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Sample records for battery program generic

  1. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  2. Generic Optimization Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-07-01

    GenOpt is a generic optimization program for nonlinear, constrained optimization. For evaluating the objective function, any simulation program that communicates over text files can be coupled to GenOpt without code modification. No analytic properties of the objective function are used by GenOpt. ptimization algorithms and numerical methods can be implemented in a library and shared among users. Gencpt offers an interlace between the optimization algorithm and its kernel to make the implementation of new algorithmsmore » fast and easy. Different algorithms of constrained and unconstrained minimization can be added to a library. Algorithms for approximation derivatives and performing line-search will be implemented. The objective function is evaluated as a black-box function by an external simulation program. The kernel of GenOpt deals with the data I/O, result sotrage and report, interlace to the external simulation program, and error handling. An abstract optimization class offers methods to interface the GenOpt kernel and the optimization algorithm library.« less

  3. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 2, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This report contains the Appendices to the findings from the first year of the program's operations.

  4. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs. (DLC)

  5. Perception of Generic Prescription Drugs and Utilization of Generic Drug Discount Programs

    PubMed Central

    Omojasola, Anthony; Hernandez, Mike; Sansgiry, Sujit; Jones, Lovell

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to assess patient’s perceptions of generic drugs and utilization of generic drug discount programs. Design, Setting and Participants A survey was administered to adult participants at community health centers and community-based organizations in Houston, Texas, USA (n=525). Main Outcome Measures Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the strength of association between generic drug perception and utilization of generic drug discount programs. Results Respondents who agreed that “Generic prescription drugs are as effective as brand name prescription drugs,” were 3 times as likely to utilize generic drug discount programs (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–4.8, P<.001). Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans (OR: 10.2; 95% CI: 1.4–76.4) and Hispanics (OR: 10.3; 95% CI: 1.3–79.4) were 10 times as likely to agree that generic drugs have more side effects than brand name drugs. Conclusion Race/ethnicity had no impact in utilization of generic drug discount programs, despite racial disparities in perception toward generic drugs’ side effects and generic drugs being inferior to brand name drugs. PMID:23140080

  6. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, Shaun

    1992-01-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  7. Program Diagnoses Nickel/Cadmium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Bykat, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2 (NICBES2) computer program is prototype expert-system program for diagnosis and management of health of nickel/cadmium batteries. Intended to support evaluation of performance of batteries in Hubble Space Telescope spacecraft and to alert personnel to possible malfunctions. Oversees status of batteries by evaluating data gathered in orbit packets, and when so merits, raises alarm and provides diagnosis of faults as well as advice on actions to be taken to remedy condition giving rise to alarm. Provides history of statuses of batteries pertaining to health of batteries, and graphical display to help operator assimilate information generated. Written in C language.

  8. AUSSAT battery life test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorian, P. W.; Pickett, D. F., Jr.; Bogner, R. S.; Chao, T. I.; Jordan, J. P.; Clark, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    AUSSAT Pty. Ltd., the Australian National Satellite organization, has contracted with the Hughes Aircraft Company (HAC) for the construction of 3 satellites based on the now familiar HS-376 product line. As part of the AUSSAT contract, HAC is conducting an extensive NiCd battery life test program. The life test program, objectives and test results to date are described. Particular emphasis is given to the evaluation of the FS2117 separator as a future replacement for the Pellon 2505 separator of which only a very limited quantity remains.

  9. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; O'Donnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high-performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  10. NASA aerospace flight battery systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  11. Overview of NASA battery technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebling, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's technology program in batteries for space applications are presented. Program elements include: (1) advanced ambient temperature alkaline secondaries, which are primarily nickel-cadmium cells in batteries; (2) a toroidal nickel cadmium secondaries with multi-kilowatt-hour storage capacity primarily for lower orbital applications; (3) ambient temperature lithium batteries, both primary and secondaries, primarily silver hydrogen and high-capacity nickel hydrogen.

  12. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  13. HTGR generic technology program. Semiannual report ending March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Generic Technology Program at General Atomic during the first half of FY-80. It covers a period when the design direction of the National HTGR Program is in the process of an overall review. The HTGR Generic Technology Program activities have continued so as to provide the basic technology required for all HTGR applications. The activities include the need to develop an MEU fuel and the need to qualify materials and components for the higher temperatures of the gas turbine and process heat plants.

  14. A Generic Competency Based Teacher Training Program in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nagel, Clint; And Others

    The competency based teacher training program in special education at the University of North Florida is described. The program is said to revolve around 13 generic competencies, including establishment of rapport with the student, identification of student motivation, modality assessment, and evaluation skills. In addition to coursework, students…

  15. Overview of Sandia's electric vehicle battery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  16. A Generic Program for Multistate Protein Design

    PubMed Central

    Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Jacak, Ron; Stranges, P. Benjamin; Kuhlman, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Some protein design tasks cannot be modeled by the traditional single state design strategy of finding a sequence that is optimal for a single fixed backbone. Such cases require multistate design, where a single sequence is threaded onto multiple backbones (states) and evaluated for its strengths and weaknesses on each backbone. For example, to design a protein that can switch between two specific conformations, it is necessary to to find a sequence that is compatible with both backbone conformations. We present in this paper a generic implementation of multistate design that is suited for a wide range of protein design tasks and demonstrate in silico its capabilities at two design tasks: one of redesigning an obligate homodimer into an obligate heterodimer such that the new monomers would not homodimerize, and one of redesigning a promiscuous interface to bind to only a single partner and to no longer bind the rest of its partners. Both tasks contained negative design in that multistate design was asked to find sequences that would produce high energies for several of the states being modeled. Success at negative design was assessed by computationally redocking the undesired protein-pair interactions; we found that multistate design's accuracy improved as the diversity of conformations for the undesired protein-pair interactions increased. The paper concludes with a discussion of the pitfalls of negative design, which has proven considerably more challenging than positive design. PMID:21754981

  17. A generic program for multistate protein design.

    PubMed

    Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Jacak, Ron; Stranges, P Benjamin; Kuhlman, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Some protein design tasks cannot be modeled by the traditional single state design strategy of finding a sequence that is optimal for a single fixed backbone. Such cases require multistate design, where a single sequence is threaded onto multiple backbones (states) and evaluated for its strengths and weaknesses on each backbone. For example, to design a protein that can switch between two specific conformations, it is necessary to to find a sequence that is compatible with both backbone conformations. We present in this paper a generic implementation of multistate design that is suited for a wide range of protein design tasks and demonstrate in silico its capabilities at two design tasks: one of redesigning an obligate homodimer into an obligate heterodimer such that the new monomers would not homodimerize, and one of redesigning a promiscuous interface to bind to only a single partner and to no longer bind the rest of its partners. Both tasks contained negative design in that multistate design was asked to find sequences that would produce high energies for several of the states being modeled. Success at negative design was assessed by computationally redocking the undesired protein-pair interactions; we found that multistate design's accuracy improved as the diversity of conformations for the undesired protein-pair interactions increased. The paper concludes with a discussion of the pitfalls of negative design, which has proven considerably more challenging than positive design. PMID:21754981

  18. Generic Assessment Rubrics for Computer Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustapha, Aida; Samsudin, Noor Azah; Arbaiy, Nurieze; Mohammed, Rozlini; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi

    2016-01-01

    In programming, one problem can usually be solved using different logics and constructs but still producing the same output. Sometimes students get marked down inappropriately if their solutions do not follow the answer scheme. In addition, lab exercises and programming assignments are not necessary graded by the instructors but most of the time…

  19. NASA aerospace battery system program initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1987-01-01

    Preflight and flight battery system problems in flight programs at NASA created high-level concern and interest in the current battery technology status. As a result, NASA conducted an in-house review of problems experienced both internally and by other government users. The derived issues which encompassed the programmatic scope from cell manufacturing to in-flight operations of the system are discussed. From the identified deficiencies, a modestly scaled battery program was established to alleviate or minimize the risks of future occurrences.

  20. Training for Development and Use of Generic Software Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joan H.; Rettig, Julianne D.

    Five part-time adult basic education instructors were trained to develop tutorials for their students by using the SuperPILOT authoring language to insert their own questions, answers, and hints in already existing generic programs. The project involved 18 hours of training and ongoing supervision and review of products. A total of 66 tutorial…

  1. Tpetra, and the use of generic programming in scientific computing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Christopher G; Heroux, Dr. Michael A

    2012-01-01

    We present Tpetra, a Trilinos package for parallel linear algebra primitives implementing the Petra object model. We describe Tpetra s design, based on generic programming via C++ templated types and template metaprogramming. We discuss some benefits of this approach in the context of scientific computing, with illustrations consisting of code and notable empirical results.

  2. A generic hazardous waste management training program

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.; Karnofsky, B.

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of this training program element is to familiarize personnel involved in hazardous waste management with the goals of RCRA and how they are to be achieved. These goals include: to protect health and the environment; to conserve valuable material and energy resources; to prohibit future open dumping on the land; to assure that hazardous waste management practices are conducted in a manner which protects human health and the environment; to insure that hazardous waste is properly managed thereby reducing the need for corrective actions in the future; to establish a national policy to reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous waste, wherever feasible. Another objective of this progam element is to present a brief overview of the RCRA regulations and how they are implemented/enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and each of the fifty states. This element also discusses where the RCRA regulations are published and how they are updated. In addition it details who is responsible for compliance with the regulations. Finally, this part of the training program provides an overview of the activities and materials that are regulated. 1 ref.

  3. Overview of Sandia's storage battery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.; Grothaus, K. R.

    The primary mission of Sandia National Laboratories is the design and development of the non-nuclear components and systems for nuclear weapons. To a lesser degree, Sandia is also involved in a variety of other programs; such as, energy projects with the Department of Energy, conventional military projects with the Department of Defense, and nuclear waste management and reactor safety with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Over the years, Sandia has evolved a considerable expertise in the areas of specialty primary, reserve, and more recently, secondary battery systems. This paper focuses on the status of the storage or secondary battery programs. These programs are divided into those battery systems being developed for energy applications and those being developed for military applications.

  4. A Review of Generic Program Visualization Systems for Introductory Programming Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorva, Juha; Karavirta, Ville; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    This article is a survey of program visualization systems intended for teaching beginners about the runtime behavior of computer programs. Our focus is on generic systems that are capable of illustrating many kinds of programs and behaviors. We inclusively describe such systems from the last three decades and review findings from their empirical…

  5. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is an agency-wide effort aimed at ensuring the quality, safety, reliability and performance of flight battery systems for NASA applications. The program provides for the validation of primary and secondary cell and battery level technology advances to ensure their availability and readiness for use in NASA missions. It serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization and incorporation of these advances into mission applications. The program is led by the Glenn Research Center and involves funded task activities at each of the NASA mission centers and JPL. The overall products are safe, reliable, high quality batteries for mission applications. The products are defined along three product lines: 1. Battery Systems Technology - Elements of this task area cover the systems aspects of battery operation and generally apply across chemistries. This includes the development of guidelines documents, the establishment and maintenance of a central battery database that serves a central repository for battery characterization and verification test data from tests performed under the support of this program, the NASA Battery Workshop, and general test facility support. 2. Secondary Battery Technology - l h s task area focuses on the validation of battery technology for nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion secondary battery systems. Standardized test regimes are used to validate the quality of a cell lot or cell design for flight applications. In this area, efforts are now concentrated on the validation and verification of lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. 3. Primary Battery Technology - The safety and reliability aspects for primary lithium battery systems that are used in manned operations on the Shuttle and International Space Station are addressed in the primary battery technology task area. An overview of the task areas

  6. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  7. NLEdit: A generic graphical user interface for Fortran programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlett, Brian P.

    1994-01-01

    NLEdit is a generic graphical user interface for the preprocessing of Fortran namelist input files. The interface consists of a menu system, a message window, a help system, and data entry forms. A form is generated for each namelist. The form has an input field for each namelist variable along with a one-line description of that variable. Detailed help information, default values, and minimum and maximum allowable values can all be displayed via menu picks. Inputs are processed through a scientific calculator program that allows complex equations to be used instead of simple numeric inputs. A custom user interface is generated simply by entering information about the namelist input variables into an ASCII file. There is no need to learn a new graphics system or programming language. NLEdit can be used as a stand-alone program or as part of a larger graphical user interface. Although NLEdit is intended for files using namelist format, it can be easily modified to handle other file formats.

  8. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance, and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program was initiated in 1985 to address battery problems experienced by NASA and other space battery users over the previous ten years. The original program plan was approved in May 1986 and modified in 1990 to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. The NASA Battery Workshop is supported by the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program. The main objective of the discussions is to aid in defining the direction which the agency should head with respect to aerospace battery issues. Presently, primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to issues revolving around the future availability of nickel-cadmium batteries as a result of the proposed OSHA standards with respect to allowable cadmium levels in the workplace. The decision of whether or not to pursue the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs hinges on the impact of the OSHA ruling. As part of a unified Battery Program, the evaluation of a nickel-hydrogen cell design options and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  9. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  10. Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program report for FY91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, N. J.; Butler, P. C.; Akhil, A. A.; Braithwaite, J. W.; Clark, N. H.; Freese, J. M.

    1991-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, manages the Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses and development of rechargeable batteries for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1991. Sodium/Sulfur, Zinc/Bromine, Nickel/Hydrogen, Aluminium/Air, and Lead/Acid batteries are evaluated.

  11. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  12. Some basic data structures and algorithms for chemical generic programming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hou, Tingjun; Qiao, Xuebin; Xu, Xiaojie

    2004-01-01

    Here, we report a template library used for molecular operation, the Molecular Handling Template Library (MHTL). The library includes some generic data structures and generic algorithms, and the two parts are associated with each other by two concepts: Properties and Molecule. The concept Properties describes the interface to access objects' properties, and the concept Molecule describes the minimum requirement for a molecular class. Data structures include seven models of Properties, each using a different method to access properties, and two models of molecular classes. Algorithms include molecular file manipulation subroutines, SMARTS language interpreter and matcher functions, and molecular OpenGL rendering functions. PMID:15446814

  13. Overview of Sandia`s Electric Vehicle Battery Program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.P.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  14. 78 FR 30930 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Generic Clearance To Support Programs and Administrative Operations at the National Cancer Institute (NCI)...

  15. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  16. The NASA research and technology program on batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA research and technology program on batteries is being carried out within the Propulsion, Power and Energy Division (Code RP) of NASA's Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology (OAET). The program includes development of high-performance, long-life, cost-effective primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. The NASA OAET battery program is being carried out at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). LeRC is focusing primarily on nickel-hydrogen batteries (both individual pressure vessel or IPV and bipolar). LeRC is also involved in a planned flight experiment to test a sodium-sulfur battery design. JPL is focusing primarily on lithium rechargeable batteries, having successfully transferred its lithium primary battery technology to the U.S. Air Force for use on the Centaur upper stage. Both LeRC and JPL are studying advanced battery concepts that offer even higher specific energies. The long-term goal is to achieve 100 Wh/kg.

  17. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  18. The 20 kW battery study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Six battery configurations were selected for detailed study and these are described. A computer program was modified for use in estimation of the weights, costs, and reliabilities of each of the configurations, as a function of several important independent variables, such as system voltage, battery voltage ratio (battery voltage/bus voltage), and the number of parallel units into which each of the components of the power subsystem was divided. The computer program was used to develop the relationship between the independent variables alone and in combination, and the dependent variables: weight, cost, and availability. Parametric data, including power loss curves, are given.

  19. HTGR Generic Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Generic Technology Program at General Atomic during the second half of FY-80. It covers a period when the design direction of the National HTGR Program is in the process of an overall review. The HTGR Generic Technology Program activities have continued so as to provide the basic technology required for all HTGR applications. The activities include the need to develop an LEU fuel and the need to qualify materials and components for the higher temperatures of the gas turbines and process heat plants.

  20. Retrospective-Qualitative Evaluation of the Wiltwyck Five-Year Interdisciplinary Generic Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W.; Coates, Deborah L.

    The Interdisciplinary Generic Training Program (IGTP) was designed to train graduate students in related mental health fields, as well as persons without formal mental health training, to deliver team approach social services sensitive to inner city community and family life. During the last year of the program, staff members requested a…

  1. National program plan for electric vehicle battery research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.; Douglas, D.L.; Warde, C.J.; Douglas , Inc., Bloomington, MN; Warde Associates, Inc., Greensboro, NC )

    1989-08-01

    EVs offer the prospect of reducing US petroleum fuel usage and air pollution in major metropolitan areas. In 1987, DOE-EHP commissioned a two-phase study at INEL to produce a national plan for R D on battery technology -- the limiting component in EVs. The battery assessment phase identified the most-promising'' technologies from a comprehensive list of viable EV batteries. This multi-year R D program plan identifies development schedules, milestones, and tasks directed at resolving the critical technical and economic issues for the most-promising developmental batteries: bipolar lead/acid, flow-through lead/acid, iron/air, lithium/iron sulfide, nickel/iron, sodium/metal chloride, sodium/sulfur, zinc/air, and zinc/bromine. 8 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  2. Generic Optimization Program User Manual Version 3.0.0

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-05-11

    GenOpt is an optimization program for the minimization of a cost function that is evaluated by an external simulation program. It has been developed for optimization problems where the cost function is computationally expensive and its derivatives are not available or may not even exist. GenOpt can be coupled to any simulation program that reads its input from text files and writes its output to text files. The independent variables can be continuous variables (possibly with lower and upper bounds), discrete variables, or both, continuous and discrete variables. Constraints on dependent variables can be implemented using penalty or barrier functions. GenOpt uses parallel computing to evaluate the simulations. GenOpt has a library with local and global multi-dimensional and one-dimensional optimization algorithms, and algorithms for doing parametric runs. An algorithm interface allows adding new minimization algorithms without knowing the details of the program structure. GenOpt is written in Java so that it is platform independent. The platform independence and the general interface make GenOpt applicable to a wide range of optimization problems. GenOpt has not been designed for linear programming problems, quadratic programming problems, and problems where the gradient of the cost function is available. For such problems, as well as for other problems, special tailored software exists that is more efficient.

  3. Programming Languages or Generic Software Tools, for Beginners' Courses in Computer Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Erich

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of methods that can be used to teach beginner courses in computer literacy focuses on students aged 10-12. The value of using a programing language versus using a generic software package is highlighted; Logo and Prolog are reviewed; and the use of databases is discussed. (LRW)

  4. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 1, Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume I: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries of the program's operations.

  5. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements. Volume 1, Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 2 - Volume I: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements of the program's operations.

  6. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    SciTech Connect

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C.K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  7. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C. K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  8. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Recommendations for Technical Requirements for Inclusion in Aerospace Battery Procurements. Volume 2/Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 2 - Volume II Appendix A to Part 2 - Volume I.

  9. Zinc-oxygen battery development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourland, Deborah S.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this Zinc-Oxygen development program is to incorporate the improved air/oxygen cathode and zinc anode technology developed in recent years into relatively large cells (150-200 amp/hr, 25-100 hour rate) and smaller high rate cells (9-12 amp/hr, 3-12 hour rate). Existing commercial cells manufactured by Duracell and Rayovac are currently being utilized on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mini-oscilloscope, the crew radio, and other crew equipment. These applications provide a basis for other Orbiter systems that require portable, storable, electrical power as well as emergency power for the Space Station major payload systems power and for Space Station equipment applications.

  10. Zinc-oxygen battery development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, Deborah S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this Zinc-Oxygen development program is to incorporate the improved air/oxygen cathode and zinc anode technology developed in recent years into relatively large cells (150-200 amp/hr, 25-100 hour rate) and smaller high rate cells (9-12 amp/hr, 3-12 hour rate). Existing commercial cells manufactured by Duracell and Rayovac are currently being utilized on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mini-oscilloscope, the crew radio, and other crew equipment. These applications provide a basis for other Orbiter systems that require portable, storable, electrical power as well as emergency power for the Space Station major payload systems power and for Space Station equipment applications.

  11. Microgrid Reliability Modeling and Battery Scheduling Using Stochastic Linear Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-05-23

    This paper describes the introduction of stochastic linear programming into Operations DER-CAM, a tool used to obtain optimal operating schedules for a given microgrid under local economic and environmental conditions. This application follows previous work on optimal scheduling of a lithium-iron-phosphate battery given the output uncertainty of a 1 MW molten carbonate fuel cell. Both are in the Santa Rita Jail microgrid, located in Dublin, California. This fuel cell has proven unreliable, partially justifying the consideration of storage options. Several stochastic DER-CAM runs are executed to compare different scenarios to values obtained by a deterministic approach. Results indicate that using a stochastic approach provides a conservative yet more lucrative battery schedule. Lower expected energy bills result, given fuel cell outages, in potential savings exceeding 6percent.

  12. Overview of the US Department of Energy Utility Battery Storage Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.; Akhil, A.; Butler, P.C.; Hurwitch, J.

    1993-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories and its contractors. This program is specifically aimed at developing battery energy storage systems for electric utility applications commencing in the mid to late 1990s. One factory-integrated utility battery system and three battery technologies: sodium/sulfur, zinc/bromine, and lead-acid are being developed under this program. In the last few years the emphasis of this program has focused on battery system development. This emphasis has included greater interactions with utilities to define application requirements. Recent activities have identified specific applications of battery energy storage in certain utility systems and quantified the value of these applications to these utility companies. In part due to these activities, battery energy storage is no longer regarded by utilities as a load-leveling resource only, but as a multifunction, energy management resource.

  13. Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Contents: Outlook for lead, zinc and cadmium in India; Future for lead production and recycling - a British view; AKERLOW lead recovery plant; Expanded lead battery grids; Resume of first solder seminar in India; Automatic paste soldering adds sparks to zinc-carbon batteries; 122-ton lead battery used for testing BEST facility; Press release on Pb 80; Research and development; Second International Symposium on Industrial and Oriented Basic Electrochemistry; Industry news; Book review and new publications; Battery abstracts.

  14. Electromechanical Battery Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Bender, D.A.; Merritt, B.T.

    1994-05-31

    New materials and new design concepts are being incorporated in a new approach to an old idea -- flywheel energy storage -- to create an important alternative to the electrochemical storage battery for use in electric vehicles or for stationary applications, such as computer back-up power or utility load-leveling. We visualize such EMBs (electromechanical batteries) as being modular in character, with small (1--5 kWh) modules being used for power-conditioning and for vehicular use, and paralleled 25 kWh modules being used for bulk storage, i.e., load-leveling, applications. In a funded program at the Laboratory two fractional kWh, 200 kW (design peak power) modules have been constructed and subjected to shake-down testing. Their design for high peak power was prompted by awareness of a particular commercial need, as a component in a power-line conditioning device. In addition to such stationary applications, the high power capability of our EMB designs makes them attractive for use in hybrid-electric vehicles. Important elements of the LLNL program include the development of passive magnetic bearings and the application of new high-efficiency permanent magnet arrays to an ironless generator/motor. Use of these particular elements, together with a multi-ring design for the flywheel rotor, is particularly conducive to a systemic approach to the design of an EMB module. These particular design developments have been motivated by the economic issues of simplification, lowered cost, and extended maintenance-free service life.

  15. Electromechanical Battery Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. F.; Bender, D. A.; Merritt, B. T.

    1994-05-01

    New materials and new design concepts are being incorporated in a new approach to an old idea - flywheel energy storage - to create an important alternative to the electrochemical storage battery for use in electric vehicles or for stationary applications, such as computer back-up power or utility load-leveling. We visualize such EMB's (electromechanical batteries) as being modular in character, with small (1-5 kWh) modules being used for power-conditioning and for vehicular use, and paralleled 25 kWh modules being used for bulk storage, i.e., load-leveling, applications. In a funded program at the Laboratory two fractional kWh, 200 kW (design peak power) modules have been constructed and subjected to shake-down testing. Their design for high peak power was prompted by awareness of a particular commercial need, as a component in a power-line conditioning device. In addition to such stationary applications, the high power capability of our EMB designs makes them attractive for use in hybrid-electric vehicles. Important elements of the LLNL program include the development of passive magnetic bearings and the application of new high-efficiency permanent magnet arrays to an ironless generator/motor. Use of these particular elements, together with a multi-ring design for the flywheel rotor, is particularly conducive to a systemic approach to the design of an EMB module. These particular design developments have been motivated by the economic issues of simplification, lowered cost, and extended maintenance-free service life.

  16. Predictors of $4 Generic Prescription Drug Discount Programs use in the Low-income Population

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Mike; Sansgiry, Sujit; Paxton, Raheem; Jones, Lovell

    2013-01-01

    Background Generic drug discount programs (GDDPs) are an option to provide affordable prescription medication to low-income individuals. However, the factors that influence the use of GDDPs in low-income population are unknown. Objectives To evaluate factors associated with utilization of generic a drug discount program in a low-income population. Methods A survey was administered to adult participants at health centers and community based organizations in Houston, Texas, USA (n=525). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the construct validity of the survey instrument and to assess distinct factors associated with GDDP utilization. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the distribution of patient socio-demographic characteristics and questionnaire responses. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios and to examine the strength of association with GDDP utilization after adjusting for participant socio-demographic features that were statistically significant at a priori level of p<0.05. Results In this study, 72% of respondents were aware of the GDDP, and 61% had utilized the GDDP. Participants were 4 times likely to use a GDDP when their physician (AOR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.6 – 6.4, P < 0.001) or pharmacist (AOR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.6 – 6.3, P < 0.001) talked to them about it. Participants indicated that the most important barriers to utilization of GDDPs were lack of awareness (44%), and lack of recommendation by a physician (19%). Conclusions Increased patient awareness and physician recommendation may increase the use of GDDPs, which may lead to improved compliance with medications, better health outcomes and reduced health care costs. PMID:23684716

  17. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included.

  18. 77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... (CAIR, 70 FR 25162 (May 12, 2005)), but not the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR, 70 FR 28606 (May 18, 2005... Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers...

  19. Program maintenance manual for nickel cadmium battery expert system, version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Nickel-Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is an expert system for fault diagnosis and advice of the nickel-cadmium batteries found in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The system application and security, equipment environment, and the program maintenance procedures are examined.

  20. Status of the Ford Aerospace sodium-sulfur battery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, A. B.

    Sodium-Sulfur batteries are being developed by Ford Aerospace Communications Corporation to meet the needs of electric utilities and for electric vehicle applications.Current emphasis for utility applications is on durability testing of load-leveling cells in modules of a 100-kWh battery. Electric vehicle cells characterized by high energy and power densities have been developed, and are being tested in modules of an electric vehicle battery.

  1. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development - A program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; Lenhart, Stephen; Hall, Arnold

    1989-01-01

    An overview of spacecraft power system design trends, focusing on higher power bus voltages and improved energy storage systems, is followed by a discussion of bipolar Ni/H2 battery development efforts. Several 10-cell batteries and one 50-cell battery are described, and performance results are presented. A comparison of individual-pressure-vessel and bipolar Ni/H2 technologies is used to suggest a new direction for bipolar Ni/H2 battery development efforts, toward a large number of passively cooled cells in parallel.

  2. Mediation effects of a culturally generic substance use prevention program for Asian American adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examined the mediation effects of a family-based substance use prevention program on a sample of Asian American families. These families were randomized into an intervention arm or a non-intervention control arm. Using path models, we assessed the effect of the intervention on adolescent girls’ substance use outcomes at 2-year follow-up through family relationships and adolescent self-efficacy pathways. Bias-corrected bootstrapping strategy was employed to assess the significance of the mediation effect by evaluating the 95% confidence interval of the standardized coefficient. The results show that receiving the intervention exerted a positive effect on girls’ family relationships at 1-year follow-up. Such an improvement was associated with girls’ increased self-efficacy, which in turn led to girls’ decreased alcohol use, marijuana use, and future intention to use substances at 2-year follow-up. Considering the diverse cultural backgrounds, as well as languages, nationalities, and acculturation levels under the umbrella term “Asian Americans”, we demonstrate that a universal web-based intervention that tackles the theoretical- and empirical-based risk and protective factors can be effective for Asian Americans. Despite its generic nature, our program may provide relevant tools for Asian American parents in assisting their adolescent children to navigate through the developmental stage and ultimately, resist substance use. PMID:25505939

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATINGS EQUIPMENT PROGRAM, UV-CURABLE COATINGS GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary purpose of this document is to establish the Generic Verification Protocol (GVP) for ultraviolet (UV)-curable coatings, to be referred to as the UV-Curable Coatings GVP. The secondary purpose is to establish the generic format and guidelines for product specific Tes...

  4. Successful Development of Generic Capabilities in an Undergraduate Medical Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, H. Patrick; Scicluna, Helen A.; Boyle, Patrick; Grimm, Michael C.; Gibson, Kathryn A.; Jones, Philip D.

    2012-01-01

    The development of generic capabilities or graduate attributes in communication, teamwork, critical analysis of information, problem solving and ethical practice is widely recognised as a desired outcome of higher education. This emphasis on generic capabilities has emerged despite ongoing debates about the concept and development of such…

  5. Teaching Generic Skills for the Workplace. RAND Education & Human Resources Program. Policy Brief. Issue Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    Studies conducted by Rand Corporation suggested that students did not need to be taught generic skills and work-related attitudes in actual workplaces. Such instruction could occur effectively at schools in traditional stand alone classrooms. To develop an instructional model for teaching generic skills, researchers used ethnographic methods to…

  6. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Develop an understanding of the safety issues relating to space use and qualification of new Li-Ion technology for manned applications. Enable use of new technology batteries into GFE equipment - laptop computers, camcorders. Establish a data base for an optimized set of cells (and batteries) exhibiting acceptable performance and abuse characteristics for utilization as building blocks for numerous applications.

  7. Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) research program annual review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-08-01

    This document presents a summary of the evaluation and comments provided by the review panel for the FY 2005 Department of Energy (DOE) Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) program annual review.

  8. The Effective Use of an Interactive Software Program to Reduce Students' Misconceptions about Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, E.-M.; Greenbowe, T. J.; Andre, T.

    2004-01-01

    The misconceptions of students regarding electricity and electrochemistry in the context of operation of a common flashlight are discussed. An Interactive Software Program (ISP) is used for better conceptual understanding of the operation of commercial batteries in a circuit.

  9. Batteries for solar energy systems -- A program at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-31

    DOE has selected Sandia National Laboratories as its lead laboratory to direct a program to develop and test batteries for electrical storage in a variety of solar applications. Initial emphasis is on storage in photovoltaic systems, but wind-energy and solar-thermal systems will be considered later. The BSSAP program is divided functionally into five tasks: Task 1--battery requirements analysis; Task 2--laboratory evaluation; Task 3--PV advanced systems tests; Task 4--applied experiments; Task 5--battery research and development. This report briefly discusses these tasks.

  10. Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ``Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program``. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the state of the art of sodium sulfur batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Initially, the work statement was non-specific in regard to the vehicle to be used as the design and test platform. Under a separate contract with the DOE, Ford Motor Company was designing an advanced electric vehicle drive system. This program, called the ETX II, used a modified Aerostar van for its platform. In 1987, the ETX II vehicle was adopted for the purposes of this contract. This report details the development and testing of a series of battery designs and concepts which led to the testing, in the US, of three substantial battery deliverables.

  11. Mission and status of the US Department of Energy's battery energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Hurwitch, J. W.; Landgrebe, A. R.; Hauser, S. G.

    1985-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's battery research program has evolved to reflect the changing conditions of the world energy economy and the national energy policy. The battery energy storage program supports the goals of the National Energy Policy Plan (FY 1984). The goals are to provide an adequate supply of energy at reasonable costs, minimize federal control and involvement in the energy marketplace, promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system, and facilitate technology transfer from the public to the private sector. This paper describes the history of the battery energy storage program and its relevance to the national interest. Potential market applications for battery energy storage are reviewed, and each technology, its goals, and its current technical status are described. The paper concludes by describing the strategy developed to ensure effective technology transfer to the private sector and reviewing past significant accomplishments.

  12. A facile and generic method to improve cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries via utilizing nanoscale surface amorphous films of self-regulating thickness.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiajia; Luo, Jian

    2014-05-01

    As a facile and generic surface modification method, a unique class of surface amorphous films (SAFs) is utilized to significantly improve the rate performance and cycling stability of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. These nanoscale SAFs form spontaneously and uniformly upon mixing and annealing at a thermodynamic equilibrium, and they exhibit self-regulating or "equilibrium" thickness due to a balance of attractive and repulsive interfacial interactions acting on the films. Especially, spontaneous formation of nanoscale Li3PO4-based SAFs has been demonstrated in two proof-of-concept systems, LiCoO2 and LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4, which have an equilibrium thickness of ∼2.9 nm and ∼2.5 nm, respectively. At a high discharge rate of 25 C, these Li3PO4-based SAFs improve the discharge capacity by ∼130% for LiCoO2 and by ∼40% for LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4, respectively. Furthermore, these SAFs improve the cycling stability and reduce capacity fading of both LiCoO2 and LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4. At an elevated temperature of 55 °C, Li3PO4-based SAFs can help to maintain ∼90 mA h g(-1) discharge capacity of the high-voltage material LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 after 350 cycles at a relatively high charge-discharge rate of 1 C. Further mechanistic studies suggest that these SAFs reduce the interfacial charge transfer resistance and suppress the growth of the solid-electrolyte interphase. This facile method can be utilized to improve a broad range of cathode and anode materials. A thermodynamic framework is proposed, which can be used to guide future experiments of other material systems. PMID:24643317

  13. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Wet Life of Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Batteries. Volume 2, Part 3; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, David S,; Lee, Leonine S.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 3 - Volume II Appendices to Part 3 - Volume I.

  14. The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  15. Testing and development of electric vehicle batteries for EPRI Electric Transportation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.

    1988-01-01

    The battery is a key element in the acceptance of electric vehicles, and R and D efforts are being undertaken to improve battery performance and lifetime. In this electric-vehicle battery program, controlled laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of selected factors on the performance and life of the EV-2300 lead-acid battery manufactured by Johnson Controls, Inc. These factors included simulated driving profiles with different levels of peak power demands for vehicle acceleration, long rest times after charge or discharge, and different methods of recharging. The performance and cycle life of a 12-module full-scale battery pack and its support system were also evaluated. This report summarizes the work carried out on this program from January 1985 through April 1986. This work involved tests of the battery pack and support system, statistical analysis of capacity and power data from earlier tests of six-cell modules, and post-test analysis of selected modules and cells.

  16. Battery technology assessment and R and D plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Gary L.

    To guide future EV battery R and D programs, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a comprehensive assessment of secondary battery technologies. A total of 67 battery developers -- from the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Africa -- were solicited to submit battery design concepts for an Improved Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion (IDSEP) van. A team of 10 consultants and 7 representatives from DOE laboratories evaluated 42 developer responses and consultant-prepared designs. Using six criteria -- five technical/economic criteria and a maturity/technical barriers criterion -- the assessment identified 12 most-promising batteries. Employing a generic EV-battery development-process framework, the assessment results were used to formulate multi-year R and D plans and schedules for the most-promising developmental batteries.

  17. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  18. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  19. Automating Embedded Analysis Capabilities and Managing Software Complexity in Multiphysics Simulation, Part I: Template-Based Generic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Roger P.; Phipps, Eric T.; Salinger, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for incorporating embedded simulation and analysis capabilities in complex simulation codes through template-based generic programming is presented. This approach relies on templating and operator overloading within the C++ language to transform a given calculation into one that can compute a variety of additional quantities that are necessary for many state-of-the-art simulation and analysis algorithms. An approach for incorporating these ideas into complex simulation codes through general graph-based assembly is also presented. These ideas have been implemented within a set of packages in the Trilinos framework and are demonstrated on a simple problem from chemical engineering.

  20. The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Electrochemical Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby. significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of October 1, 1991 through March 31, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. These tasks are structured into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management and Coordination; 2.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 3.0 Advanced Sodium/Beta Batteries; 4.0 Advanced Ambient-Temperature Batteries; 5.0 EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

  1. The ANL electric vehicle battery R/D program for DOE-EHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The Electrochemical Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby, significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of October 1, 1991 through March 31, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. These tasks are structured into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management and Coordination; 2.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 3.0 Advanced Sodium/Beta Batteries; 4.0 Advanced Ambient-Temperature Batteries; 5.0 eV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

  2. The 100 ampere-hour nickel cadmium battery development program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.

    1974-01-01

    A program to develop a long-life, reliable and safe 100 ampere-hour sealed nickel-cadmium cell and battery module with ancillary charge control and automated test equipment to fulfill the requirements of a large Manned Orbital Space Station which uses Solar Arrays as its prime source for 25 kW of electrical power was conducted. A sealed 100 ampere-hour cell with long life potential and a replaceable, space maintainable battery module has been developed for Manned Space Station applications. The 100 ampere-hour cell has been characterized for initial (early life) anticipated conditions.

  3. Report on Lithium Ion Battery Trade Studies to Support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Kissock, Barbara I.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the results of two system related analyses to support the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project. The first study documents a trade study to determine the optimum Li-ion battery cell capacity for the ascent stage battery for the Altair lunar lander being developed under the Constellation Systems program. The battery cell capacity for the Ultra High Energy (UHE) Li-ion battery initially chosen as the target for development was 35 A-hr; this study concludes that a 19.4 A-hr cell capacity would be more optimum from a minimum battery mass perspective. The second study in this report is an assessment of available low temperature Li-ion battery cell performance data to determine whether lowering the operating temperature range of the Li-ion battery, in a rover application, could save overall system mass by eliminating thermal control system mass normally needed to maintain battery temperature within a tighter temperature limit than electronics or other less temperature sensitive components. The preliminary assessment for this second study indicates that the reduction in the thermal control system mass is negated by an increase in battery mass to compensate for the loss in battery capacity due to lower temperature operating conditions.

  4. DOE's near-term electric vehicle battery program. Status of improved lead-acid, nickel/iron, and nickel/zinc battery developments

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, N.P.; Christianson, C.C.; Elliott, R.C.; Lee, T.S.; Miller, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    From the inception of the DOE/ANL Near-Term eV Battery Program in 1978, significant progress in lead-acid, nickel/iron and nickel/zinc battery technology has been made towards achieving the technical performance goals necessary for widespread use of these battery systems in electric vehicle applications. The energy density of lead-acid eV batteries has advanced from 25 to 30 Wh/kg to over 40 Wh/kg. The prospect for obtaining a lead-acid battery having both high energy density and long cycle life in a few years is very promising. Nickel/iron modules have demonstrated a specific energy of nearly 50 Wh/kg and a specific power of 100 W/kg, cycle lives of 300 have been achieved during early 1980 and testing continues, and the energy efficiency has been improved from less than 50% to over 65%. Nickel/zinc module test data have shown a specific energy of nearly 70 Wh/kg and a specific power of 130 W/kg. However, cycle life improvements are still needed. Cost reduction continues to receive major emphasis at developers of both nickel/zinc and nickel/iron batteries. Based on the continued demonstration of viable solutions to technical problems in the 1980 to 1983 time-frame, these near-term batteries will emerge as contenders for electric vehicle applications. The relative cost/performance/life tradeoff of these battery systems continues to receive emphasis in the DOE/ANL R and D Program. While it would be premature at the present time to select winning systems or specific technical approaches, it is the intent of the DOE/ANL program management to continue supporting the development of the most viable approaches in response to the 1986 commercialization goal.

  5. The ANL electric vehicle battery R&D program for DOE-EHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce air pollution and petroleum consumption due to the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, and project management on advanced battery technologies for DOE-EHP. The battery-related activities undertaken during the period of 1 Jan. 1993 through 31 Mar. 1993 are summarized. The objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: Project Management; Sodium/Metal Chloride R&D and Microreference Electrodes for Lithium/Polymer Batteries.

  6. The Medallion Program: Using the Generic Sport Model to Train Athletes with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Wendy J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Manitoba Special Olympics Medallion Program which provides Special Olympians with the opportunity to engage in sport-specific training at the level required to improve athletic performance. The program is more competitive than general Special Olympics physical activity programs which are more recreational in nature. (SM)

  7. Software control program for 25 kW breadboard testing. [spacecraft power supplies; high voltage batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajak, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A data acquisition software program developed to operate in conjunction with the automated control system of the 25 kW PM Electric Power System Breadboard Test facility is described. The proram provides limited interactive control of the breadboard test while acquiring data and monitoring parameters, allowing unattended continuous operation. The breadboard test facility has two positions for operating separate configurations. The main variable in each test setup is the high voltage Ni-Cd battery.

  8. Assessment of Lithium-based Battery Electrolytes Developed under the NASA PERS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, NASA formally completed the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Program, which was established in 2000 in collaboration with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The goal of this program was to ultimately develop an advanced, space-qualified battery technology, which embodied a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and complementary components, with improved performance characteristics that would address future aerospace battery requirements. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. A variety of cell and polymeric electrolyte concepts were pursued as part of the development efforts undertaken at numerous governmental, industrial and academic laboratories. Numerous candidate electrolyte materials were developed, synthesized and optimized for evaluation. Utilizing the component screening facility and the "standardized" test procedures developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center, electrochemical screening and performance evaluations of promising candidate materials were completed. This overview summarizes test results for a variety of candidate electrolyte materials that were developed under the PERS Program. Electrolyte properties are contrasted and compared to the original project goals, and the strengths and weaknesses of the electrolyte chemistries are discussed. Limited cycling data for full-cells using lithium metal and vanadium oxide electrodes are also presented. Based on measured electrolyte properties, the projected performance characteristics and temperature limitations of batteries utilizing

  9. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  10. The ANL electric vehicle battery R/D program for DOE-EHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid PropuLsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce air pollution and petroleum consumption. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of 1 Oct. 1992 - 31 Dec. 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management and Coordination; 2.0 Sodium/Metal Chloride R&D 3.0 Microreference Electrodes for Lithium/Polymer Batteries; and 4.0 USABC Support. The Project Management and Coordination Task Area encompasses planning, organization, coordination, integration, and overall management of battery R&D projects for DOE-EHP, as well as work performed in behalf of DOE-directed inter-laboratory tasks. Section 3 of this report recounts the work performed during this reporting period on each task within these task areas.

  11. Mechanism to support generic collective communication across a variety of programming models

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe; Dozsa, Gabor; Kumar, Sameer

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for supporting collective communications on a plurality of processors that use different parallel programming paradigms, in one aspect, may comprise a schedule defining one or more tasks in a collective operation, an executor that executes the task, a multisend module to perform one or more data transfer functions associated with the tasks, and a connection manager that controls one or more connections and identifies an available connection. The multisend module uses the available connection in performing the one or more data transfer functions. A plurality of processors that use different parallel programming paradigms can use a common implementation of the schedule module, the executor module, the connection manager and the multisend module via a language adaptor specific to a parallel programming paradigm implemented on a processor.

  12. The Effects upon Advanced Placement Licensed Vocational Nursing Students When Integrated with Generic Students in the Second Year of a Registered Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balint, Marilyn

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of integrating advanced placement licensed vocational nursing (APLVN) students with generic students in the second year of the registered nursing program at Long Beach City College. It was hypothesized that the academic achievement of the APLVN students who were taught as a separate group for the first…

  13. A Generic Qualitative Study of the Experiences of International Students Participating in the Cultural Connections Program at the University of Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kholomeydik, Nadezda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the experiences of international students participating in the Cultural Connections Program at The University of Mississippi. A generic qualitative design was utilized using purposeful criterion sampling. The data was collected from two focus group interviews with 11 participants in focus group 1 and 10…

  14. Mark I containment long-term program safety evaluation report, resolution of generic technical activity A-7. Report for February 1977-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    During testing for an advanced Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) containment system design (Mark III), suppression pool hydrodynamic loads were identified which had not been considered in the original design of the Mark I containment system. To address this issue, a Mark I Owners Group was formed and the assessment was divided into a short-term and long-term program. The results of the NRC staff's review of the Mark I Containment Short Term Program are described in NUREG-0408. This report describes the results of the NRC staff's review of the generic Mark I Containment Long Term Program (LTP). The LTP was conducted to provide a generic basis to define suppression pool hydrodynamic loads and the related structural acceptance criteria, such that a comprehensive reassessment of each Mark I containment system would be performed. A series of experimental and analytical programs were conducted by the Mark I Owners Group to provide the necessary bases for the generic load definition and structural assessment techniques. The generic methods proposed by the Mark I Owners Group, as modified by the NRC staff's requirements, will be used to perform plant-unique analyses, which will identify the plant modifications, if any, that will be needed to restore the originally intended margin of safety in the Mark I containment designs.

  15. Assessment of EV batteries and application to R and D planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Gary L.; Patil, Pandit G.; Ratner, Elliot Z.; Warde, Charles J.

    1989-03-01

    To guide future EV battery R and D programs, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a comprehensive assessment of secondary battery technologies. A total of 67 battery developers---from the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Africa---were solicited to submit battery design concepts for an Improved Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion (IDSEP) van. A team of 10 consultants and 7 representatives from DOE laboratories evaluated 42 developer responses and consultant-prepared designs. Using six criteria---five technical/economic criteria and a maturity/technical barriers criterion---the assessment identified 12 most-promising batteries. Employing a generic EV-battery development-system framework, the assessment results are being used to formulate multi-year R and D plans and schedules for the most-promising developmental batteries.

  16. The NASA "PERS" Program: Solid Polymer Electrolyte Development for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The ultimate objective of this development program, which was referred to as the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS), was to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. Out of a total of 38 proposals received in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicitation, 18 proposals (13 contracts and 5 grants) were selected for initial award to address these technical challenges. Brief summaries of technical approaches, results and accomplishments of the PERS Program development efforts are presented. With Agency support provided through FY 2004, the PERS Program efforts were concluded in 2005, as internal reorganizations and funding cuts resulted in shifting programmatic priorities within NASA. Technically, the PERS Program participants explored, to various degrees over the lifetime of the formal program, a variety of conceptual approaches for developing and demonstrating performance of a viable advanced solid polymer electrolyte possessing the desired attributes, as well as several participants addressing all components of an integrated cell configuration. Programmatically, the NASA PERS Program was very successful, even though the very challenging technical goals for achieving a viable solid polymer electrolyte material or

  17. ISPATOM: A Generic Real-Time Data Processing Tool Without Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dershowitz, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Information Sharing Protocol Advanced Tool of Math (ISPATOM) is an application program allowing for the streamlined generation of comps, which subscribe to streams of incoming telemetry data, perform any necessary computations on the data, then send the data to other programs for display and/or further processing in NASA mission control centers. Heretofore, the development of comps was difficult, expensive, and time-consuming: Each comp was custom written manually, in a low-level computing language, by a programmer attempting to follow requirements of flight controllers. ISPATOM enables a flight controller who is not a programmer to write a comp by simply typing in one or more equation( s) at a command line or retrieving the equation(s) from a text file. ISPATOM then subscribes to the necessary input data, performs all of necessary computations, and sends out the results. It sends out new results whenever the input data change. The use of equations in ISPATOM is no more difficult than is entering equations in a spreadsheet. The time involved in developing a comp is thus limited to the time taken to decide on the necessary equations. Thus, ISPATOM is a real-time dynamic calculator.

  18. Adaptive properties of living beings: proposal for a generic mechanism. (Self-programming machines III).

    PubMed

    Moulin, Jean-Paul

    2006-03-01

    Living systems are capable to have appropriate responses to unpredictable environment. This kind of self-organization seems to operate as a self-programming machine, i.e. an organization able to modify itself. Until now the models of self-organization of living beings proposed are functions solutions of differential systems or transition functions of automata. These functions are fixed and these models are therefore unable to modify their organization. On the other hand, computer science propose a lot of models having the properties of adaptive systems of living beings, but all these models depend on the comparison between a goal and the results and ingenious choices of parameters by programmers, whereas there are no programmer's intention nor choice in the living systems. From two best known examples of adaptive systems of living beings, nervous system and immune system that have in common that the external signals modify the rewriting of their organization and therefore work as self-organizing machines, we devised machines with a finite set of inputs, based upon a recurrence, are able to rewrite their organization (Self-programming machines or m(sp)) whenever external conditions vary and have striking properties of adaptation. M(sp) have similar properties whatever the operation defining the recurrence maybe. These results bring us to make the following statement: adaptive properties of living systems can be explained by their ability to rewrite their organization whenever external conditions vary under the only assumption that the rewriting mechanism be a deterministic constant recurrence in a finite state set. PMID:16545754

  19. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Prototype Batteries for Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L.; Surampudi, S.; Byers, J.; Marsh, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the scientific payload, expected launch date and tasks, and an image of the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander components. The Lander's battery specifications are given. The program objectives for the Li-ion cells for the Lander are listed, and results performance evaluation and cycle life performance tests are outlined for different temperatures. Cell charge characteristics are described, and test data is presented for charge capacity at varying temperatures. Capacity retention and storage characteristics tests are described and results are shown.

  20. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  1. Environmental Technology Verification Program Materials Management and Remediation Center Generic Protocol for Verification of In Situ Chemical Oxidation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protocol provides generic procedures for implementing a verification test for the performance of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), focused specifically to expand the application of ISCO at manufactured gas plants with polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination (MGP/PAH) an...

  2. The ANL electric vehicle battery R&D program for DOE-EHP. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R&D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

  3. Battery Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  4. micrOMEGAs 2.0: A program to calculate the relic density of dark matter in a generic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, G.; Boudjema, F.; Pukhov, A.; Semenov, A.

    2007-03-01

    micrOMEGAs 2.0 is a code which calculates the relic density of a stable massive particle in an arbitrary model. The underlying assumption is that there is a conservation law like R-parity in supersymmetry which guarantees the stability of the lightest odd particle. The new physics model must be incorporated in the notation of CalcHEP, a package for the automatic generation of squared matrix elements. Once this is done, all annihilation and coannihilation channels are included automatically in any model. Cross-sections at v=0, relevant for indirect detection of dark matter, are also computed automatically. The package includes three sample models: the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the MSSM with complex phases and the NMSSM. Extension to other models, including non-supersymmetric models, is described. Program summaryTitle of program:micrOMEGAs2.0 Catalogue identifier:ADQR_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQR_v2_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested:PC, Alpha, Mac, Sun Operating systems under which the program has been tested:UNIX (Linux, OSF1, SunOS, Darwin, Cygwin) Programming language used:C and Fortran Memory required to execute with typical data:17 MB depending on the number of processes required No. of processors used:1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized:no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:91 778 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 306 726 Distribution format:tar.gz External routines/libraries used:no Catalogue identifier of previous version:ADQR_v1_3 Journal reference of previous version:Comput. Phys. Comm. 174 (2006) 577 Does the new version supersede the previous version:yes Nature of physical problem:Calculation of the relic density of the lightest stable particle in a generic new model of particle physics. Method

  5. The ANL electric vehicle battery R&D program for DOE-EHP. Progress report, October 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Electrochemical Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE`s Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby. significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of October 1, 1991 through March 31, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. These tasks are structured into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management and Coordination; 2.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 3.0 Advanced Sodium/Beta Batteries; 4.0 Advanced Ambient-Temperature Batteries; 5.0 EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

  6. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  7. Part Programer, Numerical Control (mach. shop) 11 007.187--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  8. The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

  9. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.

    2012-07-01

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zealand, 300 Gy for all arthropods on mango shipped from Australia to Malaysia, 350 Gy for all arthropods on lychee shipped from Australia to New Zealand and 400 Gy for all hosts of insects other than pupae and adult Lepidoptera shipped to the United States. Efforts to develop additional generic PI treatments and reduce the dose for the 400 Gy treatment are ongoing with a broad based 5-year, 12-nation cooperative research project coordinated by the joint Food and Agricultural Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency Program on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Key groups identified for further development of generic PI treatments are Lepidoptera (eggs and larvae), mealybugs and scale insects. A dose of 250 Gy may suffice for these three groups plus others, such as thrips, weevils and whiteflies.

  10. Development and application of a battery energy storage system simulation program for rail transit systems. Volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, C.E.; Uher, R.A.

    1995-03-01

    Under the Rail Transit Energy Management Program, a computer model was developed to assess the economic feasibility of applying battery energy storage to rail transit systems. This model was applied to the Port Authority of Allegheny County (PAT) (Pittsburgh) light rail system and the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority`s (WMATA) MetroRail. The results indicate that the payback periods for investment into battery energy storage and relatively long; 14 years for WMATA and 10 years for PAT. These payback periods are marginal and with the risk associated with implementing battery storage, it is doubtful whether transit management would be inclined to make such an investment. The capital cost of battery storage can be reduced by eliminating the power conditioning equipment and allowing the battery to be connected directly to the third rail catenary or trolley system. The model can easily be modified to assess the economic feasibility of other alternative energy sources such as cogeneration and other storage media, such as superconducting magnetic energy storage.

  11. Bioavailability and generic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Mindel, J S

    1976-01-01

    Although oral drug bioinequivalence has been attributed to a number of causes (excipients, dosage form, variation in dissolution time, and aging) less is known about bioavailability problems of topical medications in ophthalmology. Factors that can alter drug absorption from solutions (pH, partition coefficient, container impurities, contact time, etc.) are noted, and cases in which bioavailability problems should be considered as causes of therapeutic failure are discussed. Various attitudes representing pharmaceutical companies, the federal government, pharmacists, consumers and physicians toward the related problems of bioinequivalence and generic prescribing are examined. Techniques for in vivo and in vitro drug testing and for establishing uniform conditions of drug manufacture and storage can contribute to identification and minimization of bioavailability problems. A rational program based on a combination of such techniques could, ultimately, lead to establishment of the terms "generic equivalency" and "therapeutic equivalency" as synonymous. PMID:13505

  12. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  13. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  14. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  15. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  16. 42 CFR 447.506 - Authorized generic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized generic drugs. 447.506 Section 447.506... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.506 Authorized generic drugs. (a) Authorized generic drug defined. For the purposes of this subpart, an authorized generic...

  17. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... external power supplies (EPSs). (77 FR 18478) That notice also proposed to establish standards for non... for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external...

  18. Accelerated test program for sealed nickel-cadmium spacecraft batteries/cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was examined of inducing an accelerated test on sealed Nickel-Cadmium batteries or cells as a tool for spacecraft projects and battery users to determine: (1) the prediction of life capability; (2) a method of evaluating the effect of design and component changes in cells; and (3) a means of reducing time and cost of cell testing.

  19. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  20. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  1. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 GDR Performance Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chinh D. Ho; Gary L. Henriksen; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed the performance evaluation of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). This report documents the testing and analysis of the Gen 2 GDR cells, which were used to learn and debug the newly developed Technology Life Verification Test Manual. The purpose of the manual is to project a 15-year, 150,000 mile battery life capability with a 90% confidence interval using predictive models and short-term testing. The GDR cells were divided into two different matrices. The core-life test matrix consisted of calendar- and cycle-life cells with various changes to the four major acceleration factors (temperature, state-of-charge, throughput, and power rating). The supplemental-life test matrix consisted of cells subjected either to a path dependence study, or a comparison between the standard hybrid pulse power characterization test and the newly-developed minimum pulse power characterization test. Resistance and capacity results are reported.

  2. NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project Battery Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    Technical Interchange Meeting was held at Saft America s Research and Development facility in Cockeysville, Maryland on Sept 28th-29th, 2010. The meeting was attended by Saft, contractors who are developing battery component materials under contracts awarded through a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), and NASA. This briefing presents an overview of the components being developed by the contractor attendees for the NASA s High Energy (HE) and Ultra High Energy (UHE) cells. The transition of the advanced lithium-ion cell development project at NASA from the Exploration Technology Development Program Energy Storage Project to the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, changes to deliverable hardware and schedule due to a reduced budget, and our roadmap to develop cells and provide periodic off-ramps for cell technology for demonstrations are discussed. This meeting gave the materials and cell developers the opportunity to discuss the intricacies of their materials and determine strategies to address any particulars of the technology.

  3. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane L; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-05-15

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems. Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current rain event as well as the expected overflow given the probability of a future rain event. The methodology is successfully applied to design an optimising control strategy for a subcatchment area in Copenhagen. The results are promising and expected to contribute to the advance of the operation and control problem of sewer systems. PMID:25840844

  4. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  5. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    SciTech Connect

    Newmiller, Jeff; Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  6. Environmental Technology Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program (ETV CCEP) High Transfer Efficiency Spray Equipment--Generic Verification Protocol

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to verify the performance characteristics of innovative environmental technologies across all media and report this objective information to the states, ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP) HIGH TRANSFER EFFICIENCE SPRAY EQUIPMENT--GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program has been established to verify the performance characteristics of innovative environmental technologies and report this objective information, thus, accelerating the entrance of these new technologies into the marketplace. V...

  8. Generic Skills. Keys to Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Arthur De W.

    The generic skills studies in Canada have as their objectives the formulation of generic skills, the identification of their uses for certain occupational groups, and the preparation of specifications for instructional modules in an attempt to provide greater flexibility to workers, employers, and vocational training programs. Another objective of…

  9. 75 FR 16957 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... FR 69681 (Dec. 30, 1993), if DOE determines that a test procedure amendment is warranted, it must.... 6295(u)(1)(A)) DOE complied with this requirement by publishing a test procedure final rule, 71 FR... Framework Document for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies on June 4, 2009. 74 FR 26816. DOE...

  10. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: Criteria for Personalizing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The development and content of the Early Education Screening Test Battery are described elsewhere (TM 000 184). This report provides norms for the Gross Motor Test (GMO), Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), four scales of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the Behavior Rating Scale…

  11. The USAF Phillips Laboratory sodium-sulfur battery technology program: Results and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainbow, Marc E.; Somerville, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Tests performed on NaS batteries are reported. The results of safety and abuse testing, shock and vibration tests, cell failure on warm-up, freeze thaw, overtemperature conditions, electrolyte fracture, overdischarge, and short circuit tests are presented along with GEO and LEO cycle tests and the status of the NaS cell flight tests.

  12. Generic prescribing of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Bruck, P; Antao, C A; Henry, J A

    1992-11-01

    Analysis of National Health Service prescription data for the antidepressants from 1980 to 1989 shows a consistent secular trend towards the increased use of generic names on prescriptions for this group of drugs. This apparently reflects national trends for all drugs, and was similar for most antidepressants. However, generic prescribing had by 1989 increased significantly more rapidly with fluvoxamine, which was introduced in 1987. The two drugs introduced in 1989, fluoxetine and amoxapine, also had a high generic prescribing rate in their year of introduction. Increased generic prescribing may become a feature with further new drugs. However, the use of the generic name on the prescription has relatively little influence on what is dispensed to the patient. Pharmacists may dispense a brand name when given a generic prescription. Moreover, pressures on doctors to write generic names on prescriptions may have limited relevance for some drugs; generic alternatives were available for only four out of 22 antidepressants. PMID:1474553

  13. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  14. Conceptual Distinctions amongst Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasada, Sandeep; Khemlani, Sangeet; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Glucksberg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Generic sentences (e.g., bare plural sentences such as "dogs have four legs" and "mosquitoes carry malaria") are used to talk about "kinds" of things. Three experiments investigated the conceptual foundations of generics as well as claims within the formal semantic approaches to generics concerning the roles of prevalence, cue validity and…

  15. ZOOM: a generic personal computer-based teaching program for public health and its application in schistosomiasis control.

    PubMed

    Martin, G T; Yoon, S S; Mott, K E

    1991-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a group of parasitic diseases caused by Schistosoma parasites, is associated with water resources development and affects more than 200 million people in 76 countries. Depending on the species of parasite involved, disease of the liver, spleen, gastrointestinal or urinary tract, or kidneys may result. A computer-assisted teaching package has been developed by WHO for use in the training of public health workers involved in schistosomiasis control. The package consists of the software, ZOOM, and a schistosomiasis information file, Dr Schisto, and uses hypermedia technology to link pictures and text. ZOOM runs on the IBM-PC and IBM-compatible computers, is user-friendly, requires a minimal hardware configuration, and can interact with the user in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese. The information files for ZOOM can be created or modified by the instructor using a word processor, and thus can be designed to suit the need of students. No programming knowledge is required to create the stacks. PMID:1786618

  16. Electric battery research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-16

    Electric-battery research programs are receiving less funding, and efforts have been made to phase out the still-unsuccessful effort to produce a commercially viable automotive battery. Lead-acid and nickel-iron batteries are top contenders for commercial applications, but a short life span continues to limit their usefulness. Until electric cars can compete (when gasoline approaches $2.50 a gallon) the market does not look hopeful. (DCK)

  17. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    PubMed

    Toy, Mehlika; Hutton, David W; So, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293) per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02) for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB) per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB) per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB) per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level. PMID:26536626

  19. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  20. The GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

  1. Waste product profile: Household batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. )

    1994-04-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of profiles -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the waste stream. These profiles highlight a product, explain how it fits into integrated waste management systems, and provide current data on recycling and markets for the product. This profile does not cover wet cell lead-acid batteries such as car batteries. Household batteries include primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Household batteries are available in many sizes including bottom, AAA, AA, C, D, N, and 9-volt. In 1991, 3.8 billion household batteries, or 145,000 tons, were incinerated or landfilled in the US. Due to a limited number of programs collecting batteries, the recycling rate is very small. An EPA study estimated than in 1989, 52% of the cadmium and 88% of the mercury in MSW came from household batteries.

  2. Assessing Medicare Part D Claim Completeness Using Medication Self-reports: The Role of Veteran Status and Generic Drug Discount Programs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Stearns, Sally C.; Thudium, Emily M.; Alburikan, Khalid A.; Rodgers, Jo Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medicare Part D claims are commonly used for research, but missing claims could compromise their validity. This study assessed two possible causes of missing claims: veteran status and Generic Drug Discount Programs (GDDP). Methods We merged medication self-reports from telephone interviews in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) with Part D claims for six medications (three were commonly in GDDP in 2009). Merged records (4,468) were available for 2,905 ARIC participants enrolled in Part D. Multinomial logit regression provided estimates of the association of concordance (self-report & Part D, self-report only, or Part D only) with veteran and GDDP status, controlling for participant socio-demographics. Results Sample participants were 74±5 years of age, 68% white and 63% female; 19% were male veterans. Compared to females, male veterans were 11% (95% CI: 7%–16%) less likely to have matched medications in self-report & Part D and 11% (95% CI: 7%–16%) more likely to have self-report only. Records for GDDP versus non-GDDP medications were 4% (95% CI: 1%–7%) more likely to be in self-report & Part D and 3% (95% CI: 1%–5%) less likely to be in Part D only, with no difference in self-report only. Conclusions Part D claims were more likely to be missing for veterans, but claims for medications commonly available through GDDP were more likely to match with self-reports. While researchers should be aware of the possibility of missing claims, GDDP status was associated with a higher rather than lower likelihood of claims being complete in 2009. PMID:25793271

  3. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  4. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... locate the battery. Blood and urine tests. Bronchoscopy . Camera placed down the throat into the lungs to ...

  5. The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP. [ANL (Argonne National Laboratory); EHP (Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-15

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce air pollution and petroleum consumption due to the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, and project management on advanced battery technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of January 1, 1993 through March 31, 1993. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 2.0 Sodium/Metal Chloride R D; 3.0 Microreference Electrodes for Lithium/Polymer Batteries.

  6. micrOMEGAs 2.0.7: a program to calculate the relic density of dark matter in a generic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, G.; Boudjema, F.; Pukhov, A.; Semenov, A.

    2007-12-01

    micrOMEGAs2.0.7 is a code which calculates the relic density of a stable massive particle in an arbitrary model. The underlying assumption is that there is a conservation law like R-parity in supersymmetry which guarantees the stability of the lightest odd particle. The new physics model must be incorporated in the notation of CalcHEP, a package for the automatic generation of squared matrix elements. Once this is done, all annihilation and coannihilation channels are included automatically in any model. Cross-sections at v=0, relevant for indirect detection of dark matter, are also computed automatically. The package includes three sample models: the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the MSSM with complex phases and the NMSSM. Extension to other models, including non supersymmetric models, is described. Program summaryTitle of program:micrOMEGAs2.0.7 Catalogue identifier:ADQR_v2_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQR_v2_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:216 529 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 848 816 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language used:C and Fortran Computer:PC, Alpha, Mac, Sun Operating system:UNIX (Linux, OSF1, SunOS, Darwin, Cygwin) RAM:17 MB depending on the number of processes required Classification:1.9, 11.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version:ADQR_v2_0 Journal version of previous version:Comput. Phys. Comm. 176 (2007) 367 Does the new version supersede the previous version?:Yes Nature of problem:Calculation of the relic density of the lightest stable particle in a generic new model of particle physics. Solution method:In numerically solving the evolution equation for the density of dark matter, relativistic formulae for the thermal average are used. All tree

  7. Descriptive Model of Generic WAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Transmission Reliability Program is supporting the research, deployment, and demonstration of various wide area measurement system (WAMS) technologies to enhance the reliability of the Nation’s electrical power grid. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE National SCADA Test Bed Program to conduct a study of WAMS security. This report represents achievement of the milestone to develop a generic WAMS model description that will provide a basis for the security analysis planned in the next phase of this study.

  8. State generic substitution laws can lower drug outlays under medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Niteesh K.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Federman, Alex D.; Liberman, Joshua N.; Liu, Jun; Kesselheim, Aaron S.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Fischer, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    To stem the rising costs of medications, states have implemented varying generic substitution policies. These policies differ in the extent to which pharmacists or patients can influence medication choice. Using national Medicaid data, we evaluated the relationship between different generic substitution policies and generic simvastatin use after patent expiration of branded Zocor. States implementing policies that require patient consent prior to generic substitution experienced 25% lower rates of generic substitution. By eliminating patient consent requirements, state Medicaid programs could expect to save over $100 million dollars in coverage for 3 top-selling medications nearing patent expiration. The implications of these regulations on national medication spending should be considered. PMID:20606192

  9. Lithium-ion Battery Demonstration for the 2007 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William; Baldwin, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs for demonstration in a portable life support system (PLSS) on spacesuit simulators. The experimental batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes and included internal protection against over-current, over-discharge and over-temperature. The 500-gram batteries were designed to deliver a constant power of 38 watts over 103 minutes of discharge time (130 Wh/kg). Battery design details are described and field and laboratory test results are summarized.

  10. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  11. Product, generic, and random generic quantum satisfiability

    SciTech Connect

    Laumann, C. R.; Sondhi, S. L.; Laeuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2010-06-15

    We report a cluster of results on k-QSAT, the problem of quantum satisfiability for k-qubit projectors which generalizes classical satisfiability with k-bit clauses to the quantum setting. First we define the NP-complete problem of product satisfiability and give a geometrical criterion for deciding when a QSAT interaction graph is product satisfiable with positive probability. We show that the same criterion suffices to establish quantum satisfiability for all projectors. Second, we apply these results to the random graph ensemble with generic projectors and obtain improved lower bounds on the location of the SAT-unSAT transition. Third, we present numerical results on random, generic satisfiability which provide estimates for the location of the transition for k=3 and k=4 and mild evidence for the existence of a phase which is satisfiable by entangled states alone.

  12. Generic Certificates. Agricultural Economic Report Number 594.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glauber, Joseph W.

    The Food Security Act of 1985 authorizes the U.S. Department of Agriculture to issue generic certificates in lieu of cash payments due to program participants and merchants of agricultural products under provisions of several programs. The certificates may be used to acquire stocks held as collateral on government loans or owned by the Commodity…

  13. What makes a generic medication generic?

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2009-12-01

    By law, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can approve generic versions of brand-name drugs without requiring that research be conducted to prove them safe and effective. However, compared with a brand-name drug, a generic drug must demonstrate that it (a) contains the same active ingredients; (b) is identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration; (c) is bioequivalent; (d) has the same clinical use indications; (e) meets the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality; and (f) is manufactured according to the same FDA regulations. The most important aspect of generic drug development are the concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence. According to the concept of bioequivalence, if a drug product contains an active ingredient that is chemically identical and is delivered to the site of action at the same rate and extent as another drug product, then it is considered to be clinically equivalent and can be substituted for that drug product. PMID:20000278

  14. High Specific Energy NiH2 Batteries for GEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Fabre, M.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the SAFT qualification status history, cell and battery modifications, overall battery characteristics, satellite programs and battery types delivered, and battery performances for selected satellite missions.

  15. Advanced technology development program for lithium-ion batteries : thermal abuse performance of 18650 Li-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Crafts, Chris C.; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; McBreen, James.; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2004-03-01

    Li-ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles currently being designed for the FreedomCAR (Freedom Cooperative Automotive Research) program. These cells offer superior performance in terms of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are the basis of battery systems for both gasoline and fuel cell based hybrids. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial application in hybrid electric vehicles. The thermal behavior of commercial and prototype cells has been measured under varying conditions of cell composition, age and state-of-charge (SOC). The thermal runaway behavior of full cells has been measured along with the thermal properties of the cell components. We have also measured gas generation and gas composition over the temperature range corresponding to the thermal runaway regime. These studies have allowed characterization of cell thermal abuse tolerance and an understanding of the mechanisms that result in cell thermal runaway.

  16. Calcium/metal sulfide battery development program. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, D. L.; Roche, M. F.; Preto, S. K.; Ross, L. E.; Otto, N. C.; Martino, F. J.

    1981-03-01

    A Ca-Al-Si/FeS/sub 2/ cell has been developed and has exhibited reasonably stable capacity through 3200 h of operation. This system is expected to be capable of meeting the ultimate performance goals (i.e., 160 W.h/kg) of this development program. Further tests of this cell system in the coming year will better define its ultimate performance capabilities.

  17. Dynamic battery cell model and state of charge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijewardana, S.; Vepa, R.; Shaheed, M. H.

    2016-03-01

    Mathematical modelling and the dynamic simulation of battery storage systems can be challenging and demanding due to the nonlinear nature of the battery chemistry. This paper introduces a new dynamic battery model, with application to state of charge estimation, considering all possible aspects of environmental conditions and variables. The aim of this paper is to present a suitable convenient, generic dynamic representation of rechargeable battery dynamics that can be used to model any Lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The proposed representation is used to develop a dynamic model considering the thermal balance of heat generation mechanism of the battery cell and the ambient temperature effect including other variables such as storage effects, cyclic charging, battery internal resistance, state of charge etc. The results of the simulations have been used to study the characteristics of a Lithium-ion battery and the proposed battery model is shown to produce responses within 98% of known experimental measurements.

  18. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  19. Flowing electrolyte battery testing and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.; Miller, D.; Verardo, A.

    1982-08-01

    A laboratory to evaluate the performance and cycle life of flowing electrolyte battery systems has been established at Sandia National Laboratories. Four unique flow batteries are being tested in the laboratory using a four-variable two-level factorial experimental plan. Two Exxon zinc bromine batteries and one Gould zinc bromine battery are under test. One NASA Redox battery is on test. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Cycle history, efficiency values, and general performance observations for these batteries are reported. The factorial test program and available statistical results are also discussed.

  20. Flowing-electrolyte-battery testing and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.; Miller, D.W.; Verardo, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory to evaluate the performance and cycle life of flowing electrolyte battery systems has been established at Sandia National Laboratories. Four unique flow batteries are being tested in the laboratory using a four-variable two-level factorial experimental plan. Two Exxon zinc bromine batteries and one Gould zinc bromine battery are under test. One NASA Redox battery is on test. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Cycle history, efficiency values, and general performance observations for these batteries are reported. The factorial test program and available statistical results are also discussed.

  1. Flowing electrolyte battery testing and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. C.; Miller, D. W.; Verardo, A. E.

    A laboratory to evaluate the performance and cycle life of flowing electrolyte battery systems has been established at Sandia National Laboratories. Four unique flow batteries are being tested in the laboratory using a four-variable two-level factorial experimental plan. Two Exxon zinc bromine batteries and one Gould zinc bromine battery are under test. One NASA Redox battery is on test. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Cycle history, efficiency values, and general performance observations for these batteries are reported. The factorial test program and available statistical results are also discussed.

  2. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  3. Accelerated testing of space batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.; Waite, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated life test program for space batteries is presented that fully satisfies empirical, statistical, and physical criteria for validity. The program includes thermal and other nonmechanical stress analyses as well as mechanical stress, strain, and rate of strain measurements.

  4. Generic Airspace Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  5. Generic robot architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Few, Douglas A

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  6. 76 FR 14028 - Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... questions related to a user fee for human generic drugs and sought public input on such a program. The... FR 47820), entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments.'' In that notice... a generic drug user fee program. In the last docket reopening on January 24, 2011 (76 FR 4119),...

  7. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  8. Calendar-Life and Cycle-Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Generation 1 Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Ho, Chinh Dac; Richardson, Roger Allen; Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Henriksen, G. L.; Unkelhaeuser, T.; Ingersoll, D.; Case, H. L.; Rogers, S. A.; Sutula, R. A.

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents the test results and life modeling of special calendar- and cycle-life tests conducted on 18650-size generation 1 (Gen 1) lithium-ion battery cells (nominal capacity of 0.9 Ah; 3.0–4.1 V rating) developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Department of Energy sponsored advanced technology development (ATD) program. Electrical performance testing was conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As part of the electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once per day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish its performance over a period of time such that the calendar-life of the cell could be determined. The calendar-life test matrix included two states-of-charge (SOCs) (i.e. 60 and 80%) and four test temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both the discharge and regen resistances increased non-linearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the resistances depended on the temperature and SOC at which the test was conducted. Both resistances had a non-linear increase with respect to time at test temperature. The discharge resistances are greater than the regen resistances at all of the test temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. For both the discharge and regen resistances, generally the higher the test temperature, the lower the resistance.

  9. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  10. The Generic Disc: Realizing the Potential of Adaptive, Interactive Videodiscs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses conflict between instructional potential of interactive videodiscs and interests of educational publishers and proposes a generic videodisc as a solution. Generic disc design preferences, equipment needed by teachers to program various learning options to adapt materials to local needs, and a list of videodisc authoring systems are…

  11. Generic Sentences in English and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschensohn, Julia

    Previous accounts of "generic" have been either too broad in including several sentence types as generic, or too narrow in limiting the definition of generic to the noun or verb alone. This research critically examines data and previous treatments of the generic verb, generic noun, and generic sentence. Because every generic sentence may also have…

  12. Vehicles testing of near-term batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. C.; Hardy, K. S.; Sandberg, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Vehicles test results are reported for nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, and improved lead-acid batteries developed under the Near-Term Battery Program sponsored by the Department of Energy. The batteries have demonstrated a range improvement of up to 90% over current lead-acid batteries due to improved energy density and ampere-hour capacity, combined with relatively small weight and volume. However, the nickel-iron battery requires a substantial development effort in packaging the circulating electrolyte system and handling the generated hydrogen volume, while the nickel-zinc batteries tested suffer from short cycle life.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  14. Early Generic Education Intervention Has No Enduring Effect on Intelligence and Does Not Prevent Mental Retardation: The Infant Health and Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Bacharach, Verne R.

    2000-01-01

    Examination of data from the Infant Health and Development Program, a comprehensive program to avert health and intellectual impairments associated with premature low birthweight, does not show any enduring and meaningful effects on cognitive development resulting from the program. Discusses findings in terms of intelligence and its mutability.…

  15. Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1999-05-14

    A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

  16. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  17. Generics: keep a balanced view.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Once the different kinds of commercial protection (patents, etc.) granted to the manufacturer of an "originator" drug have expired, the drug in question may be copied by other companies. These copies are known as generics. The characteristics and pharmaceutical quality of generics are governed by international standards. The marketing authorisation procedure for generic drugs dispenses with preclinical and clinical trials, which already exist for the originator drug. In contrast, proof of bioequivalence must be provided. In practice, this means demonstrating that the effects of the generic are similar (but not necessarily identical) to those of the originator drug. Slight differences between a generic and its brand-name counterpart are allowed, provided they do not markedly affect the efficacy or adverse effect profile in comparison to the originator drug. The accepted degree of difference between a generic and the original brand-name drug is the same as the acceptable difference between two batches of the originator drug. The rules governing generic manufacturing conditions are identical to those applying to originator drugs. And issues raised by drug production abroad, particularly to Asian countries, apply to originator just as much as to generic drugs. Generics represent a significant source of financial savings for society. In France, various measures have been introduced to encourage doctors, pharmacists and patients, respectively, to prescribe, dispense and use generics. Criticisms of the efficacy or quality of generics are often unfounded and sometimes deliberately orchestrated. Smear campaigns conducted by drug companies that market originator drugs, and also by some healthcare professionals, sow confusion, to the detriment of generic use. There is no tangible proof that generics are less safe than originator drugs, provided they are chosen wisely, taking into account factors such as their packaging quality. It is up to healthcare professionals to decide

  18. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has also been added directly to

  19. Reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Thiess, G.H.

    1988-12-27

    A reserve battery is described comprising: a battery cell compartment; an electrolyte reservoir containing pressurized electrolyte fluid; an elongate member formed of rigid material having interior walls defining a closed orifice between the battery cell compartment and the electrolyte fluid reservoir; and the elongate member including a groove adjacent the orifice to define a frangible portion such that upon angular displacement of the elongate member the elongate member is severed at the frangible portion to open the orifice and allow pressurized electrolyte fluid to be conveyed through the orifice to the battery cell compartment.

  20. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  1. Generic Verification Protocol for Verification of Online Turbidimeters

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol provides generic procedures for implementing a verification test for the performance of online turbidimeters. The verification tests described in this document will be conducted under the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Verification tests will...

  2. 76 FR 4119 - Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... related to a user fee for human generic drugs, and sought public input on such a program. The Agency... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening... comment period for the notice of public meeting entitled Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting;...

  3. 75 FR 67984 - Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... related to a user fee for human generic drugs, and sought public input on such a program. The Agency... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Notice of Public Meeting; Reopening... comment period for the notice of public meeting entitled Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting;...

  4. 76 FR 24035 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... legislation would be required for FDA to establish and collect user fees for generic drugs, and FDA is... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments... gather additional stakeholder input on the development of a generic drug user fee program. A user...

  5. 76 FR 44014 - Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... required for FDA to establish and collect user fees for generic drugs, and FDA has been engaged in... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Generic Drug User Fee; Public Meeting; Request for Comments... gather additional stakeholder input on the development of a generic drug user fee program. A user...

  6. Flat battery

    SciTech Connect

    Buckler, S.A.; Cohen, F.S.; Kennedy, D.P.

    1980-12-30

    A description is given of the method of making a thin flat laminar battery comprising the steps of coating a substrate with a dispersion of zinc powder and water to produce an anode slurry, and thereafter diffusing electrolytes into said anode slurry; and electrical cells and batteries made by this process.

  7. Paintable battery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  8. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  9. Paintable Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-06-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  10. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  11. Evaluation of battery/microturbine hybrid energy storage technologies at the University of Maryland :a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K.

    2005-03-01

    This study describes the technical and economic benefits derived from adding an energy storage component to an existing building cooling, heating, and power system that uses microturbine generation to augment utility-provided power. Three different types of battery energy storage were evaluated: flooded lead-acid, valve-regulated lead-acid, and zinc/bromine. Additionally, the economic advantages of hybrid generation/storage systems were evaluated for a representative range of utility tariffs. The analysis was done using the Distributed Energy Technology Simulator developed for the Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories by Energetics, Inc. The study was sponsored by the U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program through Sandia National Laboratories and was performed in coordination with the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Energy Engineering.

  12. Generic drugs: international trends and policy developments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Public and private third-party payers in many countries encourage or mandate the use of generic drugs. This article examines the development of generics policy in Australia, against the background of a description of international trends in this area, and related experiences of reference pricing programs. The Australian generics market remains underdeveloped due to a historical legacy of small Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme price differentials between originator brands and generics. It is argued that policy measures open to the Australian government can be conceived as clustering around two different approaches: incremental changes within the existing regulatory framework, or a shift towards a high volume/low price role of generics which would speed up the delivery of substantial cost savings, and could provide enhanced scope for the financing of new, patented drugs. PMID:15362295

  13. Generic image matching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongjie T.

    1992-05-01

    The generic imaging matching system (GIMS) provides an optimal systematic solution to any problem of color image processing in printing and publishing that can be classified as or modeled to the generic image matching problem defined. Typical GIMS systems/processes include color matching from different output devices, color conversion, color correction, device calibration, colorimetric scanner, colorimetric printer, colorimetric color reproduction, and image interpolation from scattered data. GIMS makes color matching easy for the user and maximizes operational flexibility allowing the user to obtain the degree of match wanted while providing the capability to achieve the best balance with respect to the human perception of color, color fidelity, and preservation of image information and color contrast. Instead of controlling coefficients in a transformation formula, GIMS controls the mapping directly in a standard device-independent color space, so that color can be matched, conceptually, to the highest possible accuracy. An optimization algorithm called modified vector shading was developed to minimize the matching error and to perform a 'near-neighborhood' gamut compression. An automatic error correction algorithm with a multidirection searching procedure using correlated re-initialization was developed to avoid local minimum failures. Once the mapping for color matching is generated, it can be utilized by a multidimensional linear interpolator with a small look-up-table (LUT) implemented by either software, a hardware interpolator or a digital-signal-processor.

  14. Electrical Arc Ignition Testing for Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Kyle; Gallus, Timothy; Smith, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Materials and Processes Branch requested that NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) perform testing for the Constellation Program to evaluate the hazard of electrical arc ignition of materials that could be in close proximity to batteries. Specifically, WSTF was requested to perform wire-break electrical arc tests to determine the current threshold for ignition of generic cotton woven fabric samples with a fixed voltage of 3.7 V, a common voltage for hand-held electrical devices. The wire-break test was developed during a previous test program to evaluate the hazard of electrical arc ignition inside the Extravehicular Mobility Unit [1].

  15. Power fade and capacity fade resulting from cycle-life testing of Advanced Technology Development Program lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Christophersen, J. P.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Ho, C. D.; Battaglia, V. S.; Barnes, J. A.; Duong, T. Q.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and analysis of the power and capacity fade resulting from the cycle-life testing using PNGV (now referred to as FreedomCAR) test protocols at 25 and 45 °C of 18650-size Li-ion batteries developed by the US Department of Energy sponsored Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program. Two cell chemistries were studied, a Baseline chemistry that had a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 with binders, that was cycle-life tested at 25 and 45 °C, and a Variant C chemistry with a cathode composition of LiNi 0.8Co 0.10Al 0.10O 2 with binders, that was tested only at 45 °C. The 300 Wh power, and % power fade were determined as a function of test time, i.e. the number of test cycles for up to 44 weeks (369,600 test cycles) for the Baseline cells, and for 24 weeks (201,600 test cycles) for the Variant C cells. The C/1 and C/25 discharge capacity and capacity fade were also determined during the course of these studies. The results of this study indicate that the 300 Wh power for the Baseline cells tested at 25 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) decreased as a linear function of test time. The % power fade for these cells increased as a linear function of test time. The Baseline cells tested at 45 °C (up to 44 weeks of testing) displayed a decrease in their power proportional to the square root of the test time, with a faster rate of decrease of the power occurring at ˜28 weeks of testing. The % power fade for these cells also increased as the square root of the test time, and exhibited an increase in the % power fade rate at ˜28 weeks of testing. The 45 °C tested Baseline cells' power decreased, and their % power fade increased at a greater rate than the 25 °C tested Baseline cells. The power fade was greater for the Variant C cells. The power of the Variant C cells (tested at 45 °C) decreased as the square root of the test time, and their % power fade was also found to be a function of the square root of the test time

  16. Need for multicriteria evaluation of generic drug policies.

    PubMed

    Kaló, Zoltán; Holtorf, Anke-Peggy; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Shen, Jie; Ágh, Tamás; Inotai, András; Brixner, Diana

    2015-03-01

    Policymakers tend to focus on improving patented drug policies because they are under pressure from patients, physicians, and manufacturers to increase access to novel therapies. The success of pharmaceutical innovation over the last few decades has led to the availability of many off-patent drugs to treat disease areas with the greatest public health need. Therefore, the success of public health programs in improving the health status of the total population is highly dependent on the efficiency of generic drug policies. The objective of this article was to explore factors influencing the true efficiency of generic prescription drug policies in supporting public health initiatives in the developed world. Health care decision makers often assess the efficiency of generic drug policies by the level of price erosion and market share of generics. Drug quality, bioequivalence, in some cases drug formulations, supply reliability, medical adherence and persistence, health outcomes, and nondrug costs, however, are also attributes of success for generic drug policies. Further methodological research is needed to measure and improve the efficiency of generic drug policies. This also requires extension of the evidence base of the impact of generic drugs, partly based on real-world evidence. Multicriteria decision analysis may assist policymakers and researchers to evaluate the true value of generic drugs. PMID:25773570

  17. Battery pack

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, R.J.; Brittingham, D.C.; Basta, J.C.

    1993-07-06

    A battery pack is described, having a center of mass, for use with a medical instrument including a latch, an ejector, and an electrical connector, the battery pack comprising: energy storage means for storing electrical energy; latch engagement means, physically coupled to the energy storage means, for engaging the latch; ejector engagement means, physically coupled to the energy storage means, for engaging the ejector; and connector engagement means, physically coupled to the energy storage means, for engaging the connector, the latch engagement means, ejector engagement means, and connector engagement means being substantially aligned in a plane offset from the center of mass of the battery pack.

  18. Calendar- and cycle-life studies of advanced technology development program generation 1 lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, R. B.; Motloch, C. G.; Belt, J. R.; Christophersen, J. P.; Ho, C. D.; Richardson, R. A.; Bloom, I.; Jones, S. A.; Battaglia, V. S.; Henriksen, G. L.; Unkelhaeuser, T.; Ingersoll, D.; Case, H. L.; Rogers, S. A.; Sutula, R. A.

    This paper presents the test results and life modeling of special calendar- and cycle-life tests conducted on 18650-size generation 1 (Gen 1) lithium-ion battery cells (nominal capacity of 0.9 Ah; 3.0-4.1 V rating) developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Department of Energy sponsored advanced technology development (ATD) program. Electrical performance testing was conducted at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As part of the electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once per day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish its performance over a period of time such that the calendar-life of the cell could be determined. The calendar-life test matrix included two states-of-charge (SOCs) (i.e. 60 and 80%) and four test temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both the discharge and regen resistances increased non-linearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the resistances depended on the temperature and SOC at which the test was conducted. Both resistances had a non-linear increase with respect to time at test temperature. The discharge resistances are greater than the regen resistances at all of the test temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. For both the discharge and regen resistances, generally the higher the test temperature, the lower the resistance. The measured resistances were then used to develop an empirical model that was used to predict the calendar-life of the cells. This model accounted for the time, temperature and SOC of the batteries during the calendar-life test. The functional form of the model is given by: R( t, T,SOC)= A( T, SOC) F( t)+ B( T, SOC), where t is the time at test temperature, T the test temperature

  19. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    CGBA, a facility developed by BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Space Center, allows a variety of sophisticated bioprocessing research to be performed using a common device. The Fluids Processing Apparatus is essentially a microgravity test tube that allows a variety of complex investigations to be performed in space. This is a glass barrel containing several chambers separated by rubber stoppers. Eight FPAs are placed together in a Group Activation Pack (GAP), which allows all of the research to be started simultaneously by turning a single crank. Eight GAPs, or similar-sized payloads, can be stored in a single CGBA temperature controlled locker, which now uses motor drives to automatically turn the cranks to start and stop experiments. On STS-95, research efforts cover eight major areas that will benefit Earth-based products ranging from the production of pharmaceuticals to fish hatcheries.

  20. A generic multibody simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopping, K. A.; Kohn, W.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a dynamic simulation package which can be configured for orbital test scenarios involving multiple bodies. The rotational and translational state integration methods are selectable for each individual body and may be changed during a run if necessary. Characteristics of the bodies are determined by assigning components consisting of mass properties, forces, and moments, which are the outputs of user-defined environmental models. Generic model implementation is facilitated by a transformation processor which performs coordinate frame inversions. Transformations are defined in the initialization file as part of the simulation configuration. The simulation package includes an initialization processor, which consists of a command line preprocessor, a general purpose grammar, and a syntax scanner. These permit specifications of the bodies, their interrelationships, and their initial states in a format that is not dependent on a particular test scenario.

  1. Generic names in Magnaporthales.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Luo, Jing; Rossman, Amy Y; Aoki, Takayuki; Chuma, Izumi; Crous, Pedro W; Dean, Ralph; de Vries, Ronald P; Donofrio, Nicole; Hyde, Kevin D; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Talbot, Nicholas J; Tharreau, Didier; Tosa, Yukio; Valent, Barbara; Wang, Zonghua; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The order Magnaporthales comprises about 200 species and includes the economically and scientifically important rice blast fungus and the take-all pathogen of cereals, as well as saprotrophs and endophytes. Recent advances in phylogenetic analyses of these fungi resulted in taxonomic revisions. In this paper we list the 28 currently accepted genera in Magnaporthales with their type species and available gene and genome resources. The polyphyletic Magnaporthe 1972 is proposed for suppression, and Pyricularia 1880 and Nakataea 1939 are recommended for protection as the generic names for the rice blast fungus and the rice stem rot fungus, respectively. The rationale for the recommended names is also provided. These recommendations are made by the Pyricularia/Magnaporthe Working Group established under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). PMID:27433445

  2. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  3. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the

  4. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, L.; van der Merwe, N.A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  5. Generic concepts in Nectriaceae.

    PubMed

    Lombard, L; van der Merwe, N A; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-03-01

    The ascomycete family Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) includes numerous important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used extensively in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. Members of the family are unified by phenotypic characters such as uniloculate ascomata that are yellow, orange-red to purple, and with phialidic asexual morphs. The generic concepts in Nectriaceae are poorly defined, since DNA sequence data have not been available for many of these genera. To address this issue we performed a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences for the 28S large subunit (LSU) nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), the large subunit of the ATP citrate lyase (acl1), the RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), α-actin (act), β-tubulin (tub2), calmodulin (cmdA), histone H3 (his3), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene regions for available type and authentic strains representing known genera in Nectriaceae, including several genera for which no sequence data were previously available. Supported by morphological observations, the data resolved 47 genera in the Nectriaceae. We re-evaluated the status of several genera, which resulted in the introduction of six new genera to accommodate species that were initially classified based solely on morphological characters. Several generic names are proposed for synonymy based on the abolishment of dual nomenclature. Additionally, a new family is introduced for two genera that were previously accommodated in the Nectriaceae. PMID:26955195

  6. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  7. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-01-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  8. Knowledge, perceptions and use of generic drugs: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Oliveira, Jéssica Nathalia Soares; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the level of knowledge, perceptions and usage profile for generic drugs among laypersons. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 278 volunteers (180 women and 98 men, aged 37.1±15.8 years). A questionnaire was drawn up with questions on their use, perceptions and knowledge of generic drugs. Results Most respondents (99.6%) knew that generic drugs exist, but only 48.6% were able to define them correctly, while 78.8% of the respondents had some information about generics. This information was obtained mainly through television (49.3%). In terms of generic drug characteristics, 79.1% stated that they were confident about their efficacy, 74.8% believed that generic drugs have the same effect as branded medications, 88.8% said that generics were priced lower than branded medications, and 80.2% stated that they bought generic drugs because of price. With regard to drugs prescribed by medical practitioners, 17.6% of the participants said that their doctors never prescribed generics and only 7.5% confirmed that their doctors always prescribed generics. Conclusion For the lay public, the sample in this study has sufficient knowledge of generic drugs in terms of definition, efficacy and cost. Consequently, the volunteers interviewed are very likely to use generics. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that programs should be implemented in order to boost generic drug prescriptions by medical practitioners. PMID:25295444

  9. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  10. Reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Theiss, G.H.

    1990-05-15

    This patent describes a reserve battery. It comprises: a battery cell compartment defined by housing walls surrounding rounding battery cells and having an open top; a lower bulkhead member spanning the open top of the battery cell compartment and having fill tubes depending from a downwardly facing surface of the lower bulkhead member, one fill tube being provided for each of the battery cells, and each fill tube having internal walls defining a passageway between the interior of the battery cell compartment and an upwardly facing surface of the lower bulkhead member; an upper bulkhead member having a downwardly facing surface opposite and spaced apart from the upwardly facing surface of the lower bulkhead member to form a bulkhead cavity; an elastic reservoir bag in an expanded state containing an electrolyte fluid under pressure and having an opening connected to a passageway to the bulkhead cavity; operable means for sealing the passageway between the reservoir bag opening and the cavity; and housing walls defining a containment for the reservoir bag.

  11. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  12. Charge Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Kelly, Cormac

    2014-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries play important role in technologies today and they are critical for the future. They are used in many electronic devices and their capabilities need to keep up with the accelerated pace of technology. Efficient energy capture and storage is necessary for the future rechargeable batteries. Charging and discharging characteristics of three popular commercially available re-chargeable batteries (NiCd, NiMH, and Li Ion) are investigated and compared with regular alkaline batteries. Pasco's 850 interface and their voltage & current sensors are used to monitor the current through and the potential difference across the battery. The discharge current and voltage stayed fairly constant until the end, with a slightly larger drop in voltage than current, which is more pronounced in the alkaline batteries. After 25 charge/discharge cycling there is no appreciable loss of charge capacities in the Li Ion battery. Energy densities, cycle characteristics, and memory effects will also be presented. Sponsored by the South Carolina Governor's school for Science and Mathematics under the Summer Program for Research Interns program.

  13. Ontario's plunging price-caps on generics: deeper dives may drown some drugs.

    PubMed

    Anis, Aslam; Harvard, Stephanie; Marra, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, the Ontario government announced another reduction in the maximum price of generic drugs permitted under the Ontario Drug Benefit (ODB) program, demanding that generic drugs now be sold for no more than 25% of the branded product's price. Other provinces are following Ontario in setting unprecedentedly low price-caps to reduce the cost of generic drugs. Generic product substitution legislation is vital to reducing costs to provincial drug plans, yet lower and lower price-caps may undo some of the benefits of substitution legislation if generics find it difficult to survive. PMID:22046229

  14. Generic Stellarator-like Magnetic Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald

    2015-11-01

    The Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper, published in 1985, has been updated, reflecting the improved science and technology base in the magnetic fusion program. Key changes beyond inflation are driven by important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs from ITER construction, and the use of a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence in modern fusion reactor designs. In this paper the generic approach is applied to a catalyzed D-D stellarator-like reactor. It is shown that an interesting power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved for a reference reactor: R/ < a > ~ 4 , confinement factor, fren = 0.9-1.15, < β > ~ 8 . 0 -11.5 %, Zeff ~ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ~ 0.07, Bm ~ 14-16 T, and R ~ 18-24 m. J. Sheffield was supported under ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  15. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  16. Battery life test using reconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is presented on nickel cadmium battery life tests using reconditioning and some comparative tests not using reconditioning. The discussion is aimed at the program application part of the testing. The goals of the program were to get an increased utilization out of the battery system in geosynchronous orbit. An attempt was made to push the depth of discharge operation up around 80 to 85 percent and the intent with the reconditioning program was to extend this type of utilization out towards a 10-year life and attune the voltage regulation.

  17. Performance Analysis of GAME: A Generic Automated Marking Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstein, Michael; Green, Steve; Fogelman, Shoshana; Nguyen, Ann; Muthukkumarasamy, Vallipuram

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Generic Automated Marking Environment (GAME) and provides a detailed analysis of its performance in assessing student programming projects and exercises. GAME has been designed to automatically assess programming assignments written in a variety of languages based on the "structure" of the source code and the correctness…

  18. Effects of Generic Language on Category Content and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that generic noun phrases (“Bears climb trees”) would provide important input to children’s developing concepts. In three experiments, four-year-olds and adults learned a series of facts about a novel animal category, in one of three wording conditions: generic (e.g., “Zarpies hate ice cream”), specific– label (e.g., “This zarpie hates ice cream”), or no-label (e.g., “This hates ice cream”). Participants completed a battery of tasks assessing the extent to which they linked the category to the properties expressed, and the extent to which they treated the category as constituting an essentialized kind. As predicted, for adults, generics training resulted in tighter category-property links and more category essentialism than both the specific-label and no-label training. Children also showed effects of generic wording, though the effects were weaker and required more extensive input. We discuss the implications for language-thought relations, and for the acquisition of essentialized categories. PMID:20638053

  19. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  20. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  1. Battery housing

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, N. G.

    1985-03-19

    The present invention comprises a battery housing suitable for holding a battery which may generate a dangerously high level of internal pressure. The housing includes a receptacle having a vent passage covered by a rupture disc, the rupture disc in turn covered by a diffuser head having a longitudinal bore therein extending from the rupture disc to a blind end, the bore being traversed by at least one lateral passage leading to the exterior of the housing. Upon reaching a predetermined internal pressure level, the rupture disc ruptures and vents the interior of the housing safely to the exterior through the lateral passage.

  2. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  3. Generic Substitution Issues: Brand-generic Substitution, Generic-generic Substitution, and Generic Substitution of Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI)/Critical Dose Drugs

    PubMed Central

    PAVELIU, Marian Sorin; BENGEA, Simona; PAVELIU, Fraga Silvia

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Doctors accuse individual variability or lack of quality of generic drugs for adverse reactions or lack of efficacy. The variability of effect of generic substitution, although accepted by clinicians as possible, is little discussed or even understood by them. The situation is really serious in the case of generic substitution of drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI) or critical dose. In this paper we review the basic notions of variability and effectiveness of generic medication and change of attitude that would improve the use of these drugs. PMID:21977191

  4. The proprietary/generic debate

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Many of the different attitudes to the prescribing of drugs by proprietary or generic name are based on biased information from the pharmaceutical industry. A plea is made for a more scientific approach to the problem by doctors. PMID:19790798

  5. Primordial nucleosynthesis with generic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, T. P.; Kolb, E. W.; Turner, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    A revision of the standard model for Big Bang nucleosynthesis is discussed which allows for the presence of generic particle species. The primordial production of He-4 and D + He-3 is calculated as a function of the mass, spin degrees of freedom, and spin statistics of the generic particle for masses in the range 0.01-100 times the electron mass. The particular case of the Gelmini and Roncadelli majoron model for massive neutrinos is discussed.

  6. Developing Generic Software for Spacecraft Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    A proposed approach to the development of software for spacecraft avionics is based partly on a concept of generic software that could be tailored to satisfy requirements for specific missions. The proposed approach would stand in contrast to the conventional approach of first defining avionics requirements for a specific mission, then developing software specific to those requirements. The proposed approach might also be adaptable to programming computers that control and monitor other complex equipment systems that range in scale from automobiles to factories. The concept of a spacecraft avionics functional model (SAFM) is a major element of the proposed approach. An SAFM would be, essentially, a systematic and hierarchical description of the functionality required of the avionics software (and hardware) for a given mission. Although the initial input information used to start the construction of an SAFM would typically amount to a high-level description, the SAFM would thereafter be decomposed to a low level. The resulting low-level version of the model would be used to develop a set of generic requirements that could be expected to include a large fraction of all requirements for a large fraction of all missions. The generic requirements would be used to develop software modules that could be included in, or excluded from, the final flight software to satisfy the requirements of a specific mission.

  7. Predictive Testing for Entrance in Vocational-Technical Schools; A Study of the Predictive Value of a Pre-selected Battery of Standardized Tests as a Tool for the Selection of Entering Students in Certain Trade Programs Offered in the Vocational-Technical Schools of the State of Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John G.

    This study was organized for the purpose of determining the validity of any part or parts of a pre-selected battery of standardized tests as predictors of success in secondary school trade programs. The study was limited to the trade areas of machine shop and electrical wiring in 14 state vocational schools in Connecticut. A battery of…

  8. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  9. Digital Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  10. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  11. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  12. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  13. Generic architectures for future flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Generic architecture for future flight systems must be based on open system architectures (OSA). This provides the developer and integrator the flexibility to optimize the hardware and software systems to match diverse and unique applications requirements. When developed properly OSA provides interoperability, commonality, graceful upgradability, survivability and hardware/software transportability to greatly minimize life cycle costs and supportability. Architecture flexibility can be achieved to take advantage of commercial developments by basing these developments on vendor-neutral commercially accepted standards and protocols. Rome Laboratory presently has a program that addresses requirements for OSA.

  14. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  15. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  16. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratner, E. Z.; Symons, P. C.; Walsh, W.; Warde, C. J.; Henriksen, G. L.

    1989-08-01

    To help guide future EV battery R and D programs, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a comprehensive assessment of viable secondary battery technologies. A total of 55 battery developers from the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Africa, were solicited to submit battery design concepts for an Improved Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion (IDSEP) van. A team of seven representatives from DOE laboratories and ten independent EV and Battery consultants evaluated 42 design concepts. Using six criteria, five technical/economic criteria and a maturity/technical barriers criterion, the Assessment Team identified 12 most-promising batteries.

  17. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  18. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  19. Accelerated battery-life testing - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Test program, employing empirical, statistical and physical methods, determines service life and failure probabilities of electrochemical cells and batteries, and is applicable to testing mechanical, electrical, and chemical devices. Data obtained aids long-term performance prediction of battery or cell.

  20. Principles for Creating a Computerized Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllonen, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    The experience of developing a set of comprehensive aptitude batteries for computer administration for the Air Force Human Resources Laboratory's Learning Abilities Measurement Program resulted in the formulation of nine principles for creation of a computerized test battery. These principles are discussed in the context of research on…

  1. Use of COTS Batteries on ISS and Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation focuses on COTS Battery testing for energy content, toxicity, hazards, failures modes and controls for different battery chemistries. It also discusses the current program requirements, challenges with COTS Batteries in manned vehicle COTS methodology, JSC test details, and gives a list of incidents from consumer protection safety commissions. The Battery test process involved testing new batteries for engineering certification, qualification of batteries, flight acceptance, cell and battery, environment, performance and abuse. Their conclusions and recommendations were that: high risk is undertaken with the use of COTS batteries, hazard control verification is required to allow the use of these batteries on manned space flights, failures during use cannot be understood if different scenarios of failure are not tested on the ground, and that testing is performed on small sample numbers due to restrictions on cost and time. They recommend testing of large sample size to gain more confidence in the operation of the hazard controls.

  2. Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-02-01

    This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

  3. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The planetary program has historically used batteries to supply peak power needs for mission specific applications. Any time that additional power has been required in order to meet peak power demands or those applications where only limited amounts of power were required, batteries have always been used. Up until the mid to late 70s they have performed their task admirably. Recently, a growing problem of developing reliable Ni-Cd batteries for long mission and high cycle life applications has been identified. This problem and the role rechargeable batteries will play for future planetary and earth-observing spacecraft, are discussed.

  4. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  5. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  6. Battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Balouskus, R.A.; Feinberg, S.C.; Lundquist, J.T.; Lundsager, C.B.

    1980-09-23

    A battery separator and a method of forming the same is described. The separator has good electrical conductivity and a high degree of inhibition to dendrite formation, and is in the form of a thin sheet formed from a substantially uniform mixture of a thermoplastic rubber and a filler in a volume ratio of from about 1:0.15 to 1:0.6. The thermoplastic rubber is preferably a styrene/elastomer/styrene block copolymer.

  7. Generic medications for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Donald M; Sebhatu, Phoebe; Reau, Nancy S

    2016-07-01

    The recent development and approval of expensive but highly effective oral agents against hepatitis C has led to restrictions and access limitations in many countries with limited healthcare budgets. Generic formulations of many of these agents are available at a fraction of the retail price in several countries because of generic licensure agreements. The discounted alternatives are only accessible in developing countries and require manufacturing and distribution regulations to ensure the quality and bioequivalence of the new drug formulations. The continued medication access limitations have driven great interest in the practice of personal drug importation of the generic formulations. This review and debate will address the medical and legal issues involved in the purchase and importation of these medicines. PMID:27306302

  8. A Study of the Validity of the GRE Battery in Predicting Four Criteria of Success in Doctoral Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Samuel H.; Strohmeyer, Eric

    1970-01-01

    Predictor variables included two Graduate Record Examination (GRE) aptitude scores, three GRE area scores, plus the GRE advanced education score. Criterion variables included: (a) grade point average; (b) graduation versus dismissal from program; (c) normative judgment analysis (JAN) rating; and (d) ipsative JAN rating. Except for normative JAN…

  9. 9-Volt Battery Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... and negative posts are close together. If a metal object touches the two posts of a 9- ... 9-volt batteries were thrown away with other metal items. Storing 9-volt batteries KKK Keep batteries ...

  10. Multiple duty battery

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, F.S.; Hyland, A.L.

    1980-05-20

    A laminar battery capable of providing multiple currents and capacities at different voltages is described in which electrical access is provided to intermediate cells in the battery by conductive metal terminal layers incorporated in the structure of the battery.

  11. Bipolar-Battery Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar batteries fabricated in continuous quasi-automated process. Components of battery configured so processing steps run sequentially. Key components of battery, bipolar plate and bipolar separator, fabricated separately and later joined together.

  12. Software synthesis using generic architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhansali, Sanjay

    1993-01-01

    A framework for synthesizing software systems based on abstracting software system designs and the design process is described. The result of such an abstraction process is a generic architecture and the process knowledge for customizing the architecture. The customization process knowledge is used to assist a designer in customizing the architecture as opposed to completely automating the design of systems. Our approach using an implemented example of a generic tracking architecture which was customized in two different domains is illustrated. How the designs produced using KASE compare to the original designs of the two systems, and current work and plans for extending KASE to other application areas are described.

  13. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  14. Lithium-metal sulfide battery development and submodule demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Chilenskas, A.A.; Biwer, R.L.; DeLuca, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    A program has been initiated by the Electric Power Research Institute to examine the feasibility of using the Li-alloy/FeS battery for electric-vehicle propulsion. In the first phase of the program, a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Gould Research Center resulted in the design, fabrication, and testing of two full-scale 12-V modules and related battery components at Argonne National Battery Test Laboratory. The design of the module and battery components was based upon a van battery design study supported by the US Department of Energy.

  15. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  16. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  17. Generic Software Architecture for Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carre, Emilien; Gast, Philippe; Hiron, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Alain; Lesens, David; Mescam, Emmanuelle; Moro, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    The definition and reuse of generic software architecture for launchers is not so usual for several reasons: the number of European launcher families is very small (Ariane 5 and Vega for these last decades); the real time constraints (reactivity and determinism needs) are very hard; low levels of versatility are required (implying often an ad hoc development of the launcher mission). In comparison, satellites are often built on a generic platform made up of reusable hardware building blocks (processors, star-trackers, gyroscopes, etc.) and reusable software building blocks (middleware, TM/TC, On Board Control Procedure, etc.). If some of these reasons are still valid (e.g. the limited number of development), the increase of the available CPU power makes today an approach based on a generic time triggered middleware (ensuring the full determinism of the system) and a centralised mission and vehicle management (offering more flexibility in the design and facilitating the long term maintenance) achievable. This paper presents an example of generic software architecture which could be envisaged for future launchers, based on the previously described principles and supported by model driven engineering and automatic code generation.

  18. Generic Special Education Teacher Preparation: Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley-Nichols, Sandra M.

    2004-01-01

    Many college and university teacher education units in the USA (94% or 47 states) now offer generic special education teacher preservice programs. However, training in disability categories, specifically emotional and behavioral disorders, is not intensive or extensive. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify the effects of the…

  19. ORE's GENeric Evaluation SYStem: GENESYS 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Nancy; And Others

    GENESYS--GENeric Evaluation SYStem--is a method of streamlining data collection and evaluation through the use of computer technology. GENESYS has allowed the Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District to evaluate a multitude of contrasting programs with limited resources. By standardizing methods and…

  20. NASA flight cell and battery issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents the important battery and cell problems, encompassing both test failures and accidents, which were encountered during the past year. Practical issues facing programs, which have to be considered in the development of a battery program strategy, are addressed. The problems of one program, the GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory), during the past year are focused on to illustrate the fundamental types of battery problems that occur. Problems encountered by other programs are briefly mentioned to complete the accounting. Two major categories of issues are defined, namely, whose which are quality and design related, i.e., problems having inherent manufacturing-process-related aspects with an impact on cell reliability, and these which are accident triggered or man induced, i.e., those operational issues having an impact on battery and cell reliability.

  1. Generic seismic ruggedness of power plant equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report updates the results of a program with the overall objective of demonstrating the generic seismic adequacy of as much nuclear power plant equipment as possible by means of collecting and evaluating existing seismic qualification test data. These data are then used to construct ruggedness'' spectra below which equipment in operating plants designed to earlier earthquake criteria would be generically adequate. This document is an EPRI Tier 1 Report. The report gives the methodology for the collection and evaluation of data which are used to construct a Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectrum (GERs) for each equipment class considered. The GERS for each equipment class are included in an EPRI Tier 2 Report with the same title. Associated with each GERS are inclusion rules, cautions, and checklists for field screening of in-place equipment for GERS applicability. A GERS provides a measure of equipment seismic resistance based on available test data. As such, a GERS may also be used to judge the seismic adequacy of similar new or replacement equipment or to estimate the seismic margin of equipment re-evaluated with respect to earthquake levels greater than considered to date, resulting in fifteen finalized GERS. GERS for relays (included in the original version of this report) are now covered in a separate report (NP-7147). In addition to the presentation of GERS, the Tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to equipment of older vintage, methods for estimating amplification factors for evaluating devices installed in cabinets and enclosures, and how seismic test data from related studies relate to the GERS approach. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  3. Experimental Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Demonstration at the 2007 NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Electrochemistry Branch designed and built five lithium-ion battery packs for demonstration in spacesuit simulators as a part of the 2007 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) activity at Cinder Lake, Arizona. The experimental batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes and included internal protection against over-current, overdischarge and over-temperature. The 500-g experimental batteries were designed to deliver a constant power of 22 W for 2.5 hr with a minimum voltage of 13 V. When discharged at the maximum expected power output of 38.5 W, the batteries operated for 103 min of discharge time, achieving a specific energy of 130 Wh/kg. This report summarizes design details and safety considerations. Results for field trials and laboratory testing are summarized.

  4. Generic safety insights for inspection of boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.C.; Taylor, J.H.; Fresco, A.N.; Hillman, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    As the number of operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) increases, safety inspection has increased in importance. Over the last 2 yr, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques have been developed to aid in the inspection process. Broad interest in generic PRA-based methods has arisen in the past year, since only approx. 25% of the US nuclear power plants have completed PRAs, and also, inspectors want PRA-based tools for these plants. This paper describes the Brookhaven National Lab. program to develop generic boiling water reactor (BWR) PRA-based inspection insights or inspection guidance designed to be applied to plants without PRAs.

  5. 27 CFR 4.24 - Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Generic, semi-generic, and non-generic designations of geographic significance. 4.24 Section 4.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING...

  6. Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160669.html Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen Manufacturer responds to mounting criticism about price hikes ... cheaper generic version of the emergency allergy treatment EpiPen will be made available within the next few ...

  7. Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications

    SciTech Connect

    Posthumus, K.J.C.M.; Schillemans, R.A.A.; Kluiters, E.C.

    1996-11-01

    Since 1981 the Electrochemistry Group of TNO carries out a research program for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) with respect to batteries and fuel cells. Part of this Advanced Batteries program was the evaluation of possible alternatives for the nowadays applied batteries in conventional diesel electric submarines and ships. From this evaluation the high temperature sodium-sulfur battery proved to be the most promising candidate. To investigate the feasibility of the sodium-sulfur battery for naval application, calculations have been made on the expected performance within the two envisaged applications. To validated the calculation experimental testing was carried out on the submarine application. During operational missions the application hardly requires any supply of heating energy. Within the submarine application there is no need for installing a cooling system for the battery. Shock and vibration tests on a 10 kWh module did not lead to any measurable decrease in performance. Calculations show that the operational characteristics of a submarine equipped with sodium sulfur batteries outperform a submarine equipped with the traditional lead acid batteries. The short lifetime is the most important limitation in all applications.

  8. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  9. Testing activities at the National Battery Test Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornstra, F.; Deluca, W. H.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    The National Battery Test Laboratory (NBTL) is an Argonne National Laboratory facility for testing, evaluating, and studying advanced electric storage batteries. The facility tests batteries developed under Department of Energy programs and from private industry. These include batteries intended for future electric vehicle (EV) propulsion, electric utility load leveling (LL), and solar energy storage. Since becoming operational, the NBTL has evaluated well over 1400 cells (generally in the form of three- to six-cell modules, but up to 140-cell batteries) of various technologies. Performance characterization assessments are conducted under a series of charge/discharge cycles with constant current, constant power, peak power, and computer simulated dynamic load profile conditions. Flexible charging algorithms are provided to accommodate the specific needs of each battery under test. Special studies are conducted to explore and optimize charge procedures, to investigate the impact of unique load demands on battery performance, and to analyze the thermal management requirements of battery systems.

  10. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  11. Battery developments: The positive connection to a greener future

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1995-02-01

    Extraordinary innovations are being made in the performance of today`s portable electronic equipment. But, although electronics manufacturers have been leaping generations ahead of themselves technologically, they are still forced to look back to see battery technology struggling to close the distance that ever widens with each new electronics breakthrough. The need to improve battery performance, namely in the area of battery longevity, has stemmed from a growing consumer demand and has become one of the electronics industry`s newest challenges. Battery manufactures like Duracell, Ovonic Battery Company (OBC), Ergenics, Matsushita, and Sony Corporation are answering the call with research and development programs that will aid the transition to more efficient, environmentally friendly batteries. Traditionally, the market was dedicated to primary batteries, or non-rechargeable, disposable batteries that are composed of zinc-carbon, alkaline-manganese, mercury oxide, silver oxide, lithium metal, and lead-acid. Conventional lead-acid automotive batteries, while rechargeable, are toxic and not recyclable; new secondary battery designs will satisfy the needs of the electronics industry, while offering environmental benefits. The new types, such as rechargeable nickel metal-hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion, and lithium-polymer have longer life-cycles and are also recyclable. Zinc-air batteries, which are classified as primary batteries, are not rechargeable but offer substantial power and environmental benefits. Portable computers, cellular telephones, video camcorders, stereo equipment, and LCD televisions are a few of the many practical applications that will benefit from new battery technology.

  12. Generic Competency Frameworks: A Brief Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jolee; Chapman, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Significant efforts have now been made to identify the generic competencies required to succeed across different workplace contexts. The aims of this paper were to: (i) outline factors that contributed to the increased demand for generic competencies seen over the last three decades; and (ii) review the early generic competency frameworks…

  13. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  14. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  15. Generic Language and Judgements about Category Membership: Can Generics Highlight Properties as Central?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Raman, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Many languages distinguish generic utterances (e.g., "Tigers are ferocious") from non-generic utterances (e.g., "Those tigers are ferocious"). Two studies examined how generic language specially links properties and categories. We used a novel-word extension task to ask if 4- to 5-year-old children and adults distinguish between generic and…

  16. ERC nickel cadium battery performance tests and comparisons with lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Crumley, R.L.; Hardin, J.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A battery pack consisting of eighteen 6-V, roll-bonded nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, manufactured by Energy Research Corporation (ERC), was evaluated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program for electric vehicle applications. The purpose of the testing was to determine the capacity and performance characteristics of the battery pack and to obtain data which would permit direct comparison with other selected EV application batteries. Laboratory charge/discharge characterization and vehicle dynamometer tests were performed with the NiCd battery pack in the Battery and Dynamometer Laboratories of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center. Testing was done in accordance with the Electric Vehicle Test Procedures of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J227). 8 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannoni, R.T.; Kung, J.K.J.; Choi, W.M.

    1987-10-13

    This patent describes a battery system composed of at least one pair of electrodes of opposite polarity, an electrolyte and a separator positioned between electrodes of opposite polarity. The improvement comprises that the separator is a microporous sheet composed of a substantially uniform composition of A. from 7 to 50 weight percent of a polymer mixture, the mixture formed from (a) from about 95 to about 40 weight percent of polyolefin formed from ethylene, propylene or mixtures thereof or a mixture of the polyolefins having a weight average molecular weight of at least about 3,000,000; and (b) from about 5 to about 60 weight percent of a polymeric blend formed from a polyethylene terpolymer and a vinyl or vinylidene halide polymer in a weight ratio of 19:1 to 1:3, the polyethylene terpolymer formed from (1) ethylene monomer, (2) at least one ethylenically unsaturated organic monomer selected from the group consisting of esters of unsaturated C/sub 3/-C/sub 20/ mono- or dicarboxylic acids, vinyl esters of saturated C/sub 2/-C/sub 18/ carboxylic acids, vinyl alkyl ethers wherein the alkyl group has 1-18 carbon atoms, vinyl or vinylidene halides, acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, norbornene, alpha-olefins of 3-12 carbon atoms, and vinyl aromatic compounds, and, (3) an additional monomer selected from the group consisting of ethylenically unsaturated C/sub 3/-C/sub 20/ carboxylic acids, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide; B. from 93 to 50 weight percent of a filler which is substantially inert with respect to the battery electrodes and electrolyte; and C. from 0 to 20 weight percent of plasticizer for at least one of the polymers of the composition.

  18. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  19. Advanced U. S. military aircraft battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Flake, R.A.; Eskra, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    While most USAF aircraft currently use vented Ni-Cd for dc electrical power and emergency power, as well as the powering of lights and instruments prior to engine starting, these batteries have high maintenance requirements, low reliability, and no built-in testing capability with which to check battery health prior to flight. The USAF Wright R D Center accordingly initiated its Advanced Maintenance-Free NiCd Battery System development program in 1986, in order to develop a sealed Ni-Cd battery which would remain maintenance-free over a period of three years. Attention is being given to a high power bipolar battery design in which there are no individual cell cases or cell interconnects.

  20. Automated analysis in generic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerholm, Edvard

    This thesis studies automated methods for analyzing hardness assumptions in generic group models, following ideas of symbolic cryptography. We define a broad class of generic and symbolic group models for different settings---symmetric or asymmetric (leveled) k-linear groups --- and prove ''computational soundness'' theorems for the symbolic models. Based on this result, we formulate a master theorem that relates the hardness of an assumption to solving problems in polynomial algebra. We systematically analyze these problems identifying different classes of assumptions and obtain decidability and undecidability results. Then, we develop automated procedures for verifying the conditions of our master theorems, and thus the validity of hardness assumptions in generic group models. The concrete outcome is an automated tool, the Generic Group Analyzer, which takes as input the statement of an assumption, and outputs either a proof of its generic hardness or shows an algebraic attack against the assumption. Structure-preserving signatures are signature schemes defined over bilinear groups in which messages, public keys and signatures are group elements, and the verification algorithm consists of evaluating ''pairing-product equations''. Recent work on structure-preserving signatures studies optimality of these schemes in terms of the number of group elements needed in the verification key and the signature, and the number of pairing-product equations in the verification algorithm. While the size of keys and signatures is crucial for many applications, another aspect of performance is the time it takes to verify a signature. The most expensive operation during verification is the computation of pairings. However, the concrete number of pairings is not captured by the number of pairing-product equations considered in earlier work. We consider the question of what is the minimal number of pairing computations needed to verify structure-preserving signatures. We build an

  1. Verifying a Local Generic Solver in Coq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Martin; Karbyshev, Aleksandr; Seidl, Helmut

    Fixpoint engines are the core components of program analysis tools and compilers. If these tools are to be trusted, special attention should be paid also to the correctness of such solvers. In this paper we consider the local generic fixpoint solver RLD which can be applied to constraint systems {x}sqsupseteq fx,{x}in V, over some lattice {D} where the right-hand sides f x are given as arbitrary functions implemented in some specification language. The verification of this algorithm is challenging, because it uses higher-order functions and relies on side effects to track variable dependences as they are encountered dynamically during fixpoint iterations. Here, we present a correctness proof of this algorithm which has been formalized by means of the interactive proof assistant Coq.

  2. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  3. SUNRAYCE 1995: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  4. SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1994-05-27

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  5. Children's interpretation of generic noun phrases.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Michelle A; Gelman, Susan A; Star, Jon

    2002-11-01

    Generic utterances (e.g., "Cows say 'moo'") have 2 distinctive semantic properties: (a) Generics are generally true, unlike indefinites (e.g., "Bears live in caves" is generic; "I saw some bears in the cave" is indefinite), and (b) generics need not be true of all category members, unlike universal quantifiers (e.g., all, every, each). This article examined whether preschool children and adults appreciate both these features, using a comprehension task (Study 1) and an elicited production task (Study 2). In both tasks, 4-year-old children--like adults--treated generics as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers ("all"). In contrast, 3-year-olds did not differentiate among generics, "all," and "some." By 4 years of age, generics emerge as a distinct semantic device. PMID:12428701

  6. Generic Language in Parent-Child Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Goetz, Peggy J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.; Flukes, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Generic knowledge concerns kinds of things (e.g., birds fly; a chair is for sitting; gold is a metal). Past research demonstrated that children spontaneously develop generic knowledge by preschool age. The present study examines when and how children learn to use the multiple devices provided by their language to express generic knowledge. We hypothesize that children assume, in the absence of specifying information or context, that nouns refer to generic kinds, as a default. Thus, we predict that (a) Children should talk about kinds from an early age. (b) Children should learn generic forms with only minimal parental scaffolding. (c) Children should recognize a variety of different linguistic forms as generic. Results from longitudinal samples of adult-child conversations support all three hypotheses. We also report individual differences in the use of generics, suggesting that children differ in their tendency to form the abstract generalizations so expressed. PMID:21765807

  7. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  8. Design and test of lithium-alloy/iron monosulfide batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chilenskas, A.A.; Biwer, R.L.; DeLuca, W.H.

    1986-04-01

    A program has been initiated by the Electric Power Research Institute to examine the feasibility of using the Li-alloy/FeS battery for electric-vehicle propulsion. In the first phase of the program, a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Gould Reserch Center resulted in the design, fabrication, and testing of two full-scale 12-V modules and related battery components at Argonne's National Battery Test Laboratory. The design of the module and battery components was based upon a van battery design study supported by the US Department of Energy. The objective of the Phase I program was to provide test data to the battery developers applicable to cell and module development, insulated case design, heating/cooling subsystem design, and charger development.

  9. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  10. Introduction to battery design

    SciTech Connect

    Nees, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    It is the purpose of this presentation on battery design to provide data and procedures that will enable the lead acid battery engineer to design replacement batteries for automotive application. Although the data and procedures cited in this presentation refer primarily to automotive batteries, they can be applied in principal to the design of other types of lead acid batteries. As the materials and processes will differ between battery manufacturers, the design criteria for each manufacturer will be subject to these differences and the data presented should be used accordingly.

  11. Generic trending and analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keehan, Lori; Reese, Jay

    1994-01-01

    The Generic Trending and Analysis System (GTAS) is a generic spacecraft performance monitoring tool developed by NASA Code 511 and Loral Aerosys. It is designed to facilitate quick anomaly resolution and trend analysis. Traditionally, the job of off-line analysis has been performed using hardware and software systems developed for real-time spacecraft contacts; then, the systems were supplemented with a collection of tools developed by Flight Operations Team (FOT) members. Since the number of upcoming missions is increasing, NASA can no longer afford to operate in this manner. GTAS improves control center productivity and effectiveness because it provides a generic solution across multiple missions. Thus, GTAS eliminates the need for each individual mission to develop duplicate capabilities. It also allows for more sophisticated tools to be developed because it draws resources from several projects. In addition, the GTAS software system incorporates commercial off-the-shelf tools software (COTS) packages and reuses components of other NASA-developed systems wherever possible. GTAS has incorporated lessons learned from previous missions by involving the users early in the development process. GTAS users took a proactive role in requirements analysis, design, development, and testing. Because of user involvement, several special tools were designed and are now being developed. GTAS users expressed considerable interest in facilitating data collection for long term trending and analysis. As a result, GTAS provides easy access to large volumes of processed telemetry data directly in the control center. The GTAS archival and retrieval capabilities are supported by the integration of optical disk technology and a COTS relational database management system.

  12. Generic magnetic fusion rocket model

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, J.F.; Logan, B.G.

    1993-06-01

    A generic magnetic fusion rocket model is developed and used to explore the limits of fusion propulsion systems. Two fusion fuels are examined, D-T and D-(He-3), and the D-(He-3) fuel cycle is found to give a higher specific power in almost all parameter regimes. The key findings are that (1) magnetic fusion should ultimately be able to deliver specific powers of about 10 kW/kg and (2) specific powers of 15 kW/kg could be achieved with only modest extrapolations of present technology. 9 refs.

  13. GLAD: A Generic LAttice Debugger

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    Today, numerous simulation and analysis codes exist for the design, commission, and operation of accelerator beam lines. There is a need to develop a common user interface and database link to run these codes interactively. This paper will describe a proposed system, GLAD (Generic LAttice Debugger), to fulfill this need. Specifically, GLAD can be used to find errors in beam lines during commissioning, control beam parameters during operation, and design beam line optics and error correction systems for the next generation of linear accelerators and storage rings.

  14. The Controversy over Generic Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Susan J.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2010-01-01

    As patent protection ends for the next generation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a complex debate continues over generic substitution of AEDs. On one hand, generic drug formulations provide cost savings for patients and society. On the other hand, patients with epilepsy and physicians are wary about the adequacy and efficacy of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) standards for generics. This article reviews current and proposed bioequivalence test procedures, summarizes new generic AED formulations and their costs, and discusses potential pitfalls in the current standards. These shortcomings include certain pharmacokinetic factors and clinical pharmacologic factors that may affect bioequivalence of generic AEDs, and statistical limitations of the standards. While the drug concentration differences between the brand name drug and each generic formulation are unlikely to be substantial, the differences with generic-to-generic switches will be greater and potentially clinically significant. Conversely, owing to their more favorable pharmacokinetic profile, newer AEDs may be less prone to problems with generic substitution than older ones. Unfortunately, very few data are available to guide decisions regarding what is best for an individual patient. Based on new prediction methods, generic substitution should be safe for many patients but identifying them ultimately requires more rigorous study. PMID:22477799

  15. Patients’ beliefs about generic medicines in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Zhi Y.; Hassali, Mohamed A.; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Saleem, Fahad; Yahaya, Abdul H.; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acceptance of generic medicines by patients is an essential factor given that they are the end users of these medicines. In fact, adequate knowledge and positive perceptions are prerequisite to patients’ acceptance and use of generic medicines. Objective: To assess the current belief and views of patients about generic medicines in Malaysia. Method: This was a self-administered questionnaire-based study. The study was conducted with patients visiting outpatient pharmacy department at a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. The Malaysian version of Generic Medicines Scale (GMS) was used. The GMS consists of two subscales: efficacy and similarity of generic medicines to original brand medicines. The efficacy subscale consists of 10 items while the similarity subscale consists of 6 items. The responses to the items were framed as a five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree). Results: A total of 202 out of 300 patients participated in the study, giving a response rate of 67.3%. In this study, only 49% of them (n=99) knew the term ‘generic medicine’. Moreover, only 53.5% of the respondents (n=108) believed that the efficacy of generic medicines was the same as original brand medicines. In terms of quality, only 44% of the respondents (n=89) disagreed that generic medicines were of a lower quality. About one third (n=65, 32.2%) believed that generic medicines were cheaper because they were less efficacious. In terms of side effects, 44.5% of the respondents (n=90) believed that generic medicines had the same side effect profile as original brand medicines. Conclusions: The study finding showed that almost half of the respondents had negative belief in generic medicines. Similarly, many patients were not aware of the similarities and differences between generic and original brand medicines. Therefore, there is a need to provide patients with adequate information about generic medicines. PMID:25580171

  16. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  17. Use of Learner-Centered Principles Test Battery in Pre-Service Educational Programs and in the School Setting: Implications for Teacher Roles and Professional Development Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Daniel, Jr.; Grubb, Deborah J.

    The Learner-Centered Psychological Principles (LCP) were developed through the efforts of an American Psychological Association task force as part of an effort to add to educational reform literature regarding the learner and the learner process. The Learner-Centered Battery (LCB) was administered to 38 teachers and 656 students in grades 6…

  18. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  19. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Hall, A. M.; Russell, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the bipolar Ni-H2 battery with other energy systems to be used in future high-power space systems is presented. The initial design for the battery under the NASA-sponsored program is described and the candidate stack components are evaluated, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte reservoir plate, and recombination sites. The compressibility of the cell elements, electrolyte activation, and thermal design are discussed. Manufacturing and prototype test results are summarized.

  20. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  1. Generic Hypersonic Inlet Module Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Chares E., Jr.; Huebner, Lawrence D.

    2004-01-01

    A computational study associated with an internal inlet drag analysis was performed for a generic hypersonic inlet module. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of computing the internal drag force for a generic scramjet engine module using computational methods. The computational study consisted of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions using the Euler and parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. The solution accuracy was assessed by comparisons with experimental pitot pressure data. The CFD analysis indicates that the 3D PNS solutions show the best agreement with experimental pitot pressure data. The internal inlet drag analysis consisted of obtaining drag force predictions based on experimental data and 3D CFD solutions. A comparative assessment of each of the drag prediction methods is made and the sensitivity of CFD drag values to computational procedures is documented. The analysis indicates that the CFD drag predictions are highly sensitive to the computational procedure used.

  2. Generic Airspace Concepts and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for reducing the training and memorization required to manage air traffic in mid-term, Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. We contrasted the performance of controllers using a sector information display and NextGen automation tools while working with familiar and unfamiliar sectors. The airspace included five sectors from Oakland and Salt Lake City Centers configured as a "generic center" called "West High Center." The Controller Information Tool was used to present essential information for managing these sectors. The Multi Aircraft Control System air traffic control simulator provided data link and conflict detection and resolution. There were five experienced air traffic controller participants. Each was familiar with one or two of the five sectors, but not the others. The participants rotated through all five sectors during the ten data collection runs. The results addressing workload, traffic management, and safety, as well as controller and observer comments, supported the generic sector concept. The unfamiliar sectors were comparable to the familiar sectors on all relevant measures.

  3. Skin rash during treatment with generic itraconazole

    PubMed Central

    De Vuono, Antonio; Palleria, Caterina; Scicchitano, Francesca; Squillace, Aida; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Generic drugs have the same active substance, the same pharmaceutical form, the same therapeutic indications and a similar bioequivalence with the reference medicinal product (branded). Although a similar efficacy is postulated, some cases of clinical inefficacy during treatment with generic formulations have been reported. In this case, we describe a woman with onychomycosis that developed a skin rash during treatment with a generic formulation of itraconazole. Drug administration and its re-challenge confirmed the association between itraconazole and skin rash. Both Naranjo probability scale and World Health Organization causality assessment scale documented a probable association between generic-itraconazole and skin rash. The switch from generic formulation to brand one induced an improvement of symptoms. Since we are unable to evaluate the role of each excipient in the development of skin rash, we cannot rule out their involvement. However, more data are necessary to better define the similarities or differences between branded and generic formulations. PMID:24799820

  4. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  5. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  6. An object oriented generic controller using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nivens, Cody R.

    1990-01-01

    In today's applications, the need for the division of code and data has focused on the growth of object oriented programming. This philosophy gives software engineers greater control over the environment of an application. Yet the use of object oriented design does not exclude the need for greater understanding by the application of what the controller is doing. Such understanding is only possible by using expert systems. Providing a controller that is capable of controlling an object by using rule-based expertise would expedite the use of both object oriented design and expert knowledge of the dynamic of an environment in modern controllers. This project presents a model of a controller that uses the CLIPS expert system and objects in C++ to create a generic controller. The polymorphic abilities of C++ allow for the design of a generic component stored in individual data files. Accompanying the component is a set of rules written in CLIPS which provide the following: the control of individual components, the input of sensory data from components and the ability to find the status of a given component. Along with the data describing the application, a set of inference rules written in CLIPS allows the application to make use of sensory facts and status and control abilities. As a demonstration of this ability, the control of the environment of a house is provided. This demonstration includes the data files describing the rooms and their contents as far as devices, windows and doors. The rules used for the home consist of the flow of people in the house and the control of devices by the home owner.

  7. A generic readout system for astrophysical detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a generic digital platform to fulfill the needs for the development of new detectors in astrophysics, which is used in lab, for ground-based telescopes instruments and also in prototype versions for space instruments development. This system is based on hardware FPGA electronic board (called MISE) together with software on a PC computer (called BEAR). The MISE board generates the fast clocking which reads the detectors thanks to a programmable digital sequencer and performs data acquisition, buffering of digitalized pixels outputs and interfaces with others boards. The data are then sent to the PC via a SpaceWire or Usb link. The BEAR software sets the MISE board up, makes data acquisition and enables the visualization, processing and the storage of data in line. These software tools are made of C++ and Labview (NI) on a Linux OS. MISE and BEAR make a generic acquisition architecture, on which dedicated analog boards are plugged, so that to accommodate with detectors specificity: number of pixels, the readout channels and frequency, analog bias and clock interfaces. We have used this concept to build a camera for the P-ARTEMIS project including a 256 pixels sub-millimeter bolometer detector at 10Kpixel/s (SPIE 7741-12 (2010)). For the EUCLID project, a lab camera is now working for the test of CCDs 4Mpixels at 4*200Kpixel/s. Another is working for the testing of new near infrared detectors (NIR LFSA for the ESA TRP program) 110Kpixels at 2*100Kpixels/s. Other projects are in progress for the space missions PLATO and SPICA.

  8. Runtime Verification for Generic Classes with ConGu 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crispim, Pedro; Lopes, Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vasco T.

    Even though generics became quite popular in mainstream object-oriented (OO) languages, approaches for checking at runtime the conformance of such programs against formal specifications still lack appropriate support. In order to overcome this limitation within ConGu, a tool-based approach we have been developing to support runtime conformance checking of Java programs against algebraic specifications, we recently proposed a notion of refinement mapping that allows to define correspondences between parametric specifications and generic classes. Based on such mappings, we also put forward a notion of conformance between the two concepts. In this paper we present how the new notion of conformance is supported by version 2 of the ConGu tool.

  9. Generic domain models in software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiden, Neil

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  10. SLA battery separators

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.

    1986-10-01

    Since they first appeared in the early 1970's, sealed lead acid (SLA) batteries have been a rapidly growing factor in the battery industry - in rechargeable, deep-cycle, and automotive storage systems. The key to these sealed batteries is the binderless, absorptive glass microfiber separator which permits the electrolyte to recombine after oxidation. The result is no free acid, no outgassing, and longer life. The batteries are described.

  11. Handbook of Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  12. Battery test plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, J. H.; Carter, C. L.; Blickwedel, T. W.; Todd, D. E.

    1982-06-01

    An approach to testing electric vehicle batteries is described. Each individual module and vehicle battery pack is given an identification that is traceable through its history. Computer-controlled battery capacity testing equipment is used. Two types of testing are performed - acceptance and operational. Records of tests are maintained on computer-generated outputs. The results of the testing is documented in a report on individual battery products of a manufacturer.

  13. Transfluthrin: comparative efficacy and toxicity of reference and generic versions.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Juergen; Ozaki, Keisuke

    2015-02-01

    Stringent requirements are in place for the evaluation and registration of new compounds with biocidal or pesticidal activities. However, the registration requirements for established compounds from new suppliers or for established compounds produced by a different manufacturing process have been less clear and ambiguity exists as to how 'equivalence of health hazards' can unequivocally be demonstrated analytically and by toxicological assays. The case presented in this analysis focuses on the chiral pyrethroid transfluthrin (TFL) synthesized by esterification of an acid chloride and alcoholic moiety. According to any modifications of the process of synthesis and purification, new potentially highly toxic and yet chemically reactive impurities in low concentrations (<0.1%) may be formed. Amongst these, that with the structural alert 'organic acid anhydride' was given heightened concern as the most potent putative toxicologically significant impurity. The course taken in this analysis focused on the comparison of reference TFL with commercialized generic TFL from two alternative manufacturing sources in India and China. Despite their apparent high racemic purity, TFLs from generic sources were biologically less effective, genotoxic in the Ames' assay, demonstrated sensory lung irritation and lung/skin sensitization in specialized bioassays. While the off-patent reference TFL was unequivocally negative in all assays (anhydride content not detectable, LOQ <0.01%), positive results with high batch-to-batch variability were a frequent outcome in generic TFLs. Tier I analytical assays failed to detect this relevant impurity in the absence of impurity-specific optimized analytical procedures. This finding suggests that a well-balanced combined approach of analytical and toxicological assays provides the best means to assure that all critical impurities are identified and accounted for. Similarly, putative 'structural alert'-based toxicity tests proved to be more

  14. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  15. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  16. Influence of paste composition and curing program used for the production of positive plates with PbSnCa grids on the performance of lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, D.; Dimitrov, M.; Rogachev, T.; Bogdanova, L.

    The cycle life performance of lead acid batteries with PbSnCa grids is strongly affected by the structure and properties of PAM and of the interface PAM/grid. The latter interface is formed during curing and formation of the positive plates. The processes that take place on curing of positive lead acid battery plates produced with Concast or Conroll PbSnCa grids and 3PbOPbSO 4·H 2O (3BS) or 4PbOPbSO 4· xH 2O (4BS) pastes are discussed in this paper. The enhanced processes of Sn and Ca segregation in the alloy of the grids during plate curing lead to the formation of a thin layer of a new phase, composed of the intermetallic compound (Pb 1- xSn x) 3Ca, in the spaces between the metal grains or sub-grains. This layer makes the interface heterogeneous and exerts a detrimental effect on the cycle life of the battery. In order to suppress its effect on battery performance, the thickness of this layer should be reduced by reducing the content of Ca in the grid alloy. During plate curing, the heterogeneous surface of the grid alloy is oxidized under the action of oxygen and H 2O at elevated temperature and the alkaline solution in the paste pores. A corrosion layer is formed comprising a thin sub-layer (CL1) and a thick partially hydrated lead oxide sub-layer (CL2). The 4BS/CL2 contact surface is larger and more stable than that between the 3BS particles and the CL2 layer. Both 3BS and 4BS particles are bonded to the CL2 layer through their hydrated layers. When curing is conducted at temperatures above 80 °C, 3BS particles are converted into 4BS ones which contain water. It has been established that positive plates produced with 4BS plates cured at 50 °C have the longest cycle life and adequate capacity performance, but a bit low power output. Positive plates prepared with 3BS pastes, which are then converted into 4BS ones during plate curing at 90 °C, have high initial capacity and power performance, but shorter cycle life. Batteries with plates produced with 4BS

  17. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Battery History and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalskrishna M.; Tiller, Smith E.

    1999-01-01

    The "International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Battery History and Performance" report provides the information on the cell/battery design, battery performance during the thirty eight (38) solar eclipse seasons and the end-of-life test data. It is noteworthy that IUE spacecraft was an in-house project and that the batteries were designed, fabricated and tested (Qualification and Acceptance) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. A detailed information is given on the cell and battery design criteria and the designs, on the Qualification and the Acceptance tests, and on the cell life cycling tests. The environmental, thermal, and vibration tests were performed on the batteries at the battery level as well as with the interface on the spacecraft. The telemetry data were acquired, analyzed, and trended for various parameters over the mission life. Rigorous and diligent battery management programs were developed and implemented from time to time to extend the mission life over eighteen plus years. Prior to the termination of spacecraft operation, special tests were conducted to check the battery switching operation, battery residual capacity, third electrode performance and battery impedance.

  18. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery testing: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began testing the HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test and the 'Flight Spare Battery' Tests approximately one year before the launch of the HST. These tests are operated and reported on by the MSFC, but are managed and funded by Goddard Space Flight Center in direct support of the HST program. The HST Ni-H2 batteries are built from Eagle Picher RNH-90-3 cells. The HST EPS (electrical power system) is a direct energy transfer power system. The HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test is a breadboard of the HST EPS. The batteries in the test are composed of test module cells and packaged into three battery modules identical to the flight modules. This test is the HST EPS testbed. The 'Flight Spare Battery' Test is a simulation of one of the six battery channels on the HST. The cells in the test are from the flight spare lot of cells, which are the same lot of cells that three of the six HST flight batteries are made from. This test is the battery life test for the HST program.

  20. Modeling thermal management of lithium-ion PNGV batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Paul; Dees, Dennis; Amine, Khalil; Henriksen, Gary

    Batteries were designed with the aid of a computer modeling program to study the requirements of the thermal control system for meeting the goals set by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). The battery designs were based upon the lithium-ion cell composition designated Gen-2 in the US Department of Energy Advanced Technology Development Program. The worst-case cooling requirement that would occur during prolonged aggressive driving was estimated to be 250 W or about 5 W per cell for a 48-cell battery. Rapid heating of the battery from a very low startup temperature is more difficult than cooling during driving. A dielectric transformer fluid is superior to air for both heating and cooling the battery. A dedicated refrigeration system for cooling the battery coolant would be helpful in maintaining low temperature during driving. The use of ample insulation would effectively slow the battery temperature rise when parking the vehicle in warm weather. Operating the battery at 10 °C during the first several years when the battery has excess power would extend the battery life.

  1. Generic Propellants Transfer Unit (GPTU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    The Generic Propellants Transfer Unit (GPTU) is being designed to support spacecraft liquid propellant operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Eastern Test Range (ETR). The GPTU will have a 500 gallon capacity and be Department Of Transportation (DOT) approved for over-the-road transportation of hypergolic propellants. The use of these containers will allow the users to increase efficiency and reduce the following costs: design/construction, transportation (to/from the launch site), propellant transfer operations, and decontamination operations. The user also acquires the flexibility of transporting to an offsite location for processing or storage without obtaining special exemptions or permits. These containers will incorporate their own quantity gaging and temperature sensing systems, and be integrated onto a transport trailer which contains work platforms and a fluid transfer system.

  2. Children's generic interpretation of pretense.

    PubMed

    Baer, Carolyn; Friedman, Ori

    2016-10-01

    We report two experiments investigating how 3- to 5-year-olds learn general knowledge from pretend play-how they learn about kinds of things (e.g., information about dogs) from information about particular individuals in pretend play (a certain dog in a pretend scenario). Children watched pretend-play enactments in which animals showed certain behaviors or heard utterances conveying the same information. When children were subsequently asked about who shows the behavior, children who watched pretend play were more likely to give generic responses than were children who heard the utterances. These findings show that children generalize information from pretend play to kinds even without being prompted to think about kinds, that pretend play can be informative about familiar kinds, and also that pretend play is a more potent source for general knowledge than are utterances about individuals. PMID:27268159

  3. Battery/Heat Engine Vehicle Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1991-03-01

    MARVEL performs least-life-cycle-cost analyses of battery/heat engine/hybrid vehicle systems to determine the combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and missions. Simplified models are used for the transmission, motor/generator, controller, and other vehicle components, while a rather comprehensive model is used for the battery. Battery relationships available include the Ragone curve, peak power versus specific energy and depth-of-discharge (DOD), cycle life versus DOD, effects of battery scale, and capacity recuperation duemore » to intermittent driving patterns. Energy management in the operation of the vehicle is based on the specified mission requirements, type and size of the battery, allowable DOD, size of the heat engine, and the management strategy employed. Several optional management strategies are available in MARVEL. The program can be used to analyze a pure electric vehicle, a pure heat engine vehicle, or a hybrid vehicle that employs batteries as well as a heat engine. Cost comparisons for these vehicles can be made on the same basis. Input data for MARVEL are contained in three files generated by the user using three preprocessors which are included. MVDATA processes vehicle specification and mission requirements information, while MBDATA creates a file containing specific peak power as a function of specific energy and DOD, and MPDATA produces the file containing vehicle velocity specification data based on driving cycle information.« less

  4. Pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; De Bruyn, Kristien; Bogaert, Marc; Laekeman, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Pressure to control pharmaceutical expenditure and price competition among pharmaceutical companies are fuelling the development of generic drug markets in EU countries. However, in Belgium, the market for generic drugs is underdeveloped compared with other countries. To promote the use of generic drugs, the government introduced a reference pricing (RP) scheme in 2001. The aim of this paper is to discuss Belgian pharmaceutical policy regarding generic drugs and to analyse how the Belgian drug market has evolved following initiation of the RP scheme. The market share held by generic drugs increased following implementation of the RP scheme. Focusing on volume, average market share (by semester) for generic drugs amounted to 2.05% of the total pharmaceutical market from January 1998 to June 2001, compared with 6.11% from July 2001 to December 2003. As new generic drugs are introduced, their market share tends to increase in the first couple of months, after which it levels off. Faced with increasing generic competition, some manufacturers have launched new variants of their original drug, thereby effectively extending the period of patent protection. Strategies consisting of price reductions in return for the abolition of prescribing conditions and the launch of new dosages or formulations appear to have been successful in maintaining the market share of original drugs. Nevertheless, the introduction of the RP scheme was associated with savings amounting to 1.8% of pharmaceutical expenditure by the third-party payer in 2001 and 2.1% in 2002. The findings of this paper indicate that the RP scheme has stimulated the Belgian generic drug market. However, existing policy has largely failed to take into account the role that physicians and pharmacists can play in stimulating generic drug use. Therefore, further development of the Belgian generic drug market seems to hinge on the creation of appropriate incentives for physicians to prescribe, and for pharmacists to

  5. Graphene nanoarchitecture in batteries.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di; Astley, Michael R; Harris, Nadine; White, Richard; Ryhänen, Tapani; Kivioja, Jani

    2014-08-21

    We compare three different carbon nanoarchitectures used to produce standard coin cell batteries: graphene monolayer, graphite paper and graphene foam. The batteries' electrochemical performances are characterised using cyclic voltammetry, constant-current discharge and dynamic galvanostatic techniques. Even though graphene is the fundamental building block of graphite its properties are intrinsically different when used in batteries because there is no ion intercalation in graphene. The nanoarchitecture of the graphene electrode is shown to have a strong influence over the battery's electrochemical performance. This provides a versatile way to design various battery electrodes on different demands. PMID:24990483

  6. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  7. Automatic battery analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.J.; Frailing, C.E.

    1980-03-11

    Apparatus for automatically testing automotive-type, lead acid storage batteries is disclosed in which three separate tests are made and the results thereof compared to predetermined standards in a specified order to maximize the information obtained about the battery. The three tests measure (1) whether the battery meets its cold cranking rating by drawing a predetermined load current therefrom for a predetermined period of time and determining whether the battery terminal voltage is above a specified level at the end of that period, (2) whether the battery terminal voltage is above another specified level at the end of a predetermined period of time following the completion of the first test, and (3) whether the internal resistance is acceptably low. If the battery passes the first test, it is known to be acceptable. If the battery fails the first test and passes the second test, it is known to be unacceptable. If the battery fails the first and second tests, the third test is performed. If the battery then passes the third test, it is known to be acceptable but to require a recharge, whereas if the battery then fails the third test the acceptability of the battery is then not yet determined and it must be recharged and retested.

  8. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  9. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  10. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  11. Defining Generic Skills. At a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Generic skills--skills that apply across a variety of jobs and life contexts--are taking on increased importance in Australia and internationally. There is a high demand for generic skills in the workplace because employers seek to ensure business success by recruiting and retaining employees who have a variety of skills and personal attributes as…

  12. Developmental Changes in the Understanding of Generics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Bloom, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Generic sentences (such as "Birds lay eggs") are important in that they refer to kinds (e.g., birds as a group) rather than individuals (e.g., the birds in the henhouse). The present set of studies examined aspects of how generic nouns are understood by English speakers. Adults and children (4- and 5-year-olds) were presented with scenarios about…

  13. Children's Interpretation of Generic Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Michelle A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Star, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Two studies used a comprehension task and an elicited production task to examine whether preschool children and adults appreciated the semantic properties of generic utterances. Findings indicated that in both tasks, 4-year-olds and adults treated generics ("bears live in caves") as distinct from both indefinites ("some") and universal quantifiers…

  14. Generic scalar potentials in geometric scalar gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    We discuss a generic form of the scalar potential appearing in the geometric scalar theory of gravity. We find the conditions on the potential by considering weak and strong gravity. The modified black hole solutions are obtained for generic potentials and the inverse problems on a black hole and on a spherical body (`pseudo-gravastar') are investigated.

  15. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  16. 40 CFR 721.450 - Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.450 Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorochloroalkene...

  17. 40 CFR 721.450 - Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.450 Hydrofluorochloroalkene (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydrofluorochloroalkene...

  18. Mapping Generic Skills Curricula: A Recommended Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robley, Will; Whittle, Sue; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1997 Dearing Report, generic skills development has become an essential part of higher education in the UK. Generic skills programmes are, in the main, either run in parallel with existing curricula or "embedded" within them. In 1993 the General Medical Council introduced student selected components (SSCs) into the UK medical curriculum…

  19. Generic Quarantine Radiation Treatment; The Next Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, USDA-APHIS published a landmark rule providing generic radiation quarantine treatments. The rule approved irradiation doses of 150 Gy for any tephritid fruit fly and 400 Gy for all other insects except the pupa and adult stages of Lepidoptera. The generic radiation treatments apply to all f...

  20. Anti-Idling Battery for Truck Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Kelly

    2011-09-30

    In accordance to the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001036, the objective of this project was to develop an advanced high voltage lithium-ion battery for use in an all-electric HVAC system for Class-7-8 heavy duty trucks. This system will help heavy duty truck drivers meet the tough new anti-idling laws being implemented by over 23 states. Quallion will be partnering with a major OEM supplier of HVAC systems to develop this system. The major OEM supplier will provide Quallion the necessary interface requirements and HVAC hardware to ensure successful testing of the all-electric system. At the end of the program, Quallion will deliver test data on three (3) batteries as well as test data for the prototype HVAC system. The objectives of the program are: (1) Battery Development - Objective 1 - Define battery and electronics specifications in preparation for building the prototype module. (Completed - summary included in report) and Objective 2 - Establish a functional prototype battery and characterize three batteries in-house. (Completed - photos and data included in report); (2) HVAC Development - Objective 1 - Collaborate with manufacturers to define HVAC components, layout, and electronics in preparation for establishing the prototype system. (Completed - photos and data included in report) and Objective 2 - Acquire components for three functional prototypes for use by Quallion. (Completed - photos and data included in report).

  1. 78 FR 46977 - Generic Drug User Fee-Abbreviated New Drug Application, Prior Approval Supplement, Drug Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the rate for the abbreviated new drug application (ANDA), prior approval supplement to an approved ANDA (PAS), drug master file (DMF), generic drug active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and finished dosage form (FDF) facilities user fees related to the Generic Drug User Fee Program for fiscal year (FY) 2014. The Federal Food, Drug, and......

  2. Fixing Holes Where the Rain Gets in: Problem Areas in the Development of Generic Skills in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calma, Angelito

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little attention is paid to understanding generic skills in business. Even less attention is paid to collecting evidence of students' development of these skills. This paper aims to fill this gap. Design/methodology/approach: Four generic skills in business undergraduate and graduate programs are examined--written communication; critical…

  3. Final Viking NiCd battery conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Britting, A.

    1983-08-01

    The Viking Lander Monitor Mission (VLMM) is well beyond its planned 90-day landed Mars mission. It has been an established NASA goal to maintain an American presence on Mars for as long as possible. With healthy subsystems, the mission could conceivably last until December 5, 1994. At that time the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power source output power would be marginal for support of the system electrical loads and for battery maintenance. The antenna pointing coefficients will also expire at that time, resulting in telecommunication system shutdown. Recently three of the four, 8 ampere-hour (AH) nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries onboard Viking Lander 1 (VL-1) have indicated signs of significant loss of energy storage capacity. An intensive program of deep-discharge battery reconditioning was begun in January 1982 in an attempt to return the batteries to levels of capacity approaching early mission values.

  4. Sodium sulfur batteries for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degruson, James A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1986, Eagle-Picher Industries was selected by the Air Force to develop sodium sulfur cells for satellite applications. Specifically, the development program was geared toward low earth orbit goals requiring high charge and/or discharge rates. A number of improvements have been made on the cell level and a transition to a complete space battery was initiated at Eagle-Picher. The results of six months of testing a 250 watt/hour sodium sulfur space battery look very promising. With over 1000 LEO cycles conducted on this first battery, the next generation battery is being designed. This next design will focus on achieving greater energy densities associated with the sodium sulfur chemistry.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  10. Adiabatic charging of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Chuck; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, Jeff; Jackson, Lorna

    1995-01-01

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. The transition from nickel-cadium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their high self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, has made this aspect of spacecraft battery management even more challenging. The AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure efficient charging, was considered and proved to be difficult and expensive. Alternative approaches were evaluated. Optimized charging, in the absence of cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. Initial testing was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the 'Adiabatic Charging' approach. Feasibility was demonstrated and additional testing performed to provide a quantitative, parametric data base. The assumption that the battery is in an adiabatic environment during prelaunch charging is a conservative approximation because the battery will transfer some heat to its surroundings by convective air cooling. The amount is small compared to the heat dissipated during battery overcharge. Because the battery has a large thermal mass, substantial overcharge can occur before the cells get too hot to charge efficiently. The testing presented here simulates a true adiabatic environment. Accordingly the data base may be slightly conservative. The adiabatic charge methodology used in this investigation begins with stabilizing the cell at a given starting temperature. The cell is then fully insulated on all sides. Battery temperature is carefully monitored and the charge terminated when the cell temperature reaches 85 F. Charging has been evaluated with starting temperatures from 55 to 75 F.

  11. [Should the ophthalmologist prescribe generic drugs?].

    PubMed

    Nordmann, J-P

    2003-10-01

    It seems obvious that an ophthalmologist should encourage the use of generic drugs. However, it is important to know the exact definition of a generic drug and the type of studies to be conducted before a generic drug is released on the market. A generic drug is a drug that has the same composition quantitatively as well as qualitatively of the active compound as the original drug. It also has the same pharmaceutical mode of action and the same bioavailability, as determined with bioavailability studies. Ophthalmic drops contain both an active compound and many adjuvants used to stabilize the drug. Globally speaking, the active compound corresponds to the efficacy of a topical drug and the adjuvant to its tolerance. It is likely that the efficacy of a generic drug is identical to that of the brand-name drug, even though only bioavailability studies in non-human models are required to evaluate tolerance which is less likely to be identical, as adjuvants can differ. A survey of 520 French ophthalmologists has recently been conducted. It shows that doctors rarely think of prescribing generic drugs, as they do not consider cost as a major issue in treating glaucoma. However, they see no reason not to prescribe generic drugs. This mixed perception is shared by patients who willingly accept that doctors prescribe a generic drug, but do not wish the pharmacist to take the initiative of filling a prescription with a generic drug, which sometimes gives patients the impression of being less well treated. The use of generic drugs should be encouraged, keeping in mind that good tolerance should be ensured. PMID:14646825

  12. Standard Missile Block IV battery

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.

    1996-11-01

    During the 1980`s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts resulted in failure to obtain a production thermal battery. A decision to pursue a silver-zinc battery design resulted in the development of a battery to supply the SM 2, Block IV (thermal battery design goal) and also the projected power requirements of the evolving SM 2, Block IVA in a single silver-zinc battery design. Several advancements in silver-zinc battery technology were utilized in this design that improve the producibility and extend the boundaries of silver-zinc batteries.

  13. 1992 five year battery forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Amistadi, D.

    1992-12-01

    Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

  14. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  15. Generic safety insights for inspection of boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.C.; Taylor, J.H.; Fresco, A.N.; Hillman, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    As the number of operating nuclear power plants (NPP) increases, safety inspection has increased in importance. However, precisely what is important, and what is not important. What should one focus inspection efforts on. Over the last two years Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PR) techniques have been developed to aid in the inspection process. Broad interest in generic PRA-based methods has arisen in the past year, since only about 25% of the US nuclear power plants have completed PRAs, and also, inspectors want PRA-based tools for these plants. This paper describes the BNL program to develop generic BWR PRA-based inspection insights or inspection guidance designed to be applied to plants without PRAs.

  16. Mathematical modelling and expert system for battery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscher, Jacques; Marrot, Pascal; Bouridah, Karim

    1989-08-01

    The GIBUS expert system, designed to improve management of batteries on board satellites by test center operators, is described. The long term prospects of the project are the development of an operators support system at ground based control centers managing on-satellite storage batteries. An on-board self-management system is suggested as a possible extension of the program.

  17. Battery charge control with temperature compensated voltage limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thierfelder, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    Battery charge control for orbiting spacecraft with mission durations from three to ten years, is a critical design feature that is discussed. Starting in 1974, the General Electric Space Systems Division designed, manufactured and tested battery systems for six different space programs. Three of these are geosynchronous missions, two are medium altitude missions and one is a near-earth mission. All six power subsystems contain nickel cadmium batteries which are charged using a temperature compensated voltage limit. This charging method was found to be successful in extending the life of nickel cadmium batteries in all three types of earth orbits. Test data and flight data are presented for each type of orbit.

  18. Power requirements for batteries in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert F.

    The operation of batteries in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) involves unusual constraints not seen in other applications. This paper reviews the specifications and operational requirements imposed on batteries due to the projected architectures for HEVs as defined by the DOE/PNGV Program. It also reviews the performance issues involved in battery HEV operation and surveys the strengths and weaknesses of the candidate electrochemical technologies. Finally, battery designs are recommended for the two major projected HEV applications, namely the so-called "fast-response" and "slow-response" systems identified in the DOE/PNGV Programme.

  19. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support. PMID:23610390

  20. Generic OPC UA Server Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiel, Piotr P.; Farnham, Benjamin; Filimonov, Viatcheslav; Schlenker, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a new approach for generic design and efficient development of OPC UA servers. Development starts with creation of a design file, in XML format, describing an object-oriented information model of the target system or device. Using this model, the framework generates an executable OPC UA server application, which exposes the per-design OPC UA address space, without the developer writing a single line of code. Furthermore, the framework generates skeleton code into which the developer adds the necessary logic for integration to the target system or device. This approach allows both developers unfamiliar with the OPC UA standard, and advanced OPC UA developers, to create servers for the systems they are experts in while greatly reducing design and development effort as compared to developments based purely on COTS OPC UA toolkits. Higher level software may further benefit from the explicit OPC UA server model by using the XML design description as the basis for generating client connectivity configuration and server data representation. Moreover, having the XML design description at hand facilitates automatic generation of validation tools. In this contribution, the concept and implementation of this framework is detailed along with examples of actual production-level usage in the detector control system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN and beyond.

  1. Distinguishability of generic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.

  2. Generic theory for channel sinuosity

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as “inherited” from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support. PMID:23610390

  3. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  4. Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John; Milora, Stanley

    2015-11-01

    The original Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor paper was published in 1986. This update describes what has changed in 30 years. Notably, the construction of ITER is providing important benchmark numbers for technologies and costs. In addition, we use a more conservative neutron wall flux and fluence. But these cost-increasing factors are offset by greater optimism on the thermal-electric conversion efficiency and potential availability. The main examples show the cost of electricity (COE) as a function of aspect ratio and neutron flux to the first wall. The dependence of the COE on availability, thermo-electric efficiency, electrical power output, and the present day's low interest rates is also discussed. Interestingly, at fixed aspect ratio there is a shallow minimum in the COE at neutron flux around 2.5 MW/m2. The possibility of operating with only a small COE penalty at even lower wall loadings (to 1.0 MW/m2 at larger plant size) and the use of niobium-titanium coils are also investigated. J. Sheffield was supported by ORNL subcontract 4000088999 with the University of Tennessee.

  5. 78 FR 56621 - Draft Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Impact Statement AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft generic environmental impact... issuing for public comment the draft generic environmental impact statement (DGEIS), NUREG-2157, ``Waste Confidence Generic Environmental Impact Statement,'' that forms the regulatory basis for the...

  6. Damage of cells and battery packs due to ground impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yong; Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Sahraei, Elham; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2014-12-01

    The present paper documents a comprehensive study on the ground impact of lithium-ion battery packs in electric vehicles. With the purpose of developing generic methodology, a hypothetic global finite element model is adopted. The force-displacement response of indentation process simulated by the global FE model is cross-validated with the earlier analytical solutions. The punching process after the armor plate perforation, the ensuing crack propagation of the armor plate as well as the local deformation modes of individual battery cells are clearly predicted by the global modeling. A parametric study is carried out, and a few underlying rules are revealed, providing important clues on the design of protective structure of battery packs against ground impact. In the next step, detailed FE models at the level of a single battery cell and shell casing are developed and simulations are performed using boundaries and loading conditions taken from the global solution. In the detailed modeling the failure of individual components is taken into account, which is an important indicator of electric short circuit of a battery cell and possible thermal runaway. The damage modes and the deformation tolerances of components in the battery cell under various loading conditions are observed and compared.

  7. Analysis of Ageing Effect on Li-Polymer Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Barcellona, Simone; Brenna, Morris; Foiadelli, Federica; Longo, Michela; Piegari, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for current and future energy storage in mobile and stationary application. In particular, they play an important role in the electrification of mobility and therefore the battery lifetime prediction is a fundamental aspect for successful market introduction. Numerous studies developed ageing models capable of predicting battery life span. Most of the previous works compared the effect of the ageing factors to a battery's cycle life. These cycles are identical, which is not the case for electric vehicles applications. Indeed, most of the available information is based on results from laboratory testing, under very controlled environments, and using ageing protocols, which may not correctly reflect the actual utilization. For this reason, it is important to link the effect of duty cycles with the ageing of the batteries. This paper proposes a simple method to investigate the effect of the duty cycle on the batteries lifetime through tests performed on different cells for different kinds of cycle. In this way, a generic complex cycle can be seen as a composition of elemental cycles by means of Rainflow procedures. Consequently, the ageing due to any cycle can be estimated starting from the knowledge of simpler cycles. PMID:26236775

  8. Analysis of Ageing Effect on Li-Polymer Batteries.

    PubMed

    Barcellona, Simone; Brenna, Morris; Foiadelli, Federica; Longo, Michela; Piegari, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for current and future energy storage in mobile and stationary application. In particular, they play an important role in the electrification of mobility and therefore the battery lifetime prediction is a fundamental aspect for successful market introduction. Numerous studies developed ageing models capable of predicting battery life span. Most of the previous works compared the effect of the ageing factors to a battery's cycle life. These cycles are identical, which is not the case for electric vehicles applications. Indeed, most of the available information is based on results from laboratory testing, under very controlled environments, and using ageing protocols, which may not correctly reflect the actual utilization. For this reason, it is important to link the effect of duty cycles with the ageing of the batteries. This paper proposes a simple method to investigate the effect of the duty cycle on the batteries lifetime through tests performed on different cells for different kinds of cycle. In this way, a generic complex cycle can be seen as a composition of elemental cycles by means of Rainflow procedures. Consequently, the ageing due to any cycle can be estimated starting from the knowledge of simpler cycles. PMID:26236775

  9. Use of COTS Batteries on ISS and Shuttle: Payload Safety and Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Contents: Current program requirements; Challenges with COTS batteries; manned vehicle COTS methodology in use; List of typical flight COTS batteries; Energy content and toxicity; Hazards, failure modes and controls for different battery chemistries; JSC test details; List of incidents from Consumer Protection Safety Commission; Conclusions ans recommendations.

  10. Generic antibiotic drugs: is effectiveness guaranteed?

    PubMed

    Gauzit, R; Lakdhari, M

    2012-04-01

    There are recently published arguments suggesting all generic antibiotic drugs do not present the full reliability needed to claim therapeutic equivalence with branded drugs. The problem is especially crucial for generic intravenous drugs, which do not need any bioequivalence study before they can be marketed. The evaluation of generic antibiotic drug effectiveness yields an important dispersion of results according to antibiotic agents and for the same antibiotic agent all generic drugs are not equivalent. There are differences at all levels: drug components, levels of impurity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, in vitro effectiveness, therapeutic effectiveness in experimental models, etc. So that finally, the specifications approved in the initial submission file of a brand name drugs are not always respected by a generic drug. There is also a specific problem of taste and treatment acceptability for pediatric oral antibiotic drugs. Available data on clinical effectiveness is excessively rare. The marketing of a great number of generic drugs of the same specialty is followed by a sometimes very important increase of their use, even in countries where consumption is low. The corollary of this increase in consumption is an increase of resistance, and this is especially true for oral fluoroquinolones. Even if most of this information needs to be verified, it seems necessary to review regulations for marketing authorization of generic antibiotic drugs. PMID:22480963

  11. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  12. NASA Battery Working Group - 2007-2008: Battery Task Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This presentation provides a summary of the 2007-2008 NASA Battery Working Group efforts completed in support of the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC). The effort covered a series of pro-active tasks that address the following: Binding Procurements -- guidelines related to requirements for the battery system that should be considered at the time of contract award Wet Life of Ni-H2 Batteries -- issues/strategies for effective storage and impact of long-term storage on performance and life Generic Guidelines for Lithium-ion Safety, Handling and Qualification -- Standardized approaches developed and risk assessments (1) Lithium-ion Performance Assessment -- survey of manufacturers and capabilities to meet mission needs. Guidelines document generated (2) Conditions Required for using Pouch Cells in Aerospace Missions -- focus on corrosion, thermal excursions and long-term performance issues. Document defining requirements to maintain performance and life (3) High Voltage Risk Assessment -- focus on safety and abuse tolerance of battery module assemblies. Recommendations of features required for safe implementation (4) Procedure for Determination of Safe Charge Rates -- evaluation of various cell chemistries and recommendation of safe operating regimes for specific cell designs

  13. Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

  14. Cooperative research on safety fundamentals of lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, J. Robert; Al Hallaj, Said; Uchida, Isamu; Hirano, Y.

    A cooperative research program on the thermal characterization and safety of lithium batteries is being carried out at IIT/Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering and Tohoku University. This research includes experimental work for commercial lithium secondary batteries and performance prediction for scaled-up batteries. In this work, we present a set of thermal characterization experiments for lithium secondary battery cells under normal and abuse conditions. These show that the rise in cell temperature depends strongly on cell chemistry as well as discharge rate. Computer simulation of the cycling of scaled-up lithium batteries shows that the cell temperature profile also depends strongly on the surface cooling rate. An effective thermal management system is required to operate these batteries safely. This paper reviews the basic information needed for intrinsically safe design.

  15. A smart control system for electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Arikara, M.P.; Dickinson, B.E.; Branum, B.

    1993-12-31

    A smart control system for electric vehicle (EV) batteries was designed and its performance was evaluated. The hardware for the system was based on the Motorola MC68HC11ENB micro controller. A zinc bromide (Zn/Br{sub 2}) battery was chosen since it is a good candidate as an EV battery and has a large number of user variable parameters that affect its performance. The flexibility of the system arises from the fact that the system can be programmed to do a wide variety of jobs. The use of real time interrupts and other features makes the system safe for use along with the battery systems. Test data indicates that real time control of the different parameters can increase the performance of the battery by 15%. In addition to optimizing the performance of the battery the control system incorporates essential safety features.

  16. Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archuleta, Melecita M.

    The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

  17. Results of advanced battery technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1992-09-01

    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies [Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid]. These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R&D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  18. Fundamentals of battery dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jossen, Andreas

    Modern applications, such as wireless communication systems or hybrid electric vehicles operate at high power fluctuations. For some applications, where the power frequencies are high (above some 10 or 100 Hz) it is possible to filter the high frequencies using passive components; yet this results in additional costs. In other applications, where the dynamic time constants are in the range up to some seconds, filtering cannot be done. Batteries are hence operated with the dynamic loads. But what happens under these dynamic operation conditions? This paper describes the fundamentals of the dynamic characteristics of batteries in a frequency range from some MHz down to the mHz range. As the dynamic behaviour depends on the actual state of charge (SOC) and the state of health (SOH), it is possible to gain information on the battery state by analysing the dynamic behaviour. High dynamic loads can influence the battery temperature, the battery performance and the battery lifetime.

  19. A desalination battery.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. PMID:22268456

  20. Batteries for Vehicular Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Venkat

    2008-09-01

    This paper will describe battery technology as it relates to use in vehicular applications, including hybrid-electric vehicles (HEV), electric vehicles (EV), and plug-in-hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEV). The present status of rechargeable batteries, the requirements for each application, and the scientific stumbling blocks that stop batteries from being commercialized for these applications will be discussed. Focus will be on the class of batteries referred to as lithium batteries and the various chemistries that are the most promising for these applications. While Li-ion is expected in HEVs in the very near future, use in PHEVs are expected to be more gradual and dependent on solving the life, safety, and cost challenges. Finally, batteries for EVs remain problematic because of the range and charging-time issues.

  1. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  2. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  3. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  4. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  5. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  6. Component fragility research program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA )

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Vehicle storage battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, B.I.

    1986-01-14

    This patent describes a vehicle storage battery system. Included in this system is a storage battery which has three separate storage battery portions. The main battery portion has a capacity for starting the vehicle under normal circumstances. The first and second standby portions of the battery when connected in a series have a rated capacity sufficient to transfer enough charge to the main battery portion when in a discharged state to start the engine of the vehicle. Another integral component of the system is a battery control having a circuit for connecting the two standby portions in series for charging the main battery portion when it is in a discharged state. This circuit also includes a means for restricting a charging current flow from the standby portions to the main portion to a predetermined safe level. An analogous circuit connects the standby portions in parallel for recharging from the main battery portion with a means for restricting a recharge current flow to a predetermined safe level. The last component is a switch means to switch between the above circuits.

  8. Why do batteries fail?

    PubMed

    Palacín, M R; de Guibert, A

    2016-02-01

    Battery failure and gradual performance degradation (aging) are the result of complex interrelated phenomena that depend on battery chemistry, design, environment, and the actual operation conditions. The current available knowledge on these matters results from a vast combination of experimental and modeling approaches. We explore the state of the art with respect to materials as well as usage (temperature, charge/discharge rate, etc.) for lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion chemistries. Battery diagnosis strategies and plausible developments related to large-scale battery applications are also discussed. PMID:26912708

  9. Nonleaking battery terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45 percent KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide (PPO) plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte in a plastic case are discussed.

  10. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-12-01

    The planetary program has historically used batteries to supply peak power needs for mission specific applications. Any time that additional power has been required in order to meet peak power demands or those applications where only limited amounts of power were required, batteries have always been used. Up until the mid to late 70's they have performed their task admirably. Recently, however, we have all become aware of the growing problem of developing reliable NiCd batteries for long mission and high cycle life applications. Here, the role rechargeable batteries will play for future planetary and earth observing spacecraft is discussed. In conclusion, NiCds have been and will continue to be the mainstay of the power system engineers tools for peak power production. Recent experience has tarnished its once sterling reputation. However, the industry has stood up to this challenge and implemented wide ranging plans to rectify the situation. These efforts should be applauded and supported as new designs and materials become available. In addition, project managers must become aware of their responsibility to test their batteries and insure quality and mission operating characteristics. Without this teamwork, the role of NiCds in the future will diminish, and other batteries, not as optimum for high performance applications (low mass and volume) will take their place.

  11. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The planetary program has historically used batteries to supply peak power needs for mission specific applications. Any time that additional power has been required in order to meet peak power demands or those applications where only limited amounts of power were required, batteries have always been used. Up until the mid to late 70's they have performed their task admirably. Recently, however, we have all become aware of the growing problem of developing reliable NiCd batteries for long mission and high cycle life applications. Here, the role rechargeable batteries will play for future planetary and earth observing spacecraft is discussed. In conclusion, NiCds have been and will continue to be the mainstay of the power system engineers tools for peak power production. Recent experience has tarnished its once sterling reputation. However, the industry has stood up to this challenge and implemented wide ranging plans to rectify the situation. These efforts should be applauded and supported as new designs and materials become available. In addition, project managers must become aware of their responsibility to test their batteries and insure quality and mission operating characteristics. Without this teamwork, the role of NiCds in the future will diminish, and other batteries, not as optimum for high performance applications (low mass and volume) will take their place.

  12. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  13. [Economy of generic drugs in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Tobar, Federico

    2008-01-01

    In terms of economics, implementing generic drug policy is nothing other than consolidating (or even, creating) drug markets that set competitive prices, the result of which favors public access to essential drugs. This article approaches the topic of generic drugs from the economic perspective by examining various regulatory models in order to evaluate and leverage generic drug policy implementation options as a mechanism for battling some of the markets' specific weaknesses. The conclusion is that there is no single unequivocal method for promoting the use of generic drugs, and that the most favorable way to integrate markets may be through a broad combination of alternatives. These alternatives are grouped and analyzed according to the market issues or challenges that must be overcome. Several options are then identified based on the degree of market consolidation to be obtained. PMID:18291074

  14. Generic substitution: issues for problematic drugs.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J D; Esham, R H

    2001-01-01

    The methodology and criteria for bioequivalence testing have been firmly established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For certain drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., digoxin, levothyroxine, warfarin), generic substitution may not be advisable or even allowable, depending on the substitution laws of individual states. Digoxin and levothyroxine tablets are examples of drugs for which no New Drug Applications (NDAs) currently exist. However, commercially available generic products for both of these drugs have not been determined by the FDA to be therapeutically equivalent to the innovator products. Generic versions of warfarin have been approved by the FDA as being therapeutically equivalent to the innovator products, as have generic versions of the rescue inhaler albuterol. Yet, misinformation and myths persist regarding the adequacy and proven reliability of the FDA's determination of bioequivalence for these products. PMID:11213935

  15. Hydrodynamic design of generic pump components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastland, A. H. J.; Dodson, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    Inducer and impellar base geometries were defined for a fuel pump for a generic generator cycle. Blade surface data and inlet flowfield definition are available in sufficient detail to allow computational fluid dynamic analysis of the two components.

  16. 78 FR 20329 - Submission for OMB review; 30-day Comment Request: A Generic Submission for Formative Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Generic Submission for Formative Research, Pretesting, and Customer Satisfaction of NCI's Communication..., and Customer Satisfaction of NCI's Communication and Education Resources, 0925-0046, Expiration Date 2... customers are satisfied with programs. This customer satisfaction research helps ensure the...

  17. 78 FR 14558 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: A Generic Submission for Formative Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Generic Submission for Formative Research, Pretesting, and Customer Satisfaction of NCI's Communication..., Pretesting, and Customer Satisfaction of NCI's Communication and Education Resources, 0925-0046, Expiration... customers are satisfied with programs. This customer satisfaction research helps ensure the...

  18. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR THE VERIFICATION OF PESTICIDE SPRAY DRIFT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ROW AND FIELD CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV program generic verification protocol was prepared and reviewed for the Verification of Pesticide Drift Reduction Technologies project. The protocol provides a detailed methodology for conducting and reporting results from a verification test of pesticide drift reductio...

  19. AMPED Program Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Gur, Ilan

    2014-04-02

    An overview presentation about ARPA-E's AMPED program. AMPED projects seek to develop advanced sensing, control, and power management technologies that redefine the way we think about battery management. Energy storage can significantly improve U.S. energy independence, efficiency, and security by enabling a new generation of electric vehicles. While rapid progress is being made in new battery materials and storage technologies, few innovations have emerged in the management of advanced battery systems. AMPED aims to unlock enormous untapped potential in the performance, safety, and lifetime of today's commercial battery systems exclusively through system-level innovations, and is thus distinct from existing efforts to enhance underlying battery materials and architectures.

  20. AMPED Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, Ilan

    2014-03-04

    An overview presentation about ARPA-E's AMPED program. AMPED projects seek to develop advanced sensing, control, and power management technologies that redefine the way we think about battery management. Energy storage can significantly improve U.S. energy independence, efficiency, and security by enabling a new generation of electric vehicles. While rapid progress is being made in new battery materials and storage technologies, few innovations have emerged in the management of advanced battery systems. AMPED aims to unlock enormous untapped potential in the performance, safety, and lifetime of today's commercial battery systems exclusively through system-level innovations, and is thus distinct from existing efforts to enhance underlying battery materials and architectures.

  1. Bipolar Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has contracted with Electro Energy, Inc., to develop a bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery design for energy storage on low-Earth-orbit satellites. The objective of the bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery development program is to approach advanced battery development from a systems level while incorporating technology advances from the lightweight nickel electrode field, hydride development, and design developments from nickel-hydrogen systems. This will result in a low-volume, simplified, less-expensive battery system that is ideal for small spacecraft applications. The goals of the program are to develop a 1-kilowatt, 28-volt (V), bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery with a specific energy of 100 watt-hours per kilogram (W-hr/kg), an energy density of 250 W-hr/liter and a 5-year life in low Earth orbit at 40-percent depth-of-discharge.

  2. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  3. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-02-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  4. Primary zinc-air batteries for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Bourland, Deborah S.; Merry, Glenn; Putt, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Prismatic HR and LC cells and batteries were built and tested, and they performed well with respect to the program goals of high capacity and high rate capability at specific energies. The HR batteries suffered reduced utilizations owing to dryout at the 2 and 3 A rates for the 50 C tests owing to the requirement for forced convection. The LC batteries suffered reduced utilizations under all conditions owing to the chimney effect at 1 G, although this effect would not occur at 0 G. An empirical model was developed which accurately predicted utilizations and average voltages for single cells, although thermal effects encountered during battery testing caused significant deviations, both positive and negative, from the model. Based on the encouraging results of the test program, we believe that the zinc-air primary battery of a flat, stackable configuration can serve as a high performance and safe power source for a range of space applications.

  5. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Electrolyte loss mechanisms of manually activated silver-zinc cells and batteries. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thaller, L.H.; Juvinall, G.L.

    1996-12-10

    Silver-zinc batteries are used in applications where high energy density and high discharge rates are required. These batteries do not possess excellent cycle life characteristics, but designs are available that are capable of about a hundred charge-discharge cycles. These batteries are mostly used in the primary mode where they are not required to be recharged. Torpedoes, missiles of many different varieties, and all launch vehicles use silver-zinc batteries in sizes ranging from about one ampere-hour (A-h) to 250 A-h. For the launch vehicle applications discussed herein, batteries are assembled (except for the introduction of electrolyte) and carefully stored until they are called up for use. At that time, electrolyte is added as part of the overall activation process prior to installation on the vehicle. Once the cells are filled, reactions take place that can result in small amounts of electrolyte being expelled from them. There have been several recorded instances where electrolyte expulsion has resulted in the rejection of either that particular battery or the entire production lot of batteries that were felt to have a generic problem. An in flight failure of a battery suggested that the problem resulted from the effects of small amounts of electrolyte forming an ionic conduction path inside the battery box. This report covers the results of examining the causes for the different kinds of problems within a cell that can result in the expulsion of small amounts of electrolyte.

  7. Robotic thermal battery pellet fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbler, D. L.; Townsend, A. S.; Walton, R. D.; Jones, C. W.

    1985-03-01

    Thermal battery manufacturing at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) is a sequence of operations involving materials processing, component manufacture, and assembly. These operations, for the most part, were manually performed although some operation were computer or fixture assisted. The high labor intensity and the need for process consistency in these operations made the conversion to a robotic work cell appealing in that it could increase productivity while allowing the reassignment of highly trained workers to other duties. An Alpha robot (Microbot, Inc.) was coupled with a Hewlett-Packard HP-9816 microcomputer, and custom software was developed to control the thermal battery manufacturing process. The software provided a menu driven main program with feedback at virtually every step to allow technicians with little or no computer experience to operate the system. Previously, one or two workers were assigned to each of several industrial presses used in the manufacture of thermal batteries. With the introduction of a robotic operator and a microcomputer process control, one worker alone could support two to three presses.

  8. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-02-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  9. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  10. Generic hypersonic vehicle performance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Frank R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated computational model of a generic hypersonic vehicle was developed for the purpose of determining the vehicle's performance characteristics, which include the lift, drag, thrust, and moment acting on the vehicle at specified altitude, flight condition, and vehicular configuration. The lift, drag, thrust, and moment are developed for the body fixed coordinate system. These forces and moments arise from both aerodynamic and propulsive sources. SCRAMjet engine performance characteristics, such as fuel flow rate, can also be determined. The vehicle is assumed to be a lifting body with a single aerodynamic control surface. The body shape and control surface location are arbitrary and must be defined. The aerodynamics are calculated using either 2-dimensional Newtonian or modified Newtonian theory and approximate high-Mach-number Prandtl-Meyer expansion theory. Skin-friction drag was also accounted for. The skin-friction drag coefficient is a function of the freestream Mach number. The data for the skin-friction drag coefficient values were taken from NASA Technical Memorandum 102610. The modeling of the vehicle's SCRAMjet engine is based on quasi 1-dimensional gas dynamics for the engine diffuser, nozzle, and the combustor with heat addition. The engine has three variable inputs for control: the engine inlet diffuser area ratio, the total temperature rise through the combustor due to combustion of the fuel, and the engine internal expansion nozzle area ratio. The pressure distribution over the vehicle's lower aft body surface, which acts as an external nozzle, is calculated using a combination of quasi 1-dimensional gas dynamic theory and Newtonian or modified Newtonian theory. The exhaust plume shape is determined by matching the pressure inside the plume, calculated from the gas dynamic equations, with the freestream pressure, calculated from Newtonian or Modified Newtonian theory. In this manner, the pressure distribution along the vehicle after body

  11. Generic NOx Control Intelligent System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-03-24

    GNOCIS is a system of programs designed to perform on-line closed-loop optimization of utility boilers. The major components of the system include: GNREAD A program which resides on the host digital control system (DCS) that retrieves data from the DCS and then transmits the collected data to the GNOCIS host system. GNWRITE A program which resides on the host DCS that receives data from the GNOCIS host platform and then sends this information to themore » DCS. GNARCH A program which resides on the GNOCIS host platform that receives data from GNREAD or GNCTL and then archives this data on a periodic basis. GNCTL A program which resides on the GNOCIS host platform that receives data from GNREAD and then executes the optimizer/combustion model. GNDCS Configuration changes to the DCS which allows automatic implementation of the GNOCIS recommendations and closed-loop operation. Substantial safeguards and constraints are imbedded in this component to prevent adverse impact on unit operation.« less

  12. Batteries for terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kulin, T.M.

    1998-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted in the design and manufacture of very long life vented and sealed maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries. These batteries have also been used in a number of terrestrial applications with good success. This study presents an overview of the Ni-Cd chemistry and technology as well as detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the Ni-Cd couple for terrestrial applications. The performance characteristics of both sealed and vented Ni-Cd's are presented. Various charge algorithms are examined and evaluated for effectiveness and ease of implementation. Hardware requirements for charging are also presented and evaluated. The discharge characteristics of vented and sealed Ni-Cd's are presented and compared to other battery chemistries. The performance of Ni-Cd's under extreme environmental conditions is also compared to other battery chemistries. The history of various terrestrial applications is reviewed and some of the lessons learned are presented. Applications discussed include the NASA Middeck Payload Battery, Raytheon Aegis Missile System Battery, THAAD Launcher battery, and the Titan IV battery. The suitability of the Ni-Cd chemistry for other terrestrial applications such as electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supply is discussed.

  13. Aluminum-ferricyanide battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.

    1993-11-29

    A battery capable of producing high current densities with high charge capacity is described which includes an aluminum anode, a ferricyanide electrolyte and a second electrode capable of reducing ferricyanide electrolyte which is either dissolved in an alkaline solution or alkaline seawater solution. The performance of the battery is enhanced by high temperature and high electrolyte flow rates.

  14. Multichannel battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    VanDunk, G.J.

    1993-06-08

    A battery charger for a rechargeable battery is described comprising: a current source switchable between a low charge state and a high charge state to provide current to said battery at a first level in said low charge state and to provide current to said battery at a second level in said high charge state; means for sensing the voltage of said battery; and a controller responsive to said voltage sensing means for controlling said current source to switch from said high charge state to said low charge state, said controller including a plurality of means for detecting events to cause said controller to switch from said high charge state to said low charge state upon the detection of any one of said events, one of said event detecting means including means for detecting a predetermined drop in said battery voltage after said battery voltage has reached a first predetermined level and another of said event detecting means including means for detecting that said battery voltage has been above a second predetermined level for a first period of time.

  15. Battery for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, M.

    1984-04-24

    In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

  16. Multicell reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Horning, R.J.; Eppley, W.J.

    1984-02-21

    A reserve battery having a plurality of galvanic cells and a series of ports through which electrolyte can flow into the cells. A spring activated valve opens the ports during periods of angular acceleration of the battery and closes the ports when there is no acceleration.

  17. Battery thermal management unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  18. Batteries: Avoiding oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, Laurence J.

    2016-08-01

    In the development of lithium–air batteries, managing the phase change between gaseous oxygen and crystalline lithium peroxide is a key challenge. Now, a high-performing sealed battery with an oxygen anion-redox electrode is presented that does not involve any gas evolution.

  19. Batteries: Getting solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Materials with high ionic conductivity are urgently needed for the development of solid-state lithium batteries. Now, an inorganic solid electrolyte is shown to have an exceptionally high ionic conductivity of 25 mS cm‑1, which allows a solid-state battery to deliver 70% of its maximum capacity in just one minute at room temperature.

  20. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  1. Batteries: Charging ahead rationally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freunberger, Stefan A.

    2016-06-01

    Redox mediators facilitate the oxidation of the highly insulating discharge product in metal–oxygen batteries during recharge and offer opportunities to achieve high reversible capacities. Now a design principle for selecting redox mediators that can recharge the batteries more efficiently is suggested.

  2. Auto Battery Safety Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Battery Safety Facts The Battery’s Purpose: A motor vehicle battery does the following things. >Activates the starter and ignition system so the engine will turn over; >Provides extra power when the charging ... needs of the vehicle; and >Controls voltage bursts when the air conditioner ...

  3. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  4. Recovering lead from batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Prengaman, R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, a significant number of processes have been developed to recover lead from scrap batteries. These processes recover lead via hydrometallurgical processing of the paste component of the battery followed by electrowinning. A number of pilot plant operations have been conducted, but thus far none of the processes have become operational.

  5. Recharging Batteries Chemically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Rowlette, J.; Graf, J.

    1985-01-01

    Iron/air batteries recharged chemically by solution of strong base in alcohol or by basic alcohol solution of reducing agent. Although method still experimental, it has potential for batteries in electric automobiles or as energy system in remote applications. Also used in quiet operations where noise or infrared signature of diesel engine is not desired.

  6. Long-Range Electric Vehicle Batteries: High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: In a battery, metal ions move between the electrodes through the electrolyte in order to store energy. Envia Systems is developing new silicon-based negative electrode materials for Li-Ion batteries. Using this technology, Envia will be able to produce commercial EV batteries that outperform today’s technology by 2-3 times. Many other programs have attempted to make anode materials based on silicon, but have not been able to produce materials that can withstand charge/discharge cycles multiple times. Envia has been able to make this material which can successfully cycle hundreds of times, on a scale that is economically viable. Today, Envia’s batteries exhibit world-record energy densities.

  7. Battery development and testing at ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verniolle, Jean

    1987-01-01

    The principal activities of the Energy Storage Section of the Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) of the European Space Agency are presented. Nickel-hydrogen and fuel cell systems development are reported. The European Space Battery Test Center (ESBTC) facilities are briefly described along with the current test programs and results obtained.

  8. Storage battery systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Storage Battery Systems Analysis supports the battery Exploratory Technology Development and Testing Project with technical and economic analysis of battery systems in various end-use applications. Computer modeling and simulation techniques are used in the analyses. Analysis objectives are achieved through both in-house efforts and outside contracts. In-house studies during FY82 included a study of the relationship between storage battery system reliability and cost, through cost-of-investment and cost-of-service interruption inputs; revision and update of the SOLSTOR computer code in standard FORTRAN 77 form; parametric studies of residential stand-alone photovoltaic systems using the SOLSTOR code; simulation of wind turbine collector/storage battery systems for the community of Kalaupapa, Molokai, Hawaii.

  9. Rechargeable hybrid aqueous batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Jing; Liu, Hao; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Gosselink, Denise; Chen, P.

    2012-10-01

    A new aqueous rechargeable battery combining an intercalation cathode with a metal (first order electrode) anode has been developed. The concept is demonstrated using LiMn2O4 and zinc metal electrodes in an aqueous electrolyte containing two electrochemically active ions (Li+ and Zn2+). The battery operates at about 2 V and preliminarily tests show excellent cycling performance, with about 90% initial capacity retention over 1000 charge-discharge cycles. Use of cation-doped LiMn2O4 cathode further improves the cyclability of the system, which reaches 95% capacity retention after 4000 cycles. The energy density for a prototype battery, estimated at 50-80 Wh kg-1, is comparable or superior to commercial 2 V rechargeable batteries. The combined performance attributes of this new rechargeable aqueous battery indicate that it constitutes a viable alternative to commercial lead-acid system and for large scale energy storage application.

  10. Electrolytes for advanced batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, George E.

    The choices of the components of the electrolyte phase for advanced batteries (lithium and lithium ion batteries) are very sensitive to the electrodes which are used. There are also a number of other requirements for the electrolyte phase, which depend on the cell design and the materials chosen for the battery. The difficulty of choice is compounded when the cell is a rechargeable one. This paper looks at each of these requirements and the degree to which they are met for lithium and lithium ion batteries. The discussion is broken into sections on anode or negative electrode stability requirements, cathode or positive electrode stability requirements, conductivity needs, viscosity and wetting requirements. The effects of these properties and interactions on the performance of batteries are also discussed.

  11. The effects of lead sulfate on new sealed lead acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cleland, M J; Maloney, J P; Rowe, B H

    2000-04-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) rely on batteries to power external cardiac defibrillators. While maintenance protocols should be followed to ensure that batteries possess adequate capacity to power their defibrillator, they are not often applied to new batteries. This study examines the effects of prolonged storage on sealed lead acid (SLA) batteries, the number of batteries that are affected by lead sulfate, and the ability of a protocol to restore the capacity in SLA batteries. A prospective cohort of new batteries was subjected to testing and discharge protocols. Initial battery capacities were measured using a battery analyzer. An "over-discharge" protocol fully discharged the battery over a 24-h period, and batteries were recharged and reanalyzed. Capacity measurements were repeated twice. Sulfate buildup was defined a priori as final capacity measurements greater than predischarge measurements. There were 126 batteries studied, a mean of 14 months after manufacture. Overall, 47 batteries (36.5%) had measured capacity that was insufficient (< 65% capacity). Batteries possessing very low initial capacities (< 55%) responded with a significant improvement on average of 54.7% compared with batteries within a normal capacity range (> 65%) whose average improvement was 9.3%. After discharge, there was an average of 17% improvement in the measured capacity, with no differences in the final capacity readings in each battery type. In conclusion, sealed lead acid batteries are affected by prolonged storage. The loss of capacity created by accumulation of lead sulfate can be reversed if battery maintenance protocols are used as part of EMS quality assurance programs. PMID:10729667

  12. Electric vehicle battery testing and development at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smaga, J.A.; Gillie, K.R.; Webster, C.E.; Tummillo, A.F.; Kulaga, J.K.; Marr, J.J. )

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Vehicle Battery Testing and Development Project for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) does selected electric vehicle (EV) battery performance evaluations and special application tests in support of the EPRI Electric Transportation Program. Overall, this program provides information to aid the design and development of improved components and systems for electric vehicles. The Electrochemical Technology Department in the Chemical Technology Division of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) manages the project under the sponsorship and direction of the EPRI Electric Transportation Program. This report summarizes the work in this program from January through December 1991. Technical tasks and activities encompassed battery testing, post-test teardown analyses and special technology/application-related studies. Battery testing activities included evaluation of nickel/iron, lead-acid, nickel/cadmium, and nickel/metal-hydride EV battery technologies. Post-test analyses examined 6Vl60 and 3ET205 lead-acid cells. Special studies/analyses were conducted to examine Ni/Fe battery outgas composition and electrolyte variations, the self-discharge loss of nickel/metal-hydride cells, the effects of partial discharge operation on the available energy of Ni/Cd modules, and the effect of charge method/return/pulse-currents on Ni/Fe battery performance.

  13. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L.; Jabbour, S.J.; Clark, H.K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  14. Evaluation of battery models for prediction of electric vehicle range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.; Phillips, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Three analytical models for predicting electric vehicle battery output and the corresponding electric vehicle range for various driving cycles were evaluated. The models were used to predict output and range, and then compared with experimentally determined values determined by laboratory tests on batteries using discharge cycles identical to those encountered by an actual electric vehicle while on SAE cycles. Results indicate that the modified Hoxie model gave the best predictions with an accuracy of about 97 to 98% in the best cases and 86% in the worst case. A computer program was written to perform the lengthy iterative calculations required. The program and hardware used to automatically discharge the battery are described.

  15. A Portable Battery for Objective, Nonobtrusive Measures of Human Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    A need exists for a standardized battery of human performance tests in order to measure the effects of various treatments. The present paper reports on progress in such a program, funded jointly by NASA and the Navy. Three batteries are available which differ in length (7.5, 15, and 30 minutes), and number of tests in the battery (3, 10, and 15). All tests are implemented on a portable, lap-held, briefcase-sized microprocessor (NEC PC 8201A). Performances measured include information processing, memory, visual perception, reasoning, motor skills, etc. Current programs are underway to determine norms, reliabilities, stabilities, factor structure of tests, comparisons with marker tests, apparatus suitability, etc.

  16. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  17. Generic medicines: issues and relevance for global health.

    PubMed

    Rana, Proteesh; Roy, Vandana

    2015-12-01

    Generic medicine is a pharmaceutical product which is bioequivalent to the innovator product in terms of dosage form, strength, route of administration, quality, safety, performance characteristics, and intended use. Generic medicines are a cornerstone for providing affordable medicines to patients. The major generic markets in the world include United States of America followed by European Union, Canada, Japan, and Australia. The major suppliers of generic medicines China and India are showing tremendous growth in the generic medicine sector. There are many legal and regulatory issues along with quality concerns associated with the use of the generic products. Lately, bilateral international agreements called free trade agreements, delaying tactics by originator companies like strategic patenting and litigations on generic manufacturers, have been a major setback for the generic medicine industry. These issues need to be addressed to optimize the use of generic medicines. The sustainability of generic medicine sector is crucial for improving access to essential medicines for the worldwide. PMID:26405851

  18. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles. Volume 2, part 1: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, G. L.; Ratner, E. Z.

    1990-02-01

    To help guide future EV battery R and D programs, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a comprehensive assessment of viable secondary battery technologies. A total of 55 battery developers, from the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Africa, were solicited to submit battery design concepts for an Improved Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion (IDSEP) van. A team of 7 representatives from DOE laboratories and 10 independent EV and Battery consultants evaluated 42 design concepts. Using six criteria, five technical/economic criteria and a maturity/technical barriers criterion, the Assessment Team identified 12 most-promising batteries. This document Volume 2, Part 1 provides the following appendices to the report: information solicitation package; listing of battery technology developers; improved dual-shaft electric propulsion van; and battery design concepts.

  19. Calcium/calcium chromate thermal battery and thermal battery assignment at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, J.B.; Walton, R.D.

    1980-10-10

    A nontechnical overview of thermal battery design and fabrication methods is given, along with a description of the role of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) in the Department of Energy's battery program. A thermal battery is a primary, reserve electrochemical power source; that is, it can be used only once and then for a relatively short period, measured in minutes. To energize the battery, an external electrical signal ignites a heat source in the battery to melt the electrolyte and initiate an electrochemical reaction. The battery is made up of several series-connected cells, each with an anode, a cathode, and a current collector. A cell's anode is calcium; its cathode is hexavalent chromium. The electrochemical reaction takes place when the electrolyte is melted by heat supplied from ignition of an iron-potassium perchlorate disk. Since no reaction occurs while the electrolyte is in the solid state, the battery does not deteriorate with time and has a shelf life exceeding 20 years. Presented are such critical battery operating characteristics as temperature, rise time, active life, current capacity, etc. Design factors described include size and shape, pellet density, ignition methods, anode construction, etc. These batteries are designed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. GEND acts as a procurement agency and provides engineering support to suppliers. 18 figures.

  20. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, J.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  2. Three-dimensional thermal modeling of electric vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Choi, K. W.; Yao, N. P.; Christianson, C. C.

    1985-10-01

    A generic three-dimensional thermal model was developed for analyzing the thermal behavior of electric-vehicle batteries. The model calculates temperature distribution and excursion of a battery during discharge, change, and open circuit. The model takes into account the effects of heat generation, internal conduction and convection, and external heat dissipation on the temperature distribution in a battery. The three-dimensional feature of the model permits incorporation of various asymmetric boundary conditions; thus the effects of cell orientation and packaging on thermal behavior can be analyzed for a multiple-cell battery pack. Various modes of boundary heat transfer such as radiation, insulation, and natural and forced convections were also included in the model. Model predictions agreed well with the temperature distributions measured in nickel/iron batteries. Application of the thermal model to a closely packed 330-Ah module of five cells indicated that excessive temperature rise will occur upon discharge. Forced air convection is not effective for cooling the module.

  3. 77 FR 30560 - Proposed Generic Communication; Generic Letter on Seismic Risk Evaluations for Operating Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Operating Reactors'' published on September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507). The draft Generic Letter, ``Seismic Risk...: On September 1, 2011 (76 FR 54507), the NRC published for public comment Draft Generic Letter 2011-XX..., 2011 (76 FR 57767), the NRC issued a correction and extended the public comment period to November...

  4. A Generic Expert Scheduling System Architecture and Toolkit: GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, Jay; Krishnamurthy, Vijaya; Rodens, Ira; Houston, Chapman; Liebowitz, Alisa; Baek, Seung; Radko, Joe; Zeide, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Scheduling has become an increasingly important element in today's society and workplace. Within the NASA environment, scheduling is one of the most frequently performed and challenging functions. Towards meeting NASA's scheduling needs, a research version of a generic expert scheduling system architecture and toolkit has been developed. This final report describes the development and testing of GUESS (Generically Used Expert Scheduling System).

  5. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, E.Z. ); Henriksen, G.L. )

    1990-02-01

    This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc/air battery; lithium/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium/sulfur battery; nickel/cadmium battery; nickel/iron battery; iron/oxygen battery and iron/air battery. (FI)

  6. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  7. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  8. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  9. Synthetic battery cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of interactive computer graphics is suggested as an aid in battery system development. Mathematical representations of simplistic but fully representative functions of many electrochemical concepts of current practical interest will permit battery level charge and discharge phenomena to be analyzed in a qualitative manner prior to the assembly and testing of actual hardware. This technique is a useful addition to the variety of tools available to the battery system designer as he bridges the gap between interesting single cell life test data and reliable energy storage subsystems.

  10. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  11. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

  12. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  13. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  14. Bipolar battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A lightweight, bipolar battery construction for lead acid batteries in which a plurality of thin, rigid, biplates each comprise a graphite fiber thermoplastic composition in conductive relation to lead stripes plated on opposite flat surfaces of the plates, and wherein a plurality of nonconductive thermoplastic separator plates support resilient yieldable porous glass mats in which active material is carried, the biplates and separator plates with active material being contained and maintained in stacked assembly by axial compression of the stacked assembly. A method of assembling such a bipolar battery construction.

  15. Generic Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocić, Saša

    2016-05-01

    We prove that C^r -smooth (r > 2 ) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are generically, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not C^1+ɛ -rigid, for any ɛ > 0 . This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are generically C^1 -rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that C^r -smooth circle diffeomorphisms are generically C^r-1-κ -rigid, for any κ > 0.

  16. Generic Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocić, Saša

    2016-06-01

    We prove that {C^r}-smooth ({r > 2}) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are generically, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not {C^{1+\\varepsilon}}-rigid, for any {\\varepsilon > 0}. This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are generically {C^1}-rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that {C^r}-smooth circle diffeomorphisms are generically {C^{r-1-κ}}-rigid, for any {κ > 0}.

  17. Generic language facilitates children's cross-classification

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific language. Experiment 1 showed that generics facilitate 5-year-olds' and adults' cross-classification when expressed at an appropriate level of generalization (e.g., “foods,” “birthday party things”), whereas Experiment 2 showed that such effects disappeared when labels were at an inappropriate level of generalization (e.g., “pizzas,” “balloons”). Experiments 3 and 4 offered additional controls. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that language can guide and direct children's multiple categorizations. PMID:22888182

  18. Generic Model Host System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chungming; Wu, Juhao; Qiang, Ji; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-22

    There are many simulation codes for accelerator modelling; each one has some strength but not all. A platform which can host multiple modelling tools would be ideal for various purposes. The model platform along with infrastructure support can be used not only for online applications but also for offline purposes. Collaboration is formed for the effort of providing such a platform. In order to achieve such a platform, a set of common physics data structure has to be set. Application Programming Interface (API) for physics applications should also be defined within a model data provider. A preliminary platform design and prototype is discussed.

  19. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    system power = 100 kilowatts; discharge time = 30 seconds; discharge current density = 1.75 amps/sq in.; system weight = 86 lbs (9.7 WH/lb); and system volume = 1071 cu. in. (.78 WH/cu. in.). EPI is currently working on a development program to produce a bipolar silver-zinc battery design for NASA. The potential application would be to power electromechanical actuators for space launch vehicles.

  20. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-01-01

    system power = 100 kilowatts; discharge time = 30 seconds; discharge current density = 1.75 amps/sq in.; system weight = 86 lbs (9.7 WH/lb); and system volume = 1071 cu. in. (.78 WH/cu. in.). EPI is currently working on a development program to produce a bipolar silver-zinc battery design for NASA. The potential application would be to power electromechanical actuators for space launch vehicles.

  1. ANL's electric vehicle battery activities for USABC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides advanced battery R&D technology transfer to industry; technical analyses, assessments, modeling, and databases; and independent testing and post-test analyses of advanced batteries. These capabilities and services are being offered to the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) are being negotiated for USABC-sponsored work at ANL. A small portion of DOE's cost share for USABC projects has been provided to ANL to continue R&D and testing activities on key technologies that were previously supported directly by DOE. This report summarizes progress on these USABC projects during the period of April 1 through September 30, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: 1.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 2.0 Nickel/Metal Hydride Support 3.0 EV Battery Performance; and Life Evaluation.

  2. Galileo probe battery system -- An update

    SciTech Connect

    Dagarin, B.P.; Taenaka, R.K.; Stofel, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    NASA`s Galileo 6-year trip to Jupiter is in its final phase. The mission consists of a Jovian Orbiter and an atmospheric entry Probe. The Probe is designed to coast autonomously for up to 190 days and turn itself on 6 hours prior to entry. It will then descend through the upper atmosphere for 50 to 75 minutes with the aid of an 8-foot parachute. This paper discusses sources of electrical power for the Probe and battery testing at the systems level. Described are the final production phase, qualification, and systems testing prior to and following launch, as well as decisions made regarding the Probe separation Li/SO{sub 2} battery configuration. In addition, the paper briefly describes the thermal battery verification program. The main power source comprises three Li/SO{sub 2} battery modules containing 13 D-sized cell strings per module. These modules are required to retain capacity for 7.5 years and support a 150-day clock, ending with a 7-hour mission sequence of increasing loads from 0.15 A to 9.5 A during the last 30 minutes. The main power source is supplemented by two thermal batteries (CaCrO{sub 4}-Ca), which will be used for firing the pyrotechnic initiators during the atmospheric entry.

  3. Objective evaluation of generic drug information.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Hisashi; Kamei, Miwako; Koshimizu, Toshimasa; Shiragami, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    Pharmacists active in health care venues need to be able to evaluate generic drugs in terms of effectiveness, safety, and economy to ensure that they are used appropriately. As part of the ongoing study of these factors, we carried out an objective evaluation of information provided for generics. A minimum of 20 commercially available products was considered for each pharmaceutical ingredient. The information subjected to evaluation consisted of the text of drug package inserts and information noted on interview forms. Using our own criteria for evaluating drug information, we attempted to quantify the amounts of information provided. Then, based on the numerical values obtained, we calculated information quantities with reference to drug prices to study the relationship between prices and available information for original drugs and their later-developed, generic equivalents. A total of 14 different pharmaceutical ingredients (327 product items) were considered, with the information quantity for generics amounting to 27.9+/-17.8-46.3+/-21.4% (Mean+/-S.D.) that for the original drugs. Examined on the basis of individual pharmaceutical companies, the corresponding ratio came to 15.1+/-7.8-62.4+/-6.4% (Mean+/-S.D.). For generics, the relationship between drug price (expressed against a value of 1.0 for original drugs) and information quantity (Qua(i)) came to 0.79+/-0.46-1.90+/-0.79% (Mean+/-S.D.). These results clearly point to the importance of evaluating information quantity for generic drugs on a maker-by-maker basis. PMID:15170069

  4. Generic health/safety/environment cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kelland, A.N.; Primrose, M.; Pickles, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A desire to implement HSE Management Systems including HSE Cases in all Shell companies operations prompted the development of a relational data base software package (THESIS) to provide a structured way of preparing an HSE Case. The software includes features which facilitate the management of {open_quotes}Keeping the Case Alive{close_quotes}, enabling the dissemination of tasks and hazard information to the workplace. During the software development it was recognized that a significant reduction could be made in the resources which would be required to prepare an HSE Case for each and every operation by the building of {open_quotes}Generic HSE Cases{close_quotes} addressing specific activities which were repeated across the Company`s operations. This was recognized to be particularly valid for the smaller Single String Venture type of operations. The activities selected for the initial Generic HSE Case development include Land Drilling Operations, Land Seismic Acquisition, and Land Transport. To establish the Generic HSE Case, the THESIS data base is populated with data for a generic operation, identifying all the hazards and activities associated with that operation including all the associated controls, with established formats for the textual sections. In effect, the Generic Case defines the standards required for that type of operation. To generate an operation specific HSE Case, the Generic Case thereafter requires to be modified/adapted so that it represents the actual situation in the operation which it defines. This process includes itemization of all the operation specific details, and may involve the inclusion/deletion of any additional/existing activities or hazards together with their associated controls.

  5. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  6. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  7. 2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

  8. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  9. Benefits of Digital Equipment Generic Qualification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James E.; Steiman, Samuel C.

    2002-07-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control obsolescence issues, there have been numerous activities during recent years relating to the qualification of digital equipment. Some of these activities have been 'generic' in nature in that the qualification was not limited to plant specific applications, but was intended to cover a broad base of potential applications of the digital equipment. These generic qualifications have been funded by equipment manufacturers and by utility groups and organizations. The generic activities sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been pilot projects for an overall generic qualification approach. The primary benefit resulting from the generic qualification work to date is that a number of digital platforms and digital devices are now available for use in various nuclear safety-related applications. Many of the tests and evaluations necessary to support plant specific applications have been completed. The amount of data and documentation that each utility must develop on a case by case basis has been significantly reduced. There are also a number of additional benefits resulting from these industry efforts. The challenges and difficulties in qualifying digital equipment for safety-related applications are now more clearly understood. EPRI has published a lessons learned document (EPRI Report 1001452, Generic Qualification of Commercial Grade Digital Devices: Lessons Learned from Initial Pilots, which covers several different qualification areas, including device selection, project planning, vendor surveys and design reviews, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) qualification. Application of the experience and lessons learned from the EPRI pilot activities should help reduce the effort and cost required for future qualification work. Most generic qualification activities for commercial equipment have been conducted using the approach of EPRI TR-106439, Guideline on Evaluation and Acceptance

  10. Using generic tool kits to build intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David J.

    1994-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems and Robots Center at Sandia National Laboratories is developing technologies for the automation of processes associated with environmental remediation and information-driven manufacturing. These technologies, which focus on automated planning and programming and sensor-based and model-based control, are used to build intelligent systems which are able to generate plans of action, program the necessary devices, and use sensors to react to changes in the environment. By automating tasks through the use of programmable devices tied to computer models which are augmented by sensing, requirements for faster, safer, and cheaper systems are being satisfied. However, because of the need for rapid cost-effect prototyping and multi-laboratory teaming, it is also necessary to define a consistent approach to the construction of controllers for such systems. As a result, the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) concept has been developed. This concept promotes the philosophy of producing generic tool kits which can be used and reused to build intelligent control systems.

  11. GSAC - Generic Seismic Application Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, R. B.; Ammon, C. J.; Koper, K. D.

    2004-12-01

    With the success of the IRIS data management center, the use of large data sets in seismological research has become common. Such data sets, and especially the significantly larger data sets expected from EarthScope, present challenges for analysis with existing tools developed over the last 30 years. For much of the community, the primary format for data analysis is the Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) format developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although somewhat restrictive in meta-data storage, the simplicity and stability of the format has established it as an important component of seismological research. Tools for working with SAC files fall into two categories - custom research quality processing codes and shared display - processing tools such as SAC2000, MatSeis,etc., which were developed primarily for the needs of individual seismic research groups. While the current graphics display and platform dependence of SAC2000 may be resolved if the source code is released, the code complexity and the lack of large-data set analysis or even introductory tutorials could preclude code improvements and development of expertise in its use. We believe that there is a place for new, especially open source, tools. The GSAC effort is an approach that focuses on ease of use, computational speed, transportability, rapid addition of new features and openness so that new and advanced students, researchers and instructors can quickly browse and process large data sets. We highlight several approaches toward data processing under this model. gsac - part of the Computer Programs in Seismology 3.30 distribution has much of the functionality of SAC2000 and works on UNIX/LINUX/MacOS-X/Windows (CYGWIN). This is completely programmed in C from scratch, is small, fast, and easy to maintain and extend. It is command line based and is easily included within shell processing scripts. PySAC is a set of Python functions that allow easy access to SAC files and enable efficient

  12. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  13. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  14. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  15. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  16. Battery Life Predictive Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a model used to predict battery capacity fade and resistance growth for arbitrary cycling and temperature profiles. It allows the user to extrapolate from experimental data to predict actual life cycle.

  17. Commercialization of advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, J.

    1996-11-01

    Mader and Associates has been working as a contractor for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) for the past several years. During this period it has performed various assessments of advanced battery technology as well as established the Advanced Battery Task Force. The following paper is Mader`s view of the status of battery technologies that are competing for the electric vehicle (EV) market being established by the California Air Resources Board`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. The ZEV market is being competed for by various advanced battery technologies. And, given the likelihood of modifications to the Mandate, the most promising technologies should capture the following market share during the initial 10 years: Lead-Acid--8.4%, Nickel Metal Hydride--50.8%, Sodium Sulfur--7.8%, Lithium Ion 33.0%.

  18. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  19. OAO battery data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Orourke, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Summary, consolidation and analysis of specifications, manufacturing process and test controls, and performance results for OAO-2 and OAO-3 lot 20 Amp-Hr sealed nickel cadmium cells and batteries are reported. Correlation of improvements in control requirements with performance is a key feature. Updates for a cell/battery computer model to improve performance prediction capability are included. Applicability of regression analysis computer techniques to relate process controls to performance is checked.

  20. Aluminum permanganate battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.

    1993-11-30

    A battery is provided comprising an aluminum anode, an aqueous solution of permanganate as the cathodic species and a second electrode capable of reducing permanganate. Such a battery system is characterized by its high energy density and low polarization losses when operating at high temperatures in a strong caustic electrolyte, i.e., high concentration of hydroxyl ions. A variety of anode and electrocatalyst materials are suitable for the efficient oxidation-reduction process and are elucidated.

  1. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  2. Reusable reserve battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, W.E.

    1981-09-08

    Control valve actuated pneumatic means is disclosed for evacuating electrolyte from a storage battery cell to an adjacent storage compartment and for returning the electrolyte to the cell when desired, having a storage compartment, a battery cell, pipe means extending to a lower part of the cell, control valve means for regulating the evacuation and thereafter return of the electrolyte to the cell as desired.

  3. Battery packaging - Technology review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows "lessons learned" in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  4. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  5. Battery energy storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Max D.; Carr, Dodd S.

    1993-03-01

    Battery energy storage systems, comprising lead-acid batteries, power conversion systems, and control systems, are used by three main groups: power generating utilities, power distributing utilities, and major power consumers (such as electric furnace foundries). The principal advantages of battery energy storage systems to generating utilities include load leveling, frequency control, spinning reserve, modular construction, convenient siting, no emissions, and investment deferral for new generation and transmission equipment. Power distributing utilities and major power consumers can avoid costly demand changes by discharging their batteries at peak periods and then recharging with lower cost off-peak power (say, at night). Battery energy storage systems are most cost effective when designed for discharge periods of less than 5 h; other systems (for example, pumped water storage) are better suited for longer discharges. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be a potential need for 4000 MW of battery energy storage. New construction of five plants totaling 100 MW is presently scheduled for completion by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority between 1992 and 1995.

  6. Materials for advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.W.; Broadhead, J.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements of battery systems are considered along with some recent studies of materials of importance in aqueous electrochemical energy-storage systems, lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries, solid electrolytes, molten salt electrolytes in secondary batteries, the recharging of the lithium electrode in organic electrolytes, intercalation electrodes, and interface phenomena in advanced batteries. Attention is given to a lead-acid battery overview, the design and development of micro-reference electrodes for the lithium/metal-sulfide cell system, molten salt electrochemical studies and high energy density cell development, a selenium (IV) cathode in molten chloroaluminates, and the behavior of hard and soft ions in solid electrolytes. Other topics explored are related to the use of the proton conductor hydrogen uranyl phosphate tetrahydrate as the solid electrolyte in hydride-air batteries and hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells, the behavior of the passivating film in Li/SOCl2 cells under various conditions, and the analysis of surface insulating films in lithium nitride crystals.

  7. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  8. Should Physicians be Encouraged to use Generic Names and to Prescribe Generic Drugs?

    PubMed

    Riaz, Haris; Krasuski, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    While using the brand names seems like a trivial issue at the outset, using these names is inherently problematic. Cardiovascular drugs remain the most commonly prescribed drugs by the physicians. The junior doctors are likely to introject practices of their seniors and consequently to reciprocate from the experiences learnt from their preceptors. Using the generic names may be one way to facilitate prescription of the generic drugs who have a better cost profile and similar efficacy than the more expensive branded drugs. In this editorial, we have outlined several arguments to suggest the importance of using the generic names in academic discussions and clinical documentation. PMID:27179932

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  10. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing

  11. Generic, Type-Safe and Object Oriented Computer Algebra Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kredel, Heinz; Jolly, Raphael

    Advances in computer science, in particular object oriented programming, and software engineering have had little practical impact on computer algebra systems in the last 30 years. The software design of existing systems is still dominated by ad-hoc memory management, weakly typed algorithm libraries and proprietary domain specific interactive expression interpreters. We discuss a modular approach to computer algebra software: usage of state-of-the-art memory management and run-time systems (e.g. JVM) usage of strongly typed, generic, object oriented programming languages (e.g. Java) and usage of general purpose, dynamic interactive expression interpreters (e.g. Python) To illustrate the workability of this approach, we have implemented and studied computer algebra systems in Java and Scala. In this paper we report on the current state of this work by presenting new examples.

  12. A Generic Biokinetic Model for C-14

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, Ryan P

    2011-01-01

    The generic biokinetic model currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the treatment of systemic radiocarbon assumes uniform distribution of activity in tissues and a biological half-time of 40 d. This model is intended to generate cautiously high estimates of dose per unit intake of C-14 and, in fact, generally predicts a much higher effective dose than systemic models that have been developed on the basis of biokinetic studies of specific carbon compounds. The simplistic model formulation precludes its application as a bioassay model or adjustment to fit case-specific bioassay data. This paper proposes a new generic biokinetic model for systemic radiocarbon that is less conservative than the current ICRP model but maintains sufficient conservatism to overestimate the effective dose coefficients generated by most radiocarbon-compound-specific models. The proposed model includes two systemic pools with different biological half-times representing an initial systemic form of absorbed radiocarbon, a submodel describing the behaviour of labelled carbon dioxide produced in vivo, and three excretion pathways: breath, urine and faeces. Generic excretion rates along each path are based on multi-phase excretion curves observed in experimental studies of radiocarbons. The generic model structure is designed so that the user may adjust the level of dosimetric conservatism to fit the information at hand and may adjust parameter values for consistency with subject-specific or site-specific bioassay data.

  13. Using a Generic Invasion Game for Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Tactical approaches to teaching are, arguably, still under-utilized in physical education settings, and this may be due to the lack of pertinent assessment materials. The purpose of this article is to present a generic invasion-game unit and to link it to a variety of assessment materials using three tactical components from the Game Performance…

  14. Australian Universities, Generic Skills and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded. In recent years, a range of internal and external pressures have encouraged Australian universities to identify the meta or generic skills embedded in tertiary study. Using a content…

  15. "Generic" Multiculturalism: Hybrid Texts, Cultural Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behling, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that issues of generic hybridity embody multicultural literature while promoting another kind of multiculturalism that reflects the current debates about literary canons in general and the field of American literature in particular. Considers how a reading of texts that relies on all of their component parts allows literature to perform a…

  16. Generic Irradiation Quarantine Treatments: The Next Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, USDA-APHIS published a landmark rule providing generic irradiation quarantine treatments. The rule approved irradiation doses of 150 Gy for any tephritid fruit fly and 400 Gy for all other insects except the pupa and adult stages of Lepidoptera. Therefore, if a pest risk assessment demonstr...

  17. [Generic drugs in psychopharmacology: pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Cuenca, E; Zaragozá, F

    1999-01-01

    Legislation to facilitate process for generic products has been enacted and generic drugs have entered the market soon after the patent for the brand-name agent have expired. In every instance, the rationale has been economic since it is generally assumed that the copies are not only therapeutically equivalent but also a great deal less expensive than the original. Sometimes this may be so. In this short review several comments are made in order to establish the variables that may influence bioequivalence between the brand-name drug and its generics. Among them emphasis is given to the particle sizes, pharmaceutical supply, choice of the right excipient, in order to avoid possible interactions with the drug, ingredient quality and purity, etc. All these variables must be carefully controlled. Even so a patient who is changed from a trade name product to a generic drug (or vice versa) may respond a little differently, which is important in Psychopharmacology. Two or more products should be considered biologically equivalent only when it can demonstrated that they fulfil three conditions: that they have the same pharmaceutical properties; that they are equally effective in therapeutic use and that they are tolerated equally by patients being treated for the indicated uses. Regulatory agencies could require subsequent versions of an original therapeutic product the type of data regarding pharmacology, toxicology and chemical assessment that was mandatory for the introduction of the original. PMID:10611558

  18. Generic queries for meeting clinical information needs.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J J; Aguirre, A; Johnson, S B; Peng, P

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a model for automated information retrieval in which questions posed by clinical users are analyzed to establish common syntactic and semantic patterns. The patterns are used to develop a set of general-purpose questions called generic queries. These generic queries are used in responding to specific clinical information needs. Users select generic queries in one of two ways. The user may type in questions, which are then analyzed, using natural language processing techniques, to identify the most relevant generic query; or the user may indicate patient data of interest and then pick one of several potentially relevant questions. Once the query and medical concepts have been determined, an information source is selected automatically, a retrieval strategy is composed and executed, and the results are sorted and filtered for presentation to the user. This work makes extensive use of the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS): medical concepts are derived from the Metathesaurus, medical queries are based on semantic relations drawn from the UMLS Semantic Network, and automated source selection makes use of the Information Sources Map. The paper describes research currently under way to implement this model and reports on experience and results to date. PMID:8472005

  19. Comparison of Generic Accelerated Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaddorura, Mahmood; Williams, Collette

    2012-01-01

    Case study pedagogy is a teaching strategy in which teachers hope to help students develop and use critical thinking (CT) abilities. This study compared CT skills of 75 second year generic accelerated baccalaureate nursing students during their Fundamentals of Nursing course before and after being educated using case study pedagogical method.…

  20. A Generic Archive Protocol and an Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, J. M.; Jennings, D. G.; McGlynn, T. A.; Ruggiero, N. G.; Serlemitsos, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    Archiving vast amounts of data has become a major part of every scientific space mission today. GRASP, the Generic Retrieval/Ar\\-chive Services Protocol, addresses the question of how to archive the data collected in an environment where the underlying hardware archives and computer hosts may be rapidly changing.