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Sample records for bay south carolina

  1. Vegetation establishment success in restored carolina bay depressions on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina - phase one.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharitz, Rebecca, A.; Mulhouse, John, M.

    2004-05-01

    Successful wetlands restoration must re-establish or enhance three parameters: wetland hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation (Mitsch and Gosselink 2000). On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, restoration of small Carolina bay depression-wetlands was initiated in FY 2001 to provide wetland acreage for mitigation banking (US DOE 1997). Sixteen small depressions that had historically been drained for agricultural purposes were selected for restoration, and an additional four were initially chosen to serve as non-restored controls. Restoration treatments included plugging the existing ditches to increase water volume retention and wetland hydroperiod and clear-cutting removal of woody vegetation in the interiors. Planned endpoints of the restoration were herbaceous meadow and forested savanna bay interiors, and pine savanna and pine/hardwood forested bay margins (Barton and Singer 2001). To promote forested savanna interiors, saplings of bald cypress and swamp tupelo were planted following removal of the woody species.

  2. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean.

  3. Vegetation disturbance and maintenance of diversity in intermittently flooded Carolina Bays in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkman, L.K.; Sharitz, R.R. )

    1994-02-01

    The authors manipulated the fire regime and soil disturbance in four grass-dominated Carolina bay wetlands during a prolonged drought period and examined vegetation composition and cover within dominant vegetation types prior to and after treatments. The authors used the seedling emergence technique to determine the role of the seed bank in the recovery process. Burning did not affect richness, evenness, or diversity (all vegetation types combined); however, soil tillage increased diversity, including both evenness and richness. Percent similarity of the vegetation before and after disturbance was greater in the burning treatment than in the tillage treatment, probably due to greater disruption of the rhizomes of the perennial vegetation by tillage. Vegetation types varied in degree of recovery, although dominance was not altered by either treatment. Several native fugitive species increased following disturbance, indicating that species coexistence in these Carolina bay wetlands depends on the life history characteristics of residual vegetation, as well as that of seed bank species.

  4. Characterization and closure of the Met Lab Carolina Bay at the Savannah River site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, K.M.; Frazier, W.L.; Haselow, L.A.; Voss, L.

    1993-07-01

    The Met Lab Carolina Bay is subject to Subtitle C of RCRA and CERCLA requirements. Located in the northwestern section of the Savannah River Site, the Met Lab Carolina Bay is a marshy, oval-shaped natural depression covering approximately six acres. The Carolina Bay received wastes from three sources: the Met Lab Basin A-007 drainage outfall, the A-Area coal-fire power plant A-008 drainage outfall and the A/M-Area vehicle maintenance parking lot stormwater runoff A-009 outfall. Two characterization efforts conducted in 1988/89 and 1991 indicate the presence of metals in the sediments and soils of the bay. The greatest concentrations of the metals and organics being in the north-central portion of the bay. The metals and organics were primarily associated with surface sediments and the organic-rich soil layer to a depth of about two feet. Conclusions from the Human Health Baseline Risk indicate the future on-unit resident exposure to sediments and soil poses an unacceptable level of risk to human health. However, the assumptions built into the calculations lead to conservative human health risk findings. A qualitative Ecological Risk Assessment was performed on the Carolina Bay. This ecological assessment, based on historical and existing sampling data, was found to be insufficient to make a definitive decision on the contaminants` effects on the ecology of the bay. The proposed action for the Carolina Bay is to conduct an ecological characterization. It appears that the ecological risks will be in the driving factor in determining the remedial action for the Met Lab Carolina Bay.

  5. HELL HOLE BAY, WAMBAW SWAMP, LITTLE WAMBAW SWAMP, AND WAMBAW CREEK WILDERNESSES, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Martin, Clay M.

    1984-01-01

    Four wildernesses, including Hell Hole Bay about 10. 6 sq mi, Wambaw Swamp about 8 sq mi, Little Wambaw Swamp about 4 sq mi, and Wambaw Creek about 2. 5 sq mi, are swamp lands in the Francis Marion National Forest on the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, about 30 mi northeast of Charleston. A mineral survey of the wildernesses showed that one of the areas, Wambaw Swamp, has a peat resource potential. An estimated 810,000 tons of demonstrated peat resources on the dry basis occurs in an area of substantiated peat resource potential within easy access to a good road network. No mineral or other energy resources were identified in this study.

  6. Impacts of storms on coastal circulation in Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Warner, J. C.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the effects of coastal storms on the regional circulation in Long Bay, South Carolina, using a coupled ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System)- SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) model. Meteorological observations during the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (October 2003 April 2004) reveal three dominant types of storms in the region warm fronts, cold fronts, and tropical storms. Each storm has a characteristic progression of wind patterns: (1) Warm fronts start with southwestward winds and change to northeastward after the front passes; (2) Cold fronts begin with northeastward winds and shift to southeastward when the front moves out; and (3) Tropical storms change wind directions from the southwest to the southeast during the storm. It is observed the coastal circulation distinctly responds to such atmospheric disturbances in either a upwelling-favorable condition to the northeastward winds or a downwelling-favorable condition to the southwestward winds. The study domain encompasses 300-km of gently arcing shoreline between Cape Romain to Cape Fear, and approximately 100-km offshore to the shelf edge. The model domain is resolved by a 300×130 mesh at 1-km intervals in the horizontal and twenty terrain-following layers in the vertical. The ROMS model is driven by tides and wind stress, and it includes wave-current interactions via dynamic coupling to the surface wave model SWAN. Salinity and temperature along the open boundaries are included by nudging to climatological values. A time period of six months is simulated from October 2003 to April 2004, concurrent with the observation study. Model results are compared to an extensive set of measurements collected at eight sites in the inner part of Long Bay, and are used to identify varying circulation response to each storm type. In addition, we investigate the significance of the Capes on the development of the alongshore pressure gradients, and examine the importance of wave-current interactions

  7. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Point Frazer Bend Reach, Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Ward, J.A.; Word, J.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The port of Georgetown, South Carolina, is served by navigational channels within Winyah Bay and the lower Sampit River. Dredging is required to maintain these waterways and to facilitate normal shipping traffic. Prior to dredging, ecological evaluations must be conducted to determine the suitability of the proposed dredged material for open-ocean disposal. These evaluations are to be performed under Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research, and, Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (MPRSA), following the testing protocols presented in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal Testing Manual, hereafter referred to as the 1991 Implementation Manual. The Charleston Intensive Project is a reevaluation of sediments collected from two stations (IH-2 and IH-3) in the Frazier Point Bend reach of the Winyah Bay channel. Reference sediment was also collected from site IH-R2, just south of Hare Island. The results of physical/chemical analyses indicated that some contaminants of concern were present in test treatments representing dredged material when compared with the reference treatment IH-R2. The results of this study indicate that, based on the acute toxicity and chemical analyses, dredged material represented by these test treatments is suitable for open-ocean disposal.

  8. Transgressive Shoreface Architecture Within a Sediment Starved Arcuate Strand: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayes, P. T.; Schwab, W. C.; Driscoll, N. W.; Morton, R. A.; Baldwin, W. E.; Denny, J. F.; German, O. Y.; Park, J. Y.

    2002-12-01

    A regional geophysical mapping survey of Long Bay provides a comprehensive image of sea-floor character, bathymetry and shallow subbottom stratigraphy within the shoreface and across the inner shelf along 90 kilometers of the northern South Carolina coast. Chirp subbottom profiles, sidescan-sonar imagery and interferometric swath-bathymetry imaged the shallow stratigraphy and the geometry of the Holocene transgressive surface developing within the modern shoreface. Along a 20 km section of central Long Bay, across the shoreface and inner shelf, centered on Myrtle Beach, SC, oceanographic processes are actively eroding older Tertiary- and Cretaceous-age strata exposed at the sea floor. Long beach profiles are interrupted by these outcrops and deviate substantially from typical concave-up geometries. The modern (mobile) sediment lens is restricted to the surf zone. Along an adjacent area, near North Myrtle Beach, the Holocene erosional unconformity surface continues to exhibit an irregular character eroding into older Cretaceous-age deposits. Within the shoreface, however, a relatively continuous cover of modern mobile sand covers the upper- to mid-shoreface. Cretaceous-age strata crop out across the inner shelf and locally within the lower shoreface. Beach profiles are relatively smooth and linear across the mid-shoreface and become disrupted by strata cropping out near the base of the shoreface and inner shelf. Further north, near the North Carolina border, three planar marine unconformities are visible underlying the shoreface and inner shelf and define seaward thinning wedges of Quaternary deposits. Beach profiles in this area exhibit a low slope and generally define a concave-up low slope profile geometry. The modern mobile sediment lens is more continuous in this area and the Holocene erosional surface can be observed to have eroded previous highstand deposits. The detailed resolution of the chirp subbottom data allows the geometry of the developing marine

  9. Geochemical Profile of Groundwater Discharge Across the Beachface of Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viso, R. F.; Lewis, B.; McCoy, C. A.; Gregory, H.; Stankiewicz, F.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater discharge from land to sea provides a significant, yet often overlooked pathway for delivery of dissolved nutrients and contaminants to nearshore waters. Recent research is focused on refining groundwater and associated dissolved chemical species flux estimates, geological controls on flow pathways, and geological contributions to the chemistry of the pore water. In Long Bay, South Carolina, extensive seismic imagery provides many clues to control of the geologic framework morphology of the nearshore area. In addition, recent mapping of the electrical structure of the upper few meters of marine nearshore sediment compared with nearby Chirp subbottom profiles provide indications of the relationships between framework geology and submarine groundwater discharge. Continuous electrical resistivity profiles also suggest that mixing between ocean water and upland-derived fresh water within shallow aquifers occurs to a large extent within the surf zone and shoreface. At present, work is underway to estimate shallow groundwater seepage rates of nutrients and metals across the beach face into the adjacent surf zone. A beach perpendicular transect of 1 meter deep wells was installed from the swash zone to approximately 100 meters inland and sampled over two complete tidal cycles. The groundwater salinity gradient ranged from approximately 30 to 2 ppt. All wells showed suboxic conditions and maxima in dissolved nitrogen, phosphorus and iron at mid-range salinity. The latter corresponded to high dissolved organic content, indicating a maximum in decomposition and a concomitant release of nutrients into the groundwater. Measurements of radon and radium isotopes will be used to estimate the net movement of groundwater seaward from the beach. These groundwater discharge estimates will be applied to measured concentrations of N, P and metals in an effort to derive fluxes. Preliminary results from Rn activity measurements indicate groundwater fluxes in the range of 1

  10. Storm-induced inner-continental shelf circulation and sediment transport: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy; Sylvester, Charlene S.; Voulgaris, George; Nelson, Tim; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2012-07-01

    Long Bay is a sediment-starved, arcuate embayment located along the US East Coast connecting both South and North Carolina. In this region the rates and pathways of sediment transport are important because they determine the availability of sediments for beach nourishment, seafloor habitat, and navigation. The impact of storms on sediment transport magnitude and direction were investigated during the period October 2003-April 2004 using bottom mounted flow meters, acoustic backscatter sensors and rotary sonars deployed at eight sites offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC, to measure currents, water levels, surface waves, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bedform morphology. Measurements identify that sediment mobility is caused by waves and wind driven currents from three predominant types of storm patterns that pass through this region: (1) cold fronts, (2) warm fronts and (3) low-pressure storms. The passage of a cold front is accompanied by a rapid change in wind direction from primarily northeastward to southwestward. The passage of a warm front is accompanied by an opposite change in wind direction from mainly southwestward to northeastward. Low-pressure systems passing offshore are accompanied by a change in wind direction from southwestward to southeastward as the offshore storm moves from south to north. During the passage of cold fronts more sediment is transported when winds are northeastward and directed onshore than when the winds are directed offshore, creating a net sediment flux to the north-east. Likewise, even though the warm front has an opposite wind pattern, net sediment flux is typically to the north-east due to the larger fetch when the winds are northeastward and directed onshore. During the passage of low-pressure systems strong winds, waves, and currents to the south are sustained creating a net sediment flux southwestward. During the 3-month deployment a total of 8 cold fronts, 10 warm fronts, and 10 low-pressure systems

  11. Geologic Framework and Surficial Sediment Mapping Within South Carolina's Long Bay, From Little River to Winyah Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, W. E.; Morton, R. A.; Schwab, W. C.; Gayes, P. T.; Driscoll, N. W.

    2002-12-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles, sidescan-sonar imagery and interferometric swath-bathymetry, groundtruthed with surficial sediment samples and vibracores, allow for a detailed interpretation of the shallow geologic framework within South Carolina's Long Bay. This mapping provides a better understanding of the area's nearshore geology by identifying structural and stratigraphic controls that influence the location of paleochannel incisions and distribution and thickness of surficial sediment bodies. The study area lies on the southwest flank of the Cape Fear Arch (CFA) or Mid-Carolina Platform High. The CFA accounts for the regional southerly dip and localized folding within lithified Cretaceous and Tertiary continental shelf strata that comprise the sedimentary base of the study area. Uplift of the CFA is also primarily responsible for the observed sediment starvation of this inner shelf region, because of massive diversion of post-Cretaceous fluvial sediment input away from its axis into the bounding Southeast Georgia and Albemarle embayments. The dipping and folded strata that underlie the area are incised by paleochannels that are progressively larger and more frequent to the southwest, where they display characteristics of integrated drainage networks. These features are the products of fluvial incision during multiple lowstands in sea level. In many areas, differential resistance to erosion of the underlying shelf strata appears to influence both the location and depth of paleochannel incision. Nested fill geometries within the paleochannels indicate that their stratigraphic histories are complex and likely include repeated periods of abandonment and reoccupation. Differential erosion of paleochannel fill and continental shelf strata produce a well-defined unconformity. This surface is mapped throughout the area and considered to represent the last marine transgression. Coarse clastic and biogenic surficial sediments (sand, gravel, and shell hash

  12. Sea Level Rise Modifies Biogeochemical Cycles in Winyah Bay, South Carolina Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, A. T.; Conner, W.; Rhew, R. C.; Suhre, D.; Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Rising sea level along the relatively flat southeastern US coastal plain significantly changes both vegetation composition and salinity of coastal wetlands, eventually modifying ecosystem functions and biogeochemical processes of these wetlands. We conducted a two-year study to evaluate the dynamics and relationships among aboveground productivity, greenhouse and halocarbon gas emissions, nutrients, and dissolved organic matter of a freshwater forested wetland, a salt-impacted and degraded forested wetland, and a salt marsh in Winyah Bay, South Carolina, representing the salinity gradient and the transition from freshwater forested wetland to salt marsh due to sea level rise. The degraded forested wetland had significantly lower above-ground productivity with annual stem growth of 102 g/m^2/yr and litterfall of 392 g/m^2/yr compared to the freshwater forested wetland (230 and 612 g/m^2/yr, respectively). High methane emission [> 50 mmol/m2/day, n = 4] was only observed in the freshwater-forested wetland but there was a strong smell of sulfide noticed in the salt marsh, suggesting that different redox processes control the decomposition of natural organic matter along the salinity gradient. In addition, the largest CHCl3 [209 × 183 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] emission was observed in the degraded forested wetland, but net CH3Cl [257 × 190 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] and CH3Br [28 × 20 nmol/m2/day, n = 4] emissions were only observed in the salt marsh, suggesting different mechanisms in response to salt intrusion at that sites. The highest DOC concentration (28 - 42 mg/L) in monthly water samples was found in degraded forest wetland, followed by the freshwater forested wetland (19 - 38 mg/L) and salt marsh (9 - 18 mg/L). Results demonstrate that the salt-impacted degraded wetland has unique biogeochemical cycles that differ from unaltered freshwater forested wetland and salt marsh.

  13. Geologic framework of the long bay inner shelf: implications for coastal evolution in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W.; Denny, J.; Baldwin, W.; Schwab, W.; Morton, R.; Gayes, P.; Driscoll, N.

    2007-01-01

    The inner continental shelf off northern South Carolina is a sediment-limited environment characterized by extensive hardground areas, where coastal plain strata and ancient channel-fill deposits are exposed at the sea floor. Holocene sand is concentrated in large shoals associated with active tidal inlets, an isolated shore-detached sand body, and a widespread series of low-relief sand ridges. The regional geologic framework is a strong control on the production, movement and deposition of sediment. High-resolution geologic mapping of the sea floor supports conceptual models indicative of net southwestward sediment transport along the coast.

  14. Geologic framework studies of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay, 1999-2003: geospatial data release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    offshore of the northern South Carolina coast. The digital data presented herein accompany USGS Open-File Reports OFR 2004-1013 and OFR 2005-1345, describing the stratigraphic framework and modern sediment distribution within Long Bay, respectively. Direct on-line links to these publications are available within 'References' on the navigation bar to the left. Additional links to other publications and web sites are also available.

  15. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Numerical modeling of circulation and sediment transport in Long Bay, SC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. C.; Sullivan, C.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P.; Haas, K.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    Long Bay, South Carolina, is a heavily populated coastal region that supports a large tourism industry. Sand resources are important for both recreation and coastal habitat. Earlier geological framework studies have identified a large sand deposit oblique to the shoreline, oriented clockwise in the offshore direction. This sand feature is ~ 10 km long, 2 km wide, and in excess of 3m thick, possibly providing a source for beach nourishment material. Objectives of this study are to describe the physical processes that control the transport of sediment in Long Bay, specifically off the coast of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Specifically we seek to 1) measure and model the oceanographic circulation in the region, 2) identify the processes that maintain the presence of the offshore sand feature, 3) quantify the control that the shoal exerts on the nearshore through changes in wave energy propagation, and 4) identify consequences of removal of the offshore sand feature. Both observational and numerical experiments are used to study the oceanographic circulation and transport of sediment. The observational study is described in an accompanying poster and consists of eight sites that measured tides, surface waves, currents, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bed forms from October 2003 to April 2004. Numerical modeling for circulation and sediment transport in the study region uses a new version of ROMS (v2.1) that now includes transport of multiple grain sizes, coupling of sediment transport to wave bottom boundary layer models, and evolution of the bottom morphology. The SWAN model is used to compute wave propagation. Results indicate that currents in the study area are strongly influenced by both tidal motion and wind driven setup / setdown. The presence of the offshore sand feature alters the residual flows in the region. Sediment transport is more significant during periods of sustained strong winds that generate local waves. Wind direction

  16. A Case History of the Science and Management Collaboration in Understanding Hypoxia Events in Long Bay, South Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanger, Denise; Hernandez, Debra; Libes, Susan; Voulgaris, George; Davis, Braxton; Smith, Erik; Shuford, Rebecca; Porter, Dwayne; Koepfler, Eric; Bennett, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Communication of knowledge between the scientific and management communities is a difficult process complicated by the distinctive nature of professional career goals of scientists and decision-makers. This article provides a case history highlighting a collaboration between the science and management communities that resulted from a response to a 2004 hypoxia, or low dissolved oxygen, event in Long Bay, off Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. A working group of scientists and decision-makers was established at the time of the event and has continued to interact to develop a firm understanding of the drivers responsible for hypoxia formation in Long Bay. Several factors were found to be important to ensure that these collaborative efforts were productive: (1) genuine interest in collaboratively working across disciplines to examine a problem; (2) commitment by agency leadership, decision-makers, and researchers to create successful communication mechanisms; (3) respect for each others’ perspectives and an understanding how science and management are performed and that they are not mutually exclusive; (4) networking among researchers and decision-makers to ensure appropriate team members are involved in the process; (5) use of decision-maker input in the formulation of research and monitoring projects; and (6) commitment of resources for facilitation to ensure that researchers and decision-makers are communicating effectively.

  17. Cross-shore variation of wind-driven flows on the inner shelf in Long Bay, South Carolina, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Voulgaris, George; Work, Paul A.

    2006-03-01

    The cross-shore structure of subtidal flows on the inner shelf (7 to 12 m water depth) of Long Bay, South Carolina, a concave-shaped bay, is examined through the analysis of nearly 80 days of near-bed (1.7-2.2 m above bottom) current observations acquired during the spring and fall of 2001. In the spring and under northeastward winds (upwelling favorable) a two-layered flow was observed at depths greater than 10 m, while closer to the shore the currents were aligned with the wind. The two-layered flow is attributed to the presence of stratification, which has been observed under similar conditions in the South Atlantic Bight. When the wind stress was southwestward (downwelling favorable) and exceeded 0.1 N/m2, vertical mixing occurred, the two-layered flow pattern disappeared, and currents were directed alongshore with the wind at all sites and throughout the water column. In the fall, near-bed flows close to the shore (water depth <7 m) were often reduced compared to or opposed those measured farther offshore under southwestward winds. A simplified analysis of the depth-averaged, alongshore momentum balance illustrates that the alongshore pressure gradient approached or exceeded the magnitude of the alongshore wind stress at the same time that the nearshore alongshore current opposed the wind stress and alongshore currents farther offshore. In addition, the analysis suggests that the wind stress is reduced closer to shore so that the alongshore pressure gradient is large enough to drive the flow against the wind.

  18. Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Models to Determine Phytoplankton Density in the Coastal Waters of Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, J. E.; Ali, K.

    2013-12-01

    The southeast coastal region is one of the fastest growing regions in the United States and the increasing utilization of open water bodies has led to the deterioration of water quality and aquatic ecology, placing the future of these resources at risk. In coastal zones, a key index that can be used to assess the stress on the environment is the water quality. The shallow nearshore waters of Long Bay, South Carolina (SC) are heavily influenced by multiple biogeochemical constituents or color producing agents (CPAs) such as, phytoplankton, suspend matter, and dissolved organic carbon. The interaction of the various chemical, biological and physical components gives rise to the optical complexity observed in the coastal waters producing turbid waters. Ecological stress on these environments is reflected by the increase in the frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), a prime agent of water quality deterioration, including foul odors and tastes, deoxygenation of bottom waters (hypoxia), toxicity, fish kills, and food web alterations. These are of great concern for human health and are detrimental to the marine life. Therefore, efficient monitoring tools are required for early detection and forecasting purposes as well as to understand the state of the conditions and better protect, manage and address the question of how various natural and anthropogenic factors affect the health of these environments. This study assesses the efficiency remote sensing as a potential tool for accurate and timely detection of HABs, as well as for providing high spatial and temporal resolution information regarding the biogeodynamics in coastal water bodies. Existing blue-green and NIR-red based remote sensing algorithms are applied to the reflectance data obtained using ASD spectroradiometer to predict the amount of chlorophyll, an independent of other associated CPAs in the Long Bay waters. The pigment is the primary light harvesting pigment in all phytoplankton and is used

  19. Development of a regional ocean color algorithm using field- and satellite-derived datasets: Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Kimberly Susan

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide numerous ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. However, bio and geo-optical models are required that relate the remotely sensed spectral data with color producing agents (CPAs) that define the water quality. These CPAs include chlorophyll-a, suspended sediments, and colored-dissolved organic matter. Developing these models may be challenging for coastal environments such as Long Bay, South Carolina, due to the presence of multiple optically interfering CPAs. In this work, a regionally tiered ocean color model was developed using band ratio techniques to specifically predict the variability of chlorophyll-a concentrations in the turbid Long Bay waters. This model produced higher accuracy results (r-squared = 0.62; RMSE = 0.87 micrograms per liter) compared to the existing models, which gave a highest r-squared value of 0.58 and RMSE = 0.99 micrograms per liter. To further enhance the retrievals of chlorophyll-a in these optically complex waters, a novel multivariate-based approach was developed using current generation hyperspectral data. This approach uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated CPAs. This model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 micrograms per liter. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight

  20. Resources of South Carolina Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Edward G.; And Others

    The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education and the Postsecondary Planning Commission conducted this study of the library resources and needs of South Carolina postsecondary institutions as part of its goal to improve the quality of South Carolina state higher education programs. Questionnaires sent to college libraries were designed to test…

  1. Morphology and texture of modern sediments on the inner shelf of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, J.F.; Baldwin, W.E.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sea-floor mapping techniques, including sidecan-sonar, seismic-reflection, swath bathymetric systems, and bottom sampling, were used to map the geologic framework offshore of the northern South Carolina coast in order to provide a better understanding of the physical processes controlling coastal erosion and shoreline change. Four general sea floor environments were identified through analysis of sidescan-sonar, swath bathymetry, and surface sediment texture: inlet shoal complexes, shore-detached shoals, hardground, and mixed zones. Inlet shoal complexes generally lie offshore of modern inlet systems, with the exception of a shore-detached shoal lying offshore of Myrtle Beach. The shoals show 1 - 3 m in relief and comprise the largest accumulations of modern sediment within the inner shelf survey area. Surficial sediments within the shoal complexes are characterized by a low-backscatter, moderately sorted fine sand. Hardground areas are characterized by exposures of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata and Pleistocene channel-fill deposits. These areas display little to no bathymetric relief and are characterized by high-backscatter, coarser grained sand. Mixed zones show small-scale spatial variations in bathymetry, surface texture and backscatter. These areas are characterized by a thin layer of modern sediment ( Textural and geomorphic variations suggest a long-term net southerly flow within the study area. The general acoustic and textural character of the inner shelf within Long Bay suggests long-term erosion, reworking and continued modification of inner-shelf deposits by modern nearshore processes.

  2. Geological controls on submarine groundwater discharge in Long Bay, South Carolina (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viso, Richard; McCoy, Clay; Gayes, Paul; Quafisi, Dimitri

    2010-02-01

    A combination of geophysical methods including continuous electrical resistivity and high-resolution Chirp sub-bottom profiling were utilized to characterize geologic controls on pore fluid salinity in the nearshore of Long Bay, SC. Resistivity values ranged from less than 1 Ω m to greater than 40 Ω m throughout the bay. Areas of elevated electrical resistivity suggest the influence of relatively fresher water on pore water composition. Geophysical evidence alone does not eliminate all ambiguity associated with lithological and porosity variations that may also contribute to electrical structure of shallow marine sediments. The anomalous field is of sufficient magnitude that lithological variation alone does not control the spatial distribution of elevated electrical resistivity zones. Geographical distribution of electrical anomalies and structures interpreted from nearby sub-bottom profiles indicates abrupt changes in shallow geologic units control preferential pathways for discharge of fresh water into the marine environment. Shore parallel resistivity profiles show dramatic decreases in magnitude with increasing distance from shore, suggesting a significant portion of the terrestrially driven fresh SGD in Long Bay is occurring via the surficial aquifer within a few hundred meters of shore.

  3. South Carolina and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with South Carolina and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region to lead…

  4. Migration of the Pee Dee River system inferred from ancestral paleochannels underlying the South Carolina Grand Strand and Long Bay inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, W.E.; Morton, R.A.; Putney, T.R.; Katuna, M.P.; Harris, M.S.; Gayes, P.T.; Driscoll, N.W.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Several generations of the ancestral Pee Dee River system have been mapped beneath the South Carolina Grand Strand coastline and adjacent Long Bay inner shelf. Deep boreholes onshore and high-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore allow for reconstruction of these paleochannels, which formed during glacial lowstands, when the Pee Dee River system incised subaerially exposed coastal-plain and continental-shelf strata. Paleochannel groups, representing different generations of the system, decrease in age to the southwest, where the modern Pee Dee River merges with several coastal-plain tributaries at Winyah Bay, the southern terminus of Long Bay. Positions of the successive generational groups record a regional, southwestward migration of the river system that may have initiated during the late Pliocene. The migration was primarily driven by barrier-island deposition, resulting from the interaction of fluvial and shoreline processes during eustatic highstands. Structurally driven, subsurface paleotopography associated with the Mid-Carolina Platform High has also indirectly assisted in forcing this migration. These results provide a better understanding of the evolution of the region and help explain the lack of mobile sediment on the Long Bay inner shelf. Migration of the river system caused a profound change in sediment supply during the late Pleistocene. The abundant fluvial source that once fed sand-rich barrier islands was cut off and replaced with a limited source, supplied by erosion and reworking of former coastal deposits exposed at the shore and on the inner shelf.

  5. Effect of channel bifurcation on residual estuarine circulation: Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong H.; Voulgaris, George

    2005-12-01

    The residual circulation pattern of Winyah Bay, the fourth largest estuary on the eastern coast of the US, is examined using stationary and shipborne current measurements during periods of low freshwater discharge. The estuary has a complex morphology with a single channel and narrow banks at the river entrance and the bay mouth, and a bifurcated channel system (main and western channels, respectively) in the middle part that appears to affect the residual circulation. Overall, the upper (single channel morphology) and middle (dual-channel morphology) parts of the estuary exhibit a baroclinic residual circulation. The presence of bifurcated channels in the middle part of the estuary modifies the typical gravitational circulation. The near-bed landward-directed residual flow is stronger in the deeper main channel than the shallower western channel. This is the result of the fact that the magnitude of residual flow scales with the water depth of the channel and it is also influenced by the opposing patterns of channel alignment in the northern and southern junctions. Analytical modeling confirms that the observed residual currents in the upper and middle estuary are density-induced. In the lower estuary, residual flow is directed seaward throughout the water column of the channel while in the adjacent shoals the residual flow is directed landward, suggesting that in contrast to the upper and middle estuary, the residual flow near the mouth is barotropic, controlled by the tides and the channel-bank morphology.

  6. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of Carolina bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz-Brantley, Susan, E.; Taylor, Barbera, E.; Batzer, Darold, P.; DeBiase, Adrienne, E.

    2002-12-01

    Dietz-Brantley, S.E., B.E. Taylor, D.P. Batzer, and A.E. DeBiase. 2002. Invertebrates that aestivate in dry basins of carolina bay wetlands. Wetlands 22(4):767-775. Water levels fluctuate widely in Carolina bay wetlands and most dry periodically. Aquatic organisims inhabiting these wetlands have the capacity to either resist desication or to recolonize newly flooded habitats. The objective of this study was to determine which invertebrates aestivate in the soil of dry Carolina bays and to describe how differences in habitat affect the composition of aestivating invertebrates. Eight Carolina bays located on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, USA were examined for this study. Although all of the wetlands dried seasonally, three of the wetlands were relatively wet (inundated 47-92% of the year on average), one was intermediate, and four were relatively dry (inundated 20% of the year on average). Sections of soil were removed from each bay during August and November when all sites were dry, placed into tubs, flooded, and covered with fine mesh. Invertebrates were sampled from the water biweekly for four weeks. Invertebrate assemblages were contrasted between naturally inundated bays and rehydrated samples, wetter and drier bays, August and November collections, and remnant ditches and the main basins.

  7. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  8. Control of hardwood regeneration in restored carolina bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, J.; Barton, Christopher, D.; Blake, John, I.

    2012-06-01

    Carolina bays are depression wetlands located in the coastal plain region of the eastern United States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna. Previous bay restoration projects have identified flood-tolerant woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of desired herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. We restored 3 bays on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, by plugging drainage ditches, harvesting residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays, and monitoring the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change. We applied a foliar herbicide on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acerrubrum), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and water oak (Quercus nigra) sprouting, and we tested its effectiveness across a hydrologic gradient in each bay. Hardwood regeneration was partially controlled by flooding in bays that exhibited long growing season hydroperiods. The findings also indicated that herbicide application was an effective means for managing hardwood regeneration and re-sprouting in areas where hydrologic control was ineffective. Herbicide use had no effect on species richness in the emerging vegetation community. In late-season drawdown periods, or in bays where hydroperiods are short, more than one herbicide application may be necessary.

  9. Peat deposits of the Carolina Bays of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, R.L.; Otte, L.J.; Witner, T.W.

    1983-11-01

    Of the approximately 500 Carolina Bays larger than 100 acres (3,000 ft. long) in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 96 contained at least 1 ft of peat. The 96 bays have a total of 35,000 acres of peatland containing 15 millions tons of moisture-free peat. Of these 96 bays, 43 have peat greater than 4 ft thick totaling 8,000 acres with 8 million tons of peat. The largest single deposit of peat greater than 4 ft thick contains 1.1 million tons in a 1,000 acre area. Two main types of peat are present: (1) a black, fine-grained, highly decomposed peat, and (2) a brownish, decomposed somewhat fibrous peat usually found at the base of the thicker peats. An average peat has 84% moisture, 6% ash, 0.2% sulfur, and a heating value of 10,000 Btu/lb.

  10. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schalles, J.F. ); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. )

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P.; Wike, L.D. |; Dietsch, B.M. |

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  12. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  13. Rockyhock and Kimbel Carolina Bays: Extraterrestrial Impact or Terrestrial Genesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Branch, B. D.; Barnes, L.; Hall, C.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence for the harsh climate prevalent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are seen in topographical features visible south of the ice sheet margin in the uplands and coastal regions of the southeastern United States. Among the features attributed to ice age climate are numerous elliptical, shallow depressions called collectively Carolina Bays, hypothesized to have been formed by “blow outs” of loose sediment by the strong, sustained winds and arid, cold climate characteristic of glacial epochs (Raisz, 1934, Johnson, 1942 and Kaczorowski, 1977). This view eclipsed the 1933 proposition by Melton and Schriever, and expanded by Prouty (1934, 1953), that extraterrestrial debris produced by an aerial meteorite or comet explosion in the vicinity of the Great Lakes during the late Pleistocene formed the bays. 12,900 years ago, post-LGM warming was interrupted by a return to a glacial climate that persisted for over 1,000 years. The events precipitating the cooling, known as the Younger Dryas (YD), are the subject of debate. Recently Firestone et. al. (2007) proposed that an impact in the Laurentide ice sheet by a fragmented comet might have simultaneously initiated the YD and formed the Carolina Bays. Carbon 14 dating and pollen analysis of core samples taken from Rockyhock Bay, in Chowan County, NC, by Whitehead (1980) indicate a pre-YD genesis. However, a number of the bays have been found to contain materiel associated with extraterrestrial impacts including carbon and magnetic spherules, glass-like carbon, charcoal and nanodiamonds (Firestone, et. al. 2007). The discoveries reinvigorated the debate over the bay’s origins. Were the bays created by an impact or were they merely receptacles for impact materiel injected into the environment. If created before the YD, the bays would have experienced episodic post-formation modification due to cold, dry, windy periods alternating with warm, moist and calmer climatic conditions. Carolina Bays would thus

  14. Libraries in South Carolina: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southcarolina.html Libraries in South Carolina To use the sharing features ... Columbia University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library 6311 Garners Ferry Road Columbia, SC 29208 803- ...

  15. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    SciTech Connect

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  16. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of gasoline contamination in the shallow aquifer, Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, Francis; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory, field, and digital solute-transport- modeling studies demonstrate that microorganisms indigenous to the shallow ground-water system at Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in gasoline released at the site. Microorganisms in aquifer sediments incubated in the laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled carbon 14-toluene to 14C-carbon dioxide with first-order rate constants of Kbio = -0.640 per day and Kbio = -0.003 per day, respectively. Digital solute- transport modeling using the numerical code SUTRA revealed that anaerobic biodegradation of benzene occurs with a first-order rate constant near Kbio = -0.00025 per day. Sandy aquifer material beneath Laurel Bay Exchange is characterized by relatively high hydraulic conductivities (Kaq = 8.9 to 17.3 feet per day), average ground-water flow rate of about 60 feet per year, and a relatively uniform hydraulic gradient of 0.004 feet per foot. The sandy aquifer material also has low adsorptive potentials for toluene and benzene (both about Kad = 2.0 x 10-9 cubic feet per milligram), because of the lack of natural organic matter in the aquifer. The combination of this ground-water-flow rate and absence of significant adsorptive capacity in the aquifer permits toluene and benzene concentrations to be detected downgradient from the source area in monitoring wells, even though biodegradation of these compounds has been demonstrated. Solute-transport simulations, however, indicate that toluene and benzene will not reach the Broad River, the nearest point of contact with wildlife or human populations, about 3,600 feet west of the site boundary. These simulations also show that contamination will not be transported to the nearest Marine Corps property line about 2,400 feet south of the site. This is primarily because the source of contaminants has essentially been removed, and the low adsorptive capacity of the aquifer

  17. South Carolina Guide for Industrial Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Occupational Education.

    This guide is intended for teachers conducting industrial technology education (TE) courses in South Carolina. Presented first is introductory information about the mission, clusters and units, and recommended educational format of TE in South Carolina. Discussed in the seven sections are various aspects of South Carolina's modular delivery system…

  18. South Carolina Kids Count, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 42 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  19. South Carolina Kids Count, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, A. Baron

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 41 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  20. South Carolina's High Technology Blitz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, G. William, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a South Carolina project to incorporate high technology training into programs at 16 technical colleges. Also discusses the development of training modules, supervisory training courses, special schools instructor training packages, a statewide system of resource centers, and mobile training units. (CT)

  1. South Carolina Wins the Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses factors involved in locating new BMW car-manufacturing plant in South Carolina. Discusses state's business environment, transportation, and education system. Describes development process, site selection, and implications for economic development. Describes importance of state's labor-force development via regional technical colleges and…

  2. A comparison of measured and modeled suspended sediment concentration profiles during different types of meteorological events on the inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wren, P. A.; Ma, Y.

    2010-12-01

    An instrumented quadrapod was deployed on the inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina at a depth of approximately 7 meters from July 2008 - December 2009. A multi-frequency Acoustic Backscatter Sensor (ABS) and a pulse-coherent Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (PC-ADCP) were used to collect co-located long-term measurements of suspended sediment concentrations and high-resolution velocity profiles throughout the bottom boundary layer. To invert the acoustic backscatter voltage collected by the ABS, a semi-empirical backscattering theory (Thorne and Hanes, 2002) was first verified with sediment chamber measurements using local sediments. The verified theory was then employed to determine sediment grain size and suspended sediment concentrations. Additionally, to complement the field observations, two different 1-D bottom boundary layer models (Styles and Glenn, 2000 and Wiberg and Smith, 1983) were applied to estimate the bed shear stress, velocity and suspended sediment concentration profiles. Although both models are based on boundary layer theory (Smith,1977; Grant and Madsen, 1979), and require as inputs of wave and current velocities as well as characteristics of sea-bed sediment, they are distinct in some practical applications such as eddy-viscosity profile, ripple dimension estimation, model gridding, etc. Recorded waves, currents, and acoustic backscatter data revealed that nineteen sediment transport events occurred during the eighteen month study period, which resulted in an order of magnitude range of suspended sediment concentrations. Comparisons of sediment concentration profiles between the two 1-D models and the field measurements were conducted during several different types of sediment transport events. The events that were used for the comparisons included two types of frequently occurring frontal systems, as well a direct hit from Tropical Storm Hannah. During the selected events near-bottom orbital velocities ranged from 20 - 60 cm s-1 and

  3. South Carolina Course Alignment Project Newsletter. Volume 1, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In response to the Education and Economic Development Act of 2005 (EEDA), South Carolina has embarked on an exciting initiative called the South Carolina Course Alignment Project. In partnership with the South Carolina Department of Education and the South Carolina Technical College System, the project is led by the South Carolina Commission on…

  4. Composition and fluxes of particulate organic matter in a temperate estuary (Winyah Bay, South Carolina, USA) under contrasting physical forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Voulgaris, George; Kim, Yong H.

    2009-11-01

    To understand the role that physical processes play on the biogeochemical cycles of estuaries, we conducted intense field studies of the turbidity maximum region within a partially mixed estuary (Winyah Bay, SC, USA) under contrasting conditions of river discharge, tides and wind. Water samples and hydrographic data were collected at different depths and locations along the main channel over several tidal cycles during several cruises to Winyah Bay. Tidal variations in current speed, salinity, total suspended solid concentrations were measured within each cruise and were consistent with estuarine circulation processes. Salinity and total suspended solid concentrations ranged from 0 to 32 and from 20 to over 500 mg L -1, respectively, with the highest salinity and total suspended solid values measured during periods of low river discharge. In fact, comparison of tidally averaged salinity and total suspended solid concentrations revealed marked differences among cruises that were negatively correlated to river discharge and SW wind speed. Moreover, significant contrasts in the chemical compositions of suspended particles were evident among periods of contrasting river discharge and wind regime. For example, the weight percent organic carbon content of suspended particles ranged from 1 to over 6% and displayed a positive correlation with river discharge. Similarly, both the molar carbon to nitrogen ratios (10 to 20 mol:mol) and stable carbon isotopic compositions (-25 to -29%) of the suspended organic matter varied significantly as a function of discharge and wind. Such trends indicate that in Winyah Bay low river discharge and steady SW winds promote resuspension of bed sediments from shallow regions of the estuary. These materials contain highly altered organic matter and their incorporation into the water column leads to the observed trends in suspended particle concentrations and compositions. Furthermore, these conditions result in net landward fluxes of salt

  5. 75 FR 16097 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed South Carolina Electric and Gas Company's application for license for the Saluda Hydroelectric... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice...

  6. 75 FR 43964 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of... Energy Projects has reviewed South Carolina Electric and Gas Company's application for license for the.... Enter the docket number excluding the last three digits in the docket number field to access...

  7. Dietary mercury exposure and bioaccumulation in amphibian larvae inhabiting Carolina bay wetlands.

    PubMed

    Unrine, J M; Jagoe, C H; Brinton, A C; Brant, H A; Garvin, N T

    2005-05-01

    Inorganic mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured both in guts and remaining carcasses of southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala) larvae from 10 Carolina bay wetlands in South Carolina, USA. Significant variation among bays in methylmercury and inorganic mercury concentrations existed both in guts and carcasses. There was a moderate negative correlation between dissolved organic carbon concentration in bays and mean inorganic mercury concentrations in guts. There was also a weak positive correlation between pH in bays and mean methylmercury concentrations in carcasses. The ratio of methylmercury to inorganic mercury decreased with increasing total mercury concentration in guts and in larvae, but the rate of decrease was highly variable among bays. Ratios of concentrations in carcasses to concentrations in guts were inversely related to gut concentration. Mercury concentrations in carcasses in some bays were within the range of concentrations at which adverse effects have been observed in laboratory studies of R. sphenocephala. PMID:15734584

  8. Coastal Change Along the Shore of Northeastern South Carolina - The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, Walter A., (Edited By); Contributing authors: Schwab, W. C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.A.; Driscoll, N.W.; Baldwin, W.E.; Barnhardt, W.A.; Denny, J.F.; Harris, M.S.; Katuna, M.P.; Putney, T.R.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J.C.; Wright, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, conducted a 7-year, multidisciplinary study of coastal erosion in northeastern South Carolina. Shoreline behavior along the coast of Long Bay is dictated by waves, tidal currents, and sediment supply that act within the overall constraints of the regional geologic setting. Beaches are thin ribbons of sand that sit on top of layered sedimentary rocks, which have been deeply eroded by rivers and coastal processes over millions of years. Offshore of the beaches, these sedimentary rocks are exposed as hardgrounds over large expanses of shallow seafloor and are locally overlain by a discontinuous veneer of sandy sediment generally less than 1 m thick. Rates of shoreline retreat largely depend on the geologic framework of the shoreface that is being excavated by ocean processes. Mainland-attached beaches have remained relatively stable, whereas barrier islands have experienced large shifts in shoreline position. In this sediment-limited region, erosion of the shoreface and inner shelf probably contributes a significant amount of new material to the beach system. Oceanographic studies and numerical modeling show that sediment transport varies along the coast, depending on the type and travel path of storms that impact Long Bay, but the long-term net transport direction is generally from north to south. Changes in storm activity that might accompany climate change, coupled with anticipated increases in sea-level rise, are expected to strongly affect low-lying, heavily developed areas of the coast.

  9. Circulation on the Inner-Shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina: Vertical Current Variability and Evidence for Cross-Shelf Variation in Near-Bed Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, B. T.; Voulgaris, G.; Work, P. A.; Seim, H.; Warner, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Cross-shelf variations of near-bed currents and variations in vertical flow were investigated on the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina during the spring and fall of 2001. Current meters sampled near-bed currents at six locations as well as vertical current profiles at three of the sites. The observations showed that the tides accounted for approximately 45-66% of the flow variability. The dominant tidal component, the semi-diurnal constituent M2, exhibited tidal ellipse orientations that are increasingly aligned with the coast closer to the shore. The largest M2 current magnitudes were identified closest to shore and over the top of a sand shoal located 5.5 km offshore of Myrtle Beach. The remaining flow variability was associated with sub-tidal flows which respond to the passage of low-pressure systems across the region. These weather systems were characterized by periods of southwesterly winds in advance of low-pressure centers followed by northeasterly winds as the systems passed over the study area. When strong southwesterly winds persisted, surface flow was oriented approximately in the direction of the wind. At the same time near-bottom flows were also directed to the northeast in the direction of the wind except during periods of stratification when vertical current profiles suggest near-bed onshore flow. The stratified flows were observed mainly during the spring deployment. For periods of strong northeasterly winds, currents were directed alongshore to the southwest and exhibited little variation throughout the water column. These observations are consistent with recent field and modeling studies for the inner-shelf. Comparison of the near-bed flow measurements during the fall deployment revealed a cross-shore gradient in alongshore flow during periods of strong northeasterly winds. During these episodes flows at the offshore measurement stations were oriented in the direction of the wind, while flows closest to shore occurred in the opposite

  10. Teenage Pregnancy in South Carolina: Everybody's Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia.

    This publication examines in detail the problem of teenage pregnancy in South Carolina. Following the executive summary and a listing of eight recommendations based on the report, chapter 1 presents tables of selected vital statistics related to teen pregnancy in South Carolina. All statistics are shown by county and by Department of Health and…

  11. University Affiliated Facilities Program of South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winthrop Coll., Rock Hill, SC.

    The University Associated Facilities (UAF) Program of South Carolina is comprised of 24 colleges and universities under a grant awarded to Winthrop College and the University of South Carolina. Objectives of the program are to (1) provide interdisciplinary training to students from a broad range of disciplines in the evaluation and management of…

  12. 50 CFR 32.60 - South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Carolina. 32.60 Section 32.60 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.60 South Carolina. The following...

  13. Arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two Carolina bay habitats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, D I; Wozniak, A; Tolson, M W; Turner, P E

    2005-01-01

    Carolina bays, a type of geomorphic feature, may be important in the ecology of mosquito vectors in South Carolina. Their hydrology varies from wetland habitats with marked flooding/drying regimes to permanently flooded spring-fed lakes. Moreover, they possess characteristics that contribute to the support of a particularly abundant and diverse invertebrate fauna. Although it has been estimated that 2,700+ bays exist in South Carolina, approximately 97% have been altered; < or = 200 bays remain intact, and only 36 are protected by state-funded conservation projects. We conducted a study in two distinct Carolina bay habitats, Savage Bay Heritage Preserve (SBHP) and Woods Bay State Park (WBSP), from June 1997 to July 1998 to determine mosquito temporal distribution, species composition, and the occurrence of arbovirus activity. The largest mosquito collection was obtained at WBSP (n = 31,172) representing 25 species followed by SBHP (n = 3,940) with 24 species. Anopheles crucians complex were the most common species encountered in both bays. Two virus isolates were obtained from SBHP in 1997: Keystone (KEY) virus from Ochlerotatus atlanticus-tormentor and Cache Valley (CV) virus from Oc. canadensis canadensis. Twenty-nine (29) arbovirus-positive pools were obtained from WBSP: 28 in 1997 and one in 1998. KEY virus was isolated from three pools of Oc. atlanticus-tormentor and Tensaw (TEN) virus was isolated from two pools of An. crucians complex; 10 isolates could not be identified with the sera available. Additionally, 14 pools of An. crucians complex tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus antigen. These represent the first record of KEY and CV viruses in South Carolina. Our data indicate the presence of high mosquito density and diversity in both Carolina bay habitats, which may be influenced, in part, by seasonal changes in their hydroperiods. The study of mosquito and arbovirus ecology in Carolina Bay habitats could provide more information on

  14. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  15. Paleoseismic investigations in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Talwani, P.; Rajendran, C.P. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade paleoseismological investigations have been carried out in South Carolina by USC, USGS, and EBASCO. The results of these have led to the detection of over 50 paleoliquefaction features. These are concentrated in the meizoseismal area of the 1886 Charleston earthquake, in the Myrtle Beach-Georgetown area (about 100 km NE of Charleston) and in the Bluffton Hilton Head area (about 100 SW of Charleston). At each location several liquefaction features have been discovered and dated. Radiocarbon dates suggest the occurrence of at least 6 and possibly 7 events in the SC Coastal Plain during the Holocene. In the Bluffton area several locations were associated with events dated at 600, 1,200, 2,200, 3,200, and 5,000 YBP. The 600, 1,200, 3,200, and 5,000 YBP dates were also observed at Charleston. In the northern sites several features dated at 600, 1,200, and 1,800 YBP. The 1,800 YBP event was observed only at the northern site and the 2,200 YBP event only at the southern site. These observations suggest that two sources other than Charleston may have been active in the Holocene, one located 100 km to the NE and another 100 km SW of Charleston.

  16. 76 FR 11522 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority... Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) acting as itself and agent for the South Carolina Public...

  17. 76 FR 14436 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority... Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) acting as itself and agent for the South Carolina Public...

  18. The Ethnic History of South Carolina. American History, South Carolina History. Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston County School District, North Charleston, SC. Div. of Instruction.

    This guide for eighth grade teachers was the product of a Title IX ethnic studies project. The guide was designed to supplement the regular South Carolina state history textbooks and place in a more positive frame of reference the ethnic contributions that specific ethnic groups have made to South Carolina history. Written by teachers, the guide…

  19. 75 FR 19964 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Public Meeting on Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric & Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Public.... Enter the docket number (e.g., P-516) excluding the last three digits in the docket number field...

  20. Evidence for an Extraterrestrial Impact Origin of the Carolina Bays on the Atlantic Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, G. A.; West, A.; Firestone, R. B.; Kennett, J. P.; Kimbel, D.; Newell, W.; Kobres, R.

    2007-05-01

    The Carolina Bays, one of the most conspicuous geomorphic features on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, are a group of about 500,000, oriented, crater-like, elliptical lakes, wetlands, and depressions, ranging from a few dozen meters to about 11 km in length. Although long proposed as impact structures (Melton and Schriever, 1933; Prouty, 1934), this origin for the Carolina Bays has remained controversial mainly because of an apparent absence of associated extraterrestrial materials. Analyses of Bay orientation showed that their long axes converge near the Great Lakes, suggesting that an impact or airburst over that region may have formed the Bays (Eyton and Parkhurst, 1975). However, Bays dates have been reported over a wide range, calling into question whether all Carolina Bays could have formed simultaneously, although this issue remains unresolved and controversial. Many Bay researchers, who subscribe to widely differing theories, agree that modern Carolina Bays have been subject to repeated modification and that they most likely evolved from some type of ancestral depressions. Now for the first time, we present conclusive geochemical and sedimentary evidence in support of an extraterrestrial connection for the Carolina Bays. Analyses of sediment from the rim sands and basins of fifteen Bays, widely distributed across North and South Carolina, reveal anomalously high abundances of microspherules, iridium, fullerenes with ET helium, carbon spherules, glass-like carbon, and other potential markers for extraterrestrial impact. No such markers were found in paleosols beneath the rim sands or basal sediments of the Bays examined. The assemblage of geochemical and sediment signatures of extraterrestrial impact found in Bay sediments are essentially the same as in the pan-North-American Younger Dryas impact boundary layer (the YDB), dated at 12.9 ka. We hypothesize that at least some Bays were formed by the YD impact during the last deglacial, and we

  1. South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study, Data Report for Observations, October 2003 - April 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Charlene M.; Warner, John C.; Martini, Marinna A.; Voulgaris, George; Work, Paul; Haas, Kevin A.; Hanes, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Oceanographic observations have been made at nine locations in Long Bay, South Carolina from October 2003 through April 2004. These sites are centered around a shore-oblique sand feature that is approximately 10 km long, 2 km wide, and in excess of 3 m thick. The observations were collected through a collaborative effort with the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of South Carolina, and Georgia Institute of Technology Savannah Campus as part of a larger study to understand the physical processes that control the transport of sediments in Long Bay.

  2. Coastal Change Along the Shore of Northeastern South Carolina: The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W. A., (Edited By)

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, conducted a 7-year, multi-disciplinary study of coastal erosion in northeastern South Carolina. The main objective was to understand the geologic and oceanographic processes that control sediment movement along the region's shoreline and thereby improve projections of coastal change. The study used high-resolution remote sensing and sampling techniques to define the geologic framework and assess historic shoreline change. Based on these findings, oceanographic-process studies and numerical modeling were carried out to determine the rates and directions of sediment transport along South Carolina's Grand Strand.

  3. Relationships between precipitation and surface water chemistry in three Carolina bays

    SciTech Connect

    Monegue, R.L.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Carolina Bays are shallow freshwater wetlands, the only naturally occurring lentic systems on the southeastern coastal plain. Bays are breeding sites for many amphibian species, but data on precipitation/surface water relationships and long-term chemical trends are lacking. Such data are essential to interpret major fluctuations in amphibian populations. Surface water and bulk precipitation were sampled bi-weekly for over two years at three bays along a 25 km transect on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Precipitation chemistry was similar at all sites; average pH was 4.56, and the major ions were H{sup +} (30.8 % of total), and SO{sub 4} (50.3% of total). H{sup +} was positively correlated with SO{sub 4}, suggesting the importance of anthropogenic acids to precipitation chemistry. All three bays, Rainbow Bay (RB), Thunder Bay (TB), and Ellenton Bay (EB), contained soft (specific conductivity 5--90 {micro}S/cm), acidic water (pH 4.0--5.9) with DOM from 4--40 mg/L. The major cation for RB, TB, and EB, respectively, was: Mg (30.8 % of total); Na (27% of total); and Ca (34.2% of total). DOM was the major anion for all bays, and SO{sub 4} represented 13 to 28 % of total anions. H{sup +} was not correlated to DOM or SO, in RB; H{sup +} was positively correlated to DOM and SO{sub 4} in TB, and negatively correlated to DOM and SO{sub 4} in EB. Different biogeochemical processes probably control pH and other chemical variables in each bay. While surface water H{sup +} was not directly correlated with precipitation H{sup +}, NO{sub 3}, or SO{sub 4}, precipitation and shallow groundwater are dominant water sources for these bays. Atmospheric inputs of anthropogenic acids and other chemicals are important factors influencing bay chemistry.

  4. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    The current strategic plan of the South Carolina State Library contains five goals: provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; provide statewide programs to support local library services; serve as the advocate for libraries in South Carolina; encourage cooperation among libraries of all types;…

  5. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    The current strategic plan of the South Carolina State Library contains five goals: (1) Provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; (2) Provide statewide programs to support local library services; (3) Serve as the advocate for libraries in South Carolina; (4) Encourage cooperation among libraries…

  6. Brief statement on the hydrology of the Sampit River area near Georgetown, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Carolina Refining and Distributing Company is planning to locate an oil-refining plant near Georgetown, South Carolina. To aid in the preparation of an environmental impact statement, a description of the stratigraphy, ground-water resources, and an assessment of possible seismic activity that may occur in the Winyah Bay vicinity has been prepared. Additional data will be required to quantitatively evaluate the impact of an oil spill on the shallow aquifer in the area. (USGS)

  7. RCP Local School Projects in South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    One of 6 state reports of projects and programs operating in cooperation with the Regional Curriculum Project, the document highlights major curriculum-change programs in South Carolina which were initiated in 1966. The 4 projects reported are "Curriculum Study in Berkeley County," which had as its purpose the identification and elimination of…

  8. South Carolina Guide for Small Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Ellen C.; Elliott, Ronald T.

    This guide for small business management in South Carolina addresses the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The guide contains suggestions for specific classroom activities for each domain. Each of the 11 units or tasks in the guide contains a competency statement followed by performance objectives, job-relevant…

  9. Raising the Economic Level in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Linda

    1976-01-01

    This article reports the activities and successes of the "Special Schools" operated by South Carolina's Technical Education System (TEC), which provide local people with pre-employment training individually designed for new industries moving into the community. In 14 years, 53,903 people have completed job training for 451 new and expanding…

  10. [A Profile of Union County, South Carolina].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen C.; McLean, Edward L.

    Now almost totally dependent on textile production, heavily forested Union County, South Carolina, was primarily agricultural until the 20th century. By 1970, 65% of the population depended on manufacturing and only 4% of the workers on farming. From 1920 to 1970 the population was characterized by a rural-to-urban shift and by outmigration,…

  11. The South Carolina Framework for Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Ray

    This document is a South Carolina curriculum model that identifies four broad areas of study. These components, which should be present in all music education courses, are: (1) aesthetic perception and concept development; (2) creative expression and skills development; (3) music heritage, both historical and cultural; and (4) aesthetic valuing,…

  12. South Carolina Kids Count Report, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Kids Count, Columbia.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of South Carolina's children. The statistical portrait is based on 44 indicators in the areas of demographics, family, economic status, health, readiness and early school performance, scholastic achievement, and adolescent risk behaviors. The indicators are: (1) population; (2)…

  13. [A Profile of Williamsburg County, South Carolina].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilley, Stephen C.; McLean, Edward L.

    Williamsburg County, South Carolina, is an almost entirely rural area near the coast. Although nearly 50% of the population is under 21, there has been a sharp decline in population since its high in 1950. The outmigration, prounounced for black youth, is caused by a lack of industrial opportunities, although there is slow, steady industrial…

  14. An Ecological Regional Analysis of South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.; Robinson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study of the counties of South Carolina introduces a limited purpose, modifiable technology that is designed to reproduce the rapid discovery strategy of the natural sciences. It uses factor analysis to identify types of communities and the threats they face, and evaluates their success in dealing with these by comparisons based on…

  15. South Carolina Guide for Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pough, Carmen; Evans, Hattie

    South Carolina's Guide to Child Development addresses three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. The first unit of the guide, Child Development I, concerns the processes of understanding prenatal development, caring for an infant, providing care for children between 1 and 6 years of age, and delivering care for the…

  16. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for trade and industrial education teachers are administered semiannually by the Office of Vocational Education. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational administrators, State Department of Education personnel, and other interested parties with…

  17. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  18. Arbovirus surveillance in South Carolina, 1996-98.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, A; Dowda, H E; Tolson, M W; Karabatsos, N; Vaughan, D R; Turner, P E; Ortiz, D I; Wills, W

    2001-03-01

    Arboviruses isolated and identified from mosquitoes in South Carolina (USA) are described, including new state records for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE), Flanders virus, Tensaw virus (TEN), and a variant of Jamestown Canyon virus (JC). Mosquitoes were collected at 52 locations in 30 of 46 South Carolina counties beginning in June 1996, and ending in October 1998, and tested for arboviruses. Of 1,329 mosquito pools tested by virus isolation (85,806 mosquitoes representing 34 mosquito species or complexes), 15 pools were positive. Virus isolations included EEE from 1 pool each of Anopheles crucians complex and Culex erraticus; a variant of JC from 1 pool of An. crucians complex; a California serogroup virus from 1 pool of Aedes atlanticus/tormentor; TEN from 5 pools of An. crucians complex and 1 pool each of Culex salinarius and Psorophora ciliata; Flanders virus from 1 pool of Culiseta melanura; and Potosi virus from 1 pool each of Aedes vexans, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Psorophora columbiae. Of 300 mosquito pools tested by antigen-capture assay for EEE and SLE (14,303 mosquitoes representing 16 mosquito species or complexes), 21 were positive for EEE and I was positive for SLE. Positive EEE mosquito pools by antigen-capture assay included An. crucians complex (14 pools), Anopheles punctipennis (1 pool), Anopheles quadrimaculatus (1 pool), Cq. perturbans (4 pools), and Cs. melanura (1 pool). One pool of Cx. salinarius was positive for SLE by antigen-capture assay. Arbovirus-positive mosquito pools were identified from 12 South Carolina counties, all located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and from 4 of 8 Carolina bays surveyed. PMID:11345423

  19. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish.

    PubMed

    Brant, Heather A; Jagoe, Charles H; Snodgras, Joel W; Bryan, A Lawrence; Gariboldi, Joan C

    2002-01-01

    Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchuspomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands. PMID:12395855

  20. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  1. 76 FR 53672 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Application for Amendment..., 2011. d. Applicant: South Carolina Electric & Gas Company. e. Name of Project: Saluda Hydroelectric... Boozer, Manager, Lake Management Programs, South Carolina Electric & Gas Company, 6248 Bush River...

  2. [Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives in science and mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    On December 19, 1991, South Carolina`s Governor, established the Governor`s Mathematics and Sciences Advisory Board (MSAB) to articulate a vision and develop a statewide plan for improving science and mathematics education in South Carolina. The MSAB recognized that systemic change must occur if the achievement levels of students in South Carolina are to improve in a dramatic way. The MSAB holds two fundamental beliefs about systemic change: (1) All the elements of the science and mathematics education system must be working in harmony towards the same vision; and (2) Each element of the system must be held against high standards and progress must be assessed regularly against these standards.

  3. Denitrification and N20 emissions from Carolina Bays receiving poultry runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the southeastern Coastal Plain, there are depressional wetlands known as Carolina Bays that may receive runoff from agricultural land. Little is known about denitrification and gas emission within these isolated wetlands. Three forested Carolina Bays were selected to observe denitrification enzym...

  4. Effect of climate fluctuations on long-term vegetation dynamics in Carolina bay wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, C.L.; De Steven, D.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Carolina bays and similar depression wetlands of the U.S. Southeastern Coastal Plain have hydrologic regimes that are driven primarily by rainfall. Therefore, climate fluctuations such as drought cycles have the potential to shape long-term vegetation dynamics. Models suggest two potential long-term responses to hydrologic fluctuations, either cyclic change maintaining open emergent vegetation, or directional succession toward forest vegetation. In seven Carolina bay wetlands on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, we assessed hydrologic variation and vegetation response over a 15-year period spanning two drought and reinundation cycles. Changes in pond stage (water depth) were monitored bi-weekly to monthly each year from 1989?2003. Vegetation composition was sampled in three years (1989, 1993, and 2003) and analyzed in relation to changes in hydrologic conditions. Multi-year droughts occurred prior to the 1989 and 2003 sampling years, whereas 1993 coincided with a wet period. Wetland plant species generally maintained dominance after both wet and dry conditions, but the abundances of different plant growth forms and species indicator categories shifted over the 15-year period. Decreased hydroperiods and water depths during droughts led to increased cover of grass, upland, and woody species, particularly at the shallower wetland margins. Conversely, reinundation and longer hydroperiods resulted in expansion of aquatic and emergent species and reduced the cover of flood-intolerant woody and upland species. These semi-permanent Upper Coastal Plain bays generally exhibited cyclic vegetation dynamics in response to climate fluctuation, with wet periods favoring dominance by herbaceous species. Large basin morphology and deep ponding, paired with surrounding upland forest dominated by flood-intolerant pines, were features contributing to persistence of herbaceous vegetation. Drought cycles may promote directional succession to forest in bays that are smaller

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: South Carolina, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in South Carolina for 2010. South Carolina introduced new tests in grades 3-8, so trend data that include 2009 are not available. Progress in narrowing achievement gaps at grade 10 was mixed. Comparable data were available for 2004-2009 at grade 10. (Contains 9 tables.) [For the…

  6. College Degrees in South Carolina: An Employer's Guide, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This Guide provides basic information to South Carolina employers regarding the nature of college degrees. It covers South Carolina law regarding the use of degrees, how to accurately describe degree needs when advertising for a position, how to evaluate a job applicant's claim of a degree, the growing problem of diploma mill degrees, and related…

  7. Standards Feedback Report. South Carolina Course Alignment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Policy Improvement Center (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report, prepared for the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education by the Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC), provides a final list of recommended college readiness reference standards to be used as part of the South Carolina Course Alignment Project (SCCAP). The purpose of these standards is to serve as a common reference point…

  8. Business/Education Partnerships in South Carolina. Model Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Div. of Public Accountability.

    This document contains reports from school districts in South Carolina on the status of their successful partnerships between schools and businesses. They are examples of what is happening in South Carolina today and what could happen between other businesses and schools as new alliances are formed. These accounts describe new ideas for…

  9. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    This report summarizes the activities of the South Carolina State Library for 1999-2000. The current strategic plan contains five strategic goals: provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; provide statewide programs to support local library services; serve as the advocate for libraries in South…

  10. Closing Radioactive Waste Tanks in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.L.

    2000-08-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). Since the early 1950s, the primary mission of the site has been to produce nuclear materials for national defense. The chemical separations processes used to recover uranium and plutonium from production reactor fuel and target assemblies in the chemical separations area at SRS generated liquid high-level radioactive waste. This waste, which now amounts to approximately 34 million gallons, is stored in underground tanks in the F- and H-Areas near the center of the site. DOE is closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tank systems, which are permitted by SCDHEC under authority of the South Carolina Pollution Control Act (SCPCA) as wastewater treatment facilities, in accordance with South Carolina Regulation R.61-82, ''Proper Closeout of Wastewater Treatment Facilities''. To date, two HLW tank systems have been closed in place. Closure of these tanks is the first of its kind in the US. This paper describes the waste tank closure methodologies, standards and regulatory background.

  11. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE...

  12. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE...

  13. Effects of dominant species on vegetation change in Carolina bay wetlands following a multi-year drought.

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhouse, John, M.; De Steven, Diane; Lide, Robert, F.; Sharitz, Rebecca, R.

    2005-05-01

    Wetland vegetation is strongly dependent upon climate-influenced hydrologic conditions, and plant composition responds in generally consistent ways to droughts. However, the extent of species composition change during drought may be influenced by the pre-existing structure of wetland vegetation. We characterized the vegetation of ten herbaceous Carolina bay wetlands on the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain during a period of average rainfall and again near the end of a four-year drought. We hypothesized that, as a group, bays dominated by less robust plant species (characteristic of open-water pond and depression meadow vegetation types) would show greater compositional change than bays dominated by dense, robust-form clonal graminoids (characteristic of grass and sedge marsh vegetation types). Aquatic species decreased during the drought in all wetlands, regardless of vegetation group. Compared to grass/sedge marshes, pond/meadow wetlands acquired more species, particularly non-wetland species, during the drought. Pond/meadow wetlands also had greater increases in the abundances of species that require unflooded conditions to establish. Prior to the drought, all wetlands were ponded almost continuously, but during drought the pond/meadow wetlands had shorter and more variable hydroperiods than the grass/sedge marshes. Thus, vegetation change may be partly confounded with hydrologic conditions that provide greater opportunities for species recruitment in pond/meadow bays. The results suggest that Carolina bay vegetation dynamics may differ as a function of dominant vegetation and climate driven variation in wetland hydrologic condition.

  14. Guide to the littoral zone vascular flora of Carolina bay lakes (U.S.A.)

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Nathan; Braham, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Carolina bays are elliptic, directionally aligned basins of disputed origin that occur on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Georgia. In southeastern North Carolina, several large, natural, lacustrine systems (i.e., Carolina bay lakes) exist within the geomorphological features known as Carolina bays. Within the current distribution of Carolina bays, Bladen and Columbus counties (North Carolina) contain the only known examples of Carolina bay lakes. The Carolina bay lakes can be split into two major divisions, the “Bladen Lakes Group” which is characterized as being relatively unproductive (dystrophic – oligotrophic), and Lake Waccamaw, which stands alone in Columbus County and is known for its high productivity and species richness. Although there have been several studies conducted on these unique lentic systems, none have documented the flora comprehensively. New information Over the 2013−2014 growing seasons, the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes was surveyed and vouchered. Literature reviews and herbarium crawls complemented this fieldwork to produce an inventory of the vascular plant species. This survey detected 205 taxa (species/subspecies and varieties) in 136 genera and 80 vascular plant families. Thirty-one species (15.2%) are of conservation concern. Lake Waccamaw exhibited the highest species richness with 145 catalogued taxa and 26 species of conservation concern. Across all sites, the Cyperaceae (25 spp.), Poaceae (21 spp.), Asteraceae (13 spp.), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Juncaceae (8 spp.), and Lentibulariaceae (6 spp.) were the six most species-rich vascular plant families encountered. A guide to the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes is presented herein, including dichotomous keys, species accounts (including abundance, habitat, phenology, and exsiccatae), as well as images of living species and vouchered specimens. PMID:27350764

  15. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  16. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Processes in Long Bay of the Carolinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Xu, K.; He, R.; Wren, P. A.; Gong, Y.; Quigley, B.; Tarpley, D.

    2010-12-01

    The coastline along Long Bay of the Carolinas is a fast-growing and heavily-developed area supporting local populations, infrastructure, and a large tourism industry. Myrtle Beach and its adjacent sandy beaches are popular tourist destinations that attract millions of visitors each year, representing one of the state’s most essential natural resources. The economy of this region is closely related to the stability of the sandy beaches, which are vulnerable to coastal erosion during severe storm events. Quantifying the sediment transport processes in the nearshore and inner continental shelf regions is thus critical for both understanding the regional sediment budget and implementing effective coastal management. As a first step toward investigating the sediment transport processes, a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport model for Long Bay in the Carolinas has been developed. The model, based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), spans from Cape Fear estuary in NC to Winyah Bay estuary in SC. It considers the delivery of fluvial sediment from the Cape Fear and Pee Dee Rivers, resuspension from seabed, and transport of suspended sediment by ambient currents and waves calculated using Simulating WAve Nearshore model (SWAN). Our model simulations are driven by observed wind fields, which were collected at nearby meteorological stations maintained by National Data Buoy Center as well as at six buoys by the Palmetto Wind Research Project at Coastal Carolina University. Spatially varying sea bed conditions consisting of both hard bottoms and sandy bodies are applied in the calculation. The model is one-way nested inside a large-scale coastal circulation model that covers both the Middle Atlantic Bight and the South Atlantic Bight and provides dynamically consistent and numerically accurate circulation open boundary conditions. Modeling results indicate both wind-driven currents and storm-induced waves are capable of resuspending sandy

  17. 76 FR 13962 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina: Prevention of Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the South Carolina State Implementation Plan (SIP), submitted by the State of South Carolina, through the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC DHEC), to EPA on December 2, 2010, for parallel processing. The proposed SIP revision modifies South Carolina's New Source Review (NSR) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)......

  18. 76 FR 22817 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; South Carolina; Update to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...EPA is publishing this action to provide the public with notice of the update to the South Carolina State Implementation Plan (SIP) compilation. In particular, materials submitted by South Carolina that are incorporated by reference (IBR) into the South Carolina SIP are being updated to reflect EPA-approved revisions to South Carolina's SIP that have occurred since the last update. In this......

  19. Presence and absence of bats across habitat scales in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.Mark; Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.: Edwards, John W.; Kilgo, John C.

    2006-10-01

    Abstract During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat II) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand, and landscape-level features such as forest structural metrics, forest type, proximity to riparian zones and Carolina bay wetlands, insect abundance, and weather. There was considerable empirical support to suggest that the majority of the activity of bats across most of the 6 species occurred at smaller, stand-level habitat scales that combine measures of habitat clutter (e.g., declining forest canopy cover and basal area), proximity to riparian zones, and insect abundance. Accordingly, we hypothesized that most foraging habitat relationships were more local than landscape across this relatively large area for generalist species of bats. The southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius) was the partial exception, as its presence was linked to proximity of Carolina bays (best approximating model) and bottomland hardwood communities (other models with empirical support). Efforts at SRS to promote open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and loblolly pine (P. taeda) savanna conditions and to actively restore degraded Carolina bay wetlands will be beneficial to bats. Accordingly, our results should provide managers better insight for crafting guidelines for bat habitat conservation that could be linked to widely accepted land management and environmental restoration practices for the region.

  20. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes, and industrial wastes of South Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  1. Connecting Learners: The South Carolina Educational Technology Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This educational technology plan for South Carolina contains the following sections: (1) statewide progress related to the telecommunications infrastructure, professional development, video infrastructure, administrative infrastructure, and funding; (2) introduction to educational technology concepts, including major components and factors…

  2. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; Sheffield, Steven R.; Kilgo, John C.; Bunch, Mary S.

    2003-03-01

    Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.

  3. Restoration of Lost Lake, recovery of an impacted Carolina Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.; Gladden, J.B.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Rogers, V.A.

    1995-09-01

    Lost Lake is one of approximately 200 Carolina bays found on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Until 1984 Lost Lake was contaminated by heavy metals and solvents overflowing from a nearby settling basin. Up to 12 inches of surface soil and all vegetation was removed from the bay as part of a RCRA removal action. A plan for restoration was initiated in 1989 and implemented in 1990 and 1991. Extensive planning led to defined objectives, strategies, treatments, and monitoring programs allowing successful restoration of Lost Lake. The primary goal of the project was to restore the wetland ecosystem after a hazardous waste clean up operation. An additional goal was to study the progress of the project and the success of the restoration activity. Several strategy considerations were necessary in the restoration plan. The removal of existing organic soils had to have compensation, a treatment scheme for planting and the extent of manipulation of the substrate had to be considered, monitoring decisions had to be made, and the decision whether or not to actively control the hydrology of the restored system.

  4. Demographic responses of amphibians to wetland restoration in Carolina bays on the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Kinkead, Karen E.

    2004-09-30

    This project studied the effects of wetland restoration on amphibian populations. These wetlands were Carolina bays located on the Savannah River Site, located near Aiken, S.C. The Savannah River Site is a National Environmental Research Park owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy. The study sites included three reference bays (functionally intact), three control bays (with active drainage ditches), six treatment bays (restored during 2001), and four bays near two of the treatment bays (in effect creating two metapopulations).

  5. 5. SOUTH BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH BAY 5TON P&H ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH BAY SHOWING ROOF CONSTRUCTION, SOUTH BAY 5-TON P&H ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE. VIEW EAST SHOWING JUNCTURE WITH NORTHWEST CORNER OF OFFICE/MACHINE SHOP - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... Coast Guard is establishing a permanent special local regulation on Great South Bay, NY between...

  7. Approved Teacher Education Programs in South Carolina 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    In this booklet on approved teacher education programs in South Carolina, brief statements are presented on reciprocity policies, Master of Arts in Teaching certification, required examinations and minimum scores in specific teaching areas, and conditional certification procedures. A list of the 28 teacher education institutions in South Carolina…

  8. Earthquakes in South Carolina and Vicinity 1698-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, Richard L.; Talwani, Pradeep; Stevenson, Donald

    2010-01-01

    This map summarizes more than 300 years of South Carolina earthquake history. It is one in a series of three similar State earthquake history maps. The current map and the previous two for Virginia and Ohio are accessible at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1017/ and http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1221/. All three State earthquake maps were collaborative efforts between the U.S. Geological Survey and respective State agencies. Work on the South Carolina map was done in collaboration with the Department of Geological Sciences, University of South Carolina. As with the two previous maps, the history of South Carolina earthquakes was derived from letters, journals, diaries, newspaper accounts, academic journal articles, and, beginning in the early 20th century, instrumental recordings (seismograms). All historical (preinstrumental) earthquakes that were large enough to be felt have been located based on felt reports. Some of these events caused damage to buildings and their contents. The more recent widespread use of seismographs has allowed many smaller earthquakes, previously undetected, to be recorded and accurately located. The seismicity map shows historically located and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in and near South Carolina

  9. Workshop for coordinating South Carolina`s pre-college systemic initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-26

    The goal of the South Carolina Statewide Systemic Initiative (SC SSI) is to provide quality and effective learning experiences in science and mathematics to all people of South Carolina by affecting systemic change. To accomplish this goal, South Carolina must: (1) coordinate actions among many partners for science and mathematics change; (2) place the instruments of change into the hands of the effectors of change - teachers and schools; and (3) galvanize the support of policy makers, parents, and local communities for change. The SC SSI proposes to establish a network of 13 regional mathematics and science HUBs. The central idea of this plan is the accumulation of Teacher Leaders at each HUB who are prepared in special Curriculum Leadership Institutes to assist other teachers and schools. The HUB becomes a regional nexus for delivering services to schools who request assistance by matching schools with Teacher Leaders. Other initiatives such as the use of new student performance assessments, the integration of instructional technologies into the curriculum, a pilot preservice program, and Family Math and Family Science will be bundled together through the Teacher Leaders in the HUBs. Concurrent policy changes at the state level in teacher and administrator certification and recertification requirements, school regulations and accountability, and the student performance assessment system will enable teachers and schools to support instructional practices that model South Carolina`s new state Curriculum Frameworks in Mathematics and Science.

  10. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina).

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher D.; DeSteven, Diane; Kilgo, John C.

    2004-12-31

    Barton, Christopher, D., Diane DeSteven and John C. Kilgo. 2004. Mitigation bank promotes research on restoring Coastal Plain depression wetlands (South Carolina). Ecol. Rest. 22(4):291-292. Abstract: Carolina bays and smaller depression wetlands support diverse plant communities and provide critical habitat for semi-aquatic fauna throughout the Coastal Plain region of the southeastern United States. Historically, many depression wetlands were altered or destroyed by surface ditching, drainage, and agricultural or silviculture uses. These important habitats are now at further risk of alteration and loss following a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2001 restricting federal regulation of isolated wetlands. Thus, there is increased attention towards protecting intact sites and developing methods to restore others. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 312-mi2 (800-km2) Savannah River Site (SRS) in west-central South Carolina includes about 350 Carolina bays and bay-like wetland depressions, of which about two-thirds were degraded or destroyed prior to federal acquisition of the land. Although some of the altered wetlands have recovered naturally, others still have active active drainage ditches and contain successional forests typical of drained sites. In 1997, DOE established a wetland mitigation bank to compensate for unavoidable wetland impacts on the SRS. This effort provided an opportunity fir a systematic research program to investigate wetland restoration techniques and ecological responses. Consequently, research and management staffs from the USDA Forest Service, Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation, the Savannah River Technology Center, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) and several universities developed a collaborative project to restore degraded depression wetlands on the SRS. The mitigation project seeks cost-effective methods to restore the hydrology and vegetation typical of natural depression wetlands, and so enhance habitats for wetland

  11. Hydrologic aspects of Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina, September 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuck-Kolben, R. E.; Cherry, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo, with winds in excess of 135 miles per hour(mi/h), made landfall near Charleston, S.C., early on the morning of September 22, 1989. It was the most destructive hurricane ever experienced in South Carolina. The storm caused 35 deaths and $7 billion in property damage in South Carolina (Purvis, 1990).This report documents some hydrologic effects of Hurricane Hugo along the South Carolina coast. The report includes maps showing storm-tide stage and profiles of the maximum storm-tide stages along the outer coast. Storm-tide stage frequency information is presented and changes in beach morphology and water quality of coastal streams resulting from the storm are described.

  12. Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center at the Medical Univesity for South Carolina Charleston, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the proposed construction and operation of the Strom Thurmond Biomedical Research Center (Center) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, SC. The DOE is evaluating a grant proposal to authorize the MUSC to construct, equip and operate the lower two floors of the proposed nine-story Center as an expansion of on-going clinical research and out-patient diagnostic activities of the Cardiology Division of the existing Gazes Cardiac Research Institute. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  13. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  14. Formation of the Carolina Bays: ET Impact vs. Wind-and-Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobres, R.; Howard, G. A.; West, A.; Firestone, R. B.; Kennett, J. P.; Kimbel, D.; Newell, W.

    2007-05-01

    The Carolina Bays are a group of lakes, wetlands, and depressions, stretching from Florida to New Jersey along the Atlantic Ocean, and ranging up to 11 km in length and about 15 m in depth. Their distinctive elliptical shapes and common orientation towards the Great Lakes region have generated many hypotheses about their method of formation, including extraterrestrial impact (Melton and Schriever, 1933; Prouty, 1934). Another suggests that springs or groundwater dissolution of soluble minerals caused subsidence, which formed water-filled depressions that became the Bays (Johnson, D.W., 1944). One of the prevailing views is that Carolina Bays represent irregular lakes that were gradually reshaped into ellipses by circulating lake currents, generated by strong ice-age winds blowing perpendicular to the current long axes of the Bays (Kaczorowski, 1977). We report results from a suite of cores taken from within a Bay, which we have named "Howard Bay," located about 2 km north of the town of Duart in Bladen County, North Carolina. Located on the high western bluff of the Cape Fear River, the Bay is 2.7 km long, 1.6 km wide, and filled with about 9 meters of sediment with an encircling rim that is ~1-meter high. Analyses of seven cores along the long axis of Howard Bay reveal an assemblage of abundant magnetic grains, microspherules, carbon spherules, glass-like carbon, and iridium, typical of the YDB impact layer (12.9 ka) at many other sites across North America. The impact layer conforms to the basal contours of the basin, suggesting that the markers were deposited immediately or soon after the Bay formed. Further analyses of samples in complete core sequences reveal that, unlike typical, peat-rich Carolina Bays, Howard Bay essentially lacks peat, diatoms, pollen, or other organic materials, suggesting that this Bay never stored water for any sustained length of time. Furthermore, several trenches confirm that the deepest part of the Bay is filled with >6 m of cross

  15. Importance of Carolina Bays to the Avifauna of Pinelands in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Czapka, Stephen, J.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2011-07-01

    Abstract - Past anthropogenic activity has led to the destruction or alteration of Carolina bay wetlands throughout the southeastern United States. Presently, urban development, combined with a 2001 ruling by the US Supreme Court relaxing protection of isolated wetlands, poses an increasing threat to these and other isolated wetland systems; however, little information exists on the importance of these wetland systems to birds. We compared breeding and wintering bird communities of upland pine (Pinus spp.) forests with and without Carolina bays. Estimated species richness was greater in pine forests with Carolina bays than without during the winter (31.7 ± 1.3 [mean ± SE] vs. 26.9 ± 1.2; P = 0.027), but not in the breeding season (27.9 ± 2.2 vs. 26.3 ± 2.2; P = 0.644). Total relative abundance did not differ between pine forests with Carolina bays and those without in either the breeding (148.0 ± 16.0 vs. 129.4 ± 10.4 birds/40 ha; P = 0.675) or winter (253.0 ± 36.4 vs. 148.8 ± 15.1 birds/40 ha; P = 0.100) seasons. However, 23 species, 43% of which were wetland-dependent, were observed only in pine forests with bays during the breeding season, and 20 species, 30% of which were wetland-dependent, were observed only in such sites during winter. In contrast, only 6 and 1 species were observed only in pine forests without bays during the breeding and winter seasons, respectively, indicating that few species were negatively affected by the presence of bays. Thus, Carolina bays appear to enrich the avifauna of pine forests in the southeastern United States.

  16. Review of "How School Choice Can Create Jobs for South Carolina"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Joydeep

    2010-01-01

    The South Carolina Policy Council Education Foundation report, "How School Choice Can Create Jobs for South Carolina," argues that school choice, in the form of vouchers to attend private schools, would create significant job opportunities in five poor, rural counties of South Carolina. The report, however, relies almost exclusively on results of…

  17. 77 FR 11894 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; South Carolina; Regional Haze...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...EPA is proposing a limited approval of a revision to the South Carolina state implementation plan (SIP) submitted by the State of South Carolina, through the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC DHEC), on December 17, 2007, that addresses regional haze for the first implementation period. This revision addresses the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act)......

  18. The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

  19. 78 FR 19994 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina: New Source Review-Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... rule. On January 23, 2013, EPA proposed to approve these changes into the South Carolina SIP. See 78 FR... Acid Rain, respectively. However, these regulations are not part of South Carolina's federally approved... South Carolina's State Regulations 61-62.60, 62.61, 62.63 and 62.72 regarding NSPS, NESHAP and Acid...

  20. 78 FR 25069 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Application Accepted for..., 2012 and March 19, 2013. d. Applicant: South Carolina Electric & Gas Company. e. Name of Project... Contact: Mr. Tommy Boozer, Manager, Lake Management Programs, South Carolina Electric & Gas Company,...

  1. The Education Improvement Act of 1984. State of South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Governor's Office, Columbia.

    This booklet sets forth the provisions of the South Carolina Education Improvement Act. Statements of standards mandated by the State in the following areas are presented: (1) increasing academic standards; (2) strengthening student discipline and attendance; (3) providing more effective use of classroom learning time; (4) providing programs of…

  2. Reduction in Force: Policy & Procedure in South Carolina School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Robert E.; Woodson, Marvin C.

    Starting from a survey of research literature and court cases, researchers conducted a study of South Carolina school districts' policies and procedures concerning reductions in force (RIFs). The literature review indicated some of the conditions necessitating RIFs (such as state financial problems), methods of avoiding RIFs, and criteria for RIF…

  3. South Carolina Higher Education Statistical Abstract. Tenth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, Columbia.

    Information on higher education in South Carolina is presented in statistical form. The focus is on 10-year analysis of full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollments by level; 10-year analysis of headcount enrollments by level; 10-year analysis of headcount enrollments, technical colleges; 1987 opening fall enrollments; 1987 opening fall enrollments,…

  4. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of South Carolina. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste,…

  5. Pediatricians' Attitudes Toward Pediatric Nurse Practitioners in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzemer, William L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey support the statement that pediatricians have a negative attitude toward the pediatric nurse practitioner (PNP) in South Carolina, generally due to the physicians' feelings that the PNP is not competent at child illness management. Implications for pediatric residencies are discussed. (LBH)

  6. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on South Carolina's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam…

  7. Business/Education Partnerships in South Carolina. Model Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Div. of Public Accountability.

    This report describes 38 model school-business partnerships that are being conducted in South Carolina. The 38 reports were gathered from 24 school districts and 3 statewide projects. Criteria for selection were that the partnerships must be in some way exemplary of the program and the school district must have reported in some detail their…

  8. The South Carolina Higher Education Access & Equity Program, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Access and Equity Program vision is to achieve educational equity for all students and faculty in higher education. Success in college should not be affected by a student's race. Minority enrollment should be at least proportional to the minority population in South Carolina and minority graduation rates should be comparable to the graduation…

  9. An Analysis of South Carolina Per Pupil State Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    In many states, including South Carolina, school choice is being discussed as perhaps the best way to both improve student achievement and spend education dollars more efficiently. The evidence from the 12 school choice programs currently running around the country is that the increased competition among public and private schools leads to more…

  10. South Carolina Higher Education Statistical Abstract, 2014. 36th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Mim, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The South Carolina Higher Education Statistical Abstract is a comprehensive, single-source compilation of tables and graphs which report data frequently requested by the Governor, Legislators, college and university staff, other state government officials, and the general public. The 2014 edition of the Statistical Abstract marks the 36th year of…

  11. The 'Old English District': ESL Problems in South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintelli-Neary, Marguerite

    An examination of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction in York County, South Carolina focuses on community attitudes toward limited-English-proficient (LEP) residents. Factors discussed include the perception that virtually all residents speak English and that children who don't speak English fluently, generally Hispanics, will have left…

  12. South Carolina State Library Annual Report. 1993-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    This report provides a summary of the activities of the South Carolina State Library. The highlight of the year was development and adoption of the "Agenda for Change," a program which makes the Library more responsive to the needs of public libraries. As a result, the Library evaluated its personnel needs and transferred vacant positions to areas…

  13. A Study of the Leadership Practices of South Carolina Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redish, Carlotta D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a report of a mixed method study that examines the leadership practices of black and white public school superintendents in the state of South Carolina. The researcher explored any self-perceived leadership practice differences, if existent, between black and white superintendents and, if so, were the race of the…

  14. South Carolina Job Placement Services Effectiveness Survey. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    A survey was conducted to determine the effectiveness of job placement services provided to secondary vocational students in South Carolina high schools and vocational centers, to identify characteristics of effective placement service programs, and to identify efforts made by schools to overcome sex bias. Survey instruments consisting of a…

  15. 78 FR 62001 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00024

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: 07/07/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  16. South Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details South Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Each member state receives a number of general services, plus access to targeted programs funded by grants, contracts and fees. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core…

  17. South Carolina Student Accountability System OSIRIS Instruction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This manual expresses the South Carolina State Department of Education's understanding of the new, computerized school administration system called OSIRIS and the policy regarding its use with the Student Accountability System (SAS). The SAS is a method used to obtain a cumulative headcount of students served in certain programs specified in the…

  18. Annual Report of the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, Columbia.

    The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education submits its report on significant events of the last year and reports briefly on the following: (1) enrollment information for the colleges and universities; (2) establishment of the Student Intern Program of S.C. designed to utilize qualified college and university students on specific projects of…

  19. Educational Trends in South Carolina. Office of Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Research.

    This publication is designed to provide users with trends in quantitative facts relevant to public education in South Carolina. Information for the 1985-86 school year is presented along with information beginning with the reference or base year of 1969-70. The reference year may vary due to the availability of data. The data are presented in…

  20. Degree Plans of Entering Freshmen at University of South Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Paul P.; McDill, James

    To assess the degree plans of entering freshmen at the University of South Carolina (U.S.C.), a questionnaire prepared by the American Council on Education was administered to incoming freshmen at U.S.C. and 527 other institutions of higher education during summer and fall orientation 1972. The resulting summary data included information on…

  1. South Carolina Field Recordings in the Archive of Folk Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephanie A., Comp.

    This document describes recordings of the Library of Congress's unique collections of folklife and ethnomusicology from South Carolina. Information given includes length of recording, name of recorder, dates of recording, and content of recording. Recordings include songs, spirituals, hymns, sermons, prayers, dialect tales, and street songs.…

  2. Support for Instruction about Homosexuality in South Carolina Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Lisa L.; Reiniger Belinda M.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed 534 South Carolina registered voters to determine their level of support for school-based sexuality education, including homosexuality education. Overall, support for sexuality education (and many sexuality education topics) was strong, but homosexuality was the least-supported subject in the survey. There was strong support for…

  3. Coaching as Inquiry: The South Carolina Reading Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Diane; Mills, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Embedded within traditional notions of coaching are unstated expectations that (a) the coach is an expert and knows what it is that the other person should be doing and (b) based on his or her expertise, the coach should take actions to achieve his or her vision for the other person. Within the South Carolina Reading Initiative, however, literacy…

  4. Cracking the Egg: The South Carolina Digital Library's New Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinson, Christopher G.; Boyd, Kate Foster

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the historical foundations of the South Carolina Digital Library, a collaborative statewide program that ties together academic special collections and archives, public libraries, state government archives, and other cultural resource institutions in an effort to provide the state with a comprehensive database of online…

  5. South Carolina Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Administrator and Instructor Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This administrator and instructor section of a South Carolina industrial arts safety guide includes sections on responsibility for school safety, safety programming for the teacher, emergency action, suggested forms and outlines, and facility design and layout. School board and superintendent, administrator, and teacher responsibilities for school…

  6. South Carolina Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Student Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This student section of a South Carolina industrial arts safety guide includes guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on developing a student safety program. Set forth…

  7. School Financing in South Carolina, Recent Legislation and Funding Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Bobby L.

    This paper discusses five scenarios that have had an impact on school finance in the state of South Carolina during recent years. These scenarios include (1) the Education Finance Act of 1977 (EFA); (2) the Education Improvement Act of 1984 (EIA); (3) the issue of fiscal independence; (4) school fees; and (5) school bonds. The EFA was designed to…

  8. Approved Teacher Education Programs in South Carolina, 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    This document provides information on the status of 28 teacher education institutions in South Carolina. For each institution the information includes accreditation status, approved programs, school level, dates of approval and expiration, and level of degree offered. Information is also given on teacher certification requirements for the state,…

  9. Low-head tidal power in South Carolina. Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report details the possibilities of extracting tidal power from sites with moderate tides and naturally occurring storage locations (estuaries). The important points covered include: available power, power extraction, and the best locations and techniques to utilize the tides in South Carolina.

  10. Metamorphosed melange in the central Piedmont of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Mittwede, S.K.; Maybin, A.H. III )

    1989-09-01

    The Enoree melange is exposed in the central Piedmont of South Carolina near the boundary between the Piedmont and Carolina terranes. The melange is composed of ultramafic and mafic blocks in a highly deformed matrix of biotite-feldspar-quartz gneiss which has a composition consistent with a felsic-to-intermediate volcanic precursor. The mafic and ultramafic blocks are separated chemically and petrographically into four compositional groups: metagabbro-clinopyroxenite, websterite, orthopyroxenite, and metasomatized (steatitized) orthopyroxenite. Based on their chemistry and mineralogy, the blocks are clearly exotic relative to their metavolcaniclastic( ) matrix and likely originated as parts of a plutonic suite from the basal or forward part of the Carolina arc terrane. If the Piedmont terrane-Carolina terrane boundary is a continent-arc suture, then the Enoree melange probably formed in the accretionary prism at this convergent margin. The matrix gneisses are interpreted as reworked volcanic debris shed by the Carolina arc terrane edifice and accumulated as graywacke in the accretionary deposits. West-vergent structures in the matrix suggest that the melange was emplaced to its present tectonostratigraphic position either during docking of the Carolina terrane or during widespread Alleghenian thrusting.

  11. Scientists Engage South Carolina Community in Earthquake Education and Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C.; Beutel, E.; Jaume', S.; Levine, N.; Doyle, B.

    2008-12-01

    Scientists at the College of Charleston are working with the state of South Carolina's Emergency Management Division to increase awareness and understanding of earthquake hazards throughout South Carolina. As part of this mission, the SCEEP (South Carolina Earthquake Education and Preparedness) program was formed at the College of Charleston to promote earthquake research, outreach, and education in the state of South Carolina. Working with local, regional, state and federal offices, SCEEP has developed education programs for everyone from professional hazard management teams to formal and informal educators. SCEEP also works with the media to ensure accurate reporting of earthquake and other hazard information and to increase the public's understanding of earthquake science and earthquake seismology. As part of this program, we have developed a series of activities that can be checked out by educators for use in their classrooms and in informal education venues. These activities are designed to provide educators with the information and tools they lack to adequately, informatively, and enjoyably teach about earthquake and earth science. The toolkits contain seven activities meeting a variety of National Education Standards, not only in Science, but also in Geography, Math, Social Studies, Arts Education, History and Language Arts - providing a truly multidisciplinary toolkit for educators. The activities provide information on earthquake myths, seismic waves, elastic rebound, vectors, liquefaction, location of an epicenter, and then finally South Carolina earthquakes. The activities are engaging and inquiry based, implementing proven effective strategies for peaking learners' interest in scientific phenomena. All materials are provided within the toolkit and so it is truly check and go. While the SCEEP team has provided instructions and grade level suggestions for implementing the activity in an educational setting, the educator has full reign on what to showcase

  12. The Management Academy for Public Health: the South Carolina experience.

    PubMed

    Cumbey, Dorothy A; Ellison, Lu Anne

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) was faced with the challenges of a workforce that was not prepared in public health; the impending loss of significant agency expertise, leadership, and institutional knowledge through retirement; the lack of available and accessible training; and continuing state budget cuts. Preparedness for bioterrorism and other public health emergencies was also of concern, a need made more urgent after 2001. To respond to current and emerging public health challenges, the SCDHEC had to have a workforce with the knowledge and skills necessary for the delivery of essential public health services. To address these challenges, the department partnered with the University of North Carolina in the pilot of the Management Academy for Public Health. The Management Academy is now integrated into the South Carolina workforce development strategy, and 199 staff members and 22 community partners have graduated from the program. Along with increased knowledge, skills, and abilities of individual staff and increased organizational and community capacity, a significant result of South Carolina's experience with the Management Academy for Public Health is the development of a training program for emergency preparedness modeled on the Management Academy. This highly successful program illustrates the replicability of the Management Academy model. PMID:16912610

  13. Ecology of southeastern shrub bogs (pocosins) and Carolina bays: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1982-11-01

    Shrub bogs of the Southeast occur in areas of poorly developed internal drainage that typically but not always have highly developed organic or peat soils. Pocosins and Carolina bays are types or subclasses of shrub bogs on the coastal plains of the Carolinas and Georgia. They share roughly the same distribution patterns, soil types, floral and faunal species composition and other community attributes, but differ in geological formation. Carolina bays may contain pocosin as well as other communities, but are defined more by their unique elliptical shape and geomorphometry. The pocosin community is largely defined by its vegetation, a combination of a dense shrub understory and a sparser canopy. The community is part of a complex successional sequence of communities (sedge bogs, savannas, cedar bogs, and bay forests) that may be controlled by such factors as fire, hydroperiod, soil type, and peat depth. Pocosins and Carolina bays harbor a number of animal groups and may be locally important in their ecology. Although few species are endemic to these habitats, they may provide important refuges for a number of species. These communities are simultaneously among the least understood and most rapidly disappearing habitats of the Southeast. Forestry and agricultural clearage are current impacts.

  14. Composition of phytoplankton communities and their contribution to secondary productivity in Carolina Bays on the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.B. . Dept. of Natural Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    The overall goal of this three-year project is to determine the importance of phytoplankton (microscopic algae) as a component of the food chain base in SRS Carolina Bays (shallow temporary ponds endemic to the Southeastern US). Previous investigations and ongoing SREL studies have determined the importance of Carolina bay zooplankton (microscopic crustacean herbivores) to the early life stages of amphibians. Our project is testing the hypothesis that phytoplankton are the primary component of zooplankton diets in these bays. Carolina Bays represent critical habitats for a whole class of vertebrates at SRS, the amphibians. Details of phytoplankton dynamics and productivity gained from our project will advance our understanding of ecological energetics within Carolina Bay systems. These results will also help determine the potential impact that these minute, but productive plants can have on SRS biota beyond the bounds of these aquatic ecosystems. Additional implications can be made concerning chemical elemental uptake and transfer from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. 12 figs.

  15. Locations and areas of ponds and Carolina Bays at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, J.D.; Woody, N.D.; Dicks, A.S.; Hollod, G.J.; Schalles, J.; Leversee, G.J.

    1982-05-01

    The Savannah River Plant has 28 ponds and 190 Carolina Bays on its 192,000-acreite. Excluding the Par Pond system, the mean pond area is 17.6 acre, with a range of 0.4 to 202.8 acres. Par Pond is the largest pond, with an area of 2500 acres. The mean Carolina Bay area is 6.6 acres, with a range of less than 0.3 to 124.0 acres. The geographical location of each pond and bay has been digitized and can be graphically displayed by computer. This capability will facilitate identification of wetland areas as required by Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands, May 24, 1977).

  16. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project: Implementation and Management of a Wetland Mitigation Bank.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher; DeSteven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca; Kilgo, John; Imm, Donald; Kolka, Randy; Blake, John, I.

    2003-01-01

    A wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses associated with future authorized construction and environmental restoration projects in SRS wetlands. The Bank was intended not only to hasten mitigation efforts with respect to regulatory requirements and implementation, but also to provide onsite and fully functional compensation of impacted wetland acreage prior to any impact. Restoration and enhancement of small isolated wetlands, as well as major bottomland wetland systems scattered throughout the nonindustrialized area of SRS were designated for inclusion in the Bank. Based on information and techniques gained from previous research efforts involving Carolina bay wetlands (DOE 1997), a project to restore degraded Carolina bays on SRS has been undertaken to serve as the initial ''deposit'' in The Bank. There are over 300 Carolina bays or bay-like depression wetlands on the SRS, of which an estimated two-thirds were ditched or disturbed prior to federal occupation of the Site (Kirkman et al., 1996). These isolated wetlands range from small ephemeral depressions to large permanent ponds of 10-50 hectares in size. They provide habitat to support a wide range of rare plant species, and many vertebrates (birds, amphibians, bats). Historical impacts to the Carolina bays at SRS were primarily associated with agricultural activities. Bays were often drained tilled and planted to crops. The consequence was a loss in the wetland hydrologic cycle, the native wetland vegetation, and associated wildlife. The purpose of this mitigation and research project is to restore the functions and vegetation typical of intact depression wetlands and, in doing so, to enhance habitat for wetland dependent wildlife on SRS.

  17. Hydrogeological characterization of southeast coastal plain aquifers and groundwater discharge to Onslow Bay, North Carolina (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, C. A.; Corbett, D. R.; Cable, J. E.; Spruill, R. K.

    2007-06-01

    SummaryThe natural geochemical tracer 222Rn was used to quantify submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) onto the continental shelf of Onslow Bay, North Carolina. Water column samples were collected aboard the R/V Cape Hatteras on July 21-26, 2002, and an additional nearshore water column transect and groundwater samples were collected in 2005/2006. Assessment of SGD was accomplished using a mass balance approach that quantified sources and sinks of radon, including benthic flux, exchange across the pycnocline or air-sea interfaces, horizontal transport into and out of the study area, and a water column inventory. Four independent geochemical box models were developed to quantify SGD regionally and with distance from shore. Overall, water column inventories and diffusion rates decreased with distance from shore. Average water column inventories were 8520 ± 1310, 7230 ± 1190, and 760 ± 510 dpm m -2 for three shore-parallel boxes from nearshore to offshore, and resulted in a regional average of 5800 ± 1050 dpm m -2 for the Regional box model. Diffusion rates of radon through the sediment-water interface were 0.9 ± 0.2, 0.6 ± 0.1, and 0.4 ± 0.1 dpm m -2 min -1 for the near to offshore models, and averaged 0.6 ± 0.1 dpm m -2 min -1 for the Regional box model. SGD estimates were calculated using two end-member 222Rn activities for the advecting fluids which allowed a distinction between terrestrially-driven SGD and total SGD. Terrestrially-driven and total SGD estimates averaged 0.2 and 0.7 cm d -1, respectively. The calculated terrestrially-driven SGD is as important in the delivery of fresh water as riverine sources to Onslow Bay and a significant contributor to the South Atlantic Bight.

  18. An Analysis of the Implementation of the South Carolina Anti-Bullying Legislation in the Middle Schools Involved in the Abbeville, South Carolina, School District Lawsuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Canty, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the anti-bullying policies of 24 South Carolina middle schools that were involved in the "Abbeville" lawsuit. These schools sued the state of South Carolina alleging that the school finding system was inadequate. The schools are plagued with numerous problems including being among the lowest performing in the…

  19. A new occurrence of telluride minerals in South Carolina.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, H.; Larson, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of drill cores from the Haile gold mine, Lancaster County, South Carolina, has revealed grains containing large amounts of Te with various combinations of Pb, Ag and Au in pyrite. These telluride minerals have so far not been identified. The nearby Brewer mine, on the basis of chemical evidence, also contains tellurides. The probable telluride localities in South Carolina are now expanded to three, significantly increasing the few reports of Te minerals from the Au deposits of the southeastern Piedmont, many of which are now considered to be volcanogenic. The occurrence of telluride minerals in gold ore from the Haile-Brewer area may help to explain the divergence in Au/Ag ratios reported in chemical analyses of drill core, ore samples and production records. Te, in addition, may be useful in geochemical exploration programmes in the SE Piedmont, including programmes using heavy mineral concentrates derived from stream alluvium. -R.S.M.

  20. Building a sustainable Academic Health Department: the South Carolina model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lillian Upton; Waddell, Lisa; Kyle, Joseph; Hand, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Given the limited resources available to public health, it is critical that university programs complement the development needs of agencies. Unfortunately, academic and practice public health entities have long been challenged in building sustainable collaborations that support practice-based research, teaching, and service. The academic health department concept offers a promising solution. In South Carolina, the partners started their academic health department program with a small grant that expanded into a dynamic infrastructure that supports innovative professional exchange and development programs. This article provides a background and describes the key elements of the South Carolina model: joint leadership, a multicomponent memorandum of agreement, and a shared professional development mission. The combination of these elements allows the partners to leverage resources and deftly respond to challenges and opportunities, ultimately fostering the sustainability of the collaboration. PMID:24667204

  1. Late Paleocene glyptosaur (Reptilia: Anguidae) osteoderms from South Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cicimurri, David J.; Knight, James L.; Self-Trail, Jean; Ebersole, Sandy M.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of South Carolina osteoderms is significant because they expand the late Paleocene geographic range of glyptosaurines eastward from the US midcontinent to the Atlantic Coastal Plain and provide one of the few North American records of these lizards inhabiting coastal habitats. This discovery also brings to light a possibility that post-Paleocene expansion of this group into Europe occurred via northeastward migration along the Atlantic coast of North America.

  2. Solar hot water system installed at Anderson, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., at Anderson, South Carolina. The building is a low-rise, two-story 114-room motel. The solar system was designed to provide 40 percent of the total hot water demand. The collector is a flat plate, liquid with an area of 750 square feet. Operation of this system was begun in November 1977, and has performed flawlessly for one year.

  3. Geohydrologic framework of the coastal plain aquifers of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, Walter R.; Davis, Marvin E.; Speiran, Gary K.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of investigations of aquifers throughout the United States as a part of the RASA (Regional Aquifer System Analysis) program. These investigations provide a comprehensive regional understanding of groundwater resources throughout the Nation. The Coastal Plain aquifers in South Carolina are being studied as a part of this program. An important part of a description of the groundwater resources is the development of a geohydrologic framework. Such a framework delineates the aquifers through which groundwater flows and the confining units which retard the flow of groundwater between aquifers. The Coastal Plain of South Carolina is underlain by a wedge of sediments that thickens from its inner margin, the Fall Line, to the coast and consists of sand, silt, clay, and limestone of Late Cretaceous to Holocene age. These sediments are underlain by pre-Cretaceous rocks consisting of consolidated sedimentary rocks of Triassic age and a complex of metamorphic and igneous rocks similar to those found near the surface in the Piedmont province of the State. The geohydrologic framework that divides the sediments of the South Carolina Coastal Plain into the Coastal Plain aquifer system is delineated by eleven geohydrologic sections and four maps showing the configuration of the top or base of individual aquifers. Although flow within the Coastal Plain aquifer system is three dimensional, simplifying the system by dividing it into a framework of discrete hydrologic units can aid significantly in understanding the hydrology of the system. This framework is the basis for the aquifers used in potentiometric mapping, transmissivity mapping, geochemical analysis, and groundwater flow modeling for the South Carolina RASA program. (Lantz-PTT)

  4. Imaging the changing shoreface along South Carolina's Grand Strand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. C.; Gayes, P. T.; McCoy, C.; Viso, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Grand Strand coastal region of South Carolina is located along Long Bay, a sediment starved embayment with few tidal inlets or fluvial sources of sediment input. The area has been the focus of ongoing coastal erosion, shoreface monitoring and geophysical/geologic framework investigations for more than a decade. We have taken a nested approach to studying shoreface morphology, looking across a range of timescales and spatial resolutions, focusing both onshore and off. Our research combines RTK-GPS beach surveys, ground-based LIDAR, beach cameras and aerial photography of the coastline, along with Chirp subbottom profiles, interferometric/multibeam bathymetry, and sidescan sonar surveys across the innershelf. Focusing on the central portion of the Grand Strand, several trends are apparent in observations across a range of time scales. In recent months, storm events and beach renourishment have influenced sediment patterns on the shoreface and innershelf. Evidence from beach profiles, shoreline surveys and sidescan sonar in the months following renourishment suggest a shift in sediment from the upper to lower shoreface and out onto the inner shelf. Pre and post surveys around Tropical Storm Hanna (September 2008) also appear to show a flux of sediment to the inner shelf. In contrast, past storm events appear to have directed sediment onshore and in many cases, the shelf appears to be the primary source of sediment to the region. Over longer time scales, we have observed seasonal variations in the geometry of the shoreface and a correlation between geologic framework and sediment distribution. Subparallel ledges along the innershelf appear to be funneling sediment offshore. Sidescan sonar and Chirp subbottom profiles suggest preservation of meandering tidal paleochannels along the innershelf that may be an important source of sediment to the region. Beach profiles over the past decade suggest a trend of lower shoreface retreat in areas with sediment cover offshore

  5. Modification of selected South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2012-01-01

    Historic scour was investigated at 231 bridges in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces of South Carolina by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation. These investigations led to the development of field-derived envelope curves that provided supplementary tools to assess the potential for scour at bridges in South Carolina for selected scour components that included clear-water abutment, contraction, and pier scour, and live-bed pier and contraction scour. The envelope curves consist of a single curve with one explanatory variable encompassing all of the measured field data for the respective scour components. In the current investigation, the clear-water abutment-scour and live-bed contraction-scour envelope curves were modified to include a family of curves that utilized two explanatory variables, providing a means to further refine the assessment of scour potential for those specific scour components. The modified envelope curves and guidance for their application are presented in this report.

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF BIOFUELS PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S.; French, T.

    2010-02-03

    The South Carolina Bio-Energy Research Collaborative is working together on the development and demonstration of technology options for the production of bio-fuels using renewable non-food crops and biomass resources that are available or could be made available in abundance in the southeastern United States. This collaboration consists of Arborgen LLC, Clemson University, Savannah River National Laboratory, and South Carolina State University, with support from Dyadic, Fagen Engineering, Renewed World Energies, and Spinx. Thus far, most work has centered on development of a fermentation-based process to convert switchgrass into ethanol, with the concomitant generation of a purified lignin stream. The process is not feed-specific, and the work scope has recently expanded to include sweet sorghum and wood. In parallel, the Collaborative is also working on developing an economical path to produce oils and fuels from algae. The Collaborative envisions an integrated bio-fuels process that can accept multiple feedstocks, shares common equipment, and that produces multiple product streams. The Collaborative is not the only group working on bio-energy in South Carolina, and other companies are involved in producing biomass derived energy products at an industrial scale.

  7. Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. Final report, Year 2

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, M.; Andrejko, M.; Corvinus, D.; Tisdale, M.

    1982-01-01

    South Carolina has few indigenous energy resources. Most widely known and utilized are hydropower, wood, and solar. Peat is a material composed of partially decomposed organic matter that, after burial for long periods of time, may eventually become coal. Peat is utilized as an energy resource for the production of electricity and for home heating in Europe and the Soviet Union. There are peat deposits in South Carolina, but peat has never been used as an energy resource within the state. This report presents the results of the two years of a planned four-year study of the quantity and energy potential of peat in South Carolina. In this year's survey two activities were undertaken. The first was to visit highly probable peat deposits to confirm the presence of fuel-grade peat. The second was to survey and characterize in more detail the areas judged to be of highest potential as major resources. The factors carrying the greatest weight in our determination of priority areas were: (1) a description of peat deposits in the scientific literature or from discussions with state and federal soil scientists; (2) mention of organic soils on soil maps or in the literature; and (3) information from farmers and other local citizens.

  8. Parental attendance and brood success in American Oystercatchers in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thibault, Janet M.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2010-01-01

    Research on breeding American Oystercatchers has focused on identifying factors that affect reproductive success but little attention has been paid to parent behavior during chick-rearing. Parental attendance of American Oystercatchers was measured in Bulls Bay and along the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Waterway) within the Cape Romain Region, South Carolina, USA, during 2006. Parental attendance rates averaged 90.9% in Bulls Bay and 81.4% along the Waterway. Daily survival of chicks was higher in Bulls Bay (0.989 ± 0.007) compared to the Waterway (0.966 ± 0.012). The extent of shellfish reefs (i.e. foraging areas) adjacent to nest sites was greater in Bulls Bay (5,633 ± 658 m2) compared to the Waterway (3,273 ± 850 m2). Mean parental attendance in Bulls Bay was higher for successful broods (90.5%) compared to failed broods (79.8%). In contrast, mean parental attendance along the Waterway was higher for failed broods (93.4%) compared to successful broods (67.5%). Less extensive shellfish reefs adjacent to nest sites along the Waterway appeared to require parents to depart more frequently to forage and the resultant reduction in attendance may have negatively affected chick survival. Bulls Bay may provide higher quality nesting habitat compared to the Waterway with respect to proximity to food resources and parental attendance. Management and conservation efforts for American Oystercatchers should consider the relationship between foraging and nesting habitat and variability in behavioral attributes, such as parental attendance, in relationship to environmental conditions which ultimately affect reproductive success.

  9. 76 FR 16593 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina: Prevention of Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... 2, 2008 (73 FR 31368), rule which conditionally approved South Carolina's NNSR program. South... in the SIP. \\1\\ On June 2, 2008 (73 FR 31368), EPA disapproved provisions in South Carolina's PSD and... ethanol through a natural fermentation process (hereafter referred to as the ``Ethanol Rule'') from...

  10. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  11. Geology of continental shelf, Onslow Bay, North Carolina, as revealed by submarine outcrops ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwelder, B. W.; Macintyre, Ian G.; Pilkey, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    Lithologic and stratigraphic data from rocks dredged from the continental shelf off Onslow Bay, North Carolina, provide surface control for seismic studies of the southeastern United States continental margin and help to explain the distribution of potentially economic phosphate-rich sediments on this shelf. Outcropping Miocene rocks in this area indicate that the region has long been a positive geologic feature and has received relatively little Pliocene and Pleistocene sedimentation. -from Authors

  12. Analysis of Acoustic Wave and Current Data Offshore of Mytle Beach, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, K. A.; Wren, A.

    2008-12-01

    Two bottom boundary layer (BBL) instrument frames have been deployed on the shoreface and inner-shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina offshore of Myrtle Beach as part of a South Carolina Sea Grant funded project to measure sediment transport over two hardbottom habitats. The inshore instrument frame is located on an extensive hardbottom surface 850 meters offshore. The second instrumented frame is secured to a hardbottom surface on the inner-shelf at a distance of approximately 2.5 km offshore. The nearshore BBL observing system is composed of a downward-looking RDI/ Teledyne 1200 kHz Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, an upward-looking Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current Profiler (AWAC), and an Aquatec Acoustic Backscatter Sensor. As part of this larger study, the wave and current data from the AWAC have been analyzed. Long-term continuous time series data include wave height, wave period, directional wave spectra, and the magnitude and direction of currents in the water column. Within the data set are several wave events, including several frontal passages and Tropical Storm Hanna which hit the Myrtle Beach area in early September. Wave data have been correlated with meteorological data, and a comparison of shoreface wave characteristics during each type of event are presented.

  13. Magnitude and extent of sediment toxicity in selected estuaries of South Carolina and Georgia. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Long, E.R.; Scott, G.I.; Kucklick, J.; Fulton, M.; Thompson, B.

    1998-04-01

    Surficial sediment samples were collected from 162 locations within five estuaries -- Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, Leadenwah Creek, Savannah River, and St. Simons Sound -- in coastal South Carolina and Georgia in a survey of sediment toxicity performed in 1993 and 1994. All samples were tested for toxicity with a battery of complimentary laboratory bioassays. The laboratory bioassays consisted of amphipod survival tests in solid-phase sediments, microbial bioluminescence (Microtox{trademark}) tests of organic solvent extracts, and sea urchin fertilization and embryo development tests of porewaters. Some samples also were tested in copepod reproduction and cytochrome P-450 RGS bioassays. Chemical analyses for a suite of trace metals, organic compounds, and sedimentological factors were performed with portions of most samples.

  14. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP), located at Aiken, South Carolina. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The following topics are discussed: general site information; air, soil, surface water and ground water; hydrogeology; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; release of tritium oxides; radioactivity in milk; contamination of ground water and wildlife; pesticide use; and release of radionuclides into seepage basins. 149 refs., 44 figs., 53 tabs.

  15. Research-Infused STEM Reform at South Carolina State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Daniel M., Jr.; Anderson, J. A.; Adzievski, K.

    2006-12-01

    South Carolina State University (SCSU) has embarked upon a mission to transform its science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines by offering more scholarships to students talented in the sciences, by introducing advanced topics in the introductory STEM courses, and by expanding research opportunities for STEM students. Specific examples will be provided from physics and astronomy. Program accomplishments after one year of operation will be highlighted, along with the difficulties of instituting such a broad-based reform. NSF HBCU-UP Award #0506062

  16. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    McDermott, S; Szwejbka, L; Mann, H; Durkin, M; Callaghan, W

    2001-05-01

    This study presents evidence that over 20 percent of pregnant women with a UTI in South Carolina did not have an antibiotic pharmacy claim within 14 days of diagnosis. Untreated maternal UTI in pregnancy was associated with a 22 percent increased risk for MR/DD in the infant compared to the risk for women who had a UTI and a pharmacy claim for an antibiotic and 31 percent increased risk compared to women who did not have a UTI. The importance of medications compliance should be emphasized in the care of pregnant women. PMID:11381775

  17. LONG-TERM EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gori, P.L.; Greene, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina, area offers a unique opportunity to conduct studies that give insight into the implementation of policy for long-term earthquake preparedness at the local level. Research by Greene and Gori documented the low state of preparedness in 1981. Recent studies show that earthquake preparedness activities are now occurring in Charleston. Since 1981, increased national attention has been used by local citizens in Charleston to overcome political, informational, social, organizational, and economic barriers which tend to retard the adoption and implementation of earthquake mitigation policies.

  18. Hardwood re-sprout control in hydrologically restored Carolina Bay depression wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Lee, Justin

    2009-06-01

    Carolina bays are isolated depression wetlands located in the upper coastal plain region of the eastern Unites States. Disturbance of this wetland type has been widespread, and many sites contain one or more drainage ditches as a result of agricultural conversion. Restoration of bays is of interest because they are important habitats for rare flora and fauna species. Previous bay restoration projects have identified woody competitors in the seedbank and re-sprouting as impediments to the establishment of herbaceous wetland vegetation communities. Three bays were hydrologically restored on the Savannah River Site, SC, by plugging drainage ditches. Residual pine/hardwood stands within the bays were harvested and the vegetative response of the seedbank to the hydrologic change was monitored. A foliar herbicide approved for use in wetlands (Habitat® (Isopropylamine salt of Imazapyr)) was applied on one-half of each bay to control red maple (Acer rubrum L.), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and water oak (Quercus nigra L.) sprouting. The effectiveness of the foliar herbicide was tested across a hydrologic gradient in an effort to better understand the relationship between depth and duration of flooding, the intensity of hardwood re-sprout pressure, and the need for hardwood management practices such as herbicide application.

  19. Prepared in Mind and Resources? A Report on Public Higher Education in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alacbay, Armand; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley signed into law the South Carolina Higher Education Efficiency and Administrative Policies Act, maintaining the transparency and accountability that lead to increased academic quality and affordability at colleges and universities. It is in this context that ACTA (American Council of Trustees and…

  20. School District Organization in South Carolina: Evaluating Performance and Fiscal Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This report examines school district size and organization in South Carolina and their impact on student achievement and fiscal efficiency. A brief overview discusses the history of school district organization since the Civil War, the current distribution of districts across size categories in South Carolina and the nation, variations in school…

  1. Inherit the Policy: A Sociocultural Approach to Understanding Evolutionary Biology Policy in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    South Carolina biology Indicator 5.6 calls for students to "Summarize ways that scientists use data from a variety of sources to investigate and critically analyze aspects of evolutionary theory" (South Carolina Department of Education, 2006). Levinson and Sutton (2001) offered a sociocultural approach to policy that considers cultural…

  2. 78 FR 57838 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 21-Dorchester County, South Carolina, Authorization of Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... inviting public comment (78 FR 34639, 06-10-2013). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of... Production Activity, AGFA Materials Corporation, (Photographic Film Cutting), Goose Creek, South Carolina On..., within Site 16 of FTZ 21, in Goose Creek, South Carolina. The notification was processed in...

  3. South Carolina Center for Teacher Recruitment. 92-93 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Center for Teacher Recruitment, Rock Hill.

    This report outlines and evaluates the 1992-93 accomplishments of the South Carolina Center for Teacher Recruitment and addresses future directions the Center and its programs will be taking. Following a historical overview and a profile of the South Carolina teacher, the main body of the document evaluates the following programs: (1) Minority…

  4. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Update. Volume 2, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Dr. Garrison Walters, executive director of the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, observes that a better job must be done in making others across the country more aware that South Carolina has an outstanding system of higher education. Despite its considerable strengths in higher education, the state has to do…

  5. South Carolina School Food Service Programs: A Study To Determine Fiscal Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Karl E.; Swann, John M.; Taylor, Susan L.

    This report identifies those qualities and characteristics that are usually associated with efficiently and effectively operated school food-service programs. Data were extracted from district audit reports filed with the South Carolina State Department of Education; from the South Carolina Department of Education Office of School Food-services;…

  6. Access Guide to South Carolina State Parks for People with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, Columbia. Div. of Engineering and Planning.

    The guide was developed to assist physically handicapped persons in using South Carolina State Parks. It describes some of the accessibility problems identified in a 1986 Inventory of Handicapped Accessibility in South Carolina State Parks and Welcome Centers. It is noted that building construction since 1967 has met handicapped design criteria…

  7. Retaining Graduates of South Carolina Public Colleges and Universities. Special Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    With significant investments being made in higher education, particularly through merit-based student financial aid programs intended to encourage enrollment and graduation from the state's colleges, and the need for increased numbers of college graduates in South Carolina, the question of whether graduates of South Carolina's colleges and…

  8. Graduation Rates in South Carolina Public High Schools: The Effect of School Size and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Thomas E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a comparison of the graduation rates among high schools in South Carolina closely analyzing school size and socioeconomic status. The purpose for the study was to answer two questions: What patterns and relationships exist between school size and graduation rates at high schools in South Carolina? What patterns and…

  9. Longitudinal Trend Analysis of Performance Indicators for South Carolina's Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Mohammad Nurul

    2010-01-01

    This study included an analysis of the trend of performance indicators for the technical college sector of higher education in South Carolina. In response to demands for accountability and transparency in higher education, the state of South Carolina developed sector specific performance indicators to measure various educational outcomes for each…

  10. Higher Education in South Carolina: A Briefing on the State's Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    South Carolina is home to a robust higher education system including 33 public institutions including 3 research universities, 10 comprehensive four-year universities, 4 two-year regional campuses of the University of South Carolina and 16 technical colleges. The State is also home to a number of independent and private colleges including: 23…

  11. The South Carolina Education Finance Act of 1977: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilo, Marvin R.

    The South Carolina Education Finance Act of 1977 aims toward equalization of public school finance in South Carolina. A major goal is the state provision of 70 percent of school funding. The bill contains three other major provisions: the Defined Minimum Program (DMP), the Index of Taxpaying Ability, and the Weighted Pupil/Base Pupil calculation.…

  12. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Annual Accountability Report, Fiscal Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (CHE) serves as the coordinating board for South Carolina's 33 public institutions of higher learning and is responsible for serving a dual role within state government acting both as an advocate for higher education as well as an oversight entity on behalf of the General Assembly. The agency's…

  13. 33 CFR 165.709 - Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Cooper River, South Carolina. 165.709 Section 165.709 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.709 Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina. (a) Regulated area. The Coast Guard is establishing a fixed security zone on all waters of the Cooper River, bank-to-bank and...

  14. 33 CFR 165.709 - Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Cooper River, South Carolina. 165.709 Section 165.709 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.709 Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina. (a) Regulated area. The Coast Guard is establishing a fixed security zone on all waters of the Cooper River, bank-to-bank and...

  15. 77 FR 75035 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina 110(a)(1) and (2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... the June 6, 2012, proposed rule are being incorporated into the South Carolina SIP.\\1\\ See 77 FR 33386... 128 requirements. 77 FR 33380, 33386. In addition, EPA is correcting the footnote on page 45492 of the... determination that South Carolina's SIP meets certain CAA requirements.'' See 77 FR 45492. EPA has...

  16. 77 FR 70992 - Foreign-Trade Zone 38-Spartanburg County, South Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 38--Spartanburg County, South Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; ZF Transmissions Gray Court, LLC, (Automatic Transmissions), Gray Court, SC The South Carolina State Ports...

  17. The Glass Cliff: An Examination of the Female Superintendency in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Blanche Boyd

    2013-01-01

    South Carolina public school districts are confronted with a series of difficult circumstances and rely more on female superintendents than the national average. The investigation of female South Carolina superintendents was guided by the glass cliff conceptual framework. The glass cliff represents situations where females are promoted over males…

  18. Annual Report of the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, January, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, Columbia.

    The 1977-78 fiscal year annual report of the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education is presented. The following topics are addressed: changes in commission membership, federally funded programs, the South Carolina Postsecondary Education Planning Commission (the 1202 commission), program approvals, health education, licensing non-public…

  19. A Consideration of the Social and Economic Costs to Citizens of South Carolina for Adult Illiteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rose Emily; Harris, Joan, Ed.

    Illiteracy is a social and economic problem in South Carolina. In 1980, 445,202 persons in the state, 25 years of age or older, had less than an elementary school education. In relation to other states, South Carolina is ranked second according to the percentage of the adult population with less than high school completion. Statistics show that…

  20. Planning status report, water resources appraisals for hydroelectric licensing: Cape Fear River Basin, North Carolina - South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The water resources of the Cape Fear River Basin which covers approximately 8570 square mile in eastern North Carolina and South Carolina are evaluated. Data are presented on existing and potential water resource development, on water uses, e.g., for irrigation, industrial and municipal water supplies, or in thermal power plant cooling systems, and on the status of hydro plant licensing. Past and current planning studies are summarized. The information presented is current as of September 1981. (LCL)

  1. South Carolina interglacial sites and stage 5 sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollin, John T.; Hearty, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    Amino acid and other studies have been made on the 30-km Pleistocene sections of the Intracoastal Waterway between Myrtle Beach and Little River, South Carolina. Our ratios differentiate the long-established Waccamaw (oldest), Canepatch, and Socastee formations. The ratios from the four laboratories that have worked in this area agree very well, and apparent conflicts with U-series dates may merely reflect an abundance of reworked corals. Our amino acid correlations with U-series coral dates in South Carolina, Bermuda, and the Mediterranean all argue that the classical Canepatch and its Horry Clay date from isotope stage 5e and not, as has been implied, from stage 7, 9, 11, or 13. Excavations and erosion have increased position-fixing problems along the Waterway, and "Canepatch" amino acid ratios and U-series dates (460,000 ± 100,000 yr B.P.) at "ICW5" may be from an older unit. The Canepatch shows the double marine transgression visible in many stage 5e deposits. Pollen shows that the second transgression occurred late in the interglaciation, and stratigraphic studies show that it reached 14 m. It therefore fits very well Antarctic ice-surge models of stage 5 sea level and climate. The Socastee adds to the evidence for one or more sea levels above 0 m late in stage 5.

  2. Mercury in bald eagle nestlings from South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Jagoe, Charles H; Bryan, A Lawrence; Brant, Heather A; Murphy, Thomas M; Brisbin, I Lehr

    2002-10-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) may be at risk from contaminants in their diet and young birds may be particularly sensitive to contaminant exposure. To evaluate potential risks from dietary mercury exposure to eagle nestlings in South Carolina (USA), we surveyed mercury concentrations in 34 nestlings over two breeding seasons (1998 and 1999). Samples were also obtained from several post-fledging eagles in the region. Nestling feather mercury ranged from 0.61-6.67 micrograms Hg/g dry weight, nestling down mercury from 0.50-5.05 micrograms Hg/g dry weight, and nestling blood mercury from 0.02-0.25 microgram Hg/g wet weight. We did not detect significant differences in tissue mercury between nestlings from coastal and inland regions in contrast to some other studies of piscivorous birds. Mercury concentrations were much higher in the post fledging birds we sampled. Our data show that nestling eagles in South Carolina are accumulating mercury, and that concentrations in older birds may exceed regulatory guidelines. PMID:12528436

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in blue crabs from South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Mathews, T.D.

    1987-11-01

    Blue crabs are important members of the estuarine food web due to their numbers and their multiple roles as scavengers, predators and prey. Because of their omnivorous feeding characteristics, wide distribution an close association with bottom sediments, the potential exists for blue crabs to bioaccumulate pollutants residing in those sediments as has been shown for fiddler crabs. It follows that human health risk upon consumption of such crabs and biomagnification through the food web become primary concerns. During the spring of 1985, commercial crab fishermen in Beaufort County, South Carolina contacted the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department (SCWMRD) concerning their perceptions of significantly declining catch rates in the Campbell Creek-Whale Branch area. Using knowledge of previously documented elevated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in the sediments of the upper portion of Campbell Creek, the SCWMRD initiated analysis of crab tissue from the area to ascertain the body burdens of PCBs. Initial screening results indicated potentially significant levels of PCBs in blue crabs at which time, SCWMRD contacted the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) for more intensive study and definition of the situation. The work reported here was conducted between June and October 1985.

  4. Influence of soil physicochemical properties on hydrology and restoration response in Carolina Bay wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C. D.; Andrews, D.M.; Kolka, R.K.

    2006-04-01

    Carolina Bays are shallow depression wetlands found in the southeast US that have been severely altered by human activity. The need to restore these complex and diverse systems is well established, but our understanding of basic wetland hydrological processes is limited, hence our ability to predict the need for and/or assess the effectiveness of bay restorations is hindered. Differing physicochemical properties of soils within bay interiors may control bay hydrology. However, previous efforts to establish relationships between soil characteristics and bay hydrology have been inconclusive and the question still remains as to why some bays are ponded throughout the year while others, within a similar landscape unit, are predominantly dry. An assessment of soil and hydrologic characteristics was initiated in restored and unrestored control bays to determine if a relationship exists. Soil morphology was described and permanent monitoring wells were installed at each site. Soil samples were collected by horizon to a depth of 2 meters at the topographic center of each site, and then analyzed. After three years, multiple regression analysis (stepwise backward and forward) was used to establish relationships between the soil physicochemical characteristics and bay hydroperiod in the undisturbed sites. Results from surface soils indicated that exchangeable acidity (EA) was the best single predictor of hydrology. The best double predictor was EA and total N and EA, total N and total C as the best triple predictor. A significant relationship (r2 = 0.96) between hydroperiod and clay content in the argillic horizon (Bt) was also observed. Subsequently, this relationship was utilized to predict hydrologic response using pre-restoration hydroperiod data. The model accurately identified sites that did not need hydrologic restoration (too wet), and effectively showed sites that responded well to restoration activities.

  5. An aerial photographic census of Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Goldsberry, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Derleth, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional 35 mm photography was used to conduct an aerial photographic census of canvasbacks (A. valisineria) throughout Chesapeake Bay (tidal Maryland and Virginia) and coastal North Carolina, Jan. 26-30, 1981. Flock size and sex ratio characteristics were determined from examination of color transparencies of 165 canvasback flocks totaling > 95,000 birds. A sex ratio of 2.91 males/female was determined from 68,769 birds, 80% of the birds in 150 flocks. Sex ratio for the Atlantic Flyway was projected as 2.90 males/female. The greatest number of canvasbacks and the widest range of flock size were recorded in Maryland waters; the fewest canvasbacks and the smallest average flock size in Virginia; and the fewest but on average the largest flocks of canvasbacks in North Carolina. Sex ratio varied latitudinally in the flyway with a tendency for males to occupy more northern and females more southern latitudes in winter. Sex ratio (males/female) was highest in Maryland (3.98), slightly lower in Virginia (3.71), and lowest in North Carolina (1.70). Locally, sex ratio varied with flock size. In Chesapeake Bay, small flocks ( 1000) flocks. By providing large-sample sex ratio information, as well as exact counts of birds, low-level 35-mm aerial photography is the most efficient and accurate means of determining canvasback population status in eastern coastal habitats.

  6. Flock sizes and sex ratios of canvasbacks in Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Derleth, E.L.; Link, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution, size, and sex ratios of flocks of wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) is fundamental to understanding the species' winter ecology and providing guidelines for management. Consequently, in winter 1986-87, we conducted 4 monthly aerial photographic surveys to investigate temporal changes in distribution, size, and sex ratios of canvasback flocks in traditional wintering areas of Chesapeake Bay and coastal North Carolina. Surveys yielded 35mm imagery of 194,664 canvasbacks in 842 flocks. Models revealed monthly patterns of flock size in North Carolina and Virginia, but no pattern of change in Maryland. A stepwise analysis of flock size and sex ratio fit a common positive slope (increasing proportion male) for all state-month datasets, except for North Carolina in February where the slope was larger (P lt 0.001). State and month effects on intercepts were significant (P lt 0.001) and confirmed a previously identified latitudinal gradient in sex ratio in the survey region. There was no relationship between flock purity (% canvasbacks vs. other species) and flock size except in North Carolina in January, February, and March when flock purity was related to flock size. Contrasting characteristics in North Carolina with regard to flock size (larger flocks) and flock purity suggested that proximate factors were reinforcing flocking behavior and possibly species fidelity there. Of possible factors, the need to locate foraging sites within this large, open-water environment was hypothesized to be of primary importance. Comparison of January 1981 and 1987 sex ratios indicated no change in Maryland, but lower (P lt 0.05) canvasback sex ratios (proportion male) in Virginia and North Carolina.

  7. Oblique interior view of the south side bay showing the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique interior view of the south side bay showing the presses. View facing southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Forge Shop & Galvanizing Shop, Sixth Street between Avenues D & E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. View of garage interior from northern bay looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of garage interior from northern bay looking south. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. View of front of garage, bays 37, facing south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front of garage, bays 3-7, facing south - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 15. SOUTH BAY, EAST END. LOOKING UP TO RIDGELINE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTH BAY, EAST END. LOOKING UP TO RIDGELINE. THE ARCHED "CONCRETE" IS PART OF A TEMPORARY MOVIE SET. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Cargo Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 70. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON HIGH BAY: SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON HIGH BAY: SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST TOWARD 51A - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  12. Overview of the south bay (taller half) of interior from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the south bay (taller half) of interior from the east end. View facing northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Shipfitters, Metal Workers & Boiler Shop, Lake Erie Street at Russell Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CENTRAL BAY OF EAST ARMORY, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CENTRAL BAY OF EAST ARMORY, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  14. 2. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION SHOWING BAYS 2 and 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION SHOWING BAYS 2 and 3, DIESEL AND TURNTABLE Photocopy of photograph, 1976 (Courtesy of Chesapeake Beach Railway Museum; Roy Hartman, photographer) - Chesapeake Beach Railroad Engine House, 21 Yost Place, Seat Pleasant, Prince George's County, MD

  15. 1. Ice Plant, south facade, two central bays. On the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ice Plant, south facade, two central bays. On the right, the Creamery; to the left, loading dock of Hay and Grain Warehouse. - Curtis Wharf, Ice Plant, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  16. Microclimates and energetics of free-living box turtles, Terrapene carolina, in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Penick, David N; Congdon, Justin; Spotila, James R; Williams, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    We measured microclimate, field metabolic rates (FMRs), water flux, and activity patterns of telemetered box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in South Carolina from September 1987 to October 1988. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and were active only sporadically during the rest of the year. Using the doubly labeled water method, we found that water flux averaged 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 mL kg(-1) d(-1) in winter, spring, and summer/fall, respectively. FMR for the same periods averaged 0.028, 0.065, and 0.124 mL CO(2) g(-1) h(-1). Differences in FMR among seasons were significant but not between sexes. Using operative temperatures, we predicted standard and maximum metabolic rates of turtles. In winter, FMR was elevated above standard metabolic rates and close to maximum metabolic rates, whereas in spring and summer/fall, FMR fell midway between standard and maximum metabolic rates. We used a model to predict metabolic rates, geographical distribution, and potential reproductive output of box turtles across latitudes in eastern North America. Low FMR and low annual reproductive output may allow box turtles to survive and flourish in unpredictable resource environments by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive success. PMID:11880978

  17. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  18. A guidance manual for assessing scour potential using the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Feaster, Toby D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations of bridge scour in order to better understand regional trends of scour within South Carolina. The studies collected historic-scour data at approximately 200 riverine bridges including measurements of clear-water abutment, contraction, and pier scour, as well as live-bed contraction and pier scour. These investigations provided valuable insights for regional scour trends and yielded bridge-scour envelope curves for assessing scour potential associated with all components of scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina. The application and limitations of these envelop cureves were documents in three reports, Each repoort addresses different components of bridge scour and this, there is a need to develop an integrated procedure for applying the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Carolina Department of Transportation initiated a cooperative effort to develop an integrated procedure and document the method in a guidance manual. In addition to developing the integrated procedure, field data from other investigations outside of South Carolina were used to verify the South Carolina bridge-source envelope curves.

  19. The 7Q10 in South Carolina water-quality regulation: Nearly fifty years later

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Cantrell, Wade M.

    2010-01-01

    The annual minimum 7-day average streamflow with a 10-year recurrence interval, often referred to as the 7Q10, has a long history of being an important low-flow statistic used in water-quality management in South Carolina as evidenced by its adoption into South Carolina law in 1967. State agencies, such as the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control and the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, use such lowflow statistics to determine Wasteload Allocations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System discharges, develop Total Maximum Daily Loads for streams, prepare the State Water Plan, and restrict the quantity of water that can be transferred out of basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, working cooperatively with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, is updating low-flow statistics at continuous-record streamflow gages in South Carolina on a basin-by-basin approach. Such statistics are influenced by length of record and hydrologic conditions under which the record was collected. Statewide low-flow statistics in South Carolina were last updated in 1987. Since that time several droughts have occurred with the most severe occurring from 1998-2002 and the most recent occurring from 2006-2009. The low-flow statistics for the Pee Dee River basin were the first to be completed in this ongoing investigation.

  20. Central Energy System Modernization at Fort Jackson, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; Dirks, James A.

    2006-11-29

    An evaluation of technology options was conducted for the central energy systems at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. There were two objectives in conducting this study. From a broader viewpoint, the Army would like to develop a systematic approach to management of its central energy systems and selected Fort Jackson for this ''pilot'' study for a prospective Central Energy System Modernization Program. From a site-specific perspective, the objective was to identify the lowest life-cycle cost energy supply option(s) at Fort Jackson for buildings currently served by central boilers and chillers. This study was co-funded by the Army's Southeast Region and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program.

  1. Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in South Carolina Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Swanson, Dustin A.; Adler, Peter H.; Grogan, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  2. Fuel Cell Research at the University of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zee, John W.

    2006-09-25

    Five projects were conducted in an effort to supplement the efforts of fuel cell research at the University of South Carolina and to contribute to the Technical Plan for Fuel Cells of the Department of Energy. These efforts include significant interaction with the industrial community through DOE funded projects and through the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (NSF-I/UCRC) for Fuel Cells at USC. The allocation of projects described below leveraged all of these sources of funding without overlap and redundancy. 1. "Novel Non-Precious Metal Catalyst For PEMFCs" (Dr. Branko Popov) 2. "Non Carbon Supported Catalysts" (Dr. John Weidner) 3. "Hydrogen Quality" (Dr. Jean St-Pierre) 4. "Gasket Materials: Mechanical and Chemical Stability in PEMFC" (Dr. Y.J. (Bill) Chao) 5. "Mathematical Modeling of PEM Fuel Cells," (Dr. Sirivatch (Vatch) Shimpalee)

  3. Police as contributors to Healthy Communities: Aiken, South Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Frommer, P; Papouchado, K

    2000-01-01

    In Aiken, South Carolina, community policing has led to numerous innovative programs that have contributed to a healthy community. The MOMS and COPS (Managing Our Maternity System with Community Oriented Policing System) program has played a significant part in the county's 50% decrease in infant mortality since 1989 and contributed to Aiken's designation as an All-America City in 1997. Other programs include a mentoring program for at-risk teen girls; instant crime reporting with donated cellular phones; seminars for seniors to alert them to scams and common crimes; demolition of unsafe homes; free installation of smoke detectors; a child ID program; and parental education on child brain development. Images p251-a p252-a PMID:10968763

  4. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides in South Carolina zoos.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Swanson, Dustin A; Adler, Peter H; Grogan, William L

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  5. 2005 hydrographic survey of south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Hovis, Gerald T.; Martin, Craig A.; Hubbard, James R.; Samant, Manoj R.; Sullivan, Steve M.

    2007-01-01

    An acoustic hydrographic survey of South San Francisco Bay (South Bay) was conducted in 2005. Over 20 million soundings were collected within an area of approximately 250 sq km (97 sq mi) of the bay extending south of Coyote Point on the west shore, to the San Leandro marina on the east, including Coyote Creek and Ravenswood, Alviso, Artesian, and Mud Sloughs. This is the first survey of this scale that has been conducted in South Bay since the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ocean Service (NOS) last surveyed the region in the early 1980s. Data from this survey will provide insight to changes in bay floor topography from the 1980s to 2005 and will also serve as essential baseline data for tracking changes that will occur as restoration of the South San Francisco Bay salt ponds progress. This report provides documentation on how the survey was conducted, an assessment of accuracy of the data, and distributes the sounding data with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata. Reports from NOS and Sea Surveyor, Inc., containing additional survey details are attached as appendices.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Mistreatment in South Carolina: The South Carolina Elder Mistreatment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Zajac, Kristyn; Strachan, Martha; Hernandez, Melba A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) derive prevalence estimates for elder mistreatment (emotional, physical, sexual, neglectful, and financial mistreatment of older adults [age 60 +]) in a randomly selected sample of South Carolinians; (b) examine correlates (i.e., potential risk factors) of mistreatment; and (c) examine incident…

  7. Subsurface energetics of the Gulf Stream cyclonic frontal zone off Onslow Bay, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, C.A.; Bane, J.M. Jr.

    1983-05-30

    It has been shown with the use of 4-month-long time series of velocity, temperature, and conductivity that fluctuating kinetic and potential energy was converted into kinetic and potential energy of the mean flow following a fluid particle in the subsurface Gulf Stream cyclonic frontal zone off Onslow Bay, North Carolina, during early 1979. This result agrees well with earlier measurements made in the surface layer off Onslow Bay. These flux calculations represent an important step in verifying the direction of the net cross-stream energy flux within the stream of Onslow Bay. According to an hypothesis presented for the growth and decay of Gulf Stream meanders along the continental margin of the southeastern United States. Onslow Bay is an area of decreasing meander amplitude. The direction of the energy conversion from meanders to the mean flow, determined from our calculations, is consistent with this hypothesis. Relatively low velocity covariances were found to be associated with relatively small transfers of kinetic energy during a period of low meander activity. This finding supports the notion that meanders play a significant role in the energy transformation processes. The presence of such 'quiet' periods may indicate a low-frequency modulation of Gulf Stream meander activity.

  8. Energetics of free-living box turtles (Terrapene carolina) near Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Penick, D.N. )

    1992-08-01

    I measured field metabolic rates (FMR), water fluxes, and activity patterns of the box turtle Terrapene carolina on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken Co., SC, from September, 1987 to October, 1988. Doubly labeled water (HT[sup 18]O) measurements of production (field metabolic rates, FMR) of telemetered turtles were taken in conjunction with measurements of operative temperatures (T[sub e]), turtle movement patterns, and micrometerological data consisting of air, litter, and substrate temperatures, solar and total radiation, and wind speed. Operative temperatures were used to predict standard (SMR) and maximum (MMR) metabolic rates, and these were compared to field metabolic rates (FMR) of box turtles in South Carolina. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and for long periods of time during the rest of the year. Water fluxes (ml/ kg*D) were 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 in the winter, late spring, and early fall, respectively. There was no statistically significant sexual difference in FMR so these results were pooled for each season. Mean mass specific metabolic rates (ml CO[sub 2]/g*h) were 0.028, 0.0654, and 0.124 for the winter, spring, and fall, respectively. There was a significant difference in metabolic rates for the seasons of the year. In winter, FMR is substantially elevated above SMR and close to MMR, while in spring and fall FMRs are midway between SMR and MMR (SMR = 0.004, 0.010, and 0.017, and MMR = 0.034, 0.154, and 0.208 (ml CO[sub 2]/9*h) in the winter, spring, and fall, respectively). The low field metabolic rate of box turtles and low annual reproductive output is characteristic of a low energy specialist. This strategy may allow them to survive and flourish in an uncertain resource and reproductive environment by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive output.

  9. Energetics of free-living box turtles (Terrapene carolina) near Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Penick, D.N.

    1992-08-01

    I measured field metabolic rates (FMR), water fluxes, and activity patterns of the box turtle Terrapene carolina on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken Co., SC, from September, 1987 to October, 1988. Doubly labeled water (HT{sup 18}O) measurements of production (field metabolic rates, FMR) of telemetered turtles were taken in conjunction with measurements of operative temperatures (T{sub e}), turtle movement patterns, and micrometerological data consisting of air, litter, and substrate temperatures, solar and total radiation, and wind speed. Operative temperatures were used to predict standard (SMR) and maximum (MMR) metabolic rates, and these were compared to field metabolic rates (FMR) of box turtles in South Carolina. Turtles were inactive for most of the winter and for long periods of time during the rest of the year. Water fluxes (ml/ kg*D) were 8.8, 18.9, and 26.4 in the winter, late spring, and early fall, respectively. There was no statistically significant sexual difference in FMR so these results were pooled for each season. Mean mass specific metabolic rates (ml CO{sub 2}/g*h) were 0.028, 0.0654, and 0.124 for the winter, spring, and fall, respectively. There was a significant difference in metabolic rates for the seasons of the year. In winter, FMR is substantially elevated above SMR and close to MMR, while in spring and fall FMRs are midway between SMR and MMR (SMR = 0.004, 0.010, and 0.017, and MMR = 0.034, 0.154, and 0.208 (ml CO{sub 2}/9*h) in the winter, spring, and fall, respectively). The low field metabolic rate of box turtles and low annual reproductive output is characteristic of a low energy specialist. This strategy may allow them to survive and flourish in an uncertain resource and reproductive environment by minimizing costs and risks, thereby maintaining greater lifetime reproductive output.

  10. 76 FR 81929 - South Carolina Public Service Authority; Notice of Workshop for Santee Cooper Hydroelectric Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Public Service Authority; Notice of Workshop for Santee... Carolina. Participation at the workshop will be limited to Commission staff, NMFS, SCPSA, and the Corps... concerning the workshop should be directed to John Inabinet of SCPSA at (843) 761-4069. The workshop...

  11. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Nearshore Hydrodynamics Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) a nearshore field experiment was carried out for five days in December 2003 just north of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, providing measurements of the waves, currents and morphological evolution. This experiment occurred concurrently with an extensive field campaign several kilometers offshore which included measurements of the waves and currents on and near a significant sand shoal. The purpose of the nearshore experiment was to aid in the identification of the effect of the offshore shoal on the nearshore processes. The resulting dataset will be used for verification of numerical models being used to investigate the hydrodynamics of the region. The experiment was carried out from December 10 to December 15 and consisted of measurements of the waves and currents, extensive surveys of the bathymetry every day, grab samples of the sediments, and video imagery. The hydrodynamics were measured using two Sontek Triton downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters and two Nortek AquaDopp profilers arranged in a cross-shore line from inside the swash to several surf zone widths past the breakers. The bathymetric surveying was accomplished using both a differential GPS system and a total station. Surveying was performed each day in order to capture the morphological changes. On the last day, seven sediment samples were taken along a single cross-section to determine the sediment characteristics across the beach. Additionally, a video camera was located on a balcony of the top floor of a nearby hotel providing an excellent field of view of the entire experimental area. Digital video was captured directly onto a computer during all daylight hours and many control points were surveyed in each day to facilitate rectification of the imagery. A variety of conditions were encountered during the experiment, including two storm fronts which passed through, generating wind speeds up to 15 m/s. The first storm generated

  12. Transgressive shoreline deposits seaward of coastal ponds along northeastern South Carolina coastline.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, E.; Harris, M. S.; Pender, R.; Ball, M.

    2007-12-01

    The arcuate Long Bay coastline of northeastern South Carolina is dominated by the 75 km long Grand Strand, which is the result of landward retreat of the shoreline intersecting the paleo Myrtle Beach barrier system. As the shoreline transgresses, three stages of development have been recognized in this large coastal embayment: (1) coastal barrier island landforms north and south of the central Grand Strand that are migrating across an irregular Pleistocene paleolandscape and have not intersected emergent Quaternary paralic terraces; (2) an intermediate stage where the transgressing shoreline has created shore parallel coastal lakes and vegetated wetlands between the transgressive sediment mass and the emergent terraces; and (3) coastal segments where the transgressive shoreline is actively eroding into the emergent Pleistocene core. This study uses ground penetrating radar (GPR) and vibracore data to study the intermediate stage lake coastline. The GPR data reveals landward dipping reflectors infilling uneven topography and channels formed in the low between the irregular paleo barrier high and retreating shoreline. Study of the transgressive architecture and intersection with paleo- shoreface is important for understanding future shoreline retreat and for understanding potential storm records preserved in the infill.

  13. Wind Powering America: A New Wind Economy for South Carolina and Georgia Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    SC Energy Office: Southern Alliance for Clean Energy

    2013-02-12

    This report describes all activities undertaken by the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy (SACE) in cooperation with the states of Georgia and South Carolina to develop a public outreach program, including shared analytical and reference tools and other technical assistance.

  14. "We're Number One!" How a First-Year Principal Won South Carolina's "Finest" Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Describes a number of specific projects undertaken by the new principal of an elementary school in Myrtle Beach (South Carolina) to build staff support and morale, student enthusiasm, and parent and community involvement. (PGD)

  15. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina.

  16. ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF SOUTH CAROLINA'S ESTUARIES: A NEW APPROACH INVOLVING INTEGRATED MEASURES OF CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The South Carolina Estuarine and Coastal Assessment Program (SCECAP) was initiated in 1999 to assess the condition of the state's coastal habitats using multiple measures of water quality, sediment quality, and biological condition. Sampling has subsequently been expanded to incl...

  17. The utilization of LANDSAT imagery in nuclear power plant siting. [in Pakistan, South Carolina, and Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggenberger, A. J.; Rowlands, D.; Rizzo, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used primarily to map geologic features such as lineaments, linears, faults, and other major geologic structures which affect site selection for a nuclear power plant. Areas studied include Pakistan, the South Carolina Piedmont, and Huelva, Spain.

  18. Characterization of storm runoff from selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Kevin J.; Reinhart, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to collect sufficient stormwater water-quality and flow data to document the type, concentration, and event load of selected constituents transported from South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) maintenance yards by stormwater runoff.

  19. 29. DETAIL: View from the west bay to the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL: View from the west bay to the south corner of the gate pivot area, showing the brace area, including the metal pivot, wood supports and wear (in a circular pattern surrounding the pivot) from the gate post. The view is looking northeast, from the bay west of the west gate sill. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  20. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  1. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  2. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  3. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  4. 40 CFR 81.113 - Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.113 Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South Carolina) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Savannah (Georgia)-Beaufort (South...

  5. 76 FR 41111 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; South Carolina; 110(a)(1) and (2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ...EPA is taking final action to approve the December 13, 2007, submission submitted by the State of South Carolina, through the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC DHEC) as demonstrating that the State meets the state implementation plan (SIP) requirements of sections 110(a)(1) and (2) of the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act) for the 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient......

  6. Burning peat and reworking loess contribute to the formation and evolution of a large Carolina-bay basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Waters, Matthew N.; Piehler, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Carolina bays are nearly ubiquitous along ~ 1300 km of the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain, but relatively few bays have been examined in detail, making their formation and evolution a topic of controversy. The Lake Mattamuskeet basin, eastern North Carolina, USA, is a conglomeration of multiple Carolina bays that form a > 162 km2 lake. The eastern shoreline of the lake is made up of a 2.9-km-wide plain of parabolic ridges that recorded rapid shoreface progradation. The lower shoreface deposit contains abundant charcoal beds and laminae dated 6465-6863 cal yr BP, corresponding with initiation of a lacustrine environment in the eastern part of the lake. A core from the western part of the lake sampled a 1541-1633 cal yr BP charcoal bed at the base of the lacustrine unit, indicating formation of this part of the basin postdates the eastern basin. Lake Mattamuskeet has no relationship to the Younger Dryas or a linked impact event because rim accretion significantly postdates 12,000 cal yr BP. The shoreline progradation, and association of charcoal beds with the oldest lake sediment in both main parts of the basin, suggest that fire and subsequent hydrodynamic processes were associated with initial formation of these Carolina bays.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of elder mistreatment in South Carolina: the South Carolina elder mistreatment study.

    PubMed

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Zajac, Kristyn; Strachan, Martha; Hernandez, Melba A; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Acierno, Ron

    2011-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) derive prevalence estimates for elder mistreatment (emotional, physical, sexual, neglectful, and financial mistreatment of older adults [age 60 +]) in a randomly selected sample of South Carolinians; (b) examine correlates (i.e., potential risk factors) of mistreatment; and (c) examine incident characteristics of mistreatment events. Random Digit Dialing (RDD) was used to derive a representative sample in terms of age and gender; computer-assisted telephone interviewing was used to standardize collection of demographic, correlate, and mistreatment data. Prevalence estimates and mistreatment correlates were obtained and subjected to logistic regression. A total of 902 participants provided data. Prevalence for mistreatment types (since age 60) were 12.9% emotional, 2.1% physical, 0.3% sexual, 5.4% potential neglect, and 6.6% financial exploitation by family member. The most consistent correlates of mistreatment across abuse types were low social support and needing assistance with daily living activities. One in 10 participants reported either emotional, physical, sexual, or neglectful mistreatment within the past year, and 2 in 10 reported mistreatment since age 60. Across categories, the most consistent correlate of mistreatment was low social support, representing an area toward which preventive intervention may be directed with significant public health implications. PMID:21602200

  8. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Wind Wave Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Voulgaris, G.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) wave and current data were collected offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC for 2 months in 2001-02. This field measurement campaign was the second of a three-part experiment series. While the overall objective of the study is to describe the processes governing the circulation, wave propagation and sediment transport along the northern South Carolina coast, this presentation focuses on the wave energy dissipation over a heterogeneous seafloor over a distance of 6 km. The data were collected between November 9, 2001 and January 17, 2002. The instruments were placed along a transect crossing a large sand shoal in an area otherwise largely deprived of sand, at depths of 8 to 12 meters. The four instruments used, in order of decreasing distance from shore, were 600 and1200 KHz RDI ADCP's, a Nortek Aquadopp and a Sontek Argonaut-XR. Bathymetry and bottom characteristics such as depth and thickness of sand layer are available through USGS's coastal relief model and side scan surveys. Wind data are supplied by a large-scale numerical wind model. Its output is compared with wind data collected at Frying Pan Shoals buoy and at an anemometer placed at Spring Maid pier after the experiment. The SWAN wave model (Booij et al. 1999) was used to model the spectral wave transformation from the offshore buoy to the inner stations and to compare the observed wave energy dissipation to the available models. There was no extreme storm event during the deployment period. The maximum significant wave height observed was 1.6 meters at the offshore wave station, and the mean wave height was 0.8 meters. The mean period was between 5 and 7 seconds most of the time. Significant wave energy dissipation (up to 40% decrease in wave energy flux) across 6 km was observed. A shift of the spectral peak and a change in the spectral shape was observed in many events, which were not generally reproduced by the model. Sand and rock bottom

  9. Biological inventory of the proposed site of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, L.J.

    1981-10-01

    Continued inventories of biota at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) site have resulted in the identification of indicator species (Representative Important Species) in addition to adding to our long-term data base on biota of the site. A large number of plant, insect, miscellaneous invertebrate, fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal species occur on the DWPF site. Of these, there are no nationally Threatened or Endangered species. Three plant species considered Threatened by the State of South Carolina occur on the DWPF site, and one of these, the spathulate seed box is known on the SRP only from Sun Bay, the Carolina bay located directly on the DWPF site. Mitigation attempts to relocate species are discussed. Monitoring will continue. (PSB)

  10. Estimating flood magnitude and frequency for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are essential for the design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood insurance studies, and flood-plain management. Flood-frequency estimates are particularly important in densely populated urban areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used a multistate approach to update methods for determining the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban and small, rural streams that are not substantially affected by regulation or tidal fluctuations in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina (Feaster and others, 2014). The multistate approach has the advantage over a single state approach of increasing the number of streamflow-gaging station (streamgages) available for analysis, expanding the geographical coverage that would allow for application of regional regression equations across state boundaries, and building on a previous flood-frequency investigation of rural streamgages in the Southeastern United States. This investigation was funded as part of a cooperative program of water-resources investigations between the USGS, the South Carolina Department of Transportation, and the North Carolina Department of Transportation. In addition, much of the data and information for the Georgia streamgages was funded through a similar cooperative program with the Georgia Department of Transportation.