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Sample records for beach california 22-28

  1. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks Collection Copy 1960 Original 1894 NORTHEAST ELEVATION (FRONT) - Plaza Fire House, 126 Plaza Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks Collection Copy 1960 Original 1887 NORTHEAST ELEVATION (FRONT) - Plaza Fire House, 126 Plaza Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks Collection Copy 1960 Original 1920 NORTHEAST ELEVATION (FRONT) - Plaza Fire House, 126 Plaza Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110.215 Section 110... REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach... permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. This officer...

  6. 33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110.215 Section 110... REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach... permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. This officer...

  7. 33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110.215 Section 110... REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach... permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. This officer...

  8. 33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110.215 Section 110... REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach... permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. This officer...

  9. 33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110.215 Section 110... REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach... permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. This officer...

  10. Highly Valued Degrees at California State University, Long Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) received the national award from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) for Excellence and Innovation in Student Success and Completion, recognizing record high graduation rates with a diverse student population, significantly above comparable institutions.…

  11. Seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).

  12. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  13. TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

  14. Neogene diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy of Naples Beach, California

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrette, R.J.; Marolt, R.E.; Finger, K.L.

    1986-04-01

    Diatoms and silicoflagellates recovered from Monterey Formation outcrops along Naples Beach, California, provide detailed biostratigraphy in the middle Miocene to upper Pliocene strata. Thirty-eight diatom and six silicoflagellate index species are identified among the 178 selected taxa documented in this section. Seven diatom zones and subzones of J. Barron's northeastern Pacific diatom zonation are recognized in this section. These zones range from the Denticulopsis lauta subzone a (+15.0 m.y.) to the base of the Thalasiosira oestrupii zone (approx. 5.0 m.y.). In addition, several diatom occurrences provide direction correlation between the Naples Beach section and DSDP Sites 173 and 469 off the northern and southern California coasts, respectively. A new silicoflagellate zonation is proposed for the Naples Beach section of the Monterey Formation, which consists of two range zones, the Corbisema triacantha and the Distephanus speculum minutus, and four subzones. These four subzones are characterized by Distephanus crux parvus, Mesocena diodon, Distephanus pseudofibula, and Distephanus frugalis, respectively. This zonation provides greater precision than previous biostratigraphic divisions of the DSDP sites. A new silicoflagellate species of the genus Dictyocha Ehrenberg is also described.

  15. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  16. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  19. Shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2003-10-01

    Frequent morning surveys of birds were conducted on 1 km of beach in southern California to investigate shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach. The overall mean abundance (98.6 individuals km -1), estimated biomass (9.6 kg km -1), and species richness (5.5 species km -1) of shorebirds observed were very high for a sandy beach in the temperate zone. Eight species, sanderling ( Calidris alba), semipalmated plover ( Charadrius semipalmatus), marbled godwit ( Limosa fedoa), black-bellied plover ( Pluvialis squatarola), western sandpiper ( Calidris mauri), willet ( Catoptrophorus semipalmatus), surfbird ( Aphriza virgata), and whimbrel ( Numenius phaeopus), occurred in overall mean abundances >1 bird km -1 and accounted for 97% of the abundance and biomass of shorebirds. Sanderlings were the most abundant shorebird every year (64% of individuals and 35% of the biomass). Different species of abundant shorebirds exhibited distinct patterns of use of beach habitat, including fall, spring, and winter peaks in abundance. Temporal variation in shorebird use on seasonal and interannual scales was associated with migration patterns, and also with habitat availability and condition. Seasonal variation in monthly mean abundance and estimated biomass of shorebirds varied over more than an order of magnitude and followed a similar pattern in each year, reaching maxima in the fall or winter (161-280 individuals km -1 and 15.4-23.9 kg km -1) and minima in May or June (3-11 individuals km -1 and 0.8-2.2 kg km -1). A minor peak in shorebird abundance and biomass coinciding with spring migration was observed in April of most years. The number of species of shorebirds observed in individual surveys ranged from 0 to 11 species km -1 and was positively and significantly correlated with abundance. Monthly mean species richness and the total species observed monthly followed similar seasonal patterns, ranging from annual maxima of 7.4-9.1 and 12-17 species km -1 between August and October

  20. Sunny with a chance of gastroenteritis: predicting swimmer risk at California beaches.

    PubMed

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2015-01-01

    Traditional beach management that uses concentrations of cultivatable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) may lead to delayed notification of unsafe swimming conditions. Predictive, nowcast models of beach water quality may help reduce beach management errors and enhance protection of public health. This study compares performances of five different types of statistical, data-driven predictive models: multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least-squares regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, in predicting advisories due to FIB contamination at 25 beaches along the California coastline. Classification tree and the binary logistic regression model with threshold tuning are consistently the best performing model types for California beaches. Beaches with good performing models usually have a rainfall/flow related dominating factor affecting beach water quality, while beaches having a deteriorating water quality trend or low FIB exceedance rates are less likely to have a good performing model. This study identifies circumstances when predictive models are the most effective, and suggests that using predictive models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions may improve public health protection at California beaches relative to current practices. PMID:25489920

  1. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  3. 29 CFR 22.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Motions. 22.28 Section 22.28 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state the relief sought, the authority...

  4. 29 CFR 22.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motions. 22.28 Section 22.28 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state the relief sought, the authority...

  5. 29 CFR 22.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motions. 22.28 Section 22.28 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state the relief sought, the authority...

  6. 29 CFR 22.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motions. 22.28 Section 22.28 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state the relief sought, the authority...

  7. 29 CFR 22.28 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Motions. 22.28 Section 22.28 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.28 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for an order or ruling shall be by motion. Motions shall state the relief sought, the authority...

  8. Stability of a very coarse-grained beach at Carmel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Monastery Beach at Carmel, California, is a pocket beach composed of very coarse to granular sediment. In profile, the beach has a well-defined berm crest; a steep foreshore; and a gently sloping, barless offshore covered by large, long-crested oscillation ripples. Carmel Submarine Canyon heads a few hundred meters offshore of the beach, and San Jose Creek, a small ephemeral steam, ponds onshore of the central part of the berm. Wave conditions vary greatly during a year because the beach lies open to the Pacific Ocean for azimuths between 270??-322??N whence come a variety of wave types. Even with a variable wave climate, Monastery Beach has maintained a swell profile for almost three years. Aperiodic beach surveys show that the beach responds little to seasonal changes in wave climate. Four survey lines maintained the same swell profile throughout the study period. The fifth line maintained a stable profile only across the foreshore; the berm was twice artificially breached during storms to prevent upstream flooding along San Jose Creek. In comparison, Carmel Beach, a nearby beach composed of medium sand, commonly alternates between swell and storm profiles. The increased stability of Monastery Beach relative to Carmel Beach is attributed to two factors: grain size differences and location within Carmel Bay. Rebuilding proceeded very slowly along the breached part of the berm at Monastery Beach. The probable cause of such a low recovery rate is that oscillation ripples trapped the sand that was carried offshore when San Jose Creek eroded the beach. The ripples, which are active under high-energy conditions, approach dormancy under low-energy conditions. Each ripple, therefore, acts like a reservoir, retaining sand during most swell conditions. ?? 1981.

  9. Block glides offshore Newport Beach, Southern California continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.G.; Clarke, S.H. Jr.; Kennedy, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    The continental slope offshore Newport Beach, California, is characterized by a relatively gentle (approximately 1/sup 0/) grade and is dissected by numerous channels and canyons, of which the most conspicuous is Newport Canyon. An unusual series of block-glide landslides have developed on this lope adjacent to many of these channels. Locally, secondary channels that develop along pull-apart fractures between the slide blocks may service as conduits for downslope sediment movement. A detailed seismic-reflection survey of the area shows that the slope is underlain by soft water-saturated unstable sediment of Quaternary age. The block-glides lie wholly within this sediment; displaced blocks appear to have moved only a short distance downslope and are preserved as intact masses that exhibit downward increasing internal deformation. This deformation reaches a maximum near the front of the displaced mass and in basal beds nearest the slip surface. The morphology of the blocks and their intervening channellike erosional scarps is similar to that of glacial blocks and their associated bergschrunds. The formation of new scarps and the widening of channels formed as pull-aparts by the ongoing process of block movement may contribute to headward erosion and widening of Newport Canyon and its tributaries. Slope failure might be greatly enhanced by strong ground motion associated with nearby earthquakes. The authors suspect that renewed movement occurs on these blocks during major seismic events on the nearby Newport-Inglewood fault (e.g., 1933 M/sub L/ 6.3 event).

  10. Heterosexual anal intercourse among men in Long Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Hess, Kristen L; Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G

    2014-01-01

    Anal intercourse poses a greater risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than vaginal intercourse, and in recent years there has been a growing understanding that heterosexual anal intercourse (HAI) is not uncommon. However, the majority of the anal intercourse literature has focused on men who have sex with men. The little research on HAI has mostly looked at women, with limited work among men. This analysis examined the association between HAI and high-risk behaviors (N = 1,622) and sexual sensation seeking (N = 239) in a sample of men recruited from 2001 to 2012 in Long Beach, California. Almost half of the sample was non-Hispanic Black. The median age was 42 years, 42% were homeless, and 20% reported recent HAI. Men who reported HAI were likely to be Hispanic, were likely to be homeless, had a male partner, engaged in sex exchange, and used cocaine or amphetamines during sex. Men who reported HAI scored higher on the Sexual Sensation Seeking scale. This research supports other work showing the relationship between HAI and high-risk behaviors. More important, it contributes new knowledge by demonstrating the association between HAI and sexual sensation seeking. This research highlights the importance of personality traits when trying to understand sexual behavior and when developing HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24024565

  11. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically

  12. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petrolem by the development of different sources of energy. The study was accomplished under a cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy's San Francisco Operations Office and the Department of the Navy's Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California, for joint research and development of geothermal energy at military installations.

  13. Human viruses and viral indicators in marine water at two recreational beaches in Southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Gibbons, Christopher D; Griffith, John F; Yu, Qilu; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Waterborne enteric viruses may pose disease risks to bather health but occurrence of these viruses has been difficult to characterize at recreational beaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate water for human virus occurrence at two Southern California recreational beaches with a history of beach closures. Human enteric viruses (adenovirus and norovirus) and viral indicators (F+ and somatic coliphages) were measured in water samples over a 4-month period from Avalon Beach, Catalina Island (n = 324) and Doheny Beach, Orange County (n = 112). Human viruses were concentrated from 40 L samples and detected by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection frequencies at Doheny Beach were 25.5% (adenovirus) and 22.3% (norovirus), and at Avalon Beach were 9.3% (adenovirus) and 0.7% (norovirus). Positive associations between adenoviruses and fecal coliforms were observed at Doheny (p = 0.02) and Avalon (p = 0.01) Beaches. Human viruses were present at both beaches at higher frequencies than previously detected in the region, suggesting that the virus detection methods presented here may better measure potential health risks to bathers. These virus recovery, concentration, and molecular detection methods are advancing practices so that analysis of enteric viruses can become more effective and routine for recreational water quality monitoring. PMID:24642440

  14. Bacterial contamination at Huntington Beach, California - is it from a local offshore wastewater outfall?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping; Noble, Marlene; Rosenfeld, Leslie; Largier, John; Hamilton, Peter; Jones, Burt; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2003-01-01

    During the summers of 1999 and 2000, beaches at Huntington Beach, California, were repeatedly closed to swimming because of high bacteria levels in the surf zone. The city’s beaches are a major recreational and commercial resource, normally attracting millions of visitors each summer. One possible source of the bacterial contamination was the Orange County Sanitation District’s sewage outfall, which discharges treated wastewater 4.5 miles offshore at a depth of 200 feet. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating organizations have been investigating whether ocean currents and waves transport the wastewater to the beaches. These studies indicate that bacteria from the outfall are not a significant source of the beach contamination.

  15. Temporal and spatial variation in bird and human use of beaches in southern California.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Rodriguez, Donald A; Chapman, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Southern California's beaches can support a remarkable diversity of birds along the Pacific Flyway. We asked whether seasonal, annual, and spatial factors affect bird richness and abundance on public beaches. To do so, we conducted three years of monthly bird surveys on 12 sandy beaches in Ventura California. Across all surveys, we counted 22 shorebird species, 8 gull species, 24 other water bird species, and 24 landbird species. Sanderling, western gull, Heerman's gull, willet, marbled godwit, and whimbrel were the most abundant members of the bird community. Beach wrack was uncommon, particularly where beaches were groomed, and did not have a large effect on bird abundance, though it was positively associated with overall bird richness. Beaches near estuaries tended to be wide, and such beaches had a higher richness and abundance of birds. Beaches with shallow slopes tended to have more gulls and shorebirds. People and (illegal) unleashed dogs were common, particularly at beaches fronted by houses. The abundance and richness of shorebirds and the richness of other waterbirds was lower where human activity was high. Bird richness and abundance was strongly affected by season, with the highest density of birds being seen during the fall shorebird migration. Gull abundance peaked earlier (August-September) than shorebird abundance (October through December). A brief pulse of shorebirds also occurred in May due to spring migration. Comparing these data with surveys in the 1990's found no evidence for a decline in shorebirds over time, though black-bellied plover appear to still be recovering from the strong 1997-1998 ENSO. Opportunities to conserve birds on these beaches are limited, but could include enforcing leash laws and setting up human exclosures near estuary mouths. PMID:23450765

  16. Improving water quality through California's Clean Beach Initiative: an assessment of 17 projects.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, John H

    2010-07-01

    California's Clean Beach Initiative (CBI) funds projects to reduce loads of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) impacting beaches, thus providing an opportunity to judge the effectiveness of various CBI water pollution control strategies. Seventeen initial projects were selected for assessment to determine their effectiveness on reducing FIB in the receiving waters along beaches nearest to the projects. Control strategies included low-flow diversions, sterilization facilities, sewer improvements, pier best management practices (BMPs), vegetative swales, and enclosed beach BMPs. Assessments were based on statistical changes in pre- and postproject mean densities of FIB at shoreline monitoring stations targeted by the projects. Most low-flow diversions and the wetland swale project were effective in removing all contaminated runoff from beaches. UV sterilization was effective when coupled with pretreatment filtration and where effluent was released within a few hundred meters of the beach to avoid FIB regrowth. Other BMPs were less effective because they treated only a portion of contaminant sources impacting their target beach. These findings should be useful to other coastal states and agencies faced with similar pollution control problems. PMID:19496001

  17. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  18. The BA in Translation and Interpretation at California State, Long Beach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainof, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    Describes a translation and interpretation program at the University of California, Long Beach. The program affords students in both English and Spanish an opportunity to develop and perfect their linguistic skills and cultural knowledge to pursue a career in the field of translation and interpretation. The program covers technical vocabulary,…

  19. Integrating Philosophy for Children and Young Adults into the Public Schools: Tales from Long Beach, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goering, Sara; Whittaker, Debbie

    2007-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences in developing and expanding a philosophy in the schools program in Long Beach, California. We point to similarities and differences between our program and other philosophy for children programs, and describe the concerns and growing pains our program has experienced in its first seven years of…

  20. Testing Race-Neutral Admissions Models: Lessons from California State University-Long Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I.; Novack, Vincent; Dowell, David

    2005-01-01

    This policy analysis article examines how California State University-Long Beach, an institution where upward of 22,000 student applied for roughly 3,400 freshman slots and where the transfer class had to be reduced because of mandatory enrollment reductions, tested race-neutral admissions models in accordance with Proposition 209, which prohibits…

  1. Occurrence and Persistence of Bacterial Pathogens and Indicator Organisms in Beach Sand along the California Coast

    PubMed Central

    Yamahara, Kevan M.; Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Goodwin, Kelly D.

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the presence of fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in sand at 53 California marine beaches using both culture-dependent and -independent (PCR and quantitative PCR [QPCR]) methods. Fecal indicator bacteria were widespread in California beach sand, with Escherichia coli and enterococci detected at 68% and 94% of the beaches surveyed, respectively. Somatic coliphages and a Bacteroidales human-specific fecal marker were detected at 43% and 13% of the beaches, respectively. Dry sand samples from almost 30% of the beaches contained at least one of the following pathogens: Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which were detected at 15%, 13%, 14%, and 3% of tested beaches, respectively. Fecal indicators and pathogens were poorly correlated to one another and to land cover. Sands were dry at the time of collection, and those with relatively high moisture tended to have higher concentrations or a more frequent occurrence of both indicators and pathogens. Using culture-dependent assays, fecal indicators decayed faster than pathogens in microcosm experiments using unaltered beach sand seeded with sewage and assessed by culture-dependent assays. The following order of persistence was observed (listed from most to least persistent): Campylobacter > Salmonella > somatic coliphages > enterococci > E. coli > F+ phages. In contrast, pathogens decayed faster than fecal indicators in culture-independent assays: enterococci > Bacteroidales human-specific marker > Salmonella > Campylobacter. Microcosm experiments demonstrated that both indicators and pathogens were mobilized by wetting with seawater. Decay rates measured by QPCR were lower than those measured with culture-dependent methods. Enterococcal persistence and possible growth were observed for wetted microcosms relative to unwetted controls. PMID:22247142

  2. Mid-El Niño erosion at nourished and unnourished Southern California beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Gallien, T. W.; Crosby, S. C.; Guza, R. T.

    2016-05-01

    Wave conditions in Southern California during the 2015-2016 El Niño were similar to the 2009-2010 El Niño, previously the most erosive (minimum beach widths and subaerial sand levels) in a 7 year record. As of February 2016, Torrey Pines Beach had eroded slightly below 2009-2010 levels, threatening the shoulder of a major highway. However, Cardiff, Solana, and Imperial Beaches, nourished with imported sand in 2012, were on average 1-2 m more elevated and more than 10 m wider than in 2009-2010. Monthly subaerial sand elevation observations showed that the nourished beaches remained consistently wider than unnourished beaches under similar wave conditions. In contrast to a 2001 nourishment at Torrey Pines built with native sized sand that was removed from the beach face during a single storm, these relatively coarse grained nourishments protected shorelines for several years, and during the significant wave attack of the 2015-2016 El Niño, as of February 2016.

  3. Paleontology and geochronology of the Long Beach core sites and monitoring wells, Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin; Hillhouse, John; Powell, Charles, II; Mahan, Shannon; Wan, Elmira; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Focus on Quaternary Stratigraphy in Los Angeles (FOQUS-LA) project was a cooperative coring program between Federal, State, and local agencies. It was designed to provide a better understanding of earthquake potentials and to develop a stratigraphic model of the western Los Angeles Basin in California. The biostratigraphic, geochronologic, and paleoecologic analyses of eight wells drilled during the FOQUS-LA project are presented. These analyses are based on microfossils (benthic and planktic foraminifers), macrofossils, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, optically stimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, radiocarbon dating, and tephrochronology. A geochronologic framework (incorporating paleomagnetism, luminescence, and tephrochronology) was used to calibrate the sequence stratigraphic units in the FOQUS-LA wells and also was used to calibrate the ages of the microfossil stage and zonal boundaries. The results of this study show that (1) the offshore California margin zones can be used in a nearshore setting, and (2) the California margin zonal scheme refines the chronostratigraphic resolution of the benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphic framework for the Pacific Coast. Benthic foraminiferal stages are modified by the recognition of an early Hallian substage, which is a faunal change recognized throughout the Los Angeles Basin. Although no detailed macrofossil zonations exist for the Quaternary of southern California, several species, whose distribution is regulated by the climatic conditions, are useful as secondary marker species in the shallower water deposits of the Los Angeles Basin.

  4. Beach Sands Along the California Coast are Diffuse Sources of Fecal Bacteria to Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, A. B.; Yamahara, K.; Layton, B.

    2007-05-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are nearly ubiquitous in California (CA) beach sands. Sands were collected from 55 beaches along the CA coast. Ninety-one percent of the beaches had detectable enterococci (ENT) while 62% had detectable E. coli (EC) in their sands. The presence of a putative bacterial source (such as a river), the degree of wave shelter, and surrounding land use explained a significant (p<0.05) fraction of the variation in both ENT and EC densities between beaches. Sand characteristics including moisture content, organic carbon, and percent fines, significantly (p<0.05) influenced only EC densities in beach sand. We assayed 34 of 163 sand samples for salmonellae, but did not detect this bacterial pathogen. The potential for FIB to be transported from the sand to sea was investigated at a single wave-sheltered beach with high densities of ENT in beach sand: Lovers Point, CA (LP). We collected samples of exposed and submerged sands as well as water over a 24 h period in order to compare the disappearance or appearance of ENT in sand and the water column. Exposed sands had significantly higher densities of ENT than submerged sands with the highest densities located near the high tide line. Water column ENT densities began low, increased sharply during the first flood tide and slowly decreased over the remainder of the study. During the first flood tide, the number of ENT that entered the water column was nearly equivalent to the number of ENT lost from exposed sands when they were submerged by seawater. The decrease in nearshore ENT concentrations after the initial influx can be explained by ENT die-off and dilution with clean ocean water. A source tracking study at LP indicated that ENT were likely of human origin because they were positive for the esp gene.

  5. Preliminary chemical quality study in the Manhattan Beach area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Robert

    1956-01-01

    In 1904 Mendenhall (1905) made a survey of the ground water conditions in southern California. At the time of his survey the piezometric surface in the area was above sea level, but since that time water levels have declined. During the 1920's, years of rapid development, the water levels declined at an increasing rate. However, because of decreased pumping during the depression years of the 1930's, the levels tended to recover somewhat. During the war years of the 1940's, a large expansion of industry occurred in the area, and ground water withdrawals greatly increased. By 1945 water levels in some areas had declined as much as 70 feet below sea levels In the coastal region this heavy withdrawal and the ensuing dry years rapidly lowered the ground water levels, reversing the normal seaward flow of the underground water to a landward flow.

  6. Marine debris in central California: quantifying type and abundance of beach litter in Monterey Bay, CA.

    PubMed

    Rosevelt, C; Los Huertos, M; Garza, C; Nevins, H M

    2013-06-15

    Monitoring beach litter is essential for reducing ecological threats towards humans and wildlife. In Monterey Bay, CA information on seasonal and spatial patterns is understudied. Central California's coastal managers require reliable information on debris abundance, distribution, and type, to support policy aimed at reducing litter. We developed a survey method that allowed for trained citizen scientists to quantify the types and abundance of beach litter. Sampling occurred from July 2009-June 2010. Litter abundance ranged from 0.03 to 17.1 items m(-2). Using a mixed model approach, we found season and location have the greatest effect on litter abundance. Styrofoam, the most numerically abundant item, made up 41% of the total amount of litter. Unexpected items included fertilizer pellets. The results of this study provide a baseline on the types and abundance of litter on the central coast and have directly supported policy banning Styrofoam take out containers from local municipalities. PMID:23499538

  7. Full time adult credential students' instructional preferences at California State University, Long Beach: pedagogy orandragogy?

    PubMed

    Wang, Victor

    2004-03-01

    This study investigated the instructional preferences of full time adult credential students after they took a live course called Principles of Adult Education at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) in the fall semester of 2002. These full time adult credential students had been working on their adult teaching credentials to meet the competencies specified by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. The course introduced students to Andragogy developed by Malcolm Knowles out of the andragogical model developed by Lindeman (1926). The study used Principles of Adult Learning Scales (PALS), advanced by Gary Conti in 1983 to measure instructional preferences. Data were collected from 30 (100% of 30) full time adult credential students enrolled in a live course to determine their instructional preferences of helping adults learn. The results of the study showed in most cases these adult learning professionals taught adult students andragogically; in some cases they taught adult students pedagogically. PMID:14727315

  8. The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte wrack subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; McCrary, Michael D.; Pierson, Mark O.

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the influence of marine macrophyte wrack subsidies on community structure, relationships between community attributes, including species richness, abundance, and biomass of macrofauna and abundance of shorebirds, and a variety of factors, including the standing crop of wrack and beach morphodynamics, were examined on 15 exposed sandy beaches on the southern California coast. The beaches sampled were primarily modally intermediate morphodynamic types, and three were groomed regularly. Species richness, abundance, and biomass of the macrofauna were high compared to values reported for similar beach types in other regions and were not predicted by morphodynamics or other physical factors. Overall species richness and abundance, and the species richness, abundance, and biomass of wrack-associated fauna and selected taxa were significantly correlated with the standing crop of macrophyte wrack. Wrack-associated macrofauna, such as amphipods, isopods, and insects, made up an average of >37% of the species on ungroomed beaches and comprised 25% or more of the total abundance on half of those beaches. The abundance of two shorebird species, plovers that forage using visual cues, was positively correlated with the standing crop of wrack and with the abundance of wrack-associated invertebrates. Significant differences in community structure, including depressed species richness, abundance, and biomass of macrofauna, especially for wrack-associated taxa, were associated with beach grooming and provided strong evidence for the bottom-up effects of wrack subsidies. Grooming also reduced the prey available to vertebrate predators, such as shorebirds. Substantial ecological effects of the large-scale disturbance and removal of organic material, food resources, and habitat are associated with beach grooming. These results suggest that macrophyte wrack subsidies strongly influence macrofaunal community structure, higher trophic levels, and ecological processes on

  9. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seabright Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented sea cliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the sea cliffs where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence. This is the third map in a series of maps prepared to document the processes of short-term sea cliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot. This map presents sea cliff failure and retreat data from the Seabright Beach section, California, which is located on the east side of Santa Cruz along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of sea cliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the sea cliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El Ni?os; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. During this study we developed a method for investigating short-term processes of sea cliff evolution using rectified photographic stereo models. This method allows us to document the linear extent of cliff failures, the spatial and temporal relationship between failures, and

  10. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final Report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petroleum by the development of different sources of energy. The project required research of various reports and data, both published and unpublished, particularly those of the California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil and Gas and of oil companies with leases on or adjacent to the naval bases. Important field investigations included the measurement of well-head temperatures of fluids produced from selected oil wells at each naval base and a detailed gravity survey of the Seal Beach naval base and vicinity. The well-head temperatures were needed to evaluate individual wells as sources of geothermal energy, while the gravity survey attempted to discover subsurface geologic structures that might contain geothermal fluids of temperatures higher than those predicted by the regional geothermal conditions.

  11. Monoaromatic hydrocarbon transformation under anaerobic conditions at Seal Beach, California: Laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.

    1996-02-01

    Anaerobic biotransformation of several aromatic hydrocarbons found in gasoline including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) was studied in batch anaerobic laboratory microcosms. Aquifer sediment and ground water were obtained from the site of a historic gasoline spill at Seal Beach, California. Sulfate is present in the site ground water at 80 mg/L, and sulfate-reducing activity appears to be the dominant intrinsic BTEX bioremediation process where nitrate is absent. In the laboratory, the microcosms were set up with different electron acceptors (sulfate and nitrate) in site ground water and various defined anaerobic media to estimate intrinsic biodegradation rates and to suggest conditions under which anaerobic bioremediation could be enhanced. In unamended microcosms, anaerobic biotransformation of toluene and m + p-xylene occurred at a rate of 7.2 and 4.1 {micro}g/liter hr, respectively, with sulfate as the apparent electron acceptor. Addition of nitrate stimulated nitrate-reducing conditions and increased rates of toluene and m + p-xylene biotransformation to 30.1 and 5.4 {micro}g/liter hr, respectively. The catabolic substrate range was altered to include ethylbenzene in the nitrate-amended microcosms, suggesting an apparent preferential use of different BTEX compounds depending on the electron acceptor available. Under all the conditions studied, more than twice the amount of nitrate or sulfate was used than could be accounted for by the observed BTEX degradation. The results of these experiments indicate that indigenous microorganisms from the Seal Beach aquifer have significant capability to degrade BTEX hydrocarbons and that intrinsic processes in the Seal Beach aquifer may remediate a portion of the hydrocarbon contamination in situ without intervention. However, the data also suggest that intervention by nitrate addition would enhance the rate and extent of anaerobic BTEX biotransformation.

  12. Assessing health conditions and medication use among the homeless community in Long Beach, California

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Mok Thoong; Yamaki, Jason; Harwood, Megan; d'Assalenaux, Richard; Rosenberg, Ettie; Aruoma, Okezie; Bishayee, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Persons experiencing homelessness are a vulnerable population and are at increased risk for morbidity and all-cause mortality compared to the general population. This study sought to evaluate medication use, regular physician visits, and identify health conditions among the homeless population of Long Beach, California. Methods: Two “brown bag” medication review events were held at homeless shelters in the Long Beach area. Demographic information, medication use, and comorbid disease states were obtained through surveys. Findings: Three-fourths of the cohort (95 participants) consisted of males, and the average age of participants was 48 years. Psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular disease were the most common disease states reported at 32% and 46%, respectively and so were medications used in treating these chronic diseases. Medication adherence was found to be a significant problem in this population, where more than 30% of patients were nonadherent to medications for chronic diseases. Furthermore, foot problems, hearing and vision difficulties constitute the most commonly overlooked health problems within the homeless population. Conclusion: Based on this and other similar finding, we must accept that the homeless represent a vulnerable population, and that because of this fact, more programs should be focused at improving availability and access to health care among the homeless. Regarding the high number of reported health problems in the study, more studies are needed and more studies should incorporate screening for foot, hearing, and vision issues, both to increase awareness and to provide an opportunity for devising possible solutions to these highly preventable conditions. PMID:25114938

  13. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and...

  14. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and...

  15. Observations of coastal sediment dynamics of the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project, Imperial Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Lam, Angela; Ferreiera, Joanne; Miller, Ian M.; Rippy, Meg; Svejkovsky, Jan; Mustain, Neomi

    2012-01-01

    Coastal restoration and management must address the presence, use, and transportation of fine sediment, yet little information exists on the patterns and/or processes of fine-sediment transport and deposition for these systems. To fill this information gap, a number of State of California, Federal, and private industry partners developed the Tijuana Estuary Fine Sediment Fate and Transport Demonstration Project ("Demonstration Project") with the purpose of monitoring the transport, fate, and impacts of fine sediment from beach-sediment nourishments in 2008 and 2009 near the Tijuana River estuary, Imperial Beach, California. The primary purpose of the Demonstration Project was to collect and provide information about the directions, rates, and processes of fine-sediment transport along and across a California beach and nearshore setting. To achieve these goals, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored water, beach, and seafloor properties during the 2008–2009 Demonstration Project. The project utilized sediment with ~40 percent fine sediment by mass so that the dispersal and transport of fine sediment would be easily recognizable. The purpose of this report is to present and disseminate the data collected during the physical monitoring of the Demonstration Project. These data are available online at the links noted in the "Additional Digital Information" section. Synthesis of these data and results will be provided in subsequent publications.

  16. Sources and Pathways of Bacterial Contamination in Urban Streams and Ocean Beaches, Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Mendez, G. O.; La, J. X.; Izbicki, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Streams and ocean beaches in Santa Barbara, California, occasionally have concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria that exceed public health standards for recreational water, forcing temporary beach closures. Possible sources of fecal bacteria contamination include transient human populations, animal populations, and leaking sewer lines. The purpose of this three-year study is to identify important sources of fecal bacteria affecting the urban streams and beaches and to identify important pathways of transport. Contamination may enter streams and beaches directly by surface runoff, but also may be transmitted short distances through shallow ground water. Our analysis of existing historical data shows that fecal indicator bacteria concentrations are higher in near-shore ocean water following extreme high tides. The possible role of near shore ground water in supplying contaminants to the sea will be investigated by sampling water from an array of shallow wells installed for this study between an older city sewer line and the ocean. The ground water flux to the ocean will be inferred from water levels in these wells, and further tested by radium isotope values in near shore ocean samples. Two additional well arrays will be installed to test for leakage from residential sewage hookups and measure associated exchanges between ground water, streams, and ocean. Preliminary data collected by this study show fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in urban reaches of Mission Creek and its tributaries, the principle drainage through the city, are higher during low flow periods than during periods of higher flow. Analysis of preliminary data also shows short-term temporal variations in bacterial concentrations during twenty-four hour periods. Human enterovirus has been detected in our sample from one urban-drain tributary to Mission Creek. In order to identify the origins of fecal indicator bacteria water samples from Mission Creek, its tributaries, urban drains, and

  17. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the

  18. Revised Miocene and Pliocene diatom biostratigraphy of Upper Newport Bay, Newport Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    North Pacific diatom zones XXIII through IX of Schrader are recognizable in the middle Miocene to lower Pliocene stratigraphic section exposed around Upper Newport Bay in Newport Beach, California. Correlation with DSDP Site 173 and other stratigraphic sections in California allows the selection of diatom datums that are the most reliable for long-distance correlation. Individual diatom datums are proposed as markers for North Pacific diatom zones XXIII through IX. Correlations with DSDP Site 173 reveal a hiatus in the lower part of Core 15 that corresponds with a distinct lithologic and floral change in the core. Preliminary silicoflagellate data for the Upper Newport Bay stratigraphic section supports the diatom correlations. Correlation with calcareous nannofossil, radiolarian, and silicoflagellate zones at Upper Newport Bay and at DSDP Site 173 suggests that the boundary between North Pacific diatom zones XVII and XVI approximates the middle Miocene/upper Miocene boundary. The Miocene/Pliocene boundary is estimated to be in North Pacific diatom zone X. One new stratigraphically useful diatom species is described, Lithodesmium reynoldsii. ?? 1976.

  19. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Table 1 of this section must submit an application each year as required by 33 CFR part 100, subpart A... events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1104 Section 100.1104 Navigation and... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1104 Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach...

  20. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Table 1 of this section must submit an application each year as required by 33 CFR part 100, subpart A... events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone. 100.1104 Section 100.1104 Navigation and... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1104 Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach...

  1. Preliminary paleomagnetic results from Miocene Monterey Formation, Shell Beach, Pismo Basin, central California

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.M.; Coe, R.S.; Barron, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    An excellently exposed 300-m thick section of the Monterey Formation at Shell Beach, Pismo basin, has been sampled at intervals of 2-5 m for paleomagnetic analysis. This study is part of an ongoing research aimed at providing detailed magnetostratigraphy and geochronology of the Monterey Formation sections from northern and central California. Here they report on the detailed magnetostratigraphy and diatom biostratigraphy of the upper 150 m of the Shell Beach section, which spans a 2-m.y. long interval in the upper middle Miocene (upper lower Mohnian). Their preliminary data reveal two distinct components of magnetization in about 75% of the dolomite samples and 40-60% of the samples from calcareous to siliceous shales and cherty porcelanitic rocks. The first of these components (a), which is removed at T less than or equal to 200/sup 0/C, is presumably recent viscous magnetization. The thermally discrete second component (b) had dual polarity and stable and consistent directions with a relatively narrow unblocking temperature range (200/sup 0/-400/sup 0/C). Usually this component remains blocked on heating to 450/sup 0/-500/sup 0/C and is then masked by unusually high intensity components of magnetochemical origin produced during heating in the lab. In their best samples, orthogonal vector diagrams show that b is the early characteristic remanence, and all evidence to date suggests that this component is pre-Pliocene-Pleistocene folding and most likely primary. By using diatom data extracted from their samples, they are attempting to obtain detailed magnetostratigraphy for this section of the Monterey Formation.

  2. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High

  3. The fluorescent tracer experiment on Holiday Beach near Mugu Canyon, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsman, Nicole; Xu, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    After revisiting sand tracer techniques originally developed in the 1960s, a range of fluorescent coating formulations were tested in the laboratory. Explicit steps are presented for the preparation of the formulation evaluated to have superior attributes, a thermoplastic pigment/dye in a colloidal mixture with a vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer. In September 2010, 0.59 cubic meters of fluorescent tracer material was injected into the littoral zone about 4 kilometers upcoast of Mugu submarine canyon in California. The movement of tracer was monitored in three dimensions over the course of 4 days using manual and automated techniques. Detailed observations of the tracer's behavior in the coastal zone indicate that this tracer successfully mimicked the native beach sand and similar methods could be used to validate models of tracer movement in this type of environment. Recommendations including how to time successful tracer studies and how to scale the field of view of automated camera systems are presented along with the advantages and disadvantages of the described tracer methodology.

  4. Stochastic characterization of mesoscale seismic velocity heterogeneity in Long Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Nori; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's seismic velocity structure is heterogeneous at all scales, and mapping that heterogeneity provides insight into the processes that create it. At large scale lengths, seismic tomography is used to map Earth structure deterministically. At small scale lengths, structure can be imaged deterministically, but because it is impractical to image short-wavelength heterogeneity everywhere, we often resort to statistical methods to depict its variability. In this study, we develop random-field model representations of a 3-D P-wave velocity model at Long Beach, California, estimated from dense-array recordings of the ambient seismic wavefield. We focus on heterogeneity at the mesoscale, which is smaller than 10+ km scale of regional tomography but larger than the micro scale of borehole measurements. We explore four ellipsoidally anisotropic heterogeneity models, including von Kármán, Gaussian, self-affine and Kummer models, based on their autocorrelation functions. We find that the von Kármán model fits the imaged velocity model best among these options with a correlation length in the horizontal direction about five times greater than in the vertical direction, and with strong small-scale length variations. We validate our results by showing that our model accurately predicts the observed decay of scattered waves in the coda of a nearby earthquake, suggesting that quantitative measures of velocity variability will be useful for predicting high-frequency ground motion in earthquakes.

  5. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seacliff State Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented seacliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast (Moore and others, 1999) do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the seacliffs, where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence (Griggs and Scholar, 1998; Griggs, 1994; Plant and Griggs, 1990; Griggs and Johnson, 1979 and 1983; Kuhn and Shepard, 1979). This is the second map in a series of maps documenting the processes of short-term seacliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot (Moore and others, 1999; Griggs and Savoy, 1985). This map presents seacliff failure and retreat data from Seacliff State Beach, California, which is located seven kilometers east of Santa Cruz (fig. 1) along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of seacliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the seacliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El Ni?os; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. Four sets of vertical aerial photographs (Oct. 18, 1989; Jan. 27, 1998; Feb. 9, 1998

  6. Measurements of slope currents and internal tides on the Continental Shelf and slope off Newport Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Noble, Marlene A.; Norris, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    An array of seven moorings housing current meters and oceanographic sensors was deployed for 6 months at 5 sites on the Continental Shelf and slope off Newport Beach, California, from July 2011 to January 2012. Full water-column profiles of currents were acquired at all five sites, and a profile of water-column temperature was also acquired at two of the five sites for the duration of the deployment. In conjunction with this deployment, the Orange County Sanitation District deployed four bottom platforms with current meters on the San Pedro Shelf, and these meters provided water-column profiles of currents. The data from this program will provide the basis for an investigation of the interaction between the deep water flow over the slope and the internal tide on the Continental Shelf.

  7. 78 FR 33808 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California; Authorization of Production Activity; Panasonic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... in the Federal Register inviting public comment (78 FR 9667, 2-11-2013). The FTZ Board has determined... Activity; Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics); Anaheim, California...

  8. Academic Senate for California Community Colleges: 28th Fall Session Resolutions (Newport Beach, California, October 31-November 2, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, Sacramento.

    Documenting the fall 1996 session of the Academic Senate for the California Community Colleges (CCC), this six-part report details 39 resolutions that were adopted by the Senate, 1 that was determined to be non-urgent, 3 that were referred, and 10 that failed. The first part presents the adopted resolutions organized by the following areas: (1)…

  9. Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Coastal Beaches and Human and Nonhuman Sources in Southern California and Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Ginamary Negrón; Hernández, Luis A. Ríos; Ambrose, Richard F.; Jay, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants. All five virulence genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium from beach water, mostly among E. faecalis. gelE was the most common among isolates from all source types. There was a lower incidence of asa1, esp, cylA, and hyl genes among isolates from beach water, sewage, septage, urban runoff, sea wrack, and eelgrass as compared to human isolates, indicating that virulent strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium may not be widely disseminated at beaches. A higher frequency of asa1 and esp among E. faecalis from dogs and of asa1 among birds (mostly seagull) suggests that further studies on the distribution and virulence potential of strains carrying these genes may be warranted. PMID:27144029

  10. Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Coastal Beaches and Human and Nonhuman Sources in Southern California and Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Donna M; Talavera, Ginamary Negrón; Hernández, Luis A Ríos; Weisberg, Stephen B; Ambrose, Richard F; Jay, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants. All five virulence genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium from beach water, mostly among E. faecalis. gelE was the most common among isolates from all source types. There was a lower incidence of asa1, esp, cylA, and hyl genes among isolates from beach water, sewage, septage, urban runoff, sea wrack, and eelgrass as compared to human isolates, indicating that virulent strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium may not be widely disseminated at beaches. A higher frequency of asa1 and esp among E. faecalis from dogs and of asa1 among birds (mostly seagull) suggests that further studies on the distribution and virulence potential of strains carrying these genes may be warranted. PMID:27144029

  11. Tsunami(?) Sculpturing of the Pebble Beach Wave-Cut Platform, Crescent City Area, California.

    PubMed

    Aalto; Aalto; Garrison-Laney; Abramson

    1999-09-01

    Bedrock sculpturing of semilithified St. George Formation sandy mudstone exposed on a wave-cut platform has produced a variety of erosional forms that include surface scratches made by beach debris, ripple-like ridges that reflect differential erosion of bedrock, potholes, and scallop-shaped pockets and grooves, which may be straight or sinuous. Straight grooves form by preferential incision of regional joints. Sinuous grooves are not fracture controlled, are oriented parallel to wave run-up (orthogonal to the coast), and exist as closely spaced subparallel, nonconnecting, internally drained grooves that are best developed on higher platform ramparts and benches. Sinuous grooves have a mean length of 258 cm, mean maximum width of 14 cm, and mean width/length ratio of 0.08. They are not as deeply incised as straight grooves, do not serve as conduits for low-tide runoff during winter months, and typically terminate by shallowing and narrowing in both seaward and landward directions. Sinuous appearance results from trains of linked comma-shaped depressions, commonly with the blunt, highly curved end of each being most deeply incised and oriented seaward. Corrasion of bedrock highs and/or cavitation associated with turbulent vortices during tsunami run-up likely contributed to the genesis and/or enlargement of the sinuous grooves. Auguring and coring in a back barrier bog and diatom analysis reveals a landward-thinning, approximately 17 cm-thick, laterally continuous, clean, tsunami-emplaced sand layer with a sharp basal contact up to 125 m inland of the modern high-tide line. While seasonal cycles of beach aggradation and degradation combined with sediment transport and bedrock erosion accompanying low-tide runoff and high-tide wave motion undoubtedly accounts for form modification of sinuous grooves, it is unlikely to account for their origin. PMID:10504138

  12. Locating sources of surf zone pollution: a mass budget analysis of fecal indicator bacteria at Huntington Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Ha; Grant, Stanley B; McGee, Charles D; Sanders, Brett F; Largier, John L

    2004-05-01

    The surf zone is the unique environment where ocean meets land and a place of critical ecological, economic, and recreational importance. In the United States, this natural resource is increasingly off-limits to the public due to elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and other contaminants, the sources of which are often unknown. In this paper, we describe an approach for calculating mass budgets of pollutants in the surf zone from shoreline monitoring data. The analysis reveals that fecal indicator bacteria pollution in the surf zone at several contiguous beaches in Orange County, California, originates from well-defined locations along the shore, including the tidal outlets of the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh. Fecal pollution flows into the ocean from the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets during ebb tides and from there is transported parallel to the shoreline by wave-driven surf zone currents and/or offshore tidal currents, frequently contaminating >5 km of the surf zone. The methodology developed here for locating and quantifying sources of surf zone pollution should be applicable to a wide array of contaminants and coastal settings. PMID:15180059

  13. Ground-water geology of the coastal zone, Long Beach-Santa Ana area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Piper, A.M.

    1956-01-01

    structural features that influence the watertightness of the so-called coastal barrier. The hills and mesas of the Newport-Inglewood belt are cut by six gaps through which tongues of the central lowland extend to the coast. The gaps are trenched in the deformed late Pleistocene surface and are floored with alluvium that is highly permeable in its lower part. The Long Beach-Santa Ana area, with which this report is concerned, encompasses the central and eastern segments of the coastal plain, and includes five of the gaps in succession from northwest to south- east: Dominguez, Alamitos, Sunset, Bolsa, and Santa Ana Gaps. In the Long Beach-Santa Ana area a thick sequence of Quaternary and Tertiary sedimentary rocks has been deposited on a basement of metamorphic and crystalline rocks of pre-Tertiary age. In the broad syncline underlying tl e central part of Downey Plain these sediments probably exceed 20,000 feet in thickness. This report pertains chiefly to the geology and water-bearing character of the rocks that underlie the coastal zone of the Long Beach-Santa Ana area. This area extends some 27 miles from Dominguez Hill on the northwest to Newport Beach on the southeast, has an average width of about 6 miles, includes some 180 square miles, and borders the Pacific Ocean. Of the Quaternary deposits the youngest are of Recent age and comprise silt, sand, gravel, and clay, chiefly of fluvial origin; they are the latest contributions to the alluvial cones of the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, and Santa Ana Rivers; their thickness is as much as 175 feet. The upper division of the Recent deposits, largely fine sand and silt of low permeability, commonly furnishes water only to a few wells of small yield; the lower division is coarse sand and gravel deposited chiefly in two tongues extending respectively, from Whittier Narrows through Dominguez Gap and from Santa Ana Canyon through Santa Ana Gap. These tongues, designated in this report the Gaspur a

  14. Preliminary Image Map of the 2007 Canyon Fire Perimeter, Malibu Beach Quadrangle, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Perry S.; Scratch, Wendy S.; Bias, Gaylord W.; Stander, Gregory B.; Sexton, Jenne L.; Krawczak, Bridgette J.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, wildfires burned out of control in southern California. The extent of these fires encompassed large geographic areas that included a variety of landscapes from urban to wilderness. The U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) is currently (2008) developing a quadrangle-based 1:24,000-scale image map product. One of the concepts behind the image map product is to provide an updated map in electronic format to assist with emergency response. This image map is one of 55 preliminary image map quadrangles covering the areas burned by the southern California wildfires. Each map is a layered, geo-registered Portable Document Format (.pdf) file. For more information about the layered geo-registered .pdf, see the readme file (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_Agua_Dulce_of2008-1029_README.txt). To view the areas affected and the quadrangles mapped in this preliminary project, see the map index (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1029/downloads/CA_of2008_1029-1083_index.pdf) provided with this report.

  15. Cruise report: RV Ocean Alert Cruise A2-98-SC: mapping the southern California continental margin; March 26 through April 11, 1998; San Diego to Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise A2-98 was to map portions of the southern California continental margin, including mapping in detail US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ocean dumping sites. Mapping was accomplished using a high-resolution multibeam mapping system. The cruise was a jointly funded project between the USEPA and the US Geological Survey (USGS). The USEPA is specifically interested in a series of ocean dump sites off San Diego, Newport Beach, and Long Beach (see Fig. 1 in report) that require high-resolution base maps for site monitoring purposes. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has several on-going projects off southern California that lack high-precision base maps for a variety of ongoing geological studies. The cruise was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement between the USGS and the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Canada.

  16. Sex, Status, and Sand: California Academy of Sciences' Teen Interns Examine Trends of the Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) at Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, J. B.; Conrad-Saydah, A.; Cohen, S.; Tom, R.; Robins-Moloney, M.; Masters, D.; Mason, K.; Alfaro, F.

    2003-12-01

    Student interns from the California Academy of Sciences' Careers in Sciences program monitored the Pacific mole crab (Emerita analoga), or sand crabs, in collaboration with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association. These small crustaceans live in the swash zone of the sandy beach habitat. Sand crabs are important in the food web, and therefore their status can help indicate the health of the larger environment. The interns helped the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary by monitoring the abundance and distribution of sand crabs at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. Students set up transects perpendicular to the shoreline, collected 10 samples along the transect, measured the carapace length, determined the sex of each crab, and checked for the presence of eggs. Students monitored June through September, 2003. Trends examined included differences in the gender ratio, size frequency, and distribution along the beach. Students also compared their data to other student data taken from other sites in San Francisco and Marin counties during 2001-2003 from the online database at http://www.sandcrabs.org. Using comparisons, interns were able to better understand the processes and significance of studying marine species. Implementation of the project was invaluable in aiding the interns in their understanding of the natural sciences and the role of monitoring habitats in environmental health.

  17. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  18. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  19. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  20. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  1. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16...

  2. A 3-Dimensional Model of Water-Bearing Sequences in the Dominguez Gap Region, Long Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponti, Daniel J.; Ehman, Kenneth D.; Edwards, Brian D.; Tinsley, John C., III; Hildenbrand, Thomas; Hillhouse, John W.; Hanson, Randall T.; McDougall, Kristen; Powell, Charles L.; Wan, Elmira; Land, Michael; Mahan, Shannon; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computer model of the Quaternary sequence stratigraphy in the Dominguez gap region of Long Beach, California has been developed to provide a robust chronostratigraphic framework for hydrologic and tectonic studies. The model consists of 13 layers within a 16.5 by 16.1 km (10.25 by 10 mile) square area and extends downward to an altitude of -900 meters (-2952.76 feet). Ten sequences of late Pliocene to Holocene age are identified and correlated within the model. Primary data to build the model comes from five reference core holes, extensive high-resolution seismic data obtained in San Pedro Bay, and logs from several hundred water and oil wells drilled in the region. The model is best constrained in the vicinity of the Dominguez gap seawater intrusion barrier where a dense network of subsurface data exist. The resultant stratigraphic framework and geologic structure differs significantly from what has been proposed in earlier studies. An important new discovery from this approach is the recognition of ongoing tectonic deformation throughout nearly all of Quaternary time that has impacted the geometry and character of the sequences. Anticlinal folding along a NW-SE trend, probably associated with Quaternary reactivation of the Wilmington anticline, has uplifted and thinned deposits along the fold crest, which intersects the Dominguez gap seawater barrier near Pacific Coast Highway. A W-NW trending fault system that approximately parallels the fold crest has also been identified. This fault progressively displaces all but the youngest sequences down to the north and serves as the southern termination of the classic Silverado aquifer. Uplift and erosion of fining-upward paralic sequences along the crest of the young fold has removed or thinned many of the fine-grained beds that serve to protect the underlying Silverado aquifer from seawater contaminated shallow groundwater. As a result of this process, the potential exists for vertical migration of

  3. Geochemical characterization of tarballs on beaches along the California coast. Part I - Shallow seepage impacting the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Miguel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Dougherty, J.

    2004-01-01

    Tarballs are common along the southern California coastline. This study investigates tarballs from beaches along this coastline, with a focus on Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miquel Islands in the Santa Barbara Channel. The tarballs were fingerprinted using biomarker and stable carbon isotope parameters, and then grouped according to genetic similarities. The data show that the tarballs are of natural and not anthropogenic origin and that all originate from source rock within the Miocene Monterey Formation via shallow seeps offshore. Sterane biomarker parameters were found to vary widely in the sample set. Biodegradation, especially of the regular steranes, is the primary process impacting the biomarker distributions in a large group of samples. The most common tarball occurrences appear to come from offshore seepage near the west end of Santa Cruz Island. Another major group most likely was transported north from near Santa Monica Bay. Several individual occurrences of some of these tarball groups also were found on beaches as far north as Pt. Reyes and as far south as San Diego, indicating significant long-distance dispersal by ocean currents. This study begins a library of tarball fingerprints to be used as a database to help distinguish between natural and anthropogenic tar occurrences all along the California coast, and to compare shallow seepage with future samples of deeper production oils from the same area.

  4. Negligencia en la Educacion de Estudiantes Mexico-Americanos en el Distrito Escolar Unificado Lucia Mar, Pismo Beach, California. (Educational Neglect of Mexican-American Students in Lucia Mar Unified School District, Pismo Beach, California.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    California State Advisory Committee (SAC) of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held hearings in Santa Maria, California (May 20, 1972) to collect information on civil rights problems of Mexican American students in the Lucia Mar School District. Major issues were community complaints about the arrest of 26 Mexican American students and some…

  5. 75 FR 4344 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California Application for Subzone Allegro Mfg. Inc. (Cosmetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Mfg. Inc. (Cosmetic, Organizer and Electronic Bags and Accessories) Commerce, CA An application has..., Commerce, California. The facility is used for the storage and distribution of cosmetic, organizer...

  6. The use of carbon and sulfur isotopes as correlation parameters for the source identification of beach tar in the southern California borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Blayne; Hammond, Douglas E.

    1981-03-01

    Carbon and sulfur isotope ratios and total sulfur content are used to correlate beach tars depositing near Los Angeles with their probable sources. Analysis is confined strictly to the asphaltene fraction of petroleum owing to the insensitivity of this fraction to weathering processes. The δ 13C, δ 34S and % S of the asphaltene fraction of natural offshore seep oils range from -22.51 to -23.20%., +7.75 to + 15.01%. and 4.45 to 8.27%, respectively. Values for local offshore production wells overlapped those for the natural seepage, ranging from -22.10 to -22.85%., -2.96 to 13.90%., and 0.81 to 8.00%. Analytical values for these parameters show that tanker crudes imported into the area are not similar to the California oils. Analysis of the same parameters in beach tars collected during 1976-1977 indicates a close match with the potential source oils, thus it is concluded that these parameters are useful for identifying petroleum sources, even after 2-4 weeks of weathering. Results indicate that 55% of the tars in Santa Monica Bay are derived from natural oil seepage 150km to the northwest at Coal Oil Point, 26% are derived from natural oil seepage in Santa Monica Bay, and 19% are derived from unknown sources. Models of tar transport are inferred which are consistent with the seasonal deposition pattern. Tar from Coal Oil Point natural oil seeps is transported southward in the southern California gyre during the spring, summer and fall seasons, but probably undergoes northward transport during the winter season due to the surfacing of the Davidson Current. Tar from the Santa Monica Bay natural oil seeps moves onshore, but deposition rate seems to depend on seepage flow rate.

  7. Validation of three sympatric Thoracophelia species (Annelida: Opheliidae) from Dillon Beach, California using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Law, Chris J; Dorgan, Kelly M; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-01-01

    Thoracophelia (Annelida, Opheliidae) are burrowing deposit feeders generally found in the mid- to upper intertidal areas of sandy beaches. Thoracophelia mucronata (Treadwell, 1914) is found along the west coast of North America, including at Dillon Beach, CA. Two additional species, Thoracophelia dillonensis (Hartman, 1938) and T. williamsi (Hartman, 1938) were also described from this beach. These three sympatric species have been primarily distinguished by branchial morphology, and efforts to determine the validity of the species have been based on morphological, reproductive and ecological studies. Here we demonstrate using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data that these three species are valid. Mitochondrial Cytochrome c subunit 1 (COI) sequences show uncorrected interspecific distances of ~9-13%. We found no inter-specific differences in body color or in hemoglobin concentration, but found that reproductive males were pinkish-red in color and had lower hemoglobin concentrations than purplish-red reproductive females. PMID:24614448

  8. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  9. Latest Holocene Mapping of Tsunamigenically- and Seismogenically-Influenced Beach, Dune and Fluvial Landforms at Tolowa Dunes State Park, Northwestern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Beach, dune, fluvial, and marine terrace deposits comprise a 16 kilometer (km) coastal strip immediately south of the Smith River at Tolowa Dunes State Park (TDSP), ~ 3.5 km north-northwest from downtown Crescent City, California. The park has numerous Native American sites that are vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal erosion, part of which may be influenced by Cascadia interseismic deformation. Efforts at removal of exotic beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) that stabilizes most of the dune complex have begun; vegetation removal will remobilize the dunes and could obscure and also expose near surficial geologic features. Using a LiDAR base to capture extant data and give context to future resource protection projects, I surficially mapped the dunes and provisionally interpreted, tsunamigenically-derived cobbles (which are more than five feet thick in one road cut exposure) that extensively mantle the deflation plain in the lee of the foredune. Natural, test pit and auger exposures helped characterize fluvial and marsh deposits in the southern bank and floodplain of the Smith River. Optically stimulated luminescence and/or radiocarbon dates constrain the ages for cobble deposits and dunes throughout the park, and liquefaction features exposed in the southern bank of the Smith River. In combination with estimated rates of dune formation and migration at TDSP since the A.D. 1700 Cascadia earthquake, the ages for seismogenically-sourced sediment associated with dune ridges and cobble deposits are tentatively correlated with the ages of latest Holocene Cascadia triggered turbidites dated by Goldfinger et al. (2012) on the Smith River platform. The mapping also helped identify a marine terrace sequence on the southern limb of the northwest-trending Lake Earl Syncline that bifurcates the park, and suggests projection of the northwest-trending Cemetery Scarp, part of the Point St. George fault complex (Polenz and Kelsey 1999), through the southern part of the park.

  10. Cruise report; RV Coastal Surveyor Cruise C1-99; multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California continental shelf; April 12 through May 19, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    The greater Los Angeles area of California is home to more than 10 million people. This large population puts increased pressure on the adjacent offshore continental shelf and margin with activities such as ocean disposal for dredged spoils, explosive disposal, waste-water outfall, and commercial fishing. The increased utilization of the shelf and margin in this area has generated accelerated multi-disciplinary research efforts in all aspects of the environment of the coastal zone. Prior to 1996 there were no highly accurate base maps of the continental shelf and slope upon which the research activities could be located and monitored. In 1996, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project began to address this problem by mapping the Santa Monica shelf and margin (Fig. 1) using a state-of-the-art, high-resolution multibeam sonar system (Gardner, et al., 1996; 1999). Additional seafloor mapping in 1998 provided coverage of the continental margin from south of Newport to the proximal San Pedro Basin northwest of Palos Verdes Peninsula (Gardner, et al., 1998) (Fig. 1). The mapping of the seafloor in the greater Los Angeles continental shelf and margin was completed with a 30-day mapping of the Long Beach shelf in April and May 1999, the subject of this report. The objective of Cruise C-1-99-SC was to completely map the broad continental shelf from the eastern end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula to the narrow shelf south of Newport Beach, from the break in slope at about 120-m isobath to the inner shelf at about the 10-m isobath. Mapping the Long Beach shelf was jointly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the County of Orange (CA) Sanitation District and was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the Ocean Mapping Group from the University of New Brunswick (OMG/UNB). The OMG/UNB contracted with C&C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, LA for use of the RV Coastal Surveyor and the latest evolution of high-resolution multibeam sonars, a

  11. 75 FR 28554 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50 Long Beach, California, Application for Subzone, Louisville Bedding Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... application to the Board for subzone status for its Louisville, Kentucky, facilities (Docket 28- 2010, 75 FR..., Louisville Bedding Company (Household Bedding Products), Ontario, California An application has been... to manufacture household bedding products, including mattress pads and pillows (up to 10...

  12. Quantifying the effects of European beach grass on aeolian sand transport over the last century: Bodega Marine Reserve, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesmat, R.; Werner, S.; Smith, M. E.; Riedel, T.; Best, R.; Olyarnik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) to coastal dune systems of western North America induced significant changes to the transport and storage of sediment, and consequently the nesting habitat of the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). At the Bodega Marine Reserve and Sonoma Coast State Park, Ammophila was introduced within the ~0.5 km2 dune area in the 1920's to limit the flux of sand through Bodega Harbor and agricultural land. To assess the potential impact of restoration efforts (Ammophila removal) on aeolian sediment flux, we measured sediment flux as a function of wind speeds and ground cover, and used these measurements to parameterize a spatial model for historical sand deposition Fine- to coarse-grained lithic to sub-lithic sand is delivered to the Bodega dune system from Salmon Creek beach, the down-shore terminus of a littoral system fed by the 3846 km2 Russian River catchment, several small (<100 km2) coastal catchments, and seacliff erosion. Littoral sediment traverses the 1.8 km wide dune system from NW to SE via aeolian transport. Ammophila colonization occurred initially adjacent to the shoreface, inducing deposition of a ~10 meter-high foredune and has subsequently encroached the ~0.5 km2 region between the foredune and Bodega Harbor. Comparison of historical topographic maps via raster subtraction indicates rapid construction of both the foredune and a ~15 meter-high transverse dune (Gaffney ridge) at the edge of the planted region. An average accumulation rate of ~4,000 m3/yr is indicated within the study swath by the preserved sediment volumes. Within the modern dune system, unvegetated areas exhibit 2-3 meter wavelength, ~1/2 meter amplitude mega-ripples, and the uppermost 2-10 cm consists of coarse-sand to granule-sized armor layer. In contrast, grain-sizes in vegetated areas are largely vertically homogenous. Open areas are typically 2-8 meters lower than adjacent vegetated areas, and show evidence for

  13. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  14. Quantifying the role of climate variability on extreme total water level impacts: An application of a full simulation model to Ocean Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.; Barnard, P.; Long, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many coastal communities worldwide are vulnerable to flooding and erosion driven by extreme total water levels (TWL), potentially dangerous events produced by the combination of large waves, high tides, and high non-tidal residuals. The West coast of the United States provides an especially challenging environment to model these processes due to its complex geological setting combined with uncertain forecasts for sea level rise (SLR), changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños. Our research therefore aims to develop an appropriate methodology to assess present-day and future storm-induced coastal hazards along the entire U.S. West coast, filling this information gap. We present the application of this framework in a pilot study at Ocean Beach, California, a National Park site within the Golden Gate National Recreation Area where existing event-scale coastal change data can be used for model calibration and verification. We use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (TWL-FSM; Serafin and Ruggiero, in press) that captures the seasonal and interannual climatic variability in extremes using functions of regional climate indices, such as the Multivariate ENSO index (MEI), to represent atmospheric patterns related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In order to characterize the effect of climate variability on TWL components, we refine the TWL-FSM by splitting non-tidal residuals into low (monthly mean sea level anomalies) and high frequency (storm surge) components. We also develop synthetic climate indices using Markov sequences to reproduce the autocorrelated nature of ENSO behavior. With the refined TWL-FSM, we simulate each TWL component, resulting in synthetic TWL records providing robust estimates of extreme return level events (e.g., the 100-yr event) and the ability to examine the relative contribution of each TWL component to these extreme events. Extreme return levels are then used to drive storm impact models

  15. 33 CFR 165.1125 - Southern California Annual Firework Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Firework Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port zone. 165.1125 Section 165.1125... for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port zone. (a) General. Safety zones are established for... Cambria American Legion Post. Event Description Fireworks Display. Date July 4th. Location Shamel...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1125 - Southern California Annual Firework Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Firework Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port zone. 165.1125 Section 165.1125... for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port zone. (a) General. Safety zones are established for... Cambria American Legion Post. Event Description Fireworks Display. Date July 4th. Location Shamel...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1125 - Southern California Annual Firework Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Firework Events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port zone. 165.1125 Section 165.1125... for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port zone. (a) General. Safety zones are established for... Cambria American Legion Post. Event Description Fireworks Display. Date July 4th. Location Shamel...

  18. Optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, SłAwomir B.; Stramski, Dariusz; Stramska, Malgorzata; Reynolds, Rick A.; Wright, Vanessa M.; Miksic, Ezra Y.; Cichocka, Marta; Cieplak, Agnieszka M.

    2010-08-01

    We examined optical variability of seawater in relation to particle concentration, composition, and size distribution in the nearshore marine environment at Imperial Beach, California, over a period of 1.5 years. Measurements included the hyperspectral inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater (particulate beam attenuation, particulate and CDOM absorption coefficients within the spectral range 300-850 nm), particle size distribution (PSD) within the diameter range 2-60 μm, and the mass concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), and chlorophyll a (Chl). The particulate assemblage spanned a wide range of concentrations and composition, from the dominance of mineral particles (POC/SPM < 0.06) with relatively steep PSDs to the high significance or dominance of organic particles (POC/SPM > 0.25) with considerably greater contribution of larger-sized particles. Large variability in the particulate characteristics produced correspondingly large variability in the IOPs; up to 100-fold variation in particulate absorption and scattering coefficients and several-fold variation in the SPM-specific and POC-specific coefficients. Analysis of these data demonstrates that knowledge of general characteristics about the particulate composition and size distribution leads to improved interpretations of the observed optical variability. We illustrate a multistep empirical approach for estimating proxies of particle concentration (SPM and POC), composition (POC/SPM), and size distribution (median diameter) from the measured IOPs in a complex coastal environment. The initial step provides information about a proxy for particle composition; other particulate characteristics are subsequently derived from relationships specific to different categories of particulate composition.

  19. Examination of the Seasonal Dynamics of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella at Redondo Beach, California, by Quantitative PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Garneau, Marie-Ève; Schnetzer, Astrid; Countway, Peter D.; Jones, Adriane C.; Seubert, Erica L.; Caron, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of neurotoxic species within the genus Alexandrium along the U.S. coastline has raised concern of potential poisoning through the consumption of contaminated seafood. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) detected in shellfish provide evidence that these harmful events have increased in frequency and severity along the California coast during the past 25 years, but the timing and location of these occurrences have been highly variable. We conducted a 4-year survey in King Harbor, CA, to investigate the seasonal dynamics of Alexandrium catenella and the presence of a particulate saxitoxin (STX), the parent compound of the PSTs. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for quantifying A. catenella in environmental microbial assemblages. This approach allowed for the detection of abundances as low as 12 cells liter−1, 2 orders of magnitude below threshold abundances that can impact food webs. A. catenella was found repeatedly during the study, particularly in spring, when cells were detected in 38% of the samples (27 to 5,680 cells liter−1). This peak in cell abundances was observed in 2006 and corresponded to a particulate STX concentration of 12 ng liter−1, whereas the maximum STX concentration of 26 ng liter−1 occurred in April 2008. Total cell abundances and toxin levels varied strongly throughout each year, but A. catenella was less abundant during summer, fall, and winter, when only 2 to 11% of the samples yielded positive qPCR results. The qPCR method developed here provides a useful tool for investigating the ecology of A. catenella at subbloom and bloom abundances. PMID:21926210

  20. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  1. 28 CFR 22.28 - Use of data identifiable to a private person for judicial, legislative or administrative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.28 Use of...) Research or statistical information identifiable to a private person shall be immune from legal process...

  2. 28 CFR 22.28 - Use of data identifiable to a private person for judicial, legislative or administrative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.28 Use of...) Research or statistical information identifiable to a private person shall be immune from legal process...

  3. 28 CFR 22.28 - Use of data identifiable to a private person for judicial, legislative or administrative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.28 Use of...) Research or statistical information identifiable to a private person shall be immune from legal process...

  4. 28 CFR 22.28 - Use of data identifiable to a private person for judicial, legislative or administrative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.28 Use of...) Research or statistical information identifiable to a private person shall be immune from legal process...

  5. 28 CFR 22.28 - Use of data identifiable to a private person for judicial, legislative or administrative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL INFORMATION § 22.28 Use of...) Research or statistical information identifiable to a private person shall be immune from legal process...

  6. Estimating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance from beach seine data collected in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Hendrix, A. Noble

    2016-01-01

    Resource managers rely on abundance or density metrics derived from beach seine surveys to make vital decisions that affect fish population dynamics and assemblage structure. However, abundance and density metrics may be biased by imperfect capture and lack of geographic closure during sampling. Currently, there is considerable uncertainty about the capture efficiency of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by beach seines. Heterogeneity in capture can occur through unrealistic assumptions of closure and from variation in the probability of capture caused by environmental conditions. We evaluated the assumptions of closure and the influence of environmental conditions on capture efficiency and abundance estimates of Chinook salmon from beach seining within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay. Beach seine capture efficiency was measured using a stratified random sampling design combined with open and closed replicate depletion sampling. A total of 56 samples were collected during the spring of 2014. To assess variability in capture probability and the absolute abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon, beach seine capture efficiency data were fitted to the paired depletion design using modified N-mixture models. These models allowed us to explicitly test the closure assumption and estimate environmental effects on the probability of capture. We determined that our updated method allowing for lack of closure between depletion samples drastically outperformed traditional data analysis that assumes closure among replicate samples. The best-fit model (lowest-valued Akaike Information Criterion model) included the probability of fish being available for capture (relaxed closure assumption), capture probability modeled as a function of water velocity and percent coverage of fine sediment, and abundance modeled as a function of sample area, temperature, and water velocity. Given that beach seining is a ubiquitous sampling technique for

  7. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  8. Can QMRA be used to Discount Pathogen Risk to Swimmers from Animal Fecal Contamination? Doheny Beach, CA Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimated health risks to swimmers from seagull and bather sources of fecal contamination at Doheny Beach, California were compared using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) with a view to aiding beach closure decisions. Surfzone pathogens from seagulls were thought to...

  9. 24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural Resources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown MAP OF SUTTER'S FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  11. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  12. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  13. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  14. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  15. Exploring Opportunities for Cooperation in California, a Forum Exploring Cooperation and Communication among Health Science Library Consortia. Proceedings of a Forum Sponsored by the Coastal Health Library Information Consortium (Pismo Beach, California, November 13, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marilyn Anne, Ed.

    Speeches and summaries of group discussions from California's first statewide conference on health science library consortia are presented. An introduction outlining regional, state, and national cooperation among biomedical libraries and brief welcoming addresses precede three talks on the history and development in California of library…

  16. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  17. Quantifying Beach Response to Episodic Large Wave Events, a Predictive Empirical Model, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing an empirical model is the best way to predict future beach response at a given site. Based on 12 closely spaced (temporally) GPS topographic surveys during the winter of 2005-2006 at Ocean Beach, in San Francisco, California, we have developed a predictive empirical model that relates sub-aerial beach response to observed wave height, period, and direction. The model will provide important information to coastal managers, who will be able to better predict and mitigate possible loss from a forecasted wave event. Ocean Beach, located immediately south of the Golden Gate in San Francisco, is a high-energy, intermediate- slope beach that is exposed to waves generated in both the North and South Pacific. Winter breaking wave heights frequently reach 4 m and can exceed 7 m, with periods sometimes greater than 20 s. Our observations demonstrate that large seasonal variations in the sub-aerial beach profile are likely forced by several single large wave events. These events have led to the partial destruction of a recreational parking lot at the south end of the beach where an erosion hot spot is currently located, and continued erosion will threaten other parts of public infrastructure. This study, in combination with other ongoing research at Ocean Beach, will provide valuable insight that will not only aid local personnel in their management decisions but also contribute to a better understanding of sediment transport at high-energy beaches.

  18. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  19. BEACHES HEALTH SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...

  20. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  1. Wave Overtopping of a Barrier Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, E. B.; Laudier, N.; Macmahan, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    The rate of wave overtopping of a barrier beach is measured and modeled as a first step in modeling the breaching of a beach impounding an ephemeral river. Unique rate of wave overtopping data are obtained from the measure of the Carmel River, California, lagoon filling during a time when the lagoon is closed-off and there is no river inflow. Volume changes are calculated from measured lagoon height changes owing to wave overtopping by a stage-volume curve, then center differenced and averaged to provide volume rates of change in the lagoon. Wave height and period are obtained from CDIP MOPS directional wave spectra data in 15m fronting the beach. Beach morphology was measured by GPS walking surveys and interpolated for beach slopes and berm heights. Three empirical overtopping models by van der Meer and Janssen (1995), Hedges and Reis (1998) and Pullen et al. (2007) with differing parameterizations on wave height, period and beach slope and calibrated using extensive laboratory data obtained over plane, impermeable beaches are compared with the data. In addition, the run-up model by Stockdon et al. (2006) based on field data is examined. Three wave overtopping storm events are considered when morphology data were available less than 2 weeks prior to the event. The models are tuned to fit the data using a reduction factor to account for beach permeability, berm characteristics, non-normal wave incidence and surface roughness influence. It is concluded that the Stockdon et al. (2006) model underestimates run-up as no overtopping is predicted with this model. The three empirical overtopping models behaved similarly well with regression coefficients ranging 0.72 to 0.86 using a reasonable range of reduction factors 0.66 - 0.81 with an average of 0.74.

  2. A sedimentological model of organic-matter preservation and phosphogenesis in the Miocene Monterey Formation at Haskells Beach, Goleta (central California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, David; de Kaenel, Eric; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2015-08-01

    At Haskells Beach, west of Santa Barbara (CA, U.S.A.), the upper part of the Miocene Monterey Formation is predominantly composed of organic-rich mudstone, which is interstratified with phosphatic laminae and lenses. Minor lithologies consist of dolomite, volcanic ash, porcelanite, chert and condensed phosphate. These sediments date from the end of the Serravallian and almost the entire Tortonian (11.05-7.85 Ma) based on calcareous nannofossils and the δ13Corg record, which correlates well with the global record. Sediments have total organic-carbon values between 2.75 and 9.15 wt.% (average value = 6.48 wt.%; n = 61). Rock-Eval analyses show the dominance of type-II kerogen. The sediment accumulation rate varied between 5.9 and 84.7 m/Ma. Correspondingly, organic-carbon accumulation rates range between 0.08 and 1.43 g/cm2/ky (average value = 0.48 g/cm2/ky). Total phosphorus contents in the organic-rich mudstone vary between 0.001 and 3.48 wt.% and Corg/Porg ratios show high values of up to 4727 (average value = 2232), whereas Corg/Ptotal values are low (up to 185; average value = 52). This indicates that early diagenetic organic-matter degradation was a source of phosphate in phosphogenesis. In addition, other sources of phosphate were necessary in order to explain the abundance of phosphate relative to organic matter such as the transfer of dissolved inorganic phosphate into the sediments. Slumps, angular unconformities, erosive surfaces, reworked clasts and nodules, and condensed phosphatic layers suggest that hydrodynamic conditions were important and likely variable, leading to frequent erosion and sediment reworking. Under these circumstances, organic-matter was predominantly delivered during gravity-flow events, which were followed by longer periods of low sediment accumulation and phosphogenesis of the uppermost sediment layer. Associated pore occlusion by phosphate minerals may have considerably enhanced the preservation of organic-matter. During the early

  3. VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach locational data for BEACH Act. Beach locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Beach locations are coded onto region.rch (Waterbody Reach) feature of NHD to create NHD Waterbody Shapefiles...

  5. Measuring the effects of stormwater mitigation on beach attendance.

    PubMed

    Atiyah, Perla; Pendleton, Linwood; Vaughn, Ryan; Lessem, Neil

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have used valuation techniques to predict the potential effect of environmental improvements on human use of coastal areas, but there is a lack of post hoc empirical evidence that these policies indeed affect the way people use coastal areas. A panel data approach is developed to statistically determine how storm drain diversions affected attendance at 26 beaches in Southern California. This study uses a 10-year time series of data to conduct a statistical analysis of attendance at beaches with and without diversions and before and after the diversions were installed, while controlling for all observable, confounding factors. Results indicate that beach attendance increased at beaches with diversions compared to those that did not have diversions (between 350,000 and 860,000 visits annually at a 95% confidence interval). Establishing this link between mitigation policies and human use patterns can lead to better management of coastal areas. PMID:23711842

  6. Wireless Time Tracking Improves Productivity at CSU Long Beach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charmack, Scott; Walsh, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Describes California State University Long Beach's implementation of new maintenance management software, which integrated maintenance, inventory control, and key control and allows technicians to enter and receive information through handheld wireless devices for more accurate time accounting. The school estimates a 10 percent increase in…

  7. 25. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural REsources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown SUTTER'S MAP OF FORT WITH SUPERIMPOSED OUTLINE OF FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. Newport Coast Elementary School, Newport Beach, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the building of the elementary school named in the title--winner of an energy efficiency design award--including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, manufacturers/suppliers, and construction team; a general building description; and a case study of construction costs and specifications. Also…

  9. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  10. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  11. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  12. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study

  13. Morphodynamics of Accreting Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Sherwood, C. R.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Beaches along the Pacific Northwest coast of the US have been shown to have large seasonal variability in shoreline position with several 10's of meters of recession occurring during the winter (high-energy waves) and typically similar scales of beach recovery during the summer (low-energy waves). However, many beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year over decades, resulting in significant shoreline realignment. This historical shoreline advance has been primarily due to the dispersal of sand from the flanks of the ebb-tidal deltas following jetty construction at the entrances to the Columbia River and Grays Harbor. The installation of jetties removed the shallow shoals from the influence of tidal currents, resulting in a shoreface profile that was too shallow for the inherent wave energy. Onshore transport of large quantities of sand occurred over the next several decades, decreasing through time. While much of the original source material is now exhausted, many beaches today are still rapidly accreting on inter-annual time scales. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for this continued accretion. The primary morphodynamic mechanism for sub-aerial beach growth, and shoreline progradation on a seasonal scale, is hypothesized to be the development, onshore migration, and welding of inter-tidal (swash) bars to the upper beach face. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with accreting beaches we have completed two field experiments and are applying computational models that link measured sediment transport to wave and current forcing. Experiments completed in Spring 2001 and Summer 2002 combined process measurements with observations of

  14. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  15. 77 FR 13102 - Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the St. Lucie South Beach and Dune...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... ending 5 p.m. July 18, 2011. A public comment meeting was held June 29, 2011 at the St. Lucie County.... Lucie West Library J Building, 500 NW. California Blvd., Port St. Lucie, 34986, 5. USACE Palm Beach... St. Lucie South Beach and Dune Restoration Project located in St. Lucie County, Florida AGENCY:...

  16. 76 FR 32147 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the St. Lucie South Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    .... California Blvd., Port St. Lucie, 34986. 5. USACE Palm Beach Gardens Regulatory Office, 4400 PGA Boulevard... Monuments R-88.5 to R-90.3, and R-98 to the St. Lucie/Martin County line. The northern limit of the project... for the St. Lucie South Beach and Dune Restoration Project Located in St. Lucie County, Florida...

  17. Shoreline relaxation at pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Medina, Raul; Kakeh, Nabil; González, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    A new physical concept of relaxation time is introduced in this research as the time required for the beach to dissipate its initial perturbation. This concept is investigated using a simple beach-evolution model of shoreline rotation at pocket beaches, based on the assumption that the instantaneous change of the shoreline plan-view shape depends on the long-term equilibrium plan-view shape. The expression of relaxation time is developed function of the energy conditions and the physical characteristics of the beach; it increases at longer beaches having coarse sediments and experiencing low-energy conditions. The relaxation time, calculated by the developed model, is validated by the shoreline observations extracted from video images at two artificially embayed beaches of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean) suffering from perturbations of sand movement and a nourishment project. This finding is promising to estimate the shoreline response and useful to improve our understanding of the dynamic of pocket beaches and their stability.

  18. Alcohol enhances unprovoked 22-28 kHz USVs and suppresses USV mean frequency in High Alcohol Drinking (HAD-1) male rats.

    PubMed

    Thakore, Neha; Reno, James M; Gonzales, Rueben A; Schallert, Timothy; Bell, Richard L; Maddox, W Todd; Duvauchelle, Christine L

    2016-04-01

    Heightened emotional states increase impulsive behaviors such as excessive ethanol consumption in humans. Though positive and negative affective states in rodents can be monitored in real-time through ultrasonic vocalization (USV) emissions, few animal studies have focused on the role of emotional status as a stimulus for initial ethanol drinking. Our laboratory has recently developed reliable, high-speed analysis techniques to compile USV data during multiple-hour drinking sessions. Since High Alcohol Drinking (HAD-1) rats are selectively bred to voluntarily consume intoxicating levels of alcohol, we hypothesized that USVs emitted by HAD-1 rats would reveal unique emotional phenotypes predictive of alcohol intake and sensitive to alcohol experience. In this study, male HAD-1 rats had access to water, 15% and 30% EtOH or water only (i.e., Controls) during 8 weeks of daily 7-h drinking-in-the-dark (DID) sessions. USVs, associated with both positive (i.e., 50-55 kHz frequency-modulated or FM) and negative (i.e., 22-28 kHz) emotional states, emitted during these daily DID sessions were examined. Findings showed basal 22-28 kHz USVs were emitted by both EtOH-Naïve (Control) and EtOH-experienced rats, alcohol experience enhanced 22-28 kHz USV emissions, and USV acoustic parameters (i.e., mean frequency in kHz) of both positive and negative USVs were significantly suppressed by chronic alcohol experience. These data suggest that negative affective status initiates and maintains excessive alcohol intake in selectively bred HAD-1 rats and support the notion that unprovoked emissions of negative affect-associated USVs (i.e., 22-28 kHz) predict vulnerability to excessive alcohol intake in distinct rodent models. PMID:26802730

  19. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    The offshore part of the map area consists of relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips gently seaward (about 0.8° to 1.0°) so that water depths at the shelf break, roughly coincident with the California’s State Waters limit, are about 80 to 100 m. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north and northwest by Point Conception and from the south and southwest by offshore islands and banks. The shelf is underlain by variable amounts of upper Quaternary marine and fluvial sed

  20. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, M. L.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2011-04-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach.

  1. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  3. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  4. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  5. Field evidence of beach profile evolution toward equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Yates, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    An equilibrium framework is used to describe the evolution of the cross-shore profile of five beaches (medium grain size sand) in southern California. Elevations were observed quarterly on cross-shore transects extending from the back beach to 8 m depth, for 3-10 years. Transects spaced 100 m in the alongshore direction are alongshore averaged into nineteen 700-900 m long sections. Consistent with previous observations, changes about the time average profile in many sections are captured by the first mode empirical orthogonal function (EOF). The first EOF poorly describes sections with hard substrate (less than roughly 80% sandy bottom) and also fails near the head of a submarine canyon and adjacent to an inlet. At the 12 well-described sections, the time-varying amplitude of the first EOF, the beach state A, describes the well-known seasonal sand exchange between the shoreline and offshore (roughly between 4 and 7 m depth). We show that the beach state change rate dA/dt depends on the disequilibrium between the present state A and wave conditions, consistent with the equilibrium concepts of Wright and Short (1984) and Wright et al. (1985). Empirically determined, optimal model coefficients using the framework of Yates et al. (2009a, 2011) vary between sections, but a single set of globally optimized values performs almost as well. The model implements equilibrium concepts using ad hoc assumptions and empirical parameter values. The similarity with observed profile change at five southern California beaches supports the underlying model equilibrium hypotheses, but for unknown reasons the model fails at Duck, NC.

  6. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  7. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePlus

    ... near the site where polluted discharges enter the water. Pollution can also come from high concentrations of farm ... is available online. Other Beach Safety Topics Beyond water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health ...

  8. Popham Beach, Maine: An example of engineering activity that saved beach property without harming the beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Joseph T.

    2013-10-01

    Beach and property erosion on coasts is a widespread and chronic problem. Historical approaches to this issue, including seawalls and sand replenishment, are often inappropriate or too expensive. In Maine, seawalls were banned in 1983 and replenishment is too costly to employ. Replacement of storm-damaged buildings is also not allowed, and a precedent case on Popham Beach, Maine required that the owner remove an unpermitted building from a site where an earlier structure was damaged. When the most popular park in Maine, Popham Beach State Park, experienced inlet associated erosion that threatened park infrastructure (a bathhouse), temporary measures were all that the law allowed. Because it was clear that the inlet channel causing the erosion would eventually change course, the state opted to erect a temporary seawall with fallen trees at the site. This may or may not have slowed the erosion temporarily, but reassured the public that "something was being done". Once a storm cut a new tidal inlet channel and closed off the old one, tidal water still entered the former channel and continued to threaten the bathhouse. To ultimately save the property, beach scraping was employed. Sand was scraped from the lower beach to construct a sand berm that deflected the tidal current away from the endangered property. This action created enough time for natural processes to drive the remains of the former spit onto the beach and widen it significantly. Whereas many examples of engineering practices exist that endanger instead of saving beaches, this example is one of an appropriate engineering effort to rescue unwisely located beach-front property.

  9. Series Overview. Special Series on the Fresno-Long Beach Learning Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Collaborative on District Reform, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the leaders of two of California's largest urban school districts--Fresno and Long Beach Unified School Districts--entered into a formal learning partnership, with the goal of preparing all students for success in higher education or for a career with significant growth potential. Though initially designed to secure greater categorical…

  10. Special Series on the Fresno Long Beach Learning Partnership: Perspectives of District Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Helen; Brown, Jim; O'Day, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The Fresno-Long Beach Learning Partnership is a collaboration that aims to improve student outcomes, accelerate achievement for all students, and close achievement gaps by capitalizing on shared systemic capacity-building across two high-need districts. The Partnership is a joint effort of the third- and fourth-largest districts in California to…

  11. Cal State-Long Beach Heeds Call to Investigate Professors' Online Biographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that an essay by a film professor at California State University at Long Beach that questions the credentials of his colleagues is stirring controversy on the campus--and sparking investigations. The essay, written by Brian Alan Lane, an associate professor of film, accuses three of his colleagues in the department of film and…

  12. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  13. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  14. One dimensional modeling of anthropogenic beach berm erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic beach berms (sometimes called artificial berms or artificial dunes) are in use internationally to guard against beach overtopping and consequent coastal flooding. Berms can be constructed on a seasonal basis or in anticipation of a hazardous event, e.g., when a storm is expected to arrive coincident with an astronomical high tide. In either case, a common approach is to scrape sand from the foreshore with heavy equipment and deposit it on the crest of the natural beach dune, thus providing added protection from the possibility of wave overtopping. Given the potential for higher sea levels globally and more extreme storm events, anthropogenic berms will surely be tested to their limits and will ultimately fail, causing flooding. A better understanding of the conditions under which these berms fail is therefore needed to support coastal flood risk management. An experimental campaign in Newport Beach, California was conducted to document the dynamic erosion of prototype beach berms under a rising tide and mild to moderate wave conditions. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) of the berm produced a digital model of how the berm shape evolved over time. Here, a numerical model of swash zone hydromorphodynamics based on shallow-water flow physics is presented to evaluate whether and to what extent the timing and degree of berm erosion and overtopping can be predicted from first principles. The model tightly couples flow and sediment transport within an approximate Riemann solver, and thus is of the Godunov-type variety of finite volume schemes. Additionally, the model includes an avalanching scheme to account for non-hydrodynamic slumping down the angle of repose. Results indicate that it is possible to calibrate the model for a particular event, and then successfully predict erosion for another event, but due to parameter sensitivities, it is unlikely that the model can be applied at a site without calibration (true prediction).

  15. Two-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Anthropogenic Beach Berm Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic beach berms (sometimes called artificial berms or artificial dunes) temporarily enhance the ability of beaches to withstand overtopping and thus guard against coastal flooding. However, the combination of a rising tide, storm surge, and/or waves may erode anthropogenic berms in a matter of hours or less and cause flooding [1]. Accurate forecasts of coastal flooding therefore demand the ability to predict where and when berms fail and the volume of water that overtops into defended coastal lowlands. Here, a two-dimensional numerical model of swash zone waves and erosion is examined as a tool for predicting the erosion of anthropogenic beach berms. The 2D model is known as a Debris Flow Model (DFM) because it tightly couples flow and sediment transport within an approximate Riemann solver and is able to resolve shocks in fluid/sediment interface [2]. The DFM also includes a two dimensional avalanching scheme to account for gravity-driven slumping of steep slopes. The performance of the DFM is examined with field-scale anthropogenic berm erosion data collected at Newport Beach, California. Results show that the DFM can be applied in the swash zone to resolve wave-by-wave flow and sediment transport. Results also show that it is possible to calibrate the model for a particular event, and then predict erosion for another event, but predictions are sensitive to model parameters, such as erosion and avalanching. References: [1] Jochen E. Schubert, Timu W. Gallien, Morteza Shakeri Majd, and Brett F. Sanders. Terrestrial laser scanning of anthropogenic beach berm erosion and overtopping. Journal of Coastal Research In-Press, 2014. [2] Morteza Shakeri Majd and Brett F. Sanders. The LHLLC scheme for Two-Layer and Two-Phase transcritical flows over a mobile bed with avalanching, wetting and drying. Advances in Water Resources, 64, 16-31, 2014.

  16. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  17. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  18. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  19. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  20. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  1. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  2. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  3. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2... Licensee and Owner from ``FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC'' to ``NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC.''...

  4. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  5. Transport of enterococci and F+ coliphage through the saturated zone of the beach aquifer.

    PubMed

    de Sieyes, Nicholas R; Russell, Todd L; Brown, Kendra I; Mohanty, Sanjay K; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2016-02-01

    Coastal groundwater has been implicated as a source of microbial pollution to recreational beaches. However, there is little work investigating the transport of fecal microbes through beach aquifers where waters of variable salinity are present. In this study, the potential for fecal indicator organisms enterococci (ENT) and F+ coliphage to be transported through marine beach aquifers was investigated. Native sediment and groundwaters were collected from the fresh and saline sections of the subterranean estuary at three beaches along the California coast where coastal communities utilize septic systems for wastewater treatment. Groundwaters were seeded with sewage and removal of F+ coliphage and ENT by the sediments during saturated flow was tested in laboratory column experiments. Removal varied significantly between beach and organism. F+ coliphage was removed to a greater extent than ENT, and removal was greater in saline sediments and groundwater than fresh. At one of the three beaches, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the attenuation of F+ coliphage and ENT down gradient of a septic leach field. ENT were detected up to 24 m from the leach field. The column study and field observations together suggest ENT can be mobile within native aquifer sediments and groundwater under certain conditions. PMID:26837827

  6. Predicting water quality at Santa Monica Beach: evaluation of five different models for public notification of unsafe swimming conditions.

    PubMed

    Thoe, W; Gold, M; Griesbach, A; Grimmer, M; Taggart, M L; Boehm, A B

    2014-12-15

    Bathing beaches are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to protect swimmers from unsafe conditions. However, FIB assays take ∼24 h and water quality conditions can change dramatically in that time, so unsafe conditions cannot presently be identified in a timely manner. Statistical, data-driven predictive models use information on environmental conditions (i.e., rainfall, turbidity) to provide nowcasts of FIB concentrations. Their ability to predict real time FIB concentrations can make them more accurate at identifying unsafe conditions than the current method of using day or older FIB measurements. Predictive models are used in the Great Lakes, Hong Kong, and Scotland for beach management, but they are presently not used in California - the location of some of the world's most popular beaches. California beaches are unique as point source pollution has generally been mitigated, the summer bathing season receives little to no rainfall, and in situ measurements of turbidity and salinity are not readily available. These characteristics may make modeling FIB difficult, as many current FIB models rely heavily on rainfall or salinity. The current study investigates the potential for FIB models to predict water quality at a quintessential California Beach: Santa Monica Beach. This study compares the performance of five predictive models, multiple linear regression model, binary logistic regression model, partial least square regression model, artificial neural network, and classification tree, to predict concentrations of summertime fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations. Past measurements of bacterial concentration, storm drain condition, and tide level are found to be critical factors in the predictive models. The models perform better than the current beach management method. The classification tree models perform the best; for example they correctly predict 42% of beach postings due to fecal coliform exceedances during model validation, as compared

  7. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  8. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  9. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  10. Sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya

    2010-05-01

    This study attempts to establish a system for the sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams placed at the Ookushi beach, Goto Islands, Japan, to establish the temporal variability in the quantities of beach litter every 90 min over a one and a half year period. The time series of the quantities of beach litter, computed by counting pixels with a greater lightness than a threshold value in photographs, shows that litter does not increase monotonically on the beach, but fluctuates mainly on a monthly time scale or less. To investigate what factors influence this variability, the time derivative of the quantity of beach litter is compared with satellite-derived wind speeds. It is found that the beach litter quantities vary largely with winds, but there may be other influencing factors. PMID:20392465

  11. Towards improved prediction and mitigation of beach overwash: Terrestrial LiDAR observation of dynamic beach berm erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, J. E.; Gallien, T.; Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.

    2012-12-01

    Globally, over 20 million people currently reside below high tide levels and 200 million are below storm tide levels. Future climate change along with the pressures of urbanization will exacerbate flooding in low lying coastal communities. In Southern California, coastal flooding is triggered by a combination of high tides, storm surge, and waves and recent research suggests that a current 100 year flood event may be experienced on a yearly basis by 2050 due to sea level rise adding a positive offset to return levels. Currently, Southern California coastal communities mitigate the threat of beach overwash, and consequent backshore flooding, with a combination of planning and operational activities such as protective beach berm construction. Theses berms consist of temporary alongshore sand dunes constructed days or hours before an extreme tide or wave event. Hydraulic modeling in urbanized embayments has shown that coastal flooding predictions are extremely sensitive to the presence of coastal protective infrastructure, requiring parameterization of the hard infrastructure elevations at centimetric accuracy. Beach berms are an example of temporary dynamic structures which undergo severe erosion during extreme events and are typically not included in flood risk assessment. Currently, little is known about the erosion process and performance of these structures, which adds uncertainty to flood hazard delineation and flood forecasts. To develop a deeper understanding of beach berm erosion dynamics, three trapezoidal shaped berms, approximately 35 m long and 1.5 m high, were constructed and failure during rising tide conditions was observed using terrestrial laser scanning. Concurrently, real-time kinematic GPS, high-definition time lapse photography, a local tide gauge and wave climate data were collected. The result is a rich and unique observational dataset capturing berm erosion dynamics. This poster highlights the data collected and presents methods for processing

  12. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  13. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  14. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  15. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  16. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  17. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  18. VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

  19. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria along the Malibu, California, Coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John

    2011-01-01

    Each year, over 550 million people visit California's public beaches. To protect beach-goers from exposure to waterborne disease, California state law requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli), at beaches having more than 50,000 yearly visitors. FIB are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the occurrence of certain waterborne diseases. Tests show that FIB concentrations occasionally exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) public health standards for recreational water in Malibu Lagoon and at several Malibu beaches (Regional Water Quality Control Board, 2009). Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) California Water Science Center are doing a study to identify the distribution and sources of FIB in coastal Malibu waters (fig. 1). The study methods were similar to those used in a study of FIB contamination on beaches in the Santa Barbara, California, area (Izbicki and others, 2009). This report describes the study approach and presents preliminary results used to evaluate the distribution and source of FIB in the Malibu area. Results of this study will help decision-makers address human health issues associated with FIB contamination in Malibu, and the methods used in this study can be used in other coastal areas affected by FIB contamination.

  19. Equilibrium Beach Profiles on the East and West U.S. Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; McNinch, J. E.; O'Reilly, W.

    2012-12-01

    Beach elevation change observations from the United States west and east coasts are used to identify statistically the dominant cross-shore patterns in sand level fluctuations, and these changes are related to equilibrium beach profile concepts. Three to seven years of observations at four beaches in Southern California include monthly surveys of the subaerial (near MSL) beach, and quarterly surveys from the backbeach to about 8m depth. At Duck, North Carolina, observations include 31 years of monthly surveys from the dunes to about 8m depth. On the Southern California beaches, the dominant seasonal pattern is subaerial erosion in winter and accretion in summer. Seasonal fluctuations of 3m in shoreline vertical sand levels, and 50m in subaerial beach width, are not uncommon. The sand eroded from the shoreline in winter is stored in an offshore sand bar and returns to the beach face in summer. Wave conditions in Southern California also vary seasonally, with energetic waves arriving from the north in winter, and lower energy, longer period southerly swell arriving in summer. A spectral refraction model, initialized with a regional network of directional wave buoys, is used to estimate hourly wave conditions, in 10m water depth. Using an equilibrium hypothesis, that the shoreline (defined as the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) change rate depends on the wave energy and the wave energy disequilibrium, Yates (2009) modeled the time-varying shoreline location at several Southern California beaches with significant skill. The four free model parameters were calibrated to fit observations. Following Yates (2009), we extend the equilibrium shoreline model to include the horizontal displacement of other elevation contours. At the Southern California sites, the modeled contour translation depends on the incident wave energy, the present contour configuration, and observation-based estimates of the contour behavior (based on EOF spatial amplitudes). At Duck, seasonal

  20. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  1. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  2. Earthquakes and beach ridges on Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, J.; Ortuno, M.; Thibault, C.; Higman, B.; Pinegina, T.

    2003-04-01

    There are several proposed origins for beach ridges, or berms, with the majority of studies focused on Atlantic-type margins. Primary factors invoked for beach-ridge formation include changes in sea-level, in wave climate, and in sediment supply. On subduction-zone margins, co-seismic deformation can force any of these three factors. For example, subsidence of the shoreline (local sea level rise) will generally lead to coastal erosion, whereas shoreline uplift (subduing local wave climate) will strand beach ridges. Earthquake-triggered landslides may significantly increase sediment supply. Some authors working on Pacific margins have correlated either beach ridges (e.g., A. Kurbatov on Kamchatka; P. Saltonstall and G. Carver on Kodiak), or buried erosional scarps (e.g. R.A. Meyers et al., Washington State) with subduction-zone earthquakes and the seismic cycle. Our work on Kamchatka provides examples where buried scarps and beach ridges are superimposed, each pair of which we interpret to be the result of a single seismic cycle, apparently consistent with some other data and interpretations (Kodiak, particularly). That is, in a setting where the shoreline subsides during an earthquake and recovers thereafter, beach ridges overlie buried scarps. In one case on Kamchatka, in southern Vestnik Bay, there is a spectacular outcrop illustrating this relationship. This model by no means explains all beach ridges, so identifying earthquake-forced beach ridges remains a challenge.

  3. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  4. Suprabenthic biodiversity of Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munilla, T.; San Vicente, C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.

  5. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  6. A hybrid beach morphology model applied to a high energy sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the application of a hybrid coastal morphodynamic model to forecast inter-annual beach change is discussed through the prediction of beach change in a high energy sandy beach over a period of 5 years. The modelling approach combines a `reduced-physics' formulation with a data-driven approach through an inverse technique to form the hybrid coastal morphodynamic model. The beach considered for the demonstration of the model is the Narrabeen Beach, which is a dynamic sand beach located in New South Wales, Australia. Despite its simplicity, we find that the model is able to capture beach change at Narrabeen Beach at inter-annual timescales with root mean square error between measured and computed beach profiles less than 0.4 m on average. Even though the model is used to forecast inter-annual beach change in this study, its ability to predict beach change is not limited to that timescale but depends on the frequency of historic beach profile measurements available to determine key unknown parameters of the model. Also, the length of profile forecasts largely depends on the length of available historic measurements where longer data sets allow longer predictions within a range of beach behaviour contained in the observations. The ability of the model to reliably forecast coastal change at inter-annual and potentially at other timescales, and its high efficiency make it possible to be used in providing multiple simulations required for probabilistic coastal change forecasts which will be very useful for coastal management purposes.

  7. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  8. What is the relative health risk to swimmers from California Seagull feces compared to bather shedders?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimated infection risks to swimmers from California seagull and bather sources of fecal contamination at a beach in Southern California were compared using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The risk to swimmers of gastro-intestinal infections was estimated from Ca...

  9. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  10. Coupling alongshore variations in wave energy to beach morphologic change using the SWAN wave model at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshleman, Jodi L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    conditions to help isolate the effects of offshore wave direction and period on nearshore wave predictions. Alongshore varying average beach change statistics are computed at specific profile locations from topographic beach surveys and lidar data. The study area is located in the San Francisco Bight in central California. Ocean Beach is a seven kilometer long north-south trending sandy coastline located just south of the entrance to the San Francisco Bay Estuary (Figure 1). It contains an erosion hotspot in the southern part of the beach which has resulted in damage to local infrastructure and is the cause of continued concern. A wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling efforts have been focused here as part of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) San Francisco Bight Coastal Processes Study, which began in October 2003 and represents the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to very strong tidal flows, with measured currents often in excess of 1 m/s at the north end of the beach. Current profiler measurements indicate that current magnitudes are greater in the northern portion of the beach, while wave energy is greater in the southern portion where erosion problems are greatest (Barnard et al., 2007). The sub-aerial beach volume fluctuates seasonally over a maximum envelope of 400,000 m3 for the seven kilometer stretch (Barnard et al, 2007). The wave climate in the region is dominated by an abundance of low frequency energy (greater than 20 s period) and prevailing northwest incident wave angles. The application of a wave model to the region is further complicated by the presence of the Farallon Islands 40 kilometers west, and a massive ebb tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (~150 km2), which creates complicated refraction patterns as wave energy moves from offshore Ocean Beach; however the cost and threat of the energetic nearshore environment have limited the temporal

  11. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, which authorize operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and...

  12. The Different Faces of San Francisco's Ocean Beach: Analyzing Sand Size and Beach Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Labit, R.; Lui, S.; Rodriquez, I.; Yi, C.; Yu, M.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean Beach is located along the western edge of San Francisco adjacent to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion along the southern part of the beach is threatening a nearby highway and water treatment plant. To better understand this beach and the processes that form it, our SF-ROCKS research group collected data from seven locations along its length. We used an auto-level surveying instrument to measure beach profiles and we collected sand samples that were measured using sieves and a sieve shaker. We plotted profiles and grain-size data using Excel and Surfer software. The sediment is mostly fine sand, and the means of all samples range between 0.19-0.26 mm. There may be little variation along the beach because only small sand grains have survived the long journey from their Sierra Nevada source. Profile shape does vary along the beach. The profile at the northern end is about three times wider than the profile at the southern end. The northern profile is flatter overall, but all profiles had a steep beach face in August, when the data were collected. The differences in beach profiles may be related to position relative to the offshore bar, which appears to provide sand to the northern part of the beach. Our group will collect more data in November to see what changes have occurred after the large-wave season has begun. We will use Surfer software to compare summer and fall profiles, to see where sediment has been added and where sediment has been removed. We will also compare our results to the data collected by Dr. Patrick Barnard and his research group at the U.S. Geological Survey, who are using an All-Terrain Vehicle to measure beach profiles and a camera to measure sediment size. We will use our analysis of beach variations to make recommendations for reducing beach erosion.

  13. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  14. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  15. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  16. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  17. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball. PMID:22276408

  18. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth. PMID:18834997

  19. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  20. The Part-Time Teacher and Tenure in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerwin, Jeffrey

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relation of the part-time classification of teachers in California to the statutory tenure system as it has been construed by the state courts in a series of cases. Available from Wm. W. Gaunt & Sons, Inc., 3011 Gulf Dr., Holmes Beach, FL 35510. (Author/MLF)

  1. A Comparison of Aerosol Optical, Microphysical, and Chemical Measurements between LAX and Long Beach Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornhill, K. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Chen, G.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Nenes, A.; Lathem, T. L.; Arctas Science Team

    2010-12-01

    In the summer of 2008, measurements of aerosols were made on-board the NASA DC-8 over the state of California, as part of the second phase of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) on behalf of the California Air resources Board (CARB). The DC-8 made four flights, between 18 June and 26 June, totaling 33 hours, to examine California’s atmosphere to better understand the chemical dynamics of smog and greenhouse gases over the state. The NASA DC-8 had a suite of aerosol instruments, capable of measuring the number concentrations, optical properties, and size distributions of aerosols between 0.003 and 1500 um. In this presentation, we will compare aerosol observations made at two areas within the Los Angeles Basin, Los Angeles International airport (LAX) and Long Beach Harbor. LAX is in the middle of the second most populated metropolitan area in the United States and is the fifth busiest airport in the world, while Long Beach Harbor (20 miles south of LAX) is the world’s 2nd busiest container port. Initial results suggest a greater aerosol loading and additional presence of ultrafine aerosols during the week due to vehicular emissions. We will also present analysis of aerosol observations as a function of time of day from the four missed approaches at LAX and four over flights of Long Beach Harbor.

  2. California Tsunami Policy Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, C. R.; Johnson, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    California has established a Tsunami Policy Working Group of specialists from government and industry, from diverse fields including tsunami, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering that have come together to facilitate the development of policy recommendations for tsunami hazard mitigation. The group is acting on findings from two major efforts: the USGS SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project - Tsunami Scenario, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible tsunami originating from a M 9.0 earthquake on the Aleutian Islands striking California's Coastline, and the State's Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Education Program carried out by the California Emergency Management Agency and the California Geological Survey. The latter program is currently involved with several projects to help coastal communities reduce their tsunami risk, including two pilot projects (Crescent City in Del Norte County and the City of Huntington Beach in Orange County) where tsunami risk is among the highest in California, and a third pilot study focusing on the maritime community. The pilot projects are developing and testing probabilistic tsunami hazard products that will assist land-use and construction decisions for coastal development. The role of the policy group is to identify gaps and issues in current tsunami hazard mitigation, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments and to provide advice that will assist in the development and implementation of effective tsunami hazard products that will help coastal communities improve tsunami resiliency.

  3. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  4. Diversity and Transport of Microorganisms in Intertidal Sands of the California Coast

    PubMed Central

    Yamahara, Kevan M.; Sassoubre, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Forced by tides and waves, large volumes of seawater are flushed through the beach daily. Organic material and nutrients in seawater are remineralized and cycled as they pass through the beach. Microorganisms are responsible for most of the biogeochemical cycling in the beach; however, few studies have characterized their diversity in intertidal sands, and little work has characterized the extent to which microbes are transported between different compartments of the beach. The present study uses next-generation massively parallel sequencing to characterize the microbial community present at 49 beaches along the coast of California. In addition, we characterize the transport of microorganisms within intertidal sands using laboratory column experiments. We identified extensive diversity in the beach sands. Nearly 1,000 unique taxa were identified in sands from 10 or more unique beaches, suggesting the existence of a group of “cosmopolitan” sand microorganisms. A biogeographical analysis identified a taxon-distance relationship among the beaches. In addition, sands with similar grain size, organic carbon content, exposed to a similar wave climate, and having the same degree of anthropogenic influence tended to have similar microbial communities. Column experiments identified microbes readily mobilized by seawater infiltrating through unsaturated intertidal sands. The ease with which microbes were mobilized suggests that intertidal sands may represent a reservoir of bacteria that seed the beach aquifer where they may partake in biogeochemical cycling. PMID:24747906

  5. California Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of ... from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern California. This image was acquired during Terra orbit ...

  6. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  7. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  8. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone'' in the Federal Register (77 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed...

  9. Predictive Modeling of Microbial Indicators for Timely Beach Notifications and Advisories at Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine beaches are occasionally contaminated by unacceptably high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) that exceed EPA water quality criteria. Here we describe application of a recent version of the software package Virtual Beach tool (VB 3.0.6) to build and evaluate multiple...

  10. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  11. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking....

  12. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  13. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  14. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway in...

  15. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  16. Hydrocarbons in oil residues on beaches of islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Carlson, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured on oil residues from beaches on six islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In addition to altered products from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989, we also found, at two widely separated locations, residues that are similar to each other but chemically distinct from the spilled oil. Terpanes, steranes, monoaromatic steranes, and carbon isotopic compositions of total extracts were most useful in correlating the altered products of the spilled oil. These same parameters revealed that the two non-Valdez samples are likely residues of oil originally produced in California. The results indicate that oil residues currently on the beaches of this estuary have at least two quite different origins.

  17. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where

  18. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B

    2014-12-16

    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches. PMID:25390647

  19. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further

  20. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  1. Distribution and sources of surfzone bacteria at Huntington Beach before and after disinfection on an ocean outfall - A frequency-domain analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.; Robertson, G.L.; Rosenfeld, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were measured approximately 5 days a week in ankle-depth water at 19 surfzone stations along Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, California, from 1998 to the end of 2003. These sampling periods span the time before and after treated sewage effluent, discharged into the coastal ocean from the local outfall, was disinfected. Bacterial samples were also taken in the vicinity of the outfall during the pre- and post-disinfection periods. Our analysis of the results from both data sets suggest that land-based sources, rather than the local outfall, were the source of the FIB responsible for the frequent closures and postings of local beaches in the summers of 2001 and 2002. Because the annual cycle is the dominant frequency in the fecal and total coliform data sets at most sampling stations, we infer that sources associated with local runoff were responsible for the majority of coliform contamination along wide stretches of the beach. The dominant fortnightly cycle in enterococci at many surfzone sampling stations suggests that the source for these relatively frequent bacteria contamination events in summer is related to the wetting and draining of the land due to the large tidal excursions found during spring tides. Along the most frequently closed section of the beach at stations 3N-15N, the fortnightly cycle is dominant in all FIBs. The strikingly different spatial and spectral patterns found in coliform and in enterococci suggest the presence of different sources, at least for large sections of beach. The presence of a relatively large enterococci fortnightly cycle along the beaches near Newport Harbor indicates that contamination sources similar to those found off Huntington Beach are present, though not at high enough levels to close the Newport beaches. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Internal structure of a barrier beach as revealed by ground penetrating radar (GPR): Chesil beach, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Cassidy, Nigel J.; Pile, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    Chesil Beach (Dorset) is one of the most famous coastal landforms on the British coast. The gravel beach is over 18 km long and is separated for much of its length from land by a tidal lagoon known as The Fleet. The beach links the Isle of Portland in the east to the mainland in the west. Despite its iconic status there is little available information on its internal geometry and evolutionary history. Here we present a three-fold model for the evolution of Chesil Beach based on a series of nine ground penetrating radar (GPR) traverses located at three sites along its length at Abbotsbury, Langton Herring and at Ferry Bridge. The GPR traverses reveal a remarkably consistent picture of the internal structure of this barrier beach. The first phase of evolution involves the landward transgression of a small sand and gravel beach which closed upon the coast leading to deposition of freshwater peat between 5 and 7 k yr BP. The second evolutionary phase involves the 'bulking-out' of the beach during continued sea level rise, but in the presence of abundant gravel supplied by down-drift erosion of periglacial slope deposits. This episode of growth was associated with a series of washover fans which accumulated on the landward flank of the barrier increasing its breadth and height but without significant landward transgression of the barrier as a whole. The final phase in the evolution of Chesil Beach involves the seaward progradation of the beach crest and upper beach face associated with continued sediment abundance, but during a still-stand or slight fall in relative sea level. This phase may provide further evidence of a slight fall in relative sea level noted elsewhere along the South Coast of Britain and dated to between 1.2 and 2.4 k yr BP. Subsequently the barrier appears to have become largely inactive, except for the reworking of sediment on the beach face during storm events. The case study not only refines the evolutionary picture of Chesil Beach, but

  3. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  4. Characteristics of atmospheric dispersion and model predictions offshore the central California coast

    SciTech Connect

    Herkhof, D.C.; Dabberdt, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    A series of atmospheric tracer experiments was conducted off the south-central California coast under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Interior's Minerals Management Service (MMS). The purpose of these experiments was to characterize offshore dispersion and to evaluate offshore dispersion models. One tracer study was conducted in the Santa Barbara Channel near Oxnard, California. Another tracer study as conducted near Pismo Beach, California by Dabberdt et al. The data were used to evaluate models that were current. This paper describes the most important findings of the Pismo Beach tracer experiment and their significance in the development of improved offshore prediction models. It briefly summarized the observed dispersion characteristics obtained from the Pismo Beach tracer experiment; compares the performance of the OCD model with that of the CRSTER model, and presents a discussion of offshore data requirements to optimize model performance.

  5. Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach and Lake Mead, view to northeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  6. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    stimuli in coastal adaptation initiatives and resulted in the Ocean Beach Master Plan. Investigation into the planning processes involving multiple stakeholder engagement such as San Francisco (SF) Public Utilities Commission, California Coastal Commission, National Park Service, SF Department of Public Works, SF Recreation and Park Department, SF Planning Department, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers can shed light on trade-offs and synergies of different adaptation responses. The role of the coordinator - SF Planning and Urban Research Commission - as a mediator between different stakeholder interests and priorities, a realistic assessment of current hazard management practices specific to local contexts, and the necessity of combining hazard mitigation policies with coastal management and community management are the key findings of this research. They help inform policy formulation and decision-making in climate change adaptation, and provide a valuable case study that can be transferred to other locations.

  7. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  8. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  9. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY IN VISUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...

  10. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  11. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  12. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities…

  14. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. Beach Cusps: Spatial distribution and time evolution at Massaguaçú beach (SP), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, H. H.; Siegle, E.; Sousa, P. H.

    2013-05-01

    Beach cusps are crescentic morphological structures observed on the foreshore of beaches characterized by steep seaward protruding extensions, called cusp horns, and gently sloped landward extensions, called cusp embayments. Their formation depends on the grain size, beach slope, tidal range and incoming waves. Cusps are best developed on gravel or shingle beaches, small tidal range with a large slope for incoming waves generate a well-developed swash excursion. These structures are quickly responding to wave climate and tidal range, changing the position of the rhythmic features on the beach face. Beach cusps are favored by normal incoming waves, while oblique waves tend to wash these features out. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of rhythmic features such as beach cusps in Massaguaçú embayment (Caraguatatuba, northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil). This embayment has an extension of 7.5 km with reflective beaches cusped mainly in its more exposed central portion. The data set for this study consists of a series of video images (Argus system), covering a stretch of the beach. Visible beach cusps were digitalized from these rectified images. Results obtained from the images were related to the wave climate, water level and the storm surges. Results show that the cusps on the upper portion of the foreshore were more regular and present than the cusps on the lower portion of the foreshore due to the tidal modulation of wave action. The cusp spacing on the upper portion of the foreshore is of about 38 m and the lower portion of the foreshore is of about 28 m and their presence was correlated with the wave direction and water elevation. As expected, waves approaching with shore-normal angles (southeast direction) were favorable to the formation of beach cusps while the waves from the southwest, south, east and northeast generated a longshore current that reduced or destroyed any rhythmic feature. Other important forcing was

  16. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2010-01-08

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  17. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest…

  18. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  19. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  20. Erosion in the Beaches of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synolakis, C. E.; Foteinis, S.; Voukouvalas, V.; Kalligeris, N.

    2009-04-01

    In the past decade, erosion rates for the coastlines of Greece are rapidly increasing. Many beaches on the northern coast of the island have substantially retreated, while others have disappeared or will disappear within the present or the following decade if no action is taken. For the better understanding and visualization of the current situation, specific examples of rapid erosion are described and afterwards we speculate as to the causes. We infer that, as in other parts of the Mediterranean, the causes are anthropogenic and include removal of sand dunes to build roads, sand mining from beaches and rivers, permanent building construction within the active coastal zone, on or too close to shoreline, and poor design of coastal structures. The reason behind the rapid erosion of Greece coastlines is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management and antiquated legislation. We conclude that unless urgent measures for the protection and even salvation of the beaches are taken and if the sand mining and dune removal does not stop, then several beaches will disappear within the present and the following decade.

  1. Observations and modeling of San Diego beaches during El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doria, André; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, William C.; Yates, M. L.

    2016-08-01

    Subaerial sand levels were observed at five southern California beaches for 16 years, including notable El Niños in 1997-98 and 2009-10. An existing, empirical shoreline equilibrium model, driven with wave conditions estimated using a regional buoy network, simulates well the seasonal changes in subaerial beach width (e.g. the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) during non-El Niño years, similar to previous results with a 5-year time series lacking an El Niño winter. The existing model correctly identifies the 1997-98 El Niño winter conditions as more erosive than 2009-10, but overestimates shoreline erosion during both El Niños. The good skill of the existing equilibrium model in typical conditions does not necessarily extrapolate to extreme erosion on these beaches where a few meters thick sand layer often overlies more resistant layers. The modest over-prediction of the 2009-10 El Niño is reduced by gradually decreasing the model mobility of highly eroded shorelines (simulating cobbles, kelp wrack, shell hash, or other stabilizing layers). Over prediction during the more severe 1997-98 El Niño is corrected by stopping model erosion when resilient surfaces (identified with aerial imagery) are reached. The trained model provides a computationally simple (e.g. nonlinear first order differential equation) representation of the observed relationship between incident waves and shoreline change.

  2. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  3. The effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Hua, G.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Beach slope changes the tidal induced saltwater-freshwater circulations in coastal aquifers. However, the effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing process is far from understood. Based on sand flume experiments and numerical simulations, we investigated the intrusion process of saltwater into freshwater under tidal forcing and variable beach slopes. The sand flume experiment results show that milder slope induces larger upper saline plume (USP) and seaward salt wedge interface (SWI) under tidal forcing. While, the steady state SWI keeps stagnant with different beach slopes. Consistent with the previous research, our numerical simulations also show a lager flux exchange across the milder beach induced by the tidal fluctuations. The groundwater table fluctuates more intensify with deeper beach slope. The next step of our study will pay attention to the effect of beach slope on the instability of USP which induces the salt-fingering flow.

  4. Association of Fecal Indicator Bacteria with Human Viruses and Microbial Source Tracking Markers at Coastal Beaches Impacted by Nonpoint Source Pollution

    PubMed Central

    McQuaig, Shannon; Griffith, John

    2012-01-01

    Water quality was assessed at two marine beaches in California by measuring the concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and by library-independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods targeting markers of human-associated microbes (human polyomavirus [HPyV] PCR and quantitative PCR, Methanobrevibacter smithii PCR, and Bacteroides sp. strain HF183 PCR) and a human pathogen (adenovirus by nested PCR). FIB levels periodically exceeded regulatory thresholds at Doheny and Avalon Beaches for enterococci (28.5% and 31.7% of samples, respectively) and fecal coliforms (20% and 5.8%, respectively). Adenoviruses were detected at four of five sites at Doheny Beach and were correlated with detection of HPyVs and human Bacteroides HF183; however, adenoviruses were not detected at Avalon Beach. The most frequently detected human source marker at both beaches was Bacteroides HF183, which was detected in 27% of samples. Correlations between FIBs and human markers were much more frequent at Doheny Beach than at Avalon Beach; e.g., adenovirus was correlated with HPyVs and HF183. Human sewage markers and adenoviruses were routinely detected in samples meeting FIB regulatory standards. The toolbox approach of FIB measurement coupled with analysis of several MST markers targeting human pathogens used here demonstrated that human sewage is at least partly responsible for the degradation of water quality, particularly at Doheny Beach, and resulted in a more definitive assessment of recreational water quality and human health risk than reliance on FIB concentrations alone could have provided. PMID:22773625

  5. Sea-cliff erosion as a function of beach changes and extreme wave runup during the 1997-1998 El Nino

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Krabill, W.; Brock, J.; Swift, R.; Manizade, S.; Stockdon, H.

    2002-01-01

    Over time scales of hundreds to thousands of years, the net longshore sand transport direction along the central California coast has been driven to the south by North Pacific winter swell. In contrast, during the El Nin??o winter of 1997-1998, comparisons of before and after airborne lidar surveys showed sand was transported from south to north and accumulated on the south sides of resistant headlands bordering pocket beaches. This resulted in significant beach erosion at the south ends of pocket beaches and deposition in the north ends. Coincident with the south-to-north redistribution of sand, shoreline morphology became prominently cuspate with longshore wavelengths of 400-700 m. The width and elevation of beaches were least where maximum shoreline erosion occurred, preferentially exposing cliffs to wave attack. The resulting erosional hotspots typically were located in the embayments of giant cusps in the southern end of the pocket beaches. The observed magnitude of sea cliff retreat, which reached 14 m, varied with the number of hours that extreme wave runup exceeded certain thresholds representing the protective capacity of the beach during the El Nin??o winter. A threshold representing the width of the beach performed better than a threshold representing the elevation of the beach. The magnitude of cliff erosion can be scaled using a simple model based on the cross-shore distance that extreme wave runup exceeded the pre-winter cliff position. Cliff erosion appears to be a balance between terrestrial mass wasting processes, which tend to decrease the cliff slope, and wave attack, which removes debris and erodes the cliff base increasing the cliff slope. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge on bacterial indicators and swimmer health at Avalon Beach, CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Yau, Vincent M; Schiff, Kenneth C; Arnold, Benjamin F; Griffith, John F; Gruber, Joshua S; Wright, Catherine C; Wade, Timothy J; Burns, Susan; Hayes, Jacqueline M; McGee, Charles; Gold, Mark; Cao, Yiping; Boehm, Alexandria B; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M

    2014-08-01

    Use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) for monitoring beach water quality is based on their co-occurrence with human pathogens, a relationship that can be dramatically altered by fate and transport processes after leaving the human intestine. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Avalon Beach, California (USA), where the indicator relationship is potentially affected by the discharge of sewage-contaminated groundwater and by solar radiation levels at this shallow, relatively quiescent beach. The goals of this study were to determine: 1) if swimmers exposed to marine water were at higher risk of illness than non-swimmers; 2) if FIB measured in marine water were associated with swimmer illness, and; 3) if the associations between FIB and swimmer health were modified by either submarine groundwater discharge or solar radiation levels. There were 7317 individuals recruited during the summers of 2007-08, 6165 (84%) of whom completed follow-up within two weeks of the beach visit. A total of 703 water quality samples were collected across multiple sites and time periods during recruitment days and analyzed for FIB using both culture-based and molecular methods. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) indicated that swimmers who swallowed water were more likely to experience Gastrointestinal Illness (GI Illness) within three days of their beach visit than non-swimmers, and that this risk was significantly elevated when either submarine groundwater discharge was high (AOR [95% CI]:2.18 [1.22-3.89]) or solar radiation was low (2.45 [1.25-4.79]). The risk of GI Illness was not significantly elevated for swimmers who swallowed water when groundwater discharge was low or solar radiation was high. Associations between GI Illness incidence and FIB levels (Enterococcus EPA Method 1600) among swimmers who swallowed water were not significant when we did not account for groundwater discharge, but were strongly associated when groundwater discharge was high (1.85 [1.06, 3.23]) compared to

  7. Coastal monitoring of the May 2005 dredge disposal offshore of Ocean Beach, San Francisco, Calif.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location and avoid hazardous navigation conditions at the current disposal site (SF-8), a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (COE). The objective for COE was to perform a test dredge disposal of ~230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand just offshore of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. This disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where the strong tidal currents associated with the mouth of San Francisco Bay and waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Sea Floor Mapping Lab (SFML) of California State University, Monterey Bay, monitored the initial bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region from May 2005 to November 2005. This paper reports on this monitoring effort and assesses the short-term coastal response.

  8. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  9. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  10. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California     View Larger Image ... that had not burned in decades, and years of extended drought contributed to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern ...

  11. Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2004-06-01

    This volume discusses the role of humans in transforming the coastal landscape. The book details the many ways beaches and dunes are eliminated, altered and replaced and the differences between natural landforms and the human artefacts that replace them. Emphasis is placed on the importance of retaining naturally functioning beaches and dunes in ways that achieve natural values while accommodating development and use. The issues dealt with in this book will be of interest to practising coastal engineers and research scientists, as well as to planners and managers of coastal resources at all levels of government. It will be of particular value to investigators planning for the future of coastal development under accelerated sea level rise. The book will also be useful as a reference text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in geography, geology, ecology and other disciplines dealing with the interaction between science, technology and society.

  12. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) - California grunion. [Leuresthes tenuis

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, R.A.; Chamberlain, R.H.; Fisher, R.A.

    1985-02-01

    The California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) has little commerical importance but is one of the most popular sport fish along the beaches of southern California. Calfornia grunion spawn on sand beaches about every 2 weeks (as many as eight spawning per female) during full and new moon tide cycles. The spawning season begins in February-March and may extend to early September. The eggs hatch in about 2 weeks. California grunion mature at young age and have a life span of about 3 years. Larvae and adults prey on planktonic organisms, primarily copepods. Eggs are preyed upon by beach scavengers; adults are forage for larger piscivores. They host several crustacean and digenetic trematode parasites. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Sand Beach Bacteria: Enumeration and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Khiyama, H. M.; Makemson, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Bacteria in the water-saturated sand of a relatively unpolluted sand beach were enumerated by direct microscope and viable counting. The number of interstitial bacteria was estimated to be a significant fraction of the total number of bacteria present. Three hundred sixty-two strains were isolated and submitted to cultural and biochemical tests. Fermentational abilities and the production of indole suggested that a significant number of these bacteria were symbiotically associated with resident metazoans. PMID:4356458

  14. Sand beach bacteria: enumeration and characterization.

    PubMed

    Khiyama, H M; Makemson, J C

    1973-09-01

    Bacteria in the water-saturated sand of a relatively unpolluted sand beach were enumerated by direct microscope and viable counting. The number of interstitial bacteria was estimated to be a significant fraction of the total number of bacteria present. Three hundred sixty-two strains were isolated and submitted to cultural and biochemical tests. Fermentational abilities and the production of indole suggested that a significant number of these bacteria were symbiotically associated with resident metazoans. PMID:4356458

  15. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques. PMID:26056968

  16. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  17. Textural analysis of Point Calimere beach sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapal, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    Grain size analysis helps to identify the nature of coastal and sedimentary environments.This parameters provide an insight in to the nature and the energy flux of the transporting agents and their nature of depositional environment. The Beach sediments from the Point Calimere coast are studied for analysis the impact of wave action over the coast. Cauvery and its tributaries are the Chief source for sediments are by the deposits. This dynamic coast of South India is reported to have accretion and erosion at invariably high degrees. Also the impact of land ocean interaction is at high intensity. Further there are chains of Dunes along this coast. The geomorphology of this coast is not a uniform stretch, it has curvature Point Calimere in the south and straight coast towards North. wave properties like reflection, refraction and diffraction are noticed along the study area. Beach Samples were collected along selected zones and their properties were studied in laboratory after sieving half phi interval. Mean mode, sorting, skewness and other statistics are calculated using moment and Folk and Ward graphical methods. This region has three different zones of waves and this wave impact shapes the coast. In few zones erosion were noticed and in few sited deposition Results expressed in metric units, provided of compositionally variable sediments. . The statistical results and field surveys of Point Calimere beach sand samples reveal sediment accretion and wave environments respectivelyGeographic coordinates of sampling stationt; t;

  18. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand

  19. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. What Do Teachers in California Have To Say about Block Scheduling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staunton, Jim; Adams, Teresa

    1997-01-01

    Of 150 Huntington Beach (California) high school teachers participating in a survey on block scheduling's efficacy, 106 (70%) took time to make written comments. Teachers enjoyed having less up-front lecturing, more one-on-one interactions with students, and a less hectic schedule, but had concerns about interruptions and…

  1. Expand and Contract: E-Learning Shapes the World in Cyprus and in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheley, Nancy Strow; Zitzer-Comfort, Carol

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2008, university students enrolled in courses at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB), and the University of Cyprus (UCY) participated in a cross-cultural e-learning project in which they studied American Indian literature and history. All students followed the same six-week syllabus, which included shared readings and…

  2. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Parks Collection Photo 1958 Rephoto 1960 EAST ELEVATION - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  4. Hyperspectral image classifier based on beach spectral feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhang; Lianru, Gao; Bing, Zhang

    2014-03-01

    The seashore, especially coral bank, is sensitive to human activities and environmental changes. A multispectral image, with coarse spectral resolution, is inadaptable for identify subtle spectral distinctions between various beaches. To the contrary, hyperspectral image with narrow and consecutive channels increases our capability to retrieve minor spectral features which is suit for identification and classification of surface materials on the shore. Herein, this paper used airborne hyperspectral data, in addition to ground spectral data to study the beaches in Qingdao. The image data first went through image pretreatment to deal with the disturbance of noise, radiation inconsistence and distortion. In succession, the reflection spectrum, the derivative spectrum and the spectral absorption features of the beach surface were inspected in search of diagnostic features. Hence, spectra indices specific for the unique environment of seashore were developed. According to expert decisions based on image spectrums, the beaches are ultimately classified into sand beach, rock beach, vegetation beach, mud beach, bare land and water. In situ surveying reflection spectrum from GER1500 field spectrometer validated the classification production. In conclusion, the classification approach under expert decision based on feature spectrum is proved to be feasible for beaches.

  5. Changes along a seawall and natural beaches: Fourchon, LA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossa, Joann; Nakashima, Lindsay D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares shoreline and beach morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A beach consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural beaches to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of beach response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.

  6. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Claereboudt, Michel R

    2004-11-01

    Beach debris abundance and weight were estimated from surveys on 11 beaches of the Gulf of Oman along the Omani coast. Debris were collected on two occasions from 100 m transects, sorted and categorized by origin and type. Overall contaminations ranged from 0.43 to 6.01 items m(-1) of beach front on different beaches with a mean value of 1.79+/-1.04 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of weight, contamination levels ranged from 7.8 to 75.44 gm(-1) of beach front with a mean contamination of 27.02+/-14.48 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of numbers of items, plastic debris ranked first on all beaches followed by either wood items or other organic materials such as cigarette butts. Industrial debris remained few on all beaches (<10%). Most debris had a local origin and, in terms of numbers, were associated with beach recreational activities whereas fishing debris represented the largest proportion of the debris in terms of weight. There were notable differences between beaches in the relative abundance of recreation-related and fishing-related debris. PMID:15530520

  7. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  8. Coastal Processes and Geomorphology along Crissy Beach and Inside San Francisco's Golden Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, D. A.; Erikson, L. H.; Barnard, P. L.; Battalio, B.; Elias, E.; Hansen, J. E.; Sheehan, L. R.; White, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    , annual and seasonal timescales. Variability of the shoreline was further analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) in GIS, based on decadal aerial photographs beginning in the 1920s and long-term dredging records from the San Francisco Marina located immediately east of Crissy Beach. Based on the data and numerical modeling results, an overall sediment budget was estimated to determine the trends of potential geomorphic change. The geomorphic response to sea-level rise is vital to infrastructure design at Crissy Beach. Based on compilation and analysis of USGS and ESA PWA data and model results describing historic and present conditions, the accretion patterns on the west part of the beach are not expected to continue linearly. Incorporating anticipated sea level-rise rates established for California (0.35 m by 2050, 1.40 m by 2100), ESA PWA's calculated water levels are projected to exceed estimated shoreline elevations calculated from accretion rates. Transgression of the beach upward and landward is expected, as long as space is available for managed retreat.

  9. Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.

    2013-10-01

    Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL

  10. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. PMID:27065444

  11. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  12. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  13. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  14. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  15. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  16. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wildfires Rage in Southern California     ... Image Large plumes of smoke rising from devastating wildfires burning near Los Angeles and San Diego on Sunday, October 26, 2003, ... at JPL October 26, 2003 - Smoke from wildfires near Los Angeles and San Diego. project:  MISR ...

  17. California Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After getting her master's degree from UCLA, Nancy Wills dreamed of starting a school-based guitar program so she could teach students to make music on the instrument she'd loved since she was a kid growing up outside of Yosemite, California. She had a strong belief that guitar was perfect for schools, ideal for individualized playing but also…

  18. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  19. Howard Beach Youth: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Linda S.; Lichter, S. Robert

    This assessment of the climate of racial and ethnic attitudes in Howard Beach (New York) was conducted at John Adams High School, the public school attended by the greatest number of high school children in the Howard Beach community. The survey of 1,217 students was administered in December, 1986, several weeks before the incident in which a…

  20. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  1. The Beach--A Natural Protection from the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensabaugh, William M.

    1983-01-01

    The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…

  2. View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is in the foreground, the pier to the right. The painted octagonal window is above the deck. Avila's Front Street is at the rear of the building. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  3. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  4. Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

  5. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  6. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  7. RECREATIONAL BEACH WATER QUALITY MONITORING WITH QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...

  8. Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

    Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

  9. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  10. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  11. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  12. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  13. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  14. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  15. Abundance, Health and Status of Sand Crabs at Ocean Beach, San Francisco: Comparisons From two Summers, 2003 and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad-Saydah, A.; MacCormack, D.; Velarde, M.; Masters, D.; Walton, M.

    2004-12-01

    Interns from the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco monitored Pacific mole crabs, Emerita analoga, commonly known as sand crabs, at Ocean Beach, San Francisco for the second consecutive summer. Comparisons from two data sets revealed trends in crab abundance, size and location. Changes in abundance and location may have been related to water temperature and predation. Dissections of random crabs from all gender classes allowed inspection of parasitism on the crabs. The dissections revealed increased numbers of parasites in larger crabs (especially females with eggs) and in crabs collected later in the summer season. Crab parasitism may be connected to population changes of species predating the sand crabs.

  16. Terrestrial laser scanning of anthropogenic beach berms for urban flood defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, B. F.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Shakeri Majd, M.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, over 20 million people reside below present high tide levels and as many as 200 million are vulnerable to flooding during extreme events. In California, coastal flooding is driven by a combination of factors such as high astronomical tides, waves, storm surge, and other fluctuations such as those caused by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and climate change is likely to exacerbate those factors testing the limits of coastal flood defenses. Beaches provide natural flood protection during storms by mitigating the effects of high water levels and wave runup, and a process known as beach berming can be used to temporarily enhance the ability of beaches to withstand overtopping. In cases where beaches serve as primary protection for development, anthropogenic berms may represent an attractive management option for temporarily addressing future flood hazards. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or lidar has emerged as a valuable technology for capturing the three dimensional geometry of complex surfaces and objects, and in the context of coastal flood prediction mobile TLS could prove invaluable by quickly mapping beach topography before an imminent flood threat and reducing associated uncertainties in coastal flood forecasting systems. The research presented here highlights the results of a field campaign to document the initial conditions and dynamic erosion of anthropogenic berms using TLS. On three occasions in February and March of 2012, a prototype berm was constructed on the foreshore of the city of Newport Beach, CA at low tide, and was scanned to document its initial shape, and then scanned in near-continuous fashion with the rising tide to characterize its subsequent erosion. The purpose is two-fold: (1) to measure the performance of the TLS system relative to accuracy and assess strengths and drawbacks that are likely to bear on the suitability of this technology to support flood prediction as described above, and (2) to develop a better

  17. Probabilistic assessment of beach and dune changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Stockdon, H.; Haines, J.; Krabill, W.; Swift, R.; Brock, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recent availability of spatially-dense airborne lidar data makes assessment of the vulnerability of beaches and dunes to storm impacts practical over long reaches of coast. As an initial test, elevations of the tops (D high) and bases (Dlow) of foredune ridges along a 55-km reach on the northern Outer Banks, NC were found to have considerable spatial variability suggesting that different parts of the barrier island would respond differently to storms. Comparing statistics of storm wave runup to D high and Dlow, we found that net erosion due to overwash and dune retreat should be greatest at the northern and southern ends of the study area and least in the central section. This predicted spatial pattern of storm-induced erosion is similar to the spatial pattern of long-term erosion of the shoreline which may be controlled by additional processes (such as gradients in longshore transport) as well as the cross-shore processes considered here. However, consider feedback where at erosional hot spots there is a deficit of sand (caused by gradients in longshore transport) which lead to lower dunes and enhanced erosional cross-shore processes, such as overwash. Hence, the erosional hot spots would be exacerbated, further increasing the vulnerability of the beach and dunes to net erosion.

  18. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSINGS TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  19. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  20. 76 FR 22928 - Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to the Proposed License Amendment To Increase the Maximum Reactor Power Level The U.S....

  1. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... revisions to 10 CFR Part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967... Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The NRC staff's safety evaluation will be provided in the... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach...

  2. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan on holding a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. THE VISUAL BEACH NUMERICAL MODEL: A DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC MODELING APPROACH TO ACHIEVING US BEACHES AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the BEACH Act of 2000, EPA has committed to a program to monitor beach water quality and develop strategies, including modeling, for timely notification of the public when bacterial contamination poses a risk to bathers. EPA's goal is to manage 100% of significant public be...

  4. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

  5. The Purisima Formation at Capitola Beach, Santa Cruz County, CA: A Deeper Examination of Pliocene Fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, L. D.; Brooks, K.; Chen, R.; Chen, T.; James, T.; Gonzales, J.; Schumaker, D.; Williams, D.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil samples from the Pliocene Purisima Formation at Capitola Beach in Santa Cruz County, CA were collected in July-August 2005. The Purisima Formation composes the bulk of the cliffs exposed at Capitola Beach and a rich assemblage of well-preserved fossils occur in gray to brown sandstone and siltstone. Erosion of the cliff face averages 0.3 meter/year and fresh cliff falls in the winter and spring months of 2005 provided an excellent opportunity to resample the Capitola Beach section of the Purisima Formation previously documented by Perry (1988). Organisms were identified from information in Perry (1988) and were compared with collections at the California Academy of Sciences. The most abundant fossils found are from the phylum Mollusca, classes Bivalvia and Gastropoda. Abundant bivalve taxa are: Anadara trilineata, Clinocardium meekianum, Macoma sp., Protothaca staleyi, and Tresus pajaroanus. Also common are the gastropods, Calyptraea fastigata, Crepdiula princeps, Mitrella gausapata, Nassarius grammatus, Nassarius californianus, Natica clausa, and Olivella pedroana. Less common invertebrate fossils are from the phylum Echinodermata ( Dendraster sp., the extinct fossil sand dollar) and from the phylum Arthropoda ( Crustacea), crab fragments ( Cancer) and barnacles ( Balanus). Because numerous fossils are concentrated as fragments in shell beds, Norris (1986) and Perry (1988) believe many were redeposited as storm beds during strong current events that promoted rapid burial. In contrast, whale and other vertebrate bones are common in certain horizons and their presence may be related to the conditions that promoted phosphate mineralization, such as episodes of low sedimentation rates and prolonged exposure on the seafloor (Föllmi and Garrison, 1991). The bone beds, together with the rich infaunal and epifaunal invertebrate assemblages, represent a community of invertebrate organisms that thrived in a shallow marine sea during the Pliocene epoch, approximately

  6. The responses of artificial embayed beaches to storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, E.; Guillén, J.; Ribas, F.

    2009-09-01

    The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change from the Reflective state to the Low Tide Terrace, Transverse Bar and Rip, Rhythmic Bar and Beach, Longshore Bar and Trough and finally to the Dissipative beach state. These morphodynamic states are also observed at artificial embayed beaches, although artificial groins limit alongshore sediment transport and protect sections of the beach from waves approaching from a range of directions (Short and Masselink, 1999). This contribution focuses on the morphological changes of the shoreline and the submerged sandbars of artificial embayed (sandy) beaches due to the effect of high-wave conditions associated to storms. We characterize the morphological response of the emerged and submerged beach profile of two of the artificial embayed beaches of the Barcelona city coast (NW Mediterranean). The two embayed beaches under study are single-barred beaches subject to the same climatic conditions but with different morphological characteristics. The study comprises more than 4 years of data, from November 2001 to March 2006, obtained through an Argus video system (Holman and Stanley, 2007). The extraction of the shoreline and barline locations is accomplished using 10-minute time-exposure video images. Shorelines were extracted directly from oblique images (see Ojeda and Guillén, [2008] for a complete description) and rectified afterwards. Sandbars were inferred from the rectified time-exposure video images based on the preferential wave breaking over shallow areas, so they required a minimum significant wave height (Hs) which allowed the occurrence of a clear wave-breaking pattern. The

  7. Temporal and spatial variability of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, L K; McGee, C D; Robertson, G L; Noble, M A; Jones, B H

    2006-06-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations measured in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA from July 1998-December 2001 were analyzed with respect to their spatial patterns along 23 km of beach, and temporal variability on time scales from hourly to fortnightly. The majority of samples had bacterial concentrations less than, or equal to, the minimum detection limit, but a small percentage exceeded the California recreational water standards. Areas where coliform bacteria exceeded standards were more prevalent north of the Santa Ana River, whereas enterococci exceedances covered a broad area both north and south of the river. Higher concentrations of bacteria were associated with spring tides. No temporal correspondence was found between these bacterial events and either the timing of cold water pulses near shore due to internal tides, or the presence of southerly swell in the surface wave field. All three fecal indicator bacteria exhibited a diel cycle, but enterococci rebounded to high nighttime values almost as soon as the sun went down, whereas coliform levels were highest near the nighttime low tide, which was also the lower low tide. PMID:16616361

  8. High resolution renderings and interactive visualization of the 2006 Huntington Beach experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, T.; Nayak, A.; Keen, C.; Samilo, D.; Matthews, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Visualization Center at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography investigates innovative ways to represent graphically interactive 3D virtual landscapes and to produce high resolution, high quality renderings of Earth sciences data and the sensors and instruments used to collect the data . Among the Visualization Center's most recent work is the visualization of the Huntington Beach experiment, a study launched in July 2006 by the Southern California Ocean Observing System (http://www.sccoos.org/) to record and synthesize data of the Huntington Beach coastal region. Researchers and students at the Visualization Center created visual presentations that combine bathymetric data provided by SCCOOS with USGS aerial photography and with 3D polygonal models of sensors created in Maya into an interactive 3D scene using the Fledermaus suite of visualization tools (http://www.ivs3d.com). In addition, the Visualization Center has produced high definition (HD) animations of SCCOOS sensor instruments (e.g. REMUS, drifters, spray glider, nearshore mooring, OCSD/USGS mooring and CDIP mooring) using the Maya modeling and animation software and rendered over multiple nodes of the OptIPuter Visualization Cluster at Scripps. These visualizations are aimed at providing researchers with a broader context of sensor locations relative to geologic characteristics, to promote their use as an educational resource for informal education settings and increasing public awareness, and also as an aid for researchers' proposals and presentations. These visualizations are available for download on the Visualization Center website at http://siovizcenter.ucsd.edu/sccoos/hb2006.php.

  9. Temporal and spatial variability of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.; Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Jones, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations measured in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA from July 1998-December 2001 were analyzed with respect to their spatial patterns along 23 km of beach, and temporal variability on time scales from hourly to fortnightly. The majority of samples had bacterial concentrations less than, or equal to, the minimum detection limit, but a small percentage exceeded the California recreational water standards. Areas where coliform bacteria exceeded standards were more prevalent north of the Santa Ana River, whereas enterococci exceedances covered a broad area both north and south of the river. Higher concentrations of bacteria were associated with spring tides. No temporal correspondence was found between these bacterial events and either the timing of cold water pulses near shore due to internal tides, or the presence of southerly swell in the surface wave field. All three fecal indicator bacteria exhibited a diel cycle, but enterococci rebounded to high nighttime values almost as soon as the sun went down, whereas coliform levels were highest near the nighttime low tide, which was also the lower low tide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unconventional pilot steam drive, tar V sand, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Field, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, K.D.

    1984-04-01

    This paper reviews the design, implementation and history of the unconventional pilot steam drive (greater than 2,500 ft measured depth) that has been underway since December 24, 1980 in the Tar reservoir in the Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, Los Angeles County, California. This paper describes the project through November 30, 1983. The Tar V reservoir is a series of interbedded sands, siltstones and shales in the Middle Repetto formation of lower Pliocene age. The Tar V reservoir in the Long Beach Unit is approximately 200 acres in areal extent, has a vertical gross thickness of 185 ft and a maximum vertical net oil sand thickness of 90 ft comprised of 8 to 10 separate sand units. Oil in place is estimated at 27 MMbbl of stock tank oil. The study area is 9.2 acres in areal extent with an average net oil sand thickness of 81.7 ft. The pilot steam drive was originally installed as an isolated 5.6 acre inverted 5-spot pattern.

  11. TopCAT-Topographical Compartment Analysis Tool to analyze seacliff and beach change in GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Michael J.; Young, Adam P.; Ashford, Scott A.

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses the development of a new GIS extension named the Topographic Compartment Analysis Tool (TopCAT), which compares sequential digital elevation models (DEMs) and provides a quantitative and statistical analysis of the alongshore topographical change. TopCAT was specifically designed for the morphological analysis of seacliffs and beaches but may be applied to other elongated features which experience topographical change, such as stream beds, river banks, coastal dunes, etc. To demonstrate the capabilities of TopCAT two case studies are presented herein. The first case examines coastal cliff retreat for a 500 m section in Del Mar, California and shows that large failures comprised a large portion of the total eroded volume and the average retreat rate does not provide a good estimate of local maximum cliff retreat. The second case investigates the alongshore volumetric beach sand change caused by hurricane Bonnie (1998) for an 85 km section in the Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina. The results compare well (generally within 6%) with previous investigations. These case studies highlight additional information gained through performing a detailed, discretized analysis using TopCAT.

  12. Correlations Between Emerita analoga and Profilicollis spp. as Influenced by Environmental Factors at Ocean Beach, San Francisco CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, E.; Le, A.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002 the Careers in Science (CiS) intern program has monitored Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California for the population of Emerita analoga (Pacific Mole Crab) as part of a partnership program with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS). LiMPETS is an organization that conducts citizen science with Bay Area youth such as the CiS interns. We specifically assist in the collection of Pacific Mole Crab population statistics at Ocean Beach during the summer from June through August. The purpose of collecting Pacific Mole Crabs is to monitor Profilicollis spp. (Acanthocephalan parasites) - to which Pacific Mole Crabs serve as intermediate hosts - and to learn more about our environment as Pacific Mole Crabs are indicator species. During our collections at Ocean Beach we record size, sex, and number of individuals at specific transects. We then take a random sample from the day, return to the lab, and record their sizes, sexes, and Acanthocephalan parasite load. The results of the collection and dissections are then entered into the LiMPETS online database for scientist and researchers to use. Our project will focus on correlations relating to the data collected (Pacific Mole Crab population, parasite load, abiotic and biotic factors, et cetera).

  13. California's American Trader oil spill: Effective interagency and public-private collaboration in environmental disaster response

    SciTech Connect

    Gellert, G.A. ); Daugherty, S.J.; Rabiee, L.; Mazur, M.; Merryman, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    The American Trader tanker oil spill off Huntington Beach, California, in 1990 triggered a large interagency and public-private response to minimize the ecological and economic impact of nearly 400,000 gallons of spilled crude oil. This paper examines the interagency collaboration of public and private organizations during this crisis. Data are presented from interviews with key participants from various agencies, as well as from an innovative quantitative health-based risk assessment that allowed rapid reopenings of 15 miles of affected beaches. Features that contributed to effective management of the emergency response are considered along with recommendations for improvements in the future.

  14. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  15. New Tsunami Inundation Maps for California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Borrero, Jose; Uslu, Burak; Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    California is the first US State to complete its tsunami inundation mapping. A new generation of tsunami inundation maps is now available for 17 coastal counties.. The new maps offer improved coverage for many areas, they are based on the most recent descriptions of potential tsunami farfield and nearfield sources and use the best available bathymetric and topographic data for modelling. The need for new tsunami maps for California became clear since Synolakis et al (1998) described how inundation projections derived with inundation models that fully calculate the wave evolution over dry land can be as high as twice the values predicted with earlier threshold models, for tsunamis originating from tectonic source. Since the 1998 Papua New Guinea tsunami when the hazard from offshore submarine landslides was better understood (Bardet et al, 2003), the State of California funded the development of the first generation of maps, based on local tectonic and landslide sources. Most of the hazard was dominated by offshore landslides, whose return period remains unknown but is believed to be higher than 1000 years for any given locale, at least in Southern California. The new generation of maps incorporates local and distant scenarios. The partnership between the Tsunami Research Center at USC, the California Emergency Management Agency and the California Seismic Safety Commission let the State to be the first among all US States to complete the maps. (Exceptions include the offshore islands and Newport Beach, where higher resolution maps are under way). The maps were produced with the lowest cost per mile of coastline, per resident or per map than all other States, because of the seamless integration of the USC and NOAA databases and the use of the MOST model. They are a significant improvement over earlier map generations. As part of a continuous improvement in response, mitigation and planning and community education, the California inundation maps can contribute in

  16. 77 FR 26229 - Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach... the U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, Florida (Base Miami Beach). Base Miami Beach is composed of multiple U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) units, both land and waterside. The facility has one of the...

  17. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  18. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals. PMID:23103149

  19. Beach boundary layer: a framework for addressing recreational water quality impairment at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stanley B; Sanders, Brett F

    2010-12-01

    Nearshore waters in bays, harbors, and estuaries are frequently contaminated with human pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria. Tracking down and mitigating this contamination is complicated by the many point and nonpoint sources of fecal pollution that can degrade water quality along the shore. From a survey of the published literature, we propose a conceptual and mathematical framework, the "beach boundary layer model", for understanding and quantifying the relative impact of beach-side and bay-side sources of fecal pollution on nearshore water quality. In the model, bacterial concentration in ankle depth water C(ankle) [bacteria L(-3)] depends on the flux m'' [bacteria L(-2) T(-1)] of fecal bacteria from beach-side sources (bather shedding, bird and dog feces, tidal washing of sediments, decaying vegetation, runoff from small drains, and shallow groundwater discharge), a cross-shore mass transfer velocity k [L T(-1)] that accounts for the physics of nearshore transport and mixing, and a background concentration C(bay) [bacteria L(-3)] attributable to bay-side sources of pollution that impact water quality over large regions (sewage outfalls, creeks and rivers): C(ankle) = m''/k + C(bay). We demonstrate the utility of the model for identifying risk factors and pollution sources likely to impact shoreline water quality, and evaluate the model's underlying assumptions using computational fluid dynamic simulations of flow, turbulence, and mass transport in a trapezoidal channel. PMID:20949912

  20. Kennedy Space Center ocean beach erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A. J.; Obrien, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Dune barrier erosion and possible breakthrough due to storm and hurricane wave activity is studied near Mosquito Lagoon, in Kennedy Space Center property. The results of a geological as well as hydrodynamic appraisal of the problem area indicate that no inlet has existed across the dune barrier since 500 A.D., and that there is little likelihood of a possible breakthrough inlet remaining open permanently, primarily because the relatively shallow lagoon does not contain enough volume of water to maintain an inlet between the ocean and the lagoon. It is therefore recommended that only minimal measures, such as closing up the man-made passes across the dunes, be carried out to ensure continuation of the action of natural beach maintaining processes.

  1. Mechanisms for beach erosion during storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Paul E.

    1993-11-01

    Simultaneous time-series measurements of waves, currents, and suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) were obtained from the surf zone of a high energy, macrotidal, dissipative beach (Llangennith, Gower, South Wales, U.K.) during "storm" and "calm" conditions. A collocated pressure transducer (PT), electromagnetic current meter (EMCM) and optical backscatter sensor (OBS) were used to measure waves, bi-directional currents and SSCs respectively. Incident wave heights were found to be saturated in the inner surf zone. As the incident waves decayed shorewards, low frequency (infragravity) oscillations in water level and current velocity grew. During the storm, the inner surf zone was dominated by strong (± 1m s -1), low frequency (≈0.01Hz), cross-shore fluid motions which accounted for up to 80% of the total spectral energy. Suspension events associated with the infragravity motions reached peak concentrations of over 70 g l -1, 0.04 m above the bed, and persisted for periods of 30-40 s. Co-spectra between the SSC and cross-shore velocity time-series were computed and used to examine the frequency dependence of the near-bed cross-shore (suspended) sediment transport rate, which was seen to be composed of mainly onshore transport due to asymmetric flows at incident wave frequencies, and predominantly offshore transport coupled with infragravity oscillations in the cross-shore current velocity. A mean (steady) transport component was also measured in association with the undertow (directed offshore). The combined effect of the infragravity band and mean offshore transport components was responsible for the erosion of the beach during the storm

  2. Detecting change in intertidal species richness on sandy beaches: calibrating across sampling designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schooler, Nicholas K.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.

    2014-10-01

    Detecting changes in the biodiversity of biotic communities is fundamental to evaluating ecological responses to anthropogenic and climatic drivers at multiple scales. Species richness, the simplest measure of biodiversity, can be strongly affected by sampling design, making comparisons among results of different studies challenging. We investigated the use of extrapolative species richness estimators to address these issues in comparing species richness results from two sampling designs that differed in area sampled for intertidal macroinvertebrates on exposed sandy beaches. The area sampled by the proportional area sampling design increased with beach width (0.4 m2-3.0 m2) across our sites. The area sampled by the fixed area sampling design (3.5 m2) was independent of intertidal width. To obtain datasets for comparisons, we simultaneously used these sampling designs on nested intertidal grids at seven sandy beaches in central and southern California, USA. Observed species richness differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) between the two sampling designs and was consistently lower (3-10 species less) for the proportional area design compared to the fixed area design (8-35 vs. 12-38 species, respectively), except at the widest beach where sampling areas were most similar (3 m2 vs. 3.5 m2). All seven non-parametric species richness estimators provided higher estimates of richness for both designs (mean = 5.4 ± 3.8 species), but only four of the richness estimators reduced differences in richness obtained by the two designs to a non-significant level (p ≥ 0.05) across the sites. The ratio of richness values (proportional area/fixed area) obtained by the two designs was strongly correlated with sampling area for observed richness and four of the seven estimators, suggesting these estimators did not uniformly correct for sampling area. When we used an extrapolation of sample-based rarefaction to adjust for sampling area, differences in species richness between sampling

  3. Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/15, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  4. Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/14, Rev. "B"; file drawer 77-1/102. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. photocopy on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  5. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Kleinheinz, Gregory T.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Hughes, Sarah; Brown, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impact of rainfall on E. coli concentrations in beach water. Water samples were collected from beach water and storm water discharge pipes during rainfall events of 5 mm in the previous 24 hours. Six of the eight beaches showed a significant association between rainfall and elevated beach water E. coli concentrations. The duration of the impact of rainfall on beach water E. coli concentrations was variable (immediate to 12 hours). Amount of rainfall in the days previous to the sampling did not have significant impact on the E. coli concentrations measured in beach water. Presence of storm water conveyance pipes adjacent to the beach did not have a uniform impact on beach water E. coli concentrations. This study suggests that each beach needs to be examined on its own with regard to rain impacts on E coli concentrations in beach water. PMID:20182543

  6. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in

  7. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  8. 18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF REFRESHMENT STAND Photocopy of 1930-1940 photograph - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  9. 1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Park Collection Sketch of 1854 Rephoto of 1960 EAST ELEVATION - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Park Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 EAST ELEVATION WITH OTHER BUILDINGS - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Div. of Beaches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Div. of Beaches & Parks Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER ELEVATION - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal. State Div. Beaches & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal. State Div. Beaches & Parks Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER ELEVATION - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 25. SAME AREA, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: PATH, BEACH DRIVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SAME AREA, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: PATH, BEACH DRIVE, AND PARK ROAD ATOP ROCK FACE. NOTE STONE INFILL MIMICKING NATURAL STONE OUTCROPPING. VIEW N. - Rock Creek Park Road System, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  16. Overview of the area leading to beaching ramp, looking across ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the area leading to beaching ramp, looking across water of west loch. View facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. VIEW INLAND (MAUKA) FROM BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE APPROXIMATE 46' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW INLAND (MAUKA) FROM BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE APPROXIMATE 46' DISTANCE BETWEEN RESIDENCES 26 AND 28 WORCHESTER AVENUE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  18. The role of fringing coral reefs on beach morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz de Alegria-Arzaburu, Amaia; Mariño-Tapia, Ismael; Enriquez, Cecilia; Silva, Rodolfo; González-Leija, Mariana

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the degree of energy dissipation provided by a fringing coral reef, and its role on the morphodynamics of adjacent beaches in terms of volumetric sediment transport. Morphological data were collected from the microtidal Mexican Caribbean beaches of Puerto Morelos, fringed by a reef, and Cancun, without a reef, from September 2007 to May 2011. Being exposed to the same offshore wave conditions, the morphodynamics of the coral reef-fronted beach were compared with those of the adjacent beach without a coral reef. Spatio-temporal changes in beach morphology were determined applying empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) to the shorelines extracted from the topographic data, and it was concluded that Puerto Morelos was considerably less dynamic than Cancun. The longshore energy fluxes were larger in Cancun, and the subaerial morphological differences in both beaches and under the same offshore conditions demonstrated that Puerto Morelos was particularly stable under shore-normal easterly waves. A calibrated phase-averaged wave model was implemented to determine the amount of wave energy dissipation across the coral reef. For energetic shore-normal waves the model determined that the semi-emerged coral reef was capable of reducing up to 85% of the incident wave height. The reef-crest height controlled the amount of wave energy dissipation, and the distance between the reef-crest and the shore determined the vulnerability of the beach to morphological changes. Reef-crest degradation by 1 m resulted in a 10% increase in incoming wave energy, which resulted in 0.9 m3/h/m of sand being mobilised along the beaches closer to the reef.

  19. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future

  20. Geographic variation in sandy beach macrofauna community and functional traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodil, I. F.; Compton, T. J.; Lastra, M.

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beaches are a common ocean-dominated ecosystem along the north coast of Spain. We conducted field surveys at 39 beaches distributed between 1° and 9°W, ca. 2000 km along this geographic region to document broad patterns of macrobenthic communities, and to describe their association with variables characterising both the beach environment and the characteristics of the adjacent ocean waters. Macrofaunal functional traits are considered to be an informative measure that can be useful for many ecosystem-level questions, as they are based on what organisms do (i.e., their ecological function) rather than on their identification alone. Boosted regression-trees analysis showed that the occurrence of the main taxonomic groups and feeding guilds were differentially associated with the prevailing beach features along this coastline. The occurrence (presence/absence) of molluscs was best explained by the concentration of chlorophyll-a and wave exposure whereas those of crustaceans and polychaetes were best explained by an ensemble of variables including beach slope, sea surface temperature and grain size. A comparison of the feeding guilds demonstrated that the occurrence of suspension feeders was best explained by chlorophyll-a and wave exposure, whereas the occurrence of deposit feeders was best explained by beach slope, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of predators and scavengers was best explained by sea surface temperature and beach slope. Based on the patterns presented here, we confirm that the upwelling events that occur regularly on this coastline are a structuring agent for beach communities. Future work needs to examine the role of the oceanographic conditions of the region for they might represent the driving forces behind large-scale shifts in macrofauna communities.

  1. Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Brock, J.; List, J.; Hansen, M.; Holman, R.A.; Manizade, S.; Sontag, J.; Meredith, A.; Morgan, K.; Yunkel, J.K.; Frederick, E.B.; Stockdon, H.

    2003-01-01

    A scanning airborne topographic lidar was evaluated for its ability to quantify beach topography and changes during the Sandy Duck experiment in 1997 along the North Carolina coast. Elevation estimates, acquired with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), were compared to elevations measured with three types of ground-based measurements - 1) differential GPS equipped all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that surveyed a 3-km reach of beach from the shoreline to the dune, 2) GPS antenna mounted on a stadia rod used to intensely survey a different 100 m reach of beach, and 3) a second GPS-equipped ATV that surveyed a 70-km-long transect along the coast. Over 40,000 individual intercomparisons between ATM and ground surveys were calculated. RMS vertical differences associated with the ATM when compared to ground measurements ranged from 13 to 19 cm. Considering all of the intercomparisons together, RMS ??? 15 cm. This RMS error represents a total error for individual elevation estimates including uncertainties associated with random and mean errors. The latter was the largest source of error and was attributed to drift in differential GPS. The ??? 15 cm vertical accuracy of the ATM is adequate to resolve beach-change signals typical of the impact of storms. For example, ATM surveys of Assateague Island (spanning the border of MD and VA) prior to and immediately following a severe northeaster showed vertical beach changes in places greater than 2 m, much greater than expected errors associated with the ATM. A major asset of airborne lidar is the high spatial data density. Measurements of elevation are acquired every few m2 over regional scales of hundreds of kilometers. Hence, many scales of beach morphology and change can be resolved, from beach cusps tens of meters in wavelength to entire coastal cells comprising tens to hundreds of kilometers of coast. Topographic lidars similar to the ATM are becoming increasingly available from commercial vendors and should, in the future

  2. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  3. Community exposure to tsunami hazards in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Ratliff, Jamie; Peters, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    data from Infogroup (2011), including 168,565 employees (2 percent of the 20-county labor force) at 15,335 businesses that generate approximately $30 billion in annual sales. Although the regional percentage of at-risk employees is low, certain communities, such as Belvedere, Alameda, and Crescent City, have high percentages of their local workforce in the tsunami-inundation zone. Employees in the tsunami-inundation zone are primarily in businesses associated with tourism (for example, accommodations, food services, and retail trade) and shipping (for example, transportation and warehousing, manufacturing, and wholesale trade), although the dominance of these sectors varies substantially among the 94 cities. Although the number of occupants is not known for each site, the tsunami-inundation zone contains numerous dependent-population facilities, such as schools and child daycare centers, which may have individuals with limited mobility. The tsunami-inundation zone includes a substantial number of facilities that provide community services, such as banks, religious organizations, and grocery stores, where local residents may be unaware of evacuation procedures if previous awareness efforts focused on home preparedness. There are also numerous recreational areas in the tsunami-inundation zone, such as amusement parks, marinas, city and county beaches, and State and national parks, which attract visitors who may not be aware of tsunami hazards or evacuation procedures. During peak summer months, estimated daily attendance at city and county beaches can be approximately six times larger than the total number of residents in the tsunami-inundation zone. Community exposure to tsunamis in California varies considerably—some communities may experience great losses that reflect only a small part of their community and others may experience relatively small losses that devastate them. Among 94 incorporated communities and the remaining unincorporated areas of the 20 coastal

  4. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  5. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  6. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  7. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems.

  8. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  9. Visual assessment of bayed beach stability with computer software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fontoura Klein, Antonio Henrique; Vargas, Ariel; Raabe, André Luís. Alice; Hsu, John R. C.

    2003-12-01

    The parabolic bay shape model is the only morphological model that has the mechanism for the evaluating beach stability and predicting shoreline changes arising from structures built on a curved beach. However, application of this parabolic model has been largely in manual form, by tracing the calculated bay shape on a map or aerial photograph after hand calculation. To overcome this drawback, a software package called model for equilibrium planform of bay beaches (MEPBAY) written in Object Pascal language is proposed to facilitate the model application. MEPBAY calculates the idealized shoreline planform of a headland-bay beach in static equilibrium based on the parabolic model. It then presents the results graphically on a screen display overlaying the image of the existing beach. It thus allows the stability of a headland-bay beach to be assessed visually by comparing the existing shoreline periphery with the static equilibrium planform. The software offers a friendly environment from simple input to instant visualization of the results. MEPBAY not only helps students understand the morphological process, but also provides engineers with a valuable tool for practical applications on shoreline protection and coastal management.

  10. Investigation of medium-term barred beach behavior using 28-year beach profile data and Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Yanagishima, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    A 28-year beach profile dataset for a stretch of the Hasaki coast in Japan was examined using Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF) analysis to investigate the cross-shore variation in the characteristics of beach profile change. The data were obtained weekly, on a micro-tidal wave-dominated intermediate beach, along a survey line extending from the backshore to a water depth of approximately 5 m. REOF analysis using the first eight empirical orthogonal functions led to the study area being divided into five unique zones based on beach profile change patterns, namely the backshore, the foreshore, the inner and outer transition zones and the bar-trough zone. Although these zones were notably distinct from one another, the profiles in foreshore and the shoreward part of the inner transition zone changed in the same way over periods of 6 and 12 months.

  11. Erosion of the beaches of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skanavis, V.; Kalligeris, N.; Maravelakis, N.; Foteinis, S.; Sartzetakis, G.; Papadogiannis, K.; Synolakis, C.

    2014-12-01

    The coastlines of Greece face a substantial erosion problem with some shoreline retreating at rates up to 1m/year. This problem remains largely unrecognized for quantitative measurements of shoreline retreat rates are scarce, while coastal wave measurements for extended period of time are entirely non existent. Most if not all coastal engineering studies rely on SMB type forecasts. Worse, structures are still designed with simple laboratory models that purport to even model coastal erosion, without the benefit of any numerical simulations. As a result, in some areas, the structures have accelerated the erosion in adjacent beaches. We present the first ever coastal wave measurements in shallow waters in Greece. From December 2010 to April 2014, three AWACs - instruments that measure wave heights, directions and three dimensional velocity profiles were deployed in 20-25m water depths in the Bay of Chanea, Crete. The measurements revealed waves higher than expected from simple forecasting models. We also present estimates of coastline retreat for the Bay of Chanea and other regions in Crete.

  12. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  13. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  14. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  15. Heart Rate and Motion Analysis by GPS in Beach Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Julen; Casamichana, David

    2010-01-01

    Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate) and physical (motion analysis) responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg.) were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR) using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax), with 59.3% of the time participating (TP) corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods. Key points The distance covered per minute of play is around 100 m. Beach soccer is an intermittent sport with a work:rest ratio of 1.4:1. The playing surface in beach soccer is an important handicap to obtain maximum speeds. Beach soccer has a high physiological intensity, with more than half of the game is spent at intensities above 90 % of the HRmax. PMID:24149392

  16. Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

  17. An integrated coastal modeling system for analyzing beach processes and beach restoration projects, SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; Medina, R.; Gonzalez-Ondina, J.; Osorio, A.; Méndez, F. J.; García, E.

    2007-07-01

    A user-friendly system called coastal modeling system (SMC) has been developed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and the University of Cantabria. The system includes several numerical models specifically developed for the application of the methodology proposed in the Spanish Beach Nourishment and Protection Manual. According to this methodology, the SMC is structured into five -modules: (1) Pre-process module; (2) Short-term module; (3) Long-term module; (4) Coastal terrain module; and (5) Tutorial module. The pre-process module allows the processing of a database of morphodynamic information used as input for the different programs and models of the SMC. Short-, Long-term modules include numerical models to analyze coastal systems on different scales of variability (hours-months-years) and are composed of morphodynamic evolution models in cross-profile 2DV and beach plan 2DH. The coastal terrain module allows the user to modify the working bathymetry and to combine bathymetries from different sources in only one working bathymetry. The tutorial module includes a comprehensive collection of coastal engineering design and analysis software. The SMC has a dynamic design and allows the incorporation of future new databases and morphodynamic models. The SMC system is freely distributed to coastal practitioners and has already been implemented in several countries.

  18. Ground-water resources of the Riviera Beach area, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The so-called ' shallow aquifer ' composed chiefly of sand, shells, sandstone, and limestone, is the principal source of freshwater in the Riviera Beach area, Fla. The major water-bearing zone consists of cemented layers of sand and shells, about 100 ft thick, in the lower part of the aquifer. The quality of the water in the shallow aquifer is generally suitable for public supply except locally along C-17 Canal where the dissolved solids concentration exceeds 500 milligrams per liter. The configuration of the water table is greatly influenced by Lake Worth, C-17 Canal, West Palm Beach water catchment area, rainfall, and municipal pumpage. The major threat to development of water supplies, and possibly to the continuation of a current withdrawal rate of over 5 mgd, is seawater (Lake Worth), but the combined effects of increased pumpage, reduced recharge resulting from increased land development, and below normal rainfall, have caused seawater to advance inland in the aquifer. Additional supplies could be developed to the west. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Uranium-series dating of some pleistocene marine deposits in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Vedder, J.G.

    1971-01-01

    Analyses of uranium isotopes and their long-lived daughter products showed evidence of uranium migration in most of the 22 fossil mollusk shell samples from marine terrace deposits in southern California. Two samples, however, remained an ideal closed system as indicated by concordant 230Th/234U and 231Pa/235U dates. The closed-system age of the lowest exposed marine terrace deposit along part of the mainland coast of southern California is 69 000 ?? 10 000 yr, and correlation of this discontinuous deposit is afforded between the Newport Beach-Laguna Beach area and the Palos Verdes Hills. Some mollusk shell samples were dated by the open-system model; the remaining samples were found to be unsuitable for uranium-series dating. ?? 1971.

  20. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the

  1. Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

    2014-10-01

    Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ℓ.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of

  2. Planview Geometry and morphological characteristics of pocket beaches on the Catalan coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D.; Guillén, J.; López, L.; Pellegrino, V.

    2009-07-01

    Coastal planform studies are a relevant initial stage before launching detailed dynamic field experiments. The aim of this study is to define the planform characteristics of 72 Catalan pocket beaches, natural and man-made, and to determine their sheltering effect, embaymentization and their status of equilibrium. Planform measurements were performed on SIGPAC, 1:5000 orthophoto sets and wave climate was provided by Puertos del Estado (Wana model). Planform parameters were applied and coastal planview indexes were determined. The study shows that the Catalan pocket beaches display a wide range of indentation, suggesting that no single structural, tectonic or morphological control dominates their planform. The man-made pocket beaches typically display indentations which are smaller than those shown by natural pocket beaches. Headland spacing and beach area are positively correlated. The more indented bays are, the shorter their beaches become. Low-indented pocket beaches are the widest and the longest ones. Deep indentation contributes towards beach protection and energy dissipation which counteracts rip efficiency and inhibits the formation of mega-rips. Pocket beaches often show gradual and moderate alongshore changes in texture and beach morphology. One third of the Catalan pocket beaches are "sediment starved", i.e., 60% and more of their embayed shorelines are deprived of beach sediments. Examination of the status of equilibrium demonstrates that most of the Catalan pocket beaches are in an unstable mode, with indentation ratios that are unrelated to the wave obliquity.

  3. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do

  4. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  5. Predicting 'very poor' beach water quality gradings using classification tree.

    PubMed

    Thoe, Wai; Choi, King Wah; Lee, Joseph Hun-wei

    2016-02-01

    A beach water quality prediction system has been developed in Hong Kong using multiple linear regression (MLR) models. However, linear models are found to be weak at capturing the infrequent 'very poor' water quality occasions when Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL. This study uses a classification tree to increase the accuracy in predicting the 'very poor' water quality events at three Hong Kong beaches affected either by non-point source or point source pollution. Binary-output classification trees (to predict whether E. coli concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL) are developed over the periods before and after the implementation of the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme, when systematic changes in water quality were observed. Results show that classification trees can capture more 'very poor' events in both periods when compared to the corresponding linear models, with an increase in correct positives by an average of 20%. Classification trees are also developed at two beaches to predict the four-category Beach Water Quality Indices. They perform worse than the binary tree and give excessive false alarms of 'very poor' events. Finally, a combined modelling approach using both MLR model and classification tree is proposed to enhance the beach water quality prediction system for Hong Kong. PMID:26837834

  6. History of monitoring beaches around Dounreay, and some future work.

    PubMed

    Toole, Joe

    2007-09-01

    Since the first finds of radioactive particles on beaches in north Caithness in the early 1980s, a programme of beach monitoring has been and continues to be undertaken by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, UKAEA. This programme has evolved over the years: gradually more intensive monitoring has been required by the site regulator, the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), while UKAEA have managed the deployment of increasingly more sophisticated radiation detection technology to meet or exceed regulatory expectations. This paper provides an overview of the beach monitoring programmes, and summarises how many particles have been detected, where they have been found, and how radioactive they are. The large number of in situ measurements typically recorded during surveys and the large areas of beach sands monitored are illustrated by reference to survey data acquired in the first half of 2005. Finally, the implications of the detection of a small particle at a large public beach some 23 km east of the Dounreay site are briefly discussed, as is the nature of some future work related to this environmental legacy. PMID:17768314

  7. 75 FR 18253 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...The FHWA, on behalf of Caltrans, is issuing this notice to announce actions taken by Caltrans that are final within the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed highway project, State Route 28 between State Route 267 and Chipmunk Street in the community of Kings Beach, in the County of Placer, State of California. Those actions grant licenses, permits, and approvals for......

  8. Migrations of California gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Killingley, J.S.

    1980-02-15

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships.

  9. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  10. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. PMID:26892203

  11. The EMPACT Beaches Project Results from a Study on Microbiological Monitoring in Recreational Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking) Beaches project has attempted to define which characteristics are most signifi cant with regard to monitoring approaches. This project examined five beach environments to determine the factors that mos...

  12. Recreational water exposures and health effects at a tropical and a runoff impacted beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Studies conducted by the EPA at beaches with nearby treated sewage discharges established associations between gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses among swimmers and measurements of fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus and Bacteroidales (marine beaches only) measured by...

  13. 77 FR 5185 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Scotts Hill, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... Figure Eight Beach Homeowners Association, who owns and operates the Figure Eight Swing Bridge across...

  14. Assessment of the aesthetic quality of a selection of beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Somerville, S E; Miller, K L; Mair, J M

    2003-09-01

    The aesthetic quality of fourteen beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland was surveyed between May and July 2002 using a protocol designed by the UK's National Aquatic Litter Group (NALG). Local authority beach cleaning regimes influence the amount of litter found on beaches. Frequent and thorough beach cleaning is necessary to maintain high aesthetic standards. Bathing and amenity beaches achieved higher aesthetic quality than non-bathing and non-amenity beaches. The aesthetic quality of rural and urban beaches was very similar. The NALG protocol appears more complicated to use than other beach litter surveys. However, the classification system generates results that are easily interpreted by the general public. Furthermore, the NALG protocol could be combined with coastal zone management plans as a useful environmental performance indicator. PMID:12932501

  15. A simple model to estimate the impact of sea-level rise on platform beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica Afonso

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of future beach evolution in response to sea-level rise are needed to assess coastal vulnerability. A research gap is identified in providing adequate predictive methods to use for platform beaches. This work describes a simple model to evaluate the effects of sea-level rise on platform beaches that relies on the conservation of beach sand volume and assumes an invariant beach profile shape. In closed systems, when compared with the Inundation Model, results show larger retreats; the differences are higher for beaches with wide berms and when the shore platform develops at shallow depths. The application of the proposed model to Cascais (Portugal) beaches, using 21st century sea-level rise scenarios, shows that there will be a significant reduction in beach width.

  16. 78 FR 18848 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ..., NC. This deviation is necessary to accommodate the 6th annual PPD Beach2Battleship iron and half iron... be closed to navigation to accommodate the 6th annual PPD Beach2Battleship iron and half...

  17. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. PMID:25460060

  18. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  19. Radioactive minerals in the Yakataga beach placers, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Radioactivity of nine samples of beach placer deposits in the Yakataga area, southern Alaska, was studied in 1948. The samples were given to the Geological Survey by prospectors operating in the area operating in the area. The heavy-mineral fractions from the concentrates average 0.044 percent equivalent uranium. Three minerals, all members of the zircon group, contain the radioactive material in the sample; one mineral is uranium-bearing, the other two are thorium-bearing. Unless the concentration of radioactive minerals in the beach deposits is considerably higher than the present qualitative data indicate, the placers at Yakataga beach do not constitute a feasible source of supply of radioactive materials.

  20. External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

  1. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. PMID:27363010

  2. Mapping beach morphodynamics remotely: A novel application tested on South African sandy shores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Schoeman, David

    2011-03-01

    Sandy beaches have been identified as threatened ecosystems but despite the need to conserve them, they have been generally overlooked. Systematic conservation planning (SCP) has emerged as an efficient method of selecting areas for conservation priority. However, SCP analyses require digital shapefiles of habitat and species diversity. Mapping these attributes for beaches from field data can take years and requires exhaustive resources. This study thus sought to derive a methodology to classify and map beach morphodynamic types from satellite imagery. Since beach morphodynamics is a strong predictor of macrofauna diversity, they could be considered a good surrogate for mapping beach biodiversity. A dataset was generated for 45 microtidal beaches (of known morphodynamic type) by measuring or coding for several physical characteristics from imagery acquired from Google Earth. Conditional inference trees revealed beach width to be the only factor that significantly predicted beach morphodynamic type, giving four categories: dissipative, dissipative-intermediate, intermediate and reflective. The derived model was tested by using it to predict the morphodynamic type of 28 other beaches of known classification. Model performance was good (75% prediction accuracy) but misclassifications occurred at the three breaks between the four categories. For beaches around these breaks, consideration of surf zone characteristics in addition to beach width ameliorated the misclassifications. The final methodology yielded a 93% prediction accuracy of beach morphodynamic type. Overlaying other considerations on this classification scheme could provide additional value to the layer, such that it also describes species' spatial patterns. These could include: biogeographic regions, estuarine versus sandy beaches and short versus long beaches. The classification scheme was applied to the South African shoreline as a case study. The distribution of the beach morphodynamic types was partly

  3. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  4. Swash zone characteristics at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.

  5. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, R J; James, I R; Jennings, P J; Koeyers, J E

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of radionuclides in the environment, which are usually based on the construction of lines of equal concentrations. The paper focuses on the methodology of quantitatively correlating activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in two groups of minerals. The methodology is widely applicable, but is demonstrated for natural radioactivity in beach sands along the coast of South West Australia. PMID:11214891

  6. Longshore currents over barred beach with mild slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Zhi-li

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory experiment and numerical simulations of wave-driven longshore currents by random waves on barred beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 were conducted to investigate the bimodal feature of mean longshore currents, with emphasis on the location and ratio of two peaks of longshore currents. The location and ratio of two peaks are controlled by the sand bar. The influences of wave heights and beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. Numerical simulations were also performed to compute the measured velocity profile, with the emphasis on the effect of lateral mixing, bottom friction and surface rollers on numerical results.

  7. 76 FR 16297 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA... of the Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Drawbridge across Cerritos Channel, mile 4.9, at Long Beach, CA... Channel, at Long Beach, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides a vertical clearance of 37 feet...

  8. 77 FR 27624 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA.... Heim Drawbridge across Cerritos Channel, mile 4.9, at Long Beach, CA. The deviation is necessary to... Drawbridge, mile 4.9, over Cerritos Channel, at Long Beach, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides...

  9. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...This action modifies the Palm Beach International Airport, FL, Class C airspace area by raising the floor of Class C airspace over Palm Beach County Park Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance safety and increase the efficiency of air traffic operations in the Palm Beach, FL, terminal...

  10. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  11. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Kings Beach Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July 3... from Tahoe Keys Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA at position 39 13'55'' N, 120...

  12. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  13. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  14. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  15. 78 FR 47191 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Albemarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Albemarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AICW), Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Wrightsville Beach, NC. The deviation is necessary to facilitate electrical system and equipment upgrades...

  16. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  17. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  18. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  19. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  20. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  1. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  2. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  3. 76 FR 28025 - Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order... Mission Holding Beach, LLC (EMHB) filed a petition for declaratory order requesting that the Federal...), that it will acquire from, and then lease back to their current owner, AES Huntington Beach, LLC....

  4. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  5. 76 FR 29642 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ..., Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of ] Miami Beach, Florida... Beach. The special local regulations will establish the following two areas: A race area, where...

  6. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  7. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  8. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA in approximate position 39 13'55'' N, 120 01'42'' W...

  9. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  10. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  11. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  12. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  13. 76 FR 23187 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Jersey Intracoastal Waterway (NJICW), Beach Thorofare, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... (NJICW), Beach Thorofare, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... regulations governing the operation of the Route 30/Absecon Boulevard Bridge across Beach Thorofare, at NJICW...-lift span of the Route 30/Absecon Boulevard Bridge across Beach Thorofare along the NJICW, at...

  14. 77 FR 64411 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW), Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...), Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulation.... 74 Bridge across the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC. The... Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW) mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC has a vertical clearance of 20 feet,...

  15. Field Guide to Beaches. Early Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, John H.

    The study of beaches and their capacity as an interface between land, air, and water is presented. Students investigate shore phenomena to better understand the beach's history and possible future. Also discussed is the interaction between man and the beach, from weather effects to pollution. Laboratory investigations of samples collected from the…

  16. 75 FR 52461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC and Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice..., mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC, and the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear... 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach and the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear...

  17. 76 FR 77119 - Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... Waterway in Pompano Beach, Florida during the Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade on Sunday, December 11... Santa Barbara, transit north on the Intracoastal Waterway, and end at the Hillsborough Bridge....

  18. 75 FR 67214 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Wrightsville Channel, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Beach, NC in the Federal Register (75 FR 56024). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon,'' to be held on the waters adjacent to Wrightsville Beach... 13, 2010, the Wilmington YMCA will sponsor the ``Beach 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron...

  19. 76 FR 48879 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General... endangered Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) in Baldwin County, Alabama. The GCP analyzes... availability of the proposed GCP and the dEIS. These documents analyze the take of the Alabama beach...

  20. 75 FR 52549 - Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General Conservation Plan; Fort Morgan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General... Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan (ABM GCP) Project. We are preparing the ABM GCP under the... are included in the plan: Alabama beach mouse (ABM) (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates), Loggerhead...

  1. North beach (Nazaré) sand tracer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica; Cascalho, João; Silva, Ana; Bosnic, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The littoral in the vicinity of Nazaré (West Portuguese coast) is characterized by two distinct coastal stretches separated by Nazaré headland: a northern sector (Norte beach) characterized by a high energetic continuous sandy beach and a southern sector (Nazaré bay beach) that corresponds to an embayed beach, sheltered by the Nazaré headland. The bay is a geomorphological expression of the Nazaré canyon head, which acts as powerful sediment sink, capturing the large longshore net southward transport at Norte beach generated by the north Atlantic high energetic swell. The northern side of the canyon head is carved on highly resistant Cretaceous limestone sustaining an underwater vertical relief that emerges on the Nazaré headland, creating a unusual nearshore wave pattern. This wave pattern not only concentrates high energy levels at the Norte beach but also contributes to local complex longshore drift gradients capable of inducing beach seasonal cross-shore variations of more than 200 m. The main factors that influence local sediment budget are: (1) canyon head capturing and (2) headland sediment bypassing. To obtain a direct measure of the net longshore drift at Norte beach (upstream boundary of the system) a large scale fluorescent tracer experiment was performed. The data will be used to validate longshore transport formulas in a high energetic environment and to access Nazaré canyon head sediment loss. Considering the anticipation of high transport rates, approximately 10 tonnes of native sand where coated with orange fluorescent ink using a set of concrete mixers. The experiment took place on the 9th to 15th September 2013 period and followed the continuous injection method (CIM). The CIM approach was justified by the expected high energy levels that inhibits sediment sampling across the surf zone. During the tracer injection procedure (approx. 5 hours), sediment sampling was performed at 13 sites along a rectilinear coastal stretch extended through

  2. California Workforce: California Faces a Skills Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2011

    2011-01-01

    California's education system is not keeping up with the changing demands of the state's economy--soon, California will face a shortage of skilled workers. Projections to 2025 suggest that the economy will continue to need more and more highly educated workers, but that the state will not be able to meet that demand. If current trends persist,…

  3. Spatial Variation and Source Characterization of Size Fractionated Particulate Matter in Long Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, M. D.; Arhami, M.; Polidori, A.; Sioutas, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Los Angeles Ports complex (the largest in the US) consists of the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles. Due to the high levels of particulate matter (PM) emitted from many sources (some unregulated) in the vicinity of these ports (e.g. marine vessels, diesel and gasoline vehicles, refineries, and power plants) and projected massive expansion, the ports have been the focus of future governmental regulation. The focus of this study is to characterize the composition and distribution of PM at various locations influenced by port-affiliated sources. Size fractionated PM samples were collected concurrently at seven sites in Southern California for two six-week periods in the summer and winter of 2007. Personal cascade impactor samplers (PCISs) were used to collect weekly coarse, accumulation, and quasi-ultrafine mode particles at each site. Four sites were located within the communities of Wilmington and Long Beach and two sites were located at background locations near the harbors of each port. The seventh sampler, operated at the University of Southern California (near downtown Los Angeles), was used as a reference of a typical urban site. Each PCIS was accompanied by a CPC and a meteorological station to identify local sources based on wind speed and direction correlated to particle counts. Coefficients of divergence (COD) calculated based on PM levels were highly variable between different sites (0.12 to 0.7), with higher CODs resulting from comparisons between background and inland sites. In addition, accumulation mode particles showed lower CODs compared to other size fractions, which is due to high atmospheric residence times and greater spatial dispersion of this size range. Weekly filter-based samples are being analyzed for chemical composition, including elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC, respectively) and inorganic ions. Samples will then be composited and analyzed for organic species, trace metals, and redox potential. This information will

  4. California State University, Sacramento

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlotta, Lori E.

    2009-01-01

    California State University, Sacramento, commonly referred to as "Sacramento State," is a booming metropolitan university located on 300 acres in the state capital of California. The university, the seventh largest in the California State University system, enrolls a multicultural student body of approximately 29,000 students. At Sacramento State,…

  5. California Burn Scars

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Burn Scars Across Southern California     ... California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these ... Nov 18, 2003 Images:  California Burn Scars location:  United States region:  ...

  6. A Comprehensive Study on Coastline Process and Sedimentary Dynamics, Sardinera Beach, Mona Island, P.R.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Delga, A. M.; Ramirez, W. R.

    2008-12-01

    Sardinera beach in Mona Island, Puerto Rico, has a great recreational and ecological value and is an important research place to gather information on shoreline processes in an area far from the main land and with only scarce man made influences. Beach rock exposures present along the shoreline in Sardinera Beach have increased considerably during the last decade. A new management plan is being developed for Mona Island and the Department of Natural Resources (DNRA) of Puerto Rico wants to better understand the beach sand dynamics on this and other Mona Island beaches. This research includes field and laboratory work that characterize coastal sedimentary processes and helps to better understand the shoreline changes as well as seasonal variations in sand movement and composition. This work also establish the logistics and methodology basis for further studies that will expand to other Mona Island beaches. Benchmarks, GPS coordinates, and landmarks were used to establish ten permanent beach profiles along Sardinera Beach. Beach profiles were (and will be) measured monthly. Sardinera Beach sands are composed mostly of carbonate (CaCO3) components, products of the combination of biological, chemical and diagenetic processes, high grade of micritization, and of lithic limestone fragments. Sand composition differences between Sardinera Beach, the Mona Shelf and adjacent beach, reef crest and reef lagoon systems suggest Sardinera sands are not replenished by the modern marine components produced in these environments. The input of "fresh bioclasts" in this beach seems to be limited by natural (beach rock) and mane made (dock) barriers along the shore and by alteration in the current patterns produced by the man made aperture of the reef. Sardinera's micritized and recrystalized sand deposits seem to have been re-transported between the reefal lagoon and the beach. Sand volume analysis indicates a total sand loss of 1,322 m3 between the months of September to April

  7. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent scientific advances and their implications for sand management near San Francisco, California: the influences of the ebb tidal delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Dallas, Kate; Elias, Edwin; Erikson, Li H.; Eshleman, Jodi; Hansen, Jeff; Hsu, Tian Jian; Shi, Fengyan

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the San Francisco, California, U.S.A., coastal region has identified the importance of the ebb tidal delta to coastal processes. A process-based numerical model is found to qualitatively reproduce the equilibrium size and shape of the delta. The ebb tidal delta itself has been contracting over the past century, and the numerical model is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the delta to changes in forcing conditions. The large ebb tidal delta has a strong influence upon regional coastal processes. The prominent bathymetry of the ebb tidal delta protects some of the coast from extreme storm waves, but the delta also focuses wave energy toward the central and southern portions of Ocean Beach. Wave focusing likely contributes to a chronic erosion problem at the southern end of Ocean Beach. The ebb tidal delta in combination with non-linear waves provides a potential cross-shore sediment transport pathway that probably supplies sediment to Ocean Beach.

  9. High School Physics Teacher Outreach Programs at California State University Long Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Chuhee; Pickett, Galen; Henriques, Laura

    2013-03-01

    One of the goals of the CSULB PhysTEC project has been to establish a physics teaching community that partners CSULB faculty, high school teachers, pre-service teachers, and physics students. In two years, we have created a solid sustainable Physics Teacher Network with local high school teachers. We will discuss the successful outreach programs for high school physics teachers at CSULB and the detailed logistics. Teacher-In-Residence (TIR), high school physics teachers working with the CSULB PhysTEC team, has provided invaluable input for designing and implementing outreach events. The department organizes biannual open house for local high school teachers and their students. The open house event is attended by pre-service teachers, physics undergraduate and graduate students, and faculty. We also host the monthly demo-sharing day that physics teachers bring and share topical demos, which has about 30 - 50 attendees each month. The CSULB PhysTEC project also distributes a monthly newsletter for local physics teachers with upcoming events and information about teaching, and this newsletter is organized and written by TIR. This work is supported by the PhysTEC grant.

  10. EDUCAUSE '99: Celebrating New Beginnings. [Proceedings] (Long Beach, California, October 26-29, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, Washington, DC.

    This proceedings of the 1999 EDUCAUSE Conference contains papers presented in six tracks: Building the New Information Technology Foundation and Infrastructure; Technology-Enhanced Teaching and Learning; Renewing Administrative Services; Outreach, Public Service, and New Communities; Advancing the Leading Edge; and the EDUCAUSE Track. Topics of…

  11. Increased reserves through horizontal drilling in a mature waterflood, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Oil Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.H. )

    1996-01-01

    Ranger Zone development started in 1965. A waterflood was initiated from the start using a staggered line-drive pattern. Infill drilling in the early 1980s and again in the 1990s revealed bypassed oil in the upper Ranger Fo sand. Detailed studies of the aerial extent of the remaining oil resulted in drilling 17 horizontal wells to recover these reserves. The Fo target sand thickness is 20 to 50 feet. Well courses are between 10 and 15 feet below the top of the Fo with lengths varying from 800 to 1,000 feet. The success of the Fo drilling program has prompted expansion of horizontal drilling into thin-bedded sand units. Well lengths have increased to between 1,500 and 1,800 feet with structural trend used to advantage. Where needed, probes are designed to penetrate the target sand before setting intermediate casing. The drilling program has been extended into bilateral horizontal completions. Geosteering with MWD/GR and a 2 MHz dual propagation resistivity tool is used to the casing point. In the completion interval, only the MWD/GR tool is used and a drillpipe conveyed E-log is run afterward to confirm expected resistivities. Despite the many well penetrations in the Ranger Zone, structural control is only fair. Accuracy of MWD data is generally low and geosteering is done by TVD log correlation. With a recovery factor of over 30 percent in Ranger West, from approximately 800 wells drilled in the last 30 years, the horizontal drilling program targeting bypassed reserves has brought new life to this mature reservoir.

  12. Increased reserves through horizontal drilling in a mature waterflood, Long Beach unit, Wilmington Oil Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ranger Zone development started in 1965. A waterflood was initiated from the start using a staggered line-drive pattern. Infill drilling in the early 1980s and again in the 1990s revealed bypassed oil in the upper Ranger Fo sand. Detailed studies of the aerial extent of the remaining oil resulted in drilling 17 horizontal wells to recover these reserves. The Fo target sand thickness is 20 to 50 feet. Well courses are between 10 and 15 feet below the top of the Fo with lengths varying from 800 to 1,000 feet. The success of the Fo drilling program has prompted expansion of horizontal drilling into thin-bedded sand units. Well lengths have increased to between 1,500 and 1,800 feet with structural trend used to advantage. Where needed, probes are designed to penetrate the target sand before setting intermediate casing. The drilling program has been extended into bilateral horizontal completions. Geosteering with MWD/GR and a 2 MHz dual propagation resistivity tool is used to the casing point. In the completion interval, only the MWD/GR tool is used and a drillpipe conveyed E-log is run afterward to confirm expected resistivities. Despite the many well penetrations in the Ranger Zone, structural control is only fair. Accuracy of MWD data is generally low and geosteering is done by TVD log correlation. With a recovery factor of over 30 percent in Ranger West, from approximately 800 wells drilled in the last 30 years, the horizontal drilling program targeting bypassed reserves has brought new life to this mature reservoir.

  13. MONOAROMATIC HYDROCARBON TRANSFORMATION UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS AT SEAL BEACH, CALIFORNIA: LABORATORY STUDIES. (R825689C045)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. 78 FR 9667 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Production Activity; Panasonic Corporation of North America (Kitting of Consumer Electronics); Anaheim, CA... FTZ 50. The facility is used for the kitting of consumer electronics parts into retail...

  15. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33°-43′-26.1″ N 118°-12′-22.7″ W. Thence west/southwest to 33° -42′-58.9″ N 118° -13′-53.0″ W. Thence.... Thence northwest to 33° -44′-27.6″ N 118° -10′-41.0″ W. Thence west/northwest to 33° -44′-29.0″ N 118... CFR 173.50, or Cargoes of Particular Hazard (COPH) as defined in 33 CFR 126.10, or Certain...

  16. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33°-43′-26.1″ N 118°-12′-22.7″ W. Thence west/southwest to 33° -42′-58.9″ N 118° -13′-53.0″ W. Thence.... Thence northwest to 33° -44′-27.6″ N 118° -10′-41.0″ W. Thence west/northwest to 33° -44′-29.0″ N 118... CFR 173.50, or Cargoes of Particular Hazard (COPH) as defined in 33 CFR 126.10, or Certain...

  17. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33°-43′-26.1″ N 118°-12′-22.7″ W. Thence west/southwest to 33° -42′-58.9″ N 118° -13′-53.0″ W. Thence.... Thence northwest to 33° -44′-27.6″ N 118° -10′-41.0″ W. Thence west/northwest to 33° -44′-29.0″ N 118... CFR 173.50, or Cargoes of Particular Hazard (COPH) as defined in 33 CFR 126.10, or Certain...

  18. Palm Beach Community College Strategic Plan, 1999-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Seymour

    This report addresses strategies and action plans for Palm Beach Community College (PBCC) (Florida) between 1999-2004. As part of a commitment to achieve specific, measurable end results, the college has set various objectives, including: (1) develop, implement and institutionalize a mission driven strategic budget for the 1999-2000 fiscal year;…

  19. 20. 8" PIPELINE ON BEACH AND ALONG PALI, VIEW WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 8" PIPELINE ON BEACH AND ALONG PALI, VIEW WEST TOWARD KALAWAO. NOTE GATE VALVE (LARGER) AND BLOW-OFF VALVE (SMALLER). PIPELINE GENERALLY AT 20' ABOVE SEA LEVEL. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  20. Preliminary Model Results of Beach Profile Dynamics with Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reniers, A. J.; Koktas, M.; Gallagher, E. L.; Wadman, H. M.; Brodie, K. L.; Johnson, B. D.; McNinch, J.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of spatial variation in grain size within the surf and swash zone is often ignored in numerical modeling whereas Upon closer inspection, a broad range of grain sizes is visible on a beach. This could potentially lead to a significant mismatch between predictions and observations of profile evolution given the strong sensitivity of sediment transport formulae to the grain size. To explore this in more detail, numerical simulations with XBeach have been performed to simulate the observations of changes in beach profile and stratigraphy within the swash zone at Duck, NC, under a range of wave and tidal conditions (see presentations by Wadman et al., and Gallagher et al. for complementary information on the observations at this conference). The research focus is to establish the morphodynamic response to the sediment dynamics at short and longer time scales in the presence of stratigraphy. A better understanding of the mechanisms and subsequently improved modeling will provide more accurate predictions of the morphodynamic response of the beach during moderate and extreme conditions. It will also help in the interpretation of sediment layering of the beach to relate to past extreme storms on geological time scales.

  1. Golden opportunities: A horizon scan to expand sandy beach ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Weston, Michael A.; Schoeman, David S.; Olds, Andrew D.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-05-01

    Robust ecological paradigms and theories should, ideally, hold across several ecosystems. Yet, limited testing of generalities has occurred in some habitats despite these habitats offering unique features to make them good model systems for experiments. We contend this is the case for the ocean-exposed sandy beaches. Beaches have several distinctive traits, including extreme malleability of habitats, strong environmental control of biota, intense cross-boundary exchanges, and food webs highly reliant on imported subsidies. Here we sketch broad topical themes and theoretical concepts of general ecology that are particularly well-suited for ecological studies on sandy shores. These span a broad range: the historical legacies and species traits that determine community assemblages; food-web architectures; novel ecosystems; landscape and spatial ecology and animal movements; invasive species dynamics; ecology of disturbances; ecological thresholds and ecosystem resilience; and habitat restoration and recovery. Collectively, these concepts have the potential to shape the outlook for beach ecology and they should also encourage marine ecologists to embrace, via cross-disciplinary ecological research, exposed sandy beach systems that link the oceans with the land.

  2. 75 FR 82382 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... formula introduced with the fiscal year 2010 grants (see 75 FR 1373, January 11, 2010). How does EPA... announcing the availability of the fiscal year 2010 grants (75 FR 1373, January 11, 2010). How will the... FR 15446, 15449 (March 31, 2003)). For the 2011 beach season, the deadline for states to...

  3. The Palm Beach County Family Study Second Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Lyons, Sandra; Gouvea, Marcia; Haywood, Thomas; Winje, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    The Children's Services Council (CSC) of Palm Beach County commissioned Chapin Hall Center for Children to conduct a longitudinal study to examine the effects of this service system on children and families. The goal of the longitudinal study is to describe the characteristics and needs of families the service system is intended to serve, how they…

  4. 2. COTTAGES, NORTH SIDE OF OCEAN PATHWAY EAST OF BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COTTAGES, NORTH SIDE OF OCEAN PATHWAY EAST OF BEACH AVENUE, (NOS. 17, 15, 13, 11, 7 AND 5), GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH - Town of Ocean Grove, East terminus of State Route 33, south of Asbury Park, Ocean Grove, Monmouth County, NJ

  5. Empirical Modeling of Microbial Indicators at a South Carolina Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concerns about water quality at beaches have prompted the development of multiple linear regression and other models that can be used to "nowcast" levels of bacterial indicators. Hydrometeorological and biogeochemical data from summer, 2009 were used to develop empirical m...

  6. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    PubMed Central

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  7. Beach-spawning fishes, terrestrial eggs, and air breathing.

    PubMed

    Martin, K L M; Van Winkle, R C; Drais, J E; Lakisic, H

    2004-01-01

    Many fishes have independently evolved beach spawning with oviposition at the water's edge. These include intertidal, subtidal, and estuarine, as well as a few freshwater, species. Their spectacular reproductive behavior at the boundary of water and land has focused attention on adults, but they emerge either briefly or not at all. The need for air breathing is more apparent in the eggs, and the reasons for emergence are more applicable to eggs than to the adults of most beach-spawning fishes. There is little evidence of air breathing in the adults, unless they are regularly emerged at other times as well. Conversely, eggs metabolize in air and show substantial emergence tolerance. We consider beach spawning a form of parental care in fishes. The adults place eggs so they will be emerged into air during part or all of incubation, providing increased temperatures, oxygen availability, and protection. Beach spawning provides habitat segregation at different points in the life history, with air emergence early in the life cycle and a return to water at hatching. The parents take great risks to spawn at the water's edge to give their offspring the most advantageous beginning in life. PMID:15547793

  8. Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

    PubMed

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-12-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  9. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury.

    PubMed

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players' experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27-42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual's inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players' self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community. PMID:26331135

  10. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury

    PubMed Central

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players’ experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27–42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual’s inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players’ self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community. PMID:26331135

  11. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  12. Health effects of beach water pollution in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, W. H.; Chang, K. C.; Hung, R. P.; Kleevens, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies of beach water pollution were conducted in Hong Kong in the summers of 1986 and 1987. For the main study in 1987, a total of 18741 usable responses were obtained from beachgoers on nine beaches at weekends. The study indicated the overall perceived symptom rates for gastrointestinal, ear, eye, skin, respiratory, fever and total illness were significantly higher for swimmers than non-swimmers; and the swimming-associated symptom rates for gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory and total illness were higher at 'barely acceptable' beaches than at 'relatively unpolluted' ones. Escherichia coli was found to be the best indicator of the health effects associated with swimming in the beaches of Hong Kong. It showed the highest correlation with combined swimming-associated gastroenteritis and skin symptom rates when compared with other microbial indicators. A linear relationship between E. coli and the combined symptom rates was established. Staphylococci were correlated with ear, respiratory and total illness, but could not be used for predicting swimming-associated health risks. They should be used to complement E. coli. The setting of health-related bathing-water quality standards based on such a study is discussed. PMID:2384140

  13. Excerpts from Daytona Beach Community College Institutional Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daytona Beach Community Coll., FL. Mid-Florida Research and Business Center.

    A study was conducted by Daytona Beach Community College's (DBCC's) Mid-Florida Research and Business Center to determine the market for the educational services which fall within the mission of DBCC, to identify target populations within that market, to explore educational needs and perceived desires, and to examine community opinions of DBCC and…

  14. Plastics Distribution and Degradation on Lake Huron Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbyszewski, M.; Corcoran, P.

    2009-05-01

    The resistivity of plastic debris to chemical and mechanical weathering processes poses a serious threat to the environment. Numerous marine beaches are littered with plastic fragments that entangle and become ingested by organisms including birds, turtles and plankton. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the amount and effects of plastics pollution on marine organisms, relatively little is known about the distribution and quantity of polymer types along lacustrine beaches. Plastic particles sampled from selected beaches on Lake Huron were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine polymer composition. The majority of the plastic fragments are industrial pellets composed of polypropylene and polyethylene. Varying degrees of oxidation are indicated by multiple irregular peaks in the lower wavenumber region on the FTIR spectra. The oxidized pellets also represent the plastic particles with the most pronounced surface textures, as identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crazes and flakey, fibrous, or granular textures are consistent with chemical weathering processes, whereas gauges and pits occur through abrasion during mechanical weathering. Further textural and compositional analysis will indicate which polymer types are more resistant to weathering processes. Additional investigation of the distribution of plastic debris along the beaches of Lake Huron will indicate the amount and primary transport directions of resistant plastic debris polluting one of Ontario's Great Lakes.

  15. California rides the tiger

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Revolutions rarely succeed without a struggle. At the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), the move to restructure the state`s electric utility industry is no exception. The stakes are enormous. For starters, annual revenues at the state`s investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) exceed $18 billion, making up 2 percent of California`s gross state product. Competitively priced electricity is vital to California`s $800-billion-a-year economy, one would think. And with its sweeping restructing plan, the CPUC has found itself riding a tiger, hoping it won`t get swallowed whole in the process.

  16. Seasonal Variation of Surface Sediments in the Gochang Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Sol Ip

    2014-05-01

    The Gochang Beach, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, was studied in terms of four season variations of surface sediment and sedimentary environment. The Gochang Beach consists of the Dongho, Kwangseungri, Myeongsasipri beaches from north to south. During the four seasons of spring (May), summer (August), and fall (November), and winter (February), surface sediments of 135 sites were sampled across nine survey lines (15 sites in each survey line), respectively. The pocket-type Dongho Beach is mainly composed of fine to coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. The average of grain size is the coarsest in the summer. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel band of fine and medium sands during three seasons of spring, fall, and winter, whereas medium sands dominated in the northern part of the study area during the summer. These results suggest that a tide is more effective than a wave in the surface sediments of the Dongho Beach during the summer. The surface sediments of the Kwangseungri Beach are mainly composed of fine-grained sands, and the mean grain size is the coarsest in winter. Mud facies partly exists in summer, whereas it is nearly absent in winter. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel band of fine and medium sands during spring, fall, and winter. In the northern part, the study area is dominated by fine sands during summer, whereas by coarse sands during winter. These results are interpreted that tide is more effective than wave on the surface sediment distribution of the Kwangseungri Beach during summer season. The open-coast Myeongsasipri Beach is mainly composed of fine to medium sand, the distribution of which shows a coast-parallel trend. Grain-size distribution shows a bi-modal trend in the summer and winter and a uni-mode in the spring and fall. Grain size of the winter is the coarsest among those of four seasons. During the winter, the upper tidal flat was

  17. Carbonate Beaches: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nairn, R.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    Carbonate beaches are a unique example of the interaction between biological processes, creating the sediments, and physical processes, moving and often removing the sediments. On the sediment supply side, carbonate sediments are born, not made. They exist in dynamic equilibrium between production and destruction. Following the creation of carbonate sediment in coral reef and lagoon environments, the sediments are moved shoreward to the beach, transport along the shore and sometimes, eventually lost offshore, often as the result of tropical storms. Comprehensive studies of the balance between the supply and loss of carbonate sediments and beach dynamics have been completed for the islands of Mauritius and Barbados. Field studies and remote sensing (Compact Airborne Spectrometry Imaging) have been applied to develop carbonate sediment production rates for a range of reef and lagoon conditions. Using GIS, these production rates have been integrated to determine sediment supply rates for different segments of the coastline. 1-D and 2-D models of waves, hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphodynamics were set-up and tested against observed beach response to storm events or a sequence of storm events. These complex deterministic models are not suitable for application over periods of decades. However, it was possible to characterize storm events by the extent of sand loss, and relate this to key descriptive factors for groups of storm events, thereby encapsulating the erosion response. A long-term predictive tool for evaluating beach erosion and accretion response, over a period of several decades, was developed by combining the supply rates for carbonate sediment and the encapsulated representation of the loss rates through physical processes. The ability of this predictive tool was successfully tested against observed long term beach evolution along sections of the coast in Barbados and Mauritius using air photo analysis in GIS for shoreline change over periods

  18. Morphological developments after a beach and shoreface nourishment at Vlugtenburg beach, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schipper, M. A.; de Vries, S.; Ranasinghe, R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Stive, M. J. F.

    2012-04-01

    For the last decades Dutch coastal policy requires sand nourishments to mitigate the effects of coastal erosion. Over time, the nourishment strategy has evolved from direct protection approach to a feeder approach; instead of placing the sand on the beach or dune where it directly benefits safety, sand is placed on the shoreface or alongshore concentrated. Subsequently natural processes redistribute the sand over the profile and alongshore. With the shift in nourishment approach, a study was started to investigate in detail how nourished sand is redistributed in space and time. Here we present results from a high resolution bathymetric survey campaign conducted at Vlugtenburg beach at the south west coast of the Netherlands. At this site a beach and shoreface nourishment of 5.4 million m3 was installed in spring 2009, moving the shoreline approximately 250 m forward. Since the completion of the project, a total of 22 profiles were measured monthly extending from the dunefoot to 9 m below mean sea level. These surveys are executed using walking GPS surveys for the subaerial part and jetski surveys for the subaqueous part. Observations show that the morphodynamic evolution can be characterized by two stages; first a period of rapid changes followed by a period of more stable topography. In the first period, 12 to 15 months after construction, a large cross shore (offshore) movement of the nourished sand is found. The cross shore movement results from a rapid adaptation of the construction profile (characterized by a steep foreshore slope from -2 to -4 m) to a more natural profile with a large subtidal bar. A sediment budget analysis over all 28 surveys up to present shows a gradual loss of volume. As topographic changes below the -8 m and above +3 m are small, it is most likely that the majority of the sediment deficit can be contributed to alongshore losses. Furthermore, the domain itself is subdivided in various coastal sections, revealing that the cross shore

  19. Correlations Between Emerita analoga and Profilicollis spp. as Influenced by Environmetal Factors at Ocean Beach, San Francisco CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S.; Garza, F.; Zhang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2002 the Careers in Science (CiS) intern program has monitored Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California for the population of Emerita analoga (Pacific Mole Crab) as part of a partnership program with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS). LiMPETS is an organization that conducts citizen science with Bay Area youth such as the CiS interns. We specifically assist in the collection of Pacific Mole Crab population statistics at Ocean Beach during the summer from June through August. The purpose of collecting Pacific Mole Crabs is to monitor Acanthocephalan parasites (Profilicollis spp.) - to which Pacific Mole Crabs serve as intermediate hosts - and to learn more about our environment as Pacific Mole Crabs are indicator species. During our collections at Ocean Beach we record size, sex, and number of individuals at specific transects. We then take a random sample from the day, return to the lab, and record their sizes, sexes, and Acanthocephalan parasite load. The results of the collection and dissections are then entered into the LiMPETS online database for scientist and researchers to use. Our project will focus on correlations relating to the data collected (Pacific Mole Crab population, parasite load, abiotic and biotic factors, et cetera).

  20. Beach Profile Behaviour in Tidal Environments: A Morphological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabeu, A. M.; Medina, R.; Vidal, C.

    2004-05-01

    Tourism is an important economical activity in Spain that represents 10% of its GDP and provides a million jobs. Spain is the world's second more visited country, receiving 7% of world tourists. Eighty per cent of these visitors choose their destination somewhere along the 2500 km of beaches. Consequently, many efforts are currently addressed to their maintenance and conservation. However, the coastal management policies must be sustained by the deep knowledge of the beach behaviour and the physical processes implied. A morphological model, with certain predictive capacities, to describe the beach profile behaviour is proposed, integrating the wave and tide influence. It is based on the concept of the two-section (surf and shoaling) equilibrium beach profile, and has been validated with field and laboratory data. The model is described by means of two parameters: the modal tidal range and the dimensionless fall velocity (Ω ). Tide is considered a local variable whose principal effect is the lengthening of the intertidal or surf profile. The greater the tidal range, the wider the intertidal profile. The dimensionless fall velocity defines the transition from dissipative to reflective situations in beaches of any given tidal range. The morphological changes predicted by the proposed model in the surf and shoaling sections occur in the opposite direction. Whilst in the surf profile the slope close to the high tidal level becomes steeper and the concavity of whole section increases; in the shoaling profile, the upper part flattens resulting in a less concave section related to the decrease of Ω . In this transition, the slope break between surf and shoaling profiles becomes smoother and difficult to identify. This work was funded by projects REN2003-02822 MAR, REN2003-03233 MAR, VEM2003-20093-C03-03 of the Spanish MCYT and PGDIT03RMA30101PR of the Galician Government (XUGA). Contribution No 304 of XM2 group.

  1. Beach Soccer Injuries During the Japanese National Championships

    PubMed Central

    Shimakawa, Tomoyuki; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Kawasoe, Yoko; Yoshimura, Kouji; Chinen, Yuma; Eimon, Kazuya; Chibana, Wataru; Shirota, Shinichi; Kadekawa, Kei; Bahr, Roald; Uezato, Tomomi; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The frequency and severity of injury in beach soccer are unknown. Purpose: To estimate the incidence rates, characteristics, and risk factors for injuries associated with beach soccer. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The same sports physician examined and recorded injuries incurred during the Japanese National Beach Soccer Championships in 2013 and 2014. Posttournament follow-up was made for all injuries. Match exposure for each player was recorded through video review to examine individual risk factors. Results: A total of 58 injuries were recorded during 54 matches. The overall injury rate was 179.0 (95% CI, 138.4-231.6), and the time-loss injury rate was 28.2 (95% CI, 14.7-54.1) per 1000 player-hours. The foot/toe (34.9%) was the most frequently injured area, followed by the lower leg (22.2%) and thigh (11.1%). There was only 1 ankle injury (1.6%). The most frequent injury type was contusions (60.3%), followed by lacerations/abrasions (14.3%) and sprains/ligament injuries (6.3%). Only 4 injuries resulted in ≥30 days of time-loss (7.4%). After adjusting for age, a previous history of severe injury and longer experience of beach soccer were significantly associated with injury risk. Conclusion: The time-loss injury rate in this study was comparable to the rates reported during the matches of soccer or futsal tournaments. However, a greater incidence of foot/toe injury and lacerations/abrasions as well as a lower incidence of ankle injury distinguished beach soccer from soccer and futsal, possibly related to the specific playing conditions of being barefoot on a sand surface. PMID:26862537

  2. Disentangling Diversity Patterns in Sandy Beaches along Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Francisco R.; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  3. Modeling system for predicting enterococci levels at Holly Beach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zaihong; Deng, Zhiqiang; Rusch, Kelly A; Walker, Nan D

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new modeling system for nowcasting and forecasting enterococci levels in coastal recreation waters at any time during the day. The modeling system consists of (1) an artificial neural network (ANN) model for predicting the enterococci level at sunrise time, (2) a clear-sky solar radiation and turbidity correction to the ANN model, (3) remote sensing algorithms for turbidity, and (4) nowcasting/forecasting data. The first three components are also unique features of the new modeling system. While the component (1) is useful to beach monitoring programs requiring enterococci levels in early morning, the component (2) in combination with the component (1) makes it possible to predict the bacterial level in beach waters at any time during the day if the data from the components (3) and (4) are available. Therefore, predictions from the component (2) are of primary interest to beachgoers. The modeling system was developed using three years of swimming season data and validated using additional four years of independent data. Testing results showed that (1) the sunrise-time model correctly reproduced 82.63% of the advisories issued in seven years with a false positive rate of 2.65% and a false negative rate of 14.72%, and (2) the new modeling system was capable of predicting the temporal variability in enterococci levels in beach waters, ranging from hourly changes to daily cycles. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the new modeling system in predicting enterococci levels in coastal beach waters. Applications of the modeling system will improve the management of recreational beaches and protection of public health. PMID:26186681

  4. Disentangling diversity patterns in sandy beaches along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco R; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  5. Learning from California`s QF auction

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, P.

    1995-04-15

    California`s 1993 qualifying facility (QF) auction dramatically illustrates problems that can be encountered in structuring auctions for electric utility solicitations of supply-side resources from qualifying cogeneration and small power production facilities. In the 1993 California QF auction, three California utilities were to select QFs that would be awarded long-term purchased-power contracts. The auction produced some unexpected outcomes that could potentially cost the utilities and their customers tens of millions of dollars per year. A year after the auction was held, the parties were still attempting to revise contracts, or even rebid a portion of the auction. And all of this effort may come to naught, depending upon what happens now that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has struck down the auction process under California`s Biennial Resource Plan Update, claiming that it violates the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) by using an improper method to calculate avoided costs. A study of the California QF auction illustrates yet again that the devil is in the details. And the stakes will only rise farther as regulators in other states rely more on auctions to open up the electric industry to further competition.

  6. Proposal for an integral quality index for urban and urbanized beaches.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Eduard; Jimenez, Jose A; Sarda, Rafael; Villares, Miriam; Pinto, Josep; Fraguell, Rosa; Roca, Elisabet; Marti, Carolina; Valdemoro, Herminia; Ballester, Ramon; Fluvia, Modest

    2010-05-01

    A composite index, based on function analysis and including thirteen sub-indices, was developed to assess the overall quality of urban and urbanized beaches in the Mediterranean area. The aggregation of components and sub-indices was based on two questionnaires completed by beach users and experts. Applying the new Beach Quality Index (BQI) demonstrated that the quality of beaches could be improved. In general, the strongest aspects of the beaches assessed were those related to short-term user demand, and the weakest were those related to the consequences of human pressure on the area, in particular, erosion problems. The composite index is intended to be used together with Environmental Management Beach Systems (EMBs) as a hierarchical management scorecard and in monitoring programs. This new tool could also make planning more proactive by synthesizing the state of the most important beach processes. PMID:20383636

  7. Proposal for an Integral Quality Index for Urban and Urbanized Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariza, Eduard; Jimenez, Jose A.; Sarda, Rafael; Villares, Miriam; Pinto, Josep; Fraguell, Rosa; Roca, Elisabet; Marti, Carolina; Valdemoro, Herminia; Ballester, Ramon; Fluvia, Modest

    2010-05-01

    A composite index, based on function analysis and including thirteen sub-indices, was developed to assess the overall quality of urban and urbanized beaches in the Mediterranean area. The aggregation of components and sub-indices was based on two questionnaires completed by beach users and experts. Applying the new Beach Quality Index (BQI) demonstrated that the quality of beaches could be improved. In general, the strongest aspects of the beaches assessed were those related to short-term user demand, and the weakest were those related to the consequences of human pressure on the area, in particular, erosion problems. The composite index is intended to be used together with Environmental Management Beach Systems (EMBs) as a hierarchical management scorecard and in monitoring programs. This new tool could also make planning more proactive by synthesizing the state of the most important beach processes.

  8. Impact of erosion and accretion on the distribution of enterococci in beach sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gast, Rebecca J.; Gorrell, Levi; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Bacterial pathogens in coastal sediments may pose a health risk to users of beaches. Although recent work shows that beach sands harbor both indicator bacteria and potential pathogens, it is neither known how deep within beach sands the organisms may persist nor if they may be exposed during natural physical processes. In this study, sand cores of approximately 100 cm depth were collected at three sites across the beach face in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, before, during, and after large waves from an offshore hurricane. The presence of DNA from the fecal indicator bacterium Enterococci was detected in subsamples at different depths within the cores by PCR amplification. Erosion and accretion of beach sand at the three sites were also determined for each sampling day. The results indicate that ocean beach sands with persisting enterococci signals could be exposed and redistributed when wind, waves, and currents cause beach erosion or accretion.

  9. Responses of ghost crabs to habitat modification of urban sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Stelling-Wood, Talia P; Clark, Graeme F; Poore, Alistair G B

    2016-05-01

    Sandy beaches in highly urbanised areas are subject to a wide range of human impacts. Ghost crabs are a commonly used ecological indicator on sandy beaches, as they are key consumers in these systems and counting burrow openings allows for rapid assessment of population size. This study assessed the pressures of urbanisation on sandy beaches in the highly urbanised estuary of Sydney Harbour. Across 38 beaches, we examined which physical beach properties, management practices and human induced habitat modification best predicted ghost crab distributions. Of all variables measured, the frequency of mechanical beach cleaning was the most important predictor of crab abundance, with low burrow densities at the highest cleaning frequency and the highest densities at beaches cleaned at the intermediate frequency (≤3 times per week). These results indicate that ghost crab populations in Sydney Harbour are more robust to the impacts of urbanisation than previously thought. PMID:26970686

  10. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved. PMID:22704152

  11. Pro-Environmental Beach Driving is Uncommon and Ineffective in Reducing Disturbance to Beach-Dwelling Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Michael A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lynn, David

    2014-05-01

    Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended ( P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches.

  12. Pro-environmental beach driving is uncommon and ineffective in reducing disturbance to beach-dwelling birds.

    PubMed

    Weston, Michael A; Schlacher, Thomas A; Lynn, David

    2014-05-01

    Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended (P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches. PMID:24599507

  13. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  14. Experimental Monitoring of Mixed Sand and Mud Sediment in the Nearshore Area of Santa Cruz, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, S. G.; Greene, H. G.

    2001-12-01

    An experiment conducted in late March of 2001 along the beaches and nearshore of Santa Cruz, California consisted of three phases: pre-experiment, experiment, and post-experiment. In the pre- and post-experimental phases, high-resolution side scan sonar and multibeam bathymetry data were collected to produce maps describing surface sediments and depth changes of the seafloor near the Santa Cruz Harbor. Offshore and beach sediment samples were collected three weeks prior to and after the experiment to analyze for changes in grain size and to provide physical evidence of seafloor substrate. Experimental monitoring consisted of daily beach and offshore sediment sampling. Oceanographic data including swell direction, height, and period were obtained from buoys offshore. Rainfall and stream flow data from the nearby San Lorenzo River were recorded during all phases of the project. Our sedimentological studies of materials dredged from the upper Santa Cruz Harbor, California suggest that sediment containing approximately 40% sand and 60% mud can be disposed in the surf zone without adversely affecting the quality of neighboring beaches or offshore rocky habitats while simultaneously replenishing sand to eroding beaches downcoast. A small amount of the mud-rich material (about 2300 m3) was placed into the surf-zone during the winter of 2000-2001 to determine the retention of sands in the nearshore zone and the impact that fine-grain (mud) sediment may have on rocky habitats. The beaches and other nearshore environments near the disposal site of the Santa Cruz Small Craft Harbor appear to be unchanged by the disposed harbor sediments. The data indicates that little change in sediment grain size or distribution has occurred. This is most likely due to the high-energy nature of this coastline, which results in suspension of silts and clays until they reach lower energy, deeper water offshore outside of the study area. The sand fraction of the disposed sediment was likely

  15. Biofilm formation, gel and esp gene carriage among recreational beach Enterococci.

    PubMed

    Asmat, Ahmad; Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Gires, Usup

    2014-09-01

    Biofilm production, gel and esp gene carriage was enumerated among forty six vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) beach isolates. A higher proportion (61.54%) of biofilm producers was observed among beach sand as compared to beach water enterococci isolates (30%) indicating that enterococci within the sand column may be more dependent on biofilm production for survival than their beach water counterparts. Correlation analysis revealed strongly negative correlation (r=-0.535, p=0.015) between vancomycin resistance and biofilm formation. Given the observation of high prevalence of biofilm production among beach sand and the concomitant absence of esp gene carriage in any of the isolate, esp gene carriage may not be necessary for the production of biofilms among beach sand isolates. On the whole beach sand and water isolates demonstrated clearly different prevalence levels of vancomycin resistance, biofilm formation, esp and gel gene carriage. Application of these differences may be found useful in beach microbial source tracking studies. Tested starved cells still produced biofilm albeit at lower efficiencies. Non-dividing enterococci in beach sand can survive extended periods of environmental hardship and can resume growth or biofilm production in appropriate conditions thus making them infectious agents with potential health risk to recreational beach users. PMID:25168975

  16. Groundwater transport and the freshwater-saltwater interface below sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Tyler B.; Wilson, Alicia M.

    2016-07-01

    Current conceptual models for groundwater flow in beaches highlight an upper saline plume, which is separated from the lower salt wedge by a zone of brackish to fresh groundwater discharge. There is currently limited knowledge of what conditions allow an upper saline plume to exist and what factors control its formation. We used variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, transient groundwater flow models to investigate the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface in beaches with slopes varying from 0.1 to 0.01, in the absence of waves. We also varied hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity, tidal amplitude and inflow of fresh groundwater. The simulated salinity configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interfaces varied significantly. No upper saline plumes formed in any beach with hydraulic conductivities less than 10 m/d. The slope of the beach was also a significant control. Steeper beach faces allowed stronger upper saline plumes to develop. Median sediment grain size of the beach is strongly correlated to both beach slope and permeability, and therefore the development of an upper saline plume. Prior studies of groundwater flow and salinity in beaches have used a range of theoretical dispersivities and the appropriate values of dispersivity to be used to represent real beaches remains unclear. We found the upper saline plume to weaken with the use of larger values of dispersivity. Our results suggest that upper saline plumes do not form in all beaches and may be less common than previously considered.

  17. On the profile evolution of three artificial pebble beaches at Marina di Pisa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the profiles of three artificial coarse-grained beaches located at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) were monitored from April 2008 to May 2009 in order to define the response of the beaches to major storms that occurred during the study. Two beaches are similar, the third differs in length and in the level of protection, being less than half the length of the others and devoid of an offshore submerged breakwater. The work was achieved by means of accurate topographic surveys intended to reconstruct the beach profile from the backshore up to the foreshore-upper shoreface transition (step). The surveys were performed with an RTK-GPS instrument, which provided extremely precise recording of the beach. The most significant features of the beaches were tracked during each survey; in particular, the landward foot of the storm berm, the crest of the storm berm, the coastline, and the step crest were monitored. Five cross-shore transects were traced on each beach. Along these transects, any meaningful slope change was recorded to obtain accurate sections of the beach. The field datasets were processed with AutoCAD software to compare the beach profile evolution during the year-long research. The results showed a comparable evolution of the twin beaches: the resulting storm berm retreat of about 15 to 19 m is a remarkable feature considering the coarse grain size and the offshore protection. Due to the absence of the breakwater, the third beach was characterized by even higher values of recession (over 20 m), and showed hints of wave reflection-related processes after the huge, steep storm berm had been formed and grown after the high energy events. These processes were not as evident on the twin beaches. These results underline the different response of three similar protection schemes, and the importance that frequent monitoring of the beach morphology holds when it comes to coastal management issues.

  18. A preliminary comparative assessment of the meiofaunal communities of Maltese pocket sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Deidun, Alan; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Gianni, Fabrizio

    2014-10-01

    Whilst the macrofaunal communities of Maltese pocket sandy beaches have been extensively studied, the meiofaunal communities of the same beaches are virtually unknown. The main aims of the current study include the acquisition of preliminary data on the occurrence of meiofaunal higher taxa on Maltese pocket sandy beaches, the comparison between the Maltese beach meiofaunal communities with those on other Mediterranean sandy beaches and the assessment of the influence of a selected number of beach physical parameters on the same communities. Seven sandy beaches in the Maltese Islands were sampled during spring 2012, with sediment samples being collected at the Mean Sea Level (mediolittoral zone). Median grain size and sediment organic and water content were measured for each beach. A total of 13 higher meiofaunal taxa were recorded from the Maltese sandy beaches. The meiofaunal abundance ranged between 50 and 1392 individuals/10 cm2, whilst the number of meiofaunal higher taxa recorded at a single sampling station ranged between 5 and 10. Mean grain size and sorting coefficient appeared to have the highest influence on variations in Maltese meiofaunal communities. Based on conducted analysis it is suggested that inter-beach dispersal of meiofaunal propagules for Maltese beaches is restricted to short distances and does not operate over distances exceeding 5-10 km. This in turn results in some degree of compartmentalisation of the same assemblages. The meiofaunal assemblages recorded from the Maltese beaches exhibited comparable densities to those recorded on other Central Mediterranean sandy beaches and no significant differences in community structure at higher taxa level were observed.

  19. Global patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: Species richness, abundance, biomass and body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton

    2013-10-01

    Global patterns in species richness in sandy beach ecosystems have been poorly understood until comparatively recently, because of the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases at continental scales. We analyze information from more than 200 sandy beaches around the world, which harbor hundreds of macrofauna species, and explore latitudinal trends in species richness, abundance and biomass. Species richness increases from temperate to tropical sites. Abundance follows contrasting trends depending on the slope of the beach: in gentle slope beaches, it is higher at temperate sites, whereas in steep-slope beaches it is higher at the tropics. Biomass follows identical negative trends for both climatic regions at the whole range of beach slopes, suggesting decreasing rates in carrying capacity of the environment towards reflective beaches. Various morphodynamic variables determine global trends in beach macrofauna. Species richness, abundance and biomass are higher at dissipative than at reflective beaches, whereas a body size follows the reverse pattern. A generalized linear model showed that large tidal range (which determines the vertical dimension of the intertidal habitat), small size of sand particles and flat beach slope (a product of the interaction among wave energy, tidal range and grain size) are correlated with high species richness, suggesting that these parameters represent the most parsimonious variables for modelling patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. Large-scale patterns indicate a scaling of abundance to a body size, suggesting that dissipative beaches harbor communities with highest abundance and species with the smallest body sizes. Additional information for tropical and northern hemisphere sandy beaches (underrepresented in our compilation) is required to decipher more conclusive trends, particularly in abundance, biomass and body size. Further research should integrate meaningful oceanographic variables, such as temperature and primary

  20. California Sea Cliff Metrics: Mapping and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaseanu, M.; Thatcher, C.; Danielson, J.; Logan, J. B.; Foxgrover, A. C.; Brock, J. C.; Barnard, P.

    2015-12-01

    Seacliff erosion is a serious hazard with implications for coastal management, and is often estimated using successive hand digitized cliff tops or bases (toe) to assess cliff retreat. We developed an automated procedure to extract the location of the cliff top from high resolution lidar-derived digital elevation models using transects generated at approximately 1-m intervals. The automated method to define cliff tops is repeatable, takes advantage of detailed topographic information within high-resolution elevation data, and is more efficient than hand-digitizing. To validate the results obtained from a 2010 aerial lidar survey, we conducted a terrestrial lidar (tlidar) survey at Bonny Doon beach near Santa Cruz California in 2014 and mapped the location of the cliff tops using real-time kinematic GPS. Bonny Doon beach has highly irregular cliffs, with several small sea caves and erosion features that were not distinguishable in the aerial lidar digital terrain model (DTM). We extracted the location of the cliff top from the tlidar point cloud along the same transects used previously to automatically derive cliff tops from the aerial lidar derived DTM. The minimum horizontal distance between the tlidar derived cliff top points and GPS points was calculated. The error measurements between GPS and terrestrial lidar are 0.19 m mean absolute error (MAE) and 0.51 m root mean square error (RMSE) respectively. The MAE and the RMSE between the GPS and aerial lidar cliff top points were 0.96 and 1.82 m respectively. The larger errors between aerial lidar cliff top points and GPS are likely due to the failure to remove all vegetation from the aerial lidar data, the positional accuracy of the aerial lidar, and a 4-year gap between surveys. The error assessment indicates that the automated procedure mapped the cliff top location successfully using both the aerial and terrestrial lidar, although the cliff top delineation based on the tlidar data was more accurate.