Science.gov

Sample records for beach transit two-year

  1. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  2. Two year study of swash zone suprabenthos of two Galician beaches (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo-Madrid, Rubén; Martínez-Vázquez, Juan M.; Viéitez, José M.; Junoy, Juan

    2013-10-01

    The suprabenthos is considered a major food resource for some fish and birds. Moreover, it plays a key role in the food chain and in nutrient regeneration in the surf zone. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that regulate this fauna and the differences between the suprabenthic groups, to study the possibility of seasonal variations and to compare these results with those of other studies conducted in Europe. A study and geographical comparison was conducted of the temporal patterns of the suprabenthos in the swash zone at two sandy beaches on the NE Atlantic coast (Altar and Ladeira beaches) in the NW of Spain. The study was carried out from September 2005 to August 2007 (24 months). To study the fauna, 60 m2 was sampled monthly with a suprabenthic sledge, and a total of 101 species belonging to Peracarida and Decapoda were recorded. Total densities ranged from 0.42 ind·m- 2 to 178.75 ind·m- 2. Ladeira beach showed higher densities and species richness than Altar beach, and the biocoenosis showed a different dynamic over the 24 months and between years and locations. These results indicate that there is no clear seasonality in the dynamic of suprabenthic species, although the variance of Peracarida orders was explained in diverse degree by environmental variables. The environmental models implemented explained between 27.7% and 93.8% of the faunal data, and hydrodynamic factors and daily global irradiance were selected as the best factors to explain the temporal variations.

  3. Predicting Children's Academic Achievement after the Transition to First Grade: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossaert, Goele; Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    The transition from kindergarten to first grade has been described as a critical period for children's academic development. Furthermore, research indicates that peer status is connected with academic adjustment, yet the underlying processes remain unclear. By means of a two-year longitudinal study during kindergarten and first grade (N = 153), we…

  4. Successful Transitions from Two-Year to Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grites, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an analysis of a set of conditions that transfer students will most likely face in their transition to a new institution. The specific focus is on transfer from two-year to four-year institutions. This chapter will identify many of the common challenges transfer students face simply because they are entering a new learning…

  5. A Strategic Enrollment Management Approach to Studying High School Student Transition to a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yan; Ye, Feifei; Pilarzyk, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This study used a strategic enrollment management (SEM) approach to studying high school students' transition to a two-year college and their initial college success. Path analyses suggested two important findings: (a) clear career choices among students, family influence, academic preparedness, and college recruitment efforts predicted…

  6. A Strategic Enrollment Management Approach to Studying High School Student Transition to a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yan; Ye, Feifei; Pilarzyk, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This study used a strategic enrollment management (SEM) approach to studying high school students' transition to a two-year college and their initial college success. Path analyses suggested two important findings: (a) clear career choices among students, family influence, academic preparedness, and college recruitment efforts predicted…

  7. Two-year follow-up study of primary and transitional progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ingle, G T; Stevenson, V L; Miller, D H; Leary, S M; Rovaris, M; Barkhof, F; Brochet, B; Dousset, V; Filippi, M; Montalban, X; Kalkers, N F; Polman, C H; Rovira, A; Thompson, A J

    2002-04-01

    This study documents changes in clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in a large cohort of patients with primary and transitional progressive multiple sclerosis (PP and TPMS) over 2 years. Patients with PPMS and TPMS were recruited from six European centres and underwent clinical and MRI examination at three time points: baseline, year one and year two. Of the 190 patients recruited clinical data were available on 125 patients (66%, five centres) and MRI data were available on 113 patients (59%, four centres) at 2 years. Significant increases were seen in T2 load and T1 hypointensity, while brain and cord volume decreased. In PPMS significantly higher lesion loads were found in those who presented with non-cord syndromes when compared to cord presentation and there was a trend to greater brain atrophy in those who deteriorated clinically over the course of the study compared to those who remained stable. Significant cord atrophy was only seen in those with a cord presentation. Measurable changes in MRI parameters can be detected in PPMS patients over a relatively short period of time. MRI quantification is likely to be useful in elucidating disease mechanisms in PPMS and in the execution of clinical trials. PMID:11990866

  8. 78 FR 49600 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Virginia Beach Transit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) are planning to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Virginia Beach Transit Extension Study (VBTES). The VBTES will examine extending transit service from the eastern terminus of Norfolk's existing Light Rail Transit (LRT) system, ``The Tide,'' at Newtown Road to the Virginia Beach Oceanfront either......

  9. Dual enrollment as a factor for women transitioning into STEM majors in Montana two-year colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakes, Penny Jane

    The purpose of this non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative study was to describe the impact high school dual enrollment coursework has had on initial enrollment of women with STEM majors in Montana two-year colleges. The study was designed to find whether or not differences existed for access (initial enrollment), persistence (to third semester), and success (associate's degree, certificate, or transfer to a four-year institution within 150% of program length). The literature review highlighted the need for studies to address the issue of few women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations. One goal of dual enrollment in Montana is to ease transitions from high school to college, including underrepresented populations such as women in STEM fields. The scope of this study was to collect, organize, and interpret data to describe the effect of that effort for women enrolling in STEM majors at two-year colleges in Montana. Baseline information established the demographics of young women who participated in dual enrollment in Montana high schools during 2007-2009. Data analysis described results using attributes of gender, dual enrollment, access, persistence, and success for those enrolled in STEM fields. Results indicated more young women than young men take advantage of dual enrollment in high school and more women than men with dual-enrollment credit initially enroll in college. More men than women major in a STEM field and more men persist and graduate within the STEM fields. Data indicated that 221 students enrolled in a Montana two-year college with DE/DC credit during 2007-2009. Of those, eight women chose STEM majors, six persisted to the third semester, and two completed. It is recommended that a mixed-methods study be conducted to give a deeper level of understanding for enrollment trends and career choice. Longitudinal studies should also be conducted as dual enrollment grows within the state of Montana. Further studies would enable educational stakeholders to make informed decisions to create meaningful change for women in STEM majors.

  10. Dual Enrollment as a Factor for Women Transitioning into STEM Majors in Montana Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakes, Penny Jane

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative study was to describe the impact high school dual enrollment coursework has had on initial enrollment of women with STEM majors in Montana two-year colleges. The study was designed to find whether or not differences existed for access (initial enrollment), persistence (to third…

  11. A Qualitative Study of Tribal Colleges and Universities that Have Transitioned: From Two-Year Associate Degree Granting Institutions to Targeted Four-Year Bachelor Degree Granting Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Lynette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to analyze how tribal colleges and Universities have transitioned from two-year associate degree granting institutions to offering four-year bachelor degree granting institutions. This case study includes three tribal colleges: Sitting Bull College, Salish Kootenai College and Turtle Mountain…

  12. A Qualitative Study of Tribal Colleges and Universities that Have Transitioned: From Two-Year Associate Degree Granting Institutions to Targeted Four-Year Bachelor Degree Granting Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Lynette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to analyze how tribal colleges and Universities have transitioned from two-year associate degree granting institutions to offering four-year bachelor degree granting institutions. This case study includes three tribal colleges: Sitting Bull College, Salish Kootenai College and Turtle Mountain…

  13. Two-Year College Faculty and Administrator Thoughts about the Transition to a Learning-Centered College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackin, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A single qualitative case study design was used to determine the opinions of administrators and faculty from a community college that is considered to be transitioning to a learning-centered college. The researcher conducted the case study to describe, explain, and evaluate the phenomenon. The researcher also recorded facilitators or roadblocks…

  14. Transitions: The Influence of Parent's Attitudes and Behaviors on the Adjustment of Two Year Olds to a New School Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorde, Paula

    The families of 10 children enrolled in a class for 2-year-olds at the Mills College Children's School participated in a study of parent attitudes about separation and parental behaviors that minimized separation anxiety and facilitated a smooth transition from home to school environments. The sample included nine mothers who were married and…

  15. Changes in strength and power qualities over two years in volleyball players transitioning from junior to senior national team.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Jeremy M; Nolan, Emily; Newton, Robert U

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the changes in performance indicators as they relate to strength and speed-strength development, over 2 years in a group of volleyball players who successfully transitioned from age group (U21) to senior national team in that time period. Sixteen male subjects (age: 18.5 ± 1.5 years, height: 2.00 ± 0.06 m, and weight: 88.4 ± 7.7 kg) participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. During the 24-month period of this investigation, all the subjects gained professional European contracts and also debuted with at least 1 senior national team match. These included, at a minimum, not only international friendly matches but also senior continental championships, World Championships, and the World Cup. Testing included 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 3RM for the clean and squat, a maximum effort counter movement vertical jump (CMVJ), depth jump from a 0.35-m box (DJ), spike jump (with approach) (SPJ), and lower body speed-strength assessment with a body weight and body weight + 50% load. Large magnitude increases were observed for CMVJ, DJ, and SPJ over the 2-year period (d = 0.80, 0.82, and 0.94, respectively, p < 0.001). Unloaded (body weight) and loaded jump-squat performance also exhibited large improvements for all measured parameters, with very large increases in jump height in the unloaded (d = 1.21, p = 0.002) and loaded jump squat (d = 1.346, p < 0.001). Very large magnitude changes in 1RM Clean and 3RM Squat (d = 1.56 and 2.21, respectively, p < 0.001) were observed over the 2-year investigation period, and a large increase (d = 1.18, p < 0.001) in the lean mass ratio (mass/sum skinfolds). To progress from junior representation to senior national team, volleyball players must increase their CMVJ and SPJ. This is best accomplished through increasing lean mass, reducing fat mass, improving strength and speed strength, and developing high levels of stretch-load tolerance in stretch-shorten cycle activity. PMID:22193341

  16. Large-scale dynamics of sandy beach ecosystems in transitional waters of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Species turnover, stability and spatial synchrony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2015-03-01

    Transitional waters (TW) are interfaces between the terrestrial and freshwater environments and the sea. These ecotones are characterized by highly dynamic physico-chemical and hydro-morphologic conditions, resulting in a mosaic of habitats in which species are particularly well adapted to variability. However, sandy beach ecotones occurring along estuarine gradients are rarely addressed from the TW perspective. We conducted a 2-yr study to assess the seasonal dynamics of environmental and macrofaunal descriptors in 16 sandy beaches of the Uruguayan coast in TW defined by the widest estuary of the world (Rio de la Plata). A strong variability in environmental conditions was found at inner estuarine beaches, reflecting the seasonal dynamics of the estuarine discharge. The greatest abundance and species richness found in dissipative oceanic beaches were also characterized by their lowest temporal variability, indicating that macrofaunal communities were more stable towards oceanic conditions, where environmental variability was also lowest. Spatial synchrony was reflected in changes across seasons in the species richness in the TW system. A high turnover of species along spatio-temporal gradients occurring within the TW ecotone was observed. Mollusca and Polychaeta were absent in highly-variable estuarine beaches, irrespective of the morphodynamic state. A functional equivalence between species was found at the extremes of the salinity gradient. The environmental variables that best explained community patterns differed among seasons: in summer and autumn, salinity, wave period and beach width were the main explanatory factors, whereas temperature had a primary influence in winter and morphodynamic variables exerted a major influence in autumn. We highlight the need to consider concurrent variations in estuarine and morphodynamic variables when assessing the spatial distribution of macrofaunal species richness and abundance in sandy beaches occurring along TW.

  17. Beach Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two miles of beach at Cape Canaveral eroded by construction of a port and jetties was recently restored. Such work in harbors of many cities often disrupts normal flow of sand for many miles along coasts. Brevard County, FL residents now enjoy a 400 ft. wide public beach in an area in imminent danger of destructive erosion just a year previously. Before and after aerial photos show how more than two miles of beach were rebuilt with 2.7 million cubic yards of sand helping abate the erosion problem caused by construction of jetties. NASA volunteered its remote-sensing technology and instrumented aircraft to provide low-altitude color infrared photography about every three months since 1972.

  18. Cognitive Development: Two-Year-Old

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Cognitive Development: Two-Year-Old Page Content Article Body Think back ... touching, looking, manipulating, and listening. Now, as a two-year-old, the learning process has become more ...

  19. English and the Two-Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin M.

    With the purpose of establishing a special English program at the University of Florida which would serve both teachers at the two-year community colleges and students preparing to teach at them, a five-man committee visited most of the state's 30 two-year colleges to discuss their needs and goals with faculty and administrators. Summer institutes…

  20. Two-Year Apprenticeships--A Successful Model of Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammermann, Marlise; Stalder, Barbara E.; Hattich, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Educational policy is asked to support young people in their successful transition from education to employment. In Switzerland, a two-year apprenticeship with Federal VET Certificate was established in 2002 aimed at increasing the employability of low-achieving school leavers. It is a low-threshold VET programme offering standardised vocational…

  1. Business Graduates: The First Two Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreier, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 65 business adminstration graduates to assess their experiences two years after graduation. Most graduates (71 percent) reported employment in their major field. Also examined career values, job information sources and career directions, based on an earlier study. (JAC)

  2. Structure-mediated transition in the behavior of elastic and inelastic properties of beach tree bio-carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardashev, B. K.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Gutierrez, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2013-09-01

    Microstructural characteristics and amplitude dependences of the Young modulus E and of internal friction (logarithmic decrement δ) of bio-carbon matrices prepared from beech tree wood at different carbonization temperatures T carb ranging from 600 to 1600°C have been studied. The dependences E( T carb) and δ( T carb) thus obtained revealed two linear regions of increase of the Young modulus and of decrease of the decrement with increasing carbonization temperature, namely, Δ E ˜ AΔ T carb and Δδ ˜ BΔ T carb, with A ≈ 13.4 MPa/K and B ≈ -2.2 × 10-6 K-1 for T carb < 1000°C and A ≈ 2.5 MPa/K and B ≈ -3.0 × 10-7 K-1 for T carb > 1000°C. The transition observed in the behavior of E( T carb) and δ( T carb) at T carb = 900-1000°C can be assigned to a change of sample microstructure, more specifically, a change in the ratio of the fractions of the amorphous matrix and of the nanocrystalline phase. For T carb < 1000°C, the elastic properties are governed primarily by the amorphous matrix, whereas for T carb > 1000°C the nanocrystalline phase plays the dominant part. The structurally induced transition in the behavior of the elastic and microplastic characteristics at a temperature close to 1000°C correlates with the variation of the physical properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and thermopower, reported in the literature.

  3. Language in the Two-year Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Two stages in the vocabulary development of two-year-olds are reported. In the earlier Receptive stage, the child says many fewer nouns than he understands and says no verbs at all although he understands many. The child then enters a Productive stage in which he says virtually all the nouns he understands plus his first verbs. (Author/DEP)

  4. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  5. BEACHES HEALTH SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...

  6. Cassini at Saturn: The Final Two Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, L.; Edgington, S.; Altobelli, N.

    2015-10-01

    After 11 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn, a collaboration of NASA, ESA, and ASI, continues to wow the imagination and reveal unprecedented findings. Every year Cassini produces answers to questions raised by the Voyager flybys, while at the same time posing new questions that can only be answered with a long duration mission using a flagship-class spacecraft. Here we sample a few of Cassini's discoveries from the past year and give an overview of Cassini's final two years.

  7. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where beach state changes gradually alongshore, while the post-storm embayment exhibits an extreme alongshore morphological gradient, from low-energy intermediate to a "complex multi-bar and mega-rip" state at the exposed end of the beach. Further observations are required to determine the prevalence of this high-energy state and to provide inputs to future numerical models designed to examine the dominant forcing controls involved in its formation.

  8. Two years of ALMA bibliography: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meankins, Silvia; Grothkopf, Uta; Bishop, Marsha J.; Stoehr, Felix; Tatematsu, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Telescope bibliographies are integral parts of observing facilities. They are used to associate the published literature with archived observational data, to measure an observatory's scientific output through publication and citation statistics, and to define guidelines for future observing strategies. The ESO and NRAO librarians as well as NAOJ jointly maintain the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) bibliography, a database of refereed papers that use ALMA data. In this paper, we illustrate how relevant articles are identified, which procedures are used to tag entries in the database and link them to the correct observations, and how results are communicated to ALMA stakeholders and the wider community. Efforts made to streamline the process will be explained and evaluated, and a first analysis of ALMA papers published after two years of observations will be given.

  9. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Other Beach Safety Topics Beach Related Illnesses A water quality warning sign advising swimmers to avoid contact with ... a source of longer-term data about beach water quality. EPA created BEACON to provide the Agency's requirement ...

  10. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  11. NATIONAL HEALTH SURVEY OF BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The annual Beach Survey is designed to gather information about beach water quality, standards, monitoring, and beach health advisories or closures issued during the previous year's bathing season. Each year the survey updates previously submitted beach i...

  12. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach locational data for BEACH Act. Beach locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Beach locations are coded onto region.rch (Waterbody Reach) feature of NHD to create NHD Waterbody Shapefiles...

  13. The Academic Training of Two-Year College Mathematics Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Calvin T.

    The academic training needs of two-year college mathematics faculty are discussed in this paper and appropriate courses of study are proposed. After introductory comments on the diversity of two-year college students' needs for mathematics education, an undergraduate course of study appropriate for two-year college math faculty is proposed. This…

  14. Two-Year College Contract Data--Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education Newsletter, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This newsletter contains two articles of interest to two-year college educators. The first details an examination of 83 public two-year college collective bargaining contracts and 41 public and private four-year college agreements for references to classroom visitations. Such references were found in 24 (29%) of the two-year college contracts and…

  15. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  16. Alongshore variability in beach planform, grain-size distribution and foredune height of an embayed beach: Shoalwater Bay, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Giardino, R.

    2012-12-01

    Headland-bay beaches (HBB) are common beach-types found throughout the coastlines of the world. Morphodynamics of these structurally-controlled beaches are primarily governed by geological inheritance, wave climate, tidal range and grain-size distribution, which ultimately influence sediment transport across the beach-dune system. For embayed beaches, the degree of curvature (i.e., indentation ratio) has significant implications for littoral cell circulation, which mediates both cross-shore and alongshore sediment transport. This study investigated the morphodynamic controls on longshore and cross-shore sediment transport for a macro-tidal, embayed beach in central Queensland, Australia. Freshwater Beach is a 10 km long embayed beach located in the Shoalwater Bay Training Area, ~50 km north of Yeppoon. Freshwater Beach exhibits an asymmetrical planform which is characterized by a curved "shadow zone" (adjacent to the headland), transitioning to a straight tangential segment extending to the north. The beach is subjected to a mean tidal range of 6 m and prevailing onshore-directed winds and swell from the southeast. A total of 12 topographic profiles at ~1 km spacing were taken along the entire length of the beach to characterize variation in beach slope and foredune height. Sediment samples were collected across each transect for detailed grain-size and geochemical (XRD/XRF and SEM) analysis. Additionally, ground-based LiDAR surveys were conducted along the topographic profiles and for comparison with aerial-based LiDAR surveys. Preliminary results from topographic profiles show that the largest foredunes are located in the central portion of the beach, contrary to most embayed beaches where the largest dunes are typically located downdrift of the headland. Along the exposed section, the foredunes become large (~15 m high) and are hypothesized to be supplied by onshore welded bars that act as a sediment source for the foredunes to grow. Presently the alongshore and cross-shore sediment exchange is unknown and the dynamics of surface drainage and freshwater seeps in close proximity to the outlet of Freshwater Swamp remain a priority for understanding the morphologic evolution of the beach-dune system. Ongoing research is currently in progress to address relationships between grain-size grading alongshore and foredune height to determine a sediment budget from the nearshore extending through the parabolic dunefield.

  17. Dune recovery after storm erosion on a high-energy beach: Vougot Beach, Brittany (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suanez, Serge; Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Cancouët, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Delacourt, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    On 10th March 2008, the high energy storm Johanna hit the French Atlantic coast, generating severe dune erosion on Vougot Beach (Brittany, France). In this paper, the recovery of the dune of Vougot Beach is analysed through a survey of morphological changes and hydrodynamic conditions. Data collection focused on the period immediately following storm Johanna until July 2010, i.e. over two and a half years. Results showed that the dune retreated by a maximum of almost 6 m where storm surge and wave attack were the most energetic. Dune retreat led to the creation of accommodation space for the storage of sediment by widening and elevating space between the pre- and post-storm dune toe, and reducing impacts of the storm surge. Dune recovery started in the month following the storm event and is still ongoing. It is characterised by the construction of "secondary" embryo dunes, which recovered at an average rate of 4-4.5 cm per month, although average monthly volume changes varied from - 1 to 2 m 3.m - 1 . These embryo dunes accreted due to a large aeolian sand supply from the upper tidal beach to the existing foredune. These dune-construction processes were facilitated by growth of vegetation on low-profile embryo dunes promoting backshore accretion. After more than two years of survey, the sediment budget of the beach/dune system showed that more than 10,000 m 3 has been lost by the upper tidal beach. We suggest that seaward return currents generated during the storm of 10th March 2008 are responsible for offshore sediment transport. Reconstitution of the equilibrium beach profile following the storm event may therefore have generated cross-shore sediment redistribution inducing net erosion in the tidal zone.

  18. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  19. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study period. In this paper we will exploit regional variability in physical (e.g. sediment supply) and ecological variables (e.g. % cover of exotic beach grass species and density) thought responsible for the varying rates and form of coastal advance in the region. These gradients allow us to test hypotheses regarding the relative role of the various controls on interannual- to decadal-scale coastal evolution.

  20. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  1. Great Lakes Beach Health

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    As schools close for the year and summer weather beckons, many recreationalists head to the Great Lakes' public beaches. However, these coastal areas can become contaminated with disease-causing bacteria that threaten public health, disrupt water recreation, and pay a toll on the Great Lakes economi...

  2. Shoreline relaxation at pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Medina, Raul; Kakeh, Nabil; González, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    A new physical concept of relaxation time is introduced in this research as the time required for the beach to dissipate its initial perturbation. This concept is investigated using a simple beach-evolution model of shoreline rotation at pocket beaches, based on the assumption that the instantaneous change of the shoreline plan-view shape depends on the long-term equilibrium plan-view shape. The expression of relaxation time is developed function of the energy conditions and the physical characteristics of the beach; it increases at longer beaches having coarse sediments and experiencing low-energy conditions. The relaxation time, calculated by the developed model, is validated by the shoreline observations extracted from video images at two artificially embayed beaches of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean) suffering from perturbations of sand movement and a nourishment project. This finding is promising to estimate the shoreline response and useful to improve our understanding of the dynamic of pocket beaches and their stability.

  3. Chemistry in the Two-Year College, 1971 No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This publication, issued twice per year, includes proceedings from Two-Year College Chemistry Conferences and papers of special interest to the two-year college chemistry teacher. This issue contains discussions concerning the content of first-year, second-year, and other introductory courses in chemistry, such as special courses for nonscience…

  4. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due at least partially to long-held gender stereotypes: women are to prepare themselves for marriage and homemaking at a two-year college. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of motherhood and womanhood.…

  5. Science Education in Two-Year Colleges: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sandra J.

    One in a series of 12 publications on two-year science education, this four-part monograph examines biological education as revealed by a literature review, a study of the catalogs and class schedules of 175 representative two-year institutions, and survey responses of 160 biology instructors. Part I first presents the findings of a review of the…

  6. Chemistry in the Two-Year College, Vol. 12, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardole, Jay, Ed.

    This publication, issued twice per year, includes proceedings from Two-Year College Chemistry Conferences and papers of special interest to the two-year college chemistry teacher. Both chemical safety in the laboratory and the integration of laboratory work with teaching are discussed. Also discussed are topics related to the teaching of…

  7. 45 CFR 1801.13 - Two-year institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Two-year institutions. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.13 Two-year institutions. If an institution...

  8. 45 CFR 1801.13 - Two-year institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two-year institutions. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.13 Two-year institutions. If an institution...

  9. 45 CFR 1801.13 - Two-year institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Two-year institutions. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.13 Two-year institutions. If an institution...

  10. 45 CFR 1801.13 - Two-year institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-year institutions. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.13 Two-year institutions. If an institution...

  11. 45 CFR 1801.13 - Two-year institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Two-year institutions. 1801.13 Section 1801.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION HARRY S. TRUMAN SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM Nominations § 1801.13 Two-year institutions. If an institution...

  12. Underground Existence Of Research In Chemistry In Two-Year College Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaglione, Onofrio G.

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduate research at two-year colleges has the potential to remedy low enrollment and high attrition in chemistry-based programs. It also assists students in making successful transitions from the associate degree to the bachelor's degree level in the chemical sciences.

  13. Entering the World of Work: A Curriculum for Two-Year Technical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Xavier V.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that students in two-year technical programs need courses that train them in job and job-hunting skills. The transition from school to work can be difficult, and a job-skills class can prepare them for some of the changes inherent in the process. Itemizes job search strategies. (NB)

  14. The Automated Planet Finder's automation & first two years of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer; Laughlin, Greg; Vogt, Steven S.; Holden, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    The Automated Planet Finder (APF) is the newest facility at Lick Observatory, comprised of a 2.4m telescope coupled with the high-resolution Levy echelle spectrograph. Purpose built for exoplanet detection and characterization, 80% of the telescope's observing time is dedicated to these science goals. The APF has demonstrated 1 m/s radial velocity precision on bright, RV standard stars and performs with the same speed-on-sky as Keck/HIRES when observing M-dwarfs.The telesope is fully automated for RV operations, using a dynamic scheduler that makes informed decisions on which targets to observe based on scientific interest, desired cadence, required precision levels and current observing conditions, all on a minute-to-minute basis. This ensures that time is not wasted chasing non-optimal targets on nights with poor conditions and enables rapid changes to the overall science observing strategy.The APF has contributed to the detection of four planetary systems in its first two years of scientific operations. Our most recent detection is that of a 6-planet system around the bright (V=5.5), nearby (d=6.5pc), K3V star HD 219134. The planets in this system have masses ranging from 3.5 to108 MEarth, with orbital periods from 3 to 2247 days. An independent detection of the inner 4 planets in this system by the HARPS-N team has shown that the 3d planet transits the star, making this system ideal for follow-up observations.I will discuss the design and implementation of the APF's dynamic scheduler, the telescope's planet detections to date, overall performance results of the telescope and our future observing strategy.

  15. Beach ridges and prograded beach deposits as palaeoenvironment records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Toru

    2012-09-01

    Beach ridges are landforms commonly developed on prograded coasts with beach shorelines. A sequence of beach ridges, coupled with their subsurface deposits, can be regarded as a time series of coastal evolution. Methodological advances in field surveying and chronology applicable to beach ridges have led to detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to be derived from such sequences. This paper reconsiders the basic aspects of beach ridges and deposits, which need to be properly understood for their comprehensive interpretation in a palaeo-environmental context. It also reviews case studies in which beach-ridge sequences have been used to unveil past sea-level history, catastrophic events, and climate changes. Proposed formative processes of beach ridges include: 1) progradation of sandy beach and berm formations in relation to fairweather waves, coupled with aeolian foredune accumulation; 2) building of gravel ridges by storm waves; 3) welding of longshore bars. Beach-ridge formation through sea-level oscillation is thought to be questionable and caution is suggested for this process when undertaking palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Beach deposit stratification is known to dip either landwards or seawards, but landward dips are uncommon. Seaward dipping stratification is formed in relation to beachface progradation, and is usually dissected in places by erosion surfaces resulting from episodic beach retreat. The boundary between the foreshore and the underlying shoreface is well defined only in the case that longshore bars lead to complex bedding structure relative to that of the foreshore. Reliable chronology of beach ridges can be determined by radiocarbon and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Radiocarbon dating of articulated shells, which are considered not to be extensively reworked, provides robust results, but OSL dating is more useful as it enables direct dating of sediment grains. It is noted that there are restrictions in chronological resolution and continuity inherent to beach ridge and beach deposits. The plan-view geomorphic expression of beach ridges typically consists of ridge sets with multi-decadal intervals, whereas their internal sedimentary structures define shorter time scales. Records of beach sedimentation and erosion are likely to be reworked by episodic high-magnitude beach retreat, and the resultant record of the net progradation is likely to be sporadic and discontinuous. The height of sandy beach ridges is often variable due to differing degrees of aeolian sand accumulation, and they are thus not used as sea-level indicators unless purely wave-built. Gravel ridge height is a relatively reliable indicator of sea level, but can vary in response to storminess fluctuations. Subsurface sediment facies boundaries are preferred as sea-level indicators, and those proposed include: boundaries of aeolian/beach, foreshore/shoreface, and upper/lower shorefaces. Catastrophic events are expressed in both erosional and depositional records. Erosion surfaces, or scarp imprints, revealed in a cross section of beach deposits, indicate storm or tsunami events. However, erosional events are likely to rework previous records of sedimentation and even other erosional events, and thus the apparent history decoded from the resultant deposits tends to be biased. Several attempts for estimating the frequency and intensity of prehistoric cyclones rely on assumed relationships between the level of coarse sand beach ridges and cyclone inundation. The formative process of coarse sand ridges remains uncertain and needs to be clarified, as it constitutes the fundamental basis of these attempts. The growth rates of beach-ridge systems are expected to reflect fluctuations in river sediment discharge to the coast and in aeolian sand flux due to onshore winds, both of which are affected by climate change. Assessment of the growth rate is potentially improved by ground-penetrating radar survey of subsurface structure and by detailed chronology. Orientation of beach ridges reflects long-term trends in wave dir

  16. Backwash process of marine macroplastics from a beach by nearshore currents around a submerged breakwater.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Kato, Shigeru

    2015-12-30

    A key factor for determining the residence time of macroplastics on a beach is the process by which the plastics are backwashed offshore (backwash process). Here, we deduced the backwash process of plastic fishing floats on Wadahama Beach based on the analysis of two-year mark-recapture experiments as well as nearshore current structures revealed by sequential images taken by za webcam installed at the edge of a cliff behind the beach. The analysis results revealed the occurrence of a combination of offshore currents and convergence of alongshore currents in the surf zone in storm events around a submerged breakwater off the northern part of the beach, where 48% of the backwashed floats were last found. We conclude that the majority of the floats on the beach were transported alongshore and tended to concentrate in the convergence zone, from where they were backwashed offshore by the nearshore currents generated in the events. PMID:26561445

  17. 76 FR 1359 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    .../Quintiles Marathon will be transiting across the bridge during the race. This deviation allows the bridge to remain in the closed position for two hours to accommodate the 2011 Wrightsville Beach/Quintiles Marathon...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Wrightsville Beach/Quintiles Marathon Committee on behalf of...

  18. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. PMID:23290717

  19. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  20. Physical modeling of three-dimensional intermediate beach morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michallet, H.; Castelle, B.; BarthéLemy, E.; Berni, C.; Bonneton, P.

    2013-06-01

    Experiments have been performed in a large wave tank in order to study the morphodynamics of rip current systems. Both accretive and erosive shore-normal wave conditions were applied, the beach evolving through all the states within the intermediate beach classification, under the so-called down-state (accretive) and up-state (erosive) morphological transitions. Results show that any prescribed change in the wave conditions drastically increases the rate at which the morphology changes. The surf zone morphology tends toward a steady state when running a given wave climate for a long duration. We quantitatively describe a full down-state sequence characterized by the progressive evolution of an alongshore-uniform bar successively into a crescentic plan shape, a bar and rip channel morphology, and a terrace. From the analysis of a large data set of dense Eulerian measurements and bathymetric surveys, we depict several feedback mechanisms associated with wave-driven rip current circulation, wave nonlinearities and the seabed evolution. At first, a positive feedback mechanism drives a rapid increase in the rate of morphological change, beach three-dimensionality, and rip intensity. By the time the sandbar evolves into a bar and rip morphology, a negative feedback mechanism, characterized by a decaying beach change rate and an increasing beach alongshore uniformity, overwhelms the former mechanism. An erosive sequence characterized by both an overall offshore bar migration and an increase in beach three-dimensionality is also described.

  1. On the profile evolution of three artificial pebble beaches at Marina di Pisa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the profiles of three artificial coarse-grained beaches located at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) were monitored from April 2008 to May 2009 in order to define the response of the beaches to major storms that occurred during the study. Two beaches are similar, the third differs in length and in the level of protection, being less than half the length of the others and devoid of an offshore submerged breakwater. The work was achieved by means of accurate topographic surveys intended to reconstruct the beach profile from the backshore up to the foreshore-upper shoreface transition (step). The surveys were performed with an RTK-GPS instrument, which provided extremely precise recording of the beach. The most significant features of the beaches were tracked during each survey; in particular, the landward foot of the storm berm, the crest of the storm berm, the coastline, and the step crest were monitored. Five cross-shore transects were traced on each beach. Along these transects, any meaningful slope change was recorded to obtain accurate sections of the beach. The field datasets were processed with AutoCAD software to compare the beach profile evolution during the year-long research. The results showed a comparable evolution of the twin beaches: the resulting storm berm retreat of about 15 to 19 m is a remarkable feature considering the coarse grain size and the offshore protection. Due to the absence of the breakwater, the third beach was characterized by even higher values of recession (over 20 m), and showed hints of wave reflection-related processes after the huge, steep storm berm had been formed and grown after the high energy events. These processes were not as evident on the twin beaches. These results underline the different response of three similar protection schemes, and the importance that frequent monitoring of the beach morphology holds when it comes to coastal management issues.

  2. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  3. Retrospective Conversion at a Two-Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Michael T.

    1982-01-01

    Findings of a project to convert a single LC class from cards to machine readable tapes at a two-year college suggest that an in-house retrospective conversion is feasible for academic libraries. A high conversion hit rate, implying minimal original cataloging, will keep project costs and duration low. There are five references. (RAA)

  4. New Students in Two-Year Colleges: Twelve Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Walker, Ed.

    Intended for college English teachers, the essays in this collection represent the scholarship of 12 professors who participated in a year-long seminar on the teaching of reading and writing to the "new" types of students who are presently attending two-year colleges. The first essay offers a profile of the new student as one who is job-oriented…

  5. Student Decisions to Attend Public Two-Year Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreno, Yvette; Traut, Carol Ann

    2012-01-01

    This study examined reasons for student choice of a specific community college. The site of the study is a west Texas public, two-year institution with 4,674 students, full- and part-time, as of fall 2008. The top six reasons for selection were transferability of courses, available academic programs and quality, campus location, cost, available…

  6. Biology in the Two-Year College, Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertig, Willis H., Jr.

    This position paper represents the consensus of the Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences (CUEBS) Panel on Biology in the Two-Year College. The Panel defines achievable, as well as, requisite goals and recommends methods for their implementation. Major topic headings in the pamphlet are (1) The Institution and Its…

  7. Science Education in Two-Year Colleges: Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Jack; Edwards, Sandra J.

    Engineering instruction is examined as revealed in a study of science education at two-year colleges which involved a review of the literature, an analysis of the catalogs and class schedules of 175 institutions, and a survey of 144 engineering instructors. The report first presents a general profile of engineering technology education based on…

  8. Student Records: Looking Back on FERPA Two Years From Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Barry L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reports on the Massachusetts experience, during the past two years, with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 on school records. It may help student advocates anticipate resistance to the law's implementation and plan appropriate action to assure that its benefits become a reality. (Author/GC)

  9. Two-Year College Alumni: An Untapped Resource. Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior and Community Coll. Inst., Washington, DC.

    This resource book provides a variety of materials that were presented at a national workshop on the development, organization, and activities of two-year college alumni associations. The first section, which looks at the organization of alumni programs, presents information related to Clinton Community College's (Ohio) Alumni Association,…

  10. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  11. Two Year Core Curriculum for Agricultural Education in Montana. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This core curriculum consists of materials for use in conducting a two-year secondary level agricultural education course. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: leadership; agricultural career planning; supervised occupational experience programs (SOEPs); agricultural mechanics (shop management and safety,…

  12. The Humanities and Sciences in Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawer, Florence B., Ed.

    Based on research conducted by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges between 1975 and 1980, this monograph presents 11 articles on the role of humanities and sciences at two-year colleges. In the first three articles, Miriam Beckwith compares data on humanities faculty in Washington State with nationwide information; Joseph Marks…

  13. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…

  14. Industry Speaks to Two-Year Colleges about High Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, James P.

    A summary is presented of the major conclusions of seven regional conferences on high technology and the two-year college conducted by the National Postsecondary Alliance. The conclusions were drawn from the addresses of representatives from more than 40 firms, who responded to questions concerning their companies' involvement with high technology…

  15. Industry Speaks to Two-Year Colleges about High Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, James P.

    A summary is presented of the major conclusions of seven regional conferences on high technology and the two-year college conducted by the National Postsecondary Alliance. The conclusions were drawn from the addresses of representatives from more than 40 firms, who responded to questions concerning their companies' involvement with high technology…

  16. Selected Collective Bargaining Agreements of Michigan Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Collective bargaining agreements of 19 selected Michigan two-year colleges are presented, representing contracts in effect in 1987. Contracts for the following colleges are included: Alpena Community College, Bay de Noc Community College, Gogebic Community College, Grand Rapids Junior College, Kalamazoo Valley Community College, Kellogg Community…

  17. Amid Tight Budgets, Two-Year Colleges Play Growing Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Faced with a multibillion-dollar budget deficit, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger and state higher education officials are trying to relieve the burden on the state by redirecting several thousand high school seniors from California's public four-year universities to community colleges for their first two years of school. The California effort emerges…

  18. Assessment of Chemistry Anxiety in a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Wanda C.; Widanski, Bozena Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry anxiety encompasses apprehension regarding learning chemistry, evaluation in chemistry courses, and fears about handling chemicals. Our goal was to ascertain the prevalence of these three types of anxiety in college students enrolled in a two-year college. In our sample, chemistry-evaluation provoked the most chemistry anxiety followed…

  19. Chemistry in the Two-Year College, Volume XVII, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardole, Jay, Ed.

    Included in this publication are 12 papers related to teaching chemistry in a two-year college. The papers are presented in the following topic areas: (1) Learning Theory Applied to Chemistry; (2) Some Special Problems in Chemical Education; and (3) Current Concepts in Chemical Education. (SA)

  20. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…

  1. Assessment of Chemistry Anxiety in a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Wanda C.; Widanski, Bozena Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Chemistry anxiety encompasses apprehension regarding learning chemistry, evaluation in chemistry courses, and fears about handling chemicals. Our goal was to ascertain the prevalence of these three types of anxiety in college students enrolled in a two-year college. In our sample, chemistry-evaluation provoked the most chemistry anxiety followed…

  2. Summer Sessions in Public Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Raymond J.

    In 1988-89, a study was conducted to determine the relationship between selected characteristics of summer sessions in public two-year colleges and such institutional characteristics as size, location, type (i.e., community college or technical institute), and administrative structure for summer terms. The study focused on the philosophical…

  3. On Their Own Terms: Two-Year Minority Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Castro Samayoa, Andrés; Gasman, Marybeth; Wilson, Audrey; Diggs, Desmond; Wolff, Melanie; Dávila, Carolina; Boland, William

    2015-01-01

    This report, published by the Center for Minority Serving Institutions in collaboration with CAPSEE, looks at the role of two-year Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) in improving postsecondary access and degree completion for disadvantaged students in the United States. In doing so, it aims to prepare the groundwork for research that considers…

  4. Faculty Development in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mary Rose; Keim, Marybelle C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that surveyed faculty and staff in 300 two-year colleges to identify the elements of planning, implementation, funding, and evaluation for development of both full-time and part-time faculty. Reports that statistically significant differences were found among colleges of different sizes and among accreditation regions. (Contains…

  5. An Evaluation of the Cleveland Voucher Program after Two Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E.; Howell, William G.; Greene, Jay P.

    This report presents an evaluation of the Cleveland Scholarship Program (CSP) after two years in operation. The program provided low-income families with scholarships that they could redeem at any participating Cleveland private school. The evaluation of the program involved a survey of two groups of parents in 1998: parents of children in grades…

  6. Selected Collective Bargaining Agreements of Illinois Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Collective bargaining agreements of 22 selected Illinois two-year colleges are presented, representing contracts in effect in 1988. Contracts for the following colleges are included: Belleville Area College, Black Hawk College, Carl Sandburg College, College of Lake County, Cook County College, Highland Community College, Illinois Central College,…

  7. Science Education in Two-Year Colleges: Interdisciplinary Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, Miriam M.

    Anthropology and interdisciplinary social sciences (ISS) education at two-year colleges are examined as revealed in a study of science education conducted by the Center for the Study of Community Colleges that involved a review of the literature, an examination of the catalogs and class schedules from 175 institutions, and a survey of 1,125…

  8. Two-Year College Handbooks and Manuals: Past, Present, Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    Based upon a review of handbooks and manuals from 212 two-year colleges in 39 states, this paper examines directions currently evident in the purpose, content, style and format of these publications and offers recommendations for their improvement. After looking at the characteristics of junior/community college faculty handbooks in the 1960s, the…

  9. The Personnel Function in Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag-Mutter, Priscilla; Jones, C. Wayne

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the roots of current two-year college personnel administration practices in secondary education and compares practices in higher education and business/industry. Assesses management issues related to part-time faculty, nontraditional students, faculty satisfaction, the quality-of-worklife movement, and anticipated faculty shortages.…

  10. Concepts in gravel beach dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscombe, Daniel; Masselink, Gerhard

    2006-11-01

    The dominant processes in gravel beach dynamics are reviewed, highlighting some common themes which unify the various components of the gravel beach system, the repercussions of which impart on how gravel beach dynamics might be understood conceptually. In particular, gravel beach dynamics are thought to be highly dependent on the temporal and spatial variation in grain size, and the continual adjustments made by an active beach step, both of which act not only as the expression of changing morphodynamic conditions, but also as a controlling influence. Morphodynamics, the notion that the exchanges on beaches between the hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and morphological change takes the form of reciprocal relationships which are mediated through feedback mechanisms (in such a way that they cannot be thought of or studied independently) is not a new one. Yet it appears that for the gravel beach, morphodynamics must be re-defined to describe conditions where variations in sediment size are thought to deserve parity, rather than as merely a sequent entity or boundary condition. 'Morpho-sedimentary-dynamics' is a phrase coined to intuit such cause and effect, detailing the co-evolution of morphology, hydro-hydraulics and sediment properties whilst acknowledging causative pluralism, feedbacks and multiplier effects. This is the recommended conceptual framework within which to crystallise thought and organise further research for the gravel beach. Essentially, it increases the minimum number of parameters needed to describe the state of the gravel beach as a physical system. Therefore, it is advised that simplicity will be most expedient in our future modelling efforts, if complexity is to be adequately encapsulated.

  11. Astronomy Instruction at a Two-year Technical College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirola, C. J.

    2000-12-01

    Over half of all students now begin their college careers at two-year institutions (technical colleges, junior colleges, vocational schools, etc.). This shift in student demographics has broad implications for college-level science instruction, including astronomy instruction. We compare astronomy instruction at two-year institutions to that at traditional four-year universities. A typical two-year school like Tri-County Technical College profers challenges not typically faced by research universities such as lack of research funding, little equipment or facilities, and a generally lower level of student ability. Conversely, a Tri-County Tech offers opportunities such as extensive training in teaching methodologies, a wide range of student demographics, and small classroom sizes. Our students are rarely interested in astronomy as a major, but instead take astronomy to fulfill other major requirements or to ensure the transfer of science credits to four-year universities. We present several examples of astronomy instruction at Tri-County Technical College and discuss our philosophy of teaching in a post-secondary environment whose enrollment is on the rise.

  12. Close Binaries Distribution From Mavels First Two Year Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bo; Ge, J.; De Lee, N.; Fleming, S.; Lee, B.; Nguyen, D. C.; Wang, J.; Pepper, J.; Stassun, K.; Gaudi, S.; Beers, T.; Wisniewski, J.; Mack, C.; Dhital, S.; Paegert, M.; Pinsonneault, M.; Xie, J.

    2011-01-01

    The SDSS-III MARVELS survey is a comprehensive radial velocity survey of 10,000 nearby F-K stars, between 7.6 < V < 12.0. In the first two years approximately 2000 stars have been monitored for signs of radial velocity variability. One of the defining features of this survey is that the observed stars were drawn from a homogeneous sample. Furthermore, the radial velocity observations are independent of the variability of the observed object, thus creating a sample that is unbiased in the time-domain. This makes it uniquely suited to constrain theoretical models regarding the formation of companions and looking at the overall distribution of radial velocity variable objects (Armitage 2007). A survey of this size allows for a detailed analysis of the distribution of close binaries (with Period < 180 day). During the first two years of the six year MARVELS project, approximately 2,000 stars were searched for binaries from 1 to 180 days using a modified Lomb-Scargle periodogram. Here we will present the preliminary results of an on-going project aimed at deriving the mass ratio and period distribution of close binaries from the first two years of MARVELS survey data.

  13. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePLUS

    ... near the site where polluted discharges enter the water. Pollution can also come from high concentrations of farm ... is available online. Other Beach Safety Topics Beyond water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health ...

  14. An analysis of the first two years of GASP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Nastrom, G. D.; Falconer, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    Distributions of mean ozone levels from the first two years of data from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) show spatial and temporal variations in agreement with previous measurements. The standard deviations of these distributions reflect the large natural variability of ozone levels in the altitude range of the GASP measurements. Monthly mean levels of ozone below the tropopause show an annual cycle with a spring maximum which is believed to result from transport from the stratosphere. Correlations of ozone with independent meteorological parameters, and meteorological parameters obtained by the GASP systems show that this transport occurs primarily through cyclogenesis at mid-latitudes.

  15. Japanese two-year-olds use morphosyntax to learn novel verb meanings.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Ayumi; Kita, Sotaro; Shinya, Yuri; Wood, Gary C; Naigles, Letitia

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has found that children who are acquiring argument-drop languages such as Turkish and Chinese make use of syntactic frames to extend familiar verb meanings (Göksun, Küntay & Naigles, 2008; Lee & Naigles, 2008). This article investigates whether two-year-olds learning Japanese, another argument-drop language, make use of argument number and case markings in learning novel verbs. Children watched videos of novel causative and non-causative actions via Intermodal Preferential Looking. The novel verbs were presented in transitive or intransitive frames; the NPs in the transitive frames appeared 'bare' or with case markers. Consistent with previous findings of Morphosyntactic Bootstrapping, children who heard the novel verbs in the transitive frame with case markers reliably assigned those verbs to the novel causative actions. PMID:21910951

  16. Two years of aerosol pollution monitoring in Singapore: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlic, I.; Wen, X.; Ng, T. H.; Tang, S. M.

    1999-04-01

    An aerosol sampling campaign was initiated more than two years ago in Singapore. The aim was to determine the average elemental concentrations in fine and coarse aerosol fractions as well as to identify major pollution sources and their impact. For that purpose, two air samplers were employed at two different sampling locations; one sampler was a fine particulate aerosol sampler (PM2.5) located at the vicinity of a major industrial area. The other was a stacked filter unit (SFU) sampler designed for collection of fine and coarse fractions (PM2.5 and PM10) and installed in the residential area. Samples were taken typically twice a week and in several occasions daily. During the period of two years more than 700 aerosol samples were collected and analyzed using PIXE and RBS techniques. All samples were analyzed for 18 elements ranging between Na, Mg, Al, etc. up to As and Pb. Large daily and seasonal variations were found for most of the elements. These variations are attributed mainly to meteorological changes, in particular changes in wind speed and direction. On several occasions, short term sampling was performed to identify fingerprints of major pollution sources such as road traffic, refineries, as well as the rain-forest fires in neighboring countries. A summary of our findings is presented and discussed.

  17. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  18. Two years operating CPV plants: Analysis and results at ISFOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, F.; Martínez, M.; Sánchez, D.; Aranda, R.; Banda, P.

    2011-12-01

    ISFOC has completed the installation and acceptance of the first MW, so it is the moment for beginning with the operation and maintenance of the plants. In this paper, ISFOC will give the results of the demonstration plants. First of all we make the comparison between the production of CPV and PV systems in Puertollano. A performance study of the production is also presented to show if there is degradation after two years of operation. At the same time we have carried out the analysis of Operation and Maintenance issues, showing the possible solutions for some of the problems. Finally, a detailed study of the module condensation in the demonstration plant is also presented.

  19. A Two-Year Experience with Human Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Griepp, Randall B.; Stinson, Edward B.; Clark, David A.; Shumway, Norman E.

    1970-01-01

    During the first two years of clinical cardiac transplantation 20 patients had the operation at Stanford. Operative techniques were successfully translated from extensive laboratory experience to clinical application. Operative indications and contraindications were defined. The diagnosis and treatment of acute cardiac rejection were successful in most cases. Infection, unremitting acute rejection, and chronic rejection remain the major problems in clinical cardiac transplantation. In 20 patients operated upon, survival at six months was 42 percent. At one year it was 35 percent and at 18 months still 35 percent. These figures contrast with those for patients who were accepted as transplantation recipients but died before a suitable donor became available. In this group the 30-day survival was 50 percent, and the 90-day survival was zero. For patients with severe myocardial insufficiency for which alternative methods of therapy are not available, cardiac transplantation results in significantly increased survival and offers an opportunity for return to productive activity. ImagesFigure 2. PMID:4950508

  20. Implementing the 1990 Clean Air Act: The first two years

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes achievements over the two years since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Efforts have been guided by a set of implementation principles developed to maintain a healthy environment while supporting strong and sustainable economic growth and sound energy policy. Accomplishments include: An acid rain control program to protect surface waters through reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions; A final rule to phase out chlorofluorocarbons and other chemicals that deplete the ozone layer; Extensive guidance to help states develop and implement plans for bringing urban air quality into compliance with federal standards; 15 important rules or guidelines to reduce pollution from motor vehicles and fuels; Preliminary work for cutting toxic emissions from all major pollution sources, and proposed standards for the chemical industry to achieve greater emissions reductions; and, Innovative, voluntary programs that are spurring industry and others to save energy and reduce emissions that contribute to global warming.

  1. Two-year-olds will name artifacts by their functions.

    PubMed

    Kemler Nelson, D G; Russell, R; Duke, N; Jones, K

    2000-01-01

    Do young children take functional information into account in naming artifacts? In three studies of lexical categorization, 112 children 2 years of age learned new names for novel artifacts with novel functions and then extended the names to new objects. The objects were designed to have functions that were causally related in simple and compelling ways to perceptible aspects of their physical structure. Despite only minimal opportunity to familiarize themselves with the objects, children generalized the names in accordance with the objects' functions. This result obtained even when children had to discover the functions of the named objects on their own (Experiment 2) and when all the test objects had some discernible function (Experiment 3). Two-year-olds name by function when they can make sense of the relation between the appearances and the functions of artifacts. PMID:11108096

  2. Two Years of Global Cirrus Cloud Statistics Using HIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wylie, Donald; Menzel, W. Paul; Woolf, H. M.

    1991-01-01

    A climatology of upper tropospheric semi-transparent cirrus clouds has been compiled using HIRS multispectral infrared data, sensitive to CO2 absorption, from the NOAA polar orbiting satellites. This is a report on the two years of data analyzed (June 1989 - May 1991). Semi-transparent clouds were found in 36% of the observations. Large seasonal changes were found in these clouds in many geographical areas; large changes occur in areas dominated by the ITCZ, the sub-tropical high pressure systems, and the mid-latitude storm belts. Semi-transparent clouds associated with these features move latitudinally with the seasons. These clouds also are more frequent in the summer hemisphere than the winter hemisphere. They appear to be linked to convective cloud development and the mid-latitudinal frontal weather systems. However, very thin semi-transparent cirrus has less seasonal movement than other cloud forms.

  3. Incisional Hernia Classification Predicts Wound Complications Two Years after Repair.

    PubMed

    Baucom, Rebeccah B; Ousley, Jenny M; Oyefule, Omobolanle O; Stewart, Melissa K; Holzman, Michael D; Sharp, Kenneth W; Poulose, Benjamin K

    2015-07-01

    Classification of ventral hernias (VHs) into categories that impact surgical outcome is not well defined. The European Hernia Society (EHS) classification divides ventral incisional hernias by midline or lateral location. This study aimed to determine whether EHS classification is associated with wound complications after VH repair, indicated by surgical site occurrences (SSOs). A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent VH repair at a tertiary referral center between July 1, 2005 and May 30, 2012, was performed. EHS classification, comorbidities, and operative details were determined. Primary outcome was SSO within two years, defined as an infection, wound dehiscence, seroma, or enterocutaneous fistula. There were 538 patients included, and 51.5 per cent were female, with a mean age of 54.2 ± 12.4 years and a mean body mass index of 32.4 ± 8.6 kg/m(2). Most patients had midline hernias (87.0%, n = 468). There were 47 patients (8.7%) who had a lateral hernia, and 23 patients (4.3%) whose repair included both midline and lateral components. Overall rate of SSO was 39 per cent (n = 211) within two years. The rate of SSO by VH location was: 39 per cent (n = 183) for midline, 23 per cent (n = 11) for lateral, and 74 per cent (n = 17) for VHs with midline and lateral components (P = <0.001). Patients whose midline hernia spanned more than one EHS category also had a higher rate of SSOs (P = 0.001). VHs are often described by transverse dimension alone, but a more descriptive classification system offers a richness that correlates with outcomes. PMID:26140887

  4. Longshore variability of beach states and bar types in a microtidal, storm-influenced, low-energy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleman, N.; Robin, N.; Certain, R.; Anthony, E. J.; Barusseau, J.-P.

    2015-07-01

    Beach classification models are widely used in the literature to describe beach states in response to environmental conditions. These models were essentially developed for sandy barred to barless beaches in micro- to meso-tidal environments subject to moderate to high wave energy conditions and have been based on field studies over limited stretches of coast. Here, we further interrogate the performance of the Australian beach classification scheme by analysing beach states and corresponding bar types on a regional scale in a storm-influenced, low wave-energy, microtidal environment, using a large and unique spatial and temporal dataset of supra- and subtidal beach morphology and sedimentology. The 200 km-long coast of the Gulf of Lions in the Mediterranean consists of quasi-continuous sandy beaches with a well-developed double sandbar system. All the reported classical beach states were observed on this coast, from reflective to dissipative, along with two more unusual states: the rock platform-constrained beach state which is associated with bedrock outcrops, and the non-barred dissipative beach state which is more commonly found in large tidal-range settings. LiDAR bathymetry shows that the transitions between beach state zones are marked mainly headlands but transitions also occur progressively along stretches of continuous sandy beach. The longshore distribution of beach states and associated bar types on a regional scale can be related to the variability of hydrodynamic conditions (wave incidence and energy) and sediment characteristics (particle size). However, the influence of these parameters on beach state seems to be largely controlled by the geological context such as the presence of a river mouth, headland or rock platform. Finally, we assessed the ability of the parameter Ω, commonly used to characterise beach states, which combines wave characteristics and sediment fall velocity, to predict the observed beach states and bar types using a very large set of hydrodynamic and sedimentary data. Our results, based on high frequency spatial sampling, show that the fall velocity of the subtidal sediment coupled with wave statistics one month prior the observed beach state strongly improved the predictive power of the parameter Ω.

  5. Two-Year College Succession Planning: Utilizing the Mission Statement for Selection of the Vice President of Human Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey-Nevitt, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Colleges have a critical investment in the proper selection of key executive administrative positions with high quality leadership and character since leadership transitions can be unsettling and costly, and governing boards have a vested interest in getting it right. The problem is that two-year colleges are facing a strategic planning crisis…

  6. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  7. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  8. Two Years of Site Diversity Measurements in Guam, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Morse, J.; Zemba, M.; Nessel, J.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA communication networks upgrade to higher frequencies, such as Ka-Band, atmospherically induced attenuation can become significant. This attenuation is caused by rain, clouds and atmospheric gases (oxygen and water vapor), with rain having the most noticeable effects. One technique to circumvent the increase in attenuation is to operate two terminals separated by a distance that exceeds the average rain cell size. The fact that rain cells are of finite size can then be exploited by rerouting the signal to the terminal with the strongest link. This technique, known as site diversity, is best suited for climates that have compact (less than 2km) and intense rain cells such as in Guam. In order to study the potential diversity gain at the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam a site test interferometer (STI) was installed in May of 2010. The STI is composed of two terminals with a 900m baseline that observe the same unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., UFO 8). The potential site diversity gain is calculated by measuring the difference in signal attenuation seen at each terminal. Over the two years of data collection the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the site diversity gain shows a better than 3 dB improvement for 90% of the time over standard operation. These results show that the use of site diversity in Guam can be very effective in combating rain fades.

  9. Tubal ectopic pregnancy two years after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy is a very rare condition, but it must be kept in mind in women with history of hysterectomy who present with abdominal pain and ecographic adnexal heterogeneous images. Since first described by Wendeler in 1895, at least 67 ectopic pregnancies (tubal, ovarian and abdominal) have been described in patients subjected to prior hysterectomy. Case presentation We describe the case of a 41-year-old white caucasian woman admitted to the emergency room due to abdominal pain for two days. The ultrasounds scan and the quantification of beta-HCG led to the diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy, although she had been hysterectomized two years before. An emergency laparoscopy was performed for salpingectomy. The pathology report indicated trophoblastic tubal implantation and hematosalpinx. Conclusions Ectopic pregnancy is one of the conditions to be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in women of child bearing potential, and the absence of the uterus does not rule out its diagnosis. PMID:24886255

  10. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  11. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach

  12. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  13. Beach Profile Behaviour in Tidal Environments: A Morphological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabeu, A. M.; Medina, R.; Vidal, C.

    2004-05-01

    Tourism is an important economical activity in Spain that represents 10% of its GDP and provides a million jobs. Spain is the world's second more visited country, receiving 7% of world tourists. Eighty per cent of these visitors choose their destination somewhere along the 2500 km of beaches. Consequently, many efforts are currently addressed to their maintenance and conservation. However, the coastal management policies must be sustained by the deep knowledge of the beach behaviour and the physical processes implied. A morphological model, with certain predictive capacities, to describe the beach profile behaviour is proposed, integrating the wave and tide influence. It is based on the concept of the two-section (surf and shoaling) equilibrium beach profile, and has been validated with field and laboratory data. The model is described by means of two parameters: the modal tidal range and the dimensionless fall velocity (? ). Tide is considered a local variable whose principal effect is the lengthening of the intertidal or surf profile. The greater the tidal range, the wider the intertidal profile. The dimensionless fall velocity defines the transition from dissipative to reflective situations in beaches of any given tidal range. The morphological changes predicted by the proposed model in the surf and shoaling sections occur in the opposite direction. Whilst in the surf profile the slope close to the high tidal level becomes steeper and the concavity of whole section increases; in the shoaling profile, the upper part flattens resulting in a less concave section related to the decrease of ? . In this transition, the slope break between surf and shoaling profiles becomes smoother and difficult to identify. This work was funded by projects REN2003-02822 MAR, REN2003-03233 MAR, VEM2003-20093-C03-03 of the Spanish MCYT and PGDIT03RMA30101PR of the Galician Government (XUGA). Contribution No 304 of XM2 group.

  14. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan C.

    2013-09-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they had begun the post-secondary career at a TYC. Nine percent of the physics undergraduate seniors in 2007 had started their college education at a TYC, and these students differ significantly from those who did not start at a TYC. The two graphs at right depict the high school physics experience for these two groups of students. More than one-fourth of those who started at a TYC did not take physics in high school, and only 18% took AP physics. The 6% of those who did not start at a TYC and did not take physics is consistent with the 5% of high school seniors who attend a school where physics is not offered. Their apparent difference of interest in physics in high school is also evident from their knowledge about AP physics offerings: 25% of those who started at a TYC did not know if AP physics was offered at their high school versus only 5% of those who did not start at a TYC. Since their high school physics experiences were so different, it is likely that something happened in their physics courses at the TYC that captured these students' interest in physics.

  15. Improved Beach Zone Segmentation From Airborne Lidar Measurements Using Intensity Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starek, M. J.; Vemula, R. K.; Slatton, C.; Shrestha, R. L.; Carter, W. E.

    2007-05-01

    In an effort to monitor beach zone stability along the St. Augustine Beach region of Florida, high-resolution airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) data are routinely acquired by the University of Florida's Geosensing and Engineering Mapping (GEM) Center. ALSM, often referred to as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), systems enable sub-meter sampling of the near-shore coastal topography and the subsequent creation of digital elevation images with rms errors of less than 10cm over minimally-vegetated surfaces, such as beaches. Currently, there are seven collection dates spanning August 2003 to February 2007. This high spatial resolution coupled with the multiple acquisitions through time provided several results: two separate beach nourishment efforts were captured in the data allowing sediment spreading rate to be modeled and volume loss quantified, shoreline change rates were estimated for temporal scales ranging from a few months to over two years at various spatial frequencies from < 5m to > 300m, storm and seasonal wave climate induced shoreline response were modeled, and novel approaches to morphological feature extraction and identification of localized erosional hot- spots were developed. All previous analyses are based on range measurements; however, the ALSM system also records the intensity (peak voltage from the APD) for each return. Intensity has traditionally been under utilized as a feature for image classification because it does not represent true terrain radiance. We show that in areas with minimal topographic relief, such as beaches, intensity measures have great potential for improved beach zone segmentation. Segmentation of the beach zone is important for several factors including identification of the wet-dry line for traditional shoreline comparison and change-detection, and removal of water points to allow analysis of beach-only zones. Several intensity-based features are extracted from ALSM training data collected along the St. Augustine beach and partitioned into three classes, wet beach, dry beach, and water to detect the water line. Class-conditional probability density functions are estimated for each feature to assess which are most informative and their separability is ranked. Results indicate significant class separation using centroidal features, such as mean and median, suggesting robust segmentation of the beach using intensity measures is possible. The method presented provides a novel geometric feature extraction and a systematic feature selection procedure for high-resolution ALSM intensity data.

  16. Northern region asplenia register--analysis of first two years.

    PubMed Central

    Spickett, G P; Bullimore, J; Wallis, J; Smith, S; Saunders, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of setting up a register of patients with asplenia within a defined geographical area; to ensure that guidelines on best practice were implemented; to obtain information on antibody levels to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides and Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide, before and after immunisation and annually thereafter; to raise awareness of risks among clinicians and to offer advice on management. DESIGN: Prospective recruitment using multiple sources of recruitment. Annual follow up reminders sent from Registration Centre. SUBJECTS: Population of (old, pre-1995) Northern Health Region: approximately 3.1 million. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were obtained on reasons for asplenia, duration of asplenia, use of prophylactic antibiotics, Medic-Alert bracelets, immunisations, antibody levels, death. RESULTS: The register was initiated at the beginning of April 1995 and ran to the end of March 1997. After two years of operation, 1111 cases had been registered but the response from some health districts was poor. Major primary causes of asplenia were trauma (264), other surgical (198), lymphoproliferative disease (154), and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (147). There were 664 patients on prophylactic antibiotics, of whom 498 were on continuous antibiotics. Only 18 had any type of warning bracelet. Antibody measurements were carried out at least once on 75% of patients; 306 patients had satisfactory antibody levels on first blood sample in year 1, rising to 405 in year 2; 43 patients failed to make any antibody response to Pneumovax despite multiple immunisations, and three patients failed to respond to Hib vaccine. Sixteen patients with satisfactory antibody levels in year 1 had low levels in year 2 requiring vaccine boosters. Sixteen deaths were reported, two of which were directly attributable to overwhelming sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: Registration has been successful and has raised awareness of the management of asplenia. Compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis and immunisation was initially poor. A potential high risk group of vaccine non-responders has been identified and poor persistence of pneumococcal antibodies has been identified which is likely to alter approaches to immunisation in asplenic patients. Images PMID:10562809

  17. Infantile meningitis in England and Wales: a two year study.

    PubMed Central

    de Louvois, J; Blackbourn, J; Hurley, R; Harvey, D

    1991-01-01

    A two year prospective study identified 1922 cases of meningitis in children under 1 year of age. A further 201 cases were identified from other sources. The annual incidence of meningitis during the first year of life was 1.6/1000; during the first 28 days of life it was 0.32/1000, and among postneonatal infants it was 1.22/1000. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The overall case fatality rate was 19.8% for neonates and 5.4% for postneonatal infants. Two thirds of deaths identified in the study, 50% of all deaths, were not attributed to meningitis by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Group B beta haemolytic streptococci (28%), Escherichia coli (18%), and Listeria monocytogenes (5%) were most frequently isolated from neonates and Neisseria meningitidis (31%), Haemophilus influenzae (30%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10%) from postneonatal infants. At 2-6 months of age N meningitidis meningitis was most common, and at 7-12 months H influenzae predominated. Meningitis caused by group B beta haemolytic streptococci occurred up to 6 months of age and had a consistent mortality of 25%. Neonatal meningitis due to Gram negative enteric rods had a mortality of 32%. Low birth weight was a significant predisposing factor for both neonates and postneonatal infants. In both groups mortality was significantly higher among children admitted in coma. There was no seasonal variation in incidence in either group. Neonates were treated with either group. Neonates were treated with either chloramphenicol (50%) or gentamicin (48%) usually in combination with a penicillin; 40% received a third generation cephalosporin. Of the 1472 postneonatal infants treated 84% received chloramphenicol with a penicillin and 10% received a third generation cephalosporin. Relapse occurred in 49 patients and three died. Eighteen babies coned as a result of raised intracranial pressure, including four neonates, and four died. Mortality among the 133 (7%) children who received steroids was significantly higher than in the rest of the study group. PMID:2039250

  18. Two Years of Regional Cabled Seafloor Observations Across Northern Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; Juniper, K.; Heesemann, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Matabos, M.; Mihaly, S.; Scherwath, M.

    2012-04-01

    NEPTUNE Canada completed the installation and is now operating an 800 km, regional cabled ocean network that spans the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate and continental shelf/slope in the northeastern Pacific. The NEPTUNE Canada network is part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. Public data flow started in 2009 and interactive instruments continue to be added to this technically advanced system which provides continuous power and high bandwidth for enabling the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Recent results at five NEPTUNE nodes are presented. Inshore at Folger Passage and Barkley Sound experiments focus on understanding biological productivity and the effects that marine processes have on fish and marine mammals. Experiments further offshore at Barkley Canyon allow quantification of changes in benthic activity with nutrient and sediment transport. Barkley Canyon and further north along the mid-continental slope near ODP Site 889, instruments are monitoring changes in the distribution, structure, related biotas and venting of gas hydrates. A Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) at our mid-plate site (ODP 1027) monitors crustal temperature and pressure, particularly related to triggered events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hydrothermal convection. On the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the Endeavour node observes volcanic, tectonic, hydrothermal, and associated biological processes. NEPTUNE Canada provides high resolution acoustic and seismic monitoring across the entire network, important for understanding subduction earthquake processes and contributing to a near-field tsunami detection system. An array of bottom pressure recorders is used for the determination of trans-Pacific open ocean tsunami amplitude, propagation direction, and as model input to examine tsunami interaction with the complex coast. With the installation nearing completion and the first phase of experiments now operational for over two years, NEPTUNE Canada plans to expand the network with establishment of core sensors and the addition of new sensors and experiments, developed through national and international collaborations with special focus on coordinating with the OOI Regional Scale Nodes and their cyberinfrastructure teams.

  19. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  20. The shapes of beach pebbles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentworth, Chester K.

    1923-01-01

    There is much confusion in geologic literature as to the shapes of fluvial and beach pebbles and the differences between them, if differences exist. Though the contrary has been asserted, most geologists who have written on the subject appear to hold the view that beach pebbles are generally flatter than river pebbles, having discoid, lozenge-shaped, ellipsoid, or oval forms. It is asserted by some that these forms are produced by pushing of the rock fragments to and fro by the waves. Others have considered that the shapes of the original fragments and the inherent structure of the rock are dominant in determining the shapes of beach pebbles, and with this view the writer is in accord. That beach pebbles, even those composed of massive igneous rocks are commonly of a flattened oval form seems certain, as has been stated elsewhere, but this fact is probably to be attributed to the development of such forms from original flat fragments or from rocks of schistose structure or to the segregation of such forms under the peculiar action of the waves, rather than to their production by a specialized wave abrasion.

  1. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  2. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  3. 76 FR 77119 - Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... buffer zones around participant vessels as they transit from Lake Santa Barbara to the Hillsborough..., transiting through, anchoring in, or remaining within any of the buffer zones unless authorized by the... Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade. The special local regulations consist of a series of buffer...

  4. Creating Unique Research Experiences for two-year College faculty And Students (URECAS): An integrated research and transfer program for two-year college students in the Earth and space sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, P. M.; Adamec, B.

    2012-12-01

    Nationwide, approximately 17% of all two-year colleges offer geoscience degrees, and the two-year college population is growing rapidly. Although 33% of two-year college students are members of underrepresented minorities, this group earned only 12% of geoscience associate's degrees in 2008. Thus, engaging with two-year colleges represents both a potential rich source of diversity for the field and an area where much work remains to be done. Through the National Science Foundation's Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences Program, we conducted a workshop at the American Geophysical Union's (AGU) Headquarters in Washington DC in July, 2012. This workshop gathered over fifty participants including two-year college Earth and space science faculty who conduct research with their students, as some of their four-year college partners, members of other scientific organizations, and federal employees working to support Earth and space science education. Our workshop provided the opportunity for two-year college faculty to increase their awareness of existing and successful research programs in the Earth and space sciences, and helped to identify relevant challenges to participation for both students and faculty. Additionally, faculty from four-year Earth and space science programs who have successfully transitioned two-year college students into their programs sparked a discussion of the issues and barriers involved in that process. Outcomes from this workshop include dissemination of best practices for doing student-faculty research in Earth and space sciences at two-year colleges, at nearby four-year campuses, and national summer research programs. Our workshop built on previous efforts to coalesce a community of practice made up of two-year college faculty who conduct research in the Earth and space sciences with their students and those who are interested in partnering with or supporting them. Finally, the planning workshop helped to define the path forward towards the implementation of a full program led by AGU that will support two-year college students throughout their Earth and space science educational career at both two-year and four-year institutions, with a particular focus on areas where the pipeline is traditionally leaky.

  5. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  6. GIOVE-A: Two Years of Galileo Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.; da Silva Curiel, A.; Rooney, E.; Sweeting, M.; Gattia, G.

    2008-08-01

    During 2007, the GIOVE-A mission has transitioned from an experimental mission into what is effectively an operational mission. The small satellite approach used in the development of the mission, and the lessons learned from this mission, are being applied in the development of SSTL's Geostationary communication satellite platform. Furthermore, ESA has also been considering the lessons learned from small low-cost, rapid-response missions such as GIOVE with a view to a new procurement approach for such "entry-level" missions. On 28 December 2005 the first satellite in the Galileo programme was launched into space. The satellite, GIOVE-A, was developed for the European Space Agency (ESA) under a contract signed in July 2003. Since January 2006 GIOVE-A has broadcast the Galileo signal enabling Europe to claim the ITU frequency filing, to qualify the Galileo payload equipment, to characterise the performance of the Galileo system and to develop ground receiving equipment. The satellite was built for a relatively low-cost, €28M, within a very rapid timescale - from contract signature to flight readiness in 28 months. In order to meet this timescale SSTL used a development approach similar to the one it uses for its range of microsatellites. Further, the GIOVE-A satellite carries many pieces of equipment from the microsatellite range integrated into a larger structure, and in-flight results with the COTS parts are now showing that these are holding up well in the harsh MEO environment. The development approach was very different from a typical ESA operational mission and formed one of the reference inputs to the "Lightsat" approach which ESA will employ on some of its future projects. The paper will cover the main results and lessons learned from the GIOVE-A mission. We will describe the small satellite approach to its development and the main lessons learned from the development phase. We will also cover the main results of the mission since launch concentrating on the initial phase during 2006 when the payload was exercised to achieve the initial mission goals. We will then describe the routine operations performed during 2007 which led to the satellite achieving close to 100% availability whilst employing a very low cost operational concept without full-time operations staff.

  7. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  8. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  9. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  10. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  11. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC. (a) Regulated Area. The following regulated area is a safety zone....

  12. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC. (a) Regulated Area. The...

  13. VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

  14. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  15. Number of Physics Faculty in Two-Year Colleges: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics in Two-Year Colleges. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Chu, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier report, ("Physics Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges," ED547610), Susan White and Raymond Chu examined physics enrollments--both the number of students and the types of classes taught--at the 1,063 two-year college campuses in the US where they believe physics is offered. This "Focus On" considers the faculty…

  16. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. "Beach-Ball" Robotic Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, David E.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic vehicles resembling large beach balls proposed for carrying scientific instruments. Conceived for use in exploring planet Mars, also useful on Earth to carry meteorological or pollution-monitoring equipment to remote locations across rough terrain and even across water. Each vehicle features approximately spherical balloonlike outer shell inflated to suitable pressure. Three diametral tethers approximately perpendicular to each other attached to shell. Control box moves itself along tethers to shift center of gravity, causing vehicle to roll. Alternatively, instead of shell, structure of approximately spherical outline made of twisted rods; of course, not suitable for traversing water or thick vegetation.

  15. Opportunities for Excellence: Professionalism and the Two-Year College Mathematics Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neptune, Carolyn F.

    The American Mathematical Association of Two-Year Colleges (AMATYC) is the voice of two-year college mathematics in the United States and Canada, and it has more than 40 affiliate organizations in the two countries. The organization is designed to promote professionalism among mathematics faculty at two-year colleges. This AMATYC publication…

  16. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  17. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  18. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; RÃ¥berg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  19. Suprabenthic biodiversity of Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munilla, T.; San Vicente, C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.

  20. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  1. The observed relationship between wave conditions and beach response, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how sandy beaches respond to storms is critical for effective sediment management and developing successful erosion mitigation efforts. However, only limited progress has been made in relating observed beach changes to wave conditions, with one of the major limiting factors being the lack of temporally dense beach topography and nearshore wave data in most studies. This study uses temporally dense beach topographic and offshore wave data to directly link beach response and wave forcing with generally good results. Ocean Beach is an open coast high-energy sandy beach located in San Francisco, CA, USA. From April 2004 through the end of 2008, 60 three-dimensional topographic beach surveys were conducted on approximately a monthly basis, with more frequent “short-term surveys during the winters of 2005-06 and 2006-07. Shoreline position data from the short-term surveys show good correlation with offshore wave height, period, and direction averaged over several days prior to the survey (mean R*=0.54 for entire beach). There is, however, considerable alongshore variation in model performance, with R- values ranging from 0.81 to 0.19 for individual sections of the beach. After wave height, the direction of wave approach was the most important factor in determining the response of the shoreline, followed by wave period. Our results indicate that an empirical predictive model of beach response to wave conditions at Ocean Beach is possible with frequent beach mapping and wave data, and that such a model could be useful to coastal managers. 

  2. A hybrid beach morphology model applied to a high energy sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the application of a hybrid coastal morphodynamic model to forecast inter-annual beach change is discussed through the prediction of beach change in a high energy sandy beach over a period of 5 years. The modelling approach combines a `reduced-physics' formulation with a data-driven approach through an inverse technique to form the hybrid coastal morphodynamic model. The beach considered for the demonstration of the model is the Narrabeen Beach, which is a dynamic sand beach located in New South Wales, Australia. Despite its simplicity, we find that the model is able to capture beach change at Narrabeen Beach at inter-annual timescales with root mean square error between measured and computed beach profiles less than 0.4 m on average. Even though the model is used to forecast inter-annual beach change in this study, its ability to predict beach change is not limited to that timescale but depends on the frequency of historic beach profile measurements available to determine key unknown parameters of the model. Also, the length of profile forecasts largely depends on the length of available historic measurements where longer data sets allow longer predictions within a range of beach behaviour contained in the observations. The ability of the model to reliably forecast coastal change at inter-annual and potentially at other timescales, and its high efficiency make it possible to be used in providing multiple simulations required for probabilistic coastal change forecasts which will be very useful for coastal management purposes.

  3. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  4. Two-year record of the climate on the Greenland crest from an automatic weather station

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, G.A.; Stearns, C.R.

    1992-03-01

    An automatic weather station (AWS) was installed on the Greenland Summit (72.30 N, 38.00 W, 3210 m) in May 1987. The AWS unit operated for two years until May 1989 when it was moved to Fresh Air Site (72.82 N, 38.82 W, 3185 m), an air sampling site, where it is still operating. The AWS data were transmitted to the ARGOS data collection system on the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. The AWS unit measures wind speed and direction, air temperature, and the relative humidity at a nominal height of 3 m, air pressure at the height of the electronics enclosure, and the vertical air temperature difference between 3.0 and 0.5 m. The latent and sensible heat from the snow surface to the air were estimated using the wind speed, vertical air temperature difference, and the relative humidity. The data are compared with those from two earlier stations, Eismitte (70.90 N, 40.70 W, 3000 m) from September 1930 through August 1931 (Wegener's expedition) and Station Centrale (70.92 N, 40.64 W, 2993 m) from September 1949 through August 1951 (Victor's expedition). The winds observed at Cathy Site were quite similar to those observed at the two previous stations. Also, the large fluctuations in temperature observed during the winter months at the two historic stations were observed at Cathy Site. The transition from positive to negative values for the sensible and latent heat flux occurred in October.

  5. The first two years of gravitational-wave astronomy with Advanced LIGO and Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Leo; Price, L.; Urban, A.; Pankow, C.

    2014-01-01

    We anticipate the first direct detections of gravitational waves later this decade with Advanced LIGO and Virgo. Though these first discoveries will be seminal on their own, they may also have electromagnetic counterparts. During the first two years of operation, 2015 through 2016, we expect the global gravitational-wave detector array to undergo several important changes: increased sensitivity and livetime, plus expansion from two detectors to the three. We model the detection rate and the sky localization accuracy across this transition. We have simulated a large number, astrophysically motivated population of binary neutron star mergers, and analyzed them using detection and sky localization codes that have been expressly built for real-time operation in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo era. From hundreds of simulated events, a picture of typical early Advanced LIGO detection candidates comes into focus, most occurring at particular Earth-fixed locations and most probability sky maps broadly fitting a single morphology. We conclude by discussing some implications for optical facilities that are considering searching these sky areas of hundreds of square degrees for optical transients.

  6. The First Two Years of Electromagnetic Follow-up with Advanced LIGO and Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Leo P.; Price, Larry R.; Farr, Ben; Urban, Alex L.; Pankow, Chris; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Farr, Will M.; Hanna, Chad; Cannon, Kipp; Downes, Tom; Graff, Philip; Haster, Carl-Johan; Mandel, Ilya; Sidery, Trevor; Vecchio, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    We anticipate the first direct detections of gravitational waves (GWs) with Advanced LIGO and Virgo later this decade. Though this groundbreaking technical achievement will be its own reward, a still greater prize could be observations of compact binary mergers in both gravitational and electromagnetic channels simultaneously. During Advanced LIGO and Virgo's first two years of operation, 2015 through 2016, we expect the global GW detector array to improve in sensitivity and livetime and expand from two to three detectors. We model the detection rate and the sky localization accuracy for binary neutron star (BNS) mergers across this transition. We have analyzed a large, astrophysically motivated source population using real-time detection and sky localization codes and higher-latency parameter estimation codes that have been expressly built for operation in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We show that for most BNS events, the rapid sky localization, available about a minute after a detection, is as accurate as the full parameter estimation. We demonstrate that Advanced Virgo will play an important role in sky localization, even though it is anticipated to come online with only one-third as much sensitivity as the Advanced LIGO detectors. We find that the median 90% confidence region shrinks from ~500 deg2 in 2015 to ~200 deg2 in 2016. A few distinct scenarios for the first LIGO/Virgo detections emerge from our simulations.

  7. The First Two Years of Electromagnetic Follow-Up with Advanced LIGO and Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, Benjamin F.; Singer, Leo; Price, Larry; Urban, Alex; Pankow, Chris; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Farr, Will; Hanna, Chad; Cannon, Kipp; Downes, Tom; Graff, Philip; Haster, Carl-Johan; Mandel, Ilya; Sidery, Trevor; Vecchio, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    We anticipate the first direct detections of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Virgo later this decade. Though this groundbreaking technical achievement will be its own reward, a still greater prize could be observations of compact binary mergers in both gravitational and electromagnetic channels simultaneously. During Advanced LIGO and Virgo's first two years of operation, 2015 through 2016, we expect the global gravitational-wave detector array to improve in sensitivity and livetime and expand from two to three detectors. We model the detection rate and the sky localization accuracy for binary neutron star mergers across this transition. We have analyzed a large, astrophysically motivated source population using real-time detection and sky localization codes and higher-latency parameter estimation codes that have been expressly built for operation in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We show that for most binary neutron star events the rapid sky localization, available about a minute after a detection, is as accurate as the full parameter estimation. We demonstrate that Advanced Virgo will play an important role in sky localization, even though it is anticipated to come online with only 1/3 as much sensitivity as the Advanced LIGO detectors. We find that the median 90% confidence region shrinks from ~500 square degrees in 2015 to ~200 square degrees in 2016. From hundreds of simulated events unfold some likely detection scenarios.

  8. The first two years of electromagnetic follow-up with advanced LIGO and Virgo

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Leo P.; Price, Larry R.; Farr, Ben; Urban, Alex L.; Pankow, Chris; Downes, Tom; Vitale, Salvatore; Veitch, John; Farr, Will M.; Haster, Carl-Johan; Mandel, Ilya; Sidery, Trevor; Vecchio, Alberto; Hanna, Chad; Cannon, Kipp; Graff, Philip

    2014-11-10

    We anticipate the first direct detections of gravitational waves (GWs) with Advanced LIGO and Virgo later this decade. Though this groundbreaking technical achievement will be its own reward, a still greater prize could be observations of compact binary mergers in both gravitational and electromagnetic channels simultaneously. During Advanced LIGO and Virgo's first two years of operation, 2015 through 2016, we expect the global GW detector array to improve in sensitivity and livetime and expand from two to three detectors. We model the detection rate and the sky localization accuracy for binary neutron star (BNS) mergers across this transition. We have analyzed a large, astrophysically motivated source population using real-time detection and sky localization codes and higher-latency parameter estimation codes that have been expressly built for operation in the Advanced LIGO/Virgo era. We show that for most BNS events, the rapid sky localization, available about a minute after a detection, is as accurate as the full parameter estimation. We demonstrate that Advanced Virgo will play an important role in sky localization, even though it is anticipated to come online with only one-third as much sensitivity as the Advanced LIGO detectors. We find that the median 90% confidence region shrinks from ∼500 deg{sup 2} in 2015 to ∼200 deg{sup 2} in 2016. A few distinct scenarios for the first LIGO/Virgo detections emerge from our simulations.

  9. Predictive distribution modeling of the sandy-beach supralittoral amphipod Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis along a macroscale estuarine gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Julio; Defeo, Omar

    2012-02-01

    Exposed marine beaches are physically rigorous habitats in which macrofaunal patterns have been well correlated with physical factors. In this context, the habitat safety hypothesis (HSH) predicts an increase in abundance of supralittoral species from dissipative to reflective conditions in microtidal oceanic beaches. However, the HSH has not been adequately tested in estuarine sandy beaches. Here, we build a predictive model based on the supralittoral talitrid amphipod Atlantorchestoidea brasiliensis that allowed us to test the HSH along a macroscale estuarine gradient. Fifteen Uruguayan sandy beaches along a salinity gradient (from 0.1 to 34.3) generated by the Río de la Plata estuary (SW Atlantic Ocean) were sampled over a two-year period. A conditional two-step procedure using a General Additive Model (GAM) was performed in order to model A. brasiliensis occurrence (1st-step) and abundance (2nd-step), based on a comprehensive set of environmental variables [salinity, water temperature, beach face slope (BFS), mean grain size, wave height and sand compaction, moisture and organic matter]. Each GAM was parameterized using generalized linear models (GLMs). An external validation procedure was used. Data were divided randomly into training (75%) and test (25%) sets. The 1st-step GAM/GLM retained 5 physical descriptors in the model (decreasing order of importance): wave height, salinity, BFS, organic matter and sand compaction. The 2nd-step GAM/GLM retained 6 physical descriptors: sand compaction, water content, salinity, wave height, water temperature and organic matter. The predictive ability of these models and the resulted combined model, as well as their external validity, was highly significant and supported the predictions of the HSH. However, the highest and lowest abundances were observed, respectively, on reflective and dissipative beaches in the outer estuary; i.e., the predictions based on the HSH did not account for the high levels of abundance observed on these beaches compared with oceanic ones. Therefore, the HSH was expanded to include microtidal estuarine beaches.

  10. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology and geomorphology in different time scales.

  11. The Different Faces of San Francisco's Ocean Beach: Analyzing Sand Size and Beach Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Labit, R.; Lui, S.; Rodriquez, I.; Yi, C.; Yu, M.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean Beach is located along the western edge of San Francisco adjacent to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion along the southern part of the beach is threatening a nearby highway and water treatment plant. To better understand this beach and the processes that form it, our SF-ROCKS research group collected data from seven locations along its length. We used an auto-level surveying instrument to measure beach profiles and we collected sand samples that were measured using sieves and a sieve shaker. We plotted profiles and grain-size data using Excel and Surfer software. The sediment is mostly fine sand, and the means of all samples range between 0.19-0.26 mm. There may be little variation along the beach because only small sand grains have survived the long journey from their Sierra Nevada source. Profile shape does vary along the beach. The profile at the northern end is about three times wider than the profile at the southern end. The northern profile is flatter overall, but all profiles had a steep beach face in August, when the data were collected. The differences in beach profiles may be related to position relative to the offshore bar, which appears to provide sand to the northern part of the beach. Our group will collect more data in November to see what changes have occurred after the large-wave season has begun. We will use Surfer software to compare summer and fall profiles, to see where sediment has been added and where sediment has been removed. We will also compare our results to the data collected by Dr. Patrick Barnard and his research group at the U.S. Geological Survey, who are using an All-Terrain Vehicle to measure beach profiles and a camera to measure sediment size. We will use our analysis of beach variations to make recommendations for reducing beach erosion.

  12. Development of the barrier system at Ferry Beach, Maine--Evidence of transgressive and regressive phases

    SciTech Connect

    Van Heteren, S.; Fitzgerald, D.M. . Dept. of Geology); Fink, L.K. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Ferry Beach is part of a barrier system that borders the southern end of the Saco Embayment. This portion of the coast is characterized by mesotidal conditions and low wave energy. The beaches in this area are fronted by a low gradient sandy offshore and backed by a continuous foredune ridge. The backbarrier consists of fresh water ponds at Ferry Beach, in the central part, and salt marshes adjacent to Saco River and Goosefare Brook. New ground-penetrating radar and vibracore data, supplemented with topographic profiles, have enabled the delineation and interpretation of the major stratigraphic units present at Ferry Beach. The internal structure of the barrier lithosome and backbarrier sedimentary unit shows evidence of three phases in the late Holocene development of the study area. The first, transgressive phase is identified in the unconformity between glaciomarine clays of the Presumpscot Formation and overlying backbarrier, barrier, and shoreface units. The second, transitional phase is recognized as a distinctly outlined sandy unit with landward and southward dipping layers on top of backbarrier and shoreface deposits. The unit is inferred to be either a recurved spit deposit or part of a new barrier incompletely welded to the older beach ridges. The third, regressive phase has resulted in the present-day beach ridge system. The barrier lithosome associated with this phase is characterized by 150 m of offshore dipping layers. The evolutionary style of the Ferry Beach barrier system is likely linked to variations in rates of relative sea-level rise and sediment supply. Rapid rise of relative sea level was the determining factor during Phase 1, while offshore and longshore (notably from the Saco River) sediment supply during the Holocene sediment maximum caused the barrier expansion during Phases 2 and 3.

  13. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  14. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  15. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth. PMID:18834997

  16. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  17. Salinity and groundwater flow below beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. B.; Wilson, A. M.; Moore, W. S.

    2013-12-01

    High rates of exchange between seawater and fresh groundwater in beach sediments drive significant chemical reactions, but the groundwater flow that controls this is poorly understood. Current conceptual models for groundwater flow in beaches highlight an upper saline plume, which is separated from the traditional freshwater-saltwater interface by a zone of brackish to fresh groundwater discharge. The lack of an upper saline plume at our study site led us to ask whether the plume exists in all beaches and what hydrogeological features control its formation. We used variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, transient groundwater flow models to investigate the geometry of the freshwater-saltwater interface in beaches with slopes varying from 0.1 to 0.01. We also varied hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity, tidal amplitude, inflow of fresh groundwater and precipitation. All models showed that a salinity gradient developed between the fresh groundwater and seawater in the intertidal zone, but the magnitude of the gradient was variable. The hydraulic conductivity was an important control on the development of an upper saline plume. A hydraulic conductivity of 100 m/d allowed the formation of an upper saline plume in every beach slope. No upper saline plumes formed in any beach with hydraulic conductivities less than 10 m/d. The slope of the beach was also a significant control. In models using a representative hydraulic conductivity of 10 m/d, the upper saline plume only formed in beaches with a slope of 0.5 or greater. The salinity of brackish groundwater that discharges seaward of the upper saline plume was inversely proportional to the input of fresh groundwater. Prior studies of groundwater flow and salinity in beaches have used very small dispersivities, but we found that the upper saline plume becomes much less distinct when larger dispersivities are used. Real beaches are highly mixed environments and the appropriate magnitude of dispersivity remains unclear. Our results suggest that upper saline plumes may not form in beaches of the U.S. Southeast, which are characterized by fine-grained sediment and moderate slopes. The concentration gradient between the upper saline plume and adjacent groundwater discharge zone increased with decreasing longitudinal dispersivity.

  18. Great Careers in Two Years: The Associate Degree Option. High Skill and High Wage Jobs Available through Two-Year Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Paul

    This book explores high-skill and high-wage jobs available through two-year programs. It identifies 100 high-need occupational areas, and discusses "hot" programs and starting salaries for graduates of dental hygiene, manufacturing, process technology, telecommunications, physical therapy assisting, and registered nursing. Each career article…

  19. Physics Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges: Results from the 2012 Survey of Physics in Two-Year Colleges. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Chu, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    This "Focus On" first considers the role two-year colleges (TYCs) play in post-secondary physics education. In their 2007 Survey of Undergraduate Seniors in degree-granting physics departments, the authors asked students if they had begun their post-secondary education at a TYC. Nine percent of the physics undergraduate seniors in 2007…

  20. Great Careers in Two Years: The Associate Degree Option. High Skill and High Wage Jobs Available through Two-Year Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phifer, Paul

    This book explores high-skill and high-wage jobs available through two-year programs. It identifies 100 high-need occupational areas, and discusses "hot" programs and starting salaries for graduates of dental hygiene, manufacturing, process technology, telecommunications, physical therapy assisting, and registered nursing. Each career article…

  1. Post-storm beach and dune recovery: Implications for barrier island resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Chris; Wernette, Phil; Rentschlar, Elizabeth; Jones, Hannah; Hammond, Brianna; Trimble, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The ability of beaches and dunes to recover following an extreme storm is a primary control of barrier island response to sea-level rise and changes in the frequency and/or magnitude of storm surges. Whereas erosion of the beach and dune occurs over hours and days, it can be years to decades before the beach and dune are able to recover to their pre-storm state. As a consequence, there are numerous descriptions of near-instantaneous beach and dune erosion due to storms, the immediate onshore transport of sand, and the initial phases of beach and dune recovery following a storm, but a paucity of data on long-term beach and dune recovery. A combination of previously published data from Galveston Island, Texas and new remotely sensed data from Santa Rosa Island, Florida is used in the present study to quantify the rate of dune recovery for dissipative and intermediate beach types, respectively. Recovery of the dune height and volume on Galveston Island was observed within two years following Hurricane Alicia (1983) and was largely complete within six years of the storm, despite extensive washover. In contrast, the dunes on Santa Rosa Island in Northwest Florida began to recover four years after Hurricane Ivan (2004), and only after the profile approached its pre-storm level and the rate of vegetation recovery (regrowth) was at a maximum. Results show that complete recovery of the largest dunes (in height and volume) will take approximately 10 years on Santa Rosa Island, which suggests that these sections of the island are particularly vulnerable to significant change in island morphology if there is also a change in the frequency and magnitude of storm events. In contrast, the areas of the island with the smallest dunes before Hurricane Ivan exhibited a rapid recovery, but no further growth in profile volume and dune height beyond the pre-storm volume and height, despite continued recovery of the largest dunes to their pre-storm height. A change in storm magnitude and/or frequency is a potential threat to barrier island resilience, particularly for those sections of the island where dune recovery has historically taken the longest time. Further study is required to determine how and why dune recovery varies for the dissipative and intermediate beaches of Galveston Island and Santa Rosa Island, respectively.

  2. Satisfaction and Retention among African American Men at Two-Year Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2012-01-01

    A large majority of African American males begin their postsecondary education careers at two-year community colleges. Prior research has focused largely on Black students at four-year institutions, and even theoretical work has assumed that influences on retention are the same at two-year and four-year institutions. Drawing on Tinto's (1993)…

  3. A Framework and Strategies for Advancing Change and Innovation in Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matheny, Christopher J.; Conrad, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding variation in institutional missions, two-year colleges are the gateway to postsecondary education for the majority of college and university students in this country. As institutions of choice for many and institutions of necessity for others, two-year institutions are constantly challenged to meet the rapidly changing needs of…

  4. College Student Persistence in the Two-Year Setting: Identifying Risk Early to Guide Early Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Margo A.

    2013-01-01

    College student persistence is examined. The unique nature of the students and environment of the two-year college setting warrant concentrated research effort. The purpose of the study is to examine student variables associated with persistence and program completion to develop a pre-entrance risk assessment in the two-year college setting.…

  5. Brief Report: Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT): Development and Preliminary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Ousley, Opal Y.

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the validity of the Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT) as a stage 2 screening instrument in a clinic-based sample of two-year-olds with autism (n=12) and with nonautistic developmental disorders (n=21). Results provide preliminary support for the utility of the STAT as an early screening of autism. (Contains…

  6. 22 CFR 41.63 - Two-year home-country physical presence requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Two-year home-country physical presence requirement. 41.63 Section 41.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Students and Exchange Visitors § 41.63 Two-year home-country physical...

  7. An Integrated Two Year Chemistry-Physics Course Compared with Consecutively Taught Separate Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gordon Phillip

    Compared was the effectiveness of a two-year integrated chemistry-physics course with a two-year sequence of separate courses, in developing understanding of chemistry and physics concepts, understanding science and its methods, and reactions to the study of science. Both groups used the content, materials and instructional approach of the…

  8. Opportunities for Student Development in Two-Year Colleges. Monograph Series, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Don G., Ed.; Dassance, Charles R., Ed.

    This monograph, addressed primarily to the concerns of practitioners, was written mostly by two-year college practitioners. Chapter 1, "Opportunities in Legacy" (Charles R. Dassance), discusses qualities of the two-year college, its special commitment to guidance of students, and its commitment to teaching as a primary thrust of educational…

  9. A Dynamic Network Analysis of Innovation and Leadership in Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Melissa Lee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of leadership and its influence on innovation at a two-year college, paying particular attention to the network structure, the influence of leadership (formal and informal), and environmental influence. The goal was to learn about the nature of innovation at two-year colleges by studying the…

  10. Level of Involvement and Outcomes Measurement in Two-Year Institutions Sponsoring Allied Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Carol M.

    The role of the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS) in accrediting educational programs is examined in this paper along with the level of involvement of two-year colleges in accreditation and the processes and outcomes of accreditation. First, the paper looks at the representation of two-year colleges on three…

  11. On-Campus Enrollment in Arkansas Two-Year Colleges, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Mark A.

    Data are provided showing trends in enrollment and student characteristics at state-supported and independent two-year colleges in Arkansas. The report covers the following areas: fall 1983 and fall 1984 enrollment at state and independent two-year institutions; actual (1974-75 through 1983-84) and projected (1984-85 through 1999-2000) numbers of…

  12. Hispanic Student Enrollment and Attainment in Texas Two-Year Colleges: A Multiyear, Statewide Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jack; Slate, John R.; Joyner, Sheila A.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we examined the numbers and percentages of Hispanic college students enrolled in Texas two-year colleges and the numbers and percentages of Hispanic students who obtained associate degrees from Texas two-year colleges for the 2000 through the 2011 academic years. Hispanic student enrollment and educational attainment…

  13. Status Survey of Institutional Research--Ohio's Two-Year Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazard, Francis E.

    A survey was conducted in an effort to determine the state of development of institutional research in Ohio public two-year institutions. A questionnaire mailed to the chief administrative officer at each campus yielded a response rate of 84%. Results of the survey showed: (1) at least 84% of the two-year campuses have or may be served by an…

  14. Career Innovative and Non-Innovative Women in the Two-Year College: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veres, Helen C.; Moore, Kathryn M.

    A total of 1,341 male and female students enrolled at a private women's college, a two-year comprehensive college of moderate size, an agricultural-technical college, and a small two-year comprehensive college were surveyed in Spring 1974 to determine demographic and descriptive data, career choices, plans for labor force participation, and…

  15. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

  16. Less Time, More Thought: Coping with the Challenges of the Two-Year Key Stage 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Nathan; Thompson, Denise

    2005-01-01

    Nathan Cole and Denise Thompson have really thought about Key Stage 3. They have been forced to; they now teach it in only two years. The switch to a two-year Key Stage 3 has made them re-evaluate their entire programme of study, and their rationale for teaching history. The result is illuminating. They argue convincingly that social history…

  17. Recommendations and Strategies for Addressing Comprehensive Health Issues on Two-Year College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Gene M.; And Others

    The Two-Year College Development Center invited representatives from two-year colleges throughout New York to attend a two-day meeting to address comprehensive health issues, particularly pertaining to the transmission and prevention of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), as well as other infectious and chronic diseases. The attending…

  18. The Humanities in Two-Year Colleges: A Survey of the Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    This report presents the responses (in percentages) to each questionnaire item of a national survey of humanities faculty in two-year colleges. The data are preceded by a description of the procedure used for sampling humanities faculty, and a control group of department and division chairmen outside the humanities, in 156 two-year colleges. It…

  19. College Student Persistence in the Two-Year Setting: Identifying Risk Early to Guide Early Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Margo A.

    2013-01-01

    College student persistence is examined. The unique nature of the students and environment of the two-year college setting warrant concentrated research effort. The purpose of the study is to examine student variables associated with persistence and program completion to develop a pre-entrance risk assessment in the two-year college setting.…

  20. Satisfaction and Retention among African American Men at Two-Year Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2012-01-01

    A large majority of African American males begin their postsecondary education careers at two-year community colleges. Prior research has focused largely on Black students at four-year institutions, and even theoretical work has assumed that influences on retention are the same at two-year and four-year institutions. Drawing on Tinto's (1993)…

  1. Benchmarking New Designs for the Two-Year Institution of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copa, George H.; Ammentorp, William

    This report, which is intended for technical institutions planning to use benchmark processes to facilitate change, contains five benchmarking studies describing future-oriented practices at two-year technical and community colleges that meet the design specifications stated in the report "New Designs for the Two-Year Institution of Higher…

  2. The Expansion of Two-Year Colleges: A Dynamic, Multi Level Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Judith R.; McVeigh, Rory; Land, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the expansion of public two-year colleges between 1942 and 1970. Tests hypotheses from organizational ecology, institutional theory, predicting that the population of two-year colleges is responsive to business elites, affluence, the labor force needs of a diversified economy, and Democratic Party pluralities. Findings suggest that…

  3. Exploring the Impact of WPAs' Leadership at Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughman, Kyle Sean

    2012-01-01

    Currently, two-year colleges are teaching the lion's share of college composition classes, mainly consisting of developmental writing and first-year composition courses; however, those same two-year colleges have been slow in embracing the composition theory and practices that are studied and implemented at four-year colleges. One way to…

  4. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

  5. Determinants of College Choice for Students Attending Two-Year Colleges in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Jeffrey Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study explored variables that impacted college choices of traditionally aged new freshmen who chose to attend two-year colleges in central Wisconsin with the intention of completing bachelor's degrees. Participants in this study were traditionally aged 18 and 19 years-old first-time freshmen who attended one of five two-year schools in…

  6. Nowcasting Beach Advisories at Ohio Lake Erie Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Data were collected during the recreational season of 2007 to test and refine predictive models at three Lake Erie beaches. In addition to E. coli concentrations, field personnel collected or compiled data for environmental and water-quality variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations including turbidity, wave height, water temperature, lake level, rainfall, and antecedent dry days and wet days. At Huntington (Bay Village) and Edgewater (Cleveland) during 2007, the models provided correct responses 82.7 and 82.1 percent of the time; these percentages were greater than percentages obtained using the previous day?s E. coli concentrations (current method). In contrast, at Villa Angela during 2007, the model provided correct responses only 61.3 percent of the days monitored. The data from 2007 were added to existing datasets and the larger datasets were split into two (Huntington) or three (Edgewater) segments by date based on the occurrence of false negatives and positives (named ?season 1, season 2, season 3?). Models were developed for dated segments and for combined datasets. At Huntington, the summed responses for separate best models for seasons 1 and 2 provided a greater percentage of correct responses (85.6 percent) than the one combined best model (83.1 percent). Similar results were found for Edgewater. Water resource managers will determine how to apply these models to the Internet-based ?nowcast? system for issuing water-quality advisories during 2008.

  7. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  8. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε.

    2014-08-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion.

  9. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  10. Wave energy dissipation by intertidal sand waves on a mixed-sediment Beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.; Ruggiero, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the surf zone, the energy expended by wave breaking is strongly influenced by nearshore bathymetry, which is often linked to the character and abundance of local sediments. Based upon a continuous, two year record of Argus Beach Monitoring System (ABMS) data on the north shore of Kachemak Bay in southcentral Alaska, we model the enhancement of wave energy dissipation by the presence of intertidal sand waves. Comparison of model results from simulations in the presence and absence of sand waves illustrates that these ephemeral morphological features can offer significant protection to the backing beach and sea cliff through two mechanisms: (1) by moving the locus of wave breaking seaward and (2) by increasing energy expenditure associated with the turbulence of wave breaking. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  11. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5) important assemblages were set at 50%, following other studies. 6) Finally, a target for an outstanding feature (the Alexandria dunefield) was set at 80% because of its national, international and ecological importance. The greatest shortfall in the current target-setting process is in the lack of empirical models describing the key beach processes, from which robust ecological thresholds can be derived. As for many other studies, our results illustrate that the conservation target of 10% for coastal and marine systems proposed by the Convention on Biological Diversity is too low to conserve sandy beaches and their biota.

  12. Virginia Beach Public Library System, Virginia Beach/Oceanfront Branch: A Community Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Carolyn L., Comp.; And Others

    This study provides an overview of the community and the status of the library through an examination of the city of Virginia Beach, including its demography and needs, as well as the history, organization, administration, and financial support of both the Virginia Beach Public Library System and the Oceanfront Branch Library. The information is…

  13. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR...

  14. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  15. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  16. Undertow over a barred beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, A. F. Garcez; Thornton, E. B.; Lippmann, T. C.; Stanton, T. P.

    2000-07-01

    The spatial distribution of the mean cross-shore flow (undertow) over a barred beach is examined with field data obtained on three energetic wave days during the Duck94 experiment. The vertical structure of the undertow is modeled using a turbulent eddy viscosity closure and includes the important effects of wave breaking (described using the roller concept) and convective acceleration of the current. Other than a more realistic description of observed turbulence variations, a depth-dependent eddy viscosity (compared with a constant) does not improve the agreement between predicted and observed undertow profiles. The effect of using different boundary conditions is investigated by extending the formulations of Stive and Wind [1986] and Svendsen et al. [1987] to include random waves by ensemble averaging over the wave height distribution. The contribution of breaking wave rollers to the surface mass flux can be of the same order or greater than the contribution associated with the organized wave motion. The largest discrepancies between model predictions and observations occur over the sandbar, where the mass transport of the breaking waves appears to be underestimated.

  17. PAH concentrations in Coquina (Donax spp.) on a sandy beach shoreline impacted by a marine oil spill.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Richard A; Vestal, Alexandra; Welch, Christina; Barnes, Gracie; Pelot, Robert; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick

    2014-06-15

    The BP MC252 well failure in the Gulf of Mexico, April 2010 caused concern for crude oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) exposure along the sandy beaches of the Florida Panhandle. We began collections of Coquina clams (Donax spp.) from the surf zone of Florida Panhandle beaches to monitor PAH contamination to compliment analysis of surf zone sand samples. These clams had higher levels of PAHs relative to ambient sand, and this allowed us to continue to monitor PAH levels after sand concentrations fell below limits of detection. PAH levels in the Coquina tissues were highly variable, perhaps indicative of the heterogeneous distribution of oil and tar on the beaches and exposure to tar particles. Overall, PAH levels decreased continuously in both sand and Coquina tissues, reaching limits of detection within one and two years respectively after oil landed on Florida Panhandle beaches. Our work suggests these surf zone molluscs may be used to monitor pollutant exposure along high energy sandy beach shorelines. PMID:24775069

  18. Horizontal zonation patterns and feeding structure of marine nematode assemblages on a macrotidal, ultra-dissipative sandy beach (De Panne, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheskiere, Tom; Hoste, Eveline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2004-09-01

    Macrobenthic zonation on sandy beaches has been studied widely, whereas meiobenthic/nematofaunal species richness and zonation patterns have received little attention. We investigated community structure, intertidal zonation of nematode species and feeding structure across a macrotidal, ultra-dissipative, sandy beach (De Panne, Belgium). A total of 88 free-living marine nematode species were recorded along transects. Average nematode densities increased from the upper beach (320±45 ind/10 cm 2) towards the low-tidal level (2784±6 ind/10 cm 2), which corresponds well to the better-known macrobenthic patterns on sandy beaches. While macrobenthic species richness usually increases towards the low-tidal level, nematode species richness reached highest values around the mid-tidal level (34±3 sp.). This can be explained by an optimal balance between time of submergence, oxygen supply and sediment stability. Multivariate analyses indicated four different nematode assemblages that reflect the tidal zonation patterns: the upper beach, the driftline, the middle beach association and the lower beach association. The assemblages were significantly different from each other although similarities tended to increase down the beach, indicating a more gradual transition between the mid-tidal and low-tidal assemblages. Non-selective deposit feeders dominated all zones except in the driftline, where epistratum feeders were dominant. Percentage of very fine sand and percentage of shell fragments provided the best granulometric variables in determining these assemblages.

  19. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further highlights the need to include biological interactions, the degree of human disturbance and other variables such as environmental heterogeneity and the connectivity of the individual beaches when assessing inter-beach differences in macrofaunal assemblages.

  20. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not been widely implemented in sandy beaches, could be a key tool for biodiversity conservation and should also facilitate spillover effects into adjacent beach habitats. Setback and zoning strategies need to be enforced through legislation, and all relevant stakeholders should be included in the design, implementation and institutionalisation of these initiatives. New perspectives for rational management of sandy beaches require paradigm shifts, by including not only basic ecosystem principles, but also incentives for effective governance and sharing of management roles between government and local stakeholders.

  1. Study on Growth Rhythm of Juveniles Cistolemmys Flavomarginata for One and Two Years Old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bin

    Growth of one and two year old Cistolemmys flavomarginata is studied. In natural temperature and under artificial feeding condition, juvenile turtles grow for 180 days in Xinyang, one year old turtle average body weight increased from 18.1 g to 54.5 g, the relative growth rate is 204.1%, the absolute growth rate is 0.21. two year old turtle average body weight increased from 46.8 g to 101.1 g, the relative growth rate is 115.98%, the absolute growth rate is 0.30. But two year old turtle growth rate is slower than that of one year old turtle. The body weight, carapace length, carapace width, plastron length, plastron width and carapace high are correlated positively to daily age. The body weight growth equations of one and two year old turtles are deduced. Compared with other reptiles, whole growth cycle is grasped systemically by the growth patterns.

  2. Contributions of Two-Year Institutions to Four-Year Completions. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2013-14 academic year, 46 percent of students who completed a degree at a four-year institution were enrolled at a two-year institution at some point in the previous 10 years. This is a one percentage point increase over the comparable figure for degrees awarded in 2010-11. The prior two-year enrollment may have been brief (as little as a…

  3. Complex, Dynamic Combination of Physical, Chemical and Nutritional Variables Controls Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sandy Beach Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ortega Cisneros, Kelly; Smit, Albertus J.; Laudien, Jürgen; Schoeman, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Sandy beach ecological theory states that physical features of the beach control macrobenthic community structure on all but the most dissipative beaches. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of physical, chemical and biological factors as potential explanatory variables for meso-scale spatio-temporal patterns of intertidal community structure in these systems. Here, we investigate macroinfaunal community structure of a micro-tidal sandy beach that is located on an oligotrophic subtropical coast and is influenced by seasonal estuarine input. We repeatedly sampled biological and environmental variables at a series of beach transects arranged at increasing distances from the estuary mouth. Sampling took place over a period of five months, corresponding with the transition between the dry and wet season. This allowed assessment of biological-physical relationships across chemical and nutritional gradients associated with a range of estuarine inputs. Physical, chemical, and biological response variables, as well as measures of community structure, showed significant spatio-temporal patterns. In general, bivariate relationships between biological and environmental variables were rare and weak. However, multivariate correlation approaches identified a variety of environmental variables (i.e., sampling session, the C?N ratio of particulate organic matter, dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, various size fractions of photopigment concentrations, salinity and, to a lesser extent, beach width and sediment kurtosis) that either alone or combined provided significant explanatory power for spatio-temporal patterns of macroinfaunal community structure. Overall, these results showed that the macrobenthic community on Mtunzini Beach was not structured primarily by physical factors, but instead by a complex and dynamic blend of nutritional, chemical and physical drivers. This emphasises the need to recognise ocean-exposed sandy beaches as functional ecosystems in their own right. PMID:21858213

  4. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  5. Climatic Signals in Beach Volume Measurements from 19 Intermediate Embayed Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, K. R.; Coco, G.; Blossier, B.; Smith, R. K.; Wood, A.

    2014-12-01

    The northeast coast of New Zealand has a range of embayed intermediate beaches whose cross-shore profiles can vary on time scales extending from individual storms to inter-decadal. Some of these beaches erode and accrete a lot whereas others can remain extraordinarily stable despite exposure to comparable wave climates. Here a profile dataset collected intermittently since 1980, and 6-weekly since 1995, on 19 northeast coast beaches (62 profiles) is used to study variability between sites. Spectral analysis of the profile data showed annual, biannual and interannual energy, with the relative magnitude varying surprisingly between sites. Wave climate information for the sites was provided by a regional SWAN model which had been forced by data extracted from the NOAA WWIII wave database. Waves were modelled from 1980-2008. The wave climate was used to cluster the beaches into those that were likely to behave in a similar way, based on the relative proportions of variability in these time scales in the significant wave height, mean period and alongshore wave energy flux extracted from model output. Beaches with a northward aspect had generally low biannual variability but higher interannual and seasonal variability. In contrast, sites exposed to easterly conditions had a greater biannual contribution. Analysis of climate indicators show that the southern oscillation index and the Pacific decadal oscillation also have variability in seasonal, biannual and interannual scales to different degrees and these are weakly but significantly correlated to beach volume variations. Overall, the degree of correlation appears directly related to beach orientation.

  6. A multi-beach study of Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and enterococci in seawater and beach sand.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Kelly D; McNay, Melody; Cao, Yiping; Ebentier, Darcy; Madison, Melissa; Griffith, John F

    2012-09-01

    Incidences of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have risen worldwide prompting a need to better understand routes of human exposure and whether standard bacterial water quality monitoring practices adequately account for this potential threat. Beach water and sand samples were analyzed during summer months for S. aureus, enterococci, and MRSA at three southern California beaches (Avalon, Doheny, Malibu Surfrider). S. aureus frequently was detected in samples of seawater (59%, n = 328) and beach sand (53%, n = 358). MRSA sometimes was detected in seawater (1.6%, n = 366) and sand (2.7%, n = 366) at relatively low concentrations. Site specific differences were observed, with Avalon Beach presenting the highest concentrations of S. aureus and Malibu Surfrider the lowest in both seawater and sand. S. aureus concentrations in seawater and sand were correlated to each other and to a variety of other parameters. Multiple linear regression on the combined beach data indicated that significant explanatory variables for S. aureus in seawater were S. aureus in sand, water temperature, enterococci in seawater, and the number of swimmers. In sand, S. aureus concentrations were related to S. aureus in seawater, water temperature, enterococci in seawater, and inversely to surf height classification. Only the correlation to water temperature held for individually analyzed beaches and for S. aureus concentrations in both seawater and sand. To provide context for these results, the prevalence of S. aureus in sand was compared to published fomite studies, and results suggested that beach prevalence was similar to that in homes. PMID:22652414

  7. Depositional settings of sand beaches along whitewater rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vincent, K.R.; Andrews, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    The numbers and sizes of sand beaches suitable for recreation along selected whitewater rivers in the western United States depend on sand concentrations, range of discharge and the size, frequency and type of depositional settings. River-width expansions downstream from constrictions are the predominant depositional setting for sand beaches in the upper Grand Canyon and along five Wild and Scenic Rivers in Idaho, but not along other rivers. Beaches located upstream from constrictions are rare, in general, except in the Grand Canyon. Beaches found in expansions without constrictions dominate depositional sites along the Yampa and Green Rivers, are fairly common along the rivers in Idaho, but are relatively rare in the Grand Canyon. The magnitude of flow expansion is a reliable predictor of beach size. Beaches located on the inside of curves are uncommon, in general, but can be important recreation sites. The mid-channel bar setting is the least important from a recreation standpoint because that setting is rare and beaches there are typically small, and emergent only at low flow. The frequency of beaches is highly variable among rivers and the concentration of sand in transport is only partially responsible. Of the rivers studied, the unregulated Yampa River carries the highest concentrations of suspended sand and has among the most beaches (1.2 beaches km-1). Emergent sand beaches are essentially nonexistent along the Deschutes River and are rare along other Oregon rivers, yet these rivers transport some sand. Sand beaches are fairly common (0.8-1.1 beaches km-1) along the regulated Colorado River, but are comparatively rare (0.6 beaches km-1) along the unregulated Middle Fork Salmon River. The suspended sand concentrations in study reaches of these two rivers are similar, and the difference in the frequency of beaches may be largely because the processes that create beach-deposition settings are less active along the Middle Fork Salmon.

  8. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress recruitment and survival at all intertidal zones. Our results suggest use of incompatible fine fill sediments from dredging projects creates unsuitable intertidal habitat that excludes burrowing macroinvertebrates and could delay beach ecosystem recovery. Through effects on beach invertebrates that are prey for shorebirds and fish, the ecological impacts of filling with mismatched fine sediments could influence higher trophic levels and extend beyond the beach itself.

  9. An evaluation of beached bird monitoring approaches.

    PubMed

    Seys, Jan; Offringa, Henk; Van Waeyenberge, Jeroen; Meire, Patrick; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2002-04-01

    Oil-pollution monitoring at sea through beach bird surveying would undoubtedly benefit from a further standardisation of methods, enhancing the efficiency of data collection. In order to come up with useful recommendations, we evaluated various approaches of beached bird collection at the Belgian coast during seven winters (1993-1999). Data received in a passive way by one major rehabilitation centre were compared to the results of targeted beach surveys carried out at different scales by trained ornithologists: 'weekly' surveys - with a mean interval of 9 days - restricted to a fixed 16.7 km beach stretch, 'monthly' surveys over the entire coastline (62.1 km) and an annual 'international' survey in Belgium over the same distance at the end of February. Data collected through Belgian rehabilitation centres concern injured, living birds collected in a non-systematical way. Oil rates derived from these centres appear to be strongly biased to oiled auks and inshore bird species, and are hence of little use in assessing the extent of oil pollution at sea. The major asset of rehabilitation centres in terms of data collection seems to be their continuous warning function for events of mass mortality. Weekly surveys on a representative and large enough section rendered reliable data on oil rates, estimates of total number of bird victims, representation of various taxonomic groups and species-richness and were most sensitive in detecting events quickly (wrecks, oil-slicks, severe winter mortality, etc.). Monthly surveys gave comparable results, although they overlooked some important beaching events and demonstrated slightly higher oil rates, probably due to the higher chance to miss short-lasting wrecks of auks. Since the monthly surveys in Belgium were carried out by a network of volunteers and were spread over a larger beach section, they should be considered as best performing. Single 'international beached bird surveys' in February gave reliable data on total victim number (once the mean ratio between numbers in various months is known) and oil rate (provided a sufficiently large sample can be collected), but failed in tracking events. It is a particularly attractive approach because of its long tradition, resulting in invaluable long-term databases, and the uniformity in which these surveys are organised on a large scale. The minimal distance for a monthly survey amounts to 25-30 km (40-50% of Belgian coastline) up to 40 km (65%) in order to attain sound figures for oil rate and species-richness, respectively. These distances are primarily determined by the number of bird corpses that may be collected and are hence a function of beaching intensity and corpse detection rate. PMID:12139322

  10. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  11. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY IN VISUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...

  12. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities…

  14. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  16. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  17. North beach (Nazaré) sand tracer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica; Cascalho, João; Silva, Ana; Bosnic, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The littoral in the vicinity of Nazaré (West Portuguese coast) is characterized by two distinct coastal stretches separated by Nazaré headland: a northern sector (Norte beach) characterized by a high energetic continuous sandy beach and a southern sector (Nazaré bay beach) that corresponds to an embayed beach, sheltered by the Nazaré headland. The bay is a geomorphological expression of the Nazaré canyon head, which acts as powerful sediment sink, capturing the large longshore net southward transport at Norte beach generated by the north Atlantic high energetic swell. The northern side of the canyon head is carved on highly resistant Cretaceous limestone sustaining an underwater vertical relief that emerges on the Nazaré headland, creating a unusual nearshore wave pattern. This wave pattern not only concentrates high energy levels at the Norte beach but also contributes to local complex longshore drift gradients capable of inducing beach seasonal cross-shore variations of more than 200 m. The main factors that influence local sediment budget are: (1) canyon head capturing and (2) headland sediment bypassing. To obtain a direct measure of the net longshore drift at Norte beach (upstream boundary of the system) a large scale fluorescent tracer experiment was performed. The data will be used to validate longshore transport formulas in a high energetic environment and to access Nazaré canyon head sediment loss. Considering the anticipation of high transport rates, approximately 10 tonnes of native sand where coated with orange fluorescent ink using a set of concrete mixers. The experiment took place on the 9th to 15th September 2013 period and followed the continuous injection method (CIM). The CIM approach was justified by the expected high energy levels that inhibits sediment sampling across the surf zone. During the tracer injection procedure (approx. 5 hours), sediment sampling was performed at 13 sites along a rectilinear coastal stretch extended through 600 m downdrift of the injection point. Tracer was injected at a rate of 16 kg each 30 sec and collected at a frequency of 10 min at each site. Complementary sampling was performed at the inner shelf and at the beach southern of the headland. In order to follow tracer downdrift movement and headland sediment bypassing low resolution sampling was extended through three more days. Oceanographic forcing throughout the experiment was measured by an offshore wave buoy and an ADCP specifically deployed for the experiment. During the first tidal cycle, data from field observations using a hand held UV light showed a southward tracer displacement of more than 600 m. After the second tidal cycle, sediment tracer was detected in the Nazaré bay beach showing headland bypassing. Further insights on the sediment transport at the Nazaré canyon head system will be supported by the analysis of sediment samples collected at the beach and inner shelf using an automated image analysis system. This work was done in the framework of the PTDC/MAR/114674/2009 program, financed by FCT which the authors acknowledge gratefully.

  18. The integrated two-year check: a model of partnership working.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Sharin; Baxter, Michael; O'Byrne, Hilary

    2014-03-01

    The Healthy Child Programme, the national universal public health programme for all children and families in the UK, requires health visitors to carry out a health review for children between two and 2.5 years. Similarly, the revised Early Years Foundation Stage statutory framework now places a new requirement on early years practitioners to review a child's learning and development through a progress check at two years. While work is being undertaken nationally for the two-year health review to be delivered jointly by health, early years and early intervention services, this paper discusses the development of an innovative, integrated local model that not only ensures better reach of two-year-old children in Harrow but also ensures best use of professional resources and expertise, and a more joined-up service for children and families. PMID:24683884

  19. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2010-01-08

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  20. USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  1. USGS Collects Sediments Samples at Pascagoula Beach

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists collected environmental data and samples at beach, barrier island, and wetland sites in response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.  The USGS Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas Science Centers collaborated to ...

  2. Walruses Spill Over Beach Banks onto Tundra

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Thousands of walruses gathered to rest on the shore near the Alaskan coastal community of Point Lay during September of 2013 after sea ice disappeared from their offshore foraging grounds in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Walruses clamber up on to the grassy tundra of the barrier island, once the beach b...

  3. Beach Erosion and Sea Turtle Nest

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image depicts a cliff-like escarpment in the sand of a Florida beach. Notice the marked turtle nest (background) and the unusual single exposed egg (right foreground). The protective stakes mark a nest from an earlier week as part of a county research program that marks and records every eighth...

  4. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  5. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  6. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest…

  7. Creating the Higbee Beach Butterfly Garden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Eric, And Others

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the popularity of butterfly watching has skyrocketed, and Higbee Beach Wildlife Management Area has emerged as a mecca. This article describes the site, garden design, vegetation, planting and weeding strategies, and tips for using the garden as a model. Lists bloom periods for plant species used at the garden. (LZ)

  8. Watershed infarction after near drowning in a two year old child.

    PubMed

    Schaar, C G; Brouwer, O F; Wondergem, J H

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral watershed infarctions usually occur after a period of acute and severe systemic hypotension resulting in a distinctive clinical picture. We present a two year old girl who developed watershed infarctions after a near drowning accident. The clinical features and diagnostic aspects are described. PMID:1652400

  9. Vocational Education: A Manual of Program Accessibility for the Physically Disabled Two-Year College Applicant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Coordinating Area No. 4.

    This manual was designed as a resource guide for handicapped individuals interested in two-year occupational training at various institutions within the State University of New York (SUNY) or City University of New York (CUNY) systems. It provides an overview of 50 vocational degree programs, indicates which educational institutions offer such…

  10. The Role of the Cooperative Education Director in the Two-Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, William A.

    In order to determine the actual and ideal role of the cooperative education director as perceived by the director, immediate supervisors, and faculty, a random sample was drawn from 474 two-year colleges with cooperative education programs. Responses were received from 73 directors (77%), 54 supervisors (84%), and 38 faculty members (66%). The…

  11. Invisibility, Difference, and Disparity: Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Two-Year College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André

    2015-01-01

    The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…

  12. Small Generator, Large Problem: Identifying and Disposing of Hazardous Waste at Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valicenti, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite limited generation of hazardous materials, two-year colleges are required to comply with federal criteria for their identification and removal. After a random facilities inspection, the College of DuPage (Illinois) established priorities for waste removal, information dissemination, staff training, inventory, storage, and organizational…

  13. Determining the Numeracy and Algebra Errors of Students in a Two-Year Vocational School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyüz, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the mathematics achievement level in basic numeracy and algebra concepts of students in a two-year program in a technical vocational school of higher education and determine the errors that they make in these topics. The researcher developed a diagnostic mathematics achievement test related to numeracy and…

  14. Role of Early Family Configuration and Hours Worked on Student Success in Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Robert A.; Passmore, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence student success in two-year colleges, community colleges, or junior colleges. In determining the purpose of the study, a research framework is established to review the relationships between student success and biological children, marriage/co-habitation, early family configuration,…

  15. Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Werch, Chudley

    2007-01-01

    This study explored beverage-specific alcohol consumption patterns among a sample of high school students over a two-year period. Four hundred fifty-five students completed the validated questionnaire at all three time points (2002, 2003, 2004). Variables of interest included five use measures (past year use, 30-day frequency, quantity, heavy use,…

  16. Social Class, Sex Differences and Performance on Cognitive Tasks Among Two-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppucci, N. Dickon

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the relation between sex, social class as indexed by parental education level, and performance on three different types of cognitive tasks among two year old children. It was expected that social class would be related positively to superior performance on all the tasks for girls but unrelated for…

  17. Two-Year-Olds Exclude Novel Objects as Potential Referents of Novel Words Based on Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassmann, Susanne; Stracke, Maren; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have established that children tend to exclude objects for which they already have a name as potential referents of novel words. In the current study we asked whether this exclusion can be triggered by social-pragmatic context alone without pre-existing words as blockers. Two-year-old children watched an adult looking at a novel…

  18. Guidelines for Chemistry and Chemical Technology Programs in Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Designed for use in institutional self-studies and program reviews, these guidelines provide a comprehensive model for chemistry and chemical technology programs in two-year, associate-degree-granting colleges. The eight sections of the guide suggest 90 standards in the areas of: (1) chemistry program mission and periodic program review; (2)…

  19. An Annotated Bibliography of the American Two-Year College: Its Role and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Alex M.

    This bibliography covers articles and books dealing with two-year colleges in the U.S., including junior colleges, community colleges, vocational colleges, technical colleges, and municipal colleges. The greatest emphasis is on the junior and community college and, with the exception of historically important books and articles from the Junior…

  20. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  1. Cognitive Effects of Two-Year and Four-Year Institutions: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohr, Louise; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes research on the intellectual impacts of education programs at a public two-year college and a four-year research university. Finds no significant differences in skill gains between the two- and four-year samples after controlling for precollege cognitive skills, age, and work obligations. (18 citations). (MAB)

  2. Cognitive Effects of Two-Year and Four-Year Colleges: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohr, Louise; And Others

    This study examined the relative intellectual impacts of two- and four-year college educational programs by focusing on changes in reading comprehension, mathematics, and critical thinking skills in 204 freshmen students who attended either a public two-year community college near a large metropolitan area or a public four-year, urban research…

  3. Factors that Influence Vocabulary Development in Two-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background: This research explored the relative impact of demographic, cognitive, behavioural, and psycholinguistic factors on vocabulary development in two-year-old children. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two children (24-30 months) were tested on expressive and receptive vocabulary, cognitive development, word learning and working memory…

  4. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  5. The Volunteers. The Peace Corps Educational Television (ETV) Project in Colombia: Two Years of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George; And Others

    For this report on a two-year Peace Corps project designed to implement educational television (ETV) into Colombia schools, the Peace Corps Volunteers who participated are investigated. The history and experience of these Volunteers in the Peace Corps are sketched first. Next, the consequences for them of serving in a large, integrated, special…

  6. Effect of Rearing Environment on the Feeding Pattern of under Two Years Old Nigerian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Ifeoluwapo Oyebola

    2011-01-01

    With economic pressures on families increasing, more women are working outside the home leaving their children in day care centres. In a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study, the feeding pattern in two groups of children under two years old, cared for in two different rearing environments: home environment and day care centres, was…

  7. Professional Outreach Counseling Can Help the Juvenile Probationer: A Two Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Robert; Olejnik, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    Subjects in an experimental evaluation of Project CREST were followed during a two-year period. Youths who had received counseling services in addition to probation were charged with fewer acts of misconduct than youths who had received probation but no counseling. (Author)

  8. Intelligence and Persisting with Medication for Two Years: Analysis in a Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Stewart, Marlene C. W.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Murray, Gordon D.; Batty, G. David; Price, Jacqueline F.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether verbal intelligence is associated with persisting to take medication for up to two years. The design is a prospective follow-up of compliance with taking medication in high-risk individuals participating in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial set in Central Scotland. Participants were 1993 people aged between 50 and…

  9. Faculty and Staff Perceptions of Sustainability Initiatives on Three Arkansas Two-Year College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Kenneth R., III

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore higher education faculty and staff perspectives on sustainability initiatives within their respective institutions. Subjects of this study were faculty and staff members from three rural two year institutions of higher education in Arkansas. Data was gathered using an electronically delivered…

  10. Determining the Numeracy and Algebra Errors of Students in a Two-Year Vocational School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyüz, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the mathematics achievement level in basic numeracy and algebra concepts of students in a two-year program in a technical vocational school of higher education and determine the errors that they make in these topics. The researcher developed a diagnostic mathematics achievement test related to numeracy and…

  11. Taming Hydra: The Problem of Balancing Teaching and Scholarship at a Two-Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knodt, Ellen Andrews

    1988-01-01

    Suggests several ways that institutions can help teachers continue with research and scholarly studies, such as: (1) released time for faculty; (2) variable course loads; (3) external funding; (4) government grants; (5) providing adequate library resources; and (6) overcoming the isolation of two-year college faculty from their colleagues. (RAE)

  12. Alcohol Fuels Production, Manpower, and Education: Where Do Two-Year Colleges Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, James R.

    The Energy Communications Center (ECC) has sponsored a number of alcohol fuels activities designed to share information about alcohol fuels with two-year college faculty and administrators and to clarify the manpower and curriculum issues related to fuel production. This paper is the result of the last of these activities, a one-day meeting of…

  13. State Reports on Two-Year Colleges: A Selected Bibliography of ERIC Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography provides abstracts of 531 state reports selected from the ERIC document collection. Covering ERIC accessions from the period 1968 through June 1977, the abstracts reflect the expansion of state interests and activity in postsecondary planning and coordination. The period of rapid growth in the number of two-year colleges in the…

  14. New Mexico's Public Two-Year Colleges and Postsecondary Vocational Schools. 1977-78 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Board of Educational Finance, Santa Fe.

    Characteristics of New Mexico's ten two-year colleges and two technical-vocational institutes are presented in a standard format, initially recording statute under which and year the institution was organized; area vocational school designation; and enrollments and valuation for 1977-78 for each of the public school districts within the…

  15. New Mexico's Public Two-Year Colleges and Postsecondary Vocational Schools, 1976-77 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Board of Educational Finance, Santa Fe.

    In a collective report of New Mexico's twelve two-year colleges and postsecondary vocational schools, the following information is reported for each institution: the organizational statute, year of organization, vocational school designation, public school districts included within the institutional district, and the percent of district high…

  16. Guide to Federal Grants and Technical Assistance for Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Stanley B.; And Others

    Information about federal programs currently available to assist the development of two-year colleges is presented in this two-part guide. Part I lists those programs directly related to education and administered by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Part II lists programs located in other agencies providing either fiscal support or…

  17. Selected Collective Bargaining Agreements of New Jersey Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Collective bargaining agreements of 15 selected New Jersey two-year colleges are presented, representing contracts in effect in 1987. Contracts for the following colleges are included: Atlantic Community College, Bergen Community College, Brookdale Community College, Burlington County College, Camden County College, County College of Morris,…

  18. Two-Year Core Curriculum for Agricultural Education in Montana. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This guide contains suggested units of instruction for the first two years of instruction in secondary vocational agriculture. It is intended to aid teachers and administrators in planning instructional programs to equip students with essential basic competencies required for more specialized programs. Instructor materials include information on…

  19. Invisibility, Difference, and Disparity: Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Two-Year College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André

    2015-01-01

    The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…

  20. Matching Alcoholics to Coping Skills or Interactional Therapies: Two-Year Follow-Up Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Ned L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Assigned 96 inpatients in alcoholism treatment to aftercare group treatment with either coping skills training or interactional therapy. Survival analyses using two-year outcome data provided evidence for durability of matching interaction effects. Individuals scoring high on sociopathy or global psychopathology had better outcomes in coping…

  1. Effect of Rearing Environment on the Feeding Pattern of under Two Years Old Nigerian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Ifeoluwapo Oyebola

    2011-01-01

    With economic pressures on families increasing, more women are working outside the home leaving their children in day care centres. In a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study, the feeding pattern in two groups of children under two years old, cared for in two different rearing environments: home environment and day care centres, was…

  2. Nuclear Medical Technology. Curriculum for a Two Year Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buatti, A.; Rich, D.

    Objectives of the project briefly described here were (1) to develop curriculum for a two-year nuclear medical technology program based on a working relationship between three institutions (community college, university health center, and hospital) and (2) to develop procedures for the operation of a medical imaging and radiation technology core…

  3. The Origins and Evolution of the Two-Year College from Colonial Times to 1950.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krol, Edwin J.

    The emergence of the community and junior college as an established element of a system of higher education is unique to the United States. The rapid growth of the system can be attributed to three main factors: the idea of the two-year college as instruction oriented in contrast to the research orientation of universities; the constant increase…

  4. Transforming Teaching with Technology: Perspectives from Two-Year Colleges. EDUCOM Strategies Series on Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anandam, Kamala, Ed.

    Focusing on the diversity of the uses of technology in education and the institutions which apply them, this book presents 13 articles describing technological transformations in teaching at two-year colleges throughout the United States. The book contains: (1) "Tradition and Technology at Amarillo College: People Make the Difference," by Diana…

  5. A Call for Strategic Planning: The Two-Year College Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masoner, David J.; Essex, Nathan, L.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses the imperative for strategic and tactical planning to support the viability of the two-year college. Describes a process for approaching strategic planning, comprising the following steps: self-identification, self-analysis, analysis of service area, informed decision making, and the development of a marketing plan. (CBC)

  6. The Math and Science Partnership Program Evaluation: Overview of the First Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the Math and Science Partnership Program Evaluation (MSP-PE) during the project's first two years and provides the evaluation framework being used to assess the National Science Foundation's MSP Program. The study conveys the MSP-PE's ongoing design and implementation. To show how they reflect the nature of the MSP Program,…

  7. Monitoring Commission for Desegregation Implementation's Monitoring Project CANAL: Summary of the First Two Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Mary E.; And Others

    This report reviews the implementation of Project Creating a New Approach to Learning (CANAL), part of a court-mandated desegregation plan in Chicago (Illinois), at the end of its first two years. CANAL's goal was to train the constituent representatives of the public schools to engage in shared decision-making and to develop organizational…

  8. Science and Engineering Technology: A Guide to a Two-Year Associate Degree Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lawrence J.

    The Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum is a two-year post-secondary curriculum designed to prepare technicians to use the electronic instruments which became available in the early 1970's as a result of advances in different fields of electronics. It is an interdisciplinary program of study which integrates elements from the…

  9. New Designs for the Two-Year Institution of Higher Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copa, George H.; Ammentorp, William

    This final report contains a history and description of a project called New Designs for the Two-Year Institution of Higher Education (NDTYI). The goal of NDTYI was to begin an earnest search for synergies that will better connect educational institutions with the culture in ways that create resources and multiply desired results. NDTYI focused on…

  10. A Study of Freshman Composition Programs in Texas Two-Year Institutions of Higher Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schustereit, Roger Clinton

    A study of the three aspects of composition in freshmen English programs with regard to five groups of students in Texas two-year institutions of higher learning was conducted. The three aspects of composition were the aims, forms and media; and the five students groups were transfer, terminal technical/commercial, adult and remedial. Aims were…

  11. Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Technical Workforce Training at Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the outcomes of a workshop held at the National Science Foundation on August 15-16, 2005. Forty-six participants, representing academia, industry, government agencies, professional associations, and special projects met to: (1) discuss how geospatial technology training at two-year colleges can address workforce needs; and…

  12. A Two-Year Study of Patterns and Predictors of Substance Use among Mexican American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Jesse T.; Katims, David S; Yin, Zenong

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the incidence and patterns of substance use and predictive risk factors in fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade low-income family Mexican Americans. Results capture patterns of substance use among this population over two years, as well as the relationship between reported risk factors in year one and the use of minor and major substances…

  13. New Technologies and New Skills: Two Year Colleges at the Vanguard of Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.

    This book about new technology at two-year colleges contains two parts. Part one includes the following chapters: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Toward the Vanguard of Industrial Modernization"; (3) "Learning Who Does What and How Well: Technology Education and Modernization Services";(4) "Structuring Community Colleges' Services"; (5) "Delivering the…

  14. Science Education in Two-Year Colleges: Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, Miriam M.

    Agricultural and natural resources education in two-year colleges is examined as revealed by a study of science education that involved: (1) a review of the literature, (2) an examination of 175 college catalogs and class schedules from colleges nationwide, and (3) a survey of 1,275 science teachers. Part I of the study report discusses…

  15. Japanese Two-Year-Olds Use Morphosyntax to Learn Novel Verb Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayumi, Matsuo; Kita, Sotaro; Shinya, Yuri; Wood, Gary C.; Naigles, Letitia

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that children who are acquiring argument-drop languages such as Turkish and Chinese make use of syntactic frames to extend familiar verb meanings (Goksun, Kuntay & Naigles, 2008; Lee & Naigles, 2008). This article investigates whether two-year-olds learning Japanese, another argument-drop language, make use of argument…

  16. The Humanities in Two-Year Colleges: Reviewing Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M., Ed.

    This monograph reviews recent literature pertaining to two-year college humanities curricula and instruction. Separate sections consider foreign languages, literature, philosophy, religion and ethics, the appreciation and history of the fine arts, history, political science, cultural anthropology, area and ethnic studies, and interdisciplinary…

  17. A Profile of Religious Studies Instructors in Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawer, Florence B.

    In 1975, the Center for the Study of Community Colleges conducted a national survey of humanities faculty in two-year colleges. This paper summarizes the characteristics of 30 religious studies instructors included in the total sample of 1,493 full- and part-time faculty. Findings of the survey include: (1) 77% of the religious studies instructors…

  18. Carbon accumulation in a two year sugarcane rotation in Hawai’i, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane has been examined as a bioenergy feedstock for producing aviation fuel in the Pacific Basin. Hawaii has been a major producer of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in the Pacific, with its typical two-year production cycle having some of the highest reported rates of sugar production in...

  19. Intelligence and Persisting with Medication for Two Years: Analysis in a Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Stewart, Marlene C. W.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Murray, Gordon D.; Batty, G. David; Price, Jacqueline F.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether verbal intelligence is associated with persisting to take medication for up to two years. The design is a prospective follow-up of compliance with taking medication in high-risk individuals participating in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial set in Central Scotland. Participants were 1993 people aged between 50 and…

  20. The Status of Chemistry in Two-Year Colleges: Results from a Survey of Chemistry Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Mary Ann; Wesemann, Jodi L.; Boese, Janet M.; Neuschatz, Michael

    In the fall of 2001, the American Chemical Society (ACS) conducted a survey of two-year college chemistry departments to obtain basic data on chemistry faculty and chemistry courses taught at college. A questionnaire sent to appropriate representatives (department chairs, program heads, or deans) from 1195 campuses generated a 77% response rate.…

  1. Not Your Father's Community College: New Programs, Increased Visibility Boost Two-Year Institutions' Appeal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2004-01-01

    Public perception of community colleges has improved so much in the past two decades that they are no longer regarded as higher education's last resort. Many two-year schools have increased the number and visibility of honors programs. They have signed deals with many four-year universities, even Ivy League institutions, giving community-college…

  2. Access to NMR Spectroscopy for Two-Year College Students: The NMR Site at Trinity University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Nancy S.; Shanklin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Students at two-year colleges and small four-year colleges have often obtained their exposure to NMR spectroscopy through "canned" spectra because the cost of an NMR spectrometer, particularly a high-field spectrometer, is prohibitive in these environments. This article describes the design of a NMR site at Trinity University in which spectral…

  3. Veterinary Science Technology: A Suggested Two-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Delhi. Agricultural and Technical Coll.

    Designed to aid States in planning and developing two-year post-high school programs in veterinary science technology, the curriculum guide presents a suggested curriculum for a training program in veterinary science technology, with an option in meat inspection and regulatory technology effective in the fourth semester of the training period.…

  4. Self-Determination and Success Outcomes of Two-Year College Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo Jameson, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This two-phase study integrated quantitative and qualitative research methods to investigate the relationship between success outcomes of two-year college students with disabilities and self-determination, and how students with higher and lesser degrees of self-determination understand and describe the outcomes of their post-secondary experience.…

  5. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

  6. Two Years into the Journey: AACSB Assessment of Learning in a "Principles of Marketing" Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Steven R.; Marco, Gayle; Chu, Yun

    2009-01-01

    Using a "Principles of Marketing" course, the authors demonstrate how compliance with AACSB standards and assessment of learning has been undertaken at Robert Morris University over a two-year period. Learning goals and objectives are tied to a specific assessment instrument to provide an illustration of how broad conceptual ideas are…

  7. A Predictive Model of Student Loan Default at a Two-Year Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chanda Denea

    2015-01-01

    This study explored whether a predictive model of student loan default could be developed with data from an institution's three-year cohort default rate report. The study used borrower data provided by a large two-year community college. Independent variables under investigation included total undergraduate Stafford student loan debt, total number…

  8. Does High Quality Childcare Narrow the Achievement Gap at Two Years of Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzek, Erik; Burchinal, Margaret; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg; Dang, Tran; Lee, Weilin

    2011-01-01

    The authors use the ECLS-B, a nationally-representative study of children born in 2001 to report the child care arrangements and quality characteristics for 2-year olds in the United States and to estimate the effects of differing levels of child care quality on two-year old children's cognitive development. Their goal is to test whether high…

  9. New Technologies and New Skills: Two Year Colleges at the Vanguard of Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.

    This book about new technology at two-year colleges contains two parts. Part one includes the following chapters: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Toward the Vanguard of Industrial Modernization"; (3) "Learning Who Does What and How Well: Technology Education and Modernization Services";(4) "Structuring Community Colleges' Services"; (5) "Delivering the…

  10. Not Your Father's Community College: New Programs, Increased Visibility Boost Two-Year Institutions' Appeal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2004-01-01

    Public perception of community colleges has improved so much in the past two decades that they are no longer regarded as higher education's last resort. Many two-year schools have increased the number and visibility of honors programs. They have signed deals with many four-year universities, even Ivy League institutions, giving community-college…

  11. Writing Placement and Proficiency Assessment Practices in Two Rural Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Melody Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research is a dual-case study which specifically focuses on two rural two-year colleges in separate parts of the United States: one in the central Southern region, and the other in the Northeastern region. I wanted to focus on these colleges' writing placement and proficiency practices in relation to their respective missions and how they…

  12. Gems from Rough Stones: Teaching with Technology in the Two-Year Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselwhite, Laura G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Instructional Technology Project (ITP) at Floyd College (Georgia), a two-year school where every student must lease a laptop computer to access CD-ROMs and the Internet. Focuses on issues such as how the laptops are used and Internet research. Argues against a total virtual education and assesses the contribution of the laptops. (CMK)

  13. A Survey of Speech Education in United States Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planck, Carolyn Roberts

    The status of speech education in all United States two-year colleges is discussed. Both public and private schools are examined. Two separate studies were conducted, each utilizing the same procedure. The specific aspects with which the research was concerned were: (1) availability of speech courses, (2) departmentalization of speech courses, (3)…

  14. Re-engineering Alabama's Two-Year Colleges. A White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainous, Fred; Romine, Robert J.; Culverhouse, Renee; Kuzmicic, Jorge; Dahl, Debbie

    This paper presents the recommendations of a task force appointed by the Alabama State Board of Education in May of 1997 to guide Alabama's two-year college system's development and direction as it re-engineered itself to enhance services to its constituents. These recommendations are to be used by the State Board of Education, in conjunction with…

  15. Effects of Two-Year Kindergarten Programs at the End of Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Ledette Kelton

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reading achievement of third graders who had attended kindergarten for one year with that of third graders who had been given two years of kindergarten. A review of the literature revealed that the majority of studies in this area showed that the practice of retaining students did not serve the intended…

  16. A Study of Governance in the Unionized Two-Year Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Margaret K.; Julius, Daniel J.

    A study was conducted to assess the extent to which faculty associations in two-year colleges have penetrated certain management functions or rights, to determine the impact of academic unions on traditional "faculty rights," and to develop predictors of the extent of faculty association penetration into management areas. The study involved an…

  17. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

  18. Brief Report: Fathers' and Mothers' Marital Relationship Predicts Daughters' Pubertal Development Two Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of 50 4th grade girls reported on their marital relationships and then, two years later, rated their daughters' pubertal development. Fathers' ratings of marital dissatisfaction, mothers' ratings of less emotional support from husbands, and both parents' ratings of aversive marital conflict were correlated with more advanced pubertal…

  19. Job Satisfaction and Commitment of Two-Year College Part-Time Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valadez, James R.; Anthony, James Soto

    2001-01-01

    Uses nationally representative data to investigate the job satisfaction and commitment of two-year college part-time faculty members. Reports that part-time faculty members are satisfied with their roles, but they are concerned with issues regarding salary, benefits, and long-term job security. (KS)

  20. Bilingual Business Studies at the Two-Year Liberal Arts College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dendle, Catherine

    Midway College, a two-year liberal arts college in Kentucky's Bluegrass region, established a business program emphasizing second language skills in response to the local need for personnel with knowledge of French or Spanish. The program brought together existing business and general studies courses, including geography, and new courses in…

  1. Teaching Lower Division Hebrew Language and Literature at a Two-Year Public College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Zev

    The Jewish studies program at Los Angeles Valley College is discussed with an emphasis on the teaching of lower division Hebrew language. As the first two-year undergraduate program in the nation, it seeks to provide an appreciation of Jewish civilization. The program includes classes in Hebrew language, literature, civilization, Jewish…

  2. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  3. Solving the Access/Quality Puzzle in Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    The concept of barrier-free transfer from two-year to four-year colleges is an important element in planning for student access to the baccalaureate. While it seems clear that transfer works reasonably well for most students most of the time, evidence suggests that transfer may be a qualitatively and quantitatively different experience at the…

  4. Student Athletes at Two-Year Colleges: Transcript Analysis of Grades and Credits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Terry J.; Raney, Joseph F.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the pre- and post-transfer academic performance of 40 male college basketball, football, and baseball players with two-year college transfer credit. Compares transfer and native student athletes in terms of grades and enrollment in physical education and other courses. (DMM)

  5. Invisible Woman? Narratives of Black Women Leaders in Southeastern Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Shelia Antley

    2012-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the experiences of two Black women executive-level leaders who started their careers within higher education, including two-year technical colleges located in the Southeast during the pivotal sociopolitical moments that occurred during the 1960s to the 1980s. The stories of these women revealed their…

  6. Access to NMR Spectroscopy for Two-Year College Students: The NMR Site at Trinity University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Nancy S.; Shanklin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Students at two-year colleges and small four-year colleges have often obtained their exposure to NMR spectroscopy through "canned" spectra because the cost of an NMR spectrometer, particularly a high-field spectrometer, is prohibitive in these environments. This article describes the design of a NMR site at Trinity University in which spectral…

  7. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1995 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 405 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1994-95, including data for the national sample and for 6groups of peer institutions. The first section provides introductory information on the annual study, discussing the study sample and the use of study…

  8. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1993 Peer Group Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 516 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1992-93, including statistics for the national sample and for six peer groups. The report's nine sections focus on: (1) introductory information about the study's background, objectives, and sample; the National…

  9. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1994 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Meeker, Bradley

    Comparative financial information derived from a national sample of 427 two-year colleges is presented in this report for fiscal year 1993-94, including data for the national sample and 6 groups of peer institutions. The first section provides introductory information on the annual study, reviewing the objectives of the study and potential uses of…

  10. Comparative Financial Statistics for Public Two-Year Colleges: FY 1991 Peer Groups Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickmeyer, Nathan; Cirino, Anna Marie

    Comparative financial information, derived from two national surveys of 503 public two-year colleges, is presented in this report for fiscal year (FY) 1990-91. The report includes statistics for the national sample and six peer groups, space for colleges to compare their institutional statistics with national and peer groups, and tables, bar…

  11. Mapping the Terrain: The Two-Year College Writing Program Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    For five years, the author has been advocating a writing program administrator (WPA) position at his two-year college. While the vice president of instruction has been sympathetic, the issue has been funding. As a means to prepare and to justify the WPA's continuing existence, he has set to work mapping out the terrain, trying to anticipate the…

  12. Vocational Education: A Manual of Program Accessibility for the Physically Disabled Two-Year College Applicant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Coordinating Area No. 4.

    This manual was designed as a resource guide for handicapped individuals interested in two-year occupational training at various institutions within the State University of New York (SUNY) or City University of New York (CUNY) systems. It provides an overview of 50 vocational degree programs, indicates which educational institutions offer such…

  13. Results of a Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Use among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Michele Johnson; Werch, Chudley

    2007-01-01

    This study explored beverage-specific alcohol consumption patterns among a sample of high school students over a two-year period. Four hundred fifty-five students completed the validated questionnaire at all three time points (2002, 2003, 2004). Variables of interest included five use measures (past year use, 30-day frequency, quantity, heavy use,…

  14. Invisible Woman? Narratives of Black Women Leaders in Southeastern Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Shelia Antley

    2012-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the experiences of two Black women executive-level leaders who started their careers within higher education, including two-year technical colleges located in the Southeast during the pivotal sociopolitical moments that occurred during the 1960s to the 1980s. The stories of these women revealed their…

  15. Job Market Reality for Postsecondary Graduates. Employment Outcome by 1978. Two Years after Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, W.; Zsigmond, Z.

    Based on the 1978 survey of the labor market experiences of 1976 university and college graduates in Canada in the two years after graduation, this report examines the relations and implications of the education-employment nexus for both male and female graduates. Following a review of the background, scope, objectives, audience, methodology and"…

  16. Two-Year College Mathematics Education for the 1990s: A Commitment to Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Don, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose of this special issue is to suggest strategies for meeting the mathematical needs of two-year college students in the decade of the 1990s. Since the 20 contributors were free to write about topics that they considered to be appropriate to the intellectual and personal development of all students their papers represent a broad…

  17. MVII Scores fir Two-Year College Students in Four Vocational Curriculums: A Concurrent Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, James L.; Smith, Stuart E.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the Minnesota Vocational Interest Inventory (MVII) was conducted to assess its validity for use with students in a new vocational education program at a two-year college. The sample consisted of 390 men and 33 women enrolled in four curriculums. (Author)

  18. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  19. The Wired Island: The First Two Years of Public Access To Cable Television In Manhattan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othmer, David

    A review is presented of the first two years of free public access programing on New York City's cable television (CATV) systems. The report provides some background information on franchising, public access to CATV in New York City, and Federal Communications Commission regulations. It also deals with the public access programing developed; it…

  20. Changing Autoerotic Attitudes and Practices among College Females: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.; Darling, Carol A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined effects of functional marriage and family course on female undergraduates' masturbatory attitudes and behaviors. Subjects completed questionnaires during course and two years later. Control group also completed questionnaires. Course respondents became substantially more accepting of masturbation by acquaintances and were more likely to…

  1. The Unique Role of Two-Year Honors Colleges and Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, J. David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    As President of Broward College, the author is proud of the honors education that has been offered to students since 1982. Two-year colleges play a crucial role in higher education, having experienced extensive growth in the past few decades and with honors as an important part of that growth. Broward College was founded in 1960 to support the…

  2. Faculty and Staff Perceptions of Sustainability Initiatives on Three Arkansas Two-Year College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Kenneth R., III

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore higher education faculty and staff perspectives on sustainability initiatives within their respective institutions. Subjects of this study were faculty and staff members from three rural two year institutions of higher education in Arkansas. Data was gathered using an electronically delivered…

  3. Two-Year Sequential Curriculum Guide for the Related Class to the Cooperative Vocational Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bawulski, Tom; And Others

    The material presented in this guide was developed to serve as a two-year curriculum for classes connected to cooperative education programs. The overall subject of the guide is preparing for employment. The curriculum contains 16 units, arranged in sequential order with a recommended year of presentation shown on the course outline. Each of the…

  4. Organization of Academic Advising in Ohio's Two-Year Public Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Verne W.

    2012-01-01

    Academic advising administrators, academic advising professional organization leaders, and academic advising scholars have not had access to information about how academic advising is organized in their states. The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the organization of academic advising in Ohio's two-year public colleges; (b) to…

  5. Teacher Preparation without Boundaries: A Two-Year Study of an Online Teacher Certification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Harris, Mary

    2006-01-01

    The Online Post Baccalaureate Program is described along with indicators of how well the program met the goals of its developers during two years of implementation. Faculty aimed to develop a program that would satisfy students, offer a more accessible path into teaching for post baccalaureate candidates and compare favorably in quality to its…

  6. Factors Affecting Student Progression and Achievement: Prediction and Intervention. A Two-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowis, Mike; Castley, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    First-year student dropout in the university sector can reach 20% or higher. Over a two-year period, a simple instrument was developed to identify potential student low performance and withdrawal. It was based on a measure of students' early expectation of higher education, matched subsequently with their actual experience. The instrument design…

  7. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

  8. Preparing students in two-year colleges for geoscience degrees and careers: Workshop results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.

    2012-12-01

    Building a strong and diverse geoscience workforce is a critical national challenge. Two-year colleges (2YCs) play an important role in increasing both the number and diversity of geoscience graduates. A workshop on Preparing Students from Two-year Colleges for Geoscience Degrees and Careers was held in Tacoma, WA in July 2012 to discuss the successes and challenges of programs, strategies, and activities that support career preparation of 2YC students for geoscience careers, either as geotechnical graduates or as geoscience majors at four-year colleges and universities, and to make recommendations for future efforts. At the workshop several successful partnerships between employers and two-year colleges as well as between two-year colleges and four-year institutions were discussed as potential models that could be replicated with adaptations for local employment needs. Participants shared successful techniques for supporting 2YC students in their career path such as internships, early opportunities for participating in research, joint fieldtrips with transfer institutions, and supportive curriculum alignment between two and four-year institutions. Professional organizations have much to offer including information about career options, networking opportunities, and more. Participants discussed strategies for supporting geoscience workforce development at 2YCs such as making connections between 2YCs and local employers, identifying geoscience students at 2YCs who are planning to transfer and building relationships with 4YCs, establishing internship programs, supporting student geoscience clubs, and developing a repository of geoscience employment information targeted to 2YC students. Participants recognized significant barriers to incorporating career training and information into the geoscience curriculum at two-year colleges. These barriers include a predominance of non-geoscience students in classes, lack of support or rewards for improving or increasing the preparation of geoscience majors, and the range of quantitative skills of students in two-year colleges. The need of career resources at the local scale was emphasized by many throughout the meeting since geoscience workforce needs and expectations vary widely across the United States. In addition, local governance and curricular demands at individual TYCs may significantly impact the nature of any reforms or new initiatives. Therefore a diversity of resources and models for improving the training of future geoscientists at 2YCs is needed. The workshop was a first step in establishing a broad network to promote and support activities that prepare 2YC students as geotechnicians and geoscience majors to increase the number and diversity of geoscience professionals coming from two-year colleges.

  9. Quantifying Beach Response to Episodic Large Wave Events, a Predictive Empirical Model, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing an empirical model is the best way to predict future beach response at a given site. Based on 12 closely spaced (temporally) GPS topographic surveys during the winter of 2005-2006 at Ocean Beach, in San Francisco, California, we have developed a predictive empirical model that relates sub-aerial beach response to observed wave height, period, and direction. The model will provide important information to coastal managers, who will be able to better predict and mitigate possible loss from a forecasted wave event. Ocean Beach, located immediately south of the Golden Gate in San Francisco, is a high-energy, intermediate- slope beach that is exposed to waves generated in both the North and South Pacific. Winter breaking wave heights frequently reach 4 m and can exceed 7 m, with periods sometimes greater than 20 s. Our observations demonstrate that large seasonal variations in the sub-aerial beach profile are likely forced by several single large wave events. These events have led to the partial destruction of a recreational parking lot at the south end of the beach where an erosion hot spot is currently located, and continued erosion will threaten other parts of public infrastructure. This study, in combination with other ongoing research at Ocean Beach, will provide valuable insight that will not only aid local personnel in their management decisions but also contribute to a better understanding of sediment transport at high-energy beaches.

  10. Late Quaternary Alluvial Fans and Beach Ridge Systems in Jakes Valley, Central Great Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A. F.; Stokes, M.; Benitez, L.

    2002-12-01

    Alluvial fan and lake beach ridge landforms provide archives of the geomorphic response to Late Quaternary climate change within the Great Basin region. This study presents the first detailed results of landform mapping and soil characterization from Jakes Valley, a high altitude (1920m) and internally drained basin, located within a previously unstudied part of White Pine County, East-Central Nevada. Mountain front alluvial fans sourced from the White Pine and Egan Ranges (west-east basin margins) are characterized by four morphostratigraphic units: Qf0 (oldest) through to Qf3 (youngest). Analysis of the soil properties of these stratigraphic units reveals two landform-soil assemblages: 1) Qf0-1, characterized by well-developed calcic soils (stages III+ to IV) and 2) Qf2-3, characterized by less well-developed calcic soils (stages I to II). Beach ridge systems formed during pluvial lake highstands are extensively developed into the mid and distal parts of alluvial fans. Integrated field and aerial photograph mapping has revealed a sequence of between 4-6 ridges with linear and / or highly curved / arcuate morphologies. Beach ridge soil properties are characterized by less well-developed calcic soils (stages I+ to II) that are similar to soils formed in Qf2 alluvial fan units. The interaction between the alluvial fan and beach ridge landforms can be utilized to explore the geomorphic response in relation to climatic amelioration during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Of particular interest is the common occurrence of the curved / arcuate beach ridges which may correspond to a period of fan progradation coincident with base-level lowering.

  11. Jurassic beach: A depositional facies model for Smackover traps in the Ark la Tex

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.; Bruno, L.; Green, M.

    1994-09-01

    State Line field, Union County, Arkansas, produces oil from a five-well stratigraphic trap at 8900 ft. Conventional cores were cut in all wells. Core studies show the trapping porosity pinch-out is a facies change from lower foreshore to ooid beach. Sedimentation occurred along a high-energy coastline. Thus, the depositional setting at State Line field differs from the commonly accepted {open_quotes}oolite bar{close_quotes} model used for many other fields in the trend. Four main facies were delineated: (1) siliciclastic lagoon (Buckner Formation), (2) ooid beach, (3) oncoid-ooid lower foreshore, and (4) patch reef. Intergranular porosity is facies selective, found mainly in the poorly sorted lower foreshore facies. Cross-stratification and the absence of lime mud indicate high-energy conditions. Porosity and permeability in the lower foreshore facies average 10.9% and 496 md, respectively. The ooid beach facies is characterized by well-sorted, cross-bedded, and massive ooid grainstones that tend to be extensively calcite cemented. Porosity and permeability values are generally below 2% and 1 md, respectively, although they can be higher adjacent to porous lower foreshore strata. The top of the Smackover is a transition from high-energy, sandy ooid beach (grainstone) to low-permeability, lagoonal siliciclastics, which seal the reservoir. Depositional features suggesting tidal channels at the east and west ends of the field support a beach and/or barrier island interpretation. Coral-algal boundstones of the patch reef facies are thin, local, and not of reservoir quality. The value of predicting reservoir trends from cores is shown by a successful 400-ft sidetrack away from a borehole with no reservoir facies or oil shows. A slashed {open_quotes}piece of the rock{close_quotes} can pay off in Smackover development.

  12. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida’s beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  13. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  14. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Two-year results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Carr, Sandra E.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Svoboda, Judy V.; Huls, M. H.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of iodine to maintain microbial water quality in a simulated spacecraft water system is being studied. An iodine level of about 2.0 mg/L is maintained by passing ultrapure influent water through an iodinated ion exchange resin. Six liters are withdrawn daily and the chemical and microbial quality of the water is monitored regularly. Stainless steel coupons used to monitor biofilm formation are being analyzed by culture methods, epifluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Results from the first two years of operation show a single episode of high bacterial colony counts in the iodinated system. This growth was apparently controlled by replacing the iodinated ion exchange resin. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that the iodine has limited but not completely eliminated the formation of biofilm during the first two years of operation. Significant microbial contamination has been present continuously in a parallel noniodinated system since the third week of operation.

  15. Energy Extension Service pilot program: Evaluation report after two years. Volume I. Evaluation summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the impacts and costs of the two years of the pilot program, and to check the consistency of findings over the two year period. The analysis addresses the following questions: (1) Were the impact findings of Year I and Year II consistent, or did Year I and Year II attitudes and behavior vary. If variation existed, could it be attributed to program changes as the EES progressed from a start-up phase (Year I) to more normal service delivery (Year II). (2) Did costs of service delivery change (again reflecting start-up and normal service delivery costs). Did cost changes affect conclusions about the relative cost effectiveness of delivering services to different target audiences. 73 tables.

  16. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the beach will be reduced and part of the beach can be replaced, and providing aesthetic and economic value to the beach in order to maintain the coastal protection programme. Acknowledgements This work was performed in the framework of the PEFYKA project within the KRIPIS Αction of the GSRT. The project is funded by Greece and the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union under the NSRF and the O.P. Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship. It has also been supported by the "Estimation of the vunlerability of coastal areas to climatic change and sea level rise. Pilot study in Crete isl. Programme for the promotion of the exchange and scientific cooperation between Greece and Germany" programme IKYDA2013.

  17. Severity of Giardia infection associated with post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A high rate of post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in Bergen, Norway in 2004 has previously been reported. The aim of this report was to identify risk factors associated with such manifestations. Methods All laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis (n = 1262) during the outbreak in Bergen in 2004 received a postal questionnaire two years after. Degree of post-infectious abdominal symptoms and fatigue, as well as previous abdominal problems, was recorded. In the statistical analyses number of treatment courses, treatment refractory infection, delayed education and sick leave were used as indices of protracted and severe Giardia infection. Age, gender, previous abdominal problems and symptoms during infection were also analysed as possible risk factors. Simple and multiple ordinal logistic regression models were used for the analyses. Results The response rate was 81% (1017/1262), 64% were women and median age was 31 years (range 3-93), compared to 61% women and 30 years (range 2-93) among all 1262 cases. Factors in multiple regression analysis significantly associated with abdominal symptoms two years after infection were: More than one treatment course, treatment refractory infection, delayed education, bloating and female gender. Abdominal problems prior to Giardia infection were not associated with post-infectious abdominal symptoms. More than one treatment course, delayed education, sick leave more than 2 weeks, and malaise at the time of infection, were significantly associated with fatigue in the multiple regression analysis, as were increasing age and previous abdominal problems. Conclusion Protracted and severe giardiasis seemed to be a risk factor for post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after clearing the Giardia infection. PMID:20003489

  18. Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sands from Rizhao bathing beach, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2008-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was determined for beach sand samples collected from Rizhao bathing beach, China, using gamma ray spectrometry. The measured activity in beach sand ranges from 7.6 to 17.2, 7.8 to 25.1 and 883.4 to 1313.6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K with mean values of 12.0, 15.2 and 1079.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in beach sands are lower, while (40)K is higher than the world average. The radium equivalent activity in all beach sand samples is lower than the safe limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of the external hazard index are less than unity. The mean outdoor air absorbed dose rate is 59.8 nGy h(-1) and the corresponding outdoor effective dose rate is 0.073 mSv y(-1). PMID:18325933

  19. Posttraumatic stress disorder in African Americans: a two year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Sibrava, Nicholas J; Kohn-Wood, Laura; Bjornsson, Andri S; Zlotnick, Caron; Weisberg, Risa; Keller, Martin B

    2014-12-15

    The present study was a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal investigation of the two year course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of African Americans with anxiety disorders. The study objectives were to examine the two year course of PTSD and to evaluate differences between African Americans with PTSD and anxiety disorders and African Americans with anxiety disorders but no PTSD with regard to comorbidity, psychosocial impairment, physical and emotional functioning, and treatment participation. The participants were 67 African Americans with PTSD and 98 African Americans without PTSD (mean age 41.5 years, 67.3% female). Individuals with PTSD were more likely to have higher comorbidity, lower functioning, and they were less likely to seek treatment than those with other anxiety disorders but no PTSD. The rate of recovery from PTSD over two years was 0.10 and recovery from comorbid Major Depressive Disorder was 0.55. PTSD appears to be persistent over time in this population. The rates of recovery were lower than what has been reported in previous longitudinal studies with predominantly non-Latino Whites. It is imperative to examine barriers to treatment and factors related to treatment engagement for this population. PMID:25086766

  20. NSF Programs That Support Research in the Two-Year College Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, V.; Ryan, J. G.; Singer, J.

    2011-12-01

    The National Science Foundation recognizes the significant role provided by two-year institutions in providing high quality STEM courses to large numbers of students. For some students the STEM courses completed while attending a two-year institution represent the only STEM courses a student may take; for others the courses serve as the foundation to continue on into a STEM major at a four-year institution; and some students complete STEM courses that lead directly into the workforce. Several programs in the Division of Undergraduate Research, including the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program, STEM Talent Expansion Program (STEP), and the Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES) program, support the inclusion of student research experiences at two-year institutions. Information about these programs and examples of successful funded projects will be provided. Resources for faculty considering applying for support will be shared with special attention to a faculty development program designed to help faculty learn about funding opportunities and prepare proposals for submission to the TUES and ATE programs.

  1. Quadriceps strength and weight acceptance strategies continue to improve two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roewer, Ben D.; Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly-injured knee ligament during sporting activities. After injury, most individuals experience episodes of the knee giving way during daily activities (non-copers). Non-copers demonstrate asymmetrical quadriceps strength and movement patterns which could have long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine if non-copers resolve their strength and movement asymmetries within two years after surgery. 26 non-copers were recruited to undergo pre-operative quadriceps strength testing and 3-dimensional gait analysis. Subjects underwent surgery to reconstruct the ligament followed by physical therapy focused on restoring normal range of motion, quadriceps strength, and function. Subjects returned for quadriceps strength testing and gait analysis six months and two years after surgery. Acutely after injury, quadriceps strength was asymmetric between limbs, but resolved six months after surgery. Asymmetric knee angles, knee moments, and knee and hip power profiles were also observed acutely after injury and persisted six months after surgery despite subjects achieving symmetrical quadriceps strength. Two years after surgery, quadriceps strength in the involved limb continued to improve and most kinematic and kinetic asymmetries resolved. These findings suggest that adequate quadriceps strength does not immediately resolve gait asymmetries in non-copers. They also suggest that non-copers have the capacity to improve their quadriceps strength and gait symmetry long after ACL reconstruction. PMID:21592482

  2. A two-year perspective: who may ease the burden of girls’ loneliness in school?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness is negatively related to good health and wellbeing, especially among girls. There is little research, however, on factors that may ease the burdens of loneliness in the school setting. Thus, we explored the relationship between girls’ loneliness and later school wellbeing adjusted for other adversities. Furthermore, we assessed the significance of having someone whom the girl trusted by investigating possible modifying influences on the addressed association. Methods Altogether, 119 girls in grades 1–8 provided baseline data and answered the same set of questions two years later. Logistic regression models including perceived academic problems, victimisation by bullying, loneliness and trusted others were tested with bad versus good school wellbeing two years later as outcome using SPSS. Results In the multivariable analysis of loneliness, academic problems, and victimisation, loneliness was the only variable showing a strong and negative contribution to later school wellbeing. Next, demonstrated in separate models; the inclusion of having a trusted class advisor fully attenuated the association of loneliness with later school wellbeing. In contrast, other trusted teachers, trusted parents, or trusted students did not affect the association. Conclusions Loneliness in girls strongly predicted school wellbeing two years later. However, having a class advisor whom the girl trusted to contact in hurtful situations clearly reduced the burden of loneliness. This finding highlights the clinical importance of stability, long-lasting relations, and trust that main teachers may represent for lonely girls. PMID:24712912

  3. Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2004-06-01

    This volume discusses the role of humans in transforming the coastal landscape. The book details the many ways beaches and dunes are eliminated, altered and replaced and the differences between natural landforms and the human artefacts that replace them. Emphasis is placed on the importance of retaining naturally functioning beaches and dunes in ways that achieve natural values while accommodating development and use. The issues dealt with in this book will be of interest to practising coastal engineers and research scientists, as well as to planners and managers of coastal resources at all levels of government. It will be of particular value to investigators planning for the future of coastal development under accelerated sea level rise. The book will also be useful as a reference text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in geography, geology, ecology and other disciplines dealing with the interaction between science, technology and society.

  4. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham

    2000-08-01

    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  5. Sand Beach Bacteria: Enumeration and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Khiyama, H. M.; Makemson, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Bacteria in the water-saturated sand of a relatively unpolluted sand beach were enumerated by direct microscope and viable counting. The number of interstitial bacteria was estimated to be a significant fraction of the total number of bacteria present. Three hundred sixty-two strains were isolated and submitted to cultural and biochemical tests. Fermentational abilities and the production of indole suggested that a significant number of these bacteria were symbiotically associated with resident metazoans. PMID:4356458

  6. Supporting Geoscience Students at Two-Year Colleges: Career Preparation and Academic Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Kirk, K. B.; Layou, K.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.; Hodder, J.

    2013-12-01

    Two-year colleges play an important role in developing a competent and creative geoscience workforce, teaching science to pre-service K-12 teachers, producing earth-science literate citizens, and providing a foundation for broadening participation in the geosciences. The Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education in Two-Year Colleges (SAGE 2YC) project has developed web resources for geoscience faculty on the preparation and support of students in two-year colleges (2YCs). Online resources developed from two topical workshops and several national, regional, and local workshops around the country focus on two main categories: Career Preparation and Workforce Development, and Supporting Student Success in Geoscience at Two-year Colleges. The Career Preparation and Workforce Development resources were developed to help faculty make the case that careers in the geosciences provide a range of possibilities for students and to support preparation for the geoscience workforce and for transfer to four-year programs as geoscience majors. Many two-year college students are unaware of geoscience career opportunities and these materials help illuminate possible futures for them. Resources include an overview of what geoscientists do; profiles of possible careers along with the preparation necessary to qualify for them; geoscience employer perspectives about jobs and the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes they are looking for in their employees; employment trends in sectors of the economy that employ geoscience professionals; examples of geotechnician workforce programs (e.g. Advanced Technological Education Centers, environmental technology programs, marine technician programs); and career resources available from professional societies. The website also provides information to support student recruitment into the geosciences and facilitate student transfer to geoscience programs at four- year colleges and universities, including sections on advising support before and after transfer, research opportunities, and 2YC-4YC collaborations. Improving student success is an important priority at most 2YCs, and is especially challenging because students who enroll at a 2YC arrive with a wide range of abilities, preparation, and goals. Web resources that build on research from education, cognitive science, and psychology address topics such as stereotype threat, solo status, the affective domain, and effective teaching approaches. Other materials describe how to work with various student populations (e.g., English-language learners, students with disabilities, veterans), approaches to strengthening students' ability to monitor their own learning, and other strategies for supporting student success. Programs that support student success in general are important for the more specific goal of developing the geoscience workforce.

  7. Independent risk factors for beach-related injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Petronis, Kelli A; Welch, J Camille; Pruitt, Charles W

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted in a resort area during the summer tourist season to identify independent risk factors for injuries to children in a beach environment. Surveys including demographics, environmental and beach conditions, group characteristics, and hypothesized risk factors were administered to 28 cases and 105 controls. The most common injuries were lacerations and puncture wounds, followed by musculoskeletal injuries. The following environmental factors were found to significantly increase the risk for pediatric beach-related injury: rough/choppy water, cloudy weather, greater than 3 children in the group, participation by the child in water safety classes, and use of beach equipment (including boogie boards, skim boards, and kayaks). Providers who care for children can use this information to educate parents about beach safety. Targeted interventions that address these risk factors may reduce injuries sustained by children in a beach environment. PMID:19164132

  8. Shifts in the Microbial Community Composition of Gulf Coast Beaches Following Beach Oiling

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Huse, Susan M.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Peake, Colin S.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

  9. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand population structures. Among sequences classified to genus, Alcanivorax, Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Winogradskyella, and Zeaxanthinibacter exhibited the largest relative abundance increases in oiled sands. PMID:24040219

  10. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  11. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  12. The role of tides in beach cusp development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coco, Giovanni; Burnet, Tom K.; Werner, B. T.; Elgar, Steve

    2004-04-01

    Field measurements of morphology and swash flow during three episodes of beach cusp development indicate that tides modulate the height and cross-shore position of beach cusps. During rising tide, beach cusp height decreases as embayments accrete more than horns and the cross-shore extent of beach cusps decreases. During falling tide, beach cusp height increases as embayments erode more than horns and cross-shore extent increases. A numerical model for beach cusp formation based on self-organization, extended to include the effects of morphological smoothing seaward of the swash front and infiltration into the beach, reproduces the observed spacing, position, and tidal modulation. During rising tide, water particles simulating swash infiltrate, preferentially in embayments, causing enhanced deposition. During falling tide, exfiltration of water particles combined with diversion of swash from horns causes enhanced erosion in embayments. Smoothing of beach morphology in the swash zone seaward of the swash front and in the shallow surf zone accounts for most of the observed tidal modulation, even in the absence of infiltration and exfiltration. Despite the qualitative, and in some cases quantitative, agreement of the model and measurements, the model fails to reproduce observed large deviations of horn orientation from shore normal, some aspects of beach cusp shape, and deviations from the basic tidal modulation, possibly because of the simplified parameterization of cross-shore sediment transport and the neglect of the effects of sea surface gradients on flow.

  13. Cognitive performance in recreational ecstasy polydrug users: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Sola Llopis, S; Miguelez-Pan, M; Peña-Casanova, J; Poudevida, S; Farré, M; Pacifici, R; Böhm, P; Abanades, S; Verdejo García, A; Langohr, K; Zuccaro, P; de la Torre, R

    2008-07-01

    There is important preclinical evidence of long lasting neurotoxic and selective effects of ecstasy MDMA on serotonin systems in non-human primates. In humans long-term recreational use of ecstasy has been mainly associated with learning and memory impairments. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile associated with ecstasy use within recreational polydrug users, and describe the cognitive changes related to maintained or variable ecstasy use along a two years period. We administered cognitive measures of attention, executive functions, memory and learning to three groups of participants: 37 current polydrug users with regular consumption of ecstasy and cannabis, 23 current cannabis users and 34 non-users free of illicit drugs. Four cognitive assessments were conducted during two years. At baseline, ecstasy polydrug users showed significantly poorer performance than cannabis users and non-drug using controls in a measure of semantic word fluency. When ecstasy users were classified according to lifetime use of ecstasy, the more severe users (more than 100 tablets) showed additional deficits on episodic memory. After two years ecstasy users showed persistent deficits on verbal fluency, working memory and processing speed. These findings should be interpreted with caution, since the possibility of premorbid group differences cannot be entirely excluded. Our findings support that ecstasy use, or ecstasy/cannabis synergic effects, are responsible for the sub-clinical deficits observed in ecstasy polydrug users, and provides additional evidence for long-term cognitive impairment owing to ecstasy consumption in the context of polydrug use. PMID:18208910

  14. Creating Authentic Geoscience Research Experiences for Underrepresented Students in Two-Year Undergraduate Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.

    2014-12-01

    With community college and two-year program students playing pivotal roles in advancing the nation's STEM agenda now and throughout the remainder of this young millennia, it is incumbent on educators to devise innovative and sustainable STEM initiatives to attract, retain, graduate, and elevate these students to four-year programs and beyond. Involving these students in comprehensive, holistic research experiences is one approach that has paid tremendous dividends. The New York City College of Technology (City Tech) was recently awarded a National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) supplemental grant to integrate a community college/two-year program component into its existing REU program. The program created an inviting and supportive community of scholars for these students, nurtured them through strong, dynamic mentoring, provided them with the support structures needed for successful scholarship, and challenged them to attain the same research prominence as their Bachelor degree program companions. Along with their colleagues, the community college/two-year program students were given an opportunity to conduct intensive satellite and ground-based remote sensing research at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Remote Sensing Science and Technology Center (NOAA-CREST) at City College and its CREST Institute Center for Remote Sensing and Earth System Science (ReSESS) at City Tech. This presentation highlights the challenges, the rewards, and the lessons learned from this necessary and timely experiment. Preliminary results indicate that this paradigm for geoscience inclusion and high expectation has been remarkably successful. (The program is supported by NSF REU grant #1062934.)

  15. Controlled two year follow up of rehabilitation for disorders in the neck and shoulders.

    PubMed Central

    Ekberg, K; Björkqvist, B; Malm, P; Bjerre-Kiely, B; Axelson, O

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the effects of an early, active, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for neck and shoulder disorders. METHODS--Primary health care and industrial health care of a nonrandomised, controlled, cohort was followed up over two years in a geographically defined area. The cohort consisted of working people who consulted a physician about disorders of the neck or shoulders from 1 August 1988 to 31 October 1989. Criteria for acceptance; not chronic symptoms, patients had sick leave of no more than four weeks. Disorders were not caused by trauma, infections, malignancy, rheumatic diseases, abuse, or pregnancy. 107 people qualified for the study, 87% were followed up for two years. They were divided into two groups. One group obtained active, multidisciplinary rehabilitation for eight weeks that comprised physical training, information, education, social interaction, and work place visits. Controls were given traditional treatment; physiotherapy, medication, rest, and sick leave. The main outcome measures were: average number of days of sick leave for the two years after rehabilitation, subjective pain on a visual analogue scale, and ratings on seven subscales of the sickness impact profile. RESULTS--At 12 and 24 months of follow up effects of the active rehabilitation programme did not differ from traditional treatment in any of the outcome measures. New work task (P < 0.05) or changed work place (P < 0.001) during the follow up period were associated with decreased sick leave, independent of treatment. CONCLUSIONS--Active, multidisciplinary rehabilitation of neck and shoulder disorders was not more effective than traditional treatment. Changed work conditions were associated with decreased sick leave, independent of type of treatment provided. PMID:7849868

  16. Trajectories of Social Support and Well-Being Across the First Two Years of Widowhood

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Sara M.; Bisconti, Toni L.; Bergeman, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The death of a spouse can be one of the most challenging events an older adult can face, yet many exhibit resilience. The present study examined the trajectories of structural and functional social support components, depression, and life satisfaction across the first 2 years of widowhood. The majority of structural and functional support trajectories exhibited stability across the first two years postloss. However, emotional support and support provided by family members did display a slight decline across time. Depression showed a linear pattern across time (e.g., decline in depressive symptomology) and life satisfaction demonstrated evidence of a 1-year anniversary effect. PMID:24845999

  17. Two years of the operation of a domestic MBR wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikorová, Tina

    2012-06-01

    The paper evaluates the results of data obtained from two years of observing an actual domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with an immersed membrane module. The domestic MBR (membrane bioreactor) WWTP was linked to a dwelling with four residents. Two different commercial flat sheet membrane modules were investigated. The membrane modules, as well as the whole WWTP, were tested with different fluxes as well as the response of the membrane and activated sludge to different conditions, such as actual peak wastewater flows, extremes temperatures (a winter below 5 °C), and high pH values.

  18. Fournier's Gangrene in a Two Year Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bains, Satinder Pal Singh; Singh, Vikram; Gill, Manmeet Kaur; Jain, Amit; Arry, Vivek

    2014-08-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and external genitalia is a life-threatening infective gangrene, primarily seen in adults. It may be seen at any age but it is relatively uncommon in children. Here, we report a case of Fournier's gangrene in a two year old male child who was treated aggressively with broad spectrum antibiotics and early surgical debridement with hemodynamic stabilization. Even though no obvious precipitating cause was identified, hygiene was thought to be the inciting factor. Early surgical debridement with appropriate antibiotics and aggressive supportive care gave good results. PMID:25302233

  19. Fournier’s Gangrene in a Two Year Old Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Satinder Pal Singh; Singh, Vikram; Jain, Amit; Arry, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and external genitalia is a life-threatening infective gangrene, primarily seen in adults. It may be seen at any age but it is relatively uncommon in children. Here, we report a case of Fournier’s gangrene in a two year old male child who was treated aggressively with broad spectrum antibiotics and early surgical debridement with hemodynamic stabilization. Even though no obvious precipitating cause was identified, hygiene was thought to be the inciting factor. Early surgical debridement with appropriate antibiotics and aggressive supportive care gave good results. PMID:25302233

  20. Prostate cancer outcomes in France: treatments, adverse effects and two-year mortality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This very large population-based study investigated outcomes after a diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) in terms of mortality rates, treatments and adverse effects. Methods Among the 11 million men aged 40 years and over covered by the general national health insurance scheme, those with newly managed PCa in 2009 were followed for two years based on data from the national health insurance information system (SNIIRAM). Patients were identified using hospitalisation diagnoses and specific refunds related to PCa and PCa treatments. Adverse effects of PCa treatments were identified by using hospital diagnoses, specific procedures and drug refunds. Results The age-standardised two-year all-cause mortality rate among the 43,460 men included in the study was 8.4%, twice that of all men aged 40 years and over. Among the 36,734 two-year survivors, 38% had undergone prostatectomy, 36% had been treated by hormone therapy, 29% by radiotherapy, 3% by brachytherapy and 20% were not treated. The frequency of treatment-related adverse effects varied according to age and type of treatment. Among men between 50 and 69 years of age treated by prostatectomy alone, 61% were treated for erectile dysfunction and 24% were treated for urinary disorders. The frequency of treatment for these disorders decreased during the second year compared to the first year (erectile dysfunction: 41% vs 53%, urinary disorders: 9% vs 20%). The frequencies of these treatments among men treated by external beam radiotherapy alone were 7% and 14%, respectively. Among men between 50 and 69 years with treated PCa, 46% received treatments for erectile dysfunction and 22% for urinary disorders. For controls without PCa but treated surgically for benign prostatic hyperplasia, these frequencies were 1.5% and 6.0%, respectively. Conclusions We report high survival rates two years after a diagnosis of PCa, but a high frequency of PCa treatment-related adverse effects. These frequencies remain underestimated, as they are based on treatments for erectile dysfunction and urinary disorders and do not reflect all functional outcomes. These results should help urologists and general practitioners to inform their patients about outcomes at the time of screening and diagnosis, and especially about potential treatment-related adverse effects. PMID:24927850

  1. THE FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST CATALOG: THE FIRST TWO YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Paciesas, William S.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, Michael S.; Burgess, J. Michael; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Goldstein, Adam; Guiriec, Sylvain; Meegan, Charles A.; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Von Kienlin, Andreas; Diehl, Roland; Foley, Suzanne; Greiner, Jochen; Gruber, David; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Fishman, Gerald J.; Gibby, Melissa; Giles, Misty; and others

    2012-03-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is designed to enhance the scientific return from Fermi in studying gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In its first two years of operation GBM triggered on 491 GRBs. We summarize the criteria used for triggering and quantify the general characteristics of the triggered GRBs, including their locations, durations, peak flux, and fluence. This catalog is an official product of the Fermi GBM science team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  2. CNR LARA Project: Evaluation of two years of airborne imaging spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, R.; Cavalli, R.M.; Fiumi, L.; Marino, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    Since last July 1994 the Daedalus AA5000 MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) instrument, acquired by CNR (Italian National Research Council) in the framework of its LARA (Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Studies) Project, has been intensively operative. A number of MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) deployments have been carried out in Italy and Europe in cooperation with national and international institutions on a variety of sites, including active volcanoes, coastlines, lagoons and ocean, vegetated and cultivated areas, oil polluted surfaces, waste discharges, and archeological sites. Two years of activity have shown the high system efficiency, from the survey to data preprocessing and dissemination. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Undergraduate Research in Geoscience with Students from Two-year Colleges: SAGE 2YC Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Hodder, J.; Macdonald, H.; Baer, E. M.; Blodgett, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Undergraduate research experiences are important for the development of expertise in geoscience disciplines. These experiences have been shown to help students learn content and skills, promote students' cognitive and affective development, and develop students' sense of self. Early exposure to research experiences has shown to be effective in the recruitment of students, improved retention and persistence in degree programs, motivation for students to learn and increase self-efficacy, improved attitudes and values about science, and overall increased student success. Just as departments at four-year institutions (4YCs) are increasingly integrating research into their introductory courses, two-year college (2YC) geoscience faculty have a great opportunity to ground their students in authentic research. The Undergraduate Research with Two-year College Students website developed by SAGE 2YC: Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-year Colleges provides ideas and advice for 2YC and 4YC faculty who want to get more 2YC students involved in research. The continuum of possibilities for faculty to explore includes things that can be done at 2YCs (eg. doing research as part of a regular course, developing a course specifically around research on a particular topic, or independent study), done in collaboration with other local institutions (eg. using their facilities, conducting joint class research, or using research to support transfer programs), and by involving students in the kind of organized Undergraduate Research programs run by a number of institutions and organizations. The website includes profiles illustrating how 2YC geoscience faculty have tackled these various models of research and addressed potential challenges such as lack of time, space, and funding as part of supporting the wide diversity of students that attend 2YCs, most of whom have less experience than that of rising seniors who are the traditional REU participant. The website also provides resources on effective strategies for developing REU programs for community college students, examples of successful multi-year programs, links to other projects working on undergraduate research in the first two years, and references for further reading. serc.carleton.edu/sage2yc/studentsuccess/ug-research/

  4. The stability of calibration standards for ICP/AES analysis: A two-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, D.R.; Huff, E.A.

    1994-06-01

    The stability of instrument calibration standards for Inductively Coupled Plasma/Atomic Emission Spectrometric analysis was studied over a two-year period. Data were obtained as functions of analyte concentration, acid type, and acidity. The impact of acid concentration on signal-to-background ratios was also assessed. The results show that, with the appropriate choice of inorganic acid preservatives, most analytes maintain their integrity over extended periods; thus frequent standard preparations are not necessary to obtain valid analytical data. This conclusion allows for more efficient use of commercially purchased reference materials, which should reduce procurement costs and minimize chemical waste.

  5. Analysis of RSO's close approaches with the ISS during two years flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapov, V. M.; Khutorovsky, Z. N.

    2001-10-01

    On Nov 20, 1998 the first module of the ISS - Zarya, was successfully launched from Baykonur cosmodrome. On Dec 6 1998 another module - Unity, was docked to Zarya and since that almost two years, till Jul 2000, the ISS had been orbiting the Earth in such configuration, sometimes changing it with rare Shuttle visits. It is interesting to analyze the orbital "vicinity" of the ISS during this period of relatively stable flight with minimal amount of dynamical operations. A posteriori analysis of whole orbital archive revealed some close approaches with the ISS. Technique of close approaches calculations and archive maintenance will be discussed in this presentation.

  6. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  7. Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.

    2013-10-01

    Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL) that incorporate wave setup and runup, may be particularly applicable to upper intertidal biota whose distributions closely followed the high tide strand line (HTS), a feature which tracks total water level (TWL). Developing a TWL approach may also provide new insights on habitat availability for beach nesting wildlife and coastal strand vegetation. Conservation of beach ecosystems could be enhanced by incorporating sufficient beach habitat to accommodate the dynamic ecological envelopes used by mobile intertidal invertebrates and wildlife.

  8. Two-year follow-up of agoraphobics after exposure and imipramine.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S D; Monteiro, W; Marks, I M

    1984-03-01

    Forty-five agoraphobic out-patients were randomly assigned to treatment with imipramine or placebo, and also to brief therapist-aided exposure or relaxation. All patients did systematic self-exposure homework and recorded this in a diary. Forty of these patients were followed-up two years later with self-ratings and ratings by interviewers blind to their treatment conditions. About two-thirds of the patients remained improved or much improved in their phobias, with no significant difference between any of the four treatment conditions. Spontaneous panics also remained improved. The absence of an imipramine effect may reflect the lack of initial dysphoria (anxiety-depression) in this sample compared with other studies where drug-effects have been found. The post-treatment superiority (evident at week 28) of patients who had therapist-aided exposure was no longer present at the two-year follow-up; the others had caught up, presumably because of their self-exposure homework. PMID:6367875

  9. Predictors of hospital readmission two years after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed Central

    Herlitz, J.; Albertsson, P.; Brandrup-Wognsen, G.; Emanuelsson, H.; Haglid, M.; Hartford, M.; Hjalmarson, A.; Karlson, B. W.; Karlsson, T.; Sandén, W.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical factors before, and in association with, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that increase the risk of readmission to hospital in the first two years after surgery. PATIENTS: All patients in western Sweden who had CABG without simultaneous valve surgery between 1 June 1988 and 1 June 1991. METHODS: All patients who were readmitted to hospital were evaluated by postal inquiry and hospital records. RESULTS: A total of 2121 patients were operated on, of whom 2037 were discharged from hospital. Information regarding readmission was missing in four patients, leaving 2033 patients; 44% were readmitted to hospital. The most common reasons for readmission were angina pectoris and congestive heart failure. There were 12 independent significant predictors for readmission: clinical history (a previous history of either congestive heart failure or myocardial infarction, or CABG); acute operation; postoperative complications (time in intensive care unit greater than two days, neurological complications); clinical findings four to seven days after the operation (arrhythmia, systolic murmur equivalent to mitral regurgitation); medication four to seven days after the operation (antidiabetics, diuretics for heart failure, other antiarrhythmics (other than beta blockers, calcium antagonists, and digitalis), and lack of treatment with aspirin). CONCLUSION: 44% of patients were readmitted to hospital two years after CABG. The most common reasons for readmission were angina pectoris and congestive heart failure. Four clinical markers predicted readmission: clinical history; acute operation status; postoperative complications; and clinical findings and medication four to seven days after operation. PMID:9196414

  10. Autologous chondrocyte implantation in a novel alginate-agarose hydrogel: outcome at two years.

    PubMed

    Selmi, T A S; Verdonk, P; Chambat, P; Dubrana, F; Potel, J-F; Barnouin, L; Neyret, P

    2008-05-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation is an established method of treatment for symptomatic articular defects of cartilage. CARTIPATCH is a monolayer-expanded cartilage cell product which is combined with a novel hydrogel to improve cell phenotypic stability and ease of surgical handling. Our aim in this prospective, multicentre study on 17 patients was to investigate the clinical, radiological, arthroscopic and histological outcome at a minimum follow-up of two years after the implantation of autologous chondrocytes embedded in a three-dimensional alginate-agarose hydrogel for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects. Clinically, all the patients improved significantly. Patients with lesions larger than 3 cm(2) improved significantly more than those with smaller lesions. There was no correlation between the clinical outcome and the body mass index, age, duration of symptoms and location of the defects. The mean arthroscopic International Cartilage Repair Society score was 10 (5 to 12) of a maximum of 12. Predominantly hyaline cartilage was seen in eight of the 13 patients (62%) who had follow-up biopsies. Our findings suggest that autologous chondrocyte implantation in combination with a novel hydrogel results in a significant clinical improvement at follow-up at two years, more so for larger and deeper lesions. The surgical procedure is uncomplicated, and predominantly hyaline cartilage-like repair tissue was observed in eight patients. PMID:18450625

  11. Associations Between Changing Developmental Contexts and Risky Sexual Behavior in the Two Years Following High School

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; White, Helene R.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested associations between common developmental contexts (relationship involvement, independent living, college attendance, work) and risky sexual behavior (casual sex, inconsistent condom use, high-risk sex) across the two years following high school. Data were drawn from the Raising Healthy Children project, and included 801 participants aged 18–21 years. Longitudinal analyses, which controlled for early sexual debut, high school substance use, and high school grades, showed that living with a parent was protective against all three sexual risk behavior outcomes (ORs about 0.70). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with a lower probability of casual sex, but a higher probability of inconsistent condom use. Attending college was associated with a lower probability of high-risk sex (OR = 0.67). Working was not related to the sexual risk behaviors examined. Levels of sexual risk behavior showed little change across the two years following high school. Findings from this study suggest that developmental context may affect young adults’ engagement in risky sexual behavior. Programs aimed at promoting sexual health and reducing risk behaviors for STIs among young adults should consider targeting those in romantic relationships, those not living with parents, and those not attending college. Further, to develop effective prevention programs for these targeted youth, it is critical that we understand the mechanisms leading to risky sex in these groups. PMID:20571863

  12. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume I. Evaluation summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    The EES pilot program was initiated in August 1977, when 10 states were selected on a competitive basis for participation. The pilot states (Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) devoted the first 6 months to start-up activities. This document is a follow-up report to the three volume Evaluation Summary of the first year of the pilot EES program published in September 1979. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the impacts and costs of the two years of the pilot program, and to check the consistency of findings over the two year period. The analysis addresses the following: (1) were the impact findings of Year I and Year II consistent, or did Year I and Year II attitudes and behavior vary. If variation existed, could it be attributed to program changes as the EES progressed from a start-up phase (Year I) to more normal service delivery (Year II); and (2) did costs of service delivery change (again reflecting start-up and normal service delivery costs). Did cost changes affect conclusions about the relative cost effectiveness of delivering services to different target audiences.

  13. Trajectories of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum among overweight or obese women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Stroo, Marissa; Fuemmeler, Bernard; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls

    2014-01-01

    Background Although depressive symptoms are common postpartum, few studies have followed women beyond 12 months postpartum to investigate changes in the number and severity of these symptoms over time, especially in overweight and obese women. Using two complementary analytical methods, this study aims to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum among overweight or obese mothers, and assess the demographic, socio-economic , and health covariates for these trajectories. Methods Using longitudinal data from two behavioral intervention studies (KAN-DO and AMP; N = 844), we used latent growth modeling to identify the overall trajectory of depressive symptoms and how it was related to key covariates. Next, we used latent class growth analysis to assess the heterogeneity in the depressive symptom trajectories over time, and thereby, identify subgroups of women with distinct trajectories. Findings The overall trajectory of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum was relatively stable in our sample. However, the presence of three distinct latent class trajectories [stable-low (82.5%), decreasing symptoms (7.3%) and increasing symptoms (10.2%)], identified based on trajectory shape and mean depressive symptom score, supported heterogeneity in depressive symptom trajectories over time. Lower maternal education was related to a higher symptom score, and poorer subjective health status at baseline predicted inclusion in the increasing symptoms trajectory. Conclusions In some overweight or obese mothers postpartum depressive symptoms do not resolve quickly. Practitioners should be aware of this phenomenon and continue to screen for depression for longer periods of time postpartum. PMID:25213748

  14. International Space Station Internal Thermal Control System Cold Plate/Fluid-Stability Test: Two Year Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Paul; Holt, Mike; Roman, Monsi; Cole, Harold; Daugherty, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Operation of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Cold Plate/Fluid-Stability Test Facility commenced on September 5, 2000. The facility was intended to provide advance indication of potential problems on board the International Space Station (ISS) and was designed: 1) To be materially similar to the flight ITCS. 2) To allow for monitoring during operation. 3) To run continuously for three years. During the first two years of operation the conditions of the coolant and components were remarkably stable. During this same period of time, the conditions of the ISS ITCS significantly diverged from the desired state. Due to this divergence, the test facility has not been providing information useful for predicting the flight ITCS condition. Results of the first two years are compared with flight conditions over the same time period, showing the similarities and divergences. To address the divergences, the test facility was modified incrementally to more closely match the flight conditions, and to gain insight into the reasons for the divergence. Results of these incremental changes are discussed and provide insight into the development of the conditions on orbit.

  15. Website Resources and Support for Two-Year College Geoscience Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Macdonald, H.; Blodgett, R. H.; Manduca, C. A.; Maier, M.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience faculty at two-year colleges (2YC) face a number of challenges, from the wide diversity of the student population to being isolated from other geoscience faculty. Several projects have developed web resources that address some of these issues by providing professional development, teaching materials, and opportunities to connect with their colleagues at other institutions. The Role of Two-Year Colleges in Geoscience Education and in Broadening Participation in the Geosciences project brought together 2YC faculty from across the country for a planning workshop to discuss these issues and propose strategies and mechanisms to strengthen the 2YC geoscience education community (http://serc.carleton.edu/geo2yc/index.html). The website now hosts more than 30 essays on the state of 2YC education, teaching activities, and course descriptions submitted by 2YC faculty as well as an email discussion list and other ways of networking and discussing important. One outcome of this work is that the National Association of Geoscience Teachers has created a division for 2YC faculty so that members can network with each other and discuss solutions to pressing issues. (http://nagt.org/nagt/divisions/2yc/index.html) The On the Cutting Edge program has an array of professional development resources available (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/). Over its decade of work, the program has developed resources on topics of interest to 2YC faculty including: teaching introductory courses, the affective domain, teaching with data, metacognition, online courses, teaching about hazards, and many others. There are also extensive collections of teaching activities and visualizations. In addition, the program continues to hold face-to-face and virtual professional development workshops and webinars that are accessible to 2YC faculty and can help them feel less isolated The Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience (http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo) website is specifically aimed at all those teaching introductory classes, including two-year college faculty. This website includes information about a variety of teaching strategies (e.g., lecture tutorials, service learning, just-in-time teaching) and a set of geoscience teaching examples. This is valuable for faculty interested in new approaches to teaching or who want to see examples of activities they can adopt or adapt. The interdisciplinary project Two-year College Outreach Across the Disciplines (http://serc.carleton.edu/econ/2yc/disciplines/index.html) summarizes best practices in nine disciplines, including the geosciences. At a 2011 workshop, sponsored by Economics at Community Colleges, faculty compared notes on what has worked and what hasn't in terms of strengthening disciplinary and interdisciplinary education at 2YCs. (http://serc.carleton.edu/econ/2yc/index.html) These and other projects have developed resources for supporting and enhancing the efforts of two-year college faculty in the geosciences. A variety of these materials is available via the Teach the Earth portal at http://serc.carleton.edu/teachearth/.

  16. 75 FR 41926 - Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice New Smyrna Beach Municipal Airport, New Smyrna... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the City of New Smyrna... Safety and Noise Abatement Act) and 14 CFR Part 150 are in compliance with applicable requirements....

  17. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  18. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  19. Campus Planning Study for Daytona Beach Junior College, Daytona Beach, Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudill, Rowlett and Scott, Architects, Houston, TX.

    Major considerations and findings are presented in regard to the updating of a long range campus plan for the development of buildings, parking areas, drives and sidewalks at Daytona Beach Junior College. Following a consideration of the background and program of the college, a site analysis is presented. Plans and recommendations are offered…

  20. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... and Interference with Constitutionally Protected Property Rights. Civil Justice Reform This rule meets applicable standards in sections 3(a) and 3(b)(2) of Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform, to...

  1. Ventilation rates in large commercial layer hen houses with two-year continuous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chai, L; Ni, J-Q; Diehl, C A; Kilic, I; Heber, A J; Chen, Y; Cortus, E L; Bogan, B W; Lim, T T; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J-C; Chen, L

    2012-01-01

    1. Ventilation controls the indoor environment and is critical for poultry production and welfare. Ventilation is also crucial for assessing aerial pollutant emissions from the poultry industry. Published ventilation data for commercial layer houses have been limited, and are mostly based on short-term studies, mainly because monitoring airflow from large numbers of fans is technically challenging. 2. A two-year continuous ventilation monitoring trial was conducted at two commercial manure belt houses (A and B), each with 250 000 layers and 88 130-cm exhaust fans. All the fans were individually monitored with fan rotational speed sensors or vibration sensors. Differential static pressures across the house walls were also measured. Three fan performance assessment methods were applied periodically to determine fan degradations. Fan models were developed to calculate house ventilations. 3. A total of 693 and 678 complete data days, each containing >16 h of valid ventilation data, were obtained in houses A and B, respectively. The two-year mean ventilation rates of houses A and B were 2·08 and 2·10 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1), corresponding to static pressures of -36·5 and -48·9 Pa, respectively. For monthly mean ventilation, the maximum rates were 4·87 and 5·01 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in July 2008, and the minimum were 0·59 and 0·81 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in February 2008, for houses A and B, respectively. 4. The two-year mean ventilation rates were similar to those from a survey in Germany and a 6-month study in Indiana, USA, but were much lower than the 8·4 and 6·2 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) from a study in Italy. The minimum monthly mean ventilation rates were similar to the data obtained in winter in Canada, but were lower than the minimum ventilation suggested in the literature. The lower static pressure in house B required more ventilation energy input. The two houses, although identical, demonstrated differences in indoor environment controls that represented potential to increase ventilation energy efficiency, and reduce carbon footprints and operational costs. PMID:22404801

  2. Biotope and biology of Armadillidium album Dollfuss, a terrestrial isopod of sandy beaches, in the SW Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vader, Wim; De Wolf, Lein

    The supralittoral isopod Armadillidium album Dollfus is common, although patchily distributed, under driftwood on the foreshore of broad sandy beaches on the outer coast of the Delta area in the SW Netherlands. The isopods are very tolerant of immersion in seawater, but are nevertheless confined to a narrow zone just above normal spring tides. A. album is a sexually reproducing isopod, with a single well-defined reproductive period in summer and a lifespan of two years. In spite of its very specialized biotope, the life cycle and reproductive strategy of A. album do not deviate substantially from those of related ubiquitous terrestrial isopods.

  3. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at the beach, as indicated by an increase in the specific conductance of beach water. Understanding the dynamics of FIB sources (sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora) and transport mechanisms (dispersion and erosion from storm energy, and swash-zone groundwater discharge) is important for improving predictions of potential health risks from FIB in beach water.

  4. 17. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION BEACH & HYDE: Photocopy of May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TURNTABLE RECONSTRUCTION - BEACH & HYDE: Photocopy of May 1956 photograph of the turntable at Beach and Hyde Streets. View to the north. Note position of the tracks atop the turntable and details of the steel members that support the wooden decking. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  6. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  7. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  8. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  9. Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

    Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

  10. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  11. The Beach--A Natural Protection from the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensabaugh, William M.

    1983-01-01

    The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…

  12. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  13. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  14. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  15. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  16. RECREATIONAL BEACH WATER QUALITY MONITORING WITH QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...

  17. Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

  18. Two years since SSAMS: Status of 14C AMS at CAIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Prasad, G. V.; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.

    2015-10-01

    The NEC 250 kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed two years ago at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies (CAIS), University of Georgia. The accelerator is primarily being used for radiocarbon measurements to test the authenticity of natural and bio-based samples while all other samples such as geological, atmospheric, marine and archaeological. are run on the 500 kV, NEC 1.5SDH-1 model tandem accelerator, which has been operating since 2001. The data obtained over a six months period for OXI, OXII, ANU sucrose and FIRI-D are discussed. The mean value of ANU sucrose observed to be slightly lower than the consensus value. The processed blanks on SSAMS produce lower apparent age compared to the tandem accelerator as expected.

  19. Two-Year Predictors of Runaway and Homeless Episodes Following Shelter Services among Substance Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Feng, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Given high levels of health and psychological costs associated with the family disruption of homelessness, identifying predictors of runaway and homeless episodes is an important goal. The current study followed 179 substance abusing, shelter-recruited adolescents who participated in a randomized clinical trial. Predictors of runaway and homeless episodes were examined over a two year period. Results from the hierarchical linear modeling analysis showed that family cohesion and substance use, but not family conflict or depressive symptoms, delinquency, or school enrollment predicted future runaway and homeless episodes. Findings suggest that increasing family support, care and connection and reducing substance use are important targets of intervention efforts in preventing future runaway and homeless episodes amongst a high risk sample of adolescents. PMID:24011094

  20. Monitoring the >100 keV Gamma-Ray Sky Using GBM: The First Two Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, G. L.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Chaplin, V.; Cherry, M. L.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P.; Rodi, J.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

    2010-10-01

    The Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard Fermi is being used to monitor hard x-ray/soft gamma-ray sources in the energy range of 8-1000 keV using the Earth occultation technique. Through the first two years of this monitoring program, eight sources have been detected at energies above 100 keV, including six persistent sources (Crab, Cyg X-1, Cen A, 1E 1740-29, SWIFT J1753.5-0127, and GRS 1915+105) and two transients (XTE J1752-223 and GX 339-4). Light curves of all eight sources using the GBM 8-channel CTIME data are presented along with discussion of the high energy behavior.

  1. Two-year evolution of perchloroethylene-induced color-vision loss

    SciTech Connect

    Gobba, F.; Righi, E.; Fantuzzi, G.; Predieri, G.; Cavazzuti, L.; Aggazzotti, G.

    1998-05-01

    Progression of perchloroethylene-induced color-vision impairment was studied in 33 dry-cleaner workers at 12 establishments in Modena, Italy. In an initial survey, the authors evaluated exposure with personal passive samplers, and they assessed color vision with the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel. Two years later, workers were reexamined. In 19 workers (subgroup A), exposure to perchloroethylene had increased, whereas in the remaining 14 workers (subgroup B) exposure was reduced. Color vision worsened in subgroup A, but no vision changes were apparent in subgroup B. The results indicated that an increase in exposure during a 2-y period, even if slight, can cause color vision to deteriorate. A similar slight reduction in exposure did not lead to color-vision improvement; perhaps this lack of improvement resulted from (a) an insufficient reduction in exposure, (b) an insufficient reduction in duration of exposure, or (c) irreversible perchloroethylene-induced color-vision loss.

  2. Renal Tuberculosis Presenting as a Mass Lesion in a Two-year-old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Avradip; Mandi, Falguni; Bandyopadhyay, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis usually occurs in young adults and the middle-aged and is very uncommon in the paediatric population. It generally presents with haematuria, pyuria, irritative voiding symptoms and flank pain; presentation as a renal mass is highly unusual. We report a two-year-old girl who was referred to the Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College, Kolkata, India, in June 2014 with abdominal pain. Subsequent radiological investigations revealed a left renal hypoechoic mass lesion. A left nephroureterectomy was performed on suspicion of a Wilms’ tumour. Histopathology indicated an epithelioid granuloma with lymphocytic infiltration, suggestive of a tubercular aetiology. A Mantoux tuberculin skin test was positive; however, there was no evidence of tuberculosis detected elsewhere in the body and the source of the infection could not be identified. A diagnosis of renal tuberculosis was made and the child was treated with antitubercular drugs. The patient was asymptomatic at a six-month follow-up. PMID:26909199

  3. Categorical 12-Step Involvement and Continuous Abstinence at Two-Years

    PubMed Central

    Majer, John M.; Jason, Leonard A.; Aase, Darrin M.; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis of 12-step involvement was conducted among a U.S. sample of patients exiting treatment for substance dependence. Categorical involvement in a set of 12-step activities and summary scores of involvement from the Alcoholics Anonymous Affiliation Scale were examined in relation to continuous abstinence and aftercare (Oxford House or usual care) condition. Participants who were categorically involved in 12-step activities were significantly more likely to maintain continuous abstinence at two years compared to those who were less involved, predicting a greater likelihood of complete abstinence than summary scores of involvement. In addition, participants in the Oxford House condition were significantly more likely to remain continuously abstinent throughout the course of this randomized clinical trial. Findings suggest that categorical involvement in a set of 12-step activities and communal-living settings such as Oxford Houses are independent factors associated with continuous abstinence from both alcohol and illicit drugs among substance dependent persons. PMID:22498012

  4. THE FERMI GBM GAMMA-RAY BURST SPECTRAL CATALOG: THE FIRST TWO YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Adam; Burgess, J. Michael; Preece, Robert D.; Briggs, Michael S.; Guiriec, Sylvain; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chaplin, Vandiver; Van der Horst, Alexander J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; Gibby, Melissa; Giles, Misty; and others

    2012-03-01

    We present systematic spectral analyses of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) during its first two years of operation. This catalog contains two types of spectra extracted from 487 GRBs, and by fitting four different spectral models, this results in a compendium of over 3800 spectra. The models were selected based on their empirical importance to the spectral shape of many GRBs, and the analysis performed was devised to be as thorough and objective as possible. We describe in detail our procedure and criteria for the analyses, and present the bulk results in the form of parameter distributions. This catalog should be considered an official product from the Fermi GBM Science Team, and the data files containing the complete results are available from the High-Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center.

  5. What We Need: The 2012 NASA EPO Forum Survey on Two-Year College STEM Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, R.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Schultz, G.

    2014-07-01

    A survey of community college STEM faculty, administered by the NASA SMD Higher Education Working Group (HEWG), was administered in fall 2012 in an effort to document the demographic make-up and views of community college faculty who teach NASA science-related STEM courses in astronomy, physics, Earth science, and engineering. Nearly half of respondents reported that less than 10% of students in their classroom are “STEMward bound” and indicated the need for STEM resources that can relate science course content and be relevant to the daily life of their students. A number of respondents also noted a new or renewed emphasis on outreach activities within the community served by their institution as part of their job description. The survey suggests specific directions and ways that the NASA SMD EPO forum can support two-year college stakeholders.

  6. LaNotte: the TNG metric system after two years of data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Emilio; Hernandez, Nauzet

    2014-08-01

    The night accounting system laNotte, presented two years ago at SPIE Amsterdam, has now been working without interruption and a wealth of data are becoming available. We can confirm that the human interaction of the night operator is a key factor, so that a manual editor has been given to operator in order to fix all unavoidable errors and misevaluation during the night. The connections with several logging and telemetry databases complete the necessary inputs. We were thus able to monitor the effect of the introduction of a major new instrument (Harps-N@TNG), to measure with accuracy the meteo variability on the Observatory of Roque de los Muchachos, the frequency of technical problems of the various devices. LaNotte complex is also an straightforward way to account for the operations toward funding bodies, providing them with a standard set of data and the quick possibility to look for historic trends.

  7. A two-year longitudinal pilot MRI study of the brainstem in autism

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Roger J.; Frazier, Thomas W.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the potential role of the brainstem in the pathobiology of autism. Previous studies have suggested reductions in brainstem volume and a relationship between this structure and sensory abnormalities. However, little is known regarding the developmental aspects of the brainstem across childhood and adolescence. The goal of this pilot study was to examine brainstem development via MRI volumetry using a longitudinal research design. Participants included 23 boys with autism and 23 matched controls (age range = 7–17 years), all without intellectual disability. Participants underwent structural MRI scans once at baseline and again at two-year follow-up. Brainstem volumetric measurements were performed using the BRAINS2 software package. There were no significant group differences in age, gender, handedness, and total brain volume; however, full-scale IQ was higher in controls. Autism and control groups showed different patterns of growth in brainstem volume. While whole brainstem volume remained stable in controls over the two-year period, the autism group showed increases with age reaching volumes comparable to controls by age 15 years. This increase of whole brainstem volume was primarily driven by bilateral increases in gray matter volume. Findings from this preliminary study are suggestive of developmental brainstem abnormalities in autism primarily involving gray matter structures. These findings are consistent with autism being conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder with alterations in brain-growth trajectories. More longitudinal MRI studies are needed integrating longitudinal cognitive/behavioral data to confirm and elucidate the clinical significance of these atypical growth patterns. PMID:23619132

  8. Growth of Preschool Children at High Risk for Asthma Two Years after Discontinuation of Fluticasone

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Theresa W.; Mauger, David T.; Allen, David B.; Zeiger, Robert S.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Szefler, Stanley J.; Strunk, Robert C.; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Covar, Ronina; Sorkness, Christine A.; Taussig, Lynn M.; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The effect on linear growth of daily long-term inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing is controversial. Objective To determine the effect of daily ICS given for 2 years on linear growth in preschool children with recurrent wheezing. Methods Children ages 2 and 3 years with recurrent wheezing and positive modified asthma predictive indices were randomized to a two-year treatment period of fluticasone propionate CFC (176 mcg/day) or masked-placebo delivered by valved chamber with mask and then followed 2 years off study medication. Height growth determined by stadiometry was compared between treatment groups. Results In the study cohort as a whole, the fluticasone group did not have significantly less linear growth than the placebo-group [change in height from baseline difference (ΔHt) of −0.2 cm (95% CI, −1.1, 0.6)] two years after discontinuation of study treatment. In post-hoc analyses, children 2 years old and who weighed < 15 kg at enrollment treated with fluticasone had less linear growth compared to placebo [ΔHt of −1.6 cm (95% CI, −2.8, −0.4), p=0.009]. Conclusion Linear growth was not significantly different in high-risk, recurrent wheezing preschool age children treated with CFC fluticasone 176 mcg/day compared to placebo 2 years after fluticasone is discontinued. However, post-hoc subgroup analyses revealed that children who are younger in age and of lesser weight relative to the entire study cohort had significantly less linear growth, possibly due to a higher relative fluticasone exposure. PMID:21820163

  9. Two-year variations of phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant contents in acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Azlan, Siti Amirah Mohd; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    Honey is a good source of several important chemical compounds and antioxidants and is harvested throughout the year. However, no study has determined how their contents change over the years. The aim of the present research was to investigate the changes in the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties, as well as other physicochemical properties, of Malaysian acacia honey collected during different months during a two year period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods were used to determine the total antioxidant activity of the honey samples. Generally, honey samples collected in the beginning and the middle of the year tended to have higher sugar content, which may be attributed to its high acidic nature and low moisture content. There was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of the acacia honey samples collected between September 2010 and December 2010. The honey sample collected at the beginning of the year (January) showed the highest color intensity and was dark amber in color. It also contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (341.67 ± 2.94 mg(gallic acid)/kg), the highest flavonoid content (113.06 ± 6.18 mg(catechin)/kg) and the highest percentage of DPPH inhibition and the highest FRAP value, confirming its high antioxidant potential. There was a positive correlation between DPPH and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the strongest contributing factor to the radical scavenging activity of Malaysian acacia honeys. Overall, our results indicated that there were significant seasonal variations in the antioxidant potentials of honey over the two year period and the time of honey collection affects its physicochemical properties. Therefore, acacia honey from Malaysia should ideally be collected during the dry season, particularly in the months of January, May and June. PMID:24287998

  10. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual weakening tendency from west to east, which is opposite to the trend of the wave conditions outside the breaking region. The presence of submerged shoal (Dengzhou Shoal), deep trough (Dengzhou Channel), islands and irregular topography influnces the wave climate, beach types, wave-induced current features, littoral sediment transport trends and coastline evolution patterns in the southern Bohai Strait. Human activities, such as the sand exploitation of Dengzhou Shoal and other coastal engineering projects, also influence the beach morphology and coastline evolution.

  11. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  12. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  13. Pore Water Transport of Enterococci out of Beach Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Reniers, Adrianus J. H. M.; Wang, John D.; Kiger, Russell T.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Noha

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to evaluate the safety of beach waters and studies have identified beach sands as a source of these bacteria. In order to study and quantify the release of microbes from beach sediments, flow column systems were built to evaluate flow of pore water out of beach sediments. Results show a peak in enterococci (average of 10% of the total microbes in core) released from the sand core within one pore water volume followed by a marked decline to below detection. These results indicate that few enterococci are easily removed and that factors other than simple pore water flow control the release of the majority of enterococci within beach sediments. A significantly larger quantity and release of enterococci were observed in cores collected after a significant rain event suggesting the influx of fresh water can alter the release pattern as compared to cores with no antecedent rainfall. PMID:21945015

  14. Jurassic Beach: A depositional facies model for smackover stratigraphic traps in the Ark-La-Tex

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.; Green, M.; Bruno, L.

    1994-12-31

    State Line field, Union County, Arkansas, produces oil from a five-well stratigraphic trap at 8,900 ft. Conventional cores were cut in all wells. Core studies show that the trapping porosity pinch-out is a facies change from lower foreshore to ooid beach. Sedimentation occurred along a high-energy coastline. Thus, the depositional setting at State Line field differs from the commonly accepted {open_quotes}oolite bar{close_quotes} model used for many other fields in the trend. Four facies were delineated: (1) siliciclastic lagoon (Buckner Formation), (2) ooid beach, (3) oncoid-ooid lower foreshore, and (4) patch reef. Intergranular porosity is facies selective, found mainly in the poorly sorted lower foreshore facies. Cross-stratification and the absence of lime mud indicate high-energy conditions. Porosity and permeability in the lower foreshore facies average 10.9 percent and 496 md, respectively. The ooid beach facies is characterized by well-sorted, crossbedded, and massive ooid grainstones that tend to be extensively calcite cemented. Porosity and permeability values are generally below 2 percent and 1 md, respectively, although they can be higher adjacent to porous lower foreshore strata. The top of the Smackover is a transition from high-energy, sandy ooid beach (grainstone) to low-permeability, lagoonal siliciclastics, which seal the reservoir. Depositional features suggesting tidal channels at the east and west ends of the field support a bench and/or barrier island interpretation. Coral-algal boundstones of the patch reef facies are thin, local, and not of reservoir quality. The value of predicting reservoir trends from cores is shown by a successful 400-ft sidetrack away from a borehole with no reservoir facies or oil shows. A slabbed {open_quotes}piece of the rock{close_quotes} can pay off in Smackover development.

  15. Probabilistic assessment of beach and dune changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Stockdon, H.; Haines, J.; Krabill, W.; Swift, R.; Brock, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recent availability of spatially-dense airborne lidar data makes assessment of the vulnerability of beaches and dunes to storm impacts practical over long reaches of coast. As an initial test, elevations of the tops (D high) and bases (Dlow) of foredune ridges along a 55-km reach on the northern Outer Banks, NC were found to have considerable spatial variability suggesting that different parts of the barrier island would respond differently to storms. Comparing statistics of storm wave runup to D high and Dlow, we found that net erosion due to overwash and dune retreat should be greatest at the northern and southern ends of the study area and least in the central section. This predicted spatial pattern of storm-induced erosion is similar to the spatial pattern of long-term erosion of the shoreline which may be controlled by additional processes (such as gradients in longshore transport) as well as the cross-shore processes considered here. However, consider feedback where at erosional hot spots there is a deficit of sand (caused by gradients in longshore transport) which lead to lower dunes and enhanced erosional cross-shore processes, such as overwash. Hence, the erosional hot spots would be exacerbated, further increasing the vulnerability of the beach and dunes to net erosion.

  16. THE VISUAL BEACH NUMERICAL MODEL: A DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC MODELING APPROACH TO ACHIEVING US BEACHES AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the BEACH Act of 2000, EPA has committed to a program to monitor beach water quality and develop strategies, including modeling, for timely notification of the public when bacterial contamination poses a risk to bathers. EPA's goal is to manage 100% of significant public be...

  17. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSINGS TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  18. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  19. The relationship between sandy beach nematodes and environmental characteristics in two Brazilian sandy beaches (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro).

    PubMed

    Maria, Tatiana F; Paiva, Paulo; Vanreusel, Ann; Esteves, André M

    2013-03-01

    We investigated if the differences in density and nematode communities of intertidal sediments from two Brazilian sheltered sandy beaches were related to environmental characteristics. The upper tide level (UTL) and the low tide level (LTL) of both beaches were surveyed in January (austral summer) and June 2001 (austral winter) during low-spring tides, by collecting samples of nematodes and sediments. Differences in density between beaches, tidal level and seasons, and nematode community structure were investigated. Sediments from both beaches were composed of medium to very coarse sand. The highest nematode densities were found at the UTL, and significant differences between beaches, tidal levels and months were found. A total of 54 genera were found and the genera composition on both sheltered beaches was similar to other exposed worldwide sandy beaches. The density and structure of the nematode community at both beaches clearly varied along the spatial and temporal scales. Gravel percentage was the most important variable explaining the spatial distribution of the nematodes, determining the four sub-communities; this suggests that the sediment characteristics influence the nematode community, rather than physical hydrodynamic forces. Temperature and salinity were suggested to be important variables affecting the temporal variation. PMID:23460426

  20. 75 FR 77010 - Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Draft Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... the Maximum Reactor Power Level In accordance with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR... Florida Power & Light (FPL) Energy (the licensee) (now NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC (NextEra)) for a license amendment to increase the maximum thermal power at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant (PBNP), Units...

  1. 76 FR 22928 - Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... COMMISSION Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental... amendment for Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, issued to NextEra Energy Point... the Federal Register on December 10, 2010 (75 FR 77010). Comments were received on the draft EA...

  2. The responses of artificial embayed beaches to storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, E.; Guillén, J.; Ribas, F.

    2009-09-01

    The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change from the Reflective state to the Low Tide Terrace, Transverse Bar and Rip, Rhythmic Bar and Beach, Longshore Bar and Trough and finally to the Dissipative beach state. These morphodynamic states are also observed at artificial embayed beaches, although artificial groins limit alongshore sediment transport and protect sections of the beach from waves approaching from a range of directions (Short and Masselink, 1999). This contribution focuses on the morphological changes of the shoreline and the submerged sandbars of artificial embayed (sandy) beaches due to the effect of high-wave conditions associated to storms. We characterize the morphological response of the emerged and submerged beach profile of two of the artificial embayed beaches of the Barcelona city coast (NW Mediterranean). The two embayed beaches under study are single-barred beaches subject to the same climatic conditions but with different morphological characteristics. The study comprises more than 4 years of data, from November 2001 to March 2006, obtained through an Argus video system (Holman and Stanley, 2007). The extraction of the shoreline and barline locations is accomplished using 10-minute time-exposure video images. Shorelines were extracted directly from oblique images (see Ojeda and Guillén, [2008] for a complete description) and rectified afterwards. Sandbars were inferred from the rectified time-exposure video images based on the preferential wave breaking over shallow areas, so they required a minimum significant wave height (Hs) which allowed the occurrence of a clear wave-breaking pattern. The barline extraction was accomplished through an automated alongshore tracking of the intensity maxima across each beach section (Van Enckevort and Ruessink, 2001). The mean Hs during the study period was 0.71 m and the averaged peak period was 5.7 s. The wave height time series shows a cyclic behaviour, with storm periods (October-April) separated by periods of low storm activity (May-October). The two most energetic periods affecting the beaches were from October 2001 to May 2002 and from October 2003 to April 2004 (wave data were obtained from a WANA node [virtual buoy] and direct measurements of the Barcelona-Coastal buoy). Approximately 25 storm events have been identified during the study period (following Ojeda and Guillén [2008], significant storms were defined as those with Hs higher than 2.5 m during the peak of the storm and a minimum duration of 12 h with Hs greater than 1.5 m). The morphological responses of the beach to the storm action determine the morphodynamic state. These responses were grouped into five categories: shoreline advance or retreat, beach rotation, sandbar migration, formation of megacusps, and changes in the sandbar configuration (linear or crescentic shape). The intensity and frequency of these modifications were different in both beaches. Regarding the changes in the morphodynamic state of the beaches, the bar at Bogatell switched more frequently among the four intermediate morphodynamic states during the study period than the bar at La Barceloneta. The bar at La Barceloneta only underwent the complete "reset" of the nearshore morphology (i.e., abrupt change of the plan-view shape of the beach towards a Longshore Bar and Trough state) once, associated with the high-energy wave event occurring on November 2001. At this beach, the strongest storm events produced the offshore migration of the bar and a certain decrease in the bar sinuosity, but did not generate an alongshore parallel bar. Similar storms caused different effects on the two adjacent beaches and, furthermore, the effect of storms of similar characteristics at the same beach, were also different. In the final paper, we will focus on these differential behaviours in an attempt to attain a certain predictability of the beach behaviour after a storm depending on the wave characteristics and the morphodynamic configuration of the beach prior to the storm. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology within the project SEDMET (CTM2006-06919). The work of E. Ojeda and F. Ribas was partially supported by the Spanish government through the FPU and Juan de la Cierva programs, correspondingly. The authors would like to thank Dr. Gerben Ruessink for providing the BLIM software and Puertos del Estado for the wave data. REFERENCES Holman, R.A., Stanley, J., 2007. The history and technical capabilities of Argus. Coast. Eng. 54, 447-491. Ojeda, E., Guillén, J., 2008. Shoreline dynamics and beach rotation of artificial embayed beaches. Mar. Geol. 253, 51-62. Short, A.D., Masselink, G., 1999 Embayed and structurally controlled beaches, in: Short, A.D. (Ed.), Handbook of beach and shoreface morphodynamics. John Wiley & Son, Chichester, pp. 230-250. Van Enckevort, I.M.J., Ruessink, B.G., 2001. Effect of hydrodynamics and bathymetry on video estimates of nearshore sandbar position. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 16969-16979. Wright, L.D., Short, A.D., 1984. Morphodynamic variability of surf zones and beaches: a synthesis. Mar. Geol. 56, 93-118.

  3. A Century of Change: The History of Two-Year Education in the State of Alabama, 1866-1963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about two-year education in Alabama during the governorships of George C. Wallace, but little about two-year education prior to his first inauguration in 1963. Yet nearly a third of the forty-three junior, technical, and community college institutions that eventually formed the Alabama Community College System had been…

  4. Managed Pollinator Coordinated Agricultural Project—The First Two Years of the Stationary Hive Project: Abiotic Site Effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : A stationary hive project was initiated in the spring of 2009. This research project will run through 2013 and consists of two replicate two-year trials (2009-2011 and 2011–2013). The objective of the study was to conduct a longitudinal study of colonies through a two-year period. In this article...

  5. Summary of Mode Deactivation Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Social Skills Training with Two Year Post Treatment Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2006-01-01

    This study summarized two treatment research studies and included recidivism data for two years post discharge for group therapy. The study compared Mode deactivation Therapy (MDT), Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), and Social Skills training (SST), results of the MDT series of studies and the two year post-study recidivism data. The data from the…

  6. Inside English: Journal of the English Council of California Two-Year Colleges; December 1975, and Spring 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inside English, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Designed primarily for English faculty at two-year colleges in California, "Inside English" includes articles on major instructional, curricular, administrative, and employment issues of concern to teachers in the field as well as information on the activities of the English Council of the California Two-Year Colleges (ECCTYC). The December 1975…

  7. Inside English: Journal of the English Council of California Two-Year Colleges; Fall 1977, Winter 1978, and Spring 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Richard E., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Designed primarily for English faculty at two-year colleges in California, "Inside English" includes articles on major instructional, curricular, administrative, and employment issues of concern to teachers in the field as well as information on the activities of the English Council of the California Two-Year Colleges (ECCTYC). The Fall 1977, and…

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Physical Education at Public and Technical Two-Year Colleges in Western Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucklow, William R.

    A study was conducted to ascertain the present status of physical education (PE) within the public and technical two-year colleges located in the four western provinces of Canada, the Yukon, and Northwest Territories. Questionnaires were sent to 56 two-year institutions, requesting information on institutional characteristics, PE departmental…

  9. A Century of Change: The History of Two-Year Education in the State of Alabama, 1866-1963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about two-year education in Alabama during the governorships of George C. Wallace, but little about two-year education prior to his first inauguration in 1963. Yet nearly a third of the forty-three junior, technical, and community college institutions that eventually formed the Alabama Community College System had been…

  10. For-Profit versus Nonprofit Colleges: A Predictive Study of Student Retention in Two-Year Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    Student retention has been a significant issue in higher education for several decades. "Two-year colleges" tend to have lower retention rates than four-year colleges (Seidman, 2005, ). Low retention is a problem in both two-year for-profit and nonprofit colleges. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the predictors of retention…

  11. Inside English: Journal of the English Council of California Two-Year Colleges; Fall 1974, and Winter 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inside English, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Designed primarily for English faculty at two-year colleges in California, "Inside English" includes articles on major instructional, curricular, administrative, and employment issues of concern to teachers in the field as well as information on the activities of the English Council of the California Two-Year Colleges (ECCTYC). The fall 1974 and…

  12. An Examination of Standards-Based Instructional Practices in College Algebra in the First Two Years of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Laurn Reye

    2013-01-01

    Instructional practices in mathematics courses at two-year colleges include lecture as the predominant instructional form in 78% of two-year colleges, with class sizes averaging about 26 students (AACC, 2005). The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) indicates that there is a need for change in the practices of mathematics teachers…

  13. The Two-Year College as a First Choice, Second Choice Institution for Baccalaureate-Degree Holders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the factors influencing the choice process and institutional/educational satisfaction of baccalaureate degree holders in two-year college degree programs. Constructs demographic profile of these students, ascertains reasons for attending two-year college, and determines factors contributing to satisfaction. States that 62% of students…

  14. For-Profit versus Nonprofit Colleges: A Predictive Study of Student Retention in Two-Year Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    Student retention has been a significant issue in higher education for several decades. "Two-year colleges" tend to have lower retention rates than four-year colleges (Seidman, 2005, ). Low retention is a problem in both two-year for-profit and nonprofit colleges. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the predictors of retention…

  15. Professional Development Opportunities for Two-Year College Geoscience Faculty: Issues, Opportunities, and Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, E. M.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.; Granshaw, F. D.; Wenner, J. M.; Hodder, J.; van der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Filson, R. H.; Guertin, L. A.; Wiese, K.

    2011-12-01

    Two-year colleges (2YCs) play a critical role in geoscience education in the United States. Nearly half of the undergraduate students who take introductory geoscience do so at a 2YC. With awide reach and diverse student populations, 2YCs may be key to producing a well-trained, diverse and sufficiently large geoscience workforce. However, faculty at 2YCs often face many barriers to professional development including lack of financial resources, heavy and inflexible teaching loads, lack of awareness of opportunities, and few professional development resources/events targeted at their needs. As an example, at the 2009 GSA meeting in Portland, fewer than 80 of the 6500 attendees were from community colleges, although this was more than twice the 2YC faculty attendance the previous year. Other issues include the isolation described by many 2YC geoscience faculty who may be the only full time geoscientist on a campus and challenges faced by adjunct faculty who may have even fewer opportunities for professional development and networking with other geoscience faculty. Over the past three years we have convened several workshops and events for 2YC geoscience faculty including technical sessions and a workshop on funding opportunities for 2YC faculty at GSA annual meetings, a field trip and networking event at the fall AGU meeting, a planning workshop that examined the role of 2YCs in geoscience education and in broadening participation in the geosciences, two workshops supporting use of the 'Math You Need, When You Need It' educational materials that included a majority of 2YC faculty, and marine science summer institutes offered by COSEE-Pacific Partnerships for 2YC faculty. Our experience indicates that 2YC faculty desire professional development opportunities when the experience is tailored to the needs and character of their students, programs, and institutions. The content of the professional development opportunity must be useful to 2YC faculty -workshops and materials aimed at K-12 or at faculty teaching geoscience majors tend not to attract 2YC faculty. Conducting a needs assessment and including 2YC faculty in workshop planning helps ensure that the outcomes of professional development opportunities for 2YC faculty are achieved. Financial support for travel seems to be important, although typically it is not necessary to compensate 2YC faculty beyond expenses. 2YC faculty availability varies significantly during the summer as well as during the academic year, so offering multiple opportunities throughout the year and/or virtual events is important. The Geo2YC website at SERC is a resource for geoscience education at two-year colleges and the associated Geo2YC mailing has facilitated the targeted marketing of opportunities for this important group of educators.

  16. Two years of Truvada for pre-exposure prophylaxis utilization in the US

    PubMed Central

    Flash, Charlene; Landovitz, Raphael; Mera Giler, Robertino; Ng, Leslie; Magnuson, David; Bush Wooley, Staci; Rawlings, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Truvada® (TVD) was approved in July 2012 by the US FDA for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in combination with safer sex practices to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 in high-risk adults. This study explores the characteristics of US PrEP users and their prescribers over the past two years. Materials and Methods A previously described algorithm was used to identify TVD for PrEP by excluding use for HIV treatment, post-exposure prophylaxis, and off-label treatment of chronic hepatitis B. National electronic patient level data from ~55% of all US retail pharmacies that dispensed TVD between January 1, 2012 and March 31, 2014 was collected. De-identified patient-level data including prescription refill data, medical claims and patient demographics were analyzed via logistic regression to estimate the odds of change by year. Results A total of 3253 unique individuals who started TVD for PrEP between January 1, 2012 and March 31, 2014 were included in this analysis. Women comprised 42.0% of PrEP users. Although mean age was 38.1+11.9 years, with males being significantly older (39.3+11.6) than females (36.4+12.3), 11.5% of individuals were under 25 years old. The proportion of males under 25 was 7.4% (95% CI 6.3–8.7); significantly lower than that of women, 17.2% (95% CI 15.3–19.3). New starts have increased from 293 in 2012 to 472 Q1 2014. During the 12-month period ending March 31, 2013 and March 31, 2014 the number of new starts among females dropped from 44.5% to 22.9%. Sixty-eight percent of TVD for PrEP prescriptions were written by five specialties: internal medicine (19%), family practice (18%), infectious diseases (11%), nurse practitioners (10%) and physician assistants (10%). Conclusions The population of TVD for PrEP users in the US nationally appears to be shifting demographically. It continues to be initiated mostly by primary care providers. Over a two-year period new starts of Truvada for PrEP have increased considerably among males. While the overall proportion of female users decreased between Q1 2012 and Q1 2014, females that started on PrEP are younger than males. More community-level data on PrEP usage will be helpful in informing local efforts to integrate PrEP in HIV prevention messaging and services. PMID:25397476

  17. Two years of country-wide rainfall maps employing cellular communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uijlenhoet, Remko; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Rios Gaona, Manuel Felipe

    2014-05-01

    Accurate rainfall observations with high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed for hydrological applications, agriculture, meteorology, and climate monitoring. However, the majority of the land surface of the earth lacks accurate rainfall information and the number of rain gauges is even severely declining in Europe, South-America, and Africa. This calls for alternative sources of rainfall information. Various studies have shown that microwave links from operational cellular telecommunication networks may be employed for rainfall monitoring. Such networks cover 20% of the land surface of the earth and have a high density, especially in urban areas. The basic principle of rainfall monitoring using microwave links is as follows. Rainfall attenuates the electromagnetic signals transmitted from one telephone tower to another. By measuring the received power at one end of a microwave link as a function of time, the path-integrated attenuation due to rainfall can be calculated. Previous studies have shown that average rainfall intensities over the length of a link can be derived from the path-integrated attenuation. This is particularly interesting for those countries where few surface rainfall observations are available. Here we present almost two years of country-wide rainfall maps employing cellular communication networks. A data set from a commercial microwave link network over the Netherlands is analyzed, containing data from an unprecedented number of links (~ 2000) covering the land surface of the Netherlands (35500 square kilometers). This data set almost completely covers the years 2011 and 2012. Fifteen-minute and daily rainfall maps (1 km spatial resolution) are derived from the microwave link data and compared to maps from a gauge-adjusted radar data set. The performance of the rainfall retrieval algorithm will be studied, particularly differences in time and space. Time series of air temperature and snow from automatic weather stations, operated by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, will be collocated with the link-based rainfall data, to systematically study the performance of the algorithm during the two-year period. Moreover, a case study will be presented to investigate the performance of the algorithm during snow and sleet or to show the influence of dew formation on the antennas on the received signal levels.

  18. A longitudinal study of brain atrophy over two years in community-dwelling older individuals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiyang; Sachdev, Perminder; Lipnicki, Darren M; Zhang, Haobo; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Wanlin; Suo, Chao; Zhuang, Lin; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Trollor, Julian; Brodaty, Henry; Wen, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Most previous neuroimaging studies of age-related brain structural changes in older individuals have been cross-sectional and/or restricted to clinical samples. The present study of 345 community-dwelling non-demented individuals aged 70-90years aimed to examine age-related brain volumetric changes over two years. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained at baseline and at 2-year follow-up and analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library and FreeSurfer to investigate cortical thickness and shape and volumetric changes of subcortical structures. The results showed significant atrophy across much of the cerebral cortex with bilateral transverse temporal regions shrinking the fastest. Atrophy was also found in a number of subcortical structures, including the CA1 and subiculum subfields of the hippocampus. In some regions, such as left and right entorhinal cortices, right hippocampus and right precentral area, the rate of atrophy increased with age. Our analysis also showed that rostral middle frontal regions were thicker bilaterally in older participants, which may indicate its ability to compensate for medial temporal lobe atrophy. Compared to men, women had thicker cortical regions but greater rates of cortical atrophy. Women also had smaller subcortical structures. A longer period of education was associated with greater thickness in a number of cortical regions. Our results suggest a pattern of brain atrophy with non-demented people that resembles a less extreme form of the changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:23959201

  19. The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation and Reconstruction: Two Years Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDanels, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia was lost during re-entry over two years ago. Since the release of the official materials-related findings in August of 2003, additional testing and analysis of select pieces of debris has continued. Microanalytical techniques, including EMPA, ESCA, and x-ray elemental dot mapping, were employed during the initial investigation; the results related the microstructural characteristics of deposit layers to the breach location in the leading edge of the left wing. Such characteristics included deposition order, composition, and distribution. Subsequent to the original efforts, new analytical data and information, not available at the time of the primary investigation, has been generated. This data was obtained via a low-vacuum SEM, fitted not only with a light-element EDS detector, but an XRF tube as well. Essentially, for elements up to sodium, classic EDS was utilized; above sodium, XRF was used. Predominantly, the elements of interest were aluminum, titanium, chromium, iron, nickel, and copper. The findings of both old and new data are compared, and their application to the overall accident investigation detailed.

  20. Two-year evolution of perchloroethylene-induced color-vision loss.

    PubMed

    Gobba, F; Righi, E; Fantuzzi, G; Predieri, G; Cavazzuti, L; Aggazzotti, G

    1998-01-01

    Progression of perchloroethylene-induced color-vision impairment was studied in 33 dry-cleaner workers at 12 establishments in Modena, Italy. In an initial survey, we evaluated exposure with personal passive samplers, and we assessed color vision with the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel. Two years later, workers were reexamined. In 19 workers (subgroup A), exposure to perchloroethylene had increased (median of 1.7 ppm versus 4.3 ppm, respectively), whereas in the remaining 14 workers (subgroup B) exposure was reduced (2.9 ppm versus 0.7 ppm, respectively). Color vision worsened in subgroup A, but no vision changes were apparent in subgroup B. The results indicated that an increase in exposure during a 2-y period, even if slight, can cause color vision to deteriorate. A similar slight reduction in exposure did not lead to color-vision improvement; perhaps this lack of improvement resulted from (a) an insufficient reduction in exposure, (b) an insufficient reduction in duration of exposure, or (c) irreversible perchloroethylene-induced color-vision loss. PMID:9814715

  1. Modified and Grafted Coronectomy: A New Technique and a Case Report with Two-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Leizerovitz, Michael; Leizerovitz, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. A standard coronectomy (intentional partial odontectomy) is recommended for mandibular third molar (MTM) extraction cases with a high risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury (IANI). However, complications such as inadvertent intraoperative root removal, post-op root migration, second molar (MSM) periodontal defects and others do exist. This report presents a new technique, the Modified and Grafted Coronectomy (MGC), describes the measures to prevent or minimize the known drawbacks of the standard coronectomy, and reviews the literature for comparison with three other IANI-prevention techniques. Materials and Methods. MGC was performed on two MTMs with nerve involvement and severe periodontal pockets on the distal of MSM. Modifications were: stabilizing the root stump to prevent intraoperative movement, creation of a large intrabony space for bone graft material, and grafting for periodontal healing while minimizing the possibility of post-op root migration. Results. Excellent overall periodontal improvement, with probing depths reduced to 3-4?mm. Panoramic radiograph displayed remarkable bone regeneration. No residual root migration was evident at the two year follow up. Conclusion. MGC may be a good alternative, especially in cases with periodontal defects on the distal of MSM. It may also help to minimize inadvertent intraoperative root removal and postoperative root migration. PMID:23710376

  2. Steel slag filters to upgrade phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands: two years of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Barca, Cristian; Troesch, Stéphane; Meyer, Daniel; Drissen, Peter; Andrès, Yves; Chazarenc, Florent

    2013-01-01

    Electric arc furnace steel slag (EAF-slag) and basic oxygen furnace steel slag (BOF-slag) were used as filter substrates in two horizontal subsurface flow filters (6 m(3) each) designed to remove phosphorus (P) from the effluent of a constructed wetland. The influences of slag composition, void hydraulic retention time (HRTv), temperature, and wastewater quality on treatment performances were studied. Over a period of almost two years of operation, the filter filled with EAF-slag removed 37% of the inlet total P, whereas the filter filled with BOF-slag removed 62% of the inlet total P. P removal occurred predominantly via CaO-slag dissolution followed by Ca phosphate precipitation. P removal efficiencies improved with increasing temperature and HRTv, most probably because this affected the rates of CaO-slag dissolution and Ca phosphate precipitation. It was observed that long HRTv (>3 days) can cause high pH in the effluents (>9) as a result of excessive CaO-slag dissolution. However, at shorter HRTv (1-2 days), pH values were elevated only during the first five weeks and then stabilized below a pH of 9. The kinetics of P removal were investigated employing a first-order equation, and a model for filter design was proposed. PMID:23198779

  3. Clinical education in two-year colleges: cost-benefit issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Murtaugh, M; Durkin, Z A; Bolden, M C; Majewski, T

    2000-01-01

    Allied health program directors and administrators need to be aware of the costs and benefits of their clinical training programs to assure continued availability of training facilities for students. In a pilot study, program directors and administrators who are members of the National Network of Health Career Programs in Two-year Colleges (NN2) were surveyed concerning items to include in a cost-benefit-analysis tool, intangible and tangible costs and benefits of clinical education programs, and evaluation of a tool to analyze costs and benefits. Surveys were sent to 138 NN2 members, with 58 responding. Clinical sites were primarily in independent hospitals or health care systems. Most programs had preceptor-to-student ratios of 1:1-1:2, with few students being paid for clinical work. The respondents identified costs as staff time, materials and supplies, equipment, and others. Benefits were orientation and recruitment savings; increased professionalism, job satisfaction, and work quality of staff; ability to maintain and upgrade staff skills and knowledge; and student assistance with clinical coverage. Few programs were required to perform cost analysis. Allied health clinical education programs continue to depend on the willingness of health care facilities to accept students for clinical training. PMID:10874339

  4. Ozone over the Western Mediterranean Sea - results from two years of shipborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velchev, K.; Cavalli, F.; Hjorth, J.; Marmer, E.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.; Raes, F.

    2010-03-01

    Ozone, along with other air pollutants, has been measured for two years from a monitoring station placed on a cruise ship that follows a regular track in the Western Mediterranean between April and October. Conditions favoring high ozone levels have been studied by analysis of weather maps and back trajectories. This analysis was focused on a transect over the open sea in the South Western Mediterranean between Tunis and Palma de Mallorca. High ozone levels were found in situations with an anticyclonic circulation over the Western Mediterranean when subsidence brings air masses down from altitudes between 1000 and 3500 m a.s.l. Analysis of composite meteorological maps suggest a relevant contribution of breeze circulation to subsidence during events with high surface ozone concentrations; this points to an important contribution from local ozone formation. A detailed back trajectory analysis of the origin of air masses with high ozone concentrations was carried out for two "hot spots" for ozone pollution, found along the coast south of Genova and between Napoli and Palermo, respectively. While it was found that the influence of plumes from areas with high pollutant levels might explain most episodes in the Northwestern transect, such "local" influences appeared to be of minor importance within the Napoli-Palermo transect.

  5. Ozone over the Western Mediterranean Sea - results from two years of shipborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velchev, K.; Cavalli, F.; Hjorth, J.; Marmer, E.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.; Raes, F.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone, along with other air pollutants, has been measured for two years from a monitoring station placed on a cruise ship that follows a regular track in the Western Mediterranean between April and October. Conditions favouring high ozone levels have been studied by analysis of weather maps and back trajectories. This analysis was focused on a transect over the open sea in the South Western Mediterranean between Tunis and Palma de Mallorca. High ozone levels were found in situations with an anticyclonic circulation over the Western Mediterranean when subsidence brings air masses down from altitudes between 1000 and 3500 m a.s.l. Analysis of composite meteorological maps suggests a relevant contribution of breeze circulation to subsidence during events with high surface ozone concentrations; this points to an important contribution from local ozone formation. A detailed back trajectory analysis of the origin of air masses with high ozone concentrations was carried out for two "hot spots" for ozone pollution, in the Gulf of Genoa and between Naples and Palermo, respectively. The main cause of high ozone levels in the Gulf of Genoa was found to be outflow from the Po Valley and the Genoa area while such episodes along the Naples-Palermo transect were most often associated with trajectories from the Rome or Naples areas. Analysis of the relationship between measured concentrations of Black Carbon and ozone allowed to evaluate the degree of photochemical "ageing" of the air masses encountered along the route of the cruise ship.

  6. Two Years of Industrial Experience in the Use of a Small, Direct Field Acoustic Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggini, Nicola; Di Pietro, Vincenzo; Poulain, Nicolas; Herzog, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Within Thales Alenia Space - Italy small satellite Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) plant, the need to develop a suitable facility for spacecraft acoustic noise test has arisen, with additional constraints posed by the necessity of a low impact on the existing building layout, low cost of procurement and operations, while maintaining a high reliability of the system for a theoretical maximum throughput of one test per week over an extended period of time, e.g. six months. The needs have been answered by developing a small (~40 m3 test volume), direct field (DF A T) acoustic test chamber, christened “Alpha Cabin”, where noise generation is achieved by means of commercial audio drivers equipped with custom enclosures. The paper starts with a brief presentation of the main characteristics of the system, but then concentrates on the lessons learnt and return of experience from the tests conducted in more than two years of continuous use. Starting from test article structural responses and their comparison with reverberant chambers, properties of the acoustic field and their implications on the former are analyzed.

  7. Prognosis of intraepithelial cervical lesion during adolescence in up to two years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, D L M; Trajano, A J B; Russomano, F B; Silva, K S

    2010-08-01

    Our objective was to describe the evolution of cervical SIL within 24 months of the initial diagnosis, in a cohort study of 147 sexually active adolescents attending a public health service in Rio de Janeiro, between 1993 and 2006. The participants were divided in two groups, according to whether cervical biopsy was performed or not. The median of the interval between sexual debut and the atypical cytopathology was 12 months and in 8.2% of patients there was a diagnosis of HSIL at the first abnormal smear. After a two-year follow-up by cytology, the regression (ASCUS 91%, LSIL 63.6%, HSIL 50%) and progression (LSIL 6.1%) were verified. In the group undergoing biopsy, the final histological regression reached 59.4% for CIN1 and 71.4% for CIN2, while the progression from CIN1 to CIN 2/3 was 3.1%. Our results corroborate the recommendation for conservative management in compliant adolescents due to a high regression rate. However, there should be maintained a careful follow-up based on the possible evolution of the lesion. PMID:20471873

  8. Very Low Mass Companions from the First Two Years of SDSS-III MARVELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lee, Nathan M.; Ge, J.; Gaudi, S.; Lee, B.; Fleming, S.; Ma, B.; Stassun, K.; Agol, E.; Pepper, J.; Nguyen, D. C.; Hebb, L.; Wisniewski, J.; Mahadevan, S.; Crepp, J.; Zhao, B.; Ghezzi, L.; Reyle, C.; Santiago, B.

    2012-01-01

    The SDSS-III MARVELS survey is a comprehensive radial velocity survey of 3,300 nearby F through K stars, between magnitudes 7.6 < V < 12.0. The primary goal of this survey is to search for planets among a homogeneous set of stars, which will be used to put constraints on formation and evolution models. This survey is also very sensitive to more massive companions such as brown dwarfs and low mass binaries. We will discuss an ongoing project aimed at characterizing the properties of these very low-mass stellar and substellar (VLMSS) companions with minimum masses between 20 and 100 Jupiter masses. As part of the first two years of the MARVELS project 2,580 stars were searched for VLMSS companions with periods from 1.1 to 360 days using a modified Lomb-Scargle periodogram, yielding 12 VLMSS companions. This poster details the spectroscopic and imaging follow-up of these VLMSS companions, and presents an overview of our meta-study to determine the nature of the 'brown dwarf desert' including the role of parameters like host-star spectral type and metallicity. Finally, this large homogeneous radial velocity survey will be placed in the larger context of our current knowledge about VLMSS statistics. This work was supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation, NSF, SDSS-III collaboration, NASA, and UF.

  9. Er:YAG laser ablation: evaluation after a two-year clinical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Kucerova, Hana; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav

    1998-04-01

    The aim of the clinical study is to evaluate Er:YAG laser ablation after two year-long clinical treatment. One hundred fifty cavities were volunteered for checking. Three restorative materials were used following manufacturer's directions. For the experiment, an Er:YAG laser drilling machine was applied. The laser delivered energy from 100 to 450 mJ, repetition rate from 1 to 4 Hz. The length of the generated pulses was 200 microseconds. During our experiments cooling of the teeth was achieved by fine water mist. The number of pulses was from 16 to 489. Caries of enamel and dentin were treated. Old insufficient fillings were also removed (not amalgam or metal alloys). The experiments followed the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki (1964), Tokyo (1975), Venice (1983) and Hong-Kong (1989). Clinical evaluation of fillings after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months based on ADA recommendation was used. Eight criteria were applied for the restoration control. Composite resins and glassionomers could be used as filling materials.

  10. Eye muscle surgery for infantile nystagmus syndrome in the first two years of life

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Richard W; Felius, Joost; Yang, Dongsheng; Kaufman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To report visual and elctrophysioloigcal effects of eye muscle surgery in young patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). Methods: Prospective, interventional case cohort of 19 patients aged under 24 months who were operated on for combinations of strabismus, an anomalous head posture, and nystagmus. All patients were followed at least nine months. Outcome measures, part of an institutionally approved study, included Teller acuity, head position, strabismic deviation, and eye movement recordings, from which waveform types and a nystagmus optimal foveation fraction (NOFF). Computerized parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis of data were perfomed using standard software on both individual and group data. Results: Age averaged 17.7 months (13.1-month follow-up). Thirteen (68%) patients had associated optic nerve or retinal disease. 42% had amblyopia, 68% had refractive errors. Group means in binocular Teller acuity (P < 0.05), strabismic deviation (P < 0.05), head posture (P < 0.001), and the NOFF measures (P < 0.01) from eye movement recordings improved in all patients. There was a change in null zone waveforms to more favorable jerk types. There were no reoperations or surgical complications. Conclusions: Surgery on the extraocular muscles in patients aged less than two years with INS results in improvements in multiple aspects of ocular motor and visual function. PMID:19997564

  11. MEASUREMENT OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRA FROM TWO YEARS OF BICEP DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H. C.; Barkats, D.; Bock, J. J.; Hristov, V. V.; Jones, W. C.; Kovac, J. M.; Lange, A. E.; Mason, P. V.; Matsumura, T.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battle, J. O.; Dowell, C. D.; Nguyen, H. T.; Bierman, E. M.; Keating, B. G.; Duband, L.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Kuo, C. L.; Leitch, E. M.

    2010-03-10

    Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (BICEP) is a bolometric polarimeter designed to measure the inflationary B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at degree angular scales. During three seasons of observing at the South Pole (2006 through 2008), BICEP mapped {approx}2% of the sky chosen to be uniquely clean of polarized foreground emission. Here, we present initial results derived from a subset of the data acquired during the first two years. We present maps of temperature, Stokes Q and U, E and B modes, and associated angular power spectra. We demonstrate that the polarization data are self-consistent by performing a series of jackknife tests. We study potential systematic errors in detail and show that they are sub-dominant to the statistical errors. We measure the E-mode angular power spectrum with high precision at 21 <= l <= 335, detecting for the first time the peak expected at l {approx} 140. The measured E-mode spectrum is consistent with expectations from a LAMBDACDM model, and the B-mode spectrum is consistent with zero. The tensor-to-scalar ratio derived from the B-mode spectrum is r = 0.02{sup +0.31}{sub -0.26}, or r < 0.72 at 95% confidence, the first meaningful constraint on the inflationary gravitational wave background to come directly from CMB B-mode polarization.

  12. Results from Two Years of Ka-Band Propagation Characterization at Svalbard, Norway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Zemba, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Over the several years, NASA plans to launch several earth science missions which are expected to achieve data throughputs of 5-40 terabits per day transmitted from low earth orbiting spacecraft to ground stations. The current S-band and X-band frequency allocations in use by NASA, however, are incapable of supporting the data rates required to meet this demand. As such, NASA is in the planning stages to upgrade its existing Near Earth Network (NEN) Polar ground stations to support Ka-band (25.5-27 GHz) operations. Consequently, it becomes imperative that characterization of propagation effects at these NEN sites is conducted to determine expected system performance, particularly at low elevation angles ((is) less than 10 deg) where spacecraft signal acquisition typically occurs. Since May 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center has installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the NEN site located in Svalbard, Norway. The Ka-band radiometer monitors the water vapor line, as well as 6 frequencies around 26.5 GHz at multiple elevation angles: 45 deg, 20 deg, and 10 deg. Two year data collection results indicate comparable performance to previously characterized northern latitude sites in the United States, i.e., Fairbanks, Alaska. It is observed that cloud cover at the Svalbard site remains the dominant loss mechanism for Ka-band links, resulting in a margin requirement of 4.1 dB to maintain link availability of 99% at 10 deg elevation.

  13. Well-being and distress in mothers of two-year-old singletons and twins.

    PubMed

    Noy, Adi; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Kuint, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated well-being and distress in 274 Israeli mothers of two-year-olds. Of these, 127 were mothers of singletons and 147 mothers of twins. The study examined the contribution to the explanation of well-being and distress of a range of variables relating to the mother, including sociodemographic characteristics, internal resources (attachment style, self-differentiation, and maternal self-efficacy), and external resources (marital quality and grandmothers' support). The findings showed that being a mother of a singleton or twins did not contribute to the explanation of variance in well-being or distress. Marital quality provided the strongest explained variance for both well-being and distress. Mother's health, attachment anxiety and self-differentiation also explained significant amounts of the variance. Several differences were found in the contribution of certain other variables, such as maternal grandmother's support, which contributed only to well-being. The results indicated the lesser role of sociodemographic variables, as opposed to the centrality of personality traits and marital quality, in the relationships with well-being and distress. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:24617925

  14. Isolation of multiple Salmonella serovars from a dairy two years after a clinical salmonellosis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Gay, J M; Hunsaker, M E

    1993-11-01

    Samples were obtained for bacteriologic culturing of salmonellae from cows and calves on, and the environment of, a large California dairy that used free-stall housing and a flush system for manure handling. Two years previously, the dairy had an outbreak of clinical salmonellosis in the lactating herd; however, since that time, it had not had problems with clinical salmonellosis. On the basis of mean annual milk production per cow, this dairy was consistently ranked in the top 25% of dairies in the area enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. Results of bacteriologic culture of 76% (108/142) of environmental samples and 48% (639/1,339) of fecal samples were positive for salmonellae. Eighty-two percent of the isolates were serovar C1, subclassified as Salmonella montevideo, and 17% were serovar E. Results of bacteriologic culture of 85% of samples of recycled flush water being pumped into the free-stall alleys were positive, as were results of bacteriologic culture of 78% of samples of herd bulk milk filters, 97% of fecal samples collected from calves being fed nonsalable milk, and 25% of fecal samples collected from cows at the time of breeding. These findings suggest that freedom from clinical salmonellosis and comparatively high measures of herd performance do not indicate the absence of salmonellae from a premises, and that hardy infectious agents transmitted by ingestion of feces can become established in the environment of modern free-stall dairies that use recycled water in their manure flush systems. PMID:8253627

  15. A first step toward AGU's new two-year college initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti M.; Adamec, Bethany

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded Unique Research Experiences for two-year College faculty And Students (URECAS) workshop was held 11-13 July at AGU headquarters. Faculty from 2-year and 4-year colleges as well as representatives from federal and state agencies and other professional organizations gathered for the 2-day planning workshop. The main goals of the workshop were as follows: - identify and develop a community of 2-year college (2YC) Earth and space science faculty who are engaged in research experiences and programs with their students; - determine model programs and best practices within the community that make these research experiences and programs successful for faculty and students; - identify challenges that faculty must overcome to have successful faculty and student research experiences and programs; - connect faculty who want to engage in research experiences with their students to national and local resources that can assist them in being successful in these endeavors; and - highlight and develop collaborations that will allow 2YC students and faculty to attend and present their research at the AGU Fall Meeting.

  16. Curriculum alignment and higher order thinking in introductory biology in Arkansas public two-year colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Elizabeth Diane

    This dissertation identified the cognitive levels of lecture objectives, lab objectives, and test questions in introductory majors' biology. The study group included courses offered by 27 faculty members at 18 of the 22 community colleges in Arkansas. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to identify cognitive levels, the median lecture learning outcomes were at level 2 (Comprehension) and test assessments at Level 1 (Knowledge). Lab learning outcomes were determined to have a median of level 3 (Analysis). A correlation analysis was performed using SPSS software to determine if there was an association between the Bloom's level of lecture objectives and test assessments. The only significant difference found was at the Analysis level, or Bloom's level 4 (p=.043). Correlation analyses were run for two other data sets. Years of college teaching experience and hours of training in writing objectives and assessments were compared to the Bloom's Taxonomy level of lecture objectives and test items. No significant difference was found for either of these independent variables. This dissertation provides Arkansas two-year college biology faculty with baseline information about the levels of cognitive skills that are required in freshman biology for majors courses. It can serve to initiate conversations about where we are compared to a national study, where we need to be, and how we get there.

  17. A two years longitudinal study of a transgenic Huntington disease monkey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-year longitudinal study composed of morphometric MRI measures and cognitive behavioral evaluation was performed on a transgenic Huntington’s disease (HD) monkey. rHD1, a transgenic HD monkey expressing exon 1 of the human gene encoding huntingtin (HTT) with 29 CAG repeats regulated by a human polyubiquitin C promoter was used together with four age-matched wild-type control monkeys. This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. Results Changes in striatal and hippocampal volumes in rHD1 were observed with progressive impairment in motor functions and cognitive decline, including deficits in learning stimulus-reward associations, recognition memory and spatial memory. The results demonstrate a progressive cognitive decline and morphometric changes in the striatum and hippocampus in a transgenic HD monkey. Conclusions This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. While this study is based a single HD monkey, an ongoing longitudinal study with additional HD monkeys will be important for the confirmation of our findings. A nonhuman primate model of HD could complement other animal models of HD to better understand the pathogenesis of HD and future development of diagnostics and therapeutics through longitudinal assessment. PMID:24581271

  18. Painful pretibial pseudocyst at bioabsorbable interference screw aperture two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Michael Xuanrong; Sathappan, S S

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a patient with a painful subcutaneous nodule, measuring 13 mm × 17 mm, at the pretibial graft aperture site, which presented two years after a successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with an autologous hamstring graft. A bioabsorbable poly-L-lactide interference screw was used for graft fixation at the tibial aperture. The patient underwent surgical excision of the lesion and curettage at the tunnel aperture. Grossly, extruded fragments of the screw and a thick pseudocapsule of surrounding tissue were excised. There was no communication between the tunnel aperture and the knee joint. The graft was also intact. Histological analysis revealed fragments of the bioabsorbable material in association with fibrous and granulomatous chronic inflammatory cells. This was consistent with a foreign body reaction. The patient subsequently recovered and resumed preinjury level of activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a nodular granulomatous type reaction to foreign bioabsorbable poly-L-lactide screw material subsequent to an anterior cruciate reconstruction surgery. PMID:24154591

  19. Solar cooker -- A viable technology for cooking family meals: An empirical study over two years

    SciTech Connect

    George, R.

    1995-10-01

    A solar cooker is a promising renewable energy technology for domestic cooking. A detailed study to assess cooking performance of boxtype solar cooker was carried out during different seasons, viz., pre-winter, winter and summer, over a two year period. The standard menu identified through sample survey of 100 urban families was solar-cooked and cooked in saucepots on coal and kerosene stoves. The ideal period to start solar cooking morning meal fell between 10:00 to 10:30 hours to serve the same around 12:30 hours while loading cooker between 12:00 to 13:30 hours resulted in ready-to-serve evening meal by 14:30 to 15:30 hours. Solar cooking retained nutrients to a greater extent than conventional cooking. The payback period of the cost of a solar cooker at the current price ranged between 260 to 400 active solar cooking days depending on the fuel solar cooker replaced. The paper discusses at length various aspects related to performance of boxtype solar cooker, economics of switching over to solar cooking and policy issues to enhance popularity of solar cooker as an attractive option to combat domestic cooking fuel crisis.

  20. Propeller Flaps and Its Outcomes - A Prospective Study of 15 Cases Over Two-years

    PubMed Central

    K.T., Ramesha; J., Vijay; M., Shankarappa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cover flaps are needed in management of any bodily defect involving bone, tendon, nerve & vessels. The major objective of a plastic surgeon, facing a complex soft-tissue defect, is to replace “like with like” tissues at minimal donor site “cost” and with maximal accuracy & efficacy. Aims: To study the “Propeller Flaps” utility in reconstructive surgeries, evaluate its planning and complications involving donor site morbidity. Methodology: The prospective study was conducted on 15 cases (11 males/4 females) of propeller flaps during the period of two years (2010-12) in Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI), Karnataka, India. The propeller flaps were performed in cases with defects due to any cause. Exclusion criteria: Cases with Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD). Flaps were performed and details recorded. Results: Overall results revealed problem resolution in 87% cases (13 cases). Comprehensive description of each flap type and its related cases are given in the table. It has been categorically found that there were 2 flap partial losses. Partial necrosis has been reported in heavy-smoker patients. Conclusion: This current study clearly justifies that careful application, optimal designing & judicious scientific application of local perforator flaps for lower-limb wounds including rest of the body is successful in many aspects providing high-quality reconstruction ensuring minimal morbidity. It is cost-effective as well as time-saving. PMID:24596732

  1. Findings from a NASA SMD Survey of Two-Year College Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory R.; Low, R.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Gross, N.; Buxner, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Higher Education Working Group (HEWG) of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach Forums conducted a survey of Earth and space science faculty in two-year/community (2YR) colleges. The purpose of the study was to inform the work of the NASA SMD Forums, tasked with making recommendations to best achieve NASA's strategic objectives with respect to STEM education support and STEM workforce development. The specific aim was to better understand the challenges and opportunities with regard to NASA SMD E/PO engagement with 2YR colleges - who teaches there, what students need, and most importantly, what the barriers are to bringing NASA-related STEM into the classroom. The HEWG developed and, starting in Aug 2012, disseminated a survey to community college faculty to better understand instructor needs, their students and institutional context, their professional development (PD), and how they bring new science into their classrooms. The survey was open for a few months, and we had responses nationwide from 183 faculty who teach in community colleges. We present results of the survey here, including demographics, teaching responsibilities, and what kinds of professional support 2YR faculty say they most need from the broader EPO community. We also include 2YR faculty feedback and results from face-to-face group sessions held in summer 2013.

  2. Oil Recovery Technology Partnership: The first two years. Biennial report for fiscal years 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hanold, R.J.; Northrop, D.A.

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has supported a new initiative to put the domestic oil industry (majors, independents, and service companies) in a position to use the scientific and engineering resources of the DOE laboratories, especially the weapons laboratories, to acquire new technologies for improved oil recovery. With the support of DOE, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories have initiated an Oil Recovery Technology Partnership that will apply federal investments in science and technology toward improving domestic oil recovery. This biennial report summarizes progress that has been made by the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership in FY89--90, the first two years of its operation. Results are presented for the following Partnership projects: (1) Stresses and Fractures in a Low-Permeability Oil Reservoir, (2) Microseismic Monitoring of the Chaveroo and Tomahawk Oil Fields, New Mexico, (3) Development of a Multistation Borehole Seismic Receiver, (4) Imaging the Faults in the McKittrick Oil Field, and (5) other activities conducted in response to industry requests. In addition, Partnership interactions with industry and possible Partnership activities in the future are summarized.

  3. Updated level-1 processing after two-years operation of TANSO-FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, Hiroshi; Kuze, Akihiko; Shiomi, Kei; Nakajima, Masakatsu

    2011-09-01

    To monitor the global column concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from space, the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched on January 23, 2009, and has started the operational observation. Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation- Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) has been continuously measuring CO2 and CH4 distributions globally every three days, and data distribution to the public started from Feb. 16, 2010. During two years operational periods, the radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic characterizations of TANSO have been continuously conducted with updating the Level-1 processing algorithm. To make a precise spectroscopic observation, correction algorithms were newly developed, demonstrated and installed on operational processing. Two major corrections are discussed. One is correction of the scan-speed instability caused by microvibration from satellite. Through the on-orbit data analysis, degrading spectroscopic accuracy caused by periodically micro-vibrations was found, and these distortion effects were compensated with applying the re-sampling technique for interferogram. The other is non-linearity correction in the electronics. In this presentation, the detail of on-orbit characteristics and the current status of Level-1procesing for TANSO will be presented.

  4. Evaluation of two years of mass chemotherapy against ascariasis in Hamadan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Mohammad; Mirarab, Akbar; Jamalian, Farzad; Ghaderi, Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mass treatment of ascariasis in rural areas of Hamadan Province, Islamic Republic of Iran. METHODS: A control programme in rural areas of Hamadan Province, which began in November 1997, involved giving all persons a single dose of 400 mg albendazole at intervals of three months. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by the formalin-ether concentration technique for stool examination and by the Stoll quantitative method. FINDINGS: The average rate of infection with Ascaris before treatment was 53.3%, ranging from 40% in Hamadan district to 75% in Toysercan. Two areas, Malayer and Nahavand, were excluded from the programme because the infection rates were only 13% and 4%, respectively. After two years of mass treatment the infection rate had decreased to 6%. The proportion of positive cases excreting only unfertilized eggs increased to 32%. No side-effects of mass treatment were observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic mass treatment giving high coverage proved to be very effective in the control of ascariasis, notwithstanding a lack of other preventive measures. PMID:12077616

  5. Two years long field campaign YMC - A challenge to the complicated Maritime Continent weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Kunio; Zhang, Chidong; Hayati, Noer; Katsumata, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC), which spans from the eastern Indian Ocean to the western Pacific via the complicated land topography, hosts various weather and climate phenomena and plays a role of the heat engine for the global atmospheric circulation. However, most of our knowledge on them are qualitative and result in unrealistic simulation by numerical models. For example, most climate models are suffering from the systematic errors of precipitation with overestimate/underestimate over the land/ocean. Interaction between the local circulation due to the heating diurnal cycle and large-scale phenomena might be a key to understand them quantitatively. To cover the entire monsoon cycle, two-year long field campaign, Years of the Maritime Continent or YMC, is proposed. While long-term atmospheric and oceanic monitoring is done by or through the collaboration with the MC countries, several coordinated intensive observations using ship, aircraft, mooring, float, land-based are planned. Their main targets include convective diurnal cycle, aerosol-cloud interaction, the Madden-Julian oscillation, equatorially trapped waves, troposphere-stratosphere interaction, Indonesian through flow, coastal upwelling, and so on. In this presentation, current status will be reviewed.

  6. 77 FR 26229 - Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach... the U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, Florida (Base Miami Beach). Base Miami Beach is composed of multiple U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) units, both land and waterside. The facility has one of the...

  7. TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

  8. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals. PMID:23103149

  9. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  10. Beach boundary layer: a framework for addressing recreational water quality impairment at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stanley B; Sanders, Brett F

    2010-12-01

    Nearshore waters in bays, harbors, and estuaries are frequently contaminated with human pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria. Tracking down and mitigating this contamination is complicated by the many point and nonpoint sources of fecal pollution that can degrade water quality along the shore. From a survey of the published literature, we propose a conceptual and mathematical framework, the "beach boundary layer model", for understanding and quantifying the relative impact of beach-side and bay-side sources of fecal pollution on nearshore water quality. In the model, bacterial concentration in ankle depth water C(ankle) [bacteria L(-3)] depends on the flux m'' [bacteria L(-2) T(-1)] of fecal bacteria from beach-side sources (bather shedding, bird and dog feces, tidal washing of sediments, decaying vegetation, runoff from small drains, and shallow groundwater discharge), a cross-shore mass transfer velocity k [L T(-1)] that accounts for the physics of nearshore transport and mixing, and a background concentration C(bay) [bacteria L(-3)] attributable to bay-side sources of pollution that impact water quality over large regions (sewage outfalls, creeks and rivers): C(ankle) = m''/k + C(bay). We demonstrate the utility of the model for identifying risk factors and pollution sources likely to impact shoreline water quality, and evaluate the model's underlying assumptions using computational fluid dynamic simulations of flow, turbulence, and mass transport in a trapezoidal channel. PMID:20949912

  11. The Acquisition of Transitivity in Quiche Mayan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton

    1985-01-01

    A study of the awareness of verb transitivity in the spontaneous speech of two two-year-old native speakers of Quiche was accomplished by examining three factors: transitive terminations given to verbs, subject markers on the verbs, and syntax. The first was studied by counting the number of transitive verbs used with both transitive and…

  12. Kennedy Space Center ocean beach erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A. J.; Obrien, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Dune barrier erosion and possible breakthrough due to storm and hurricane wave activity is studied near Mosquito Lagoon, in Kennedy Space Center property. The results of a geological as well as hydrodynamic appraisal of the problem area indicate that no inlet has existed across the dune barrier since 500 A.D., and that there is little likelihood of a possible breakthrough inlet remaining open permanently, primarily because the relatively shallow lagoon does not contain enough volume of water to maintain an inlet between the ocean and the lagoon. It is therefore recommended that only minimal measures, such as closing up the man-made passes across the dunes, be carried out to ensure continuation of the action of natural beach maintaining processes.

  13. Predictors of Activity Level Two years after ACL Reconstruction: MOON ACLR Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Warren R.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T.; Bergfeld, John A.; Flanigan, David C.; Jones, Morgan H.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle; Vidal, Armando; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.; Harrell, Frank E.; Dittus, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective ACL deficient subjects are at risk of knee injury with cutting and pivoting activities; in accord, ACL reconstructions (ACLR) are performed to restore stability to allow for return to cutting and pivoting activities. The Marx activity level is a validated patient-reported measure to quantify the amount and frequency of running, cutting, decelerating, and pivoting performed. Our objective was to quantify activity level 2 yrs after ACLR and identify explanatory variables measured at baseline (demographics, concomitant meniscal/articular cartilage injuries and their treatment) associated with activity level at short-term follow-up (2 yrs). Methods In 2002, the multicenter consortium began enrolling subjects undergoing ACLR at six recruitment sites. This ongoing multicenter cohort study targets follow-up at 2, 6, and 10 years. The current study reports two-year follow-up of subjects enrolled in 2002. Participants in the multicenter ACLR cohort completed a series of validated, patient-oriented questionnaires that included activity level assessment. Follow-up questionnaires were collected by mail between 1/01/04 and 6/01/05 to assess changes. Measurement of intraarticular pathology, techniques of ACLR, and secondary procedures were recorded at baseline by participating surgeons. Multivariable proportional odds ordinal logistic regression was used to assess predictors of activity level after adjusting for baseline patient characteristics. Interquartile range (IQR) odds ratios (OR) are given for continuous variables, IQROR demonstrate the effect of increasing a baseline variable from its first quartile to its third quartile. The fitted model that used OR to specify predicted probabilities of exceeding any activity level was translated into predicted mean activity level and is presented in a nomogram for more interpretability. Results Of the 446 subjects that underwent unilateral ACLR, follow-up was obtained on 393 (88%). The cohort is 56% male, median age 23 yrs. Median and IQR activity level was 12 (8–16) at baseline, and declined to 9 (3–13) at follow-up. After controlling for other baseline factors such as age, marital and student status, contralateral knee status, sport and competition level, and articular cartilage/meniscal injuries, the following factors were predictors of activity level at 2-year follow-up. High baseline activity level was associated with higher activity at 2 yrs (IQROR=3.8, 95% CI=2.0–7.4, p<0.0001), and lower baseline BMI (IQROR=1.37, 95% CI=1.04–1.82, p=0.027). The following baseline factors were associated with lower activity: female gender (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.39–0.91, p=0.015); smoking within 6 months (IQROR=0.55, 95% CI=0.33–0.92, p=0.023); and revision ACLR (IQROR=0.41, CI=0.20–0.83, p=0.014). Conclusions (1) The proportion of subjects returning to the same or higher level of activity two years after ACLR was 45%, and evaluation of post treatment activity levels should control for patients’ preoperative activity since this is a strong predictor of future activity. (2) Assuming physical activity is an important component of a healthy person, investigation of potential interventions to improve future activity could target modifiable exposures such as weight. (3) Further evaluation is needed to explore the association of gender and revision surgery on activity level following ACLR. PMID:20709944

  14. Language outcomes of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: a two year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rhea; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Cicchetti, Domenic; Volkmar, Fred

    2008-04-01

    Thirty-seven children 15-25 months of age received clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and were re-evaluated two years later. All subjects were judged to have retained a diagnosis of ASD at the follow-up evaluation. Communication scores for the group as a whole during the first visit were significantly lower than nonverbal IQ. However, by the second visit, verbal and nonverbal scores were no longer significantly different. The group was divided into two subgroups, based on expressive language (EL) outcome at the second visit. The two groups were similar in the second year of life in terms of expressive communication skills and autistic symptoms, except for a trend toward more stereotypic and repetitive behavior in the worse outcome group. By the second visit, however, the groups differed significantly on all standard measures of expression and reception, as well as on autistic symptomotology and nonverbal IQ. When assessed during their second year, children who ended up in the better outcome group showed higher average nonverbal cognitive level, receptive language (RL) scores, number of sounds and words produced, use of symbolic play schemes, and response to joint attention bids. Regression analysis revealed that the variables for which significant differences between the two outcome groups in their second year of life were found provided significant prediction of EL outcome at age four. Stepwise regression identified RL and presence of stereotypic and repetitive at the first visit as significantly associated with EL outcome. Implications of these findings for early identification and intervention are discussed. PMID:19360656

  15. Biochemical characterization of embryogenic calli of Vanilla planifolia in response to two years of thidiazuron treatment.

    PubMed

    Kodja, Hippolyte; Noirot, Michel; Khoyratty, Shahnoo S; Limbada, Hafsah; Verpoorte, Robert; Palama, Tony Lionel

    2015-11-01

    Vanilla planifolia embryogenic calli were cultured for two years on a medium containing thidiazuron (TDZ). Due to the presence of TDZ, these calli were under permanent chemical treatment and the differentiation of adventitious shoots from protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) was blocked. When embryogenic calli were transferred onto a medium without TDZ, shoot organogenesis and plantlet regeneration occurred. To gain better knowledge about the biochemical and molecular processes involved in the morphoregulatory role of TDZ, hormonal and metabolomic analyses were performed. Our results indicate that in the presence of TDZ, embryogenic calli contained a high amount of abscisic acid (ABA) essentially metabolized into abscisic acid glucosyl ester (ABAGE) and phaseic acid (PA), which was the most abundant. When transferred onto a medium without TDZ, shoot regeneration and development take place in four stages that include: embryogenic calli growth, differentiation of PLBs from meristmatic cells zones (MCZ), shoot organogenesis from PLBs and the elongation of well-formed shoots. From a hormonal perspective, the significant reduction in ABA metabolism and its readjustment in the ABAGE pathway triggered PLBs formation. However, this first morphogenesis was stimulated by a strong reduction in IAA metabolism. The organogenesis of PLBs into shoots is associated with an increase in ABA catabolism and a gradual shift in cellular metabolism towards shoot differentiation. Thus, the initiation of the elongation process in shoots is correlated with an alteration in metabolite composition, including an increase in energy reserves (sucrose/starch) and a rapid decrease in alanine content. Our data highlighted the relationship between endogenous hormone signalling, carbohydrate metabolism and shoot organogenesis in Orchid plants. PMID:26351150

  16. Multiple sclerosis risk sharing scheme: two year results of clinical cohort study with historical comparator

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To generate evidence on the longer term cost effectiveness of disease modifying treatments in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Design Prospective cohort study with historical comparator. Setting Specialist multiple sclerosis clinics in 70 centres in the United Kingdom. Participants Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who started treatment from May 2002 to April 2005 under the UK risk sharing scheme. Interventions Treatment with interferon beta or glatiramer acetate in accordance with guidelines of the UK Association of British Neurologists. Main outcome measures Observed utility weighted progression in disability at two years’ follow-up assessed on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) compared with that expected by applying the progression rates in a comparator dataset, modified for patients receiving treatment by multiplying by the hazard ratio derived separately for each disease modifying treatment from the randomised trials. Results In the primary per protocol analysis, progression in disability was worse than that predicted and worse than that in the untreated comparator dataset (“deviation score” of 113%; excess in mean disability status scale 0.28). In sensitivity analyses, however, the deviation score varied from ?72% (using raw baseline disability status scale scores, rather than applying a “no improvement” algorithm) to 156% (imputing missing data for year two from progression rates for year one). Conclusions It is too early to reach any conclusion about the cost effectiveness of disease modifying treatments from this first interim analysis. Important methodological issues, including the need for additional comparator datasets, the potential bias from missing data, and the impact of the “no improvement” rule, will need to be addressed and long term follow-up of all patients is essential to secure meaningful results. Future analyses of the cohort are likely to be more informative, not least because they will be less sensitive to short term fluctuations in disability. PMID:19955128

  17. The Two-Year Colleges' Role in Building the Future Geoscience Technical Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, B.

    2014-12-01

    Careers in energy science related fields represent significant job growth in the U.S. Yet post-secondary career and technical programs have not kept pace with demand and energy science curriculum, including fundamental concepts of energy generation and environmental impact, lacks a firm position among general or career and technical education courses. Many of these emerging energy related jobs are skilled labor and entry level technical positions requiring less than a bachelor's degree. These include jobs such as solar/photovoltaic design and installation, solar water and space heating installation, energy management, efficiency and conservation auditor, environmental technician, etc. These energy related career pathways fit naturally within the geosciences discipline. Many of these jobs can be filled by individuals from HVAC, Industrial technology, welding, and electrical degree programs needing some additional specialized training and curriculum focused on fundamental concepts of energy, fossil fuel exploration and use, atmospheric pollution, energy generation, alternative energy sources, and energy conservation. Two-year colleges (2ycs) are uniquely positioned to train and fill these workforce needs as they already have existing career and technical programs and attract both recent high school graduates, as well as non-traditional students including displaced workers and returning veterans. We have established geoscience related workforce certificate programs that individuals completing the traditional industrial career and technical degrees can obtain to meet these emerging workforce needs. This presentation will discuss the role of geosciences programs at 2ycs in training these new workers, developing curriculum, and building a career/technical program that is on the forefront of this evolving industry.

  18. Nitrate losses from fertilised short rotation willow - a preliminary evaluation of two years data

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.E.; Riddell-Block, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    The contamination of surface and ground waters arising from fertiliser use and livestock husbandry is arousing increasing concern and legislative controls on nitrogen application in vulnerable areas are being applied across the European Union. The production of wood on agricultural land is increasing as farmers diversify away from food crops. One crop which is attracting significant interest amongst farmers is the production of fuel from intensively planted willow and poplar grown on short rotations, referred to as short rotation forestry (SRF). The management of these crops is substantially less intensive than that employed in traditional agriculture. However, concerns over the potential environmental impact of the large-scale development of SRF have prompted the investigation of its water usage and influence on water quality. The opportunity was taken to conduct a preliminary investigation of nitrate leaching losses from intensively planted willow through the monitoring of a trial established to examine the fertiliser response of the crop. Two years data are reported in the poster presentation. Soil pore water samples were collected over two winters using porous ceramic suction samples installed vertically to a depth of 0.75 m beneath 18 month old stools of Salix dasyclados to which 172m{sup -3} ha{sup -1} equivalent of sewage sludge was applied in May 1993. Samplers were also installed in unfertilised control plots. Stools were spaced to give stocking densities of 20,000, 10,000 and 6,600 ha{sup -1}. Sampling commenced in November 1993 and continued at two to four week intervals until the end of May 1994. The process was repeated over the winter of 1994/95. Nitrate concentrations in soil pore water was significantly higher in the fertilised plots than under the unfertilised control in both years. However, differences were no longer significant at the end of the sampling period in either year.

  19. Surgery of Condyloma Acuminatum Permagnum and Permagnum Recurrence After Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Lucic, Nenad; Antonic, Zora; Ecim, Vesna; Grahovac, Slobodan; Jeftovic, Rosanda; Draganovic, Dragica; Cancarevic-Djajic, Branka; Rodic, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    The authors in their paper show the case with the female patient D.S. 51 years old, which was surgically treated for genital condyloma in 1981, 1986, 1999, 2006 and 2008. Under registration number 3119/2006 was received at Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic in Banja Luka with the diagnosis of condyloma acuminatum permagnum. Patient suffered from a huge tumorous, cauliflower formation, which was located on the mons pubis, and down to the anus, laterally to the right of the gluteal region to the left thigh. Patient was operated–Vulvectomia simplex cum extirpatio tumoris reg glutealis l dex. We obtained pathohistological findings (no. 4876 / 06) which read: condyloma acuminatum permagnum. After two years patient was rehospitalized at Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic in Banja Luka, (registration number 1311/08) with almost identical findings in the same region under the diagnosis of condyloma acuminatum permagnum recidivans, St. post. vulvectomiam simplex et extitpationem tumoris glutealis reg l dex. All preoperative findings – laboratory analysis, X-ray of the lung and heart and ultrasound of the small pelvis were within the reference values. In this paper we describe the location of the tumor and how it is resolved – Extirpatio tumoris reg glutealis l. dex. et perianalis. Pathohistological findings confirmed previous diagnosis. In this paper we highlight our experiences regarding the operations of an unusually large tumors of genital condyloma and recurrent genital condyloma that were almost of the same size. Our experience could be useful to work on the education about sexually transmitted diseases, in order to improve the prevention of the viral diseases (vaccination), the treatment of these illnesses and to disseminate the warning that the regular check-ups with gynecologist are necessary. PMID:23408120

  20. The First Two Years of the Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (relea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

    2006-08-01

    We present and discuss in this work the motivations, goals and strategies adopted for its creation and launch of the e-journal LATIN-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY EDUCATION (RELEA). The RELEA "first light" was in August, 2004 with the appearance of No. 1 and it is now completing two years of existence. The creation of the new journal was prompted by: a) the noteworthy absence of a specific publication in the field in Latin-America; b) the lack of classroom material in Spanish/Portuguese that could be directly used without too many adaptations; and c) the need of a regional forum to discuss and suggest public policies concerning the teaching of Sciences in general and Astronomy in particular. We identify and present the difficulties encountered for the achievement of the proposed objectives and operational issues in this period, together with the adopted solutions (refereeing procedure, periodicity, etc.). Finally, we attempt to evaluate the long-run impact of such initiatives on the scientific education as a tool for effective citizenship decision making, so critical for Third-World countries. References Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2004, Editorial of the RELEA No.1, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2005, Editorial of the RELEA No.2, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E., A Revista Latino-Americana de Educação em Astronomia: objetivos e estratégias. In: Encontro Brasileiro de Ensino de Astronomia, 8, 2004, São Paulo. Proceedings. (In press). [The Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education: Objectives and Strategies. In: 8th Brazilian Meeting on Astronomy Teaching.