Surnames

    PubMed Central

    Novotný, Josef; Cheshire, James A.

    2012-01-01

    In the majority of countries, surnames represent a ubiquitous cultural attribute inherited from an individual's ancestors and predominantly only altered through marriage. This paper utilises an innovative method, taken from economics, to offer unprecedented insights into the “surname space” of the Czech Republic. We construct this space as a network based on the pairwise probabilities of co-occurrence of surnames and find that the network representation has clear parallels with various ethno-cultural boundaries in the country. Our inductive approach therefore formalizes a simple assumption that the more frequently the bearers of two surnames concentrate in the same locations the higher the probability that these two surnames can be related (considering ethno-cultural relatedness, common co-ancestry or genetic relatedness, or some other type of relatedness). Using the Czech Republic as a case study this paper offers a fresh perspective on surnames as a quantitative data source and provides a methodology that can be easily incorporated within wider cultural, ethnic, geographic and population genetics studies already utilizing surnames. PMID:23119060

  11. Agricolaite, a new mineral of uranium from Jáchymov, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skála, Roman; Ondruš, Petr; Veselovský, František; Císařová, Ivana; Hloušek, Jan

    2011-11-01

    The new mineral agricolaite, a potassium uranyl carbonate with ideal formula K4(UO2)(CO3)3, occurs in vugs of ankerite gangue in gneisses in the abandoned Giftkiesstollen adit at Jáchymov, Czech Republic. The name is after Georgius Agricola (1494-1555), German scholar and scientist. Agricolaite occurs as isolated equant irregular translucent grains to 0.3 mm with yellow color, pale yellow streak, and vitreous luster. It is brittle with uneven fracture and displays neither cleavage nor parting. Agricolaite is non-fluorescent. Mohs hardness is ~4. It is associated with aragonite, brochantite, posnjakite, malachite, rutherfordine, and "pseudo-voglite". Experimental density is higher than 3.3 g.cm-3, Dcalc is 3.531 g. cm-3. The mineral is monoclinic, space group C2/ c, with a 10.2380(2), b 9.1930(2), c 12.2110(3) Å, β 95.108(2)°, V 1144.71(4) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are d( I)( hkl): 6.061(55)(002), 5.087(57)(200), 3.740(100)(202), 3.393(43)(113), 2.281(52)(402). Average composition based on ten electron microprobe analyses corresponds to (in wt.%) UO3 48.53, K2O 31.49, CO2(calc) 22.04 which gives the empirical formula K3.98(UO2)1.01(CO3)3.00. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and refined to R 1 = 0.0184 on the basis of the 1,308 unique reflections with F o > 4 σF o. The structure of agricolaite is identical to that of synthetic K4(UO2)(CO3)3 and consists of separate UO2(CO3)3 groups organized into layers parallel to (100) and two crystallographically non-equivalent sites occupied by K+ cations. Both the mineral and its name were approved by the IMA-CNMNC.

  12. Climatological Data Rescue from historic meteorological stations in the Czech Republic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repka, M.

    2010-09-01

    quality control by comparison of data with surrounding stations. Data of mostly meteorological elements and stations are now controlled since 1961. For errors detection and data quality control in frontier regions is very useful data from Slovak meteorological stations. Acknowledgements An author would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic for project no KJB300420905.

  13. Morphology and Environmental Significance of Relict Sorted Polygons, Krkonoše Mountains, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uxa, Tomáš; Křížek, Marek

    2014-05-01

    The development of sorted polygons is driven by several interconnected processes related to freeze-thaw cycles, the frequency and/or intensity of which is determined by regional climatic factors and site-specific factors that influence local microclimate, such as relief, lithology, snow cover, drainage and vegetation. The interplay of the above factors generates different ground thermal and moisture regimes and therefore influences the spatial distribution and morphology of sorted polygons. In this paper, we describe relict large-scale sorted polygons in the Krkonoše Mountains (Czech Republic) and we aim (1) to determine the relations between polygon morphology and clast distribution; (2) to determine the extent to which the morphology and clast distribution of the polygons were influenced by past microclimates; and (3) to present palaeoenvironmental evidence from the periglacial environment of the summit area of the Krkonoše Mountains during the Last Glacial/Holocene period. Sixty-two sorted polygons with an average length of 194 cm and an average height of 21.5 cm and in total 7740 clasts were measured at four sites on Mt Luční hora (50°43'40"N; 15°40'57"E), at elevations of 1455 to 1555 m asl. Larger sorted polygons are formed by larger clasts and tend to occur in poorly drained sites at lower altitudes. Smaller polygons and polygons with greater relative height are better sorted. More up-domed and better sorted polygons are located at higher altitudes suggesting more severe and longer-lasting microclimates suitable for the development of sorted polygons. The altitudinal gradient in polygon morphology and sorting, preserved since the Last Glacial period, indicates the high palaeoenvironmental potential of the relict large-scale sorted polygons located on flat or convex parts of the terrain. Polygon development probably involves positive feedback between morphology and frost susceptibility, driven by microclimate. The proposed method for evaluating frost

  14. The significance of sediment contamination in the Elbe River floodplain (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupová, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír; Langhammer, Jakub; Šobr, Miroslav; Jiři, Medek; Král, Stanislav; Jiřinec, Petr; Kaiglova, Jana; Černý, Michal; Žáček, Miroslav; Leontovyčova, Drahomíra; Halířová, Jarmila

    2015-04-01

    The abstract brings the information about the research that was focused on anthropogenic pollution of river and lake sediments in the middle course of the Elbe River (Czech Republic). The main aim was to identify and to evaluate the significance of old polluted sediments in the river and its side structures (old meanders, cut lakes, oxbow lakes) between Hradec Králové and Mělník (confluence with the Moldau River) and to assess the risk coming from the remobilization of the contaminated matter. The Elbe River floodplain has been highly inhabited since the Middle Ages, and, especially in the 20th century, major industrial plants were founded here. Since that time, the anthropogenic load of the river and it`s floodplain has grown. Although the contaminants bound to the sediment particles are usually stable, the main risk is coming from the fact that under changes in hydrological regime and water quality (floods, changes in pH, redox-potential, presence of complex substances etc.), the pollution can be released and remobilized again. The most endangered areas are: the surroundings of Pardubice (chemical factory Synthesia, Inc.; refinery PARAMO), and Neratovice (chemical factory Spolana, Inc.). The chemical factories situated close to these towns represented the most problematic polluters of the Elbe River especially during 2nd half of 20th century. In the research, the main attention was aimed at subaquatic sediments of selected cut lakes situated in the vicinity of the above mentioned sources of pollution. To describe the outreach of contamination, several further fluvial lakes were taken into account too. Sediment sampling was carried out from boats on lakes and with the help of drilling rig in the floodplain. Gained sediment cores were divided into several parts which were analysed separately. Chemical analyses included substances identified by ICPER (International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River) as well as chemicals considered as significant in

  15. Application of electrical resistivity tomography to map lithological differences and subsurface structures (Eastern Sudetes, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Dominika; Stan-Kłeczek, Iwona

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the subsurface lithological variability and thickness of each metamorphic rocks unit by means of geophysical methods, which were presented within the framework of SEDIBUD. Research was performed on the ridge and the steep eastern slope of the Orlik massif (1204 m) in the Hrubý Jesenik range of the Eastern Sudetes, the Czech Republic. To obtain a spatial image of a geological rock mass, the non-invasive and relatively rapid method of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used, which resulted in the creation of six profiles using the Dipole-Dipole and Wenner-Schlumberger arrays. As complementary methods, vertical electrical sounding (VES) and seismic refraction tomography were chosen. Fifteen measuring points along two profiles obtained by vertical electrical sounding allowed the determination of the following in the vertical section layers of different resistivity and thickness at direct points in contact primarily with Devonian quartzite rocks and weathered covers. In a series of field studies, a four-layered rock mass was examined in which the first layer is of fine-grained materials with medium- and large-size clasts, the second layer is quartzite, the third is gneiss and the fourth is phyllite. The five profiles measured by seismic refraction tomography made it possible to draw the boundary between the studied phyllites, gneisses and quartzites. In addition, geophysical surveys and the results of mineralogical composition analysis allowed us to determine the nature and thickness of the weathered layers present on the massif area, which, in the upper sections, are predominantly a clayey loam partially covered with blocks. The inclination of the slope is associated with an increase in the fraction of coarse material. The majority of the thickness of these layers is related to the local flattened surfaces and the presence of numerous streams, which contributed to the accumulation of the sediments that were also

  16. Climate change impact on the occurrence of selected pests in the regional scale in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocmankova, E.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Semeradova, D.; Dubrovsky, M.; Juroch, J.; Mozny, M.

    2009-04-01

    Climate conditions exert significant influence over the the population dynamic, life cycle duration, infestation pressure and the overall occurrence of majority of agricultural pests and diseases. Particularly in the case of those pest species whose development is directly linked with the climate conditions the shift of their climatic niche or their infestation capability is to be expected under the changing climate. Te presented study is focused on the most important potato pest i.e Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say 1824) and most important pest of grain maize i.e. European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, Hübner 1796). Simulations of potential distribution of pests in the Czech Republic in the conditions of climate change were made with the usage of dynamical model CLIMEX and by the interpolation of output EI from 43 locations there are climate conditions of almost whole area of the Czech Republic considered as favorable for pest' survival. The models validation was based on the comparison of the modeled potential pests' distribution with the field observations in the current climate conditions. Under the expected climate conditions the pests will most likely be able to complete their development earlier and in higher population densities. Both mechanisms might cause a subsequent increase of the severity of the pest infestation. In addition to this the higher temperature and its earlier coming in the beginning of the vegetative season may support the mobility and faster local spread of some species. The estimates of the future climate is based on the assumption of slow increase of green house gases emissions and low climate sensitivity to their rising concentration (LOW B1) as well as the "opposite" scenario assuming rapid growth of emissions and the high sensitivity of the climate system (HIGH A2). Three GCM models that were driven by these emission scenarios included HadCM3, NCAR-PCM and ECHAM4. For Colorado potato beetle the realization of

  17. Does an increasing resolution of RCM leads to more accurate simulation of climate elements over Czech Republic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorna, Lucie; Kliegrova, Stanislava; Huth, Radan; Farda, Ales; Stepanek, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Regional climate models (RCM) are a useful tool for a simulation of surface climate with respect to conditions of individual regions. The need of the realistic representation of surface elements at the local scale is important particularly in terrain with complex orography. The Czech Republic with the mountain chains along its border and highlands as well as lowlands in the inland seems to be a good representation of such region. A good performance of the models in reproducing recent temporal and spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation can enhance our confidence in the changes projected for future climate conditions. In this study, we compare two versions of the RCM ALARO covering a 30-year climate period (1961-1990); a simulation with a common resolution 25-km and a simulation with a very high resolution 6-km. The ALARO-Climate RCM has been developed in recent years in the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute on the basis of the numerical weather prediction model ALADIN and is already operated at other five national meteorological services. Both presented simulations are driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis and run on the large pan-European integration domain ("ENSEMBLES / Euro-Cordex domain"). As the reference dataset we use technical homogenized series based on time series from stations in the Czech Republic interpolated to the same network as both model simulations but with real altitude of the grid points (GriSt). The seasonal and monthly values of mean, maximum and minimum temperature as well as precipitation amounts are examined. We display a spatial distribution of biases of seasonal means and the temporal distribution of biases based on monthly values with respect to the altitude for both simulations. The results indicate that a higher resolution of model tends to improve the simulation of present day climate, with larger improvements in areas affected by mountains.

  18. Twenty-Five Years After--Rebuilding the Lifelong Learning System in the Czech and Slovak Republic: Progress, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from a Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprlak, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The lifelong learning system in the Czech Republic and Slovakia share some common traits: traditional model with the dominant role of the initial education, low participation rates, lack of incentives and fragmentation. The results of the narrative research on 15 low-skilled persons demonstrated that negative attitudes towards education are often…

  19. Dealing with Diversity: A Key Issue for Educational Management. Proceedings of the ENIRDEM Conference (14th, Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, September 22-25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    An anthology of speeches of the 14th conference of the European Network for Improving Research and Development in Educational Management (ENIRDEM), held on 22 to 25 September 2005 in Brno and Telc, the Czech Republic, this book contains 13 contributions by 19 speakers and co-authors, covering various questions related to the topic of diversity in…

  20. Assessment of three classes of DNA adducts in human placentas from smoking and non-snoking women in the Czech Republic

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three classes of DNA damage were assessed in human placentas collected (2000-2004) from 51 women living in the Teplice region of the Czech Republic, a mining area considered to have some of the worst environmental pollution in Europe in the 1980s. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ...

  1. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013). The e-Learning 2013 conference aims to…

  2. The Dramaturgy Approach to Education in Nature: Reflections of a Decade of International Vacation School Lipnice Courses, Czech Republic, 1997-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an auto-ethnography or narrative of self related to the development of international experiential education programmes in nature developed by Vacation School Lipnice (VSL) in the Czech Republic. The paper provides the cultural background that influences the course design and provides examples, through participant observation,…

  3. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  4. Analysis of Actual Soil Degradation by Erosion Using Satellite Imagery and Terrain Attributes in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zizala, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Soil water and wind erosion (possibly tillage erosion) is the most significant soil degradation factor in the Czech Republic. Moreover, this phenomenon also affects seriously quality of water sources., About 50 % of arable land are endangered by water erosion and about 10 % of arable land are endangered wind erosion in the Czech Republic. These processes have been accelerated by human activity. Specific condition of agriculture land in the Czech Republic including highland relief and particularly size of land parcel and intensification of agriculture does not enable to reduce flow of runoff water. Insufficient protection against accelerated erosion processes is related to lack of landscape and hydrographic elements and large area of agricultural plots. Currently, this issue is solved at plot scale by field investigation or at regional scale using numerical and empirical erosion models. Nevertheless, these models enable only to predict the potential of soil erosion. Large scale assessment of actual degradation level of soils is based on expert knowledge. However, there are still many uncertainties in this issue. Therefore characterization of actual degradation level of soil is required especially for assessment of long-term impact of soil erosion on soil fertility. Soil degradation by erosion can be effectively monitored or quantified by modern tools of remote sensing with variable level of detail accessible. Aims of our study is to analyse the applicability of remote sensing for monitoring of actual soil degradation by erosion. Satellite and aerial image data (multispectral and hyperspectral), terrain attributes and data from field investigation are the main source for this analyses. The first step was the delimitation of bare soils using supervised classification of the set of Landsat scenes from 2000 - 2014. The most suitable period of time for obtaining spectral image data with the lowest vegetation cover of soil was determined. The results were verified by

  5. Fates of pollutants from uranium mining in floodplain of a meandering river (the Ploucnice, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Majerova, Lucie; Babek, Ondrej; Kiss, Timea; Havelcova, Martina; Hosek, Michal

    2014-05-01

    The Ploucnice River (Czech Republic) received two groups of element pollutants. The first was Pb-Cu-Sb-Zn association with the onset early in 20th century; we attribute it to diffuse pollution at levels of the river watershed and/or mid European region with both atmospheric and fluvial transports. The second group was U-Zn-Ni-Co-Ba association related to uranium mining and mine-water processing during the 1970s and 1980s. Pollution hence allowed for identifying two chemostratigraphic units in 20th century floodplain fill, whose lower boundaries we interpret as isochronous at a given river reach. Historical and current maps and aerial photographs and current aerial lidar scanning allowed reconstructing the floodplain development. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) produced insight into the floodplain architecture. Three geomorphic levels were identified in the studied river reach: active floodplain, abandoned floodplain (paleochannels there are now inundated at >Q50), and pre-Holocene or early Holocene terrace. Each level has its own pattern of pollution by Pb, U and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The terrace and abandoned floodplain sediments together with deeper sediments from active floodplain allowed construction of background functions for pre-industrial concentrations of target elements and subsequent calculation of enrichment factors. That approach corrects for grain-size effects and thus coarser unsorted terrace sediments, finer silty sands of the abandoned floodplain, and the finest muds of the active floodplain were jointly processed. Such data processing was a pre-requisite for evaluation of weak diffuse pollution from early 20th century and recognition of post-depositional changes in pollutant concentrations. The main portion of pollutants related to uranium mining got into the river system in 1970s with peak in 1981 during a summer flood with >Q50 discharge. The pollution impacted the entire river system (enhanced Ra-226 activities were detected at

  6. 78 FR 65283 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From the People's Republic of China, the Czech Republic, Germany...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...; Countervailing Duties; Final rule, 62 FR 27296, 27323 (May 19, 1997). Filing Requirements All submissions to the... Procedures, 76 FR 39263 (July 6, 2011) for details of the Department's electronic filing requirements, which... Racks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 2010-2011, 77...

  7. Assessment of the future climate change in the Czech Republic based on ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ and AR4 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvova, J.; Holtanova, E.; Crhova, L.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.; Motl, M.

    2010-09-01

    The regional climate model ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ (25 km resolution) is going to be used for the new climate change scenarios for the Czech Republic. However, for effective use of such scenario for impact studies, it is necessary to provide an estimate of related uncertainty. The driving global model is an important source of uncertainty in RCM simulations. We present a comparison of changes in basic climate characteristics simulated by ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ and a set of eight AR4 models for the periods of 2010-39, 2040-69, 2070-99. The global climate models were chosen based on its ability to simulate observed climate characteristics in the reference period (1961-1990).

  8. Rapid regional recovery from sulfate and nitrate pollution in streams of the western Czech Republic - Comparison to other recovering areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majer, V.; Kram, P.; Shanley, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrochemical changes between 1991 and 2001 were assessed based on two synoptic stream surveys from the 820-km2 region of the Slavkov Forest and surrounding area, western Czech Republic. Marked declines of sulfate, nitrate, chloride, calcium and magnesium in surface waters were compared with other areas of Europe and North America recovering from acidification. Declines of sulfate concentration in the Slavkov Forest (-30 ??eq L-1 yr-1) were more dramatic than declines reported from other sites. However, these dramatic declines of strong acid anions did not generate a widespread increase of stream water pH in the Slavkov Forest. Only the most acidic streams experienced a slight increase of pH by 0.5 unit. An unexpected decline of stream water pH occurred in slightly alkaline streams. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boar (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758) in south regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Forejtek, P; Hutarova, Z; Vodnansky, M

    2013-10-18

    From March 2012 to February 2013, 221 wild boar carcasses obtained from regular hunts in the Czech Republic were tested for Alaria alata mesocercariae using the Alaria-migration-technique. Most samples originated from South Moravia (173), and all 15 positive samples were found in this region, in particular in Tvrdonice (3/10) and Lanžhot (12/28), close to the site of the first description of this parasitic stage in wild boars in the territory of former ČSSR. These hunting grounds are located between the rivers March and Thaya, and rich in floodplains. Among the 38 carcasses tested in this area, higher carcass weights were associated with higher frequency of positive carcasses (P<0.05). Overall frequency of positive carcasses was 15/221 (6.8%). In positive samples (adipose and glandular tissue and muscle), the median number of mesocercariae was 14.3 per 100 g (range 3-69). PMID:23806746

  10. Labour mobility and housing: the impact of housing tenure and housing affordability on labour migration in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This article examines whether housing tenure and regional differences in housing affordability have an impact on labour mobility. This relationship is important for understanding the sources of structural unemployment and impediments to economic growth. Using two sample surveys from the Czech Republic, this research reveals that at the individual level housing tenure is the most powerful factor determining willingness to change residence for employment reasons. A time-series regression analysis reveals that the impact of housing affordability on observed interregional migration patterns is relatively weak and that this effect is concentrated among the highly educated seeking employment in the capital, Prague. These results demonstrate that housing tenure has a significant impact on labour migration plans in case of unemployment and that the dynamic impact of regional differences in housing affordability on labour mobility is concentrated within the most highly skilled segment of the labour force. PMID:22500343

  11. Removal of trace elements in three horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetlands in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kröpfelová, Lenka; Vymazal, Jan; Svehla, Jaroslav; Stíchová, Jana

    2009-04-01

    Between March 2006 and June 2008 removal of 34 trace elements was measured on a monthly basis at three horizontal-flow constructed wetlands in the Czech Republic designed to treat municipal wastewater. In general, the results indicated a very wide range of removal efficiencies among studied elements. The highest degree of removal (average of 90%) was found for aluminum. High average removal was also recorded for zinc (78%). Elements removed in the range of 50-75% were uranium, antimony, copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, barium, iron and gallium. Removal of cadmium, tin, mercury, silver, selenium and nickel varied between 25 and 50%. Low retention (0-25%) was observed for vanadium, lithium, boron, cobalt and strontium. There were two elements (manganese and arsenic) for which average outflow concentrations were higher compared to inflow concentrations. Reduced manganese compounds are very soluble and therefore they are washed out under anaerobic conditions. PMID:19124182

  12. Assessment and implementation of a district heating system upgrade for the city of Plzen, Czech Republic: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Marousek, J. Popelka, A.

    1994-06-01

    The City of Plzen, Czech Republic, is considering options to upgrade its district heating system for compliance with emissions regulations and replacement of some existing heat generation units. This assessment examined two coal-fired and two-gas fired heat generation configurations coupled with buildings sector energy efficiency for meeting load growth from the current level of 370MWt to 420 and 367MWt for high and low growth scenarios, respectively. The supply and efficiency options were integrated and characterized by capital requirement, levelized energy cost, typical residential energy bill, and emissions. Life extension to the existing facilities required the least capital investment and provided the lowest levelized energy cost; efficiency increased the per unit price of energy and reduced the typical energy bill; connection of a satellite system provided for a lower weighted average energy cost of energy over life extension to the satellite boiler serving the system; and the gas-fired configurations provided for the greatest reduction in emissions.

  13. Linking chemical elements in forest floor humus (Oh-horizon) in the Czech Republic to contamination sources.

    PubMed

    Sucharova, Julie; Suchara, Ivan; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-05-01

    While terrestrial moss and other plants are frequently used for environmental mapping and monitoring projects, data on the regional geochemistry of humus are scarce. Humus, however, has a much larger life span than any plant material. It can be seen as the "environmental memory" of an area for at least the last 60-100 years. Here concentrations of 39 elements determined by ICP-MS and ICP AES, pH and ash content are presented for 259 samples of forest floor humus collected at an average sample density of 1 site/300 km2 in the Czech Republic. The scale of anomalies linked to known contamination sources (e.g., lignite mining and burning, metallurgical industry, coal fired power plants, metal smelters) is documented and discussed versus natural processes influencing humus quality. Most maps indicate a local impact from individual contamination sources: often more detailed sampling than used here would be needed to differentiate between likely sources. PMID:21339032

  14. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  15. Taxation records as a source of information for the study of historical floods in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Řezníčková, L.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Soukalová, E.; Dobrovolný, P.

    2014-07-01

    Since the second half of the 17th century, tax relief has been available to farmers and landowners to offset flood damage to property (buildings) and land (fields, meadows, pastures, gardens) in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Historically, the written applications for this were supported by a relatively efficient bureaucratic process that left a clear data trail of documentation, preserved at several levels: in the communities affected, in regional offices, and in the Moravian Land Office, all of which are to be found in estate and family collections in the Moravian Land Archives in the city of Brno, the provincial capital. As well as detailed information about damage done and administrative responses to it, data is often preserved as to the flood event itself, the time of its occurrence and its impacts, sometimes together with causes and stages. The final flood database based on taxation records is used here to describe the temporal and spatial density of both flood events and the records themselves. The information derived is used to help create long-term flood chronologies for the Rivers Dyje, Jihlava, Svratka and Morava, combining floods interpreted from taxation records with other documentary data and floods derived from later systematic hydrological measurements (water levels, discharges). Common periods of higher flood frequency appear largely in 1821-1850 and 1921-1950, although this shifts to several other decades for individual rivers. Certain uncertainties are inseparable from flood data taxation records: their spatial and temporal incompleteness; the inevitable limitation to larger-scale damage and to the summer half-year; and the different characters of rivers, including land-use changes and channel modifications. Taxation data has great potential for extending our knowledge of past floods for the rest of the Czech Republic as well, not to mention other European countries in which records have survived.

  16. Building the framework for climate change adaptation in the urban areas using participatory approach: the Czech Republic experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Hubatová, Marie; Lupač, Miroslav; Pondělíček, Michael; Šafařík, Miroslav; Šilhánková, Vladimíra; Vačkář, David

    2016-04-01

    The Czech Republic has experienced numerous extreme hydrometeorological / climatological events such as floods (significant ones in 1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts (2013, 2015), heat waves (2015) and windstorms (2007) during past decades. These events are generally attributed to the ongoing climate change and caused loss of lives and significant material damages (up to several % of GDP in some years), especially in urban areas. To initiate the adaptation process of urban areas, the main objective was to prepare a framework for creating climate change adaptation strategies of individual cities reflecting physical-geographical and socioeconomical conditions of the Czech Republic. Three pilot cities (Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobru\\vska) were used to optimize entire procedure. Two sets of participatory seminars were organised in order to involve all key stakeholders (the city council, department of the environment, department of the crisis management, hydrometeorological institute, local experts, ...) into the process of creation of the adaptation strategy from its early stage. Lesson learned for the framework were related especially to its applicability on a local level, which is largely a matter of the understandability of the concept. Finally, this illustrative and widely applicable framework (so called 'road map to adaptation strategy') includes five steps: (i) analysis of existing strategies and plans on national, regional and local levels; (ii) analysing climate-change related hazards and key vulnerabilities; (iii) identification of adaptation needs, evaluation of existing adaptation capacity and formulation of future adaptation priorities; (iv) identification of limits and barriers for the adaptation (economical, environmental, ...); and (v) selection of specific types of adaptation measures reflecting identified adaptation needs and formulated adaptation priorities. Keywords: climate change adaptation (CCA); urban areas; participatory approach

  17. Damaging hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic, in the seventeenth to twentieth centuries as derived from taxation records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava

    2016-01-01

    Hailstorms are among the hydrometeorological extremes recognised in the historical past of the Czech Lands as grounds for tax relief if agricultural crops or material structures were damaged by them. The administrative process involved three levels (community, regional office, land office). The damage reports and taxation records for South Moravia (the southeastern parts of today's Czech Republic) were mainly stored in the Moravian Land Archives at Brno in estate accounts and collections of family archives. Data related to the date of a given hailstorm, its accompanying convective phenomena, the communities affected and the type of damage, as interpreted from taxation records, has created a database spanning the years 1650 to 1941 AD. A total of 766 records contain descriptions that cover 433 days upon which hailstorms did damage in South Moravia, as well as incidentally provide some additional information for the remainder of the Czech Lands and other parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The hailstorms detected concentrate to a large extent around the 1821-1850 period, which accounts for 44.4 % of all events. Although reported most frequently without other convective phenomena, they were often accompanied by torrential rain. The current contribution analyses the four most outstanding hailstorms in detail, those characterised by the highest number of estates and communities affected: 26 May 1830, 18 July 1832, 25 June 1844 and 20 June 1848. Uncertainties in hailstorm data, particularly with regard to their spatial and temporal heterogeneity, are discussed. Finally, the 1811-1850 period, with the highest number of hailstorm days, is compared with hailstorm patterns that derive from systematic meteorological observations in the 1961-2000 reference period. Damaging hailstorms disclosed by taxation data will be used to compile long-term hailstorm series for South Moravia (together with those derived from other documentary evidence and systematic meteorological

  18. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sirmarová, Jana; Tichá, Lucie; Golovchenko, Marina; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Nataliia; Nowotny, Norbert; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia bugdorferi (Bb) s.l. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in zoo animals in the Czech Republic. We collected 133 serum samples from 69 animal species from 5 zoos located in different parts of the country. The samples were obtained from even-toed ungulates (n=78; 42 species), odd-toed ungulates (n=32; 11 species), carnivores (n=13; 9 species), primates (n=2, 2 species), birds (n=3; 2 species), and reptiles (n=5; 3 species). A high antibody prevalence (60%) was observed for Bb s.l. On the other hand, only two animals had TBEV-specific antibodies: a markhor (Capra falconeri) and a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), both from the same zoo, located in an area endemic for TBEV. Both of these animals were also positive for Bb s.l. antibodies. Our results indicate that a high number of animal species in the Czech zoos were exposed to Bb s.l. and that TBEV infection occurred at least in one of the investigated zoos. Considering the pathogenic potential of these two tick-borne pathogens, clinical and serological monitoring should be continued, and therapeutic and preventive measures should be taken when necessary. PMID:24889036

  20. Helminth parasites of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examinations of 102 specimens of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic (South Bohemia and South Moravia) were carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) in the years 1987-1992. In them, a total of 19 species of helminth parasites was found, including Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (2), Nematoda (4) and Acanthocephala (2), which can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.) (37%), those parasitic mainly in cormorants (16%) and non-specific parasites (47%). Of the 19 species recorded, 100% were found in South Moravia, but only 47% of these 19 species in South Bohemia. The higher number of helminth species in cormorants from South Moravia and a higher proportion of non-specific species may be associated with the presence of the large Nové Mlýny water reservoir, in addition to better ecological and environmental conditions in this warmer region. Scanning electron microscopical examination of three common nematode species parasitising cormorants, Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Desmidocercella incognita Solonitsin, 1932 and Syncuaria squamata (von Linstow, 1883), revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features, such as the cephalic structures, numbers and distribution of male caudal papillae or the shapes of spicules. PMID:27312270

  1. A passive sampling method for detecting analgesics, psycholeptics, antidepressants and illicit drugs in aquatic environments in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, G; Randak, T; Golovko, O; Kodes, V; Grabicova, K; Grabic, R

    2014-07-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the bioavailable concentrations of analgesics, psycholeptics, antidepressants and illicit drugs in the surface waters of the Czech Republic. All of the sampling sites are located within the most important water quality monitoring profiles at the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. The total concentrations of the compounds ranged from 463 to 6,447 ng POCIS(-1) (Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler). Carbamazepine (196-2,690 ng POCIS(-1)) and tramadol (160-2,250 ng POCIS(-1)) were the most abundant compounds at every site. The most polluted sites were those that received communal wastewater effluent and had a low dilution factor (ratio of wastewater effluent and river flow). The aqueous concentrations of the target compounds were estimated using sampling rate values obtained during a field calibration experiment. Patterns in the aqueous concentrations of the compounds (after back calculation from POCIS extracts) and the POCIS concentrations are different, possibly leading to discrepancies between the toxicity assessments conducted using POCIS extracts and those conducted using grab samples of water from the same location. PMID:24485281

  2. Trends in heat-related mortality in urban populations of the Czech Republic over 1994-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study resumes previous research that found significant effects of hot spells on increased mortality in highly urbanized regions of the Czech Republic, and declining trends in heat-related mortality in the Czech population as a whole. We analyze severe hot spells during 1994-2013 and temporal changes of their effects on total and cardiovascular mortality in several urban regions with a different overall socioeconomic level (city of Prague, city of Brno, Ostrava region, NW Bohemia). Mortality data were standardized to account for different population structure and its changes over time. The mortality baseline for each region was determined using a generalized additive model. Although declining trends in the mortality impacts of hot spells prevail in most regions in spite of rising temperature trends, the magnitude of the mortality decline was different with respect to the overall socioeconomic level and development of the regions. The results suggest that trends in heat-related mortality depend on the level of socioeconomic deprivation of population. It is essential to better understand the risks of climate change in different parts of population with respect to their adaptability.

  3. 'Avoidable' mortality: a measure of health system performance in the Czech Republic and Slovakia between 1971 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Kossarova, Lucia; Holland, Walter; Mossialos, Elias

    2013-08-01

    BACKGROUND Post-communist health care reforms and the break-up of Czechoslovakia have been studied from various perspectives, but little research has addressed the impact on health system performance. This paper investigates the quality and performance of the Slovak and Czech health systems before and after 1989, including the year of separation in 1993, using the concept of 'avoidable' mortality. METHODS Age-standardized mortality rates for mortality from 'avoidable' and other (non-avoidable) causes have been calculated through indirect standardization to study national and regional trends between 1971 and 2008. RESULTS The paper shows that 'avoidable' mortality in both countries has been continuously decreasing while mortality from other causes has remained unchanged or increased slightly. For some 'avoidable' conditions, mortality rates of the two countries converge while for others divergence can be observed, with either the Czech Republic or Slovakia performing better. CONCLUSION Declines in overall 'avoidable' mortality suggest improvements in the health system's performance and quality of care in both countries, compared with mortality from other causes where factors outside the control of the health care system may be stronger determinants. For conditions where 'avoidable' mortality rates stagnate or increase, more in-depth research should be carried out to identify problems in the delivery of timely and effective prevention and treatment, and to establish steps that would reduce the numbers of unnecessary deaths. PMID:23002250

  4. Lead isotope ratios in tree bark pockets: an indicator of past air pollution in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Conkova, M; Kubiznakova, J

    2008-10-15

    Tree bark pockets were collected at four sites in the Czech Republic with differing levels of lead (Pb) pollution. The samples, spanning 1923-2005, were separated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies). Elevated Pb content (0.1-42.4 microg g(-1)) reflected air pollution in the city of Prague. The lowest Pb content (0.3-2.6 microg g(-1)) was found at the Kosetice EMEP "background pollution" site. Changes in (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb isotope ratios were in agreement with operation times of the Czech main anthropogenic Pb sources. Shortly after the Second World War, the (206)Pb/(207)Pb isotope ratio in bark pockets decreased from 1.17 to 1.14 and the (208)Pb/(206)Pb isotope ratio increased from 2.12 to 2.16. Two dominant emission sources responsible for these changes, lignite and leaded petrol combustion, contributed to the shifts in Pb isotope ratios. Low-radiogenic petrol Pb ((206)Pb/(207)Pb of 1.11) lead to lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb in bark pockets over time. High-radiogenic lignite-derived Pb ((206)Pb/(207)Pb of 1.18 to 1.19) was detected in areas affected by coal combustion rather than by traffic. PMID:18597820

  5. The Czech Republic between Studentocracy, Academic Oligarchy and Managerialism: Are Students Powerful or Powerless?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabian, Petr; Hundlova, Lucie; Provazkova, Karla

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we will argue that students played an important role at several crucial junctures of modern Czech history, which secured them a central position after 1989 in the new democratic model of higher education governance. However, over the last two decades students have largely lost this position owing to several factors: the growing…

  6. Teachers' Ideas about Multicultural Education in a Changing Society: The Case of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moree, Dana; Klaassen, Cees; Veugelers, Wiel

    2008-01-01

    This article draws on Czech teachers' ideas about multicultural education at a time when the teaching of multicultural education has become obligatory for primary and secondary schools. After describing the broader context within which this reform has taken place--specifically, the transformation of the educational system and the changing ethnic…

  7. Action Learning, Team Learning and Co-Operation in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubatova, Slava

    2012-01-01

    This account of practice presents two cases of the application of Action Learning (AL) communication methodology as described by Marquardt [2004. "Optimising the power of action learning". Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing]. The teams were Czech and international top management teams. The AL methodology was used to improve cooperation and…

  8. Attitudes to Education and Educational Pathway Preferences in the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czesana, Vera; Kofronova, Olga

    2004-01-01

    The importance of education and its prestige has grown as a result of the socio-economic changes after 1989. However, the Czech population still attributes less importance to education as a success factor for life compared to more developed countries. Still, young people strive for as high a level of education as possible, the primary incentive…

  9. Analysis of pharmacists' opinions, attitudes and experiences with generic drugs and generic substitution in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Maly, Josef; Dosedel, Martin; Kubena, Ales; Vlcek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Generic substitution (GS) is an integral part of drug policy in many countries. Similarly to other countries its introduction in the Czech Republic gave rise to a vibrant discussion. The aim of the study was to map and analyze pharmacists' opinions of, attitudes towards and experiences with generic drugs and GS after the first year from its legislative embodiment in the Czech Republic. All 7,665 members of the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists were addressed to participate in a questionnaire survey between November 2008 and March 2009. The questionnaire consisted of 28 questions concerning the issue of generic drugs and GS and was divided into five sections. All collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations were tested by selected parametric and non-parametric tests. A total of 615 completed questionnaire forms were returned (a questionnaire return rate of 8.0%). The demographic characteristics of the respondents were as follows: 470 (76.4%) females, mean age of 37.5 years (SD = 10.4) and 429 (69.6%) pharmacists with a practice specialization. Altogether 345 (56.1%) respondents became aware of the issue of brand name and generic drugs during their undergraduate studies. 378 (61.5%) respondents considered generic drugs as bioequivalent and 455 (74.0%) respondents as therapeutically equivalent to the respective brand name drugs. 99 (16.1%) pharmacists believed that generic products are of lower quality than branded drugs and 69 (11.2%) respondents expected generics to cause more adverse drug reactions. GS was perceived as a positive tool by 476 (77.4%) respondents. Only 71 (11.5%) respondents showed acquaintance with all the legal rules for GS. Legislation awareness and attitude towards GS was correlated with age (p < 0.001). The use of GS in the routine practice depends on the pharmacists' familiarity with the relevant legislation and attitude towards generic drugs and GS. Approaching patients on an individual basis and pharmacists' awareness

  10. Characteristics, physical - geographical and climate of the basin Lumbardhi in Peja, Republic of Kosovo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanaj, Lavdim; Zeneli, Vildane; Komoraku, Alket

    2010-05-01

    Territory of the Republic of Kosovo has four river basins; basin "White Drini", "Ibar", "Morava e Binces" and "Lepenci". This paper deals: Orografic, hydro geological, geological and climatic characteristics. River basin of Peja "Lumbardhi" is branch of River basin " White Drini', all surface of the basin until shedding to the " White Drini" is 483.00km2 and extends toward east and west. Lumbardhi source of Peja is branch of Mount Çakorr. As right main branches are: River Bjeluha and lake Milishevci, whereas in the left side of river Boga and Alga. Key works: rainfall, air temperature, snow, air humidity, wind, evaporation.

  11. Observed changes in SAT and GDD and the climatological suitability of the Poland-Germany-Czech Republic transboundary region for wine grapes cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryza, Maciej; Szymanowski, Mariusz; Błaś, Marek; Migała, Krzysztof; Werner, Małgorzata; Sobik, Mieczysław

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we show how the climatological suitability of wine grapes cultivation of the transboundary region of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic has changed over the 1971-2010 period. Strong, positive and statistically significant trend in sum of active temperatures (SAT) and growing degree days (GDD) is observed. The trend is more pronounced in the lowland areas of the study region. The total acreage suitable for more demanding, in terms of SAT and GDD, varieties of wine grapes is increasing, while the opposite trend is observed for less demanding classes. The observed trends reduce the risk for wine grapes cultivation in terms of accumulative SAT and GDD indices. This shows that the transboundary area of Poland, Germany and Czech Republic shifts towards the climate more suitable for viticulture.

  12. Successful Completion of the Largest Shipment of Russian Research Reactor High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Czech Republic to Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Jeff Chamberlin

    2008-07-01

    On December 8, 2007, the largest shipment of high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel was successfully made from a Russian-designed nuclear research reactor in the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. This accomplishment is the culmination of years of planning, negotiations, and hard work. The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program in support of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. In February 2003, RRRFR Program representatives met with the Nuclear Research Institute in Rež, Czech Republic, and discussed the return of their high-enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. Nearly 5 years later, the shipment was made. This paper discusses the planning, preparations, coordination, and cooperation required to make this important international shipment.

  13. Meteorological and hydrological extremes derived from taxation records: case study for south-western Moravia (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert; Zahradníček, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Meteorological and hydrological extremes (MHEs) cause great material damage or even loss of human lives in the present time, similarly as it was in the past. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. Therefore, in order to create long-term series of such extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information. Different types of documentary evidence are used in historical climatology and hydrology to find such information. Some of them are related to records connected with taxation system. The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crops have been damaged by MHEs. The corresponding documents contain information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence; often also impacts on crops or land may be derived. The nature of events leading to damage include particularly hailstorms, torrential rain, flash floods, floods (in regions along larger rivers), less frequently windstorms, late frosts and in some cases also information about droughts or extreme snow depths. However, the results obtained are influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records - their temporal and spatial incompleteness, limitation of the MHEs occurrence in the period of main agricultural work (May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about MHEs was of secondary importance). All these aspects related to the study of MHEs from taxation records are demonstrated for five estates (Bítov, Budkov, Jemnice with Staré Hobzí, Nové Syrovice and Uherčice) in the south-western part of Moravia for the 18th-19th centuries. The analysis shows importance of taxation records for the study of past MHEs as well as great potential for their use.

  14. Occult precipitation as an input to the small catchment: observation, evaluation and new technics of fog water collection in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesar, M.; Fisak, J.; M., Sir; Bartunkova, K.

    2010-07-01

    The main objectives of the present contribution are to: (i) describe the monitoring network created in the mountainous regions in the Czech Republic; (ii) assess the input of water and pollutants from the wind driven low clouds and fogs onto the forest canopy; and (iii) introduce new ground-level cloud water sampler designs. Montane ecosystems can receive considerable inputs of water and dissolved substances from ground-level cloud and fog events. In order to study the input of water and matter from wind driven low clouds and fogs on the water balance and chemistry of mountainous forested catchments, three experimental watersheds were established: (1) the Liz basin (Sumava Mts. - southern Bohemia; 0,99 km2, 828 - 1073 m a.s.l., prevailing type of tree: spruce aged up to 120 years); (2) the Uhlirska basin (the Jizerske hory Mts. - northern Bohemia; 1,87 km2, 774 - 870 m a.s.l., prevailing type of tree: spruce aged up to 80 years); (3) the Modry potok basin (the Giant Mts. - north-eastern Bohemia; 2,62 km2, 1010 - 1554 m a.s.l., prevailing type of tree: spruce and dwarf pine 62 % and meadow 38 % of the area). These experimental catchments are placed in the main massifs of the Bohemian border mountains. They differ especially in the level of anthropogenic impacts on vegetation cover. The hydrological and ecological significance of occult precipitation will be demonstrated. The chemistry of falling bulk precipitation sampled at the open area will be compared with the throughfall and with surface water sampled at the closing profile of each watershed. For the whole observed time period analytical results of the chemical analyses will be summarized. Based on the model predictions and on the water balance of the forest canopy the annual occult precipitation totals were estimated by the 10 % of the annual falling precipitation total in the Sumava Mts., by 10 - 15 % in the Jizerske hory Mts., and even more than 20 - 25 % in the Giant Mts. A fog water study carried out over

  15. The use of portable instruments for mapping contaminants in the floodplain of the Ploucnice River (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elznicova, Jitka; Sikora, Martin; Slaba, Eva; Popelka, Jan; Hosek, Michal; Matys Grygar, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    The Ploucnice River (the Czech Republic) was contaminated by uranium mining in the areas of Hamr na Jezere and Straz pod Ralskem mainly in 1971-1987. The pollutants are now deposited all over the floodplain of the river. In 2005 the aerial mapping of radioactive pollution in the floodplain of the Ploucnice River was performed at a height of 80 m above the ground in grid 250 x 250 m. That survey showed uneven, highly localised deposition of gamma-emitting nuclides along nearly the entire reach of the Ploucnice River. We studied several of those radioactivity hotspots 10-25 km downstream from the uranium mining area in aim to understand the reasons for that heterogeneity. The contamination of the floodplain was analysed mainly by two portable (handheld) instruments. The gamma-spectrometer DISA 400A was used for measuring the total surface gamma activity (main target nuclide was Ra-226). Very effective was also the use of portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) Olympus Innov-X (DELTA Premium), which provides fast analysis of more than 30 elements, such as pollutants (Ba, Ni, Pb, U and Zn) and grain-size sensitive lithogenic elements (Al, Si, Zr, Rb). Besides pollution mapping, XRF also allows for mapping sediment lithology using Al/Si or Rb/Zr element ratios (both proportional to the percentage of fine fraction). The field gamma spectrometry and XRF was performed with points 2-30 meters spaced, which revealed that hotspots according to low resolution (250 m) aerial mapping is composed of one or several strongly polluted areas with sizes up to several tens of metres. Similarly heterogeneous was also the distribution of sediment lithology in the floodplain. In some cases, micromorphology of the floodplain, formed mainly by the past meander abandonments and channel shifts was responsible for the heterogeneity of the pollution. To understand the floodplain development we used old maps and aerial photographs. The Czech Republic has an extensive archive of historical

  16. Complex distribution patterns, ecology and coexistence of ploidy levels of Allium oleraceum (Alliaceae) in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Duchoslav, Martin; Šafářová, Lenka; Krahulec, František

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite extensive study of polyploidy, its origin, and ecogeographical differences between polyploids and their diploid progenitors, few studies have addressed ploidy-level structure and patterns of ecogeographical differentiation at various spatial scales using detailed sampling procedures. The pattern of coexistence of polyploids in the geophyte Allium oleraceum at the landscape and locality scale and their ecology were studied. Methods Flow cytometry and root-tip squashes were used to identify the ploidy level of 4347 plants from 325 populations sampled from the Czech Republic using a stratified random sampling procedure. Ecological differentiation among ploidy levels was tested by comparing sets of environmental variables recorded at each locality. Key Results Across the entire sampling area, pentaploids (2n = 5x = 40) predominated, while hexaploids (2n = 6x = 48) and tetraploids (2n = 4x = 32) were less frequent. The distribution of tetra- and hexaploids was partially sympatric (in the eastern part) to parapatric (in the western part of the Czech Republic) whereas pentaploids were sympatric with other cytotypes. Plants of different ploidy levels were found to be ecologically differentiated and the ruderal character of cytotypes increased in the direction 4x → 5x → 6x with the largest realized niche differences between tetra- and hexaploids. Most populations contained only one ploidy level (77 %), 22 % had two (all possible combinations) and 1 % were composed of three ploidy levels. The majority of 4x + 5x and 5x + 6x mixed populations occurred in sympatry with uniform populations of the participating cytotypes in sites with ecologically heterogeneous or marginal environment, suggesting secondary contact between cytotypes. Some mixed 4x + 6x populations dominated by tetraploids being sympatric and intermixed with uniform 4x populations might represent primary zones of cytotype contact. Almost no mixed accessions were observed on the fine

  17. Variable mineral composition of metamorphic rocks from a single quarry compared to their ASR potential (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stastna, Aneta; Sachlova, Sarka; Pertold, Zdenek; Nekvasilova, Zuzana; Prikryl, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is one of the most damaging factors for concrete structures. ASR originates due to the presence of reactive silica (SiO2) that reacts with alkaline ions under wet conditions. The reaction mechanism consists of four different steps: initial attack of OH- compounds on SiO2 at aggregate-cement paste boundary; formation of silanol groups at SiO2 surface; formation of siloxane groups and their polymerization; adsorption of alkaline and Ca2+ ions and formation of alkali-silica gels. Alkali-silica gels tend to absorb water molecules and swell causing increasing internal pressures in concrete and microcracking. The most reactive aggregates are mainly composed of amorphous and/or fine-grained SiO2-rich phases. In the Czech Republic, ASR was observed in deteriorating concrete structures containing very fine-grained quartz (quartz in tuffaceous sandstones and greywackes), as well as quartz indicating variable degree of deformation (quartz in quartzite, granodiorite and various metamorphic rock types). In this study, mineralogical-petrographic methods (polarizing, electron and cathodoluminescence microscopy) were combined with the accelerated mortar bar test (following the standard ASTM C1260), with the aim to quantify the ASR potential, as well as to distinguish reactive mineral phases. Different aggregate varieties from the Těchobuz quarry (Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic) have been compared. Mineralogical-petrographic characteristics permit a distinction between 1) medium-grained plagioclase quartzite and 2) fine-grained biotite-plagioclase-quartz paragneiss and 3) fine-grained calc-silicate rock. Mineralogical composition of the first type is quartz + Ca-plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + chlorite + diopside + pyrite + apatite + titanite ± calcite. The second type has mineral assemblage including quartz + Ca-plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite + chlorite + pyrite + tourmaline + apatite + titanite ± calcite. The third type contains

  18. Observed evolution of drought episodes assessed with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) over the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potop, V.; Boroneana, C.; Mozny, M.; Stepanek, P.; Skalak, P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates the spatial and temporal evolution of drought episodes assessed with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) over the Czech Republic. The SPEI were calculated from monthly records of mean temperature and precipitation totals using a dense network of 183 climatological stations for the period 1961-2010. The SPEI were calculated with various lags, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. The drought at these time scales is relevant for agricultural, hydrological and socio-economic impact, respectively. The study refers at the warm season of the year (April to September). The principal modes of variability of these five time scale SPEI were identified using the analysis of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF). The explained variance of the leading EOF ranges between 71 and 61% as the time scale for calculating the SPEI increases from 1 month to 24 months. The explained variance of EOF2 and EOF3 ranges between 5 to 9% and 4 to 6%, respectively, as the SPEI is calculated for 1 to 24 months. Based on the spatial distribution of the EOF2 and EOF3 for all time scales of SPEI, which correspond to some extend to a regionalization previously used in other studies, we identified three climatically homogeneous regions, corresponding to the altitudes below 400 m, between 401 and 700 m and, above 700 m. These regions correspond to different land use types with mostly intensive agriculture, less intensive agriculture and limited agricultural production and mostly forested, respectively. For these three regions the frequency distribution of the SPEI values in 7 classes of drought category (%) were calculated based on station records in each region. The normal conditions represent around 65% out of the total values of SPEI for all times scales, in all three regions, while moderate drought and moderate wet conditions are almost equally distributed around 10.5 %. Differences in extremely dry conditions (5%) compared to extremely wet conditions (1

  19. Dementia Still Diagnosed Too Late — Data from the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    LUZNY, Jan; HOLMEROVA, Iva; WIJA, Petr; ONDREJKA, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The goal of the study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Czech physicians to the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with memory impairment. Methods A retrospective observational study was designed. We have reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who have been hospitalized for the first time due to dementia of any type at the Kromeriz Mental hospital from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013 (24-month period). Pluralistic methods combining the qualitative and quantitative approach were used in this study. Results Dementia of any type was diagnosed in 125 patients in the monitored period. The mean time between patient memory complaints and his / her admission to our facility for their first hospitalization due to dementia was 7.1 years (+- 3.7 years). Most patients with dementia had no prior outpatient treatment of their memory impairment (56.2%); a minority of patients (43.8%) had treatment of their memory impairment by an outpatient physician. Conclusion The sensitivity of Czech physicians to the early diagnosis of dementia is very low. Any delay in starting the treatment of dementia means a worsened effectiveness of this treatment, a worsened quality of life of patients with dementia and their caregivers. Our recommendations for both the early diagnosis and treatment of dementia should be involved in guidelines and should become a part of the pregraduate and postgraduate education of all physicians. PMID:26060706

  20. Key Determinants Influencing the Health Literacy of Pregnant Women in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    WILHELMOVA, Radka; HRUBA, Drahoslava; VESELA, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Background Health literacy is a critical determinant of women’s and children’s health and therefore has immense consequences for the health of society as well. Evidence from epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies indicates that unhealthy lifestyles and risky behavioural habits of parents before conception and during pregnancy influence the etiology of various health defects. Decreasing primary risk factors, practicing physical wellness, monitoring physiological markers and preparing for labour, breastfeeding and newborn care should be the main parental responsibilities during the prenatal period. Methods Our study focused on specifying the main determinants of health literacy among 360 pregnant Czech women by using an anonymous questionnaire and selected anthropometric data of mothers. The criteria for study participation produced a sample representing 1.41% of Czech women in labour during a given 2012 reference period. Results Despite quite adequate knowledge of both risks and supporting factors for pregnancy and foetal development, the lifestyles of a majority of the women surveyed were far from optimum: only 30% reported good dietary and physical activity habits, 24% were active or passive smokers and one third of the women occasionally drank alcohol, more often among those who were university educated. Conclusion Our results have confirmed previously published data noting that health literacy and a healthier lifestyle of pregnant women are associated with a higher level of education (except for alcohol drinking) and with contact with a midwife (in some examined parameters) in prenatal courses.

  1. Widespread clone of Burkholderia cenocepacia in cystic fibrosis patients in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Drevinek, Pavel; Vosahlikova, Sarka; Cinek, Ondrej; Vavrova, Vera; Bartosova, Jana; Pohunek, Petr; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2005-07-01

    The morbidity and mortality rates in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are significantly affected by infections with Burkholderia cepacia complex. In a Czech CF Centre, the prevalence of the infection reached up to 30 %, with the majority of patients found to be infected with Burkholderia cenocepacia (formerly genomovar III of the Burkholderia cepacia complex). Since B. cenocepacia is associated with patient-to-patient transmission and epidemic outbreaks among CF patients, this study sought to examine the epidemiological relatedness between the Czech isolates belonging to the genomovar-homogeneous group. Eighty-three clinical isolates recovered from 67 CF patients were analysed using a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and macrorestriction typing (SpeI and XbaI) followed by PFGE. A single predominant banding pattern shared by multiple isolates was detected, although SpeI-generated PFGE results yielded a higher rate of inter-pattern variability in comparison to the more uniform RAPD and XbaI-generated PFGE results for this clone. Both typing systems also showed that only three out of 67 patients harboured strains distinct from the major strain type. The dominant clone was characterized by PCR positivity for the B. cepacia epidemic strain marker, PCR negativity for the cable pilin subunit gene and close genetic relatedness to the epidemic strain of RAPD 01 type previously identified in Canada. PMID:15947430

  2. Evaluation of Inbreeding and Genetic Variability of Five Pig Breeds in Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Krupa, E.; Žáková, E.; Krupová, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The complex analysis of the pedigree records of Czech Landrace (CLA), Czech Large White-dam line (CLWd), Czech Large White-sire line (CLWs), Duroc (DC), and Pietrain (PN) was performed to determine trends of genetic diversity (GD), and to find the main sources of the GD loss. The total size of the pedigree was 132,365, 391,151, 32,913, 13,299, and 7,160 animals in CLA, CLWd, CLWs, DC, and PN, respectively. Animals born in the years 2011 through 2013 were assumed as the reference population. The average pedigree completeness index for one generation back was 95.9%, 97.4%, 91.2%, 89.8%, and 94.2% for appropriate breeds. Number of ancestors explaining 100% of gene pool was 186, 373, 125, 157, and 37 in CLA, CLWd, CLWs, DC, and PN, respectively. The relative proportion of inbred animals (58%, 58%, 54%, 47%, and 25%), the average inbreeding (2.7%, 1.4%, 2.5%, 3.6%, and 1.3%) and the average co-ancestry (3.1%, 1.6%, 3.3%, 4.2%, and 3.3%) were found over the past decade in analysed breeds. The expected inbreeding under random mating increased during the last 10 years in CLWs and PN and varied from 1.27% to 3.2%. The effective population size computed on the basis of inbreeding was 76, 74, 50, 35, and 83 in 2012 in CLA, CLWd, CLWs, DC, and PN, respectively. The shortest generation interval (1.45) was observed for CLWd in sire to son selection pathway. The longest generation interval obtained PN (1.95) in sire to daughter pathway. The average relative GD loss within last generation interval was 7.05%, 4.70%, 9.81%, 7.47%, and 10.46%, respectively. The relative proportion of GD loss due to genetic drift on total GD loss was 85.04%, 84.51%, 89.46%, 86.19%, and 83.68% in CLA, CLWd, CLWs, DC, and PN, respectively. All breeds were characterized by a high proportion of inbred animals, but the average inbreeding was low. The most vulnerable breeds to loss of GD are DC and PN. Therefore, a breeding program should be more oriented to prevent the increase of GD loss in these breeds

  3. Detection of Diverse Novel Bat Astrovirus Sequences in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dufkova, Lucie; Straková, Petra; Širmarová, Jana; Salát, Jiří; Moutelíková, Romana; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Bartonička, Tomáš; Nowotny, Norbert; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Astroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans and animals. Recently, novel groups of astroviruses were identified in apparently healthy insectivorous bats. We report the detection of diverse novel astrovirus sequences in nine different European bat species: Eptesicus serotinus, Hypsugo savii, Myotis emarginatus, M. mystacinus, Nyctalus noctula, Pipistrellus nathusii or P. pygmaeus, P. pipistrellus, Vespertilio murinus, and Rhinolophus hipposideros. In six bat species, astrovirus sequences were detected for the first time. One astrovirus strain detected in R. hipposideros clustered phylogenetically with Chinese astrovirus strains originating from bats of the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae. All other Czech astrovirus sequences from vesper bats formed, together with one Hungarian sequence, a separate monophyletic lineage within the bat astrovirus group. These findings provide new insights into the molecular epidemiology, ecology, and prevalence of astroviruses in European bat populations. PMID:26273815

  4. 50 years of monitoring of the ozone layer in the Czech Republic - results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanicek, Karel; Skrivankova, Pavla; Metelka, Ladislav; Stanek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Long-term observations of total ozone (TOZ) and vertical ozone profiles, the basic parameters of the ozone layer, have been performed at the Solar and Ozone Observatory (SOO) Hradec Kralove and at the Aerological Department (AD) Praha of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) since 1961 and 1992 respectively. The Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers regularly calibrated towards the international references and electro-chemical ECC ozone sondes are used for the measurements. The observations contribute to the global GAW and NDACC ozone monitoring systems. Up to now analyses of the data give the basic findings given bellow and documented in the presentation. Some of them have important implication to the international ozone monitoring infrastructure, as well. - The decrease of TOZ by about 5-7 % in the winter-spring months towards the pre ozone-hole period have occurred since the mid eighties. This is in good agreement by the magnitude and time with depletion of the ozone layer due to chemical destruction of ozone in the NH mid-latitudes. - Significant depletion 3-5 % of TOZ has been identified also in the summer season since the early nineties. As this can not be attributed to the man-made chemical processes a change in the UT/LS dynamics over Central Europe is the most probable reason. - Aerological measurements taken at AD show that the summer reduction of TOZ very well coincides with a change of UT/LS temperature that persists for about two decades over the Czech territory. Therefore it has a long-term character that can be regarded as a climate shift in UT/LS and need to be further investigated. - 15 years of unique simultaneous Dobson/Brewer observations of TOZ performed at SOO show systematic seasonal deviations between both data sets that exceed instrumental accuracy of measurements. The differences are mostly caused by different wavelengths and their ozone absorption coefficients used by both instruments. As the Brewer observations are being

  5. Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2C8 in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Buzkova, Helena; Matouskova, Olga; Perlik, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    Aim: CYP2C8 represents 7% of the hepatic cytochrome system and metabolizes around 5% of drugs in phase I processes. It also plays a significant role in metabolism of endogenous compounds. More than 20 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been noted, mainly in exons 3, 5, and 8. The most studied SNPs may lead to decreased enzyme activity and may have impact on drug metabolism. Variant alleles are called CYP2C8*2 (I269F), CYP2C8*3 (R139K, K399R), and CYP2C8*4(I264M). Our aim was to investigate the frequency of major functional SNPs among the Czech population. Material and methods: DNA was isolated from whole blood of 161 healthy, young, and unrelated subjects (94 men and 67 women, aged from 23 to 28 years). The genotypes of polymorphic positions CYP2C8*2, CYP2C8*3 (G416A, A1196G), and CYP2C8*4 were determined by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results and conclusion: Observed allele frequencies were 10.9%, 5.9%, and 0.3% for the alleles CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8*4, and CYP2C8*2, respectively. Both CYP2C8*3 (G416A, A1196G) alleles have been found in complete linkage disequilibrium. The allele distribution complies well with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Allele frequencies of functionally important CYP2C8 variants in the Czech population are similar to that of other Caucasian populations. PMID:22313047

  6. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have examined heat- and cold-related cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat- and cold-related CVD morbidity and possible regional differences. This study compares heat- and cold-stress effects on excess CVD mortality and morbidity in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia over 16-year period (1994-2009). Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Several methods for identifying days and spells of days with heat and cold stress are applied, including Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days was identified in Prague, while on cold days we found higher excess CVD mortality in the rural region of southern Bohemia. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. The differences between Prague and the rural region of southern Bohemia indicate a possible influence of urban heat island effect in Prague together with other factors such as long- and short-term exposure to air pollution, different lifestyle, or different population, which may result in differing vulnerability to heat and cold stress.

  7. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  8. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel. PMID:26873811

  9. Diversity and Distribution of Braconidae, a Family of Parasitoid Wasps in the Central European Peatbogs of South Bohemia, Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Lozan, Aurel I.; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Achterberg, Cees van Van; Monaghan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    An ecological overview of seven years investigation of Braconidae, a family of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) and a tyrpho-classification of parasitoids in peatbog areas of South Bohemia, Czech Republic are given. A total of 350 species were recorded in investigated sites, but only five tyrphobionts (1.4%) are proposed: Microchelonus basalis, Microchelonus koponeni, Coloneura ate, Coloneura danica and Myiocephalus niger. All of these species have a boreal-alpine distribution that, in Central Europe, is associated only with peatbogs. Tyrphophilous behaviour is seen in at least four (1.1%) species: Microchelonus pedator, Microchelonus subpedator, Microchelonus karadagi and Microchelonus gravenhorstii; however, a number of other braconids prefer peatbogs because they were more frequently encountered within, rather than outside, the bog habitat. The rest of the braconids (342 species, 97.5%) are tyrphoneutrals, many of them being eurytopic components of various habitats throughout their current ranges. Lists of tyrphobiontic braconids and a brief commentary on species composition, distributional picture of actual ranges, and parasitoid association to bog landscape are provided. Being true refugial habitats for populations in an ever-changing world, peatbogs play a significant role in harboring insect communities. PMID:20578880

  10. A retrospective study of 171 patients with oral lichen planus in the East Bohemia - Czech Republic – single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Dřízhal, Ivo; Slezák, Radovan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Oral lichen planus is chronic inflammatory disease with a high prevalence in the population. This study describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of group of patients with oral lichen planus in the Czech Republic. Material and Methods: Data was taken from the medical records of 171 patients referred to the Oral Medicine Unit at the University Hospital in Hradec Králové with histologically confirmed clinical diagnosis of oral lichen planus in the period 2003 – 2013. The data were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 171 patients, 116 (67.8%) were women and 55 (32.2%) were men. The mean age was 55.2 ± 12.4 years (range of 85.0 – 20.9). The reticular form was the most frequent 93.6% (160 pts.), desquamative gingivitis was 12.9% (22). The buccal mucosa was the site most affected 89.5% (153 pts.). The lesions were asymptomatic in 52 patients (30.4%). Extraoral lesions were observed in 20.5% (35 pts.) of the patients, skin involvement was in 16.4% (28 pts.). Smokers were 29 patients. Local treatment used 116 (67.8%), only 6 patients used systemic short tome corticoid therapy. No evidence between OLP and malignant transformation was observed. Conclusions: This retrospective study show very similar profile and clinical features of the patients with OLP as in other studies. Key words:Oral lichen planus, clinical features, extraoral manifestation. PMID:25674326

  11. Analysis of sediments and plants from the system of five fishponds in the Czech Republic using culture and PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Klanicova, B; Slany, M; Slana, I

    2014-02-15

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms that have been isolated from a variety of environmental sources. Several NTM species are responsible for diseases in humans and/or animals known as mycobacterioses. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of NTM in the sediments and plants of five fish ponds in the Czech Republic using culture and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Additionally, we investigated if there was any link between environmental samples from the fish ponds and the fish occupying them. A total of 8 NTM (14.0%) were cultured from the aquatic environment. qPCR analysis showed that Mycobacterium avium hominissuis was most frequently present (54.4%), followed by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (42.1%). The least frequently isolated NTM was Mycobacterium avium avium (5.3%). Thus, in this study we confirm the presence of mycobacteria in sediments and aquatic plants in fishponds, which are occupied by fish intended for human consumption. We successfully isolated NTM from the tissue of one fish and confirmed a possible transmission of mycobacteria from the aquatic environment to the fish. Consequently, the consumption of such fish represents a possible risk for consumers, particularly immunocompromised individuals. PMID:24342091

  12. Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Urik, Joseph; Lukes, Joseph; Kobr, Miroslav; Mares, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Application of the cross-borehole flow method, in which short pumping cycles in one borehole are used to induce time-transient flow in another borehole, demonstrated that a simple hydraulic model can characterize the fracture connections in the bedrock mass between the two boreholes. The analysis determines the properties of fracture connections rather than those of individual fractures intersecting a single borehole; the model contains a limited number of adjustable parameters so that any correlation between measured and simulated flow test data is significant. The test was conducted in two 200-m deep boreholes spaced 21 m apart in the Melechov Granite in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Transient flow was measured at depth stations between the identified transmissive fractures in one of the boreholes during short-term pumping and recovery periods in the other borehole. Simulated flows, based on simple model geometries, closely matched the measured flows. The relative transmissivity and storage of the inferred fracture connections were corroborated by tracer testing. The results demonstrate that it is possible to assess the properties of a fracture flow network despite being restricted to making measurements in boreholes in which a local population of discrete fractures regulates the hydraulic communication with the larger-scale aquifer system.

  13. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase and fluoroquinolone resistance genes and plasmids among Escherichia coli isolates from zoo animals, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dobiasova, Hana; Dolejska, Monika; Jamborova, Ivana; Brhelova, Eva; Blazkova, Lucie; Papousek, Ivo; Kozlova, Marketa; Klimes, Jiri; Cizek, Alois; Literak, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    Commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy zoo animals kept in Ostrava Zoological Garden, Czech Republic, were investigated to evaluate the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. A total of 160 faecal samples of various animal species were inoculated onto MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (2 mg L(-1)) or ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg L(-1)) to obtain ESBL- or PMQR-positive E. coli isolates. Clonality of E. coli isolates was investigated by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Plasmids carrying ESBL or PMQR genes were typed by PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Forty-nine (71%, n = 69) cefotaxime-resistant and 15 (16%, n = 94) ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates harboured ESBL or PMQR genes. Isolates were assigned to 18 sequence types (ST) and 20 clusters according to their macrorestriction patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The genes blaCTX -M-1 and qnrS1 were detected on highly related IncI1 plasmids assigned to clonal complex 3 (ST3, ST38) and on non-related IncN plasmids of ST1 and ST3, respectively. The gene qnrS1 was located on related IncX1 plasmids. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance is associated with spreading of particular E. coli clones and plasmids of specific incompatibility groups among various animal species. PMID:23679004

  14. Genotype analysis of enterotoxin H-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food samples in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Růzicková, Vladislava; Karpísková, Renata; Pantůcek, Roman; Pospísilová, Markéta; Cerníková, Pavla; Doskar, Jirí

    2008-01-15

    Twenty-eight enterotoxin H-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from food samples collected in eleven districts of the Czech Republic between 2000 and 2005 were genotypically characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling, spa gene polymorphism analysis, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based PCR (ERIC-PCR) fingerprinting and prophage carriage detection. These strains accounted for about 21% of the food-derived, staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE)-positive isolates. One strain, detected in feta cheese, was implicated in a case of enterotoxinosis. Sixteen of the twenty-eight isolates carried the seh gene alone. The remaining twelve strains harbored the seh gene in combination with other enterotoxin genes, most often the seg and sei genes, followed by the sea, seb, sec and sed genes. Comparison of various genomic profiles resulted in the determination of twenty genotypes designated G-1 to G-20. Two new, to date not defined, spa types (t2000 and t2002) were identified in one strain isolated from raw meat and two strains obtained from prepacked pizza. Evidence has been given that the seh-positive S. aureus isolates from foodstuffs did not originate from a single source or a common ancestor. PMID:18054105

  15. Salmonella enterica resistant to antimicrobials in wastewater effluents and black-headed gulls in the Czech Republic, 2012.

    PubMed

    Masarikova, Martina; Manga, Ivan; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika; Oravcova, Veronika; Myskova, Petra; Karpiskova, Renata; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the presence and epidemiological relatedness of Salmonella isolates from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brno, Czech Republic and from nestlings of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) at the Nove Mlyny waterworks, situated 35 km downstream from the WWTP. During 2012, we collected 37 wastewater samples and 284 gull cloacal swabs. From wastewater samples, we obtained 89 Salmonella isolates belonging to 19 serotypes. At least one resistant strain was contained in 89% of those samples. Ten different serotypes of Salmonella were detected in 38 young gulls, among which 14 (37%) were resistant to antimicrobials. Wastewater isolates were mostly resistant to sulphonamides and tetracycline, gull isolates to tetracycline and ampicillin. We detected the occurrence of blaTEM-1,tet(A), tet(B), tet(G), sul1, sul2, sul3, floR and strA resistance genes. For the first time, we identified a class 1 integron with the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 gene cassette in S. Infantis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we confirmed the presence of identical clusters of S. Agona, S. Enteritidis PT8, S. Infantis and S. Senftenberg in wastewater and black-headed gulls, thus indicating the possibility of resistant Salmonella isolates spreading over long distances in the environment. PMID:26519571

  16. Assessment of contamination with trace elements and man-made radionuclides around Temelin Nuclear Power Plant in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinova, Lenka; Frontasyeva, Marina; Vergel, Konstantin; Bayushkina, Ekaterina

    2014-11-01

    The results of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and trace elements, determined in moss Pleurozium schreberi collected around the Temelin Nuclear Power Station in the Czech Republic in 2011, are presented. The monitored area around NPP Temelin comprises 29 sampling sites located along 8 profile radii stretched as of 2, 5, 10, and 20 km from the NPP. Some pollution sources are located in the study area. A total of 42 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Pb, Th, and U) were determined by epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis with the neutron flux density Φepi=3.6×1011n/(cm2s) at the pulsed fast reactor IBR-2, FLNP, JINR. To determine the presence of radionuclides and their measurable activity in samples, laboratory gamma spectrometry was found to be the best detection method. A coaxial HPGe detector with samples in the geometry of Marinelli containers in the laboratory of Faculty of Nuclear Sciences CTU in Prague was used. To assess the influence of NPP Temelin on the Biomass in 20 km radius, the mass activity of 137Cs (Bq/kg) was determined. No other short-term radionuclides have ever been identified in any spectrum.

  17. A fresh look at growth assessment of infants and young children in the Czech Republic in context of international developments.

    PubMed

    Vignerová, Jana; Lhotská, Lída

    2006-06-01

    The growth charts of basic body measurements are an important aid for the daily routine practice of paediatricians. Charts for children from birth to 2 years of age form an integral component of a set of such tools for the age spectrum from birth to 18 years of age. The interpretation of growth charts is highly dependent on the data on basis of which the charts were constructed. In the Czech Republic, the growth reference data have been regularly updated since 1951, in 10-year intervals. These updates are based on data from nation-wide anthropological surveys of children and adolescents. Countries, which do not have their own reference data, have been using for growth assessment the 1977 World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) international reference growth charts. These charts, developed for height for age, weight for age, and weight for height, were based for children younger than 2 years on a longitudinal study of North American children. Over the years, use in practice showed that because of the original criteria used to select the child population studied, these reference growth charts were not suitable for assessing growth of breastfed children. The 1977 reference is based on predominantly artificially, that is formula-fed, child population. The evidence shows that breastfed and artificially fed infants grow differently and that the growth pattern of breastfed children most likely better reflects physiological growth. In 1994, based on the accumulated evidence, the WHO started working on new international standards which would be based on a sample of healthy breastfed children. The project, the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS), was carried out from 1997-2003. It focused on collection of growth and development data of 8440 children from different ethnic and cultural groups. The underlying assumption of the project was that in favourable socio-economic conditions and with a recommended level of nutrition

  18. Comparison of overbank fines magnetic pollution in the rivers of Czech Republic by using MS/Fe ratio and enrichment factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famera, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Martin Famera1, Tereza Novakova3,4, Tomas Matys Grygar3, Jitka Elznicová, Andrea Tipanová1, Ondrej Babek1,2, Martin Chadima5 1Department of Geology, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic 2Department of Geological Sciences, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic 3Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez, Czech Republic 4Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague, Czech Republic 5Agico, s.r.o., Jecna 29a, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic Magnetic susceptibility (MS) normalized to the content of Fe is able to effectively remove the influence of facies (grain-size effect) in determining the background values, as well as Al normalization of heavy metal concentrations. Normalization MS/Fe is also used to determine the contamination of sediments by magnetic particles, using calculation of enrichment factor of magnetic susceptibility in sediments. In our study, we compared the magnetic enrichment of overbank fines of five rivers in Czech Republic (the Ploucnice, the Morava, the Jizera, the Litavka, and the Berounka rivers). Magnetic susceptibility was measured using KLY-2 Kappabridge (Agico, Czech Republic) and mass-specific data were expressed in m3×kg-1. X-ray fluorescence elementary analysis of powdered sediments was performed by ED XRF MiniPal 4.0 (PANalytical, the Netherlands). ED XRF results were calibrated to ppm values using results obtained from selected samples by ICP MS. Compared samples were taken from lithogenic parts of profiles, unaffected by anthropogenic contamination and pedogenetic and reductimorphic processes. Results showed high variability of the measured values. In the Litavka and the Morava River sediments were measured low values of MS (˂150×10-9) at relatively high contents of Fe (20-45 000 ppm). In contrast, lower flow of the Jizera River showed low Fe contents (˂12000 ppm) having MS values in a wide range (70-800×10-9). The Plou

  19. Mutation analysis of the PALB2 gene in unselected pancreatic cancer patients in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Borecka, M; Zemankova, P; Vocka, M; Soucek, P; Soukupova, J; Kleiblova, P; Sevcik, J; Kleibl, Z; Janatova, M

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the worst prognosis among common solid cancer diagnoses. It has been shown that up to 10% of PDAC cases have a familial component. Characterization of PDAC-susceptibility genes could reveal high-risk individuals and patients that may benefit from tailored therapy. Hereditary mutations in PALB2 (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) gene has been shown to predispose, namely to PDAC and breast cancers; however, frequencies of mutations vary among distinct geographical populations. Using the combination of sequencing, high-resolution melting and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses, we screened the entire PALB2 gene in 152 unselected Czech PDAC patients. Truncating mutations were identified in three (2.0%) patients. Genotyping of found PALB2 variants in 1226 control samples revealed one carrier of PALB2 truncating variant (0.08%; P = 0.005). The mean age at PDAC diagnosis was significantly lower among PALB2 mutation carriers (51 years) than in non-carriers (63 years; P = 0.016). Only one patient carrying germline PALB2 mutation had a positive family breast cancer history. Our results indicate that hereditary PALB2 mutation represents clinically considerable genetic factor increasing PDAC susceptibility in our population and that analysis of PALB2 should be considered not only in PDAC patients with familial history of breast or pancreatic cancers but also in younger PDAC patients without family cancer history. PMID:27106063

  20. Daphne mosaic virus (DapMV), a new potyvirus from Daphne mezereum in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Fránová, J; Petrzik, K; Lesemann, D-E; Navrátil, M

    2006-04-01

    Daphne shrubs with light green rings and mosaic on leaves contained flexuous filamentous virions (696 x 13 nm) and cylindrical inclusions typical of the subdivision III of Edwardson's classification for inclusions induced by members of the family Potyviridae. Decoration tests using antisera to 67 potyviruses revealed distant serological relations among chilli veinal mottle virus, Colombian datura virus, papaya ringspot virus, tobacco vein mottling virus and yam mosaic virus. The 3' terminal region of the virus genome was amplified by RT-PCR using primers specific for cloned and sequenced members of the family Potyviridae. The most similar sequences in the GenBank were those of isolates of wild potato mosaic virus (WPMV) and yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV), originating from Peru and Guadeloupe, respectively. The new sequence had 63.2% and 61.9% nucleotide identity to WPMV and YMMV in the coat protein gene. The results suggest that the Czech isolate from daphne should be regarded as a new member of the genus Potyvirus. The name daphne mosaic virus (DapMV) is suggested for this virus. PMID:16292598

  1. Occurrence of brominated flame retardants in household and car dust from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, K; Hradkova, P; Lankova, D; Hajslova, J; Pulkrabova, J

    2012-12-15

    The levels and profiles of 16 polybrominated diphenyl ethers congeners (PBDEs), three isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and other six "alternative" brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in dust collected in 25 Czech households and 27 car interiors were investigated. The Σ16 PBDEs contents varied widely with maximum concentrations reaching up to 5896 and 33728 μg/kg in house and car dust, respectively. The highest concentrations of PBDEs were observed for BDE 209, which was found almost in all samples and exceeded concentrations of other PBDEs even by one order of magnitude. The profile and levels of Penta-, Octa-, and DecaBDE obtained within this study were comparable to those presented in other studies worldwide and confirmed lower contamination of dust from Europe compared to North America. From the group of "alternative" BFRs, suitable for commercial applications as an alternative to banned PBDEs, mainly decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and HBCD were detected in the concentration ranges <20-3567 and <0.3-950 μg/kg, respectively. γ-HBCD was dominating, forming up to 70% of ΣHBCD. Using the measured concentrations and estimates of dust ingestion rates it was estimated that toddlers had a higher exposure than adults for all compounds investigated. PMID:23137984

  2. Surface Ozone Measured at GLOBE Schools in the Czech Republic: A Demonstration of the Importance of Student Contribution to the Larger Science Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Margaret R.; Creilson, John K.; Henderson, Bryana L.; Ladd, Irene H.; Fishman, Jack; Votapkova, Dana; Krpcova, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide hands-on, primary and secondary school-based education and science program, developed to give students a chance to perform real science by making measurements, analyzing data, and participating in research in collaboration with scientists. As part of the GLOBE Surface Ozone Protocol and with the assistance of the TEREZA Association in the Czech Republic, schools in the Czech Republic have been making and reporting daily measurements of surface ozone and surface meteorological data since 2001. Using a hand-held ozone monitor developed for GLOBE, students at several Czech schools have generated multiyear data records of surface ozone from 2001 to 2005. Analysis of the data shows surface ozone levels were anomalously high during the summer of 2003 relative to other summers. These findings are consistent with measurements by the European Environment Agency that highlights the summer of 2003 as having exceptionally long-lasting and spatially extensive episodes of high surface ozone, especially during the first half of August. Further analysis of the summer s prevailing meteorology shows not only that it was one of the hottest on record, a finding also seen in the student data, but the conditions for production of ozone were ideal. Findings such as these increase student, teacher, and scientist confidence in the utility of the GLOBE data for engaging budding scientists in the collection, analysis, and eventual interpretation of the data for inquiry-based education.

  3. Changes in Scattered Greenery in Selected Area in the Czech Republic from 1953 TO 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ždímal, V.

    2016-06-01

    The Land Cover of the Czech landscape could change several times. Reconstructing Land Cover and especially greenery in the past is important for today's use of the landscape. Two periods were chosen to track changes in scattered greenery, the years 1953 and 2014. The source of information was an historical orthophotomap supplemented with a Military Topographic Map and an orthophotomap supplemented by terrain mapping. The software ArcMap and GuidosToolbox were used. The greenery was highlighted and manually converted to a vector format. The total area of the monitored territory is 2,190 hectares. In 1953, greenery took up 102 ha and 90 individual green areas were identified here. In 2014, greenery took up 222 ha and it was divided into 113 individual areas. In 1953 the perimeter of all green areas was 41,537 meters; in 2014 the perimeter of all green areas was 89,974 meters. There are two apparent trends here. The first is the simplification of shapes as a result of large-scale management; the second is the formation of a large length of linear greenery and small width with a large perimeter. The shape of the surface is linked to the area and perimeter. In 1953 this parameter was on average 1.87, and in 2014 the average value was 2.58. Comparing the results of the distance analysis of Label Objects using the GuidosToolbox software found that virtually all green areas were classified differently in 1953 and 2014. The results are completely different and further analysis makes no sense.

  4. Enteric fever imported to the Czech Republic: epidemiology, clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Trojánek, Milan; Dědičová, Daniela; Žemličková, Helena; Jakubů, Vladislav; Malíková, Eliška; Reisingerová, Marie; Gabrielová, Alice; Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Hrabák, Jaroslav; Horová, Blanka; Urbášková, Pavla; Marešová, Vilma; Stejskal, František

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported enteric fever in Czech travellers and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated strains. Retrospective descriptive study included adult patients treated with enteric fever at Hospital Na Bulovce during January 2004-December 2012. A case of typhoid or paratyphoid fever was defined as isolation of Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi from blood or stool. During the study period, there have been diagnosed 19 cases of enteric fever (12 males and 7 females) with age median of 30 years; 14 cases were caused by Salmonella Typhi and 5 cases by S. Paratyphi A. The infection has been acquired in South Asia (16 patients; 84.2 %), in Africa (Egypt, Angola) in two cases (10.5 %), and in Mexico (1; 5.3 %). Symptoms included fever (all patients), diarrhoea (16 cases; 84.2 %), headache (9; 47.4 %), and abdominal pain (7; 36.8 %). Seventeen patients (89.5 %) were treated with fluoroquinolones; however, the treatment failure was observed in seven of them (41.2 %). Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility was detected in eight strains (66.7 %), and one strain (8.3 %) was multidrug resistant. Sequence analysis of quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the gyrA gene revealed the presence of amino acid substitutions in all tested isolates with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers represent epidemiologically important diseases that may lead to potentially life-threatening complications. Major issue in the management of enteric fever represents the non-susceptibility of Salmonella strains to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials. PMID:25394534

  5. Sorption and degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in representative soils of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, Radka; Kocarek, Martin; Klement, Ales; Golovko, Oksana; Grabic, Roman; Fer, Miroslav; Nikodem, Antonin; Jaksik, Ondrej

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of contaminant behavior (e.g. its sorption onto soil particle, degradation etc.) is essential when assessing contaminant migration in soil and groundwater environment. This study was focused on evaluating sorption isotherms and half-lives for 7 pharmaceuticals (clarithromycin, trimethoprim, metoprolol, atenolol, clindamycin, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole) on 13 soils of different soil properties. Sorption of ionizable compounds was highly affected by soil pH. The sorption coefficient of sulfamethoxazole was negatively correlated to soil pH and thus positively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity. Sorption coefficients for clindamycin and clarithromycin were positively related to soil pH and thus negatively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity and positively related to base cation saturation. Sorption coefficients for the remaining pharmaceuticals (trimethoprim, metoprolol, atenolol, and carbamazepine) were also positively correlated with the base cation saturation and cation exchange capacity. Degradation rates in some degree reflected sorption of studied pharmaceuticals on soil particles and increased with decreasing sorption. The highest mobility in studied soils was observed for sulfamethoxazole, but this pharmaceutical was relatively quickly degraded. The second highest mobility was found for carbamazepine, which mostly did not noticeably degrade during our experiments. Thus this pharmaceutical has the highest potential to migrate in water environment. The lowest mobility was observed for clarithromycin. However, this pharmaceutical due to its stability may be retained in an environment for a long time. Acknowledgement: The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Czech Science Foundation (Project No. 13-12477S, Transport of pharmaceuticals in soils). References: Kodesova, R., Grabic, R., Kocarek, M., Klement, A., Golovko, O., Fer, M., Nikodem, A., Jaksik, O., Pharmaceuticals' sorptions relative to

  6. [Determination of airborne and surface contamination with cyclophosphamide at the Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Gorná, Lucie; Odráska, Pavel; Dolezalová, Lenka; Piler, Pavel; Oravec, Michal; Bláha, Ludek

    2011-02-01

    Manipulation with cytotoxic drugs (CDs) during the preparation and administration of chemotherapy to cancer patients can potentially lead to contamination of working areas and consequently to occupational exposure of hospital staff. This study aimed to assess the potential of inhalation and dermal contact with CDs. For this purpose, distribution of the marker drug (cyclophosphamide, CP) in the working environment of the Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute (Czech Republic) was studied. The study determined airborne and surface contamination of the hospital pharmacy and the outpatient clinic. Determination of airborne contamination was based on active stationary sampling of air using a PTFE filter, an impinger filled with distilled water and two solid sorbent tubes (Anasorb 708 and Strata-X) as sampling devices. Surface contamination was determined by the wipe sampling method. The airborne contamination was rare and the concentrations were many times lower than the maximal value calculated from the vapour pressure (0.36 mg/m3 at 20 degrees C). Detectable airborne CP was found in Strata-X samples collected at the outpatient clinic (n = 5, all samples positive at concentrations from 0.3 to 4.3 ng/m3). Surface contamination was determined at 75% of wipe samples (n = 65) with a median concentration of 750 ng/m2. In conclusion, inhalation of CDs seems to be of low importance at our hospital, which is up to the standard specified by current legislation (drug preparation performed in a clean room equipped with negative pressure isolators). The main proportion of contamination was present on the surfaces at all workplaces studied. Consequently, attention should be given to the elimination of the sources of surface contamination and to the prevention of dermal contact with contaminated material. PMID:21650015

  7. Contrasting patterns of hot spell effects on morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases in the Czech Republic, 1994-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzlíková, Hana; Plavcová, Eva; Kynčl, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The study examines effects of hot spells on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in the population of the Czech Republic, with emphasis on differences between ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CD) and between morbidity and mortality. Daily data on CVD morbidity (hospital admissions) and mortality over 1994-2009 were obtained from national hospitalization and mortality registers and standardized to account for long-term changes as well as seasonal and weekly cycles. Hot spells were defined as periods of at least two consecutive days with average daily air temperature anomalies above the 95 % quantile during June to August. Relative deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline were evaluated. Hot spells were associated with excess mortality for all examined cardiovascular causes (CVD, IHD and CD). The increases were more pronounced for CD than IHD mortality in most population groups, mainly in males. In the younger population (0-64 years), however, significant excess mortality was observed for IHD while there was no excess mortality for CD. A short-term displacement effect was found to be much larger for mortality due to CD than IHD. Excess CVD mortality was not accompanied by increases in hospital admissions and below-expected-levels of morbidity prevailed during hot spells, particularly for IHD in the elderly. This suggests that out-of-hospital deaths represent a major part of excess CVD mortality during heat and that for in-hospital excess deaths CVD is a masked comorbid condition rather than the primary diagnosis responsible for hospitalization.

  8. Dolni Vestonice (Czech Republic) an intermédiate loess series between Western and eastern European records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, D.; Antoine, P.; Hatte, C.; Lagroix, F.; Fuchs, M.; Moine, O.; Gauthier, C.; Svoboda, J.; Lisa, L.

    2010-12-01

    Previous investigations on western and eastern European loess series have shown similarities at least for the main loess deposition during the last climate cycle, recording North-Atlantic abrupt climate changes, the Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. To address the question of how such record occurred through modeling experiments (Sima et al., QSR, 2009), we need reference series located in an intermediary position between the Nussloch (Germany - Antoine et al, QI 2001, QSR, 2009; Rousseau et al, GRL 2007) and Stayky (Ukraine -Rousseau et al, Clim Past D 2010) loess series at about 50°N latitude, location of the main deposits. The key sequence of Dolni Vestonice in southern Czech Republic, had been investigated previously and described by many authors since 1961, and more especially by G Kukla and B Klima. Here we present the preliminary results of the new study of this key sequence by a multidisciplinary study, supported by ANR-ACTES project, combining the detailed stratigraphy, AMS 14C and IRSL dating, rock magnetic property, grain size, d13C and mollusks analyses. We applied the same sampling protocol than previously developed, by carefully cleaning the sequence on a vertical panel, 15m high and 5m wide in order to have parallel samples (on continuous columns) easily comparable. The results show similar patterns, high frequency variations of the different proxies in the upper part of the record corresponding to MIS 3 and 2, as observed in western and eastern European sequences supporting then our assumption of the recording of N Atlantic abrupt changes over Europe. Other interesting variations are clearly demonstrated for every proxy making these results remarkable new data for individual in deep studies. Moreover our detailed investigation also shows new data about abrupt dust events, markers, in the lower part of the sequence, and previously interpreted as strong dust events, and how they appear within sedimentary cycles linked to the cyclicity at the

  9. A new Late Cretaceous ginkgoalean reproductive structure Nehvizdyella gen. nov. from the Czech Republic and its whole-plant reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kvacek, Jirí; Falcon-Lang, Howard J; Dasková, Jirina

    2005-12-01

    During the Mesozoic Era, gingkoaleans comprised a diverse and widespread group. Here we describe ginkgoalean fossils in their facies context from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Peruc-Korycany Formation of the Czech Republic and present a reconstruction of tree architecture and ecology. Newly described in this study is the ovuliferous reproductive structure, Nehvizdyella bipartita gen. et sp. nov. (Ginkgoales). This ovuliferous organ consists of a bifurcating axis, terminated by large cupule-like structures, probably homologous to the collar of the recent Ginkgo. Each cupule encloses an orthotropous ovule. In specimens with the early developmental stages preserved, the entire ovule and young seed, with the exception of the micropylar area, is embedded in the cupule. Mature seeds consist of sclerotesta and sarcotesta. Monosulcate pollen grains of Cycadopites-type are found adhering to the seeds. Although similar to Ginkgo in terms of its large size and reduced number of seeds, N. bipartita differs from the extant genus in having ovules completely enclosed in a cupule-like structure. The co-occurrence of N. bipartita with ginkgoalean leaves of Eretmophyllum obtusum (Velenovský) Kvaček, J., ginkgoalean short shoots of Pecinovicladus kvacekii Falcon-Lang, and ginkgoalean trunk wood of Ginkgoxylon gruettii Pons and Vozenin-Serra in monodominant taphocoenoses at four geographically distant localities suggests that these remains all belong to one plant. This is supported by the close morphological and anatomical similarity between the different organs. Facies analysis of plant assemblages indicates that our Cretaceous tree occupied a water-stressed coastal salt marsh environment. It therefore represents the first unequivocal halophyte among the Ginkgoales. PMID:21646114

  10. Unintentional Pharmaceutical-Related Medication Errors Caused by Laypersons Reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Michal; Leššo, Roman; Pelclová, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the article was to study unintentional pharmaceutical-related poisonings committed by laypersons that were reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic. Identifying frequency, sources, reasons and consequences of the medication errors in laypersons could help to reduce the overall rate of medication errors. Records of medication error enquiries from 2013 to 2014 were extracted from the electronic database, and the following variables were reviewed: drug class, dosage form, dose, age of the subject, cause of the error, time interval from ingestion to the call, symptoms, prognosis at the time of the call and first aid recommended. Of the calls, 1354 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, central nervous system-affecting drugs (23.6%), respiratory drugs (18.5%) and alimentary drugs (16.2%) were the most common drug classes involved in the medication errors. The highest proportion of the patients was in the youngest age subgroup 0-5 year-old (46%). The reasons for the medication errors involved the leaflet misinterpretation and mistaken dose (53.6%), mixing up medications (19.2%), attempting to reduce pain with repeated doses (6.4%), erroneous routes of administration (2.2%), psychiatric/elderly patients (2.7%), others (9.0%) or unknown (6.9%). A high proportion of children among the patients may be due to the fact that children's dosages for many drugs vary by their weight, and more medications come in a variety of concentrations. Most overdoses could be prevented by safer labelling, proper cap closure systems for liquid products and medication reconciliation by both physicians and pharmacists. PMID:26990237

  11. Determination of the mycotoxin fumonisins in gluten-free diet (corn-based commodities) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Ostrý, V; Ruprich, J

    1998-02-01

    The fumonisins, mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme, are known to occur worldwide as natural contaminants of corn. They are associated with several animal diseases and are a potential threat to human health. A total of 127 samples of corn-based foods (gluten-free diet) in the Czech Republic were analysed by Ridascreen Fumonisin Fast ELISA methods in years 1995-1996. Eighty eight % of the corn-based foods were found to be positive for fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3) and 12% of the examined corn-based foods laid below of a determination limit which was about 9 ng fumonisins/g corn-based foods. The highest fumonisin contamination levels were recorded in extruded corn products containing up to 1,808 micrograms/kg of fumonisins. Levels ranging from < 9 to 1,243 ng/g fumonisins were detected in polenta. Lower levels of fumonisins were found in other commodities, such as corn flour (up to 487 ng/g), corn instant porridge (up to 788 ng/g), and corn pastes (511 ng/g). Intake of fumonisins from several corn-based foods (gluten-free diet) for the population with coeliac disease was estimated. The highest estimate of exposure dose of fumonisins was determined from corn-extruded bread: 3.2 micrograms/person/day (mean of measured values). Daily intake of fumonisins from polenta is expected 2.8 micrograms/person/day (mean). The lower exposure dose of fumonisins we can expect from corn instant porridge, corn postes and other corn products--corn and amaranth biscuit, corn beverage: 0.9, 1.1 and 0.3 micrograms/person/day (mean) respectively. PMID:9524744

  12. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes. PMID:23793998

  13. Occurrence and removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in three constructed wetlands treating municipal sewage in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vymazal, Jan; Březinová, Tereza; Koželuh, Milan

    2015-12-01

    Estrogenic hormones, progesterone and testosterone are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and their presence in aquatic environments represents a potentially adverse environmental and public health impact. There is a considerable amount of information about removal of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone in conventional wastewater treatment plants, namely activated sludge systems. However, the information about removal of these compounds in constructed wetlands is very limited. Three constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow in the Czech Republic have been selected to evaluate removal of estrogens (estrone, estriol, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol), testosterone and progesterone. Monitored constructed wetlands for 100, 150 and 200 PE have been in operation for more than 10 years and all systems exhibit very high treatment efficiency for organics and suspended solids. The results indicate that removal of all estrogens, progesterone and testosterone was high and only estrone was found in the outflow from one constructed wetland in concentrations above the limit of quantification 1 ng l(-1). The limits of quantification for other estrogens, i.e., 10 ng l(-1) for estriol, 1 ng l(-1) for 17β-estradiol and 2 ng l(-1) for 17α-ethinylestradiol were not exceeded in the outflow of all monitored constructed wetlands. Also, for progesterone and testosterone, all outflow concentrations were below the LOQ of 0.5 ng l(-1). The results indicated that constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow are a promising technology for elimination of estrogens, progesterone and testosterone from municipal sewage but more information is needed to confirm this finding. PMID:26247691

  14. Contrasting patterns of hot spell effects on morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases in the Czech Republic, 1994-2009.

    PubMed

    Hanzlíková, Hana; Plavcová, Eva; Kynčl, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The study examines effects of hot spells on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in the population of the Czech Republic, with emphasis on differences between ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CD) and between morbidity and mortality. Daily data on CVD morbidity (hospital admissions) and mortality over 1994-2009 were obtained from national hospitalization and mortality registers and standardized to account for long-term changes as well as seasonal and weekly cycles. Hot spells were defined as periods of at least two consecutive days with average daily air temperature anomalies above the 95% quantile during June to August. Relative deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline were evaluated. Hot spells were associated with excess mortality for all examined cardiovascular causes (CVD, IHD and CD). The increases were more pronounced for CD than IHD mortality in most population groups, mainly in males. In the younger population (0-64 years), however, significant excess mortality was observed for IHD while there was no excess mortality for CD. A short-term displacement effect was found to be much larger for mortality due to CD than IHD. Excess CVD mortality was not accompanied by increases in hospital admissions and below-expected-levels of morbidity prevailed during hot spells, particularly for IHD in the elderly. This suggests that out-of-hospital deaths represent a major part of excess CVD mortality during heat and that for in-hospital excess deaths CVD is a masked comorbid condition rather than the primary diagnosis responsible for hospitalization. PMID:25744153

  15. Taxation records as a source of information for the study of historical floods in Southern Moravia, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert; Chromá, Kateřina; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2014-05-01

    The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrometeorological extremes. Firstly, the owners of land or individual farmers sent basic information about what had taken place, together with a detailed description of the damage, to the state executive (regional offices). After this, commissioners appointed by the regional administrator were obliged to inspect the places affected personally (in situ) and make records. Finally, the state executive made its decision as to whether to allow or reject the tax relief requested. The whole process was reflected in various surviving archival documents which contain information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. Taxation documents of 201 estates in Southern Moravia, Czech Republic, prevailingly located in Moravian Land Archives in Brno, were studied to find information about hydrometeorological extremes. Such information is included for 84 of them. These data covering mainly the 18th-19th centuries were used for the study of historical floods (flash floods) complemented by other documentary sources and systematic hydrological observations (water stages, discharges) in the instrumental period (from the 1880s). Obtained flood data are analysed with respect to their temporal (frequency, seasonality) and spatial changes. Finally, uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance) are discussed with respect to results obtained. Taxation records constitute an important source of data for the study of historical floods with a great potential to be used in many European countries.

  16. Hydrometeorological extremes derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, 1751-1900 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-03-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900 AD. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage are documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  17. Natural habitats matter: Determinants of spatial pattern in the composition of animal assemblages of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divíšek, Jan; Zelený, David; Culek, Martin; Št'astný, Karel

    2014-08-01

    Studies that explore species-environment relationships at a broad scale are usually limited by the availability of sufficient habitat description, which is often too coarse to differentiate natural habitat patches. Therefore, it is not well understood how the distribution of natural habitats affects broad-scale patterns in the distribution of animal species. In this study, we evaluate the role of field-mapped natural habitats, land-cover types derived from remote sensing and climate on the composition of assemblages of five distinct animal groups, namely non-volant mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies native to the Czech Republic. First, we used variation partitioning based on redundancy analysis to evaluate the extent to which the environmental variables and their spatial structure might underlie the observed spatial patterns in the composition of animal assemblages. Second, we partitioned variations explained by climate, natural habitats and land-cover to compare their relative importance. Finally, we tested the independent effects of each variable in order to evaluate the significance of their contributions to the environmental model. Our results showed that spatial patterns in the composition of assemblages of almost all the considered animal groups may be ascribed mostly to variations in the environment. Although the shared effects of climatic variables, natural habitats and land-cover types explained the largest proportion of variation in each animal group, the variation explained purely by natural habitats was always higher than the variation explained purely by climate or land-cover. We conclude that most spatial variation in the composition of assemblages of almost all animal groups probably arises from biological processes operating within a spatially structured environment and suggest that natural habitats are important to explain observed patterns because they often perform better than habitat descriptions based on remote sensing. This

  18. Lead fluxes, isotopic and concentration profiles in a peat deposit near a lead smelter (Príbram, Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Mihaljevic, M; Zuna, M; Ettler, V; Sebek, O; Strnad, L; Goliás, V

    2006-12-15

    The content and the isotopic composition of lead (Pb) were studied in a peat deposit on the ridge of the Brdy Hills, in the vicinity of the Príbram metallurgical works, in the Czech Republic. Quadrupole ICP MS was employed to determine the elemental composition and (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb isotope ratios. The individual layers were dated using alpha spectrometric measurement of the (210)Pb activity. The historical time period covered by the studied cores reached back to the 18th century. The Pb concentration in the studied profiles varied from 10 to 550 mg kg(-1). The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio varied in the range from 1.154 to 1.194 in the individual parts of the profile. The metallurgy of the Pb ores ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.16), lithogenic Pb ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.2), metallurgical processing of automobile batteries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.17) and the combustion of coal ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.17-1.19) yield isotopic signatures that determine the isotope compositions of the individual profiles. Deposition rates between 15 mg m(-2) year(-1) at the beginning of the 19th century and 320 mg m(-2) year(-1) in the 1980s were determined in the dated profiles. The increased deposition rates determined on the dated profiles correspond to the increasing production of Pb ores in the Príbram mining area at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The maximum for metallurgical production corresponds to the highest deposition rates recorded in 1960s and 1970s. The current deposition rate of 5-89 mg m(-2) year(-1) Pb is related to erosion of contaminated soils and waste dumps. PMID:17081595

  19. Use of Aerial Images for Regular Updates of Buildings in the Fundamental Base of Geographic Data of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hron, V.; Halounova, L.

    2015-03-01

    Digital aerial images (DAI) include position, elevation and also spectral information (visible bands and near-infrared band) about the captured area. The aim of this paper is to present the possibilities of automatic analysis of DAI for updating of the Fundamental Base of Geographic Data of the Czech Republic with a focus on buildings. Regular updates of buildings (automatic detection of new and demolished buildings) are based on the analysis of coloured point clouds created by an automatic image matching technique from each time period. The created approach compares point clouds from different time periods to each other. The advantage of this solution is that it is independent of the manner of keeping the buildings in the database. It does not matter whether the buildings in the database have correct positions and their footprints correspond to the roof shapes or external walls. The involved method is robust because a digital surface model generated by image matching techniques can contain numerous errors. Shaded areas and objects with blurred textures are problematic for automatic image correlation algorithms and lead to false results. For this reason, derived layers containing additional information are used. Shadow masks (layers with modelled shadows) are used for the verification of indications and to filter out errors in the shaded areas using a contextual evaluation. Furthermore, additional information about the road and railway networks and morphological operations of opening and closing were used to achieve more accurate results. All these information sources are then evaluated using decision logic, which uses the generally applicable rules that are available for different datasets without the need for modification. The method was tested on different datasets with various types of buildings (villages, suburbs and city centres) which cover more than 20 square kilometres. The developed solution leads to very promising results without the need of acquiring

  20. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    SciTech Connect

    Doležalová, Markéta; Benešová, Libuše; Závodská, Anita

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. • The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. • The physicochemical characteristics were determined. • The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. • The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories – urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in

  1. Planning, Preparation, and Transport of the High-Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Tyacke; I. Bolshinsky; Frantisek Svitak

    2007-10-01

    The United States, Russian Federation, and the International Atomic Energy Agency have been working together on a program called the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program, which is part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The purpose of this program is to return Soviet or Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel, currently stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia. In February 2003, the RRRFR Program began discussions with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) in Rež, Czech Republic, about returning their HEU spent nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing. In March 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy signed a contract with NRI to perform all activities needed for transporting their HEU spent nuclear fuel to Russia. After 2 years of intense planning, preparations, and coordination at NRI and with three other countries, numerous organizations and agencies, and a Russian facility, this shipment is scheduled for completion before the end of 2007. This paper will provide a summary of activities completed for making this international shipment. This paper contains an introduction and background of the RRRFR Program and the NRI shipment project. It summarizes activities completed in preparation for the shipment, including facility preparations at NRI in Rež and FSUE “Mayak” in Ozyorsk, Russia; a new transportation cask system; regulatory approvals; transportation planning and preparation in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation though completion of the Unified Project and Special Ecological Programs. The paper also describes fuel loading and cask preparations at NRI and final preparations/approvals for transporting the shipment across the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation to FSUE Mayak where the HEU spent nuclear fuel will be processed, the uranium will be downblended and made into low-enriched uranium fuel for commercial reactor

  2. Estimation of Potential Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacities of Onshore Sedimentary Basins in Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of the five main onshore sedimentary basins (Chungnam, Gyeongsang, Honam, Mungyeong, and Taebaeksan Basins) in Republic of Korea are estimated based on the methods suggested by the United States National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The target geologic formations considered for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in the sedimentary basins are sandstone and coal beds. The density of carbon dioxide is set equal to 446.4 kg/m3. The adsorption capacity and density of coal (anthracite) are set equal to 2.71 × 10-2 kg/kg and 1.82 × 103 kg/m3, respectively. The average storage efficiency factors for sandstone and coal are set equal to 2.5% and 34.0%, respectively. The Chungnam Basin has the sandstone volume of 72 km3 and the coal volume of 1.24 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Chungnam Basin is 3.8%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Chungnam Basin are estimated to be 31 Mton and 21 Mton, respectively. The Gyeongsang Basin has the sandstone volume of 1,960 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Gyeongsang Basin is 4.6%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacity of sandstone in the Gyeongsang Basin is estimated to be 1,011 Mton. The Honam Basin has the sandstone volume of 8 km3 and the coal volume of 0.27 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Honam Basin is 1.9%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Honam Basin are estimated to be 2 Mton and 5 Mton, respectively. The Mungyeong Basin has the sandstone volume of 60 km3 and the coal volume of 0.66 km3. The average porosity of sandstone in the Mungyeong Basin is 2.0%. As a result, the potential carbon dioxide storage capacities of sandstone and coal in the Mungyeong Basin are estimated to be 13 Mton and 11 Mton, respectively. The Taebaeksan Basin has the sandstone volume of 71 km3 and the coal volume of 0.73 km3. The

  3. Palaeomagnetism of Variscan Diastrophic Sediments In Moravia With Implication For Tectonics (czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepankova, J.; Pruner, P.; Hladil, J.; Otava, J.

    -200 degr. against the cratonic Permian cover. These data clearly separate the oldest DS segment on the Northwest and, practically, co-indicate its different age. The stepwise evolution of the clockwise tectonic rotation was irregular, with a great gap between the oldest DS and the Late Visean group of the DS formations. Within the latter group, the declination values are closely grouped (similar deformation history), but the different values of inclination suggest different pre-deformation positions of the basins. The youngest 1 Myslejovice Fm. on the SE was remagnetised with typical Carboniferous/Permian di- rections. 2

  4. Large woody debris mobility and accumulation by an extreme flood - an example from the Dyje River, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macka, Zdenek; Krejci, Lukas

    2010-05-01

    Large woody debris (LWD) in the form of logs, branches and their fragments play an important geomorphic and ecological role in forested watersheds. Especially when organized in accumulations and jams, LWD have been found to change hydraulic, morphological, sedimentary and biological characteristics of fluvial ecosystems. Our study focuses on LWD jams distribution and properties within the 44 km long forested reach of the Dyje River in south-eastern Czech Republic. The study reach is located between two large water reservoirs and the flow is regulated showing significant daily fluctuation of discharges due to water releases for power generation. River flows in the deeply incised meandering valley with the narrow and patchy floodplain. In 2002, and especially 2006 large volumes of LWD have been transported by river and the water reservoir downstream was congested with wood. Peak discharge of 2006 flood equalled 306 m3.s-1 which was estimated as 500 year flood. The flood caused significant mobility and redistribution of woody debris as in aquatic, so in riparian segment of the river corridor. The high rate of LWD transport is favoured by large bankfull channel width which exceeds the average tree height. LWD jams were defined as aggregations of three or more wood pieces with diameter ≥ 0.1 m and length ≥ 1 m. We surveyed LWD jams in 62 river reaches, which have been located at meander apexes, inflections and intermediate positions; the length of the reaches was 200 m. The overall number of registered LWD jams was 200. Majority of jams consist of solely allochthonous (transported) wood pieces (65 %), some jams are combination of large key trees and trapped transported pieces (29%), and only small proportion are jams formed by locally uprooted trees (12,6%). Number of wood pieces varies greatly from 3 to 98, the most common being the interval 5 - 10 pieces per jam. Spatial distribution of jams is longitudinally and transversally irregular within the river corridor

  5. Seasonal Dynamics, Parity Rate, and Composition of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Occurring in the Vicinity of Wild and Domestic Ruminants in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Rádrová, Jana; Mračková, Marie; Galková, Zdenka; Lamka, Jírí; Račka, Karol; Barták, Pavel; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the emergence of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern and central Europe, an extensive entomological survey within the framework of a bluetongue control program was undertaken from 2008 to 2013 in the Czech Republic to investigate Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in close proximity of domestic livestock and semiwild ruminants. Insects were sampled using CDC black-light suction traps placed overnight near ruminants in farms or in forest game preserves to provide data on Culicoides fauna collected near these two groups of hosts inhabiting different environments. From almost a half million biting midge specimens collected at 41 sampling sites, 34 species were identified including three species newly recorded for the Czech Republic: Culicoides (Oecacta) clastrieri Callot, Kremer & Deduit, Culicoides (Oecacta) odiatus Austen, and Culicoides (Pontoculicoides) saevus Kieffer. The Culicoides obsoletus species group, incriminated as a bluetongue virus vector, was predominant in both domestic livestock (91%) and semiwild game (52%). A relatively high proportion (around 30%) of C. obsoletus Meigen females with pigmented abdomen (= more likely parous) was observed from spring till autumn. In contrast, adult biting midges were found to be largely absent during at least three winter months, approximately December till March, which could be considered as the biting midge vector-free period. PMID:26701798

  6. Hydromorphological parameters of natural channel behavior in conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians on the territory of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujanová, Kateřina; Matoušková, Milada; Kliment, Zdeněk

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental prerequisite for assessing the current ecological status of streams is the establishment of reference conditions for each stream type that serve as a benchmark. The hydromorphological reference conditions reflect the natural channel behavior, which is extremely variable. Significant parameters of natural channel behavior were determined using a combination of four selected statistical methods: Principal Component Analysis, Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering, correlation, and regression. Macroscale analyses of data about altitude, stream order, channel slope, valley floor slope, sinuosity, and characteristics of the hydrological regime were conducted for 3197 reaches of major rivers in the Czech Republic with total length of 15,636 km. On the basis of selected significant parameters and their threshold values, channels were classified into groups of river characteristics based on shared behaviors. The channel behavior within these groups was validated using hydromorphological characteristics of natural channels determined during field research at reference sites. Classification of channels into groups confirmed the fundamental differences between channel behavior under conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians in the Czech Republic and determined a specific group in the flattened high areas of mountains in the Bohemian Massif. Validating confirmed the distinctions between groups of river characteristics and the uniqueness of each one; it also emphasized the benefits of using qualitative data and riparian zone characteristics for describing channel behavior. Channel slope, entrenchment ratio, bed structure, and d50 were determined as quantitative characteristics of natural channel behavior.

  7. Documentation and evaluation of slope instabilities and other geological phenomena in the Geopark Bohemian Paradise (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejčí, Oldřich; Krejčí, Vladimíra; Švábenická, Lilian; Hartvich, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Geographically, the area is part of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, the unit Jičín Hilly land. Since October 2005, the area belongs to the European Geopark UNESCO Bohemian Paradise. The reason of the protection is a major complex of rocks, natural forest communities and geomorphological valuable territory. The territory has been newly geologically mapped in a scale of 1 : 25,000. Sediments of the Czech Cretaceous Basin covers an area of 181 km2 and were deposited transgressively on the Permian - Carboniferous and crystalline basement of the Bohemian Massif. Except for locally developed basal sediments of fluvial origin they are mostly shallow marine sediments. Middle Turonian to Lower Coniacian rocks of the Jizera lithofacies are dominant by calcareous sandstones deposited under extremely dynamic conditions. Scattered alkaline volcanics penetrate the older formations as small intrusions and form locally preserved bodies at the surface. Area is strongly predisposed to the development of various types of landforms by structural segmentation of the Cretaceous sandstones and claystones and by Plio-Pleistocene inverse erosion. Numerous archival manuscripts are available from this area together with published geological, engineering-geological, geomorphological and historical papers. This is due to the fact that in 1926 a large landslide destroyed a substantial part of the village Dneboh, situated on the slope below a rock castle Drabske Svetnicky. Drabske Svetnicky is a ruin of a 13th century castle. It is located on the ragged edge of a sandstone cliff high above surrounding landscape. The castle covers a group of seven sandstone rocks, connected with wooden bridges. In the 50ies of the 20th century, an increased attention was paid to Drabske Svetnicky by experts on medieval architecture and a restoration of the original state of the castle rock was accomplished. Remnants of pottery and other findings suggest that the plateau region of the castle was first inhabited

  8. Analysis of Influence of Terrain Relief Roughness on dem Accuracy Generated from LIDAR in the Czech Republic Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubacek, M.; Kovarik, V.; Kratochvil, V.

    2016-06-01

    Digital elevation models are today a common part of geographic information systems and derived applications. The way of their creation is varied. It depends on the extent of area, required accuracy, delivery time, financial resources and technologies available. The first model covering the whole territory of the Czech Republic was created already in the early 1980's. Currently, the 5th DEM generation is being finished. Data collection for this model was realized using the airborne laser scanning which allowed creating the DEM of a new generation having the precision up to a decimetre. Model of such a precision expands the possibilities of employing the DEM and it also offers new opportunities for the use of elevation data especially in a domain of modelling the phenomena dependent on highly accurate data. The examples are precise modelling of hydrological phenomena, studying micro-relief objects, modelling the vehicle movement, detecting and describing historical changes of a landscape, designing constructions etc. Due to a nature of the technology used for collecting data and generating DEM, it is assumed that the resulting model achieves lower accuracy in areas covered by vegetation and in built-up areas. Therefore the verification of model accuracy was carried out in five selected areas in Moravia. The network of check points was established using a total station in each area. To determine the reference heights of check points, the known geodetic points whose heights were defined using levelling were used. Up to several thousands of points were surveyed in each area. Individual points were selected according to a different configuration of relief, different surface types, and different vegetation coverage. The sets of deviations were obtained by comparing the DEM 5G heights with reference heights which was followed by verification of tested elevation model. Results of the analysis showed that the model reaches generally higher precision than the declared one in

  9. Crystallochemical effects of heat treatment on Fe-dominant tourmalines from Dolní Bory (Czech Republic) and Vlachovo (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bačík, P.; Ozdín, D.; Miglierini, M.; Kardošová, P.; Pentrák, M.; Haloda, J.

    2011-09-01

    Heat treatment was performed on selected Fe-dominant tourmalines to establish the nature of any change in optical properties. Two tourmaline samples from Dolní Bory, Czech Republic (TDB) and Vlachovo, Slovakia (TVL) were heated at 450, 700 and 900°C at 0.1 mPa and ambient oxidation conditions for 8 h. EMPA study shows that tourmaline from Vlachovo has schorlitic composition and tourmaline from Dolní Bory is alkali-depleted schorl to foitite. Although the black colour remained unchanged after heating at 450°C, it changed to brown at 700°C and reddish brown at 900°C. No significant changes of chemical composition were observed during heating. X-ray diffraction, infrared and Mössbauer study showed negligible oxidation of tourmaline heated at 450°C, but a significant change in iron valency state and deprotonization at 700°C. The oxidation of Fe is the main cause of tourmaline colour change, and the substitution vector for oxidation of Fe is Fe3+OFe{-1/2+}(OH)-1. The predicted deprotonization of OH was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, which documented a decrease in OH groups in both samples, mainly at the V site. The oxidation of Fe is mostly significant in the Y site as documented on the compression of the Y-site octahedra and subsequent decrease in the a lattice parameter. This feature is consistent with lattice dimensions in the transition from schorl and foitite dimensions to those consistent with fluor-buergerite. The Z-site octahedra did not compressed and were not affected by heating-induced Fe oxidation, which indicates only negligible content of Z Fe2+ in original samples. After heating at 900°C, the tourmaline structure collapsed likely due to the thermally induced weakening of bonds in Y and Z octahedra, which results in amorphization of tourmaline. Subsequently, breakdown products including Fe-oxides and mullite replaced alkali-depleted amorphized tourmaline.

  10. Impact of forest disturbance on the runoff response in headwater catchments. Case study: Sumava mountains, Czech republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Hais, Martin; Bartunkova, Kristyna; Su, Ye

    2013-04-01

    The forest disturbance and stream modifications are important phenomenon affecting the natural dynamics of erosion and sedimentation processes on montane and submontane streams. The changes in land use, land cover structure, forest cover and stream modifications, occurring in the cultural landscape have significant effect on the dynamics of fluvial processes, especially in relation to the extreme runoff events. The contribution discusses the relations between forest disturbance and fluvial dynamics, stemming from the research in Sumava Mountains, located at the border between Czech Republic and Germany, Central Europe. The study area is located in headwater region, affected by different types of forest disturbance in past three decades - bark beetle outbreak, repeated windstorms and clear-cut forest management. The streams in experimental catchments here displayed extensive dynamics of erosion and sedimentation after the extreme floods in 2002 and 2009 and were affected by artificial modifications. The analysis is based on the combination of different research techniques, including remote sensed data processing, network of automated high frequency rainfall-runoff monitoring or field survey of stream modifications and geomorphologic changes on riverbeds after extreme events. Using landsat satellite data and aerial photographs we created model of Bark beetle dispersion and clear-cutting between 1985 and 2007. This model enables to describe disturbance dynamic, which is needed for understanding of nature those processes. Next analysis of Landsat satellite data was used to detect the effect of forest disturbance on the wetness and temperature properties of land cover, affected by two significant different types of forest disturbance - bark beetle outbreak and clear cut. The rainfall-runoff analysis using multivariate geostatistical techniques was focused on experimental catchments with similar conditions of climate, physiography and topography but different type

  11. Methodology for application of field rainfall simulator to revise c-factor database for conditions of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Martin; Dostál, Tomáš; Krása, Josef; Kavka, Petr; Davidová, Tereza; Brant, Václav; Kroulík, Milan; Mistr, Martin; Novotný, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will introduce a methodology of determination of crop and cover management factor (C-faktor) for the universal soil loss equation (USLE) using field rainfall simulator. The aim of the project is to determine the C-factor value for the different phenophases of the main crops of the central-european region, while also taking into account the different agrotechnical methods. By using the field rainfall simulator, it is possible to perform the measurements in specific phenophases, which is otherwise difficult to execute due to the variability and fortuity of the natural rainfall. Due to the number of measurements needed, two identical simulators will be used, operated by two independent teams, with coordinated methodology. The methodology will mainly specify the length of simulation, the rainfall intensity, and the sampling technique. The presentation includes a more detailed account of the methods selected. Due to the wide range of variable crops and soils, it is not possible to execute the measurements for all possible combinations. We therefore decided to perform the measurements for previously selected combinations of soils,crops and agrotechnologies that are the most common in the Czech Republic. During the experiments, the volume of the surface runoff and amount of sediment will be measured in their temporal distribution, as well as several other important parameters. The key values of the 3D matrix of the combinations of the crop, agrotechnique and soil will be determined experimentally. The remaining values will be determined by interpolation or by a model analogy. There are several methods used for C-factor calculation from measured experimental data. Some of these are not suitable to be used considering the type of data gathered. The presentation will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of these methods, as well as the final design of the method used. The problems concerning the selection of a relevant measurement method as well as the final

  12. Cryptosporidium infections of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) from an intensive artificial breeding programme in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej; Pavlásek, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    From July to November 2012, preliminary coprological examinations were carried out on 85 pooled faecal samples of different aged ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) (hatches from May until July) from an intensive artificial breeding programme in the Czech Republic. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 12 samples (14.1 %) of ages >12 weeks (August-September). These results were supported by findings of Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis oocysts in intestinal, or cloacal contents, and/or the bursa of Fabricius in 9 from 36 examined dead pheasants (prevalence 25 %). We describe in detail the various age groups of pheasants after hatching and present graphically the overall results of coprological examinations, showing pathways of infection of C. baileyi and C. meleagridis during the full rearing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We found very similar mean proportions of Cryptosporidium-positive samples over the entire 2013 period in pheasantry (173 pooled samples tested, 25 positive, 14.5 %) and 2014 (238 samples tested, 43 positive, 18.1 %). All tests were verified as being Cryptosporidium positive in 9 from 219 (prevalence 4.1 %) and 4 from 168 (prevalence 2.4 %) post-mortem examinations. Significantly, C. baileyi was found more frequently in faeces, with positivities ranging from 11.1 to 100 % (4->16-week-old pheasants). Oocysts of C. meleagridis were detected at ages 6->15 weeks ranging from 7.1 to 100 % in faeces during the rearing seasons. The burdens of C. baileyi (7 of 14 and 10 of 16) and C. meleagridis (5 of 14 and 7 of 16) for each year, in monitored brooder houses, flight pens and spread across all open areas were recorded. Oocysts of C. baileyi and C. meleagridis obtained from this study, and Cryptosporidium galli (obtained in another aviary from 36-week-old pheasants), were sequenced, and we characterized the highly variable 60-kDa glycoprotein gene of C. meleagridis. These results highlight the real risk of

  13. Evidence for a low permeability fluid trap in the Nový Kostel Seismic Zone, Czech Republic, using double-difference tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Calo, M.; Vavrycuk, V.

    2012-12-01

    The West Bohemia/Vogtland region is the border area between the Czech Republic and Germany known for frequent occurrences of earthquake swarms. The most prominent earthquake swarms occurred recently in 1985/86, 1997, 2000 (Fischer and Horálek, 2003) and 2008 (Fischer et al., 2010). They comprised thousands of microearthquakes, their duration was between 2 weeks to 2 months, and the activity focused typically at depths ranging from 7 to 12 km. The seismic activity is concentrated mostly at the same epicentral area, called the Nový Kostel Zone. This zone is located on the edge of the Cheb Basin, Eger Rift, and at the junction of the Mariánské-Lázně Fault with the Počátky-Plesná Shear Zone. Numerous gas vents and mineral springs within and around the Cheb Basin indicate that uprising magmatic fluids may act as a swarm trigger. In this study, we apply double-difference tomography to investigate the structure within and around the Nový Kostel focal zone. We use data from the 2008 earthquake swarm, as it has been extensively analyzed, and focal mechanisms, principal faults, tectonic stress, source migration and other basic characteristics are known. We selected about 500 microearthquakes recorded at 22 local seismic stations of the West Bohemia Network (WEBNET). The events were inverted for the 3-D seismic structure using the TomoDD code (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and post-processed using the Weighted Average Model method (Calò et al., 2011). The application of double-difference tomography is advantageous for this setting as swarm foci are closely spaced and form a dense cluster. The geometry of the focal zone and the WEBNET network configuration offer good raypath coverage in all directions. Applying double-difference tomography we produce and interpret 3-D models of the P and S velocities. In this work, we interpret 3-D models of the P velocity and P-to-S ratio in and around the focal zone. The P-to-S model was obtained by calculating directly the ratio

  14. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods.

    PubMed

    Doležalová, Markéta; Benešová, Libuše; Závodská, Anita

    2013-09-01

    The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories - urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural households. Because knowledge about the properties of household waste, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, is very important not only for future waste management, but also for the prediction of the behaviour and influence of the waste on the environment as the country continues to streamline its legislation to the European Union's solid waste mandates, the results of these studies were employed by the

  15. Petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Genik, G.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Ten Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad and the Central African Republic (C.A.R.) are defined and the petroleum geology is overviewed based on proprietary exploration results derived from more than one million km{sup 2} of aeromagnetics, 10,520 line-km of gravity profiles, 49,721 km of reflection seismic, and 50 exploration wells. The data were acquired by Exxon with partners Shell, Chevron, Elf, Conoco, Texaco, and Amax Oil Gas During 1969-1989. In Niger and Chad, the West African rift subsystem includes the extensional basins of Termit, Tefidet, Tenere, Grein/Kafra, N'Djel Edji, and Bongor. These rift basins contain up to 15,000 m of Cretaceous to Cenozoic continental and marine clastics. Key exploration elements are Tertiary and Cretaceous fluvial to tidal sandstone reservoirs, Tertiary and Cretaceous marine to lacustrine shale source rocks and seals, with traps in normal fault blocks and anticlinal closures. There have been six oil discoveries in the Termit basin. In C.A.R., the Central African rift subsystem incorporates the extensional Doba and transtensional Doseo and Salamat basins flanking the Borogop dextral wrench fault. These basins contain up to 7,500 m of chiefly Cretaceous continental clastics. key exploration elements are Lower and Upper Cretaceous fluvial to lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, Lower Cretaceous lacustrine shale source rocks, lacustrine to flood-plain shale and mudstone seals, with traps in mainly faulted anticlinal closures. There have been six oil discoveries in the Doba basin and three in the Doseo basin. The studied petroleum geology in the rifts of Niger, Chad, and C.A.R. indicates that potentially commercial volumes of oil remain to be discovered.

  16. Petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and the Central African Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Genik, G.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Ten Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad, and the Central African Republic (C.A.R.) are defined and the petroleum geology is overviewed. This paper is based on proprietary exploration results derived from more than 1 million km{sup 2} of aeromagnetics, 10,520 line km of gravity profiles, 49,721 km of reflection seismic, and 50 exploration wells. The data were acquired by Exxon with partners Shell, Chevron, Elf, Conoco, Texaco, and Amax Oil Gas, Inc., during the years 1969-1989. In Niger and Chad, the West African rift subsystem includes the extensional basins of Termit, Tefidet, Tenere, Grein/Kafra, N'Djel Edji, and Bongor. These rift basins contain up to 15,000 m of Cretaceous to Cenozoic continental and marine clastics. Key exploration elements are Tertiary and Cretaceous fluvial to tidal sandstone reservoirs, Tertiary and Cretaceous marine to lacustrine shale source rocks, and seals, with traps in normal fault blocks and anticlinal closures. There are six oil discoveries in the Termit basin. In Chad and the C.A.R., the Central African rift subsystem incorporates the extensional Doba and transtensional Doseo and Salamat basins flanking the Borogop dextral wrench fault. These basins contain up to 7,500 m of chiefly Cretaceous continental clastics. Key exploration elements are Lower and Upper Cretaceous fluvial to lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, Lower Cretaceous lacustrine shale source rocks, lacustrine to flood plain shale and mudstone seals, with traps in mainly faulted anticlinal closures. There are six oil discoveries in the Doba basin and three in the Doseo basin. The studied petroleum geology in the rifts of Niger, Chad, and the C.A.R. indicates that potentially commercial volumes of oil remain to be discovered.

  17. Risk of the residents, infrastructure and water bodies by flash floods and sediment transport - assessment for scale of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostál, Tomáš; Krása, Josef; Bauer, Miroslav; Strouhal, Luděk; Jáchymová, Barbora; Devátý, Jan; David, Václav; Koudelka, Petr; Dočkal, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Pluvial and flash floods, related to massive sediment transport become phenomenon nowadays, under conditions of climate changes. Storm events, related to material damages appear at unexpected places and their effective control is only possible in form of prevention. To apply preventive measures, there have to be defined localities with reasonable reliability, which are endangered by surface runoff and sediment transport produced in the subcatchments, often at agriculturally used landscape. Classification of such localities, concerning of potential damages and magnitude of sediment transport shall be also included within the analyses, to design control measures effectively. Large scale project for whole territory of the Czech Republic (ca 80.000 km2) has therefore been granted b the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, with the aim to define critical points, where interaction between surface runoff connected to massive sediment transport and infrastructure or vulnerable water bodies can occur and to classify them according to potential risk. Advanced GIS routines, based on analyses of land use, soil conditions and morphology had been used to determine the critical points - points, where significant surface runoff occurs and interacts with infrastructure and vulnerable water bodies, based exclusively on the contributing area - flow accumulation. In total, ca 150.000 critical points were determined within the Czech Republic. For each of critical points, its subcatchment had then been analyzed in detail, concerning of soil loss and sediment transport, using simulation model WATEM/SEDEM. The results were used for classification of potential risk of individual critical points, based on mean soil loss within subcatchment, total sediment transport trough the outlet point and subcatchment area. The classification has been done into 5 classes. The boundaries were determined by calibration survey and statistical analysis, performed at three experimental catchments area

  18. Multiproxy evidence of Late Pleistocene environmental changes in the loess-paleosol sequence of Bůhzdař (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flašarová, Kristýna; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Juřičková, Lucie; Šefrna, Luděk; Verecchia, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences preserve information that can be used to reconstruct paleoenvironement, specifically the climatic conditions and the vegetation present at the time of their formation, or determine their age. A dense network of reliably analyzed sequences from different geographic locations is crucial for representation of ecological and climatic trends during the Pleistocene (Frechen, 2011). The aim of this study is to fill the gap in the geographical distribution of well described loess-paleosol sequences in Central Europe. Therefore, it focuses on a loess-paleosol sequence in Bůhzdař, situated 9 km NW of Prague, Czech Republic. This profile was last studied in 1952 by naturalist Vojen Ložek. This study uses a number of analyses in order to get a multi-proxy record of local paleoenvironmental changes archived in a sequence of alternating loess sediments and paleosols in Bůhzař. Geochemical approaches are combined with paleozoology to define climatic conditions at the time of formation of the strata. Oxygen isotope 18O values of pedogenic carbonates can be used as a proxy of climatic factors such as temperature and precipitation, whereas carbon isotope values can be used to reconstruct changes in the atmospheric CO2 concentration (Obreht et al. 2013), perhaps also the relative proportions of plants using C3 and C4 metabolic pathways (Kaakinen et al., 2006). Findings of fossil malacofauna, which occupied specific ecological niches, can complement these results. The Bůhzdař locality is exceptional in terms of density of pedogenic carbonates, such as loess dolls, pseudomycelia and marl concretions. These concretions are, in some parts, more compact and form a compact layer. Analysis of pedogenic processes could bring new clues regarding the understanding of the way various forms of carbonates were formed. The analyses are in progress and the first results will be presented during an EGU session in April 2016. References Frechen, M. ed. (2011). Loess in

  19. Mapping of soil erosion and redistribution on two agricultural areas in Czech Republic by using of magnetic parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapicka, Ales; Stejskalova, Sarka; Grison, Hana; Petrovsky, Eduard; Jaksik, Ondrej; Kodesova, Radka

    2015-04-01

    soil material as a result of tillage and erosion are fundamental for the estimation of soil loss in the studied test field (Royall 2001). The map of soil erosion shows maximum removal of soil material in the steepest parts of the testing localities. The magnetic method is very well suitable for mapping at the chernozem locality (Brumovice) and measurement of soil magnetic susceptibility is in this case a useful and fast technique for quantitative estimation of soil loss caused by erosion and tillage. However, it is less suitable (probably due to high terrain heterogeneity) for mapping in areas with luvisol as dominant soil unit. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by NAZV Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic through grant No QJ1230319. References : Royall, D. (2001). Use of mineral magnetic measurements to investigate soil erosion and sediment delivery in small agricultural catchment in limestone terrain. Catena, 46, 15-34. Kapicka, A., Dlouha, S., Grison, H., Jaksik, O., Kodesova, R., Petrovsky, E. (2013) Magnetism of soils applied for estimation of erosion at an agricultural land. Geophys Res Abstr Vol. 15, EGU2013 -4774.

  20. Estimation of Soil Erosion by Using Magnetic Method: A Case Study of an Agricultural Field in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovsky, E.; Grison, H.; Kapicka, A.; Dlouha, S.; Kodesova, R.; Jaksik, O.

    2013-05-01

    compare differences along soil profiles including A, B horizons and undisturbed soil, which is fundamental for magnetic estimation of soil loss. Regression analysis was used to evaluate correlations between magnetic parameters and some chemical properties of soil. For example, higher values of magnetic susceptibility and organic carbon content were measured at the flat upper part, where the original top horizon remained. On the steep valley side these values were much lower, because the original topsoil was eroded and mixed by tillage with the soil substrate (loess). The result confirm positive correlation (R2=0.89) between values of organic carbon content and volume magnetic susceptibility. This study was supported by NAZV Agency of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic through grant NO. QJ1230319. References: Royall, D. (2001). Use of mineral magnetic measurements to investigate soil erosion and sediment delivery in a small agricultural catchment in limestone terrain. Catena, 46, 15-34.

  1. Natural and anthropogenic enrichments of heavy metals in modern soils: the case study in the Jizera floodplain, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Vadinova, Nikola

    2013-04-01

    The timing and realistic quantification of the anthropogenic pollution of soils and sediments are among relevant topics of numerous current environmental geochemistry studies. Geochemical mapping and depth profiling of pollutants in soils and sediments is used for reconstruction of historical pollution and evaluation of previous (cumulative) impacts. In fact, the depth profiles of heavy metals in modern soils are a result of two main processes: deposition of atmospheric fallout (everywhere) or sediment (in floodplains) with anthropogenic components on one hand, and element migration due to biogeochemical processes (Fe oxide transformations, element recycling by plants and joint processes) on the other hand. These processes are not always taken into account, particularly when only one piece of the jigsaw puzzle is in focus, such as development of pollution proxy (e.g., stable lead isotope ratios, MS) or geochemical mapping. Mature soils, of which surface strata are enriched in heavy metals, are too complex systems to allow simple distinguishing natural and anthropogenic portions of that enrichment; possible natural enrichment factor (EF) ~1.5 has been assumed in the case of Pb and Zn by Reimann et al. Floodplains can offer a "natural isolation of pieces of jigsaw puzzle", if deposition and erosion in the floodplain have alternated in the past (such behaviour is relatively common). This alteration can produce terraces or related sediment units of different age, but composed of sediment with the same geochemistry, i.e. material with the same provenance and after the same hydraulic sorting before the deposition. We studied fluvisols in the Jizera floodplain (~50 north-east from Prague, Czech Republic), where a terrace is present along the currently inundated floodplain. We found that atmospheric fallout and/or past pedogenic processes in the terrace above that active floodplain do not cause enrichment of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn; perhaps there is an exception for Pb. In a

  2. Interactions between river channel processes and riparian vegetation - an example from the Lužnice River, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejci, Lukas; Macka, Zdenek

    2010-05-01

    Riparian vegetation responds to hydrogemorphic processes and environmental changes and also controls these processes. Our study focuses on the interactions between woody riparian vegetation (live and dead trees) and river channel morphology on the example of three 1 km long reaches of the Lužnice River in southern Czech Republic. Here, we propose that despite spatial proximity, identical hydrological and sedimentological controls, three river reaches have different geomorphology due to varying character of riparian woody vegetation and different character and abundance of large in-stream wood (LW). Upstream, middle and downstream reaches vary markedly in channel dimensions (width, depth) and the present day rate of lateral erosion. Three reaches also show the different in-stream wood loads which are dependent mainly on the character of the riparian vegetation, and on the lateral activity of the channel. The highest wood load was recorded at the downstream reach with 102,162 m3/ha, the lowest at the middle reach 37,041 m3/ha, the upstream reach has load 81,370 m3/ha. Upper reach woody vegetation is the mixture of willow, alder, chokecherry and oak. The reach is only slightly sinuous with the moderate rate of incision and lateral erosion. The channel width and depth are 13 m and 2,1 m respectively, the mean cross section area is 27,3 m2. Erosion in the reach is slightly enhanced by the river training works upstream (canalisation, weir construction). Middle reach woody vegetation mostly consist of willow. Tree-tops often incline into the channel, thus, dissipating effectively the energy of the river flow. The reach is moderately sinuous and rather laterally stable. The channel width and depth are 10 m and 2,5 m respectively, the mean cross section area is 25 m2. The reach approximates the natural condition of the pristine river. The impact of river training works is minor only with the road bridge upstream. This reach in the most natural condition shows the lowest in

  3. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K7 of the air-kerma standards of the CMI, Czech Republic and the BIPM in mammography x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D.; Roger, P.; Sochor, V.

    2016-01-01

    A first key comparison has been made between the air-kerma standards of the CMI, Czech Republic and the BIPM in mammography x-ray beams. The results show the standards to be in agreement at the level of the standard uncertainty for the comparison of 3.5 parts in 103. The results for an indirect comparison made at the same time are consistent with the direct results at the level of 1 part in 103. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Brief report: Changes in parent-adolescent joint activities between 2002 and 2014 in the Czech Republic, Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.

    PubMed

    Vokacova, Jana; Badura, Petr; Pavelka, Jan; Kalman, Michal; Hanus, Radek

    2016-08-01

    Joint family activities (JFA) are linked to healthy adolescent development. The aim of the present study is to report time trends in JFA between 2002 and 2014. The sample concerned 16 396 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years (48.4% boys) from the 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014 surveys of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in the Czech Republic. The overall changes in JFA were evaluated using logistic regression. Compared with 2002, there was a slight increase in four out of the six selected JFA in 2014. In particular, the likelihood of engaging in joint active activities (sports and walks) increased in the 2002-2014 period. Conversely, nowadays adolescents watch TV with their parents less frequently. Moreover, families today do not eat together as often as in 2002, which might have negative consequences for healthy adolescent development. Adolescents aged 11 get involved in JFA more than their older counterparts. PMID:27244479

  5. HSMNR belongs to the most frequent types of hereditary neuropathy in the Czech Republic and is twice more frequent than HMSNL.

    PubMed

    Šafka Brožková, D; Haberlová, J; Mazanec, R; Laštůvková, J; Seeman, P

    2016-08-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Russe (HMSNR), also called CMT4G, is an autosomal recessive inherited peripheral neuropathy (IPN) caused by a founder mutation in the HK1 gene. HMSNR affects only patients with Roma origin, similar to the better known HMSN type Lom clarified earlier. By testing IPN patients with Roma origin, we realized that HMSNR affects surprisingly many patients in the Czech Republic. HMSNR is one of the most frequent types of IPN in this country and appears to be twice more frequent than HMSNL. Pronounced lower limb atrophies and severe deformities often lead to walking inability in even young patients, but hands are usually only mildly affected even after many years of disease duration. The group of 20 patients with HMSNR presented here is the first report about the prevalence of HMSNR from central Europe. PMID:26822750

  6. DNA-based identification and OspC serotyping in cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. isolated from ticks collected in the Moravia (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Norek, Adam; Janda, Lubomír; Žákovská, Alena

    2016-06-01

    Two different genetic loci, flaB and ospC, were employed to assign genospecies and OspC phylogenetic type to 18 strains isolated from ticks collected in Pisárky, a suburban park in the city of Brno, Czech Republic. The RFLP analysis revealed three different genospecies (B. afzelii, B. garinii, and B. valaisiana). Three samples from the collection contained more than one genospecies. In the other 15 strains, nucleotide sequences of flaB and ospC were determined. The following phylogenetic analysis assigned 12 isolates to genospecies B. garinii and three to B. afzelii. These isolates were further subdivided into seven distinct ospC groups. The most related OspC types were G2, G4, and G5 (B. garinii) and A3 and A8 (B. afzelii). PMID:27232140

  7. Molecular typing of Treponema pallidum in the Czech Republic during 2011 to 2013: increased prevalence of identified genotypes and of isolates with macrolide resistance.

    PubMed

    Grillová, Linda; Pĕtrošová, Helena; Mikalová, Lenka; Strnadel, Radim; Dastychová, Eliška; Kuklová, Ivana; Kojanová, Martina; Kreidlová, Miluše; Vaňousová, Daniela; Hercogová, Jana; Procházka, Přemysl; Zákoucká, Hana; Krchňáková, Alena; Vašků, Vladimír; Šmajs, David

    2014-10-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, a total of 262 samples, from 188 patients suspected of having syphilis were tested for the presence of treponemal DNA by PCR amplification of five chromosomal loci, including the polA (TP0105), tmpC (TP0319), TP0136, TP0548, and 23S rRNA genes. Altogether, 146 samples from 103 patients were PCR positive for treponemal DNA. A set of 81 samples from 62 PCR-positive patients were typeable, and among them, nine different genotypes were identified. Compared to a previous study in the Czech Republic during 2004 to 2010, the number of genotypes detected among syphilis patients in a particular year increased to six in both 2012 and 2013, although they were not the same six. The proportion of macrolide-resistant clinical isolates in this 3-year study was 66.7%. PMID:25100820

  8. Cytogeography of Pilosella officinarum (Compositae): Altitudinal and Longitudinal Differences in Ploidy Level Distribution in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the General Pattern in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Mráz, Patrik; Šingliarová, Barbora; Urfus, Tomáš; Krahulec, František

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Pilosella officinarum (syn. Hieracium pilosella) is a highly structured species with respect to the ploidy level, with obvious cytogeographic trends. Previous non-collated data indicated a possible differentiation in the frequency of particular ploidy levels in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Therefore, detailed sampling and ploidy level analyses were assessed to reveal a boundary of common occurrence of tetraploids on one hand and higher ploids on the other. For a better understanding of cytogeographic differentiation of P. officinarum in central Europe, a search was made for a general cytogeographic pattern in Europe based on published data. Methods DNA-ploidy level and/or chromosome number were identified for 1059 plants using flow cytometry and/or chromosome counting on root meristem preparations. Samples were collected from 336 localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and north-eastern Hungary. In addition, ploidy levels were determined for plants from 18 localities in Bulgaria, Georgia, Ireland, Italy, Romania and Ukraine. Key Results Four ploidy levels were found in the studied area with a contrasting pattern of distribution. The most widespread cytotype in the western part of the Czech Republic is tetraploid (4x) reproducing sexually, while the apomictic pentaploids and mostly apomictic hexaploids (5x and 6x, respectively) clearly prevail in Slovakia and the eastern part of the Czech Republic. The boundary between common occurrence of tetraploids and higher ploids is very obvious and represents the geomorphologic boundary between the Bohemian Massif and the Western Carpathians with the adjacent part of Pannonia. Mixed populations consisting of two different ploidy levels were recorded in nearly 11% of localities. A statistically significant difference in a vertical distribution of penta- and hexaploids was observed in the Western Carpathians and the adjacent Pannonian Plain. Hexaploid populations tend to occur at lower elevations

  9. Molecular Typing of Treponema pallidum in the Czech Republic during 2011 to 2013: Increased Prevalence of Identified Genotypes and of Isolates with Macrolide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Grillová, Linda; Pĕtrošová, Helena; Mikalová, Lenka; Strnadel, Radim; Dastychová, Eliška; Kuklová, Ivana; Kojanová, Martina; Kreidlová, Miluše; Vaňousová, Daniela; Hercogová, Jana; Procházka, Přemysl; Zákoucká, Hana; Krchňáková, Alena; Vašků, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    From January 2011 to December 2013, a total of 262 samples, from 188 patients suspected of having syphilis were tested for the presence of treponemal DNA by PCR amplification of five chromosomal loci, including the polA (TP0105), tmpC (TP0319), TP0136, TP0548, and 23S rRNA genes. Altogether, 146 samples from 103 patients were PCR positive for treponemal DNA. A set of 81 samples from 62 PCR-positive patients were typeable, and among them, nine different genotypes were identified. Compared to a previous study in the Czech Republic during 2004 to 2010, the number of genotypes detected among syphilis patients in a particular year increased to six in both 2012 and 2013, although they were not the same six. The proportion of macrolide-resistant clinical isolates in this 3-year study was 66.7%. PMID:25100820

  10. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in South Bohemia (Czech Republic)--Spatial variability in Ixodes ricinus abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Hönig, V; Svec, P; Halas, P; Vavruskova, Z; Tykalova, H; Kilian, P; Vetiskova, V; Dornakova, V; Sterbova, J; Simonova, Z; Erhart, J; Sterba, J; Golovchenko, M; Rudenko, N; Grubhoffer, L

    2015-07-01

    Spatial distribution of Ixodes ricinus tick host-seeking activity, as well as prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) were studied in the TBE endemic area of South Bohemia (Czech Republic). High variability in tick abundance detected in a network of 30 study sites was most closely associated with characteristics of vegetation cover. Of 11,182 tested tick samples, 12% carried DNA of spirochete from B. burgdorferi s.l. complex. B. afzelii and B. garinii prevailed among spirochete species. The presence of B. spielmanii in the region was confirmed. The median number of borrelial genome copies in positive samples reached 6.6 × 10(3) by real-time PCR. The total prevalence of TBEV in pooled samples reached 0.32% (20,057 samples tested), at least one TBEV positive tick was present in 21 out of 30 sampling sites. PMID:25976235

  11. Serological Prevalence of Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in Pigs and Wild Boars from Different Production Systems in the Moravian Region, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lorencova, Alena; Babak, Vladimir; Lamka, Jiri

    2016-05-01

    Human yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Yersinia spp. is one of the most common reported zoonoses in the European Union and pigs are considered as the major reservoir of these bacteria. Serological testing represents a suitable method to obtain information about the prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in food animals. The prevalence of antibodies against enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 319 slaughtered pigs and 135 wild boars from different production systems in the Moravian region (Czech Republic) using a commercially available ELISA test (an apparent prevalence). The seroprevalence was significantly associated with the type of breeding system, with the lowest seroprevalence being observed in household-raised pigs (13/29, 44.8%). No significant difference between the prevalence of anti-Yersinia antibodies in conventional (146/180, 81.1%) and organic pigs (92/110, 83.6%) was found. Antibodies were found in 65.9% (89/135) of wild boars without a significant difference between adult (23/41, 56.1%) and young (66/94, 70.2%) animals. Seropositivity was significantly higher in domestic (251/319, 78.7% in total) compared to feral pigs. A Bayesian approach taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was used to estimate the true prevalence of anti-Yersinia antibodies in pigs and wild boars. According to our results, domestic pigs and wild boars proved to be an important reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia in the Czech Republic. Attention should be paid to good hygienic practice during slaughtering and handling of meat to prevent meat contamination and subsequently human infection. PMID:26982547

  12. Hydrometeorological extremes at the Veselí nad Moravou estate (Czech Republic) in the period 1794-1850 derived from documentary evidence of the economic character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, Kateřina

    2010-05-01

    Hydrometeorological extremes influenced always human activities (agriculture, forestry, water management) and caused losses of human lives and great material damage. Systematic meteorological and hydrological observations in the Czech Lands (recent Czech Republic) started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. In order to create long-term series of hydrometeorological extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information for their study before 1850. Such direct and indirect information about hydrometeorological extremes is included in documentary evidence (e.g. chronicles, memoirs, diaries, early visual weather observations, newspapers, economic sources etc.). Documentary evidence of economic character belongs to the most important sources, especially documents related to taxation records. Damage to agricultural crops on the fields or damage to hay on meadows due to the hydrological and meteorological phenomena has been a good reason for the abatement of tax duty. Based on the official correspondence of the estate of Veselí nad Moravou (southern Moravia), archival information about taxation from the Moravian Land Archives in Brno was excerpted. Based on it, 46 hydrometeorological extremes which occurred between the years 1794 and 1850 were selected and further analysed. Because of fields and meadows of the above estate were located along the Morava River, reports of damage due to floods were the most frequent, followed by damage due to torrential rains and hailstorms.

  13. Oil exploration and development in Marib/Al Jawf basin, Yemen Arab Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Maycock, I.D.

    1986-07-01

    In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. A successful appraisal drilling program has demonstrated satisfactory lateral reservoir continuity. Further wildcat drilling demonstrates macro-unit correlation within the eastern part of the basin. Rapid basin development apparently commenced in the late Kimmeridgian, culminating with the deposition of Tithonian evaporites. Available geochemical analysis indicates sourcing from restricted-basin sediments. Excellent traps, reservoirs, and source beds underlying the Tithonian evaporites indicate that a significant new petroliferous province is present.

  14. Oil exploration and development in Marib/Al Jawf basin, Yemen Arab Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Maycock, I.D.

    1988-02-01

    In 1981, Yemen Hunt Oil Company (YHOC) negotiated a production-sharing agreement covering 12,600 km/sup 2/ in the northeast part of the Yemen Arab Republic. A reconnaissance seismic program of 1864 km acquired in 1982 revealed the presence of a major half graben, designated the Marib/Al Jawf basin by YHOC. A sedimentary section up to 18,000 ft thick has been recognized. Geologic field mapping identified Jurassic carbonates covered by Cretaceous sands overlying Permian glaciolacustrine sediments, Paleozoic sandstones, or Precambrian basement. The first well, Alif-1, drilled in 1984, aimed at a possible Jurassic carbonate objective, encountered hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition between 5000 and 6000 ft. Appraisal and development drilling followed. The Alif field is believed to contain in excess of 400 million bbl of recoverable oil. Subsequent wildcat drilling has located additional accumulations while further amplifying basin stratigraphy. Rapid basin development took place in the Late Jurassic culminating with the deposition of Tithonian salt. The evaporites provide an excellent seal for hydrocarbons apparently sourced from restricted basin shales and trapped in rapidly deposited clastics.

  15. Reflections on Czech Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Michael

    2007-01-01

    International comparisons help us explore the assumptions made about U.S. schools, students, and pedagogy. That is why the author decided to spend five months in the Czech Republic teaching science education courses at Palacky and Ostrava Universities and learning about the Czech education system. As a result, the new context challenged his…

  16. Preparation of the Second Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from the Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu Rez (UJV Rez), a.s., Czech Republic to the Russian Federation for Reprocessing - 13478

    SciTech Connect

    Trtilek, Radek; Podlaha, Josef

    2013-07-01

    After more than 50 years of operation of the LVR-15 research reactor operated by the UJV Rez, a. s. (formerly Nuclear Research Institute - NRI), a large amount of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Russian origin has been accumulated. In 2005 UJV Rez, a. s. jointed the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) program under the United States (US) - Russian Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and started the process of SNF shipment from the LVR-15 research reactor back to the Russian Federation (RF). In 2007 the first shipment of SNF was realized. In 2011, preparation of the second shipment of spent fuel from the Czech Republic started. The experience obtained from the first shipment will be widely used, but some differences must be taken into the account. The second shipment will be realized in 2013 and will conclude the return transport of all, both fresh and spent, high-enriched nuclear fuel from the Czech Republic to the Russian Federation. After the shipment is completed, there will be only low-enriched nuclear fuel on the territory of the Czech Republic, containing maximum of 20% of U-235, which is the conventionally recognized limit between the low- and high-enriched nuclear materials. The experience (technical, organizational, administrative, logistic) obtained from the each SNF shipment as from the Czech Republic as from other countries using the Russian type research reactors are evaluated and projected onto preparation of next shipment of high enriched nuclear fuel back to the Russian Federation. The results shown all shipments provided by the UJV Rez, a. s. in the frame of the GTRI Program have been performed successfully and safely. It is expected the experience and results will be applied to preparation and completing of the Chinese Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSR) Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation in the near future. (authors)

  17. Numerical modelling of fine-grained sediments remobilization in heavily polluted streams. Case study: Elbe and Bílina River, Czech Republic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to estimate remobilization of channel and riparian cohesive sediment of streams, heavily polluted by industrial emmissions. There were analyzed four stream stretches in Czech Republic: (1) Elbe River from Usti nad Labem to the boundary with Germany; (2) Bílina river, draining industrial and mining areas of Northwest Bohemia; (3) Midstream reach of Czech Elbe by the confluence with Vltava river, affected by chemical industry and (4) fluvial lakes in the riparian zone of Czech Elbe river downstream of Pardubice burdened by old loads from heavy chemical industry. Sediments of clay and silt character bedded in the riparian water-courses are regarded heavily polluted by wide range of toxic matters. In the sediment samples, there were found elevated concentrations of persistent organic matters (DDT, PCB, HCH, Fluoranthen), Heavy metals (Hg, As, Cd), and others. The pollution in sediment is resulting from the unregulated heavy industrial production in the area in the second half of 20th century during the socialistic regime in Czech republic that still play an important role in Elbe river water quality. The main goal of the study was to evaluate the risk of remobilization of polluted sediments by the assessment of discharge (values and return periods), initiating remobilization of sediment from the river bed. The modeling stems on basic assumption, that once the sediment is elevated from the bed, it could be transported far downstream in the form of suspended load. The evaluation was made on the basis of numerical hydrodynamic calculation coupled with sediment transport model. The MIKE by DHI modelling software with different levels of schematization was used according the flow conditions and available data sources. For 50 km stretch of Bílina river the 1D schematization (MIKE 11) was selected as the discharges driving remobilization were expected within the extent of channel capacity due to the stream regulation. For the lower and middle course of Elbe

  18. Epidemiology of paratuberculosis in wild ruminants studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Czech Republic during the period 1995-1998.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, I; Bartl, J; Dvorska, L; Svastova, P; du Maine, R; Machackova, M; Yayo Ayele, W; Horvathova, A

    2000-12-20

    In two studies carried out during the period 1995-1998, paratuberculosis was diagnosed in domestic and wild ruminants in the Czech Republic. The isolated Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strains were analysed by standardised restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) [Pavlik, I., Horvathova, A., Dvorska, L., Bartl, J., Svastova, P., du Maine, R., Rychlik, I., 1999. J. Microbiol. Methods 38, 155-167]. In December 1992, 19 late pregnant Charolais heifers were imported to the Czech Republic from Hungary (original import from France to Hungary). One 11-month-old heifer roamed in the wild in a range of approximately 15-20km for 7 months from November 1993 to May 1994. Upon capture, the animal showed clinical signs of paratuberculosis (emaciation and diarrhoea). Seven other animals from the same herd were infected with the identical RFLP type B-C1 of M. paratuberculosis. During the period 1995-1996, samples were taken and examined from the small intestine and corresponding lymph nodes of 84 wild ruminants: 19 red deers (Cervus elaphus) and 65 roe-deers (Capreolus capreolus). These wild ruminants originated from 44 different locations within the same district from as the infected escaped heifer. Five M. paratuberculosis strains were isolated: one strain of RFLP type B-C1 from a stag and three strains of RFLP type B-C1 and one strain of RFLP type B-C9 from roe-deer. The three wild ruminants (one stag and two roe-deer) infected with the same RFLP type B-C1 were detected in the same area as the heifer, suggesting that this was the likely infection source. However, the infection source of the roe-deer infected with strain of RFLP type B-C9 was obviously different, and the stags that escaped from the farm were purchased from an area infected with this RFLP type. In the second study carried out during 1997-1998 in the whole Czech Republic (divided into 76 districts), 718 wild ruminants were examined from 90% of the districts. M. paratuberculosis was isolated

  19. Trichoptera biodiversity of the Aegean and Adriatic sea basins in the republic of Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Gashi, Agim; Grapci-Kotori, Linda

    2014-01-01

    We present the first preliminary inventory of Trichoptera taxa in the Aegean and Adriatic Sea basins in Kosovo that have previously received poor and fragmentary attention. Adult caddisflies were collected using ultraviolet (UV) light traps in 13 stations in areas of the Aegean Sea and Adriatic Sea drainage basins in Kosovo. Nineteen species out of 82, reported in this article, are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. Five genera are recorded for the first time in Kosovo: Brachycentrus, Ecclisopteryx, Psilopteryx, Thremma, and Oecetis. During this investigation, we found several Southeastern European endemic and rare species whose previous known distribution was limited to particular areas of this region, as well as other species whose distribution is considerably enlarged by this investigation: Polycentropus ierapetra, Polycentropus irroratus, Chaetopteryx stankovici, Drusus schmidi, Drusus tenellus, Potamophylax goulandriourum, Oecetis notata, and Notidobia melanoptera. Even though this article is a result of a limited sampling effort, it increases the number of Trichoptera taxa recorded for the Republic of Kosovo to 131. PMID:25434031

  20. The Blaník Gneiss in the southern Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic): a rare rock composition among the early palaeozoic granites of Variscan Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    René, Miloš; Finger, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Metamorphosed and deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranites with a Cambro-Ordovician formation age are widespread in the Monotonous Group of the Variscan southern Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The rocks, known locally as Blaník gneiss, are strongly peraluminous and classify as phosphorus-rich low-T, S-type granite. The magma formed from a metapelitic source, most likely through muscovite dehydration melting. With respect to its low-T origin and the abundance of tourmaline, the Blaník gneiss is exotic within the spectrum of Early Palaeozoic granites of the Variscan fold belt of Central Europe. Coeval granitic gneisses in the neighbouring Gföhl unit of the Bohemian Massif can be classified as higher T S-type granites and were probably generated through biotite dehydration melting. The geochemical differences between the Early Palaeozoic granitic magmatism in the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group support models claiming that these two geological units belonged to independent peri-Gondwana terranes before the Variscan collision. It is suggested here, that the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group represent zones of higher and lower heat flow within the Early Palaeozoic northern Gondwana margin, respectively. The geochemical data presented in this study could be helpful for terrane correlations and palaeogeographic reconstructions.

  1. First case report of rare congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by mutations in the CYP11A1 gene in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Pomahačová, Renata; Sýkora, Josef; Zamboryová, Jana; Paterová, Petra; Varvařovská, Jana; Šubrt, Ivan; Dort, Jiří; Dortová, Eva

    2016-06-01

    We characterized a case of congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) deficiency. The patient presented after birth with cardiopulmonary instability, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. We confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency. There were no signs of the external genitalia virilism. The replacement therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids led to normal laboratory results. At the age of 12 years, we confirmed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which revealed disorder of steroidogenesis in the adrenal glands and in the gonads. The enzymatic block was found at the beginning of steroidogenesis. The mutation was confirmed in the CYP11A1 gene. The patient is compound heterozygote for the novel CYP11A1 missense mutation c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) in exon 2 and frameshift mutation c.508_509delCT (p.Leu170Valfs*30) in exon 3. The CYP11A1: c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) was predicted as pathogenic by in silico analysis. So far, only 19 patients with CYP11A1 mutations causing P450scc deficiency have been reported worldwide. There are no related reports in the Czech Republic. PMID:27008691

  2. Spectrum of Gastroenteropancreatic NENs in Routine Histological Examinations of Bioptic and Surgical Specimen: A Study of 161 Cases Collected from 17 Departments of Pathology in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Mandys, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize GEP-NENs in routine biopsies and surgical specimen in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how WHO Classification (2010) is acceptable in diagnostic practice. Methods. Paraffin-embedded blocks and bioptic reports were collected from 17 departments of pathology. Histologic slides were stained with H&E and immunohistologically for CgA, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Results. Out of 28 gastric NENs, there were 22 NETs, G1, 5 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. Ten duodenal NENs were NETs, G1. Among 27 NENs of jejunum and ileum, 23 were NETs, G1, 2 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC and 1 mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Among 42 appendiceal “incidentalomas”, 39 were NETs G1, 2 goblet cell carcinoids, and 1 MANEC. Out of 34 large intestinal NENs, 30 were NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. One small intestinal and 6 large bowel neoplasms were reclassified as poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. In 12 pancreatic NENs, there were 7 NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 2 NECs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates differences in GEP-NENs frequency in sites of origin in our region, comparing to other countries. Regarding routine bioptic diagnostics, we gave evidence that the WHO 2010 classification of NENs is fully acceptable for exact categorisation of tumours. PMID:24695372

  3. Spectrum of Gastroenteropancreatic NENs in Routine Histological Examinations of Bioptic and Surgical Specimen: A Study of 161 Cases Collected from 17 Departments of Pathology in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Mandys, Václav; Jirásek, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To characterize GEP-NENs in routine biopsies and surgical specimen in the Czech Republic and to evaluate how WHO Classification (2010) is acceptable in diagnostic practice. Methods. Paraffin-embedded blocks and bioptic reports were collected from 17 departments of pathology. Histologic slides were stained with H&E and immunohistologically for CgA, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Results. Out of 28 gastric NENs, there were 22 NETs, G1, 5 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. Ten duodenal NENs were NETs, G1. Among 27 NENs of jejunum and ileum, 23 were NETs, G1, 2 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC and 1 mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Among 42 appendiceal "incidentalomas", 39 were NETs G1, 2 goblet cell carcinoids, and 1 MANEC. Out of 34 large intestinal NENs, 30 were NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 1 NEC. One small intestinal and 6 large bowel neoplasms were reclassified as poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. In 12 pancreatic NENs, there were 7 NETs, G1, 3 NETs, G2, and 2 NECs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates differences in GEP-NENs frequency in sites of origin in our region, comparing to other countries. Regarding routine bioptic diagnostics, we gave evidence that the WHO 2010 classification of NENs is fully acceptable for exact categorisation of tumours. PMID:24695372

  4. The Blaník Gneiss in the southern Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic): a rare rock composition among the early palaeozoic granites of Variscan Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    René, Miloš; Finger, Fritz

    2016-08-01

    Metamorphosed and deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranites with a Cambro-Ordovician formation age are widespread in the Monotonous Group of the Variscan southern Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The rocks, known locally as Blaník gneiss, are strongly peraluminous and classify as phosphorus-rich low-T, S-type granite. The magma formed from a metapelitic source, most likely through muscovite dehydration melting. With respect to its low-T origin and the abundance of tourmaline, the Blaník gneiss is exotic within the spectrum of Early Palaeozoic granites of the Variscan fold belt of Central Europe. Coeval granitic gneisses in the neighbouring Gföhl unit of the Bohemian Massif can be classified as higher T S-type granites and were probably generated through biotite dehydration melting. The geochemical differences between the Early Palaeozoic granitic magmatism in the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group support models claiming that these two geological units belonged to independent peri-Gondwana terranes before the Variscan collision. It is suggested here, that the Gföhl unit and the Monotonous Group represent zones of higher and lower heat flow within the Early Palaeozoic northern Gondwana margin, respectively. The geochemical data presented in this study could be helpful for terrane correlations and palaeogeographic reconstructions.

  5. Characterization of Cronobacter spp. isolated from food of plant origin and environmental samples collected from farms and from supermarkets in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vojkovska, Hana; Karpiskova, Renata; Orieskova, Maria; Drahovska, Hana

    2016-01-18

    The Cronobacter genus (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii) comprises seven species (Cronobacter sakazakii, Cronobacter malonaticus, Cronobacter muytjensii, Cronobacter turicensis, Cronobacter dublinensis, Cronobacter universalis and Cronobacter condimenti)which cause serious infections in neonates and immunocompromised people.Most of the documented outbreaks of these bacteria have been associated with consumption of contaminated powdered infant formula. The plant environment is considered to be the natural habitat of these bacteria. Therefore, a total number of 563 samples of vegetables, fruit, water and environmental swabs were collected from local farms and supermarkets in the Czech Republic and investigated for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The obtained 45 isolates (8.0%) were further characterized by phenotyping (antimicrobial resistance, capsule and pigment production) and genotyping (fusA sequencing,MLST, PCR-serotyping) methods. Most of the Cronobacter isolates (42.2%) were identified as C. sakazakii, followed by C. turicensis (31.1%), C. dublinensis (22.2%), C. malonaticus (2.2%) and C. universalis (2.2%). The 25 identified sequence types, out of which 17 were unique for only one strain, indicated a high diversity of strains. C. sakazakii sequence type 4 (ST 4), which has been associated with many cases of meningitis, was isolated only in one case. A strong association of C. turicensis and C. dublinensis with the plant environment can be deduced from our results. PMID:26513253

  6. Prevalence and age-related infection of Cryptosporidium suis, C. muris and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in pigs on a farm complex in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kvác, Martin; Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Sak, Bohumil; Kvetonová, Dana

    2009-03-23

    A total of 413 pig faecal samples were collected from pre-weaners (119), starters (131), pre-growers (123) and sows (40) from a farm with a closed breeding system segmented into two breeding complexes and a growing complex in the region of Vysocina, Czech Republic and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using staining methods and genotyping (SSU rRNA). Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by microscopy in the faeces of 21.1% of the samples (87/413). Sequence analyses and RFLP identified C. suis in 44, Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in 23 and C. muris in 2 samples. No mixed infections were found. Pigs under 7 weeks of age were infected with C. suis only. Cryptosporidium pig genotype II was found in animals from 7 weeks of age. No relationship was found between diarrhoea and any Cryptosporidium infection in any of the different age groups (P<0.05). The pre-weaned pigs shed significantly more Cryptosporidium oocysts than older pigs and it was associated with C. suis infection. PMID:19091471

  7. Indoor damage of aged porous natural stone due to thermohygric stress: a case study of opuka stone altar from the St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Prikrylova, Jirina; Racek, Martin; Kreislova, Kateřina; Weishauptova, Zuzana

    2016-04-01

    Opuka stone (extremely fine-grained clayey-calcareous silicite) used for a carved stone altar located in the interior of the St. Vitus Cathedral (Prague, Czech Republic) was affected by decay phenomena (formation of the case-hardened surface, its later blistering, flaking and/or powdering of stone substrate) which are similar to those observed in outdoor environments. Through the detailed analytical study (optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray elemental mapping of cross-sections of surface layers, x-ray diffraction of surface layers, ion-exchange chromatography for water-soluble salts, mercury porosimetry) and analysis of long-term indoor environmental monitoring (temperature, relative humidity, sulphur and nitrogen oxides deposition), it has been found that observed decay phenomena, which are manifested on microscale by brittle damage and formation of mode I (tensile) cracks along the exposed surface of the stone, can be interpreted as a result from thermohygric stress occurring on the interface between case hardened surface layer and stone substrate.

  8. Monitoring of biogenic amines in cheeses manufactured at small-scale farms and in fermented dairy products in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Buňková, Leona; Adamcová, Gabriela; Hudcová, Kateřina; Velichová, Helena; Pachlová, Vendula; Lorencová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine) and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine) in 112 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 55 cheeses made in small-scale farms and in 57 fermented dairy products. The products were tested at the end of their shelf-life period. Neither tryptamine nor phenylethylamine was detected in the monitored samples; histamine was found only in four cheese samples containing up to 25mg/kg. The contents of spermine and spermidine were low and did not exceed the values of 35 mg/kg. Significant amounts of tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine occurred especially in cheeses produced from ewe's milk or in long-term ripened cheeses. In about 10% of the tested cheeses, the total concentration of all the monitored biogenic amines and polyamines exceeded the level of 200mg/kg, which can be considered toxicologically significant. In fermented dairy products, the tested biogenic amines occurred in relatively low amounts (generally up to 30 mg/kg) that are regarded safe for the consumer's health. PMID:23768392

  9. Effect of School on Interest in Natural Sciences: A comparison of the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, and Norway based on PISA 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basl, Josef

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this paper is students' interest in future natural sciences-related careers. It is based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment survey that in 2006 focused attention on the science literacy achievements of students. The paper uses the methods of linear regression modelling and structural equation modelling in analysing the impact of student family background on the formation of interest in future science-related educational and occupational careers relative to the impact of school characteristics. An almost negligible impact of family on interest formation was found in the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, and Norway. On the other hand, the impact of school from the point of view of preparing students for future educational and career trajectories was found to be strong in all countries studied due to their influence on the degree of student awareness of science-related career opportunities ('science', as used in this paper, refers to the natural sciences). From the educational policy point of view, the results support the importance of career guidance.

  10. The effect of urbanization on helminth communities in the Eurasian blackbird (Turdus merula L.) from the eastern part of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sitko, J; Zaleśny, G

    2014-03-01

    In the present study we investigated two ecologically distinct populations of T. merula for the presence of helminths. We wished to determine whether urban populations of blackbirds had reduced helminth fauna compared to birds from forest habitats. Birds were caught in two ecologically distinct sites located in the eastern part of the Czech Republic. A total of 320 birds were examined. The first site was located in Prerov where the birds were obtained from a typical urban population, and the second site was Zahlinice, which constitutes a typical forest area. As a result of parasitological examination, 30 helminth species belonging to Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were recorded from both sites: 29 species were found in the forested site and 15 in the urban site. The overall prevalence of infection was 93.1% and differed significantly between the sites (Zahlinice 97.2%, Prerov 85.1%). The mean species richness was almost three times higher in the forest population (3.37 ± 0.10) than in the urban one (1.78 ± 0.11). The clear qualitative and quantitative differences in the helminth community of T. merula obtained from two ecologically disparate localities show that urbanization leads to a significant reduction in the helminth fauna of a bird which is highly adapted to synanthropic habitats, while still remaining common in its original forest habitat. PMID:23232073

  11. Stomatal ozone flux and visible leaf injury in native juvenile trees of Fagus sylvatica L.: a field study from the Jizerske hory Mts., the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vlasáková-Matoušková, Leona; Hůnová, Iva

    2015-07-01

    The study was carried out at six sites in the Jizerskehory Mts. in the north of the Czech Republic. At all these sites, ranging in altitude between 460 and 962 m a. s. l., and during the period from June to September in 2008, O3 concentrations and environmental parameters important for accumulated stomatal O3 flux (AFst) into Fagus sylvatica leaves were measured. At five sites, visible injury on Fagus sylvatica L. juvenile tree leaves was observed. A combination of actual O3 levels in the Jizerkehory Mts. and environmental conditions, though relative air humidity and air temperature significantly limited stomatal conductance, has been sufficient enough to cause O3 uptake exceeding the critical level (CL) for forest ecosystems. The AFst values ranged between 13.4 and 22.3 mmol O3 m(-2). The CL for the accumulated stomatal flux of O3 above a flux threshold 1.6 nmol m(-2) s(-1) (AFst1.6) was exceeded at all sites from ca 45 to 270% (160% on average). The CL of 5 ppm h(-1) for AOT40 (accumulated O3 exposure above threshold of 40 ppb) was exceeded at four sites. The relationship between visible injury on O3 indices was found. The conclusions based on AOT40 and AFSt are not the same. AFSt has been determined as better predictor of visible injury than AOT40. PMID:25677787

  12. Nb-Ta-Ti-W-Sn-oxide minerals as indicators of a peraluminous P- and F-rich granitic system evolution: Podlesí, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, K.; Škoda, R.; Uher, P.

    2007-11-01

    The strongly peraluminous, P- and F-rich granitic system at Podlesí in the Krušné Hory Mountains, Czech Republic, resembles the zonation of rare element pegmatites in its magmatic evolution (biotite → protolithionite → zinnwaldite granites). All granite types contain disseminated Nb-Ta-Ti-W-Sn minerals that crystallized in the following succession: rutile + cassiterite (in biotite granite), rutile + cassiterite → ferrocolumbite (in protolithionite granite) and ferrocolumbite → ixiolite → ferberite (in zinnwaldite granite). Textural features of Nb-Ta-Ti-W minerals indicate a pre-dominantly magmatic origin with only minor post-magmatic replacement phenomena. HFSE remained in the residual melt during the fractionation of the biotite granite. An effective separation of Nb + Ta into the melt and Sn into fluid took place during subsequent fractionation of the protolithionite granite, and the tin-bearing fluid escaped into the exocontact. To the contrast, W contents are similar in both protolithionite and zinnwaldite granites. Although the system was F-rich, only limited Mn-Fe and Ta-Nb fractionation appeared. Enrichment of Mn and Ta was suppressed due to foregoing crystallization of Mn-rich apatite and relatively low Li content, respectively. The content of W in columbite increases during fractionation and enrichment in P and F in the melt. Ixiolite (up to 1 apfu W) instead of columbite crystallized from the most fluxes-enriched portions of the melt (unidirectional solidification textures, late breccia).

  13. Partnering to change the world for people with haemophilia: 6(th) Haemophilia Global Summit, Prague, Czech Republic, 24-26(th) September 2015.

    PubMed

    Astermark, Jan; Hart, Dan; Lobet, Sébastien; Blatný, Jan; d'Oiron, Roseline; Kenet, Gili; Dolan, Gerry; Libotte, Valérie; Hermans, Cedric

    2016-07-01

    The 6(th) Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in September 2015. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and aimed to share optimal management strategies for haemophilia at all life stages, explore recent potential advances in the management of haemophilia A and B and discuss challenges in haemophilia care. In this supplement from the meeting, Dan Hart reviews the lessons that can be learnt from cost-constrained environments with regard to improving care for people with haemophilia globally. Sébastien Lobet discusses the importance of physical activity for optimising care and Roseline d'Oiron and Jan Blatný consider the role of real-world data in understanding the effect of treatment in a clinical setting over the long term and the true impact of treatment on the day-to-day life of the patient. Gili Kenet addresses the current challenges relating to the optimal management of prophylaxis, and Gerry Dolan and Cedric Hermans discuss the value of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in informing treatment decisions. Cedric Hermans and Valérie Libotte explore the importance of considering social and occupational development factors as an integral part of haemophilia care, and Jan Astermark reviews key strategies to predict and prevent inhibitor development. PMID:27292051

  14. The performance of moss, grass, and 1- and 2-year old spruce needles as bioindicators of contamination: a comparative study at the scale of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharova, Julie; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Moss (Pleurozium schreberi), grass (Avenella flexuosa), and 1- and 2-year old spruce (Picea abies) needles were collected over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average sample density of 1 site per 290km(2). The samples were analysed for 39 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Y and Zn) using ICP-MS and ICP-AES techniques (the major nutrients Ca, K, Mg and Na were not analysed in moss). Moss showed by far the highest element concentrations for most elements. Exceptions were Ba (spruce), Mn (spruce), Mo (grass), Ni (spruce), Rb (grass) and S (grass). Regional distribution maps and spatial trend analysis were used to study the suitability of the four materials as bioindicators of anthropogenic contamination. The highly industrialised areas in the north-west and the far east of the country and several more local contamination sources were indicated in the distribution maps of one or several sample materials. At the scale of the whole country moss was the best indicator of known contamination sources. However, on a more local scale, it appeared that spruce needles were especially well suited for detection of urban contamination. PMID:21421258

  15. Atmospheric station Křešín u Pacova, Czech Republic - a Central European research infrastructure for studying greenhouse gases, aerosols and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Sedlák, P.; Schwarz, J.; Fusek, M.; Hanuš, V.; Vodička, P.; Trusina, J.

    2015-05-01

    Long-lasting research infrastructures covering the research areas of atmospheric chemistry, meteorology and climatology are of highest importance. The Atmospheric Station (AS) Křešín u Pacova, central Czech Republic, is focused on monitoring of the occurence and long-range transport of greenhouse gases, atmospheric aerosols, selected gaseous atmospheric pollutants and basic meteorological characteristics. The AS and its 250 m tall tower was built according to the recommendations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) and cooperates with numerous national and international projects and monitoring programmes. First measurements conducted at ground started in 2012, vertical profile measurements were added in 2013. A seasonal variability with slightly higher autumn and winter concentrations of elemental and organic carbon was revealed. The suitability of the doubly left-censored Weibull distribution for modelling and interpretation of elemental carbon concentrations, which are often lower than instrumental quantification limits, was verified. Initial data analysis also suggests that in summer, the tower top at 250 m is frequently above the nocturnal surface inversions, thus being decoupled from local influences.

  16. First finding of spontaneous infections with Cryptosporidium baileyi and C. meleagridis in the red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa from an aviary in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej; Pavlásek, Ivan

    2015-04-30

    This paper represents the first report of spontaneous infection with Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), as well as the percentage of positive samples and age-associated dynamics of cryptosporidial infections in an aviary in the Czech Republic. The entire infection process was monitored over two semesters (July-December 2012 and 2013) until release of birds for hunting purposes. Coprological examination of 663 pooled fecal samples and 89 post-mortem examinations of red-legged partridges were carried out. Our results indicated that infections with C. baileyi only occurred in 5-7 week-old birds during 2013 (percentage of positivity, 1%) and those with C. meleagridis in 18-22 week (17%) and 17-21 week-old birds (24%) during 2012 and 2013, respectively. Molecular characterization of isolates of C. baileyi and C. meleagridis heat shock protein 70 and actin genes were analyzed in order to support our coprological results. DNA sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene was used to subtype C. meleagridis. Our findings extend the host range for C. baileyi. PMID:25814162

  17. A study of mining-induced seismicity in Czech mines with longwall coal exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Holub, K.

    2007-01-15

    A review is performed for the data of local and regional seismographical networks installed in mines of the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin (Czech Republic), where underground anthracite mining is carried out and dynamic events occur in the form of rockbursts. The seismological and seismoacoustic observations data obtained in panels that are in limiting state are analyzed. This aggregate information is a basic for determining hazardous zones and assigning rockburst prevention measures.

  18. Past changes of landscape due to increased dynamics of erosion processes in the Bezděz-Doksy region (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysloužilová, Barbora; Dreslerová, Dagmar; Kozáková, Radka; Poništiak, Štefan; Chuman, Tomáš; Šefrna, Luděk

    2016-04-01

    This study broadens the archaeological research of the the Bezděz - Doksy region in Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic (Dreslerová et al., 2013). Extensive field works between 2008 and 2012 showed that the region has been settled since the La Tène period. Survey of the alluvial plain of the Robečský stream revealed a record of two intensive erosion episodes in the catchment. We suppose that the first episode may be connected to land use changes and the beginnings of agriculture at the site in the La Tène period. The second episode may be connected to the foundation of the medieval village of Okna, which came into existence in the vicinity of the La Tène settlement. The accelerated erosion of former albeluvisols (on loess) led to significant changes of landscape in the region. The aim of this contribution is to bring a reconstruction of soils, vegetation and relief at the site of Okna before the human occupancy and to detect landscape changes over the time. It focuses on the hypothesis that the accelerated soil erosion has been occurring at the site since the first anthropogenic influence like it is demonstrated by other studies in Europe (e.g. Leopold and Völkel, 2007; Boardman, 2013). An abrupt change of land use from forest to arable land is proved by palynological records. Simultaneously there are buried soil horizons and alluvial sediments which can be studied as geoarchives. The difficulties in reconstruction of relief and quantification of the historical erosion effects are faced by applying GIS and model approaches (Peeters et al., 2003). References Boardman, J., 2013. Soil Erosion in Britain: Updating the Record. Agriculture 3, 418-442. doi:10.3390/agriculture3030418 Dreslerová, D., Waldhauser, J., Abraham, V., Kočár, P., Křivánek, R., Meduna, P., Sádlo, J., 2013. The Bezděz - Doksy region (Northern Bohemia) in prehistory and the La Tène settlement at Okna (in Czech). Archeologické rozhledy LXV, 535-573. Leopold, M., Völkel, J., 2007

  19. The application of Rapid Scan data to the Convective Rainfall Rate algorithm from SAF NWC for the area of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sokol, Zbyněk; Pešice, Petr

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to calculate new calibration matrices using Rapid Scan (RSS) Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) measurements and to evaluate their impact on precipitation estimates for a territory of the Czech Republic. The calibration matrices are the most important part of the Convective Rainfall Rate algorithm, which uses the IR 10.8 μm, WV 6.2 μm and VIS 0.6 μm spectral SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) channels of the MSG to assess satellite precipitation estimates (SPEs). The calibration matrices were calculated using Czech radar data from 21 summer days during which severe convection and heavy precipitation were observed. The resultant matrices were compared with those obtained using conventional 15 min MSG scans. The comparison showed significant differences in the calibration matrices, which resulted in differences in the estimated precipitation. The application of RSS data significantly increased the rain rates and improved the structure of the matrices; however, the matrices were subjectively modified to increase the accuracy of the resulting SPEs. The calibration matrices were also calibrated by shifting the radar data forward 5, 10, 15 and 20 min with respect to the MSG measurement, because some delay between the information obtained by the MSG and the radars was expected. The impact of the matrices was evaluated by verifying the SPEs with the radar-derived precipitation estimates merged with the rain gauge observations as the ground truth. The results showed that the calibration matrices that were based on the RSS data improved the categorical skill scores and reduced the mean error (ME), the mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE) of SPEs. Subjectively, the estimated precipitation values are more realistic, the estimated maximum is closer to observations and convective cores are more pronounced and easily identifiable. The difference between the matrices calibrated by shifting the radar data in

  20. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) in the period 1751-1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chromá, K.; Brázdil, R.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrometeorological extremes always influenced human activities and caused great material damage or even loss of human lives. In the Czech Lands (recently the Czech Republic), systematic meteorological and hydrological observations started generally in the latter half of the 19th century. In order to create long-term series of hydrometeorological extremes, it is necessary to search for other sources of information for their study before 1850. In this study, written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period 1751-1900. The taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, and the impacts on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860. The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), and flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about

  1. Hydrological performance of an extensive green roof: a case study from the central Europe (Bustehrad, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tománková, Klára; Sněhota, Michal; Jelínková, Vladimíra

    2016-04-01

    Extensive green roofs with a thin growing medium require minimal maintenance, and in general no irrigation. The proper functioning of such systems rests with their structural constituents, especially with the substrate used for planting. An extensive green roof with poorly developed vegetation and with a soil layer of a maximum thickness of 5 cm mixed with local stripped topsoil with crushed bricks and green waste was studied with respect to the hydrological behavior. The substrate classified as loam comprises a significant proportion of very fine particles and thus it is prone to clogging up of soil pores and forming of fissures on the surface. The green roof studied is well equipped for measuring meteorological data including air temperature, wind speed and direction, net radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall intensity. The meteorological information on the site is completed by soil temperature measurement. The 12 m long transect is equipped with eight time domain reflectometry probes (TDR) to monitor soil water content. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, grain size distribution) and soil hydraulic characteristics (soil water retention curve) were obtained. The numerical modeling of transient soil water movement in the green roof substrate was performed using a two-dimensional model based on the Richards' equation. Results were compared with the soil water content data acquired. Six alternative scenarios were formulated to discuss possible improvement of green roof functioning and four selected scenarios were simulated. The study helped us to improve our understanding of the flow processes through the green roof soil system under study. The alternative scenario simulations allowed hydrological assessment of roof construction amendments. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  2. Upper Cretaceous to Lower Miocene of the Subsilesian Unit (Western Carpathians, Czech Republic): stratotypes of formations revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubík, Miroslav; Franců, Juraj; Gilíková, Helena; Otava, Jiří; Švábenická, Lilian

    2016-06-01

    Type sections/areas for all four formations distinguished in the sedimentary succession of the Subsilesian Unit on Czech territory were revisited and described. New data on lithology, sedimentology, fossil record, biostratigraphy, heavy-minerals and geochemical proxies are based on observations and analysis of these sections. The historical type section of the Frýdek Formation was destroyed during railway construction in 19th century. Outcrops of Campanian to Maastrichtian marls and sandstones on the southwestern slope of "Castle hill" at Frýdek, are proposed as a new type section. The Ostravice riverbed in Frýdlant nad Ostravicí was originally designated as the type area, not mentioning the particular section. This area, even when supplemented with Sibudov Creek, does not show all typical facies of the formation. The outcrops range from lowermost Eocene to Eocene-Oligocene transition. In the original description of the Menilite Formation Glocker mentioned several localities in the area covering the Ždanice, Subsilesian and Silesian units, not mentioning the principal one. The single sections, each not exceeding a thickness of 2 m, are not sufficient to be a type section. Instead of that, we propose the area between Paršovice and Bystřice pod Hostýnem, covering the historical localities, as the type area. The type locality of the Ženklava Formation is an outcrop in an unnamed creek in Ženklava according to the original definition. It seems to be reasonable to extend the type section to the whole 500 m long section of the creek with the outcrops that better illustrate the lithological variability of the formation. New biostratigraphic data allow assignment to late Egerian (Eggenburgian?).

  3. Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Potential of the Czech Republic with Particular Focus on Waters of Metalliferous Mining Districts in Crystalline Structures of the Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stibitz, M.; Jirakova, H.; Frydrych, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, numerous underground mines in the Czech Republic are mostly left to spontaneous natural flooding with water. These huges volumes and favourable water temperature represent promissing source of thermal energy. The primary temperature of the mine waters is given by the rock massif temeprature, i.e. by the heat flux which is in the moldanubikum region around 50 - 60 mWm-2 (Michálek et al., 2007). Higher heat flux has been observed in several mountainous regions throughout the country. The real water temperature results form the depth of mines, geothermal gradient and the water circulation in the mine. Temperature measurements suggest a distinct temperature depth stratification. Several metalliferous mining districts in Crystalline Structures with the water outflow exceeding 1 Ls-1 have been subject of investigation. The temperature was not the only determining factoras it is relatively stable in mines all year round. The data on yield, temperatures, etc. prepared for further mathematical modeling were primarily measured in uranium and oremines in Příbram mining district, Jáchymov, Zlaté Hory and Rožná. Water of about 18°C and radioactivity make favourable condition for the Jáchymov spa purposes. The average yield reaches 20 Ls-1. The entire outflow for the Jáchymov mines before its decommissioning reached 136 Ls-1.The entire heat capacity of mine waters is supposed to be around 1.150 kW. Severa l galleries in Zlaté Hory region could be used for thermal purposes. The yield around 60 Ls-1 and temeperature around 7°C was observed in the main drainage gallery. Measurements were accompanied by chemical analysis of water having both a huge pH range from 3 to 9 and huge mineralization range from 135 to 6 500 mgL-1. The Rožná and Příbram conditions are quite similar with the outflow from 20 - 45 Ls-1 and temperatures from 11 - 18°C. Possible temperature decrease originates from the fact that colder shallow groundwater will inflow into mine spaces

  4. Comparison of UTCI with Other Thermal Indices in the Assessment of Heat and Cold Effects on Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We compare the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) with other thermal indices in analysing heat- and cold-related effects on cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in two different (urban and rural) regions in the Czech Republic during the 16-year period from 1994–2009. Excess mortality is represented by the number of deaths above expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Air temperature, UTCI, Apparent Temperature (AT) and Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) are applied to identify days with heat and cold stress. We found similar heat effects on CVD mortality for air temperature and the examined thermal indices. Responses of CVD mortality to cold effects as characterised by different indices were much more varied. Particularly important is the finding that air temperature provides a weak cold effect in comparison with the thermal indices in both regions, so its application—still widespread in epidemiological studies—may underestimate the magnitude of cold-related mortality. These findings are important when possible climate change effects on heat- and cold-related mortality are estimated. AT and PET appear to be more universal predictors of heat- and cold- related mortality than UTCI when both urban and rural environments are of concern. UTCI tends to select windy rather than freezing days in winter, though these show little effect on mortality in the urban population. By contrast, significant cold-related mortality in the rural region if UTCI is used shows potential for UTCI to become a useful tool in cold exposure assessments. PMID:24413706

  5. Drill Core Mineral Analysis by Means of the Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer HySpex, XRD and Asd in Proximity of the MÝTINA Maar, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerting, F.; Rogass, C.; Kaempf, H.; Lubitz, C.; Harms, U.; Schudack, M.; Kokaly, R.; Mielke, C.; Boesche, N.; Altenberger, U.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging spectroscopy is increasingly used for surface mapping. Therefore different expert systems are being utilized to identify surface cover materials. Those expert systems mainly rely on the spectral comparison between unknown and library spectra, but their performances were only limited qualified. This study aims on the comparative analysis of drill core samples from the recently discovered maar system in the Czech Republic. Drill core samples from the surrounding area of the Mýtina maar were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and the hyperspectral spectrometer HySpex. Additionally, soil samples were measured in-situ by the ASD FieldSpec4 and in the laboratory by the HySpex VNIR/SWIR spectrometer system. The data was then analyzed by the MICA-algorithm and the results were compared to the results of the XRD -analysis. The XRD-analysis served here as validation basis. The results of the hyperspectral and the XRD analyses were used to densify a volcanic map that also integrates in-situ soil measurements in the surrounding area of Mýtina. The comparison of the XRD- and solaroptical remote sensing results showed a good correlation of qualified minerals if the soil organic carbon content was significantly low. Contrary to XRD, smectites and muscovites were also straightforward identified that underlines the overall performance of the approach to identify minerals. Basically, in this work an operable approach is proposed that enables the fast, repeatable and detailed analysis of drill cores, drill core samples and soil samples and, hence, provides a higher performance than state-of-the-art XRD-analyses.

  6. A tree-ring perspective on temporal changes in the frequency and intensity of hydroclimatic extremes in the territory of the Czech Republic since 761 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolný, P.; Rybníček, M.; Kolář, T.; Brázdil, R.; Trnka, M.; Büntgen, U.

    2015-10-01

    It is generally accepted that anthropogenic-induced climate change may affect the frequency and intensity of hydrological extremes, together with a variety of subsequent impacts on ecosystems and human society. Proxy records that are absolutely dated and annually resolved are indispensable to a better understanding of temporal changes in the occurrence of floods and droughts. This contribution presents a new data set of 3194 oak (Quercus spp.) ring width samples from living trees and historical timbers, collected across the Czech Republic. A composite tree-ring width (TRW) chronology is developed that best captures the high-frequency extremes over the past 1250 years. The temporal distribution of negative and positive extremes is regular with no indication of clustering. The highest number of negative extremes was found in the 19th century, while positive extremes were most frequent in the 12th century. The lowest number of negative and positive extremes occurred in the 18th and 13th centuries respectively. Negative and positive TRW extremes were compared with the instrumental measurements back to 1805 AD, with documentary-based temperature and precipitation reconstructions from 1804 to 1500, and with documentary evidence before 1500 AD. Negative TRW extremes coincided with above-average March-May and June-August temperature means and below-average precipitation totals. Positive extremes coincided with higher summer precipitation, while temperatures were mostly normal. Mean sea level pressure (SLP) over the European/North Atlantic sector suggested drought for the negative oak TRW extremes, whereas the positive extremes corresponded to wetter conditions overall. More consistent patterns of synoptic SLP were found for negative rather than for positive extremes. Reasons for the possible offset between the oak-based hydroclimatic extremes and their counterparts from meteorological observations and documentary evidence may be manifold and emphasize the need for multi

  7. Floodplain architecture of an actively meandering river (the Ploučnice River, the Czech Republic) as revealed by the distribution of pollution and electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys Grygar, T.; Elznicová, J.; Tůmová, Š.; Faměra, M.; Balogh, M.; Kiss, T.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the floodplain architecture of the Ploučnice River, a naturally meandering river in the Czech Republic, using manual drill coring, the element analysis of sediments, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The Ploučnice River has received diffuse pollution since the early twentieth century (mainly Pb) followed by a prominent, temporally well-defined pollution pulse from uranium mining in the 1970s and 1980s (mainly U and 226Ra). The pollution created a chemostratigraphic (temporal) framework for overbank fines. We used geographical information systems (GIS) to describe the channel's dynamics and visualise fluvial landforms. We sampled and analysed the finest floodplain sediments in the top 1 to 2 m of the floodplain fill (silty and sandy deposits), and we used ERT to visualise bodies of coarser and deeper strata at depths down to ~ 3 m. Several limits of ERT imaging have been found by a comparison of the resistivity domains with lithological descriptions of the cores: several decimetre-thick strata were not revealed (they are below the spatial resolution of that method), and humidity affected the results that were obtained in the topmost strata. The space for deposition of fluvial sediments in the Ploučnice River is being created by (1) natural lateral shifts in the channel (up to 0.5 m/year); (2) meander loop development and cutoffs at the timescale of decades to centuries and spatial scale of up to ~ 1/4 of the floodplain width; and (3) more substantial reorganisation of the channel structure by avulsions, probably at the timescale of centuries. These processes continuously create space for the deposition of overbank fines on the top of former point bars and in swales and abandoned channels. As a consequence of the speed of the channel shifts, at least 80% of the fine-grained top of the floodplain fill (overbank fines) was reworked over approximately three centuries.

  8. Multi-stage evolution of xenotime-(Y) from Písek pegmatites, Czech Republic: an electron probe micro-analysis and Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švecová, E.; Čopjaková, R.; Losos, Z.; Škoda, R.; Nasdala, L.; Cícha, J.

    2016-04-01

    The chemical variability, degree of radiation damage, and alteration of xenotime from the Písek granitic pegmatites (Czech Republic) were investigated by micro-chemical analysis and Raman spectroscopy. Dominant large xenotime-(Y) grains enriched in U, Th and Zr crystallized from a melt almost simultaneously with zircon, monazite and tourmaline. Xenotime is well to poorly crystalline depending on its U and Th contents. It shows complex secondary textures cutting magmatic growth zones as a result of its interaction with F,Ca,alkali-rich fluids during the hydrothermal stage of the pegmatite evolution. The magmatic xenotime underwent intense secondary alteration, from rims inwards, resulting in the formation of inclusion-rich well crystalline xenotime domains of near end-member composition. Two types of recrystallization were distinguished in relation to the type of inclusions: i) xenotime with coffinite-thorite, cheralite and monazite inclusions and ii) xenotime with zirconcheralite and zircon inclusions. Additionally, inner poorly crystalline U,Th-rich xenotime domains were locally altered, hydrated, depleted in P, Y, HREE, U, Si and radiogenic Pb, and enriched in fluid-borne cations (mainly Ca, F, Th, Zr, Fe). Interaction of radiation-damaged xenotime with hydrothermal fluids resulted in the disturbance of the U-Th-Pb system. Alteration of radiation-damaged xenotime was followed by intensive recrystallization indicating the presence of fluids >200 °C. Subsequently other types of xenotime formed as a consequence of fluid-driven alteration of magmatic monazite, and Y,REE,Ti,Nb-oxides or crystallized from hydrothermal fluids along cracks in magmatic monazite and xenotime.

  9. A tree-ring perspective on temporal changes in the frequency and intensity of hydroclimatic extremes in the territory of the Czech Republic since 761 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolný, P.; Rybníček, M.; Kolář, T.; Brázdil, R.; Trnka, M.; Büntgen, U.

    2015-07-01

    It is generally accepted that anthropogenic-induced climate change may affect the frequency and intensity of hydrological extremes, together with a variety of subsequent impacts on ecosystems and human society. Proxy records that are absolutely dated and annually resolved are indispensable to a better understanding of temporal changes in the occurrence of floods and droughts. This contribution presents a new dataset of 3194 oak (Quercus spp.) ring width samples from living trees and historical timbers, collected across the Czech Republic. A composite tree-ring width (TRW) chronology is developed that best captures the high-frequency extremes over the past 1250 years. The temporal distribution of negative and positive extremes is regular with no indication of clustering. The highest number of negative extremes was found in the 19th century, while positive extremes were most frequent in the 12th century. The lowest number of negative and positive extremes occurred in the 18th and 13th centuries respectively. Negative and positive TRW extremes were compared with the instrumental measurements back to 1805 AD, with documentary-based temperature and precipitation reconstructions from 1804 to 1500, and with documentary evidence before 1500 AD. Negative TRW extremes coincided with above-average March-May and June-August temperature means and below-average precipitation totals. Positive extremes coincided with higher summer precipitation, while temperatures were mostly normal. Mean sea level pressure (SLP) over the European/North Atlantic sector suggested drought for the negative oak TRW extremes, whereas the positive extremes corresponded to wetter conditions overall. More consistent patterns of synoptic SLP were found for negative rather than for positive extremes. Reasons for the possible offset between the oak-based hydroclimatic extremes and their counterparts from meteorological observations and documentary evidence may be manifold and emphasize the need for multi

  10. Hyperspectral data for assessment of temporal changes in Norway spruce forest conditions in the mountainous region of the Czech Republic affected by long-term acidic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Misurec, J.; Kopackova, V.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Edwards-Jonasova, M.; Kupkova, L.; Cervena, L.; Potuckova, M.; Cudlin, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Ore Mts. located in the western part of the Czech Republic suffered during 1950's-1990´s heavy atmospheric pollution due to the mining activities and brown coal combustion. Acidic deposition in combination with harsh climatic conditions led there to large-scale forest decline. Although the load of SO2 has significantly decreased since 1991, tree damage was still visible in 1998 in terms of high defoliation or dead trees. Nowadays Norway spruce trees do not exhibit visible symptoms of damage but the full recovery of Norway spruce forests is not complete yet due to persisting adverse soil conditions. The temporal changes in the physiological status of Norway spruce forests in the Krušné Hory Mts. were evaluated using two sets of spectral images acquired in 1998 (ASAS) and in 2013 (APEX) and ground truth data (LAI, tree crown status, photosynthetic pigment contents, leaf spectral properties measured by spectroradiometer, soil properties - pH, contents of basic cations, heavy metals, etc.). Ground truth data were evaluated by unconstrained and constrained multivariate analyses using Canoco 5. The high resolution spectral images (ASAS and APEX) enabled the identification of a gradient of forest conditions and their comparison. In 1998 the stands exhibited different physiological status corresponding to the pollution gradient with healthier trees at the western part of the mountains. Analysis of the foliar chemistry in 2013 show a slight improvement of the Norway spruce physiological status in the eastern part of the mountains while the status of the western-located stands slightly worsened. In 2013 we also studied the differences in soil geochemical conditions, which appeared to be less favorable in the western part of the mountains characterized by a low base cation contents in the top organic horizon and a very low pH (pH<3).

  11. Influence of climatic factors on the low yields of spring barley and winter wheat in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic) during the 1961-2007 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolář, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Hlavinka, Petr

    2014-08-01

    The paper aims to study the variability of spring barley and winter wheat yields, the most important crops in the Czech Republic, with respect to the variability of weather and climatic factors. Yields of both crops have been studied for 13 districts in Southern Moravia for the 1961-2007 period. From detrended series of spring barley and winter wheat yields, years with very low (lower than the mean minus a 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) and extremely low (interval given by the mean minus a 1.5- and 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) yields were selected. Years in which at least one of the districts had extremely low/very low yields were further analyzed. From 10 such years selected separately for spring barley and winter wheat, six of them agreed for both crops. Extreme years were studied using NUTS4-level yield data with respect to temperature, precipitation, the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), snow cover, frost patterns, and the onset and duration of select phenophases. Extremely/very low barley yields in 1993, 2000, and 2007 were related to high April-June (AMJ) temperatures, low AMJ precipitation totals, and negative AMJ scPDSI (indicating drought) with an earlier onset of flowering and full ripeness and shorter intervals from tillering to flowering and from flowering to full ripeness compared to the entire 1961-2007 mean. As for extremely/very low winter wheat yields, in addition to the previously mentioned factors, winter patterns also played an important role, particularly the occurrence of severe frosts with a coinciding lack of snow cover and a long-lasting snow cover (in highlands), indicating that low yields are the result of not only one unfavorable factor but a combination of several of them.

  12. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum on commercial swine farms in the Czech Republic and its associations with age and husbandry practices.

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kernerová, Naděžda; Rost, Michael; Cama, Vitaliano A; Kváč, Martin

    2013-03-01

    From 2009 to 2011, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. was investigated on 22 farms in the Czech Republic. A total of 1,620 individual faecal samples of pigs of all age categories (pre-weaned, starters, pre-growers, growers, and sows) were evaluated for presence of Cryptosporidium spp. by standard microscopy and molecular tools. Genotyping was done through PCR amplification and characterization of the SSU rRNA (species-specific protocols) and GP60 loci. Cryptosporidium spp. was found on 16 of 22 farms with a range 0.9-71.4 %. Overall, 194 (12 %) specimens were positive by microscopy and 353 (21.8 %) by PCR. While RFLP and direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products showed presence of Cryptosporidium suis (142), Cryptosporidium scrofarum (195), Cryptosporidium muris (3) and 13 samples had mixed infections with C. suis and C. scrofarum, species-specific molecular tools identified C. suis (224), C. scrofarum (208), Cryptosporidium parvum subtype IIa A16G1R1b (1), and C. muris (3). In addition, a total of 82 pigs had concurrent infections with C. suis and C. scrofarum. The analysis by age showed that C. suis was primarily detected among pre-weaned, whereas C. scrofarum was mostly detected among starters, especially those weaned at a younger age. Moreover, C. scrofarum never has been detected in animals younger than 6 weeks of age. Also, piglets weaned at 3 weeks of age were twice more likely to be infected with C. scrofarum than piglets weaned at an older age. Pigs raised on straw bedding were more likely to have Cryptosporidium than pigs raised on slats/slurry systems. The infections with different species were not associated with loose faeces or intensity of oocyst shedding, even when comparing different age groups. PMID:23271566

  13. Urban field classification by "local climate zones" in a medium-sized Central European city: the case of Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Michal; Geletič, Jan; Husák, Jan; Vysoudil, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    The stations of the Metropolitan Station Network in Olomouc (Czech Republic) were assigned to local climatic zones, and the temperature characteristics of the stations were compared. The classification of local climatic zones represents an up-to-date concept for the unification of the characterization of the neighborhoods of climate research sites. This study is one of the first to provide a classification of existing stations within local climate zones. Using a combination of GIS-based analyses and field research, the values of geometric and surface cover properties were calculated, and the stations were subsequently classified into the local climate zones. It turned out that the classification of local climatic zones can be efficiently used for representative documentation of the neighborhood of the climate stations. To achieve a full standardization of the description of the neighborhood of a station, the classification procedures, including the methods used for the processing of spatial data and methods used for the indication of specific local characteristics, must be also standardized. Although the main patterns of temperature differences between the stations with a compact rise, those with an open rise and the stations with no rise or sparsely built areas were evident; the air temperature also showed considerable differences within particular zones. These differences were largely caused by various geometric layout of development and by unstandardized placement of the stations. For the direct comparison of temperatures between zones, particularly those stations which have been placed in such a way that they are as representative as possible for the zone in question should be used in further research.

  14. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum on commercial swine farms in the Czech Republic and its associations with age and husbandry practices

    PubMed Central

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kernerová, Naděžda; Rost, Michael; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Kváč, Martin

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. was investigated on 22 farms in the Czech Republic. A total of 1,620 individual faecal samples of pigs of all age categories (pre-weaned, starters, pre-growers, growers, and sows) were evaluated for presence of Cryptosporidium spp. by standard microscopy and molecular tools. Genotyping was done through PCR amplification and characterization of the SSU rRNA (species-specific protocols) and GP60 loci. Cryptosporidium spp. was found on 16 of 22 farms with a range 0.9–71.4 %. Overall, 194 (12 %) specimens were positive by microscopy and 353 (21.8 %) by PCR. While RFLP and direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products showed presence of Cryptosporidium suis (142), Cryptosporidium scrofarum (195), Cryptosporidium muris (3) and 13 samples had mixed infections with C. suis and C. scrofarum, species-specific molecular tools identified C. suis (224), C. scrofarum (208), Cryptosporidium parvum subtype IIa A16G1R1b (1), and C. muris (3). In addition, a total of 82 pigs had concurrent infections with C. suis and C. scrofarum. The analysis by age showed that C. suis was primarily detected among pre-weaned, whereas C. scrofarum was mostly detected among starters, especially those weaned at a younger age. Moreover, C. scrofarum never has been detected in animals younger than 6 weeks of age. Also, piglets weaned at 3 weeks of age were twice more likely to be infected with C. scrofarum than piglets weaned at an older age. Pigs raised on straw bedding were more likely to have Cryptosporidium than pigs raised on slats/slurry systems. The infections with different species were not associated with loose faeces or intensity of oocyst shedding, even when comparing different age groups. PMID:23271566

  15. Hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts, as derived from taxation records for south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic, AD 1751-1900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.; Chromá, K.; Valášek, H.; Dolák, L.

    2011-12-01

    Historical written records associated with tax relief at ten estates located in south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic) are used for the study of hydrometeorological extremes and their impacts during the period AD 1751-1900. At the time, the taxation system in Moravia allowed farmers to request tax relief if their crop yields had been negatively affected by hydrological and meteorological extremes. The documentation involved contains information about the type of extreme event and the date of its occurrence, while the impact on crops may often be derived. A total of 175 extreme events resulting in some kind of damage is documented for 1751-1900, with the highest concentration between 1811 and 1860 (74.9% of all events analysed). The nature of events leading to damage (of a possible 272 types) include hailstorm (25.7%), torrential rain (21.7%), and flood (21.0%), followed by thunderstorm, flash flood, late frost and windstorm. The four most outstanding events, affecting the highest number of settlements, were thunderstorms with hailstorms (25 June 1825, 20 May 1847 and 29 June 1890) and flooding of the River Morava (mid-June 1847). Hydrometeorological extremes in the 1816-1855 period are compared with those occurring during the recent 1961-2000 period. The results obtained are inevitably influenced by uncertainties related to taxation records, such as their temporal and spatial incompleteness, the limits of the period of outside agricultural work (i.e. mainly May-August) and the purpose for which they were originally collected (primarily tax alleviation, i.e. information about hydrometeorological extremes was of secondary importance). Taxation records constitute an important source of data for historical climatology and historical hydrology and have a great potential for use in many European countries.

  16. Response of lateral channel dynamics of a lowland meandering river to engineering-derived adjustments - an example of the Morava River (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondruch, Jakub; Mácka, Zdenek

    2015-11-01

    Freely meandering (quasi)natural reaches of lowland rivers represent a rare phenomenon in Central Europe. Increasing attention is currently being paid to the dynamics of quasi-natural (artificially influenced) meandering rivers as this attention represents the basic prerequisite for the development of appropriate restoration strategies on regulated rivers. This study focused on a 5.5 km long reach of the Morava River in the Strážnické Pomoraví region, Czech Republic that is characterised by quasi-natural evolution after substantial engineering adjustments were made in the first decades of the twentieth century. Based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis of aerial photographs, the spatio-temporal dynamics of bank erosion and accretion rates were quantitatively described and variables that control channel migration rates were identified. High rates of lateral shifts were localised in high sinuosity segments (sinuosity 1.17-2.37), whereas segments with very low rates were straight or formed into slightly curved bends (sinuosity 1.05-1.18). As a key factor, engineering works that influenced local river bed slope and induced a dramatic increase in bank erosion rates were identified. River engineering works induced a dramatic increase in bank erosion rate (2.19 m/year for 1938-53 and 1.47 m/year for 1953-63). An interval of approximately 25 years was needed before the erosion rates dropped back to values documented before river regulation (0.35-1.09 m/year for 1841-1938). Other important controlling variables included radius of curvature, frequency and magnitude of floods and, locally, river bank material properties and floodplain land cover.

  17. Epidemiological survey of enteric viruses in wild boars in the Czech Republic: First evidence of close relationship between wild boar and human rotavirus A strains.

    PubMed

    Moutelíková, Romana; Dufková, Lucie; Kamler, Jiří; Drimaj, Jakub; Plhal, Radim; Prodělalová, Jana

    2016-09-25

    Population of wild boar is increasing in the whole Europe, the animals migrate close to human habitats which greatly increases the possibility of natural transmission between domestic animals or humans and wild boars. The aim of the study was to estimate in population of free-living wild boar in the Czech Republic the prevalence of enteric viral pathogens, namely rotavirus groups A and C (RVA and RVC), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and members of family Coronaviridae (transmissible gastroenteritis virus - TGEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - PEDV, porcine respiratory coronavirus - PRCV, and porcine hemagglutination encephalomyelitis virus - PHEV) and Picornaviridae,(teschovirus A - PTV, sapelovirus A - PSV, and enterovirus G - EV-G). In our study, stool samples from 203 wild boars culled during hunting season 2014-2015 (from October to January) were examined by RT-PCR. RVA was detected in 2.5% of tested samples. Nucleotide analysis of VP7, VP4, and VP6 genes revealed that four RVA strains belong to G4P[25]I1, G4P[6]I5, G11P[13]I5, and G5P[13]I5 genotypes and phylogenetic analysis suggested close relation to porcine and human RVAs. The prevalence of RVC in wild boar population reached 12.8%, PTV was detected in 20.2%, PSV in 8.9%, and EV-G in 2.5% of samples. During our study no PRRSV or coronaviruses were detected. Our study provides the first evidence of RVC prevalence in wild boars and indicates that wild boars might contribute to the genetic variability of RVA and also serve as an important reservoir of other enteric viruses. PMID:27599927

  18. Direct Encapsulation of Spent Ion-exchange Resins at the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant, Czech Republic - 12367

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Paul; Rima, Steve

    2012-07-01

    At the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant there are large amounts of spent ion exchange resins contained within storage tanks. These resins are a product of the operation of an Active Water Purification System within the Power Plant. Activity levels of the resins are in the range of 105 to 10{sup 6} Bq/l and the main isotopes present are Co-60, Cs-137, Mn-54 and Ag-110m. In order to maintain storage tank availability throughout the planned lifetime of the Power Plant these resins must be removed and disposed of safely. The storage tanks do not have an effective retrieval route for the resins and the installed agitation system is inoperable. A proven system for retrieving and directly encapsulating these resins to a standard required for the Czech repository is described, together with an overview of operational performance. Experience gained from this and other projects has highlighted some common challenges relating to the treatment of ion-exchange resins and sludges. There are common approaches that can assist in overcoming these challenges. 1. Transport resin / sludge type waste over as short a distance as possible to avoid issues with line plugging. 2. Transport these wastes once and once only wherever possible. 3. Try to keep the treatment process as simple as possible. With sludge or resin handling equipment consider the physical properties foremost - radiological issues can be addressed within any subsequent design. 4. Consider the use of dry-mix technologies. This avoids the requirement for expensive and complicated grouting plant. 5. Avoid the use of make up water for transport purposes if at all possible - it introduces secondary waste that needs to be treated at additional cost. 6. Consider alternative disposal techniques. SIAL{sup R} is AMEC's preferred technology as we developed it and understand it well - additionally the waste loading factors are much higher than for cement. 7. Consider final waste volumes when selecting the disposal technique. Disposal

  19. The CHMI Nowcasting Webportal - Presentation of Nowcasting-related Information to General Public in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Petr; Kyznarova, Hana

    2013-04-01

    For successful nowcasting of meteorological phenomena, it is not enough to have access to precise high-resolution measurements and to run sophisticated nowcasting systems but also to present obtained analyses and forecasts to the end-user with minimal time delay and with possibility of detailed geographical and temporal localization of hazardous meteorological events. The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) utilizes measurements from wide range of meteorological instruments (own and internationally exchanged) and runs several nowcasting systems focusing on different meteorological hazards. Participation of the CHMI in the INCA-CE project (CENTRAL EUROPE Programme co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund) facilitated implementation of the INCA nowcasting system in the CHMI (INCA-CZ) and also accelerated development of new CHMI Nowcasting Webportal. The CHMI Nowcasting Webportal is a web application that enables not only presentation of analyses and forecasts from the INCA-CZ nowcasting system but also includes remote-sensing and station measurements and results of some other nowcasting tools (like the COTREC extrapolation forecasts). The CHMI Nowcasting Webportal is based on experiences with previous development of the JSMeteoView (web-based visualization tool of remote sensing data used operationally by the CHMI forecast offices). The webportal is available to general public on the CHMI webserver. In comparison with former web-presentations, people get access to more meteorological information with better temporal and spatial resolution. Utilization of specialized high-resolution pre-generated geographical layers and Google Maps API enable flexible visualization of meteorological fields and detailed geographical localization. The source code of the CHMI Nowcasting Webportal was used as a basis for developmet of INCA-CE Central European Nowcasting Webportal in Austrian weather service (ZAMG). Some of the newly developed features of the webportal

  20. [First results of participation of the Czech Republic in the 7th Framework Programme, priority Health, in years 2007-2013].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita

    2013-01-01

    European Commission has announced the first preliminary results of participation in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7), priority Health. The overview presents the basic statistics regarding the participation of the Czech teams, universities, institutions, and small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in FP7 projects. The aim of the article is to present the basic data on the projects with the Czech participation, the EU financial contribution for Czech teams and the main research topics. PMID:24041023

  1. Retrospective determination of 137Cs specific activity distribution in spruce bark and bark aggregated transfer factor in forests on the scale of the Czech Republic ten years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Suchara, I; Rulík, P; Hůlka, J; Pilátová, H

    2011-04-15

    The (137)Cs specific activities (mean 32Bq kg(-1)) were determined in spruce bark samples that had been collected at 192 sampling plots throughout the Czech Republic in 1995, and were related to the sampling year. The (137)Cs specific activities in spruce bark correlated significantly with the (137)Cs depositions in areas affected by different precipitation sums operating at the time of the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. The ratio of the (137)Cs specific activities in bark and of the (137)Cs deposition levels yielded bark aggregated transfer factor T(ag) about 10.5×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1). Taking into account the residual specific activities of (137)Cs in bark 20Bq kg(-1) and the available pre-Chernobyl data on the (137)Cs deposition loads on the soil surface in the Czech Republic, the real aggregated transfer factor after and before the Chernobyl fallout proved to be T*(ag)=3.3×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1) and T**(ag)=4.0×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1), respectively. The aggregated transfer factors T*(ag) for (137)Cs and spruce bark did not differ significantly in areas unequally affected by the (137)Cs fallout in the Czech Republic in 1986, and the figures for these aggregated transfer factors were very similar to the mean bark T(ag) values published from the extensively affected areas near Chernobyl. The magnitude of the (137)Cs aggregated transfer factors for spruce bark for the pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl period in the Czech Republic was also very similar. The variability in spruce bark acidity caused by the operation of local anthropogenic air pollution sources did not significantly influence the accumulation and retention of (137)Cs in spruce bark. Increasing elevation of the bark sampling plots had a significant effect on raising the remaining (137)Cs specific activities in bark in areas affected by precipitation at the time when the plumes crossed, because the sums of this precipitation increased with elevation (covariable). PMID:21377193

  2. Petrographic and porosimetric study of opuka stones from different construction phases of the medieval Church of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist in Dolní Chabry (Prague, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidova, Katerina; Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptova, Zuzana; Racek, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Opuka as a very fine-grained sedimentary rock deposited during Upper Cretaceous in relatively shallow (hemipelagic) marine conditions in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Czech Republic) represents type of natural stone that has been widely exploited and used for construction from about 9th c. AD. Romanesque churches in Prague and central Bohemia are among the first preserved structures for which the opuka has been used. Question whether very local or more distant sources have been employed represents still unsolved matter. In the recent study, we focus on the detailed analysis of specimens of opuka taken from the Church of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist in Dolní Chabry (Prague). During the previous archaeological survey of the recent church (dated to 12th c. AD), remnants (basements constructed of opuka stone) of three older churches have recognized. The aim of recent material study is recognition of similarities or differences between opuka stones coming from these different construction phases and answering a question, whether material from a single source or from different localities has been employed. The study is based on the detailed petrographic examination using four sets of techniques: (1) microscopic observation (basic optical microscopy supplemented with the electron microscopy with microanalysis and X-ray elemental mapping), (2) X-ray diffraction of insoluble residue (composition of clay fraction and detection of some less organized silica forms), (3) chemical analysis and computation of modal composition by using normative minerals based on known mineralogical composition (input from microscopy and XRD), (4) study of physical properties, specifically by means of mercury porosimetry to quantify complex pore space of these rocks. Based on the results, three basic sets of specimens have been distinguished: (1) opuka stone with low content of carbonates (22-26 wt. %) and with higher content of kaolinite and illite (both WCI and PCI), (2) opuka stone

  3. Monitoring and assessment of radionuclide discharges from Temelín Nuclear Power Plant into the Vltava River (Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Hanslík, Eduard; Ivanovová, Diana; Juranová, Eva; Simonek, Pavel; Jedináková-Krízová, Vĕra

    2009-02-01

    The paper summarizes impacts of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on the Vltava and Labe River basins. The study is based on the results of long-term monitoring carried out before the plant operation (1989-2000), and subsequently during the plant operation (2001-2005). In the first period, the main objective was to determine background radionuclide levels remaining in the environment after global fallout and due to the Chernobyl accident. A decrease in the concentrations of (90)Sr, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, which was observed before the plant operation, continued also during the subsequent period. Apart from tritium, the results of the observation did not indicate any impacts of the plant on the concentrations of activation and fission products in the hydrosphere. The annual average tritium concentrations in the Vltava River were in agreement with predicted values. The maximum annual average tritium concentration (13.5 Bq L(-1)) was observed in 2004 downstream from the wastewater discharge in the Vltava River at Solenice. Estimated radiation doses for adults due to intakes of river water as drinking water contaminated by tritium are below 0.1 microSv y(-1). PMID:19070946

  4. Spatial distribution of a population at risk: an important factor for understanding the recent rise in tick-borne diseases (Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in the Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Zeman, Petr; Benes, Cestmir

    2013-12-01

    Recent rise in tick-borne diseases in many parts of Europe is a phenomenon in need of an explanation. We analyzed temporal trends in spatial distribution of a population at risk of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and as a control, also of a 'non-tick-borne disease' in the Czech Republic in 1997-2010. Analysis revealed that the population's exposure had been increasingly confined to the nearest surroundings of residences or in totally residential locations and that the incidence of the diseases depended in some causal way on how close to residences people exposed themselves to the risk. The rise in Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis was solely due to infections acquired at or near patients' homes (<5 km), while the number of cases acquired further away was decreasing. The detected patterns in the data question some of the hypotheses which may be applicable in explaining the rise in disease incidences in the Czech Republic including the effect of climate change. Potentially causal factors are discussed. PMID:24139627

  5. An evidence-based approach in school prevention means an everyday fight: a case study of the Czech Republic's experience with national quality standards and a national certification system.

    PubMed

    Miovsky, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The Czech Republic has reached the end of a 15-year-long period of the development of a nationwide preventive system in schools. Reflection on this development can offer an interesting case study that demonstrates the general difficulties involved in creating a national prevention policy and implementing the principles of an evidence-based approach. Through its historical context the up-to-date outputs of the latest projects are presented as “key documents” (quality standards, textbook, explanatory dictionary, examples of good practice etc.) and a national system of assessment of quality called a certification procedure, which has a practical impact on the grant system of the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic. This context is also used to show how certain European networks (EUSPR, IREFREA, etc.) can be very helpful in generalizing this idea across Europe. All the examples of activities on the national or international level seem to be promising and supportive of the increasingly noticeable trend of using research evidence in real practice and making the whole field more attractive for students and young researchers. PMID:23880832

  6. Assessment and treatment of aphasia in czech.

    PubMed

    Lehečková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Intervention approaches to aphasia differ in different countries. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the situation in the Czech Republic. The following topics are summarized: (1) Czech logopedics in aphasiology; (2) the assessment of aphasia; (3) the treatment of aphasia; (4) Czech aphasiologic material; (5) the qualification of clinical logopedists, and (6) regulations of aphasiologic care. Czech is a very intricate language, both phonetically and grammatically. The prevalence of consonants appearing in long sequences (a whole sentence can be constructed purely of consonants) makes it difficult to pronounce. The strong inflecting character with hundreds of grammatical forms for each inflected word makes it difficult to use correct morphology and syntax. These facts make Czech a real challenge both for aphasics and logopedists. An overview of aphasia tests and treatment methods used in the Czech Republic, as well as conditions of logopedic care are given. The paper will allow comparison with the situation in other countries. PMID:23108445

  7. Comparison of UTCI with other thermal indices in the assessment of heat and cold effects on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Ales; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have compared various human thermal comfort indices as to their applications in evaluating heat-related mortality. Much less attention has been devoted to application of thermal indices in evaluating cold-related mortality. So far, only a few studies have examined performance of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), one of the most advanced indicators of biometeorological conditions, in assessing heat- and cold-related mortality. We compare UTCI and other selected thermal indices in analysing heat- and cold-related effects on cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in two different (urban and rural) regions in the Czech Republic during the 16-year period of 1994-2009. Excess mortality is represented by the number of deaths above expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The association between excess CVD mortality and air temperature, UTCI, Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), and Apparent Temperature (AT) is analyzed using Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs). Heat- / cold-stress days are identified by percentiles of (equivalent) temperature distribution in summer / winter. We found air temperature (as the most widely used proxy for ambient thermal conditions in environmental epidemiology) comparable to thermal indices in assessing heat-related mortality. On the other hand, air temperature provides a weak cold effect in comparison with the thermal indices in both regions and its application may underestimate the magnitude of cold-related mortality. These findings are important when possible climate change effects on heat- and cold-related mortality are estimated. AT and PET appear to be more universal predictors of heat- and cold- related mortality than UTCI when both urban and rural environments are of concern. UTCI tends to select windy rather than freezing days in winter, though these show little effect on mortality in the

  8. Predicting Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) Scores: A Recursive Partitioning Analysis Using Survey Data from Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Blankers, Matthijs; Frijns, Tom; Belackova, Vendula; Rossi, Carla; Svensson, Bengt; Trautmann, Franz; van Laar, Margriet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis is Europe's most commonly used illicit drug. Some users do not develop dependence or other problems, whereas others do. Many factors are associated with the occurrence of cannabis-related disorders. This makes it difficult to identify key risk factors and markers to profile at-risk cannabis users using traditional hypothesis-driven approaches. Therefore, the use of a data-mining technique called binary recursive partitioning is demonstrated in this study by creating a classification tree to profile at-risk users. Methods 59 variables on cannabis use and drug market experiences were extracted from an internet-based survey dataset collected in four European countries (Czech Republic, Italy, Netherlands and Sweden), n = 2617. These 59 potential predictors of problematic cannabis use were used to partition individual respondents into subgroups with low and high risk of having a cannabis use disorder, based on their responses on the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test. Both a generic model for the four countries combined and four country-specific models were constructed. Results Of the 59 variables included in the first analysis step, only three variables were required to construct a generic partitioning model to classify high risk cannabis users with 65–73% accuracy. Based on the generic model for the four countries combined, the highest risk for cannabis use disorder is seen in participants reporting a cannabis use on more than 200 days in the last 12 months. In comparison to the generic model, the country-specific models led to modest, non-significant improvements in classification accuracy, with an exception for Italy (p = 0.01). Conclusion Using recursive partitioning, it is feasible to construct classification trees based on only a few variables with acceptable performance to classify cannabis users into groups with low or high risk of meeting criteria for cannabis use disorder. The number of cannabis use days in the last 12 months is the

  9. Effect of the bias correction on computed extremes based on simulations of ALADIN-Climate/CZ for the area of the Czech and Slovak Republics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr; Zahradnicek, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    těpánek, 2008). For the analysis presented here, the grid points with the highest and lowest altitudes within the area of the Czech and Slovak Republics were selected and then compared separately. The results are investigated both for corrected and uncorrected RCM outputs.

  10. Sediment accumulation rates and high-resolution stratigraphy of recent fluvial suspension deposits in various fluvial settings, Morava River catchment area, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedláček, Jan; Bábek, Ondřej; Kielar, Ondřej

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study concerning sedimentary processes in fluvial sediment traps within the Morava River catchment area (Czech Republic) involving three dammed reservoirs, four meanders and oxbow lakes, and several natural floodplain sites. The objective of the study was to determine sediment accumulation rates (SAR), estimate erosion rates, calculating these using a combination of the 137Cs method and historical data. Another purpose of this study was to provide insight into changing erosion and accumulation rates over the last century. Extensive water course modifications were carried out in the Morava River catchment area during the twentieth century, which likely affected sedimentation rates along the river course. Other multiproxy stratigraphic methods (X-ray densitometry, magnetic susceptibility, and visible-light reflectance spectrometry) were applied to obtain additional information about sediment infill. Sediment stratigraphy revealed distinct distal-to-proximal patterns, especially in reservoirs. Granulometrically, silts and sandy silts prevailed in sediments. Oxbow lakes and meanders contained larger amounts of clay and organic matter, which is the main difference between them and reservoirs. Pronounced 137Cs peaks were recorded in all studied cores (maximum 377 Bq·kg- 1), thus indicating Chernobyl fallout from 1986 or older events. Calculated sediment accumulation rates were lowest in distal parts of reservoirs (0.13-0.58 cm/y) and floodplains (0.45-0.88 cm/y), moderately high rates were found in proximal parts of reservoirs and oxbow lakes (2.27-4.4 cm/y), and the highest rates in some oxbow lakes located near the river (6-8 cm/y). The frequency of the inundation still can be high in some natural areas as in the Litovelské Pomoraví protected area, whereas the decreasing frequency of the inundation in other modified parts can contribute to a lower sedimentation rate. The local effects such as difference between SARs in oxbow lakes and

  11. Czech Children's Drawing of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Zuhal; Kubiatko, Milan; Topal, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Do world children draw nature pictures in a certain way? Range of mountains in the background, a sun, couple clouds, a river rising from mountains. Is this type of drawing universal in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper? The sample size from Czech Republic included 33 participants from two kindergartens. They were 5 and 6…

  12. Fe-bearing Olenite with Tetrahedrally Coordinated Al from an Abyssal Pegmatite at Kutna Hora, Czech Republic: Structure, Crystal Chemistry, Optical and XANES Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Cempirek,J.; Novak, M.; Ertl, A.; Hughes, J.; Rossman, G.; Dyar, M.

    2006-01-01

    The pale blue rim of olenite on a black crystal of olenite-schorl tourmaline from an abyssal pegmatite at the locality Kuklik, near Kutna Hora, Czech Republic, has been chemically and structurally characterized. The optimized formula, calculated using chemical and structural data, is {sup X}(Na{sub 0.54}Ca{sub 0.14}K{sub 0.01}{D'Alembertian}{sub 0.31}){sup Y}(Al{sub 2.15}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 0.06}Ti{sup 4+}{sub 0.01}) {sup Z}(Al{sub 5.90}Mg{sub 0.10}) {sup T}(Si{sub 5.60}Al{sub 0.40})B{sub 3}O{sub 27} {sup V}[(OH){sub 2.49}O{sub 0.51}] {sup W}(O{sub 0.99}F{sub 0.01}), with {alpha} 15.8838(3), c 7.1056(2) {angstrom} and R = 0.017. The relatively short bond-length, 1.992 {angstrom}, confirms the high content of Al at the Y site ({approx}2.1 atoms per formula unit, apfu). It is similar to that of olenite from the type locality, though the olenite from Kuklik contains significant amounts of Fe at the Y site, and significant amounts of {sup [4]}Al ({approx}0.4 apfu) instead of {sup [4]}B in the T site. This finding is supported by results of the structure determination, which show an enlarged bond-length of {approx}1.626 {angstrom}. This sample of olenite shows that nonstoichiometric content of Si does not always imply {sup [4]}B in aluminous tourmaline. No H could be found at the O1 site by refinement, and the spherical distribution of electron density in the difference-Fourier map around the O1 site supports the conclusion that this site is only or mainly occupied by O and not by OH. On a bond-angle distortion ({sigma}{sub oct}{sup 2} of the ZO{sub 6} octahedron) - distance diagram, the olenite from Kuklik lies between compositions containing 3 (OH) at the V site, and natural buergerite, which contains 0.3 (OH) and 2.7 O at the V site (O3 site). The (OH) content with {approx}2.5 (OH) pfu, which was calculated for a charge-balanced formula, is in a good agreement with these findings and with the integrated intensity of the OH overtones in the 7000 cm{sup -1

  13. Comparative water-quality assessment of the Hai He River basin in the People's Republic of China and three similar basins in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph; Xinquan, Zhou; Chao, Lin; Deguo, Zhi; Chi, Fan Lan; Kaitai, Xu; Ying, Lu; Luo, Yang; Shide, Liu; Dewen, Liu; Yong, Guo; Qi, Tian; Jing, Liu; Weidong, Yu; Shedlock, Robert; Knifong, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water quality with respect to nitrate, major inorganic constituents, pesticides, stable isotopes, and tritium was assessed in the agricultural Tangshan region in the Hai He River basin of the People's Republic of China and compared with three similar regions in the United States: the Delmarva Peninsula of the States of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, and the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys of the State of California. These four regions are considered similar with respect to size, land use, or climate. Median nitrate concentrations were found to be similar in the four regions in most instances, and those median concentrations were below the American nitrate drinking water standard of 10 milligrams per liter, however, higher concentrations, and a greater range of concentration, were evident for the Tangshan region.

  14. Levels and distribution of dissolved hydrophobic organic contaminants in the Morava river in Zlín district, Czech Republic as derived from their accumulation in silicone rubber passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Prokeš, Roman; Vrana, Branislav; Klánová, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Dissolved waterborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were assessed over a period of one year at five sampling sites in a model industrial region in the Czech Republic using silicone rubber passive samplers. The spatial variability of POPs in the studied region in water was small and diffusive pollution sources predominate. Concentrations of the most volatile PAHs decreased with increasing water temperature in the whole region, which reflects the seasonality in atmospheric deposition. The dissolved concentrations of more hydrophobic PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in and downstream the industrial zone are related to desorption from suspended particles. Upstream the industrial area, a positive correlation of dissolved and particle-bound contamination was observed only for DDT metabolites and hexachlorobenzene. Calculated fugacities in water and bottom sediment indicated a fair degree of equilibrium between these compartments for OCPs and PCBs, whereas sediment represented a potential source of PAHs. PMID:22504429

  15. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K2 of the air-kerma standards of the CMI, Czech Republic and the BIPM in low-energy x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. T.; Kessler, C.; Sochor, V.

    2016-01-01

    A key comparison has been made between the air-kerma standards of the CMI, Czech Republic and the BIPM in the low-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in agreement at around the level of the standard uncertainty of the comparison of 3.5 parts in 103. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. [Zdeněk Mařatka and his share in the founding of the Czech Gastroenterological Society and its journal. Gastroenterological Society in Czech and Slovac republics].

    PubMed

    Kment, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Zdeněk Mařatka (1914-2010) was a leading person in a Czech and Slovak gastroenterology in spite of the infavourable approach of the official communist policy to him.. He was one of the founders of gastroenterology in Czechoslovakia. He had been habilitated in 1948 for thesis Ulcerative colitis. Mařatka stood at the first steps of foundation of Czech Gastroenterology Society very soon after the WW2 and followed with the preparation as a secretary ge-neral of the 8th ASNEMGE Congress in Prague 1968 and as a president the 1st Congress of Endoscopy in the very optimistic atmosphere of ,,Prague Spring". He was nominated or elected by several international gastroenterology organisations, during 1976-1980 had been President of ESGE. He started with editoring of Czech gastroenterology Association journal as a member of editorial board and had been its main editor between 1969-1999. His well appreciated novelty in the magazine was a short remarks in one or two sentences from the world scientific literature which appeared in every copy. As an editor emeritus he supported the quality of the journal by many advices and contributions including articles. PMID:25130638

  17. Molecular and antigenic characterization of the H3 hemagglutinin of H3N2 influenza A virus strains collected in the Czech Republic during the 2014/2015 epidemic season.

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Jiřincová, H; Kynčl, J; Havlíčková, M

    2016-01-01

    The 2014/2015 influenza epidemic season was characterized by the predominance of the H3N2 subtype. The presented study investigated the genetic and antigenic heterogeneity of the H3N2 strains collected in the Czech Republic from November 2014 to March 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of the representative H3 hemagglutinin sequences was performed and the glycosylation status and crucial antigenic mutations were compared relative to the 2014 and 2015 vaccine strains (A/Texas/50/2012 and A/Switzerland/9715293/2013) and visualized in the H3 crystal structure. The molecular data were further supplemented by hemagglutination-inhibition test (HIT) results on fifteen H3N2 2014/2015 strains by using the A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2) and A/Switzerland/9715293/13 (H3N2) antisera. Our data on the Czech H3N2 viruses from the 2014/2015 epidemic season could supplement the reports of official authorities with data from a particular geographi-cal area. PMID:27467326

  18. Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks -Evaluation of the REVEALS-based reconstruction using the Czech Republic database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazier, Florence; Kuneš, Petr; Sugita, Shinya; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Broström, Anna; Gaillard, Marie-José

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative estimates of land-cover changes during the Holocene have become increasingly important for a better understanding of the earth surface-atmosphere feedbacks, and refining climate models. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation and land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene in order to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks (see Gaillard et al. CL 1.22). We use the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to estimate the percentage cover of groups of taxa (Plant Functional Types - PFTs) from fossil pollen data at the 1o x 1o scale for selected time windows of the Holocene with contrasting human-induced land-cover (0-100 cal BP, 100-350 cal BP, 350-700 cal BP, 2700-3200 cal BP and 5700-6200 cal BP). The past cover of PFTs will be compared with the outputs of the LPJ-GUESS, a widely-used dynamic vegetation model, and applied as an alternative to the simulated LPG-GUESS vegetation to run the regional climate model RCA3 for the past. Parameters required for REVEALS applications are: raw pollen counts from well-dated pollen sites, pollen productivity estimates (PPEs), fall speed of pollen (FSP), and site size. PPEs and FSP are currently available for 34 taxa in NW Europe (Broström et al, 2008). Large sites (> 100-500 ha) are preferable for estimating regional vegetation composition using REVEALS. However, pollen data from large sites are limited, and bogs and mires have been often used, particularly in mountainous areas. In this study, we use pollen data (Kuneš et al, 2009) from variously-sized sites in each 1°x1° grid cells in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Different methodological alternatives are tested in order to evaluate their impact on the REVEALS-based estimates of the regional vegetation: 1) basin type (lakes or bogs), 2) number of taxa (with or without entomophilous taxa), 3

  19. Identifying the Sources Contributing to PM Exceedances in Ostrava, Czech Republic, Using Passive Aerosol Sampling Coupled with Computer-Controlled Microscopy

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a multi-pollutant source apportionment study in 2012 to quantify the impact of regional as well as local sources on air quality in the Ostrava metropolitan area...

  20. The Source and Impact of Appearance Teasing: An Examination by Sex and Weight Status among Early Adolescents from the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almenara, Carlos A.; Ježek, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some adolescents are victims of negative appearance-related feedback, and this may have lasting adverse effects on their self-evaluation. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and impact of appearance teasing across sex and weight status. Methods: The participants were 570 Czech adolescents (47.9% girls) evaluated at age…

  1. Health and Physical Education as an Important Part of School Curricula: A Comparison of Schools for the Deaf in the Czech Republic and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurkova, Petra; Scheetz, Nanci; Stelzer, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe and compare how physical education classes and healthy lifestyle concepts are taught in selected Czech and U.S. schools for the deaf. Professionals who participated in the study included principals and teachers employed by 4 schools for the deaf. Data from schools were collected during the summer and fall semesters, and…

  2. Fish as Biomonitors of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Hexabromocyclododecane in Czech Aquatic Ecosystems: Pollution of the Elbe River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Pulkrabová, Jana; Hajšlová, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Kazda, Radek

    2007-01-01

    Background Brominated flame retardants (BFRs)—polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)—belong to the group of relatively “new” environmental contaminants. The occurrence of these compounds in the Czech aquatic ecosystem was for the first time documented within the 3-year monitoring study initiated in 2001. In 2002–2003 HBCD and the major PBDE congeners (28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were found in 136 freshwater fish samples collected from several sampling sites located at three Czech rivers (Vltava, Elbe, Tichá Orlice). Chub (Leuciscus cephalus), barbel (Barbus barbus), bream (Abramis brama), perch (Perca fluviatilis), and trout (Salmo trutta), representing the most common fish species, were examined by gas chromatography coupled with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Results The presence of PBDE congeners and HBCD was detected in all analyzed samples (limits of detection for target analyts ranged from 0.015 to 0.1 ng/g lipid weight). Without exception the dominating congener was BDE-47. The most pronounced extent of fish contamination was found in the Vltava river at Klecany, downstream from the industrial agglomeration of Prague. As for fish species, the highest concentrations of PBDEs (sum of congeners) were measured in benthic species, represented by bream and barbel, up to 19.6 ng/g wet weight and 16.5 ng/g wet weight, respectively. The lowest accumulation occurred in predator fish (perch and trout). The highest levels of HBCD were detected in barbel from Srnojedy on the Elbe River (15.6 ng/g wet weight), downstream. PMID:18174947

  3. Czech Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernik, Jiri

    The grammar is designed to be used as a reference for addressing structural problems in Czech. The guide is organized into 11 chapters. The first describes the pronunciation of written Czech and explains spelling conventions. Aspects of the language covered here include the alphabet, arrangement of words in the dictionary, vowels, diphthongs,…

  4. Oil and gas in the Junggar basin the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ji-Yi

    1995-08-01

    The Junggar Basin, located in the north of Xinjiang, China, and with an area of 130000 km{sup 2}, is a compressional inland basin formed during the late Hercynian. Exploration and development of oil and gas in the basin has been run by Karamay Oil & Gas Corporation (KOC). The basin has two basements, Precambrian crystalline basement and Early to Middle Hercynian fold basement. Maximum sedimentary cover from Late Permian to Quaternary is above 20,000m thick. There are six source rocks developed in Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Paleogene, respectively. Of the most important Permian and Jurassic source rocks, the former is oil-prone and the latter gas-prone. Total oil and gas resources in the basin are about 80-100x10 8t. In the mid 1950`s, Karamay oilfield, which is closely, related to the overthrust belt, was discovered in the northwest margin of the basin. Since then, the proven oil reserves in the up to 250km long overthrust belt with Karamay oilfield being the center can be compared to the Cordilleran Overthrust Belt in North America. By the end of 1993, fifteen oil and gas fields have been discovered, and the oil and gas reservoirs are found in all strata from Carboniferous to Tertiary except Cretaceous. The reservoir lithologies are mainly low mature sandstones, conglomerates as well as late Paeleozoic volcanic rocks. The proven reserves are dominantly distributed in the northwest margin, which illustrated unbalanced exploration. The exploration degree in most part of the basin is still low. Since 1961, the crude oil production has been increasing year after year.

  5. 1993 International conference on nuclear waste management and environmental remediation, Prague, Czech Republic, September 5--11, 1993. Combined foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Allen, R.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the trip was to attend the 1993 International Conference on Nuclear Waste Management and Environmental Remediation. The principal objective of this conference was to facilitate a truly international exchange of information on the management of nuclear wastes as well as contaminated facilities and sites emanating from nuclear operations. The conference was sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Czech and Slovak Mechanical Engineering Societies, and the Czech and Slovak Nuclear Societies in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the OECD Nuclear Agency. The conference was cosponsored by the American Nuclear Society, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Canadian Nuclear Society, the (former USSR) Nuclear Society, and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. This was the fourth in a series of biennial conferences, which started in Hong Kong, in 1987. This report summarizes shared aspects of the trip; however, each traveler`s observations and recommendations are reported separately.

  6. Ecosystem Health Assessment of Urban Water Systems in Haihe River Basin, People's Republic of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Zhang, F.; Li, Y.

    2007-05-01

    The Haihe River Basin contains large urban centers and a significant portion of the population of China. The assessment of ecosystem health of urban water systems is the scientific basis for the basin water resources management and ecological restoration. An indicator system was developed for the ecosystem and landscape, which contains three levels. It uses the weighted average fuzzy synthetic evaluation method to assess the health status of urban water systems in order to diagnose the restriction factors of ecosystem health. As a case study in Beijing, the results indicated that the Nanchang River was in a healthy state, the degree of membership belonging to the healthy state was 0.417. In contrast, the Yongding River, the Beihucheng River and the Liangma River were in an unhealthy state; their degrees of membership were 0.585, 0.854 and 0.901 respectively. Much attention should be paid to the urban water systems in the Haihe River Basin, especially for the evaluated systems with an unhealthy state index of over 0.8. These urban water system are very important for the overall integrity of the basin ecosystem.

  7. Influence of orogenesis in basin evolution in the central Asian republics of the CIS

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, S.

    1995-08-01

    A regional synthesis of the structural geology of the central Asia region of the CIS is presented, the study area lying between the Caspian Sea and China and stretching from the Aral Sea south to Afghanistan. Structural analysis of central Asia illustrates the creation of major regional faults that have acted as planes of weakness during the evolution of the region. These faults were repeatedly reactivated in phases of orogenesis, some of which were centred far from the study area. It is shown that the Eurasian Plate did not act as a rigid, unyielding lithospheric unit, but deformed internally as a response to compression at its margins. The influence of these orogenic events on the evolution of basins in the area is described by means of maps and serial sections. The role of major faults in governing the spatial distribution of structural traps in petroleum basins within the study area is also examined. These basins are largely gas-prone, and have ultimate recoverable reserves estimated at over 290 trillion cubic feet of gas and 27 billion barrels of liquids.

  8. Oil fields and new plays in the Rioni foreland basin, Republic of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.G.; Griffith, E.T. ); Sargeant, J. )

    1996-01-01

    The Rioni Basin in West Georgia is an Oligocene foredeep that evolved into a Miocene to Pliocene foreland basin, north of the Achara-Trialeti thrust belt and south of the Greater Caucasus. It extends to the west into the Black Sea. A large number of exploration wildcats have been drilled onshore since the nineteenth century and have led to the discovery of three fields. Exploration was prompted by seeps and restricted to frontal ramp anticlines mapped at surface. No wells have been drilled offshore. Supsa (discovered 1889) contains 29 MMbbl oil in clastic Sarmatian reservoirs. The field has around 50 wells but less than 0.5 MMbbl have been produced. Shromisubani (discovered 1973) contains oil within Maeotian and Pontian clastic reservoirs, Chaladidi oil within Upper Cretaceous chalk. Despite this long and apparently intensive exploration effort, several factors make the basin an exciting target for field redevelopment and further exploration. The quality of existing seismic is very poor both on-and offshore. Reinterpretation of the structure of the fold and thrust belt has suggested the presence of new targets and plays which may be imaged by modern seismic methods. In addition, due to problems associated with central planning, discovered fields have not been optimally developed or even fully appraised. The application of new technology, geological interpretation and investment promises to delineate substantial remaining reserves even after more than one hundred years of exploration.

  9. Oil fields and new plays in the Rioni foreland basin, Republic of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.G.; Griffith, E.T.; Sargeant, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Rioni Basin in West Georgia is an Oligocene foredeep that evolved into a Miocene to Pliocene foreland basin, north of the Achara-Trialeti thrust belt and south of the Greater Caucasus. It extends to the west into the Black Sea. A large number of exploration wildcats have been drilled onshore since the nineteenth century and have led to the discovery of three fields. Exploration was prompted by seeps and restricted to frontal ramp anticlines mapped at surface. No wells have been drilled offshore. Supsa (discovered 1889) contains 29 MMbbl oil in clastic Sarmatian reservoirs. The field has around 50 wells but less than 0.5 MMbbl have been produced. Shromisubani (discovered 1973) contains oil within Maeotian and Pontian clastic reservoirs, Chaladidi oil within Upper Cretaceous chalk. Despite this long and apparently intensive exploration effort, several factors make the basin an exciting target for field redevelopment and further exploration. The quality of existing seismic is very poor both on-and offshore. Reinterpretation of the structure of the fold and thrust belt has suggested the presence of new targets and plays which may be imaged by modern seismic methods. In addition, due to problems associated with central planning, discovered fields have not been optimally developed or even fully appraised. The application of new technology, geological interpretation and investment promises to delineate substantial remaining reserves even after more than one hundred years of exploration.

  10. The prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in 24-hour ultra-mountain bikers, 24-hour ultra-runners and multi-stage ultra-mountain bikers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in two 24-hour mountain bike (MTB) (R1,R2), one 24-hour running (R3) and one multi-stage MTB (R4) races held in the Czech Republic in a cluster of four cross-sectional studies. Methods In 27 ultra-mountain bikers (ultra-MTBers), 12 ultra-runners, and 14 multi-stage MTBers, fluid intake, changes (Δ) in body mass, hematocrit, plasma volume, plasma [Na+], plasma [K+], plasma osmolality, urine [Na+], urine [K+], urine specific gravity, urine osmolality, K+/Na+ ratio in urine, transtubular potassium gradient and glomerular filtration rate were measured and calculated. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and symptoms of EAH were recorded using post-race questionnaires. Results Of the 53 finishers, three (5.7%) developed post-race EAH, thereof one (3.7%) ultra-MTBer, one (8.3%) ultra-runner and one (7.1%) multi-stage MTBer. Plasma [Na+] decreased significantly (p < 0.001) only in R4. Urine osmolality (R1, R3, R4 p < 0.001; R2 p < 0.05) and glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001) increased, and body mass decreased in all races (p < 0.05). Δ body mass was inversely related to the number of kilometers achieved (p < 0.001) in R2 where better ultra-MTBers tended to lose more weight. Δ body mass (p < 0.001) and %Δ body mass (p = 0.05) were positively related to lower post-race plasma [Na+] in R3 that was associated with increased loss in body mass. Fluid intake was positively related to race performance in R1 and R2 (R1: p = 0.04; R2: p = 0.01) where ultra-MTBers in R1 and R2 who drank more finished ahead of those who drank less. Post-race plasma [Na+] was negatively associated with race performance in ultra-MTBers in R2 (p < 0.05), similarly ultra-runners in R3 (p < 0.05) where finishers with more kilometres had lower post-race plasma [Na+]. Conclusions The prevalence of EAH in the Czech Republic was no higher compared to existing reports on ultra-endurance athletes in other countries

  11. The Czech Way of Inclusion through an Experiential Education Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudlacek, Martin; Bocarro, Jason; Jirasek, Ivo; Hanus, Radek

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the development of inclusive experiential education courses in the Czech Republic. The inclusion of people with disabilities (PWD) in recreation, sport, and education has become more prevalent in Czech society. This article describes the conceptual meaning of the term inclusion from both a historical and…

  12. The Bologna Process and the Czech System of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pol, Milan

    2005-01-01

    The Czech system of education has been through several years of relatively intensive transformation efforts reflecting the international processes of transformation of higher education the Czech Republic joined. The most important external stimulus directing the transformation process is the so-called Bologna process. These complex and…

  13. Kosetice, Czech Republic--ten years of air pollution monitoring and four years of evaluating the origin of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Dvorska, Alice; Lammel, Gerhard; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2008-11-01

    The regional observatory Kosetice is a central European background station. Unique continuous monitoring from 1988 on is held here. POP (persistent organic pollutant) concentration values of air samples from Kosetice taken between 1996 and 2005 were statistically processed. Values of Czech ambient air quality standards were not exceeded. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reached two maxima, in 1996 and 2001-2002. Polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations reached the highest values in 1997 and 1998 and hexachlorocyclohexanes concentrations in 1998. DDTs, hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene were analysed as well. Long-range transport of pollutants between 2002 and 2005 was evaluated using the Potential Source Contribution Function hybrid receptor model. Indicated potential source areas of PCBs coincide with many well-known urban and industrialised areas, while the indicated potential source areas of HCHs and DDTs coincide with many agricultural and/or forested regions and the potential source areas of HCB comprise all land use types. PMID:18495308

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Lithuania in the 2000s: findings from the HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Vikhireva, Olga; Pikhart, Hynek; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Peasey, Anne; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively large socioeconomic inequalities in health and mortality have been observed in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU). Yet comparative data are sparse and virtually all studies include only education. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality during the 2000s in urban population samples from four CEE/FSU countries, by three different measures of socioeconomic position (SEP) (education, difficulty buying food and household amenities), reflecting different aspects of SEP. Methods Data from the prospective population-based HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe) study were used. The baseline survey (2002–2005) included 16 812 men and 19 180 women aged 45–69 years in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Data were analysed by direct standardisation and Cox regression, quantifying absolute and relative SEP differences. Results Mortality inequalities by the three SEP indicators were observed in all samples. The magnitude of inequalities varied according to gender, country and SEP measure. As expected, given the high mortality rates in Russian men, largest absolute inequalities were found among Russian men (educational slope index of inequality was 19.4 per 1000 person-years). Largest relative inequalities were observed in Czech men and Lithuanian subjects. Disadvantage by all three SEP measures remained strongly associated with increased mortality after adjusting for the other SEP indicators. Conclusions The results emphasise the importance of all SEP measures for understanding mortality inequalities in CEE/FSU. PMID:24227051

  15. The Use of Legally-Imposed and Locally-Negotiated Incentive Approaches in the Siting of Nuclear Waste Management Facilities: Comparing Stakeholders' Views in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia - 13534

    SciTech Connect

    Kojo, Matti; Richardson, Phil

    2013-07-01

    The purpose here is to contribute to the discussion surrounding the use of community benefits (also known as added value) in radioactive waste facility siting programmes. These are becoming more widely used following a series of programme failures around the world, due in the main to a lack of local involvement. A number of different models for the use of community benefits and why they may or may not assist a siting process exist in the literature, based on either a voluntary market approach or one involving coercion by a state authority or developer. Review of real-life examples suggests that two main approaches to the use of benefits exist, a 'legally-mandated' approach where details are laid down in legislation, and a 'locally-negotiated' approach where the details are agreed by the parties through discussions. As part of the European Commission supported IPPA project (Implementing Public Participation Approaches in Radioactive Waste Disposal), stakeholder groups in three participant countries, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia, all of which currently utilise the 'legally-mandated' approach to the provision of community benefits, were invited to respond to a series of questions designed to explore their attitudes and thoughts about the two approaches and related issues such as trust in the institutions and the legal framework. Some initial results and conclusions are presented, although this work is continuing and will be reported at the end of the IPPA project in 2013. (authors)

  16. Blue, complexly zoned, (Na,Mg,Fe,Li)-rich beryl from quartz-calcite veins in low-grade metamorphosed Fe-deposit Skály near Rýmařov, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Milan; Gadas, Petr; Filip, Jan; Vaculovič, Tomáš; Přikryl, Jan; Fojt, Bohuslav

    2011-10-01

    Syn-tectonic quartz-calcite veins containing blue beryl are enclosed in hematite > magnetite-rich portions of the low-grade metamorphosed Fe-deposit Skály near Rýmařov, Czech Republic. Aggregates of pale to deep blue beryl, up to 2 cm in diameter, are associated with euclase, clinochlore, hematite, albite and dravite. Complexly zoned beryl crystals consist of skeletal aggregates of beryl I randomly distributed within volumetrically dominant beryl II with narrow rims of beryl III. All types of beryl have similar contents of Na (0.32-0.49 apfu) and Mg (0.31-0.41 apfu) but variable contents of Fetot (0.05-0.34 apfu) and Al (1.20-1.62 apfu). The LA-ICP-MS study yielded elevated contents of Li, up 1,314 ppm (0.28 wt.% Li2O) in beryl I. The quartz-calcite veins represent an unusual type of low-T metamorphic-hydrothermal vein related to Fe-ore deposit characterized by single-stage fracturing and mobilization in a closed system at T~200-300°C and CO{3/2-} as a major complexing agent for the mobility of Be.

  17. Parent-Child Associations in Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour on Weekdays and Weekends in Random Samples of Families in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Sigmundová, Dagmar; Sigmund, Erik; Vokáčová, Jana; Kopčáková, Jaroslava

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether more physically active parents bring up more physically active children and whether parents’ level of physical activity helps children achieve step count recommendations on weekdays and weekends. The participants (388 parents aged 35–45 and their 485 children aged 9–12) were randomly recruited from 21 Czech government-funded primary schools. The participants recorded pedometer step counts for seven days (≥10 h a day) during April–May and September–October of 2013. Logistic regression (Enter method) was used to examine the achievement of the international recommendations of 11,000 steps/day for girls and 13,000 steps/day for boys. The children of fathers and mothers who met the weekend recommendation of 10,000 steps were 5.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.65; 18.19; p < 0.01) and 3.60 times, respectively (95% confidence interval: 1.21; 10.74; p < 0.05) more likely to achieve the international weekend recommendation than the children of less active parents. The children of mothers who reached the weekday pedometer-based step count recommendation were 4.94 times (95% confidence interval: 1.45; 16.82; p < 0.05) more likely to fulfil the step count recommendation on weekdays than the children of less active mothers. PMID:25026084

  18. Seismic detection of overpressuring and fracturing: An example from the Qaidam Basin, People's Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.J. )

    1993-10-01

    Shallow hydrocarbon reserves were discovered in 1959 in the Nan Yi Shan structure located near the western corner of the Qaidam Basin. The first successful deep well encountered an overpressured zone at 3,000 m that resulted in a well blowout. To improve the structural definition of the field and delineate the overpressured layer a 3-D seismic survey was conducted. A region of anomalous seismic time sag associated with fracturing and small quantities of oil and gas was identified on the northwest plunging nose of the Nan Yi Shan anticline. The distribution of stacking (NMO) velocities in this region was regarded as abnormal; stacking velocities derived on the steeply dipping flanks adjacent to the sag anomaly were found to be slower than those on the shallower crest. Ray-trace modeling of a buried low-velocity anomaly provided a possible geometric solution to explain both the time variant nature of the sag and the unusual stacking velocity signature associated with it. A significant difference in seismic and sonic travel times was also observed for wells that penetrated the sag region and was attributed to localized fracturing. In a deeper interval, seismic amplitudes were used to identify gas-saturated fracture porosity and to describe the spatial limits of overpressuring within a thin-bed reservoir. Wells drilled through high-amplitude anomalies encountered overpressuring, those drilled in a region of moderate seismic amplitude tested significant quantities of gas, and wells located outside the region of good coherent signal encountered poor or no hydrocarbon shows. These results demonstrate that with good quality seismic data and sufficient lateral and vertical resolution, thin fractured hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs can be delineated and overpressure zones identified.

  19. Changes in Information Systems in Czech Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavik, Milan

    2004-01-01

    A study carried out in 1998 (reported in the Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 2003) of the information systems used by farmers in the Czech Republic to access information and advice was repeated in 2003. The research aim was to assess whether, and how, the systems had changed during these five years. The perceived importance of 10…

  20. Innovative Teachers at Today's Czech Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotny, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Education in the Czech Republic is at the onset of a very important reform. Its goals are outlined in the National Education Development Programme (so called "White Book," 2001) in quite a detailed manner. The reform should lead to the achievement of certain proportional and quantitative indicators and to the attainment of a target qualitative…

  1. Mutation Analysis of the RAD51C and RAD51D Genes in High-Risk Ovarian Cancer Patients and Families from the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Janatova, Marketa; Soukupova, Jana; Stribrna, Jana; Kleiblova, Petra; Vocka, Michal; Boudova, Petra; Kleibl, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have conferred that the RAD51C and RAD51D genes, which code for the essential proteins involved in homologous recombination, are ovarian cancer (OC) susceptibility genes that may explain genetic risks in high-risk patients. We performed a mutation analysis in 171 high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 negative OC patients, to evaluate the frequency of hereditary RAD51C and RAD51D variants in Czech population. The analysis involved direct sequencing, high resolution melting and multiple ligation-dependent probe analysis. We identified two (1.2%) and three (1.8%) inactivating germline mutations in both respective genes, two of which (c.379_380insG, p.P127Rfs*28 in RAD51C and c.879delG, p.C294Vfs*16 in RAD51D) were novel. Interestingly, an indicative family cancer history was not present in four carriers. Moreover, the ages at the OC diagnoses in identified mutation carriers were substantially lower than those reported in previous studies (four carriers were younger than 45 years). Further, we also described rare missense variants, two in RAD51C and one in RAD51D whose clinical significance needs to be verified. Truncating mutations and rare missense variants ascertained in OC patients were not detected in 1226 control samples. Although the cumulative frequency of RAD51C and RAD51D truncating mutations in our patients was lower than that of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, it may explain OC susceptibility in approximately 3% of high-risk OC patients. Therefore, an RAD51C and RAD51D analysis should be implemented into the comprehensive multi-gene testing for high-risk OC patients, including early-onset OC patients without a family cancer history. PMID:26057125

  2. Results from Dealing with Rock and Gas Outburst Prevention in The Czech Republic / Efekty Działań Mających Na Celu Zapobieganie Wybuchom Skał I Gazu, Podejmowanych W Republice Czeskiej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudeček, Vlastimil; Zapletal, Pavel; Stoniš, Milan; Sojka, Radislav

    2013-09-01

    In the Czech Republic, the prevention of rock and gas outbursts is carried out in the course of driving mine workings in seams and in sandstone and conglomerate beds classified into a category with the highest degree of rock and gas outburst hazard. It is a case of active methods that aim at prevention of rock and gas outbursts by creating a protection zone in front of and in sides of mine workings being driven and passive methods that mitigate the effects of outbursts (Hudeček et al., 2009, 2010). In this article, authors present recommendations and proposals for changes in rock and gas outburst prevention. These proposed changes should reflect in increased efficiency in coping with this anomalous geomechanical events. Działania w celu zapobiegania wybuchom skał i gazów w Republice czeskiej podejmowane są już na etapie drążenia wyrobisk w złożach oraz w piaskowcach oraz w pokładach zlepieńców sklasyfikowanych jako lokalizacje o najwyższym stopniu zagrożenia wybuchami skał i gazów. W tym przypadku mamy do dyspozycji metody aktywne, których celem jest zapobieżenie wybuchom skał i gazów poprzez stworzenie strefy ochronnej w części czołowej i bocznych częściach wyrobiska oraz metody bierne, mające na celu złagodzenie skutków wybuchu (Hudecek et al., 2009, 2010). W artykule autor rekomenduje i zaleca dokonanie pewnych zmian w systemie zapobiegania wybuchom skał i gazów. Proponowane zmiany skutkować powinny zwiększoną skutecznością działania w przypadku wystąpienia zjawisk geomechanicznych uznawanych za anomalie.

  3. Dendrogeomorphic approaches for identifying the probable occurrence of debris flows and related torrential processes in steep headwater catchments: The Hrubý Jeseník Mountains, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichavský, Radek; Šilhán, Karel

    2015-10-01

    Culminating parts of mid-mountain ranges in Central Europe are interwoven by a network of high-gradient streams. These parts, together with the surrounding slopes, form a coupling system in which hazardous geomorphic processes, such as landslides, debris flows or flash floods, can occur. In the case of the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains (Eastern Sudetes, Czech Republic), we present an evaluation of the debris flows and related torrential processes in the high-gradient streams of the selected catchment based on dendrogeomorphic methods. In addition to the classical dendrogeomorphic approaches we refined the procedure of identifying certain and probable events using new weighted indexes for event reconstruction. Additionally, because of the steep narrow channels without a characteristic accumulation cone, a new spatial approach is defined based on the spacing of disturbed trees for each event (random distribution or clustering) and location of disturbed trees in an individual section of the valley floor. Using Kernel Density analysis for each event and calculating the particular grids in ArcGIS software, we are able to describe the spatial reach and probable nature of an event (debris flow or hyperconcentrated flow). Dendrogeomorphic analysis of 397 sampled trees (predominantly coniferous trees) revealed 24 torrential events (15 certain, nine probable) since 1928 with peaks in 1991, 1997 and 2010 according to index values. In addition, the spatial distribution of disturbed trees (grouped in clusters) in these years indicates debris flow events in the upper parts of the catchment. It seems that new dendrogeomorphic approaches should be valuable in remote, steep headwater catchments where several types of processes affect the valley floors.

  4. Phenological response of five wild plant shrubs and assessment its sums of effective units in region of the Czech Republic during 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosova, L.; Bauer, Z.; Trnka, M.; Balek, J.; Kucera, J.; Stepanek, P.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Presented study is focused on 50 years of phenological observations (1961-2010) of five wild plant shrubs and its phenological phases that create a continuous phenological sequence covering the whole spring aspect of floodplain forest. The phases were observed for Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas), English hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha), Midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata), Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) and Common dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). The study was conducted at nature reserve at Vranovice (170 m a.s.l., 48°56´ N, 16°35´ E) with additional data available from three observational sites in the region (15-60 km apart). For each shrub the date of first flower and the date of full flowering were determined. The collected phenological data were analysed together with local meteorological observations for trends and periodicity by software AnClim and PhenoClim developed by Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Mendel University respectively. For each shrub and its phenological phases the sum of effective units above the given threshold were calculate by means of PhenoClim. The values of sum of effective units for weather variables parameters (e. g. mean temperature, maximum temperature) and above given threshold (e. g. range of baseline mean temperature values from 1 to 10°C with step of 0.1°C) were assess. Observations of these five wild plant shrubs have been since season 2009 modernized by extremely detail air temperature measurements and phenocameras (taking multiple series of 12 photos during a single day) for three individuals of Common dogwood at three different habitats (insolated, shaded and half-shaded habitat) at plot Vranovice. This detailed observation provide unusual level of detail about the role of particular location of the given species within the particular site and provides a method allowing for precise determination of the individual phenological stages. The mean annual temperature showed a significant increase of 0.33°C per decade, with

  5. Geochemistry of highly saline fluids in siliciclastic sequences: genetic implications for post-Variscan fluid flow in the Moravosilesian Palaeozoic of the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kučera, Jan; Muchez, Philippe; Slobodník, Marek; Prochaska, Walter

    2010-03-01

    Ubiquitous post-Variscan dolomites occur in Zn-Pb-Cu veins at the Nízký Jeseník Mountains and the Upper Silesian Basin (Lower and Upper Carboniferous siliciclastics at the eastern part of the Bohemian Massif). Crush-leach, stable isotope (oxygen and carbon) and microthermometry analysis of the fluid inclusions in dolomites enable understanding the geochemistry, origin and possible migration pathways of the fluids. Homogenisation temperatures of fluid inclusions range between 66 and 148°C, with generally higher temperatures in the Nízký Jeseník Mountains area than in the Upper Silesian Basin. The highest homogenisation temperatures (up to 148°C) have been found near major regional faults and the lowest in a distant position or at higher stratigraphic levels. Highly saline (16.6-28.4 eq. wt% NaCl) H2O-NaCl-CaCl2 ± MgCl2 fluids occur in inclusions. Na-Cl-Br systematics of trapped fluids and a calculated oxygen isotopic fluid composition between -0.9 and +3.0‰ V-SMOW indicate that the fluid was derived from evaporated seawater. Stable isotopic modelling has been used to explain stable isotopic trends. Isotopic values (δ13C = -6.0/+2.0‰ V-PDB, δ18O = +15.5/+22.5‰ V-SMOW of dolomites) resulted from fractionation and crystallisation within an open system at temperatures between 80 and 160°C. Rock-buffering explains the isotopic composition at low w/r ratios. Organic matter maturation caused the presence of isotopically light carbon in the fluids and fluid-rock interactions largely controlled the fluid chemistry (K, Li, Br and Na contents, K/Cl, I/Cl and Li/Cl molar ratios). The fluid chemistry reflects well the interaction between the fluid and underlying limestones as well as with clay- and organic-rich siliciclastics. No regional trends in temperature or fluid geochemistry favour a fluid migration model characterised by an important vertical upward migration along major faults. A permeable basement and fractured sedimentary sequence enhanced the

  6. Runoff changes in Czech headwater regions after deforestation induced by acid rains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchtele, J.; Buchtelova, M.; Hrkal, Z.; Koskova, R.

    2003-04-01

    Tendencies in water regime resulting from land-use change represent an important subject for research and in the region of so called Black Triangle at the borders of Czech Republic, Germany and Poland urgent practical problem. Namely extensive deforestation in Czech hilly basins induced by acid rains, which appeared in seventies and eighties, requires attention. Discussions among professionals and public, sometimes having emotional character, took place after large floods on the rivers Odra and Morava in 1997 and in Vltava and Elbe river basins in August 2002. The influence of deforestation induced by acid rains in the Central Europe has been considered as important contribution to disastrous character of floods. Simulations of rainfall-runoff process in several catchments and experimental basins in two distinct headwater regions along German borders, with different extent of deforestation have been carried out using daily time series up to 40 years long. The outputs of two hydrological models of different structure have been compared in these investigations: - the conceptual model SAC-SMA - Sacramento soil moisture accounting - physically based 1- D model BROOK´90 The differences between observed and simulated discharge, which could show the tendencies in the runoff have been followed. They indicate increase of runoff after deforestation.

  7. Integrated geophysical and geological methods to investigate the inner and outer structures of the Quaternary Mýtina maar (W-Bohemia, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flechsig, Christina; Heinicke, Jens; Mrlina, Jan; Kämpf, Horst; Nickschick, Tobias; Schmidt, Alina; Bayer, Tomáš; Günther, Thomas; Rücker, Carsten; Seidel, Elisabeth; Seidl, Michal

    2015-11-01

    The Mýtina maar is the first known Quaternary maar in the Bohemian Massif. Based on the results of Mrlina et al. (J Volcanol Geother Res 182:97-112, 2009), a multiparametric geophysical (electrical resistivity tomography, gravimetry, magnetometry, seismics) and geological/petrochemical research study had been carried out. The interpretation of the data has provided new information about the inner structure of the volcanic complex: (1) specification of the depth of post-volcanic sedimentary fill (up to ~100 m) and (2) magnetic and resistivity signs of one (or two) hidden volcanic structures interpreted as intrusions or remains of a scoria cone. The findings at the outer structure of the maar incorporate the (1) evidence of circular fracture zones outside the maar, (2) detection and distribution of volcanic ejecta and tephra-fall deposits at the surface, and (3) indications from electrical resistivity tomography and gravity data in the area between the Mýtina maar and Železná hůrka scoria cone, interpreted as a palaeovalley, filled by volcaniclastic rocks, and aligned along the strike line (NW-SE) of the Tachov fault zone. These findings are valuable contributions to extend the knowledge about structure of maar volcanoes in general. Because of ongoing active magmatic processes in the north-east part of the Cheb Basin (ca. 15-30 km north of the investigation area), the Mýtina maar-diatreme volcano and surroundings is a suitable key area for research directed to reconstruction of the palaeovolcanic evolution and assessment of possible future hazard potential in the Bohemian Massif.

  8. Temporal trends of bulk precipitation and stream water chemistry (1977-1997) in a small forested area, Krusne hory, northern Bohemia, Czech Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Cerny, J.; Havel, M.; Krejci, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Krusne hory (Erzgebirge or Ore Mountains) has been heavily affected by high atmospheric pollutant deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion in an adjacent Tertiary coal basin. Long-term routine sampling of bulk precipitation (1977-1996) and stream water (1977-1998) in a forested area on the south-eastern slope of the mountains were used to evaluate trends and patterns in solute concentration and flux with respect to controlling processes. From 1977 to 1996, the annual volume-weighted Ca2+ and SO42- concentrations decreased in bulk precipitation. However, after 1989, when a pronounced and continuous decrease occurred in coal production, annual volume-weighted concentrations decreased for most solutes, except H+. The concentration decreases were marked, with 1996 levels at or below 50% of those in 1989. The lack of a trend in H+ is attributed to similar decreases in both acid anions and neutralizing base cations. Stream water concentrations of most solutes, i.e. H+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42- and NO3-, were highest at the onset of sampling in 1977, decreased markedly from 1977 to 1983 and decreased more gradually from 1983 to 1998. The spruce forest die-back and removal reduced dry deposition of these solutes by reducing the filtering action, which was provided by the forest canopy. A notable decrease in stream water Ca2+ concentrations occurred after 1995 and may be due to the depletion of Ca2+, which was provided by catchment liming in 1986, 1988 and 1989. Solute flux trends in bulk atmospheric deposition and stream water generally were not significant and the lack of trend is attributed to the large interannual variability in precipitation quantity and runoff, respectively. All solutes except Na+ varied seasonally. The average seasonal concentrations varied between the solutes, but for most solutes were highest in winter and spring and lowest in summer, correlating with the seasonal trend and runoff. For Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42-, the concentration minimum occurs in

  9. The Rožná uranium deposit (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): shear zone-hosted, late Variscan and post-Variscan hydrothermal mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kříbek, Bohdan; Žák, Karel; Dobeš, Petr; Leichmann, Jaromír; Pudilová, Marta; René, Miloš; Scharm, Bohdan; Scharmová, Marta; Hájek, Antonín; Holeczy, Daniel; Hein, Ulrich F.; Lehmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Three major mineralization events are recorded at the Rožná uranium deposit (total mine production of 23,000 t U, average grade of 0.24% U): (1) pre-uranium quartz-sulfide and carbonate-sulfide mineralization, (2) uranium, and (3) post-uranium quartz-carbonate-sulfide mineralization. (1) K-Ar ages for white mica from wall rock alteration of the pre-uranium mineralization style range from 304.5 ± 5.8 to 307.6 ± 6.0 Ma coinciding with the post-orogenic exhumation of the Moldanubian orogenic root and retrograde-metamorphic equilibration of the high-grade metamorphic host rocks. The fluid inclusion record consists of low-salinity aqueous inclusions, together with H2O-CO2-CH4, CO2-CH4, and pure CH4 inclusions. The fluid inclusion, paragenetic, and isotope data suggest that the pre-uranium mineralization formed from a reduced low-salinity aqueous fluid at temperatures close to 300°C. (2) The uraniferous hydrothermal event is subdivided into the pre-ore, ore, and post-ore substages. K-Ar ages of pre-ore authigenic K-feldspar range from 296.3 ± 7.5 to 281.0 ± 5.4 Ma and coincide with the transcurrent reorganization of crustal blocks of the Bohemian Massif and with Late Stephanian to Early Permian rifting. Massive hematitization, albitization, and desilicification of the pre-ore altered rocks indicate an influx of oxidized basinal fluids to the crystalline rocks of the Moldanubian domain. The wide range of salinities of fluid inclusions is interpreted as a result of the large-scale mixing of basinal brines with meteoric water. The cationic composition of these fluids indicates extensive interaction with crystalline rocks. Chlorite thermometry yielded temperatures of 260°C to 310°C. During this substage, uranium was probably leached from the Moldanubian crystalline rocks. The hydrothermal alteration of the ore substage followed, or partly overlapped in time, the pre-ore substage alteration. K-Ar ages of illite from ore substage alteration range from 277.2 ± 5.5 to

  10. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Faja Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Ant?o, and Ribeira Faj? on S?o Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development. Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Faj? indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Faj? tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Faj? have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s. Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground

  11. Lesula: A New Species of Cercopithecus Monkey Endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Implications for Conservation of Congo’s Central Basin

    PubMed Central

    Hart, John A.; Detwiler, Kate M.; Gilbert, Christopher C.; Burrell, Andrew S.; Fuller, James L.; Emetshu, Maurice; Hart, Terese B.; Vosper, Ashley; Sargis, Eric J.; Tosi, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as “lesula” was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba) and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo’s interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba) River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range. PMID:22984482

  12. Contemporary Czech Emerging Adults: Generation Growing Up in the Period of Social Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macek, Petr; Bejcek, Josef; Vanickova, Jitka

    2007-01-01

    Similarly to other European countries, in the Czech Republic scholars can identify a developmental stage of emerging adulthood. There has been a lack of studies describing subjective feelings and personal everyday experiences of young Czechs at this age. Results of the quantitative Study 1 indicate that two thirds of respondents experience the…

  13. "We Treat Them All the Same, But…". Disappearing Ethnic Homogeneity in Czech Classrooms and Teachers' Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarkovská, Lucie; Lišková, Katerina; Obrovská, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the Czech education system is structured to operate in an ethnically homogeneous society. Although the Czech Republic is becoming increasingly heterogeneous, teachers deploy discursive practices of "sameness despite difference" that obscure such growing diversity. This article is grounded in the historical…

  14. Benchmarking in Czech Higher Education: The Case of Schools of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placek, Michal; Ochrana, František; Pucek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of benchmarking in universities in the Czech Republic and academics' experiences with it. It is based on research conducted among academics from economics schools in Czech public and private universities. The results identified several issues regarding the utilisation and understanding of benchmarking in the Czech…

  15. The Cross Currents of Technology Transfer: The Czech and Slovak Library Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Andrew

    A simplified account of an extensive library automation and networking project that the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation initiated and funded in the Czech and Slovak republics is provided in this paper. The proposal to establish "The Czech and Slovak Library Information Network" (CASLIN) commenced in January 1993. Storage, document preservation,…

  16. Y,REE,Nb,Ta,Ti-oxide (AB 2O 6) minerals from REL-REE euxenite-subtype pegmatites of the Třebíč Pluton, Czech Republic; substitutions and fractionation trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škoda, Radek; Novák, Milan

    2007-04-01

    Aeschynite-group minerals (AGM) and euxenite-group minerals (EGM) occur in REL-REE euxenite-subtype pegmatites from the Třebíč Pluton, Czech Republic. They form strongly metamictized, light brown to black, equigranular to needle-like, subhedral to anhedral grains enclosed in blocky K-feldspar and less commonly in albite, and blocky quartz, and in the graphic unit (quartz and K-feldspar). Both AGM and EGM are homogeneous to slightly heterogeneous in BSE images. They are not commonly associated with the other primary Y,REE,Ti,Nb-bearing minerals, i.e. allanite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), titanite, and ilmenite, which occur within the same textural-paragenetic unit. Aeschynite-(Y), aeschynite-(Ce), aeschynite-(Nd), nioboaeschynite-(Ce), tantalaeschynite-(Ce), vigezzite and polycrase-(Y) were identified using EMP and canonical discrimination analysis [Ercit, T.S., 2005a. Identification and alteration trends of granitic-pegmatite-hosted (Y,REE,U,Th)-(Nb,Ta,Ti) oxide minerals: a statistical approach. Can. Mineral. 43, 4 1291-1303.]. The exchange vector ACa B(Nb,Ta) A(Y,REE) - 1 BTi - 1 or its combination with the exchange vector ACa 2B(Nb,Ta) 3A(U,Th) - 1 A(Y,REE) - 1 BTi - 3 have been elucidated for the AGM. The exchange vector ACa A(U,Th) A(Y,REE) - 2 is predominant in the EGM. The AGM are enriched in HREE, whereas LREE are concentrated in the EGM. Weak to none-existent geochemical fractionations, as expressed by the U/(U + Th), Y/(Y + REE), Ta/(Ta + Nb) and (Nb + Ta)/(Ti + Nb + Ta) ratios, were noted for single grains from both the AGM and EGM, as well as in grains of polycrase-(Y) from four different textural-paragenetic units located in the Vladislav pegmatite. Simultaneous increase of U/(U + Th) and Y/(Y + REE) in the AGM during fractionation is typical. The Ta/(Ta + Nb) fractionation is usually weak and contradicts the Y/(Y + REE) and U/(U + Th) fractionation trends. This unusual behavior of Nb and Ta may be controlled by associated Ti-rich minerals (titanite

  17. CzechGeo/EPOS - Building a national data portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, J.; Hejda, P.

    2012-04-01

    CzechGeo/EPOS is the consortium of seven geoscience institutions in the Czech Republic (Institute of Geophysics AS CR Prague, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics AS CR Prague, Institute of Geonics AS CR Ostrava, Institute of Physics of the Earth, Masaryk University Brno, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Science, Charles University Prague, and Research Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Topography Zdiby). These institutions operate a distributed system of seismic, GPS, magnetic, gravimetric and geodynamic observatories. The operational and personal costs of CzechGeo/EPOS are mostly covered by the Ministry of education, sports and youth within the support of twelve large research infrastructures in the Czech Republic. Web pages of the project www.czechgeo.cz are being built as a data portal which should integrate all the data and services provided by the involved institutions and research infrastructures. Seismic portal offers selected portions of digital data from permanent, local and temporary seismic stations, locations of seismic events in the country and worldwide, daily seismograms from permanent observatories and local seismic network Webnet, seismic bulletins and catalogs, and macroseismic observations on the territory of the Czech Republic. Magnetic portal involves besides real-time magnetograms also recent state of geomagnetic activity and its forecast for the next day. GPS portal will provide preprocessed data from regional GPS stations. Building the national portal is closely related with the development of the Preparatory phase of the EPOS (European Plate Observing System) project.

  18. The Academic Voice in English and Czech Higher Education Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertova, Patricie; Webster, Len

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper sets out to report on a research project investigating the academic voice in higher education quality in the UK and the Czech Republic. It aims to describe the origins and reasons for introducing quality monitoring and assurance into higher education, showing the differences and impacts on higher education quality in England…

  19. Feedback in Educational Communication in Czech Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedova, Klara; Svaricek, Roman

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an empirical study that examines how teachers evaluate pupils' responses. The study draws on research undertaken at four secondary schools in the Czech Republic. It transpires that feedback has a stable position in the structure of communication; however, it is used only to verify pupils' responses and not to elaborate them.…

  20. Extent Matters: Exposure to Sexual Material among Czech Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Šerek, Jan; Machácková, Hana; Šmahel, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use media that exposes them to sexual material. This study focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic, a country with relatively high rates of exposure to sexual material (ESM). A sample of adolescents aged 11 to 15 years ("N" = 495) taken from the project EU Kids Online II was examined for predictors of the following:…

  1. The spatial distribution of the lignite qualitative parameters and variant estimates of coal reserves: the Czech Part of the Vienna Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Jan; Staněk, František; Vebr, Lukáš; Honěk, Josef

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this article is to inform about the spatial distribution of the lignite qualitative parameters and total lignite reserves in the Czech Part of the Vienna Basin—The South Moravian Lignite Coalfield (SMLC). The total reserves were estimated on the basis of several composed variant digital models of individual seams in four partial area of SMLC. Calculations of the reserves resulted from the identified spatial distribution of chemical-technological parameters obtained from the thousands analysis of samples taken from more than 4,000 exploration works. The basic model of the deposit was so-called geological model characterising genetic evolution of the deposit and defines the spatial positions of the coal seams. Subsequently developed variant economical models spatially define the selected areas by the quality of lignite expressed by the limits of ash yield. Based on the created models, it was found that in the past just 3-7 % (depending on the variant model) of the total lignite reserves SMLC had been extracted. The presented geological reserves are currently using the existing mining technologies only partially mineable.

  2. Present changes in water soil erosion hazard and the response to suspended sediment load in the Czech landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Zdenek; Langhammer, Jakub; Kadlec, Jiří; Vyslouzilová, Barbora

    2014-05-01

    A noticeable change in water soil erosion hazard and an increase of extreme meteorological effects at the same time have marked the Czech landscape in the last twenty years. Formerly cultivated areas have been grassed or forested in mountain and sub mountain regions. Crop management has also been substantially changed. Longer and more frequently dry periods, more intensive local rainfalls and more gentle winter periods we can observe in the present climate development. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the importance and spatial relationship between changes in water soil erosion hazard by way of example of model river basins in different areas of the Czech Republic. The field research, remote sensing data, GIS and model approaches (MEFEM- multicriteria erosion factors evaluation model, USLE, RUSLE, WaTEM/SEDEM, AnnAGNPS and SWAT) were used for erosion hazard assessment. The findings were comparing with the balance, regime and trends of suspended load. Research in the model Blšanka River basin, based on our fifteen-year monitoring of suspended load, can be considered as basic (Kliment et al. 2008, Langhammer et al. 2013). KLIMENT, Z., KADLEC, J., LANGHAMMER, J., 2008. Evaluation of suspended load changes using AnnAGNPS and SWAT semi-empirical models. Catena, 73(3): 286-299. LANGHAMMER, J., MATOUŠKOVÁ, M., KLIMENT, Z., 2013. Assessment of spatial and temporal changes of ecological status of streams in Czechia: a geographical approach. Geografie, 118(4): 309-333

  3. Improving Public-spending Efficiency in Czech Regions and Municipalities. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 499

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Philip

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ways of ensuring Czech regions and municipalities are fully motivated to make efficiency improvements in public service provision and so help achieve countrywide fiscal sustainability. The very large number of small municipalities in the Czech Republic means that scale economies are difficult to exploit and the policy options…

  4. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of right-bank tributaries of the Oubangui River, and a comparison with the mainstem river (Congo basin, Central African Republic).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillon, Steven; Yambélé, Athanase; Gillikin, David P.; Teodoru, Cristian; Darchambeau, François; Lambert, Thibault; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    The Oubangui is a major right-bank tributary of the Congo River, draining an area of ~500,000 km² of mainly wooded savannahs. Here, we describe data on the physico-chemical characteristics and biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within the central Oubangui catchment collected during 3 field surveys between 2010 and 2012, with land use ranging from wooded savannahs to humid tropical rainforest. Compared to data from two years of sampling at high temporal resolution on the mainstem river in Bangui (Central African Republic), these tributaries show a remarkably wide range of biogeochemical signatures, from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity and total alkalinity (TA)) in rivers draining dense rainforests to those more typical for (sub)tropical savannah systems. Based on carbon stable isotope data (δ13C), the majority of sites show a corresponding dominance of C3-derived organic matter, with a tendency for increased C4 contributions the more turbid sites such as the Mpoko River. δ13C of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were generally similar to those of particulate organic carbon (POC) across the different tributaries. δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged between -28.1 ‰ in low-TA rainforest (blackwater) rivers to -5.8 ‰ in the mainstem Oubangui. These variations were strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the dominant weathering regime (silicate versus carbonate weathering) on DIC and CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were consistently oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, and CO2) with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, with highest levels observed in rivers draining rainforest vegetation. The high diversity observed within this subcatchment of the Congo River basin is equivalent to that observed in much larger, heterogeneous catchments, and underscores the importance of

  5. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  6. The State of Knowledge Management in Czech Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maresova, P.; Hedvicakova, M.

    In the globalised world, Czech economy faces many challenges brought by the processes of integration. The crucial factors for companies that want to succeed in the global competition are knowledge and abilities to use the knowledge in the best possible way. The purpose of the work is a familiarization with the results of a questionnaire survey with the topic of "Research of the state of knowledge management in companies in the Czech Republic" realized in the spring 2009 in the cooperation of the University of Hradec Králové and the consulting company Per Partes Consulting, Ltd under the patronage of the European Union.

  7. 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference and 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference.

    PubMed

    Kovarova, Hana; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Archakov, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    The 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference was organized together with the 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference in the TOP Hotel, Prague in the Czech Republic from the 29th to the 31st October, 2007. The aim was to strengthen links with scientists from Central and Eastern Europe including Russia, which until now have been weak or nonexistent, and to highlight the emergence of excellent proteomic studies from various countries, which until now were not visible. PMID:18282121

  8. SWOT analysis of the Czech Radon programme.

    PubMed

    Fojtíková, I

    2014-07-01

    Since the early 1990s, the Czech Republic has been one of the countries that carry out a radon programme on its territory, with the aim of protecting people from unnecessary long-term exposure in their homes. Since that time, many achievements have been registered, and many unexpected difficulties have cropped up. This may be the right moment to take some time out to analyse the state of the programme and to determine the direction for its future development. An extended SWOT analysis can serve as a useful tool for this purpose. Originally, SWOT analyses were used exclusively by for-profit organisations aiming to evaluate their perspectives, develop strategies and make plans in order to achieve their objectives. More recently, it has been used in a wide range of decision-making situations when a desired end-state is to be defined. Here, an extended SWOT analysis is used to formulate possible beneficial strategies for advancing anti-radon policy in the Czech Republic. PMID:24729595

  9. Central system of psychosocial support to the Czech victims affected by the tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-01-01

    The tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  10. Central System of Psychosocial Support to the Czech Victims Affected by the Tsunami in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vymetal, Stepan

    2006-02-01

    The Tsunami disaster affected several countries in Southeast Asia in December 2004 and killed or affected many tourists, most of them from Europe. Eight Czech citizens died, and about 500 Czechs were seriously mentally traumatized. The psychosocial needs of tourists included: (1) protection; (2) treatment; (3) safety; (4) relief; (5) psychological first aid; (6) connecting with family members; (7) transportation home; (8) information about possible mental reactions to trauma; (9) information about the normality of their reaction; (10) procedural and environmental orientation; (11) reinforcement of personal competencies; and (12) psycho-trauma therapy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic was in charge of general emergency management. General coordination of psychosocial support was coordinated under the Ministry of Interior of the Czech Republic, which is connected to the Central Crisis Staff of the Czech Government. The major cooperative partners were: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, Czech Airlines, psychosocial intervention teams of the Czech Republic, and the Czech Association of Clinical Psychologists. The main goals of relief workers were: (1) to bring back home the maximum number of Czech citizens; (2) to provide relevant information to the maximum number of affected Czech citizens; (3) to provide relevant information to rescue workers and professionals; and (4) to prepare working psychosocial support regional network. Major activities of the Ministry of Interior (psychology section) included: (1) establishing a psychological helpline; (2) running a team of psychological assistance (assistance in the Czech airports, psychological monitoring of tourists, crisis intervention, psychological first aid, assistance in the collection of DNA material from relatives); (3) drafting and distributing specific information materials (brochures, leaflets, address lists, printed and electronic instructions

  11. Growth of Czech breastfed infants in comparison with the World Health Organization standards.

    PubMed

    Vignerová, Jana; Shriver, Lenka; Paulová, Markéta; Brabec, Marek; Schneidrová, Dagmar; Růzková, Renata; Procházka, Bohuslav; Riedloviá, Jitka

    2015-03-01

    Growth references are important for paediatric health monitoring. It is critical to understand differences in growth interpretation and potential consequences when using available growth references. This study compares the growth of Czech breastfed children with the current WHO growth standards 2006 and the Czech references 1991, 2001. A total of 960 infant/parent pairs in the Czech Republic were recruited through paediatric practices. Anthropometric data were collected during infants' first 12 months of life and parent questionnaires were gathered during a preventive visit at 18 months. Czech breastfed infants were longer with a greater head circumference at all percentiles compared to the WHO standards and were similar to the national references. The percentile weight-for-age and weight-for-length values of infants (: 6 months) were lower, and higher (6-12 months) compared to the WHO standards. The infant growth in the sample differed from both the WHO standards as well as the national references. Our findings indicate that the growth of Czech breastfed children differs from the current national references. These discrepancies were smaller compared to the WHO standards. The results of the study were used for new growth assessment guidelines to optimize feeding recommendations for Czech infants. The adoption of the WHO standards in the Czech Republic is not recommended. PMID:26036096

  12. Approach for Czech regulatory body to LBB

    SciTech Connect

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWER model 213) and Temelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW-WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufactures. The objective for the Czech LBB programme is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of these NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety facilities, too. For both Dukovany and Temolin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASME, CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No. 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quotes} and consists of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  13. Approach of Czech regulatory body to LBB

    SciTech Connect

    Tendera, P.

    1997-04-01

    At present there are two NPPs equipped with PWR units in Czech Republic. The Dukovany, NPP is about ten years in operation (four units 440 MW - WWBFL model 213) and Tomelin NPP is under construction (two units 1000 MW - WWER model 320). Both NPPs were built to Soviet design and according to Soviet regulations and standards but most of equipment for primary circuits was supplied by home manufacturers. The objective of the Czech LBB program is to prove the LBB status of the primary piping systems of there NPPs and the LBB concept is a part of strategy to meet western style safety standards. The reason for the Czech LBB project is a lack of some standard safety Facilities too. For both Dukovany and Tomelin NPPs a full LBB analysis should be carried out. The application of LBB to the piping system should be also a cost effective means to avoid installations of pipe whip restraints and jet shields. The Czech regulatory body issued non-mandatory requirement, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} which is in compliance with national legal documents and which is based on the US NRC Regulatory Procedures and US standards (ASMF CODE, ANSI). The requirement has been published in the document {open_quotes}Safety of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes} No 1/1991 as {open_quotes}Requirements on the Content and Format of Safety Reports and their Supplements{close_quote} and consist of two parts (1) procedure for obtaining proof of evidence {open_quotes}Leak Before Break{close_quotes} (2) leak detection systems for the pressurized reactor primary circuit. At present some changes concerning both parts of the above document will be introduced. The reasons for this modifications will be presented.

  14. The Teacher as a Significant Part of Inclusive Education in the Conditions of Czech Schools: Current Opinions of Czech Teachers about the Inclusive Form of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šmelová, Eva; Ludíková, Libuše; Petrová, Alena; Souralová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education and related aspects are currently the priorities of the educational policy in the Czech Republic. Should inclusion be successful, it needs to be supported not only by public administration authorities and legislation, but also by schools, families, school authorities and counselling services. The present research study analyses…

  15. The serologic screening for celiac disease in the general population (blood donors) and in some high-risk groups of adults (patients with autoimmune diseases, osteoporosis and infertility) in the Czech republic.

    PubMed

    Vanciková, Z; Chlumecký, V; Sokol, D; Horáková, D; Hamsíková, E; Fucíková, T; Janatková, I; Ulcová-Gallová, Z; Stĕpán, J; Límanová, Z; Dvorák, M; Kocna, P; Sánchez, D; Tucková, L; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) was determined in healthy blood donors and in high-risk groups of adults (a total of 1835 adults--randomly selected 1312 healthy blood donors, 102 patients with primary osteoporosis, 58 patients with autoimmune diseases and 365 infertile women). It was calculated on the basis of a two-step serologic screening method--in the first step IgA and IgG antigliadin antibodies (AGA) and IgA anti-gamma-glutamyltransferase ('transglutaminase') antibodies (ATG) were estimated, in the second step sera positive for IgA AGA and/or IgA ATG were examined for antiendomysial IgA (AEA) antibodies. Immunoenzymic assay (ELISA) was used for determining of AGA and ATG antibodies; immunofluorescence method, performed on human umbilical cord tissue, was used for assaying of AEA antibodies. Total serum IgA level in only IgG AGA positive subjects was measured by routine turbidimetric method. 0.45% of healthy blood donors, 0.98% of osteoporotic patients, 2.7% of patients suffering from autoimmune disease and 1.13% of women with infertility considered as immunologically mediated were found to be positive in both steps of serologic screening (AGA and/or ATG and antiendomysium positive). The presumed high prevalence of seropositivity for CD in apparently healthy Czech adult population was confirmed. In the high-risk groups, the prevalence of seropositivity for CD was approximately 2-4 times higher than in healthy blood donors. The real prevalence of CD in the tested groups, however, can be estimated after performing small intestinal biopsy in the seropositive patients. PMID:12630332

  16. Droughts in the Czech Lands: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    The presentation highlights main results of the InterDrought project (2013-2015), which includes several Czech universities and research institutes, and also shows overview of multidisciplinary scientific monograph on drought. The basic data sources consisting of instrumental, documentary, tree-ring and satellite data are presented. Selected drought indices (SPI, SPEI, Z-index and PDSI) calculated from homogenised Czech temperature and precipitation series are used to describe spatial and temporal variability of droughts in the Czech Lands for the 1804-2010 period including selection of drought extreme episodes and their detail description with respect to meteorological and synoptic patterns and impacts as well. Analysis of droughts prior 1804 is based on documentary data and oak tree-ring widths used for compilation of 500-year Czech drought chronology. The occurrence of extreme droughts is further analysed with respect to sea-level pressure patterns in the Atlantic-European area, climate forcings and changes in land-use. Examples of agricultural and hydrological droughts are mentioned. High resolution soil moisture models are used to estimate drought trends in last five decades as well as estimate future development of droughts in the Czech Republic. Overview represented by this paper will be complemented by several individual detail studies of other InterDrought Team members.

  17. Czech Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This introductory Czech text is based on principles emphasizing development of basic communication skills. Speech samples reflect practical language spoken in everyday situations. The text is designed to be used by American foreign service professionals in foreign countries and to be accompanied by videotapes (unavailable to the public). The text…

  18. Czech Basic Course: Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet is designed for use in the advanced phase of the Defense Language Institute's "Basic Course" in Czech. It is used in the advanced phase as a part of cultural background information. Reading selections, with vocabulary lists, include: (1) ethnography; (2) incantations and spells; (3) proverbs, sayings, and weather lore; (4) fairy tales…

  19. Czech Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These eight volumes of the Defense Language Institute's audiolingual course in basic Czech are comprised of an introductory volume presenting the phonology with pronunciation dialogs, followed by seven volumes of Lesson Units 1-150. The Course is designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in understanding, speaking,…

  20. Sediment-hosted stratabound copper assessment of the Neoproterozoic Roan Group, central African copperbelt, Katanga Basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter T in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, Michael L.; Bliss, James D.; Broughton, David W.; Christie, Michael; Denning, Paul D.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Horton, John D.; Frost-Killian, Susan; Jack, Douglas J.; Master, Sharad; Parks, Heather L.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Woodhead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing 152 million metric tons of copper in greater than 80 deposits. This study (1) delineates permissive areas (tracts) where undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits may occur within 2 kilometers of the surface, (2) provides a database of known sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits and prospects, (3) estimates numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provides probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The assessment, conducted in January 2010 using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment, indicates that a substantial amount of undiscovered copper resources might occur in sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits within the Roan Group in the Katanga Basin. Monte Carlo simulation results that combine grade and tonnage models with estimates of undiscovered deposits indicate that the mean estimate of undiscovered copper in the study area is 168 million metric tons, which is slightly greater than the known resources at 152 million metric tons. Furthermore, significant value can be expected from associated metals, particularly cobalt. Tracts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have potential to contain near-surface, undiscovered deposits. Monte Carlo simulation results indicate a mean value of 37 million metric tons of undiscovered copper may be present in significant prospects.

  1. [Czech and Polish women as the first female physicians in Bosnia-Herzegovina].

    PubMed

    Ibrahimagić, Omer C; Masić, Izet; Ibrahimagić, Amela; Tupković, Emir; Smajlović, Dzevdet; Jakupović, Selma

    2002-01-01

    Bajerova, Keckova, Krajevska and Olsevska--female physicians pioneers which worked in B&H. Born in Czech Republic and Poland, they began her medical work far from B&H, and full affirmation of her job received in this area. PMID:11917692

  2. Are Boys That Bad? Gender Gaps in Measured Skills, Grades and Aspirations in Czech Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateju, Petr; Smith, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines gender gaps in academic performance (grades in mathematics and reading) between boys and girls of ninth-grade elementary schools in the Czech Republic. Our analysis is based on 2003 data from the Programme for International Student Assessment, encompassing the academic performance and family background of ninth-grade pupils.…

  3. Comparing Eighth-Grade Diagnostic Test Results for Korean, Czech, and American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Um, Eunkyoung; Dogan, Enis; Im, Seongah; Tatsuoka, Kimumi; Corter, James E.

    Diagnostic analyses were conducted on data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study second population (TIMSS-R; 1999) from the United States, Korea, and the Czech Republic in terms of test item attributes (i.e., content, processing skills, and item format) and inferred students' knowledge. The Rule Space model (K. Tatsuoka, 1998)…

  4. Efficiency at Faculties of Economics in the Czech Public Higher Education Institutions: Two Different Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flégl, Martin; Vltavská, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates research and teaching efficiency at faculties of economics in the public higher education institutions in the Czech Republic. Evaluation is provided in two periods between the years 2006-2010 and 2007-2011. For this evaluation the Data Envelopment Analysis and Index approach are used. Data Envelopment Analysis measures research…

  5. Receptive Multilingualism in "Monolingual" Media: Managing the Presence of Slovak on Czech Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Marián; Nábelková, Mira

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the presence of a minority language closely related to the majority language is received and treated on the World Wide Web. Specifically, it deals with the acceptability and treatment of texts written in Slovak in the .cz domain, which belongs to the Czech Republic, more than a decade after the split of Czechoslovakia.…

  6. Congenital cataract, facial dysmorphism and demyelinating neuropathy (CCFDN) in 10 Czech gypsy children – frequent and underestimated cause of disability among Czech gypsies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital Cataract Facial Dysmorphism and demyelinating Neuropathy (CCFDN, OMIM 604468) is an autosomal recessive multi-system disorder which was first described in Bulgarian Gypsies in 1999. It is caused by the homozygous founder mutation c.863 + 389C > T in the CTDP1 gene. The syndrome has been described exclusively in patients of Gypsy ancestry. The prevalence of this disorder in the Gypsy population in the Czech Republic and Central Europe is not known and is probably underestimated and under-diagnosed. Methods We clinically diagnosed and assessed 10 CCFDN children living in the Czech Republic. All patients are children of different ages, all of Gypsy origin born in the Czech Republic. Molecular genetic testing for the founder CTDP1 gene mutation was performed. Results All patients are homozygous for the c.863 + 389C > T mutation in the CTDP1 gene. All patients presented a bilateral congenital cataract and microphthalmos and had early cataract surgery. Correct diagnosis was not made until the age of two. All patients had variably delayed motor milestones. Gait is characteristically paleocerebellar in all the patients. Mental retardation was variable and usually mild. Conclusions Clinical diagnosis of CCFDN should be easy for an informed pediatrician or neurologist by the obligate signalling trias of congenital bilateral cataract, developmental delay and later demyelinating neuropathy. Our data indicate a probably high prevalence of CCFDN in the Czech Gypsy ethnic subpopulation. PMID:24690360

  7. Novel indices for the comparison of precipitation extremes and floods: an example from the Czech territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M.; Kašpar, M.; Valeriánová, A.; Crhová, L.; Holtanová, E.; Gvoždíková, B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents three indices for evaluation of hydrometeorological extremes, considering them as areal precipitation events and trans-basin floods. In contrast to common precipitation indices, the weather extremity index (WEI) reflects not only the highest precipitation amounts at individual gauges but also the rarity of the amounts, the size of the affected area, and the duration of the event. Furthermore, the aspect of precipitation seasonality was considered when defining the weather abnormality index (WAI), which enables the detection of precipitation extremes throughout the year. The precipitation indices are complemented with the flood extremity index (FEI) employing peak discharge data. A unified design of the three indices, based on return periods of station data, enables one to compare easily inter-annual and seasonal distributions of precipitation extremes and large floods. The indices were employed in evaluation of 50 hydrometeorological extremes of each type (extreme precipitation events, seasonally abnormal precipitation events, and large floods) during the period 1961-2010 in the Czech Republic. A preliminary study of discrepancies among historic values of the indices indicated that variations in the frequency and/or magnitude of floods can generally be due not only to variations in the magnitude of precipitation events but also to variations in their seasonal distribution and other factors, primarily the antecedent saturation.

  8. [Development and current utility of infobases in Czech cancer care].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of health care is an integral part of modern health care. It can only be performed with sufficiently detailed data sources describing each segment of care. In case of significant heterogeneity and lack of standardization of hospital information systems it is necessary to fully exploit existing parametric data sources. The valid systems for Czech cancer care: the National Cancer Registry, clinical registries of Czech Society for Oncology of the Czech Medical Association of J.E. Purkyne, registries of screening programs and administrative data form healthcare payers. From these registries we can obtain a very complex and detailed view on prevention, diagnosis and cancer treatment in the Czech Republic. To achieve this goal, which means more integrated and comprehensive utilization of national registries, surveys and administrative data, it is necessary to fully utilize and apply the current legislative framework, in particular provision of the Act no. 372/2011 Sb.Key words: clinical registry - evaluation of health care - information system - legislation - malignant tumor - population. PMID:25389092

  9. Cestina pro Pokrocile (Intermediate Czech).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Grazyna; And Others

    The textbook in intermediate Czech is designed for second-year students of the language and those who already have a basic knowledge of Czech grammar and vocabulary. It is appropriate for use in a traditional college language classroom, the business community, or a government language school. It can be covered in a year-long conventional…

  10. Impacts of global change on water-related sectors and society in a trans-boundary central European river basin - Part 1: project framework and impacts on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Gömann, H.; Conradt, T.; Kaltofen, M.; Kreins, P.; Wechsung, F.

    2007-06-01

    Central Europe, the focus region of this study, is a region in transition, climatically from maritime to continental and politically from formerly more planning-oriented to more market-oriented management regimes, and in terms of climate change from regions of increasing precipitation in the west and north of Europe to regions of decreasing precipitation in central and southern Europe. The Elbe basin, a trans-boundary catchment flowing from the Czech Republic through Germany into the North Sea, was selected to investigate the possible impacts of global change on crop yields and water resources in this region. For technical reasons, the paper has been split into two parts, the first showing the overall model concept, the model set-up for the agricultural sector, and first results linking eco-hydrological and agro-economic tools for the German part of the basin. The second part describes the model set-up for simulating water supply and demand linking eco-hydrological and water management tools for the entire basin including the Czech part.

  11. Spatiotemporal trends of heavy metal concentrations in fish of the River Morava (Danube basin).

    PubMed

    Valová, Zdenka; Jurajda, Pavel; Janác, Michal; Bernardová, Ilja; Hudcová, Hana

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contamination in muscle tissue of fishes over the longitudinal profile of the River Morava (Czech Republic, Danube basin) and to detect any temporal trends over the past 18 years. Fish samples were collected in 1992, 1998, 2000, 2003 and 2009 at 6 study sites situated just downstream of important pollution sources. Chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) were selected as indicator species at 5 sites, and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) at the uppermost site where chub do not occur. In total, muscle tissue of 175 specimens of chub and 19 specimens of brown trout were analysed. Concentrations of heavy metals ranged as follows: mercury 0.015-0.369 mg/kg; cadmium 0.001-0.254 mg/kg and lead 0.006-1.505 mg/kg. Mercury levels did not exceed the maximum allowed concentration in the Czech Republic (0.5 mg/kg). Content of cadmium and lead in fish muscle exceeded the maximum allowed levels (0.05 and 0.3 mg/kg respectively) in 11 and 4 samples, respectively. On average, the order of metal concentration in fish muscle was: Hg>Pb>Cd. No significant differences were found between sites along the longitudinal profile of the river. Significant differences were found, however, for the interannual comparison of cadmium and lead (but not mercury) at different sites (P < 0.05). A catastrophic flood in 1997 resulted in an increase in metal concentrations, especially cadmium and lead, in the following 1998 season. Our results indicate that the Morava river basin does not represent a threatening source of mercury, cadmium or lead for the River Danube downstream. PMID:20981604

  12. Comparison of drought occurrence in selected Slovak and Czech catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Porubska, Diana; Hanel, Martin; Horacek, Stanislav; Martinkova, Marta; Vizina, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The presented study is focused on the analysis and comparison of hydrological drought occurrence, development and duration in six small to middle sized catchments in the Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia. The main questions to be answered are: (1) are there correlations between the physical conditions in the catchments and drought occurrence, and (2) does the spatial trend of drought occurrence exist. The Žitava catchment is located in the central western part of Slovakia having runoff dominated by rainfall with the contribution of snow melting during the spring period. The Belá River catchment is located on the contact of Západné and Vysoké Tatry Mts. in the north of Slovakia. The runoff is snow to snow-rain combined type. The Ľupčianka catchment is located on the northern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mts. in the northern part of the central Slovakia. The runoff regime is snow-rain combined in the upper part of the catchment, and of rain-snow type in the rest of catchment. The Rakovnický potok brook (CZ) has its spring in Rakovnická pahorkatina hilly land. Runoff is dominated by rainfall, quite heavily influenced by water uptakes in the catchment. The Teplá River (CZ) originates in peat meadows in the western part of the Czech Republic. Runoff is dominated by rainfall. The Metuje catchment (CZ) is formed by Adršsbach-Teplické stěny Upland. The headwater part is typical by deeply incest valleys, table mountains and pseudokarst caves. The discharge is fed dominantly by groundwater. The streamflow drought was characterized using discharge data, the groundwater drought using the base flow values. The local minimum method was used for base flow separation. The threshold level method (Q80, BF80) and the sequent peak algorithm were used for calculation of drought duration in discharge and base flow time series. The data of the same three decades of the common period (1971 - 1980, 1981 - 1990 and 1991 - 2000) were used. The resulting base flow values along with

  13. Four years of measles elimination in the Czech Socialist Republic.

    PubMed

    Sejda, J

    1987-01-01

    In 1982, Czechoslovakia succeeded in eliminating measles infection throughout the country. The paper describes the strategy of the measles immunization program following its introduction in 1969, showing it to reflect the objective epidemiological situation as revealed by the regular immunological surveys carried out in a broad population sample. As it turned out, decisive for achieving and maintaining a permanent measles elimination in the country was the introduction of second vaccination into the regular immunization schedule. Since 1982, its timing of is from 6 to 10 months after primary immunization. Over the 4-year period between 1982 and 1985, confirmed measles occurred only sporadically in the CSR, 115 cases altogether, and of these as many as 67 were classified as imported or their immediate contacts (38 measles patients were tourists from abroad). Of these 115 measles cases, 52 had had vaccination prior to acquiring the disease, 46 were individuals who had never before been vaccinated and in the remaining 17 patients no vaccination data were available. The vaccine failures, at least in 18 cases, could have been explained by the primary immunization prior to reaching 15 months of age. According to the estimates, at least 670 thousand cases of measles, 470 deaths, 100 thousand complications and some 33 thousand hospitalizations had been averted between 1972 and 1985 on the territory of CSR as a result of the introduction of the measles immunization program in Czechoslovakia. PMID:3429851

  14. Phenological monitoring of fruit trees in the Czech republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajkova, L.; Striz, M.; Nekovar, J.