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Sample records for beaches confer fitness

  1. Conference summary: 6th International conference on hyperons, charm, and beauty hadrons (BEACH04)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Joel N.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The 6th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm, and Beauty Hadrons (BEACH04) treated us to a wonderful array of new results. Here the author attempts to summarize the talks and discuss the conference highlights.

  2. Enforced Clonality Confers a Fitness Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    In largely clonal plants, splitting of a maternal plant into potentially independent plants (ramets) is usually spontaneous; however, such fragmentation also occurs in otherwise non-clonal species due to application of external force. This process might play an important yet largely overlooked role for otherwise non-clonal plants by providing a mechanism to regenerate after disturbance. Here, in a 5-year garden experiment on two short-lived, otherwise non-clonal species, Barbarea vulgaris and Barbarea stricta, we compared the fitness of plants fragmented by simulated disturbance (“enforced ramets”) both with plants that contemporaneously originate in seed and with individuals unscathed by the disturbance event. Because the ability to regrow from fragments is related to plant age and stored reserves, we compared the effects of disturbance applied during three different ontogenetic stages of the plants. In B. vulgaris, enforced ramet fitness was higher than the measured fitness values of both uninjured plants and plants established from seed after the disturbance. This advantage decreased with increasing plant age at the time of fragmentation. In B. stricta, enforced ramet fitness was lower than or similar to fitness of uninjured plants and plants grown from seed. Our results likely reflect the habitat preferences of the study species, as B. vulgaris occurs in anthropogenic, disturbed habitats where body fragmentation is more probable and enforced clonality thus more advantageous than in the more natural habitats preferred by B. stricta. Generalizing from our results, we see that increased fitness yielded by enforced clonality would confer an evolutionary advantage in the face of disturbance, especially in habitats where a seed bank has not been formed, e.g., during invasion or colonization. Our results thus imply that enforced clonality should be taken into account when studying population dynamics and life strategies of otherwise non-clonal species in disturbed

  3. Proceedings of the 2010 CIAE Pre-Conference (59th, Clearwater Beach, Florida, October 24-26, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for International Adult Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 International Pre-Conference of the Commission on International Adult Education (CIAE), American Association for Adult & Continuing (AAACE), was successfully conducted from October 24-26, at the Hilton Clearwater Beach Resort, Clearwater Beach, Florida. This publication includes the papers presented during the conference. These are: (1)…

  4. PREFACE: XI Conference on Beauty, Charm, Hyperons in Hadronic Interactions BEACH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, Marco

    2014-11-01

    This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 11th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm and Beauty Hadrons, currently known as the BEACH Conferences. The BEACH conferences cover a broad range of physics topics in the field of Hyperon and heavy-flavor physics. This conference continues the BEACH series, which began with a meeting in Strasbourg in 1995 and since then offers a biennial opportunity for both theorists and experimentalists from the high-energy physics community to discuss all aspects of flavour physics. The 11th Conference took place in the Lecture Theatre of the Physics West Building of the University of Birmingham (United Kingdom) from July 22nd to July 26th and was attended by 107 participants. All of the sessions were plenary sessions accommodating review talks and shorter contributions discussing both theory and recent experiments. At the end of the conference Valerie Gibson (Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK) and Sebastian Jaeger (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, UK) summarized and put in context all the presentations of the conference giving two very interesting Summary talks. These Conference Proceedings are particularly interesting since, due to the long shutdown of the LHC in Geneva (CH), most of the data presented were from the entire data set available. This volume in fact offers an interesting panorama of the present situation and allows a comparison of the experimental data and the theory in a field that is always in continuous evolution. The conference was impeccably organized by the Local Organizing Committee chaired by Cristina Lazzeroni (Birmingham Univeristy, Birmingham, UK) that I want to thank particularly here. Many from the University Staff have contributed to the smooth running of the conference. We would like to thank the Local Scientific Secretariat for their invaluable help in making the conference a truly enjoyable and unforgettable event; a special thanks

  5. PROCEEDINGS: SECOND CONFERENCE ON WASTE HEAT MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION HELD AT MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA IN DECEMBER 1978, VOLUME 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document most presentations made during the Second Conference on Waste Heat Management and Utilization, held December 4-6, 1978, at Miami Beach, FL. Presentations were grouped by areas of concern: general, utilization, mathematical modeling, ecological effects, co...

  6. PROCEEDINGS: SECOND CONFERENCE ON WATER HEAT MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION HELD AT MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA IN DECEMBER 1978, VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document most presentations made during the Second Conference on Waste Heat Management and Utilization, held December 4-6, 1978, at Miami Beach, FL. Presentations were grouped by areas of concern: general, utilization, mathematical modeling, ecological effects, co...

  7. Curriculum Materials Exhibited at the 1976 ASCD Annual Conference (31st, Miami Beach, Florida, March 13-17, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, H. Minnie, Comp.; And Others

    This catalog lists all curriculum materials submitted for display at the 1976 Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Conference in Miami Beach. Materials are grouped according to subject matter, with separate sections for general curriculum development, adult education, art, bilingual education, career education, consumer…

  8. Phenotypic plasticity confers multiple fitness benefits to a mimic.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Fabio; Feeney, William E; Ferrari, Maud C O; Waldie, Peter A; Phillips, Genevieve A C; McClure, Eva C; Sköld, Helen N; Salzburger, Walter; Marshall, N Justin; Cheney, Karen L

    2015-03-30

    Animal communication is often deceptive; however, such dishonesty can become ineffective if it is used too often, is used out of context, or is too easy to detect [1-3]. Mimicry is a common form of deception, and most mimics gain the greatest fitness benefits when they are rare compared to their models [3, 4]. If mimics are encountered too frequently or if their model is absent, avoidance learning of noxious models is disrupted (Batesian mimicry [3]), or receivers become more vigilant and learn to avoid perilous mimics (aggressive mimicry [4]). Mimics can moderate this selective constraint by imperfectly resembling multiple models [5], through polymorphisms [6], or by opportunistically deploying mimetic signals [1, 7]. Here we uncover a novel mechanism to escape the constraints of deceptive signaling: phenotypic plasticity allows mimics to deceive targets using multiple guises. Using a combination of behavioral, cell histological, and molecular methods, we show that a coral reef fish, the dusky dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus), flexibly adapts its body coloration to mimic differently colored reef fishes and in doing so gains multiple fitness benefits. We find that by matching the color of other reef fish, dottybacks increase their success of predation upon juvenile fish prey and are therefore able to deceive their victims by resembling multiple models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that changing color also increases habitat-associated crypsis that decreases the risk of being detected by predators. Hence, when mimics and models share common selective pressures, flexible imitation of models might inherently confer secondary benefits to mimics. Our results show that phenotypic plasticity can act as a mechanism to ease constraints that are typically associated with deception. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:25802153

  9. A Conference on Planning for Documentation and the National Conference Follow-up Program (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, February 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansker, Judith

    This document reports on the activities of the Southeastern Teacher Corps Network's 1979 conference on planning for the documentation and follow-up survey of educational conferences. Topics discussed at the meeting include developing the skills and operational procedures for documentation processes in Network organizations, and developing the…

  10. Limitations of fitting angular scattering from single cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xing; Cannaday, Ashley E.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    The literature contains several reports of Mie-like fits to angular-domain elastic scattering measurements from multiple cells or isolated mitochondria. In these studies, the sampling volume typically contains hundreds or thousands of mitochondria, allowing for the size distribution of mitochondria to be modeled as a smooth function, (e.g. Gaussian or log-normal) with a small number of free parameters. In the case of a single-cell volume containing significantly fewer mitochondria, the true size distribution will no longer be as smooth. Increasing the number of free parameters can lead to unstable fits, however, as the forward-directed angular scattering pattern from such a population illuminated with 785 nm light is a monotonically decaying radial function with few distinct features. Using simulations, we have investigated the limitations of modeling single-cell mitochondrial scattering using smooth population distributions of Mie scatterers. In different instances, the fidelity of the estimated size information can be limited by the number of organelles, the angular detection range, or the non-ideality of the data (both speckle and shot noise). We will describe the conditions under which each of these effects dominates. We will also discuss whether mean and standard deviation are the best sizes to report from such Mie modeling, or if there are other size parameters that have greater fidelity to the true, non-smooth size distributions.

  11. The National Women's Leadership Conference on Fitness. Proceedings. (Washington, D.C., April 6-7, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The principal addresses at this Women's Leadership Conference on Fitness were: (1) "Keynote Address" (C. Carson Conrad); (2) "Essential Nature of Fitness" (Lawrence E. Lamb); (3) "Effects of Exercise on Women from 20-50 Years Old" (Sharon Plowman); (4) "Fitness in Older Women" (Everett L. Smith); (5) "Female Musculo-Skeletal System" (Robert P.…

  12. A Synopsis of the National Conference on Fitness and Aging (Washington, DC, September 10-11, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This report contains presentations and program descriptions given at a conference on physical fitness and older adults. Included are: (1) Keynote Address (Richard S. Schweiker); (2) "Government's Role in Fitness for the Aging" (Pete V. Domenici and Beverly B. Byron); (3) "What Is Aging?" (James Skinner); (4) Medical Implications of Fitness and…

  13. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  14. Proceedings of the 2000 ASCUE Summer Conference (33rd, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 11-15, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    This 2000 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings first highlights keynote speakers and describes the pre-conference workshops. The conference papers and abstracts that follow discuss: strategic planning for faculty, staff, and student development; a network lab; the Blackboard course delivery system;…

  15. Proceedings of the 2001 ASCUE Summer Conference (34th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 10-14, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    This 2001 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings briefly describes ASCUE and its listserver, lists the 2000-2001 ASCUE Board Members, and provides abstracts of the pre-conference workshops. The conference papers and abstracts of papers that follow include: "Microsoft Project 2000--Keeping Projects on Time…

  16. Proceedings of the 2002 ASCUE Summer Conference (35th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 9-13, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    This 2002 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings briefly describes ASCUE and its listserv, lists board members, and provides abstracts of the pre-conference workshops. The conference papers and abstracts that follow cover: principles of visual communication in Web design; Blackboard 5--Web-based course…

  17. News Conference: Brecon hosts 10th teacher's conference Summer school: Science summer school heads to Crete Award: The Corti Science Prize Radioactivity: Scottish beach is no beta off Workshop: Heureka project promotes teaching Experiments: Spanish project proves that learning science can be exciting Lecture: IOP schools lecture journeys from x-rays to antimatter Correction to the news item 'Delegates experience universality' Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    Conference: Brecon hosts 10th teacher's conference Summer school: Science summer school heads to Crete Award: The Corti Science Prize Radioactivity: Scottish beach is no beta off Workshop: Heureka project promotes teaching Experiments: Spanish project proves that learning science can be exciting Lecture: IOP schools lecture journeys from x-rays to antimatter Correction to the news item 'Delegates experience universality' Forthcoming events

  18. The Legionella pneumophila kai operon is implicated in stress response and confers fitness in competitive environments

    PubMed Central

    Loza-Correa, Maria; Sahr, Tobias; Rolando, Monica; Daniels, Craig; Petit, Pierre; Skarina, Tania; Valero, Laura Gomez; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Honoré, Nadine; Savchenko, Aleksey; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Legionella pneumophila uses aquatic protozoa as replication niche and protection from harsh environments. Although L. pneumophila is not known to have a circadian clock, it encodes homologues of the KaiBC proteins of Cyanobacteria that regulate circadian gene expression. We show that L. pneumophila kaiB, kaiC and the downstream gene lpp1114, are transcribed as a unit under the control of the stress sigma factor RpoS. KaiC and KaiB of L. pneumophila do not interact as evidenced by yeast and bacterial two-hybrid analyses. Fusion of the C-terminal residues of cyanobacterial KaiB to Legionella KaiB restores their interaction. In contrast, KaiC of L. pneumophila conserved autophosphorylation activity, but KaiB does not trigger the dephosphorylation of KaiC like in Cyanobacteria. The crystal structure of L. pneumophila KaiB suggests that it is an oxidoreductase-like protein with a typical thioredoxin fold. Indeed, mutant analyses revealed that the kai operon-encoded proteins increase fitness of L. pneumophila in competitive environments, and confer higher resistance to oxidative and sodium stress. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that L. pneumophila KaiBC resemble Synechosystis KaiC2B2 and not circadian KaiB1C1. Thus, the L. pneumophila Kai proteins do not encode a circadian clock, but enhance stress resistance and adaption to changes in the environments. PMID:23957615

  19. Visions and Revisions. Annual Alliance/ACE Conference (16th, St. Pete Beach, Florida, October 3-5, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance, an Association for Alternative Degree Programs.

    These proceedings consist of 20 presentations made during 5 sessions at a conference dealing with alternative degree programs for adults. The following papers are included: "Narrative Reasoning as Assessment" (Richard M. Ashbrook); "Political and Administrative Issues in Developing a Distance Learning Based Program" (Margaret Foss, Conni R.…

  20. Spotlight on Technology. Proceedings of the RESNA '99 Annual Conference (Long Beach, California, June 25-29, 1999). Volume 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprigle, Stephen, Ed.

    This book contains the proceedings of the annual RESNA (Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology) conference, which focused on technology and individuals with disabilities. Papers and presentations are grouped into the following nine major categories: (1) assistive technology and cognitive disabilities; (2) augmentative and…

  1. Young People: Fit for Life? St. Catharine's Conference (Windsor, England, United Kingdom, October 1996). Conference Report No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhalgh, Claire

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest within the media and in government about young people who are spending more time in front of the television or computer than in physical activities. A 1996 conference examined these issues and addressed concerns that young people's lack of activity has a detrimental effect upon their health and…

  2. IEEE/AIAA/NASA Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 9th, Virginia Beach, VA, Oct. 15-18, 1990, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on digital avionics discusses vehicle-management systems, spacecraft avionics, special vehicle avionics, communication/navigation/identification systems, software qualification and quality assurance, launch-vehicle avionics, Ada applications, sensor and signal processing, general aviation avionics, automated software development, design-for-testability techniques, and avionics-software engineering. Also discussed are optical technology and systems, modular avionics, fault-tolerant avionics, commercial avionics, space systems, data buses, crew-station technology, embedded processors and operating systems, AI and expert systems, data links, and pilot/vehicle interfaces.

  3. Structural applications of mechanical alloying; Proceedings of the ASM International Conference, Myrtle Beach, SC, Mar. 27-29, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Froes, F.H.; Debarbadillo, J.J. Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV )

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on mechanically alloyed (MA) products discusses their aerospace and industrial applications, the design and isothermal forging of Ni-base oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, the microstructure and tensile properties of ODS ferritic alloys, the high temperature corrosion resistance of MA refractory products, the mechanical properties of novel MA Fe-based ODS alloys, and dispersoids in MA metals. Also discussed are MA Al-alloys for aircraft applications, the microstructure and properties of MA Al-Mn, the MA processing of the Ti-Al system, the origin of the strength of MA Al alloys, the interaction of Al with SiC during MA processing, the synthesis of chromium silicide via MA, and the MA production of 'TiC-steel'.

  4. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 9th, Cocoa Beach, FL, January 20-23, 1985, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The present conference discusses testing methods for ceramic matrix composites, developments in ceramic fibers, space transportation systems thermal protection materials, ceramics for heat engines and other severe environments, thermal sprayed coatings, the development status of ceramic tribology, and the fabrication of ceramics and hard metals. Specific attention is given to the mechanical characterization of ceramic and glass matrix composites, the application of fracture mechanics to fiber composites, the degradation properties of Nicalon SiC fibers, ceramic matrix toughening, SiC/glass composite phases, ceramic composite manufacture by infiltration, and ceramic coatings for the Space Shuttle's surface insulation. Also treated are design principles for anisotropic brittle materials, ceramics for intense radiant heat applications, ceramic-coated tip seals for turbojet engines, composite production by low pressure plasma deposition, tribology in military systems, lubrication for ceramics, a systems approach to the grinding of structural ceramics, and the fabrication of inorganic foams by microwave irradiation.

  5. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 11th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 18-23, 1987, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The present conference on advanced ceramic materials discusses topics in the fields of NDE, coating/joining/tribology techniques, fracture and interface phenomena, whisker- and particulate-reinforced composites, fiber and whisker properties, SiC and Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, glass/glass-ceramic matrix composites, alumina-matrix composites, ceramic materials for space structures, and SiC- and Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/-matrix composites. Attention is given to ceramic characterization by thermal wave imaging, an advanced ceramic-to-metal joining process, the fracture modes of brittle-matrix unidirectional composites, the oxidation of SiC-containing composites, particulate matter in SiC whiskers, corrosion reactions in SiC ceramics, melt-infiltrated ceramic-matrix composites, environmental effects in toughened ceramics, and a ceramic composite heat exchanger.

  6. OCT-based profiler for automating ocular surface prosthetic fitting (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H.; Maguluri, Gopi N.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Patel, Chirag; Agranat, Josh; Tomashevskaya, Olga; Bonte, Eugene; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The use of a Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Environment (PROSE) device is a revolutionary treatment for military patients that have lost their eyelids due to 3rd degree facial burns and for civilians who suffer from a host of corneal diseases. However, custom manual fitting is often a protracted painful, inexact process that requires multiple fitting sessions. Training for new practitioners is a long process. Automated methods to measure the complete corneal and scleral topology would provide a valuable tool for both clinicians and PROSE device manufacturers and would help streamline the fitting process. PSI has developed an ocular anterior-segment profiler based on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which provides a 3D measure of the surface of the sclera and cornea. This device will provide topography data that will be used to expedite and improve the fabrication process for PROSE devices. OCT has been used to image portions of the cornea and sclera and to measure surface topology for smaller contact lenses [1-3]. However, current state-of-the-art anterior eye OCT systems can only scan about 16 mm of the eye's anterior surface, which is not sufficient for covering the sclera around the cornea. In addition, there is no systematic method for scanning and aligning/stitching the full scleral/corneal surface and commercial segmentation software is not optimized for the PROSE application. Although preliminary, our results demonstrate the capability of PSI's approach to generate accurate surface plots over relatively large areas of the eye, which is not currently possible with any other existing platform. Testing the technology on human volunteers is currently underway at Boston Foundation for Sight.

  7. Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Kei; Gerlach, Nina; Sacristán, Soledad; Nakano, Ryohei Thomas; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Neumann, Ulla; Ramírez, Diana; Bucher, Marcel; O'Connell, Richard J; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A staggering diversity of endophytic fungi associate with healthy plants in nature, but it is usually unclear whether these represent stochastic encounters or provide host fitness benefits. Although most characterized species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens, we show here that C. tofieldiae (Ct) is an endemic endophyte in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations in central Spain. Colonization by Ct initiates in roots but can also spread systemically into shoots. Ct transfers the macronutrient phosphorus to shoots, promotes plant growth, and increases fertility only under phosphorus-deficient conditions, a nutrient status that might have facilitated the transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles. The host's phosphate starvation response (PSR) system controls Ct root colonization and is needed for plant growth promotion (PGP). PGP also requires PEN2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism, a component of innate immune responses, indicating a functional link between innate immunity and the PSR system during beneficial interactions with Ct. PMID:26997485

  8. Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Hiruma, Kei; Gerlach, Nina; Sacristán, Soledad; Nakano, Ryohei Thomas; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Neumann, Ulla; Ramírez, Diana; Bucher, Marcel; O’Connell, Richard J.; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Summary A staggering diversity of endophytic fungi associate with healthy plants in nature, but it is usually unclear whether these represent stochastic encounters or provide host fitness benefits. Although most characterized species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens, we show here that C. tofieldiae (Ct) is an endemic endophyte in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations in central Spain. Colonization by Ct initiates in roots but can also spread systemically into shoots. Ct transfers the macronutrient phosphorus to shoots, promotes plant growth, and increases fertility only under phosphorus-deficient conditions, a nutrient status that might have facilitated the transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles. The host’s phosphate starvation response (PSR) system controls Ct root colonization and is needed for plant growth promotion (PGP). PGP also requires PEN2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism, a component of innate immune responses, indicating a functional link between innate immunity and the PSR system during beneficial interactions with Ct. PMID:26997485

  9. Environmentally co‐occurring mercury resistance plasmids are genetically and phenotypically diverse and confer variable context‐dependent fitness effects

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ellie; Lilley, Andrew K.; Paterson, Steve; Spiers, Andrew J.; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Plasmids are important mobile elements that can facilitate genetic exchange and local adaptation within microbial communities. We compared the sequences of four co‐occurring pQBR family environmental mercury resistance plasmids and measured their effects on competitive fitness of a P seudomonas fluorescens  SBW25 host, which was isolated at the same field site. Fitness effects of carriage differed between plasmids and were strongly context dependent, varying with medium, plasmid status of competitor and levels of environmental mercury. The plasmids also varied widely in their rates of conjugation and segregational loss. We found that few of the plasmid‐borne accessory genes could be ascribed functions, although we identified a putative chemotaxis operon, a type IV pilus‐encoding cluster and a region encoding putative arylsulfatase enzymes, which were conserved across geographically distant isolates. One plasmid, pQBR55, conferred the ability to catabolize sucrose. Transposons, including the mercury resistance Tn5042, appeared to have been acquired by different pQBR plasmids by recombination, indicating an important role for horizontal gene transfer in the recent evolution of pQBR plasmids. Our findings demonstrate extensive genetic and phenotypic diversity among co‐occurring members of a plasmid community and suggest a role for environmental heterogeneity in the maintenance of plasmid diversity. PMID:25969927

  10. An Endogenous Accelerator for Viral Gene Expression Confers a Fitness Advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Melissa; Bolovan-Fritts, Cynthia; Dar, Roy D.; Womack, Andrew; Simpson, Michael L; Shenk, Thomas; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction circuits have long been known to differentiate between signals by amplifying inputs to different levels. Here, we describe a novel transcriptional circuitry that dynamically converts greater input levels into faster rates, without increasing the final equilibrium level (i.e. a rate amplifier). We utilize time-lapse microscopy to study human herpesvirus (cytomegalovirus) infection of live cells in real time. Strikingly, our results show that transcriptional activators accelerate viral gene expression in single cells without amplifying the steady-state levels of gene products in these cells. Experiment and modeling show that rate amplification operates by dynamically manipulating the traditional gain-bandwidth feedback relationship from electrical circuit theory to convert greater input levels into faster rates, and is driven by highly self-cooperative transcriptional feedback encoded by the virus s essential transactivator, IE2. This transcriptional rate-amplifier provides a significant fitness advantage for the virus and for minimal synthetic circuits. In general, rate-amplifiers may provide a mechanism for signal-transduction circuits to respond quickly to external signals without increasing steady-state levels of potentially cytotoxic molecules.

  11. The Response of the Institution to External Forces: Proactive or Reactive? Conference Proceedings of the Southern Association for Institutional Research (Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 30-November 1, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orahood, Mary Alyce, Ed.

    The proceedings of the 1985 conference of the Southern Association for Institutional Research (SAIR) is presented. The focus was preparing colleges to anticipate and respond to the demand of accrediting bodies, federal agencies, and state legislatures. Contents include: a conference agenda; a keynote address, summaries of pre-conference workshops,…

  12. ICORE '98: Proceedings from the International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (12th, Fort Walton Beach, Florida, October 20-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rob, Comp.

    This proceedings of a conference on outdoor recreation and education contains conference papers and summaries of presentations and panel sessions. Following a summary of conference activities, the 14 entries are: "Working Together in Outdoor Programming: How Can It Work for You?" (W. T. Taylor, Jim Gilbert, Patsy Kott, Linda Potter-Rosenkrantz,…

  13. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  14. School Reform and Related Issues. Proceedings of the Conference of the University Urban Schools National Task Force (5th, Palm Beach, Florida, November 11-12, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossone, Richard M., Ed.; Polishook, Irwin, Ed.

    The theme of the conference reported on here was school reform and related issues. An introductory statement, "Thoughts on School Reform," by Jerome Bruner, and a list of conference participants are followed by a group of papers on education and politics. The papers are "Reform and Partnership in Education," by Albert Shanker; "Mandating…

  15. National Aquatic Conference on Professional Standards in Aquatics and Approaches to Certification (2nd, Long Beach, California, October 22-25, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This conference report is divided into two sections, as was the conference. The first section treats professional standards for aquatic education. Covered in detailed outlines of premises and skills are professional standards for the physical educator, the aquatic instructor, the aquatic specialist, and the aquatic administrator. The second…

  16. Assessing Impact: Evidence and Action. Presentations from the AAHE Conference on Assessment & Quality (Miami Beach, Florida, June 11-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Ewell, Peter T.; Gelman, Sherril B.; Kuh, George; Marchese, Theodore J.; Miller, Margaret A.; Wiggins, Grant

    This collection of seven major presentations at a 1997 conference on assessment and quality in higher education includes three plenary presentations and four introductions to program strands. In "Accountability and Assessment in a Second Decade: New Looks or Same Old Story?" Peter T. Ewell stresses the importance of defining the academic integrity…

  17. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference. Proceedings (28th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 18-22, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armel, Donald, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on microcomputers are: "Organizational Leadership through Information Technology" (John A. Anderson); "Multimedia in the Classroom--Rejuvenating the Literacy Course" (Stephen T. Anderson, Sr.); "Something New about Notetaking: A Computer-Based Instructional Experiment" (Donald Armel); "Reflections on Electronic Frontiers…

  18. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference. Proceedings (27th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 12-16, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Rick, Ed.; Armel, Donald, Ed.

    Topics addressed by 40 papers from a conference on microcomputers include: developing a campus wide computer ethics policy; integrating new technologies into professional education; campus computer networks; computer assisted instruction; client/server architecture; competencies for entry-level computing positions; auditing and professional…

  19. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference. Proceedings (25th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 21-25, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Small Computer Users in Education, Greencastle, IN.

    Forty-three papers from a conference on microcomputers are presented under the following headings: Computing in the Curriculum, Information and Computer Science Information; Institutional and Administrative Computing, and Management, Services, and Training. Topics of the papers include the following: telecommunications projects that work in…

  20. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference Proceedings (29th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 9-13, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on small college computing issues are: "Ethics, Privacy, and Security in Higher Education Technology" (John A. Anderson); "Multimedia in the Classroom: Recollections After Two Years" (Stephen T. Anderson Sr.); "Creating a Computer Competency Requirement for Mary Washington College Students" (David J. Ayersman, Ernest C.…

  1. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference Proceedings (30th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 7-12, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on small college computing issues are: "An On-line Microcomputer Course for Pre-service Teachers" (Mary K. Abkemeier); "The Mathematics and Computer Science Learning Center (MLC)" (Solomon T. Abraham); "Multimedia for the Non-Computer Science Faculty Member" (Stephen T. Anderson, Sr.); "Achieving Continuous Improvement:…

  2. BEACHES HEALTH SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...

  3. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  4. New materials in civil aviation; Proceedings of the Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, Long Beach, CA, Oct. 13-16, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The present conference discusses an evaluation of the Bell 206L and Sikorsky S-76 helicopters' composite components, the application of advanced composites to civil aircraft primary structures, and the experiences obtained over the course of a decade with the DC-10's composite rudders. Also discussed are the lessons learned in the DC-10 carbon/epoxy rudder development program and the cost effectiveness of weight reduction measures involving advanced materials substitution.

  5. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 12th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 17-22, 1988, Proceedings. Parts 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the development status of advanced ceramics, the engineering applications of ceramic-matrix composites, modeling and theoretical considerations of engineering ceramics, the role of interfaces in ceramic-matrix composites, and polycrystalline oxide-matrix composites. Also discussed are glass- and glass-ceramic-matrix composites, carbide- and nitride-matrix composites, the synthesis methods as well as the properties and applications of ceramic matrix-reinforcing whiskers, fibers, and powders, and various SDI-related advanced ceramic materials for use in orbital systems.

  6. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 13th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 15-18, 1989, Collection of Papers. Parts 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The present conference on advanced ceramics discusses topics in matrix-infiltration and processing techniques, the failure analysis of monolithic ceramics, the processing of polycrystalline oxide-matrix ceramic composites, the processing and properties of monolithic ceramics, ceramic composite interface phenomena, and ceramic NDE and characterization. Attention is given to chemical vapor infiltration for composites, dense ceramics via controlled melt oxidation, supertough silicon nitride, the properties of pressureless-sintered alumina-matrix/30 vol pct SiC composites, and toughening in metal particulate/glass-ceramic composites. Also discussed are the joining of silicon nitride for heat-engine applications, nitridation mechanisms in silicon powder compacts, the synthesis and properties of ceramic fibers, a technique for interfacial bond strength measurement, the degradation of SiC whiskers at elevated temperatures, and the correlation of NDE and fractography in Si3N4.

  7. Addressing the Standards for Foreign Language Learning. Dimension '97. Selected Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M., Ed.

    Seven papers from the annual conference are presented. "Developing Tomorrow's Technology-Using Foreign Language Teachers: Where We Are, Where We Are Going" (Marjorie H. DeWert, Audrey Heining-Boynton) looks at whether language teachers are being trained to take full advantage of educational technology. "Foreign Language Placement in Postsecondary…

  8. The Odyssey Continues: Dimension 2001. Selected Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, March 8-10, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, C. Maurice, Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes the following: (1) "Four Decades of Foreign Language Education: Are We Still at Cheese Station N?" (T. Bruce Fryer); (2) "Teaching French with the Internet: What the Students Want vs. What They Do" (Jean-Louis P. Dassier); (3) "Learning Behind the Screen: Computers, Conversations, Communities" (Laura…

  9. VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Wave Overtopping of a Barrier Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, E. B.; Laudier, N.; Macmahan, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    The rate of wave overtopping of a barrier beach is measured and modeled as a first step in modeling the breaching of a beach impounding an ephemeral river. Unique rate of wave overtopping data are obtained from the measure of the Carmel River, California, lagoon filling during a time when the lagoon is closed-off and there is no river inflow. Volume changes are calculated from measured lagoon height changes owing to wave overtopping by a stage-volume curve, then center differenced and averaged to provide volume rates of change in the lagoon. Wave height and period are obtained from CDIP MOPS directional wave spectra data in 15m fronting the beach. Beach morphology was measured by GPS walking surveys and interpolated for beach slopes and berm heights. Three empirical overtopping models by van der Meer and Janssen (1995), Hedges and Reis (1998) and Pullen et al. (2007) with differing parameterizations on wave height, period and beach slope and calibrated using extensive laboratory data obtained over plane, impermeable beaches are compared with the data. In addition, the run-up model by Stockdon et al. (2006) based on field data is examined. Three wave overtopping storm events are considered when morphology data were available less than 2 weeks prior to the event. The models are tuned to fit the data using a reduction factor to account for beach permeability, berm characteristics, non-normal wave incidence and surface roughness influence. It is concluded that the Stockdon et al. (2006) model underestimates run-up as no overtopping is predicted with this model. The three empirical overtopping models behaved similarly well with regression coefficients ranging 0.72 to 0.86 using a reasonable range of reduction factors 0.66 - 0.81 with an average of 0.74.

  11. Languages for the Nation. Dimension 2008. Selected Proceedings of the 2008 Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Carol, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Dimension" is the annual volume containing the selected, refereed, edited Proceedings of each year's conference. The Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT), held its annual conference, April 3-5, 2008, at the Springmaid Beach Resort and Conference Center, in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, in collaboration with the South Carolina Foreign…

  12. Stability of College Students' Fit with Their Academic Major and the Relationship between Academic Fit and Occupational Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghandour, Louma

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the fit between students' interests and their academic choices at different stages of their college careers. Using image theory (Beach, 1990) as an integrated theory of person-vocation fit, this investigation focuses on the stability of academic fit during college and the relationship between fit with academic choice and fit…

  13. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach locational data for BEACH Act. Beach locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Beach locations are coded onto region.rch (Waterbody Reach) feature of NHD to create NHD Waterbody Shapefiles...

  14. A Naturally Occurring rev1-vpu Fusion Gene Does Not Confer a Fitness Advantage to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Simon M.; Hopfensperger, Kristina; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Kreider, Edward F.; Learn, Gerald H.; Lee, Lan-Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sauter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Pandemic strains of HIV-1 (group M) encode a total of nine structural (gag, pol, env), regulatory (rev, tat) and accessory (vif, vpr, vpu, nef) genes. However, some subtype A and C viruses exhibit an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and the vpu gene are placed in the same open reading frame. Although this rev1-vpu gene fusion is present in a considerable fraction of HIV-1 strains, its functional significance is unknown. Results Examining infectious molecular clones (IMCs) of HIV-1 that encode the rev1-vpu polymorphism, we show that a fusion protein is expressed in infected cells. Due to the splicing pattern of viral mRNA, however, these same IMCs also express a regular Vpu protein, which is produced at much higher levels. To investigate the function of the fusion gene, we characterized isogenic IMC pairs differing only in their ability to express a Rev1-Vpu protein. Analysis in transfected HEK293T and infected CD4+ T cells showed that all of these viruses were equally active in known Vpu functions, such as down-modulation of CD4 or counteraction of tetherin. Furthermore, the polymorphism did not affect Vpu-mediated inhibition of NF-кB activation or Rev-dependent nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs. There was also no evidence for enhanced replication of Rev1-Vpu expressing viruses in primary PBMCs or ex vivo infected human lymphoid tissues. Finally, the frequency of HIV-1 quasispecies members that encoded a rev1-vpu fusion gene did not change in HIV-1 infected individuals over time. Conclusions Expression of a rev1-vpu fusion gene does not affect regular Rev and Vpu functions or alter HIV-1 replication in primary target cells. Since there is no evidence for increased replication fitness of rev1-vpu encoding viruses, this polymorphism likely emerged in the context of other mutations within and/or outside the rev1-vpu intergenic region, and may have a neutral phenotype. PMID:26554585

  15. Campus Technology: Anticipating the Future. Proceedings of the Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Annual Conference (38th, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 12-16, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.; Smith, Carol L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings presented the theme "Campus Technology: Anticipating the Future." The conference introduced its ASCUE Officers and Directors, and provides abstracts of the pre-conference workshops. The full-text conference papers in this document include: (1) Developing…

  16. Leading Strategic & Cultural Change through Technology. Proceedings of the Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Annual Conference (37th, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 6-10, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.; Smith, Carol L., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings presented the theme "Leading Strategic & Cultural Change through Technology." The conference introduced its ASCUE Officers and Directors, and provides abstracts of the pre-conference workshops. The full-text conference papers in this document include: (1)…

  17. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  18. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  19. Estimating the fitness advantage conferred by permissive neuraminidase mutations in recent oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jeff; Hooper, Kathryn A; Petrie, Stephen; Lee, Raphael; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Reh, Lucia; Guarnaccia, Teagan; Baas, Chantal; Xue, Lumin; Vitesnik, Sophie; Leang, Sook-Kwan; McVernon, Jodie; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; McCaw, James M; Bloom, Jesse D; Hurt, Aeron C

    2014-04-01

    Oseltamivir is relied upon worldwide as the drug of choice for the treatment of human influenza infection. Surveillance for oseltamivir resistance is routinely performed to ensure the ongoing efficacy of oseltamivir against circulating viruses. Since the emergence of the pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), the proportion of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses that are oseltamivir resistant (OR) has generally been low. However, a cluster of OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, encoding the neuraminidase (NA) H275Y oseltamivir resistance mutation, was detected in Australia in 2011 amongst community patients that had not been treated with oseltamivir. Here we combine a competitive mixtures ferret model of influenza infection with a mathematical model to assess the fitness, both within and between hosts, of recent OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In conjunction with data from in vitro analyses of NA expression and activity we demonstrate that contemporary A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more capable of acquiring H275Y without compromising their fitness, than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in 2009. Furthermore, using reverse engineered viruses we demonstrate that a pair of permissive secondary NA mutations, V241I and N369K, confers robust fitness on recent H275Y A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which correlated with enhanced surface expression and enzymatic activity of the A(H1N1)pdm09 NA protein. These permissive mutations first emerged in 2010 and are now present in almost all circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Our findings suggest that recent A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more permissive to the acquisition of H275Y than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, increasing the risk that OR A(H1N1)pdm09 will emerge and spread worldwide. PMID:24699865

  20. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  1. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study

  2. Morphodynamics of Accreting Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Sherwood, C. R.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Beaches along the Pacific Northwest coast of the US have been shown to have large seasonal variability in shoreline position with several 10's of meters of recession occurring during the winter (high-energy waves) and typically similar scales of beach recovery during the summer (low-energy waves). However, many beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year over decades, resulting in significant shoreline realignment. This historical shoreline advance has been primarily due to the dispersal of sand from the flanks of the ebb-tidal deltas following jetty construction at the entrances to the Columbia River and Grays Harbor. The installation of jetties removed the shallow shoals from the influence of tidal currents, resulting in a shoreface profile that was too shallow for the inherent wave energy. Onshore transport of large quantities of sand occurred over the next several decades, decreasing through time. While much of the original source material is now exhausted, many beaches today are still rapidly accreting on inter-annual time scales. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for this continued accretion. The primary morphodynamic mechanism for sub-aerial beach growth, and shoreline progradation on a seasonal scale, is hypothesized to be the development, onshore migration, and welding of inter-tidal (swash) bars to the upper beach face. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with accreting beaches we have completed two field experiments and are applying computational models that link measured sediment transport to wave and current forcing. Experiments completed in Spring 2001 and Summer 2002 combined process measurements with observations of

  3. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  4. Fitness Conferred by BCR-ABL Kinase Domain Mutations Determines the Risk of Pre-Existing Resistance in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Skaggs, Brian; Gorre, Mercedes; Sawyers, Charles L.; Michor, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the first human malignancy to be successfully treated with a small molecule inhibitor, imatinib, targeting a mutant oncoprotein (BCR-ABL). Despite its successes, acquired resistance to imatinib leads to reduced drug efficacy and frequent progression of disease. Understanding the characteristics of pre-existing resistant cells is important for evaluating the benefits of first-line combination therapy with second generation inhibitors. However, due to limitations of assay sensitivity, determining the existence and characteristics of resistant cell clones at the start of therapy is difficult. Here we combined a mathematical modeling approach using branching processes with experimental data on the fitness changes (i.e., changes in net reproductive rate) conferred by BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations to investigate the likelihood, composition, and diversity of pre-existing resistance. Furthermore, we studied the impact of these factors on the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Our approach predicts that in most patients, there is at most one resistant clone present at the time of diagnosis of their disease. Interestingly, patients are no more likely to harbor the most aggressive, pan-resistant T315I mutation than any other resistance mutation; however, T315I cells on average establish larger-sized clones at the time of diagnosis. We established that for patients diagnosed late, the relative benefit of combination therapy over monotherapy with imatinib is significant, while this benefit is modest for patients with a typically early diagnosis time. These findings, after pre-clinical validation, will have implications for the clinical management of CML: we recommend that patients with advanced-phase disease be treated with combination therapy with at least two tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22140458

  5. Shoreline relaxation at pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Medina, Raul; Kakeh, Nabil; González, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    A new physical concept of relaxation time is introduced in this research as the time required for the beach to dissipate its initial perturbation. This concept is investigated using a simple beach-evolution model of shoreline rotation at pocket beaches, based on the assumption that the instantaneous change of the shoreline plan-view shape depends on the long-term equilibrium plan-view shape. The expression of relaxation time is developed function of the energy conditions and the physical characteristics of the beach; it increases at longer beaches having coarse sediments and experiencing low-energy conditions. The relaxation time, calculated by the developed model, is validated by the shoreline observations extracted from video images at two artificially embayed beaches of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean) suffering from perturbations of sand movement and a nourishment project. This finding is promising to estimate the shoreline response and useful to improve our understanding of the dynamic of pocket beaches and their stability.

  6. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  7. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies: 1993. [Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Public Policy Education Committee (43rd, Clearwater Beach, Florida, September 12-15, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

    The annual conference of the National Public Policy Education Committee (NPPEC) is held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. This publication contains 26 conference papers: "Rural America and the Information Revolution: An Exploration of Possibilities and Potentialities" (David…

  8. Non-Traditional and Interdisciplinary Programs: Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of Non-Traditional and Interdisciplinary Programs (5th, Virginia Beach, Virginia, May 4-6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Kathleen, Comp.

    Nearly 100 conference papers from the George Mason University annual conference on nontraditional and interdisciplinary studies are presented. The are grouped into 14 categories: (1) assessment of prior learning, which includes "Lifelong Learning: Integrating the Liberal Arts and Experience in Adult General Education" (J. Gary Bernhard) and…

  9. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  10. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  11. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  12. Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings for steering rods. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  14. Mutations Conferring Resistance to SCH6, a Novel Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitor: Reduced DNA Replication Fitness and Partial Rescue by Second-Site Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, MinKyung; Tong, Xiao; Skelton, Angela; Chase, Robert; Chen, Tong; Prongay, Andrew; Bogen, Stephane L.; Saksena, Anil K.; Njoroge, F. George; Veselenak, Ronald L.; Pyles, Richard B.; Bourne, Nigel; Malcolm, Bruce A.; Lemon, Stanley M.

    2008-06-30

    Drug resistance is a major issue in the development and use of specific antiviral therapies. Here we report the isolation and characterization of hepatitis C virus RNA replicons resistant to a novel ketoamide inhibitor of the NS3/4A protease, SCH6 (originally SCH446211). Resistant replicon RNAs were generated by G418 selection in the presence of SCH6 in a dose-dependent fashion, with the emergence of resistance reduced at higher SCH6 concentrations. Sequencing demonstrated remarkable consistency in the mutations conferring SCH6 resistance in genotype 1b replicons derived from two different strains of hepatitis C virus, A156T/A156V and R109K. R109K, a novel mutation not reported previously to cause resistance to NS3/4A inhibitors, conferred moderate resistance only to SCH6. Structural analysis indicated that this reflects unique interactions of SCH6 with P{prime}-side residues in the protease active site. In contrast, A156T conferred high level resistance to SCH6 and a related ketoamide, SCH503034, as well as BILN 2061 and VX-950. Unlike R109K, which had minimal impact on NS3/4A enzymatic function, A156T significantly reduced NS3/4A catalytic efficiency, polyprotein processing, and replicon fitness. However, three separate second-site mutations, P89L, Q86R, and G162R, were capable of partially reversing A156T-associated defects in polyprotein processing and/or replicon fitness, without significantly reducing resistance to the protease inhibitor.

  15. WebWise 2.0: The Power of Community. WebWise Conference on Libraries and Museums in the Digital World Proceedings (9th, Miami Beach, Florida, March 5-7, 2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David

    2009-01-01

    Since it was coined by Tim O'Reilly in formulating the first Web 2.0 Conference in 2004, the term "Web 2.0" has definitely caught on as a designation of a second generation of Web design and experience that emphasizes a high degree of interaction with, and among, users. Rather than simply consulting and reading Web pages, the Web 2.0 generation is…

  16. 23S rRNA mutation A2074C conferring high-level macrolide resistance and fitness cost in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2009-12-01

    To examine the development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and assess the fitness of the macrolide-resistant mutants, two macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni strains, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 33291 and H1, from different geographic areas were exposed to tylosin in vitro. Multiple mutant strains were obtained from the selection. Most of the high-level macrolide-resistant strains derived from the selection exhibited the A2074C transversion in all three copies of 23S rRNA and displayed strong stability in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. The competition experiments demonstrated that the strains containing the A2074C transversion imposed a fitness cost in competition mixtures. In addition, the fitness cost of the mutation was not ameliorated after approximately 500 generations of evolution under laboratory conditions. These findings indicate that the A2074C transversion in C. jejuni is not only correlated with stable and high-level macrolide resistance but also associated with a fitness cost. PMID:19857128

  17. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePlus

    ... near the site where polluted discharges enter the water. Pollution can also come from high concentrations of farm ... is available online. Other Beach Safety Topics Beyond water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health ...

  18. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  19. Preliminary Model Results of Beach Profile Dynamics with Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reniers, A. J.; Koktas, M.; Gallagher, E. L.; Wadman, H. M.; Brodie, K. L.; Johnson, B. D.; McNinch, J.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of spatial variation in grain size within the surf and swash zone is often ignored in numerical modeling whereas Upon closer inspection, a broad range of grain sizes is visible on a beach. This could potentially lead to a significant mismatch between predictions and observations of profile evolution given the strong sensitivity of sediment transport formulae to the grain size. To explore this in more detail, numerical simulations with XBeach have been performed to simulate the observations of changes in beach profile and stratigraphy within the swash zone at Duck, NC, under a range of wave and tidal conditions (see presentations by Wadman et al., and Gallagher et al. for complementary information on the observations at this conference). The research focus is to establish the morphodynamic response to the sediment dynamics at short and longer time scales in the presence of stratigraphy. A better understanding of the mechanisms and subsequently improved modeling will provide more accurate predictions of the morphodynamic response of the beach during moderate and extreme conditions. It will also help in the interpretation of sediment layering of the beach to relate to past extreme storms on geological time scales.

  20. Popham Beach, Maine: An example of engineering activity that saved beach property without harming the beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Joseph T.

    2013-10-01

    Beach and property erosion on coasts is a widespread and chronic problem. Historical approaches to this issue, including seawalls and sand replenishment, are often inappropriate or too expensive. In Maine, seawalls were banned in 1983 and replenishment is too costly to employ. Replacement of storm-damaged buildings is also not allowed, and a precedent case on Popham Beach, Maine required that the owner remove an unpermitted building from a site where an earlier structure was damaged. When the most popular park in Maine, Popham Beach State Park, experienced inlet associated erosion that threatened park infrastructure (a bathhouse), temporary measures were all that the law allowed. Because it was clear that the inlet channel causing the erosion would eventually change course, the state opted to erect a temporary seawall with fallen trees at the site. This may or may not have slowed the erosion temporarily, but reassured the public that "something was being done". Once a storm cut a new tidal inlet channel and closed off the old one, tidal water still entered the former channel and continued to threaten the bathhouse. To ultimately save the property, beach scraping was employed. Sand was scraped from the lower beach to construct a sand berm that deflected the tidal current away from the endangered property. This action created enough time for natural processes to drive the remains of the former spit onto the beach and widen it significantly. Whereas many examples of engineering practices exist that endanger instead of saving beaches, this example is one of an appropriate engineering effort to rescue unwisely located beach-front property.

  1. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, M. L.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2011-04-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach.

  2. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  4. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  5. One Size Does Not Fit All: Individualized Instruction in a Standardized Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moores, Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    This essay is based on a keynote address, "A Tour of the Horizons," presented to the 2012 annual conference of the Association of College Educators/Deaf and Hard of Hearing (ACE/DHH), held in Atlantic Beach, Florida.

  6. Selected Papers Presented at MODSIM World 2011 Conference and Expo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E. (Compiler); Bullock, Leanna S. (Compiler)

    2012-01-01

    Selected papers from MODSIM World 2011 Conference & Expo are contained in this NASA Conference Publication (CP). MODSIM World 2011 was held in Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 11-14, 2011. The theme of the 2011 conference & expo was "Overcoming Critical Global Challenges with Modeling & Simulation". The conference program consisted of five technical tracks - Defense, Homeland Security & First Responders; Education; Health & Medicine; The Human Dimension; and Serious Games & Virtual Worlds.

  7. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  8. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  9. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  10. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  11. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  12. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  13. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  14. Migrant Education. Third Annual Regional Workshop (Virginia Beach, Va., March 5-9, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachman, Cynthia P., Comp.

    The Third Annual Regional Workshop on Migrant Education was held on March 5-9, 1972 in Virginia Beach, Virginia. This conference was for migrant educators from the Eastern Stream states extending from the Gulf of Mexico north to New England. Over 480 participants met, coordinating their ideas and experiences to create a better world for the…

  15. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2... Licensee and Owner from ``FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC'' to ``NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC.''...

  16. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  17. Aeolian sediment transport on a beach with a varying sediment supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, S.; Arens, S. M.; de Schipper, M. A.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2014-12-01

    Variability in aeolian sediment transport rates have traditionally been explain by variability in wind speed. Although it is recognised in literature that limitations in sediment supply can influence sediment transport significantly, most models that predict aeolian sediment transport attribute a dominant role to the magnitude of the wind speed. In this paper it is proposed that spatio-temporal variability of aeolian sediment transport on beaches can be dominated by variations in sediment supply rather than variations in wind speed. A new dataset containing wind speed, direction and sediment transport is collected during a 3 day field campaign at Vlugtenburg beach, The Netherlands. During the measurement campaign, aeolian sediment transport varied in time with the tide while wind speed remained constant. During low tide, measured transport was significantly larger than during high tide. Measured spatial gradients in sediment transport at the lower and upper beaches during fairly constant wind conditions suggest that aeolian sediment transport on beaches may be partly governed by the spatial variability in sediment supply, with relatively large supply in the intertidal zone when exposed and small supply on the upper beach due to sorting processes. The measurements support earlier findings that the intertidal zone can be significant source of sediment for sediment transport on beaches. Both a traditional cubic model (with respect to the wind speed) and a newly proposed linear model are fitted to the field data. The fit quality of both types of models are found to be similar.

  18. Evolution of KaiC-Dependent Timekeepers: A Proto-circadian Timing Mechanism Confers Adaptive Fitness in the Purple Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Peijun; Mori, Tetsuya; Zhao, Chi; Thiel, Teresa; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2016-01-01

    Circadian (daily) rhythms are a fundamental and ubiquitous property of eukaryotic organisms. However, cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotic group for which bona fide circadian properties have been persuasively documented, even though homologs of the cyanobacterial kaiABC central clock genes are distributed widely among Eubacteria and Archaea. We report the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris (that harbors homologs of kaiB and kaiC) only poorly sustains rhythmicity in constant conditions–a defining characteristic of circadian rhythms. Moreover, the biochemical characteristics of the Rhodopseudomonas homolog of the KaiC protein in vivo and in vitro are different from those of cyanobacterial KaiC. Nevertheless, R. palustris cells exhibit adaptive kaiC-dependent growth enhancement in 24-h cyclic environments, but not under non-natural constant conditions. Therefore, our data indicate that Rhodopseudomonas does not have a classical circadian rhythm, but a novel timekeeping mechanism that does not sustain itself in constant conditions. These results question the adaptive value of self-sustained oscillatory capability for daily timekeepers and establish new criteria for circadian-like systems that are based on adaptive properties (i.e., fitness enhancement in rhythmic environments), rather than upon observations of persisting rhythms in constant conditions. We propose that the Rhodopseudomonas system is a "proto" circadian timekeeper, as in an ancestral system that is based on KaiC and KaiB proteins and includes some, but not necessarily all, of the canonical properties of circadian clocks. These data indicate reasonable intermediate steps by which bona fide circadian systems evolved in simple organisms. PMID:26982486

  19. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  20. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  1. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  2. Sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya

    2010-05-01

    This study attempts to establish a system for the sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams placed at the Ookushi beach, Goto Islands, Japan, to establish the temporal variability in the quantities of beach litter every 90 min over a one and a half year period. The time series of the quantities of beach litter, computed by counting pixels with a greater lightness than a threshold value in photographs, shows that litter does not increase monotonically on the beach, but fluctuates mainly on a monthly time scale or less. To investigate what factors influence this variability, the time derivative of the quantity of beach litter is compared with satellite-derived wind speeds. It is found that the beach litter quantities vary largely with winds, but there may be other influencing factors. PMID:20392465

  3. Carbonate Beaches: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nairn, R.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    of 40 years. The long-term predictive tool for carbonate beach evolution provided valuable support to developing coastal zone management policy and actions to preserve the beaches in their natural form, minimizing the need for artificial nourishment of the beaches. Many models of sediment movement on shorelines are derived from clastic examples, and fit carbonate coastlines only with difficulty. We have combined field surveys of benthic biota, estimates of sediment production from skeletal growth and bioerosion, and sediment destruction by comminution and dissolution with dynamic models of sediment movement in the littoral zone, achieving improved understanding of coastal processes of erosion and deposition. Mauritius is fringed by shallow lagoons, often with luxuriant stands of Acropora. The offshore region is exhumed Pleistocene-all the sediment on the beaches comes from the lagoons. From surveys of coral cover, and estimates of sediment production from reef, sand and hardground areas, we produced dynamic models that faithfully hindcast shoreline dynamics for decades, and allowed identification of regions especially vulnerable to erosion. On the south coast of Barbados, one of the main issues in stabilising and rehabilitation the coastline is the balance between sediment from longshore drift and local sources. By identifying localised areas of characteristic sediment-producers (e.g., the foraminiferan Homotrema rubrum, the green alga Halimeda), we were able to determine the balance between proximal and distal sediment sources. The resulting model hindcasts the coastline through all the major hurricanes of the past 30 years.

  4. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  5. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  6. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  7. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  8. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  9. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  10. VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

  11. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  11. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  12. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  13. Earthquakes and beach ridges on Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, J.; Ortuno, M.; Thibault, C.; Higman, B.; Pinegina, T.

    2003-04-01

    There are several proposed origins for beach ridges, or berms, with the majority of studies focused on Atlantic-type margins. Primary factors invoked for beach-ridge formation include changes in sea-level, in wave climate, and in sediment supply. On subduction-zone margins, co-seismic deformation can force any of these three factors. For example, subsidence of the shoreline (local sea level rise) will generally lead to coastal erosion, whereas shoreline uplift (subduing local wave climate) will strand beach ridges. Earthquake-triggered landslides may significantly increase sediment supply. Some authors working on Pacific margins have correlated either beach ridges (e.g., A. Kurbatov on Kamchatka; P. Saltonstall and G. Carver on Kodiak), or buried erosional scarps (e.g. R.A. Meyers et al., Washington State) with subduction-zone earthquakes and the seismic cycle. Our work on Kamchatka provides examples where buried scarps and beach ridges are superimposed, each pair of which we interpret to be the result of a single seismic cycle, apparently consistent with some other data and interpretations (Kodiak, particularly). That is, in a setting where the shoreline subsides during an earthquake and recovers thereafter, beach ridges overlie buried scarps. In one case on Kamchatka, in southern Vestnik Bay, there is a spectacular outcrop illustrating this relationship. This model by no means explains all beach ridges, so identifying earthquake-forced beach ridges remains a challenge.

  14. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  15. Suprabenthic biodiversity of Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munilla, T.; San Vicente, C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.

  16. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  17. Fitness Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... that gets your heart pumping, such as dancing, running, or swimming laps. How hard you exercise matters, too. You can learn how to measure your workout to see if it is light, medium, or intense. Fitness for all Do you have an illness or ...

  18. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  19. A hybrid beach morphology model applied to a high energy sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the application of a hybrid coastal morphodynamic model to forecast inter-annual beach change is discussed through the prediction of beach change in a high energy sandy beach over a period of 5 years. The modelling approach combines a `reduced-physics' formulation with a data-driven approach through an inverse technique to form the hybrid coastal morphodynamic model. The beach considered for the demonstration of the model is the Narrabeen Beach, which is a dynamic sand beach located in New South Wales, Australia. Despite its simplicity, we find that the model is able to capture beach change at Narrabeen Beach at inter-annual timescales with root mean square error between measured and computed beach profiles less than 0.4 m on average. Even though the model is used to forecast inter-annual beach change in this study, its ability to predict beach change is not limited to that timescale but depends on the frequency of historic beach profile measurements available to determine key unknown parameters of the model. Also, the length of profile forecasts largely depends on the length of available historic measurements where longer data sets allow longer predictions within a range of beach behaviour contained in the observations. The ability of the model to reliably forecast coastal change at inter-annual and potentially at other timescales, and its high efficiency make it possible to be used in providing multiple simulations required for probabilistic coastal change forecasts which will be very useful for coastal management purposes.

  20. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  1. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  2. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, which authorize operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and...

  3. The Different Faces of San Francisco's Ocean Beach: Analyzing Sand Size and Beach Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Labit, R.; Lui, S.; Rodriquez, I.; Yi, C.; Yu, M.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean Beach is located along the western edge of San Francisco adjacent to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion along the southern part of the beach is threatening a nearby highway and water treatment plant. To better understand this beach and the processes that form it, our SF-ROCKS research group collected data from seven locations along its length. We used an auto-level surveying instrument to measure beach profiles and we collected sand samples that were measured using sieves and a sieve shaker. We plotted profiles and grain-size data using Excel and Surfer software. The sediment is mostly fine sand, and the means of all samples range between 0.19-0.26 mm. There may be little variation along the beach because only small sand grains have survived the long journey from their Sierra Nevada source. Profile shape does vary along the beach. The profile at the northern end is about three times wider than the profile at the southern end. The northern profile is flatter overall, but all profiles had a steep beach face in August, when the data were collected. The differences in beach profiles may be related to position relative to the offshore bar, which appears to provide sand to the northern part of the beach. Our group will collect more data in November to see what changes have occurred after the large-wave season has begun. We will use Surfer software to compare summer and fall profiles, to see where sediment has been added and where sediment has been removed. We will also compare our results to the data collected by Dr. Patrick Barnard and his research group at the U.S. Geological Survey, who are using an All-Terrain Vehicle to measure beach profiles and a camera to measure sediment size. We will use our analysis of beach variations to make recommendations for reducing beach erosion.

  4. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  5. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  6. Distribution, characterization, and exposure of MC252 oil in the supratidal beach environment.

    PubMed

    Lemelle, Kendall R; Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Pardue, John H

    2014-07-01

    The distribution and characteristics of MC252 oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were measured on the supratidal beach environment of oil-impacted Fourchon Beach in Louisiana (USA). Probability distributions of 4 variables, surface coverage (%), size of SRBs (mm(2) of projected area), mass of SRBs per m(2) (g/m(2)), and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes in the SRBs (mg of crude oil component per kg of SRB) were determined using parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques. Surface coverage of SRBs, an operational remedial standard for the beach surface, was a gamma-distributed variable ranging from 0.01% to 8.1%. The SRB sizes had a mean of 90.7 mm(2) but fit no probability distribution, and a nonparametric ranking was used to describe the size distributions. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 2.5 mg/kg to 126 mg/kg of SRB. Individual PAH concentration distributions, consisting primarily of alkylated phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes, and chrysenes, did not consistently fit a parametric distribution. Surface coverage was correlated with an oil mass per unit area but with a substantial error at lower coverage (i.e., <2%). These data provide probabilistic risk assessors with the ability to specify uncertainty in PAH concentration, exposure frequency, and ingestion rate, based on SRB characteristics for the dominant oil form on beaches along the US Gulf Coast. PMID:24902670

  7. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  8. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  9. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball. PMID:22276408

  10. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth. PMID:18834997

  11. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  12. Elements of a predictive model for determining beach closures on a real time basis: the case of 63rd Street Beach Chicago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olyphant, Greg A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Data on hydrometeorological conditions and E. coli concentration were simultaneously collected on 57 occasions during the summer of 2000 at 63rd Street Beach, Chicago, Illinois. The data were used to identify and calibrate a statistical regression model aimed at predicting when the bacterial concentration of the beach water was above or below the level considered safe for full body contact. A wide range of hydrological, meteorological, and water quality variables were evaluated as possible predictive variables. These included wind speed and direction, incoming solar radiation (insolation), various time frames of rainfall, air temperature, lake stage and wave height, and water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity. The best-fit model combined real-time measurements of wind direction and speed (onshore component of resultant wind vector), rainfall, insolation, lake stage, water temperature and turbidity to predict the geometric mean E.coliconcentration in the swimming zone of the beach. The model, which contained both additive and multiplicative (interaction) terms, accounted for 71% of the observed variability in the log E. coliconcentrations. A comparison between model predictions of when the beach should be closed and when the actualbacterial concentrations were above or below the 235 cfu 100 ml-1 threshold value, indicated that the model accurately predicted openingsversus closures 88% of the time.

  13. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  14. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  15. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  16. Lifeguard Training: Principles and Administration. A Manual for Developing and Administering Lifeguard Systems for Pools and Beaches. Second Edition, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Gordon T., Ed.; Hill, Rolland, Ed.

    This manual for developing and administering lifeguard systems for pools and beaches is divided into three sections. Section 1, "Personnel," suggests prerequisites for lifeguard training, personal health, fitness and inservice training, and preventive lifeguarding. Section 2, "Operations," discusses the following: a) water conditions of surf…

  17. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone'' in the Federal Register (77 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed...

  18. Predictive Modeling of Microbial Indicators for Timely Beach Notifications and Advisories at Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine beaches are occasionally contaminated by unacceptably high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) that exceed EPA water quality criteria. Here we describe application of a recent version of the software package Virtual Beach tool (VB 3.0.6) to build and evaluate multiple...

  19. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  20. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking....

  1. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  2. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  3. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway in...

  4. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  5. Behavioural adaptations of two sympatric sandhoppers living on a mesotidal European Atlantic sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, Filipa; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2014-06-01

    Behavioural adaptations of supralittoral species on sandy beaches are expressed as responses to environmental changes and constitute a key factor in their survival and evolution. Two sympatric talitrid amphipods (Talitrus saltator and Britorchestia brito) from a mesotidal exposed sandy beach on the European Atlantic coast (Portugal) were compared as regards orientation and littoral zonation patterns under natural conditions. Orientation experiments were carried out during spring and summer 2011 and 2012 at Quiaios beach, a highly dynamic exposed sandy beach. Multiple regression models were fitted to the angular data and the environmental effects on orientation were investigated for each species. Both talitrids were shown to be well orientated towards the shoreline and finely adapted to the mesotidal environment but a different use of local cues and climatic features between the two species was apparent. T. saltator showed a lower precision in the orientation performance (with a bimodal distribution sea- and land-wards), with less dependence on the sun cues and higher dependence on climatic features. In addition, the zonation of T. saltator was across the land-sea axis during both seasons. For B. brito the landscape vision, sun visibility and the tidal range enhanced the orientation to the shoreline. On this mesotidal Atlantic beach, T. saltator appeared to have a more flexible orientation with respect to B. brito, which appeared to be more dependent on the conditions offered by the intertidal zone, a behaviour confirmed by its restricted zonation below the high tide mark. Consequently, T. saltator showed a more flexible behaviour that may be considered an important evolutionary adaptation to dynamic and mesotidal sandy beaches.

  6. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where

  7. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further

  8. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  9. Internal structure of a barrier beach as revealed by ground penetrating radar (GPR): Chesil beach, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Cassidy, Nigel J.; Pile, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    Chesil Beach (Dorset) is one of the most famous coastal landforms on the British coast. The gravel beach is over 18 km long and is separated for much of its length from land by a tidal lagoon known as The Fleet. The beach links the Isle of Portland in the east to the mainland in the west. Despite its iconic status there is little available information on its internal geometry and evolutionary history. Here we present a three-fold model for the evolution of Chesil Beach based on a series of nine ground penetrating radar (GPR) traverses located at three sites along its length at Abbotsbury, Langton Herring and at Ferry Bridge. The GPR traverses reveal a remarkably consistent picture of the internal structure of this barrier beach. The first phase of evolution involves the landward transgression of a small sand and gravel beach which closed upon the coast leading to deposition of freshwater peat between 5 and 7 k yr BP. The second evolutionary phase involves the 'bulking-out' of the beach during continued sea level rise, but in the presence of abundant gravel supplied by down-drift erosion of periglacial slope deposits. This episode of growth was associated with a series of washover fans which accumulated on the landward flank of the barrier increasing its breadth and height but without significant landward transgression of the barrier as a whole. The final phase in the evolution of Chesil Beach involves the seaward progradation of the beach crest and upper beach face associated with continued sediment abundance, but during a still-stand or slight fall in relative sea level. This phase may provide further evidence of a slight fall in relative sea level noted elsewhere along the South Coast of Britain and dated to between 1.2 and 2.4 k yr BP. Subsequently the barrier appears to have become largely inactive, except for the reworking of sediment on the beach face during storm events. The case study not only refines the evolutionary picture of Chesil Beach, but

  10. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  11. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  12. Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach and Lake Mead, view to northeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  13. Extreme precipitation and beach closures in the great lakes region: evaluating risk among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bush, Kathleen F; Fossani, Cheryl L; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gronlund, Carina J; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-02-01

    As a result of climate change, extreme precipitation events are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. Runoff from these extreme events poses threats to water quality and human health. We investigated the impact of extreme precipitation and beach closings on the risk of gastrointestinal illness (GI)-related hospital admissions among individuals 65 and older in 12 Great Lakes cities from 2000 to 2006. Poisson regression models were fit in each city, controlling for temperature and long-term time trends. City-specific estimates were combined to form an overall regional risk estimate. Approximately 40,000 GI-related hospital admissions and over 100 beach closure days were recorded from May through September during the study period. Extreme precipitation (≥90th percentile) occurring the previous day (lag 1) is significantly associated with beach closures in 8 of the 12 cities (p < 0.05). However, no association was observed between beach closures and GI-related hospital admissions. These results support previous work linking extreme precipitation to compromised recreational water quality. PMID:24534768

  14. Mobilization and transport of naturally occurring enterococci in beach sands subject to transient infiltration of seawater.

    PubMed

    Russell, Todd L; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the transport of enterococci (ENT) from naturally contaminated beach sands to the groundwater table via infiltrating seawater using field, laboratory, and modeling experiments. ENT were readily mobilized and transported through the unsaturated zone during infiltration events in both the field and laboratory column experiments. Detachment mechanisms were investigated using a modified version of HYDRUS-1D. Three models for detachment kinetics were tested. Detachment kinetics that are first order with respect to the rate of change in the water content and attached surface bacterial concentrations were found to provide a best fit between predicted and observed data. From these experimental and model results we conclude that detachment mechanisms associated with the rapid increases in pore water content such as air-water interface scouring and thin film expansion are likely drivers of ENT mobilization in the investigated system. These findings suggest that through-beach transport of ENT may be an important pathway through which ENT from beach sands are transported to beach groundwater where they may be discharged to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:22533299

  15. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  16. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  17. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY IN VISUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...

  18. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  19. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  20. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities…

  2. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. Selected Papers Presented at MODSIM World 2009 Conference and Expo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E. (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Selected papers from MODSIM World 2009 Conference and Expo are contained in this NASA Conference Publication (CP). MODSIM World 2009 was held in Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 14-16, 2009, at the Virginia Beach Convention Center. The theme of the 2009 conference and expo was "21st Century Decision-Making: The Art of Modeling & Simulation." The 79 submitted papers were peer-reviewed and 64 were accepted for presentation at MODSIM World 2009. As a condition of acceptance, the first author was responsible for securing/obtaining all permissions associated with the general release and public availability of the paper. Further, the first authors also had to grant NASA the right to include their papers in the NASA CP. There are 53 papers in this NASA CP.

  4. fits2hdf: FITS to HDFITS conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    fits2hdf ports FITS files to Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files in the HDFITS format. HDFITS allows faster reading of data, higher compression ratios, and higher throughput. HDFITS formatted data can be presented transparently as an in-memory FITS equivalent by changing the import lines in Python-based FITS utilities. fits2hdf includes a utility to port MeasurementSets (MS) to HDF5 files.

  5. Beach Cusps: Spatial distribution and time evolution at Massaguaçú beach (SP), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, H. H.; Siegle, E.; Sousa, P. H.

    2013-05-01

    Beach cusps are crescentic morphological structures observed on the foreshore of beaches characterized by steep seaward protruding extensions, called cusp horns, and gently sloped landward extensions, called cusp embayments. Their formation depends on the grain size, beach slope, tidal range and incoming waves. Cusps are best developed on gravel or shingle beaches, small tidal range with a large slope for incoming waves generate a well-developed swash excursion. These structures are quickly responding to wave climate and tidal range, changing the position of the rhythmic features on the beach face. Beach cusps are favored by normal incoming waves, while oblique waves tend to wash these features out. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of rhythmic features such as beach cusps in Massaguaçú embayment (Caraguatatuba, northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil). This embayment has an extension of 7.5 km with reflective beaches cusped mainly in its more exposed central portion. The data set for this study consists of a series of video images (Argus system), covering a stretch of the beach. Visible beach cusps were digitalized from these rectified images. Results obtained from the images were related to the wave climate, water level and the storm surges. Results show that the cusps on the upper portion of the foreshore were more regular and present than the cusps on the lower portion of the foreshore due to the tidal modulation of wave action. The cusp spacing on the upper portion of the foreshore is of about 38 m and the lower portion of the foreshore is of about 28 m and their presence was correlated with the wave direction and water elevation. As expected, waves approaching with shore-normal angles (southeast direction) were favorable to the formation of beach cusps while the waves from the southwest, south, east and northeast generated a longshore current that reduced or destroyed any rhythmic feature. Other important forcing was

  6. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2010-01-08

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  7. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest…

  8. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  9. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  10. Erosion in the Beaches of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synolakis, C. E.; Foteinis, S.; Voukouvalas, V.; Kalligeris, N.

    2009-04-01

    In the past decade, erosion rates for the coastlines of Greece are rapidly increasing. Many beaches on the northern coast of the island have substantially retreated, while others have disappeared or will disappear within the present or the following decade if no action is taken. For the better understanding and visualization of the current situation, specific examples of rapid erosion are described and afterwards we speculate as to the causes. We infer that, as in other parts of the Mediterranean, the causes are anthropogenic and include removal of sand dunes to build roads, sand mining from beaches and rivers, permanent building construction within the active coastal zone, on or too close to shoreline, and poor design of coastal structures. The reason behind the rapid erosion of Greece coastlines is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management and antiquated legislation. We conclude that unless urgent measures for the protection and even salvation of the beaches are taken and if the sand mining and dune removal does not stop, then several beaches will disappear within the present and the following decade.

  11. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  12. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  13. Coastal strategies to predict Escherichia coli concentrations for beaches along a 35 km stretch of Southern Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L

    2008-06-15

    To understand the fate and movement of Escherichia coli in beach water, numerous modeling studies have been undertaken including mechanistic predictions of currents and plumes and empirical modeling based on hydrometeorological variables. Most approaches are limited in scope by nearshore currents or physical obstacles and data limitations; few examine the issue from a larger spatial scale. Given the similarities between variables typically included in these models, we attempted to take a broader view of E. coli fluctuations by simultaneously examining twelve beaches along 35 km of Indiana's Lake Michigan coastline that includes five point-source outfalls. The beaches had similar E. coli fluctuations, and a best-fit empirical model included two variables: wave height and an interactive term comprised of wind direction and creekturbidity. Individual beach R2 was 0.32--0.50. Data training-set results were comparable to validation results (R2 = 0.48). Amount of variation explained by the model was similar to previous reports for individual beaches. By extending the modeling approach to include more coastline distance, broader-scale spatial and temporal changes in bacteria concentrations and the influencing factors can be characterized. PMID:18605570

  14. Coastal strategies to predict Escherichia coli concentrations for beaches along a 35 km stretch of southern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, M.B.; Whitman, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the fate and movement of Escherichia coli in beach water, numerous modeling studies have been undertaken including mechanistic predictions of currents and plumes and empirical modeling based on hydrometeorological variables. Most approaches are limited in scope by nearshore currents or physical obstacles and data limitations; few examine the issue from a larger spatial scale. Given the similarities between variables typically included in these models, we attempted to take a broader view of E. coli fluctuations by simultaneously examining twelve beaches along 35 km of Indiana's Lake Michigan coastline that includes five point-source outfalls. The beaches had similar E. coli fluctuations, and a best-fit empirical model included two variables: wave height and an interactive term comprised of wind direction and creek turbidity. Individual beach R2 was 0.32-0.50. Data training-set results were comparable to validation results (R2 = 0.48). Amount of variation explained by the model was similar to previous reports for individual beaches. By extending the modeling approach to include more coastline distance, broader-scale spatial and temporal changes in bacteria concentrations and the influencing factors can be characterized. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  15. The effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Hua, G.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Beach slope changes the tidal induced saltwater-freshwater circulations in coastal aquifers. However, the effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing process is far from understood. Based on sand flume experiments and numerical simulations, we investigated the intrusion process of saltwater into freshwater under tidal forcing and variable beach slopes. The sand flume experiment results show that milder slope induces larger upper saline plume (USP) and seaward salt wedge interface (SWI) under tidal forcing. While, the steady state SWI keeps stagnant with different beach slopes. Consistent with the previous research, our numerical simulations also show a lager flux exchange across the milder beach induced by the tidal fluctuations. The groundwater table fluctuates more intensify with deeper beach slope. The next step of our study will pay attention to the effect of beach slope on the instability of USP which induces the salt-fingering flow.

  16. Conference Simulation in an English Composition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a conference format in teaching a required English composition course. The focus of the course is student research and presentation; thus, simulating a conference was a natural fit for the course's overall goals. Students worked in one of four committees: the Call for Proposals Committee, the Proposal Evaluation…

  17. Quantifying Beach Response to Episodic Large Wave Events, a Predictive Empirical Model, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing an empirical model is the best way to predict future beach response at a given site. Based on 12 closely spaced (temporally) GPS topographic surveys during the winter of 2005-2006 at Ocean Beach, in San Francisco, California, we have developed a predictive empirical model that relates sub-aerial beach response to observed wave height, period, and direction. The model will provide important information to coastal managers, who will be able to better predict and mitigate possible loss from a forecasted wave event. Ocean Beach, located immediately south of the Golden Gate in San Francisco, is a high-energy, intermediate- slope beach that is exposed to waves generated in both the North and South Pacific. Winter breaking wave heights frequently reach 4 m and can exceed 7 m, with periods sometimes greater than 20 s. Our observations demonstrate that large seasonal variations in the sub-aerial beach profile are likely forced by several single large wave events. These events have led to the partial destruction of a recreational parking lot at the south end of the beach where an erosion hot spot is currently located, and continued erosion will threaten other parts of public infrastructure. This study, in combination with other ongoing research at Ocean Beach, will provide valuable insight that will not only aid local personnel in their management decisions but also contribute to a better understanding of sediment transport at high-energy beaches.

  18. Do School Uniforms Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kerry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)

  19. Reproductive fitness advantage of BCR-ABL expressing leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, Arne; Pacheco, Jorge M; Dingli, David

    2010-08-01

    Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes confer a fitness advantage to cells that can lead to cancer. The tumor phenotype normally results from the interaction of many mutant genes making it difficult to estimate the fitness advantage provided by any oncogene, except when tumors depend on one oncogene only. We utilize a model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), to quantitate the fitness advantage conferred by expression of BCR-ABL in hematopoietic cells from in vivo patient data. We show that BCR-ABL expression provides a high fitness advantage, which explains why this single mutation drives the chronic phase of CML. PMID:20153920

  20. Biomedical Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of Biomedical Conferences, Vivo Metric Systems Co. has produced cardiac electrodes based on NASA technology. Frequently in science, one highly specialized discipline is unaware of relevant advances made in other areas. In an attempt to familiarize researchers in a variety of disciplines with medical problems and needs, NASA has sponsored conferences that bring together university scientists, practicing physicians and manufacturers of medical instruments.

  1. Physical Fitness at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Thomas B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes decline in youth fitness, emphasizing role of camping programs in youth fitness education. Describes Michigan camp's fitness program, consisting of daily workouts, fitness education, and record keeping. Describes fitness consultants' role in program. Discusses program's highlights and problems, suggesting changes for future use. Shows…

  2. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  3. Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2004-06-01

    This volume discusses the role of humans in transforming the coastal landscape. The book details the many ways beaches and dunes are eliminated, altered and replaced and the differences between natural landforms and the human artefacts that replace them. Emphasis is placed on the importance of retaining naturally functioning beaches and dunes in ways that achieve natural values while accommodating development and use. The issues dealt with in this book will be of interest to practising coastal engineers and research scientists, as well as to planners and managers of coastal resources at all levels of government. It will be of particular value to investigators planning for the future of coastal development under accelerated sea level rise. The book will also be useful as a reference text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in geography, geology, ecology and other disciplines dealing with the interaction between science, technology and society.

  4. A single amino acid change resulting in loss of fluorescence of eGFP in a viral fusion protein confers fitness and growth advantage to the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, Phat X.; Panda, Debasis; Das, Phani B.; Das, Subash C.; Das, Anshuman; Pattnaik, Asit K.

    2012-10-25

    Using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding eGFP fused in-frame with an essential viral replication protein, the phosphoprotein P, we show that during passage in culture, the virus mutates the nucleotide C289 within eGFP of the fusion protein PeGFP to A or T, resulting in R97S/C amino acid substitution and loss of fluorescence. The resultant non-fluorescent virus exhibits increased fitness and growth advantage over its fluorescent counterpart. The growth advantage of the non-fluorescent virus appears to be due to increased transcription and replication activities of the PeGFP protein carrying the R97S/C substitution. Further, our results show that the R97S/C mutation occurs prior to accumulation of mutations that can result in loss of expression of the gene inserted at the G-L gene junction. These results suggest that fitness gain is more important for the recombinant virus than elimination of expression of the heterologous gene.

  5. Antibody engineering and therapeutics conference

    PubMed Central

    Larrick, James W; Parren, Paul WHI; Huston, James S; Plückthun, Andreas; Bradbury, Andrew; Tomlinson, Ian M; Chester, Kerry A; Burton, Dennis R; Adams, Gregory P; Weiner, Louis M; Scott, Jamie K; Alfenito, Mark R; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    The 25th anniversary of the Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics Conference, the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA, December 7–11, 2014. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the event will celebrate past successes, educate participants on current activities and offer a vision of future progress in the field. Keynote addresses will be given by academic and industry experts Douglas Lauffenburger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Ira Pastan (National Cancer Institute), James Wells (University of California, San Francisco), Ian Tomlinson (GlaxoSmithKline) and Anthony Rees (Rees Consulting AB and Emeritus Professor, University of Bath). These speakers will provide updates of their work, placed in the context of the substantial growth of the industry over the past 25 years. PMID:25517297

  6. Tenth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, R.; Colton, M.; Deblonde, G.; Jedlovec, G.; Lee, T.

    2000-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society held its Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography in conjunction with the 80th Annual Meeting in Long Beach, California. For the second consecutive conference, a format that consisted of primarily posters, complemented by invited theme oriented oral presentations, and panel discussions on various aspects on satellite remote sensing were utilized. Joint sessions were held with the Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence, the Eleventh Conference on Middle Atmosphere, and the Eleventh symposium on Global Change Studies. In total, there were 23 oral presentations, 170 poster presentations, and four panel discussions. Over 450 people representing a wide spectrum of the society attended one or more of the sessions in the five-day meeting. The program for the Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography can viewed in the October 1999 issue of the Bulletin.

  7. Evaluation of a sunscreen during a typical beach period

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Daniela; Fernandes, Lina; Nascimento, Tânia; Grenha, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Amongst the radiations reaching the Earth's surface, the ultraviolet rays are the ones receiving most attention from the scientists, given their damaging potential for humans exposed to them. To minimize the harm caused by such exposure, human beings are strongly recommended to use sunscreens, which are pharmaceutical preparations containing filters that confer protection against radiation. As this protection is strongly dependent on the properties of these filters, it is very important to ensure their stability even when under aggressive conditions, such as the typical high temperatures of summer in South Europe. In this study, a commercial sunscreen emulsion was tested in vitro for a period of time intended to simulate a beach period of 15 days, with regard to the maintenance of its sun protection factor (SPF). Moreover, the organoleptic characteristics were also monitored by macroscopic analysis. Materials and Methods: To perform this study, temperature conditions similar to those observed from June to August in Faro (Portugal) were simulated in vitro. The SPF was determined by spectrophotometry, with subsequent application of the Mansur equation. Results and Conclusion: No significant alterations were observed during the considered period under the specific conditions of this study. PMID:21814431

  8. Sand Beach Bacteria: Enumeration and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Khiyama, H. M.; Makemson, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Bacteria in the water-saturated sand of a relatively unpolluted sand beach were enumerated by direct microscope and viable counting. The number of interstitial bacteria was estimated to be a significant fraction of the total number of bacteria present. Three hundred sixty-two strains were isolated and submitted to cultural and biochemical tests. Fermentational abilities and the production of indole suggested that a significant number of these bacteria were symbiotically associated with resident metazoans. PMID:4356458

  9. Sand beach bacteria: enumeration and characterization.

    PubMed

    Khiyama, H M; Makemson, J C

    1973-09-01

    Bacteria in the water-saturated sand of a relatively unpolluted sand beach were enumerated by direct microscope and viable counting. The number of interstitial bacteria was estimated to be a significant fraction of the total number of bacteria present. Three hundred sixty-two strains were isolated and submitted to cultural and biochemical tests. Fermentational abilities and the production of indole suggested that a significant number of these bacteria were symbiotically associated with resident metazoans. PMID:4356458

  10. Partnerships for the Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    The YMCA has helped train and employ fitness leaders while educating the public on physical fitness. Colleges and universities can help develop careers in fitness while maintaining their traditional role of developing teachers and coaches. (DF)

  11. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques. PMID:26056968

  12. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  13. Textural analysis of Point Calimere beach sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapal, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    Grain size analysis helps to identify the nature of coastal and sedimentary environments.This parameters provide an insight in to the nature and the energy flux of the transporting agents and their nature of depositional environment. The Beach sediments from the Point Calimere coast are studied for analysis the impact of wave action over the coast. Cauvery and its tributaries are the Chief source for sediments are by the deposits. This dynamic coast of South India is reported to have accretion and erosion at invariably high degrees. Also the impact of land ocean interaction is at high intensity. Further there are chains of Dunes along this coast. The geomorphology of this coast is not a uniform stretch, it has curvature Point Calimere in the south and straight coast towards North. wave properties like reflection, refraction and diffraction are noticed along the study area. Beach Samples were collected along selected zones and their properties were studied in laboratory after sieving half phi interval. Mean mode, sorting, skewness and other statistics are calculated using moment and Folk and Ward graphical methods. This region has three different zones of waves and this wave impact shapes the coast. In few zones erosion were noticed and in few sited deposition Results expressed in metric units, provided of compositionally variable sediments. . The statistical results and field surveys of Point Calimere beach sand samples reveal sediment accretion and wave environments respectivelyGeographic coordinates of sampling stationt; t;

  14. PROCEEDINGS OF THE BIENNIAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF INSTRUCTORS OF THE BLIND, INC. (46TH, MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA, JUNE 28-JULY 2, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Instructors of the Blind, St. Louis, MO.

    THE PUBLICATION REPORTS THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 46TH BIENNIAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF INSTRUCTORS OF THE BLIND (MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA, JUNE 28-JULY 2, 1962). ADDRESSES, PAPERS, AND PANEL DISCUSSIONS COVER THE TOPICS OF MOBILITY, EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, SELF CONCEPT IN BLIND CHILDREN, AND PHYSICAL FITNESS. ALSO INCLUDED ARE COMMITTEE…

  15. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand

  16. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Parks Collection Photo 1958 Rephoto 1960 EAST ELEVATION - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Hyperspectral image classifier based on beach spectral feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhang; Lianru, Gao; Bing, Zhang

    2014-03-01

    The seashore, especially coral bank, is sensitive to human activities and environmental changes. A multispectral image, with coarse spectral resolution, is inadaptable for identify subtle spectral distinctions between various beaches. To the contrary, hyperspectral image with narrow and consecutive channels increases our capability to retrieve minor spectral features which is suit for identification and classification of surface materials on the shore. Herein, this paper used airborne hyperspectral data, in addition to ground spectral data to study the beaches in Qingdao. The image data first went through image pretreatment to deal with the disturbance of noise, radiation inconsistence and distortion. In succession, the reflection spectrum, the derivative spectrum and the spectral absorption features of the beach surface were inspected in search of diagnostic features. Hence, spectra indices specific for the unique environment of seashore were developed. According to expert decisions based on image spectrums, the beaches are ultimately classified into sand beach, rock beach, vegetation beach, mud beach, bare land and water. In situ surveying reflection spectrum from GER1500 field spectrometer validated the classification production. In conclusion, the classification approach under expert decision based on feature spectrum is proved to be feasible for beaches.

  20. Changes along a seawall and natural beaches: Fourchon, LA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossa, Joann; Nakashima, Lindsay D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares shoreline and beach morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A beach consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural beaches to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of beach response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.

  1. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Claereboudt, Michel R

    2004-11-01

    Beach debris abundance and weight were estimated from surveys on 11 beaches of the Gulf of Oman along the Omani coast. Debris were collected on two occasions from 100 m transects, sorted and categorized by origin and type. Overall contaminations ranged from 0.43 to 6.01 items m(-1) of beach front on different beaches with a mean value of 1.79+/-1.04 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of weight, contamination levels ranged from 7.8 to 75.44 gm(-1) of beach front with a mean contamination of 27.02+/-14.48 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of numbers of items, plastic debris ranked first on all beaches followed by either wood items or other organic materials such as cigarette butts. Industrial debris remained few on all beaches (<10%). Most debris had a local origin and, in terms of numbers, were associated with beach recreational activities whereas fishing debris represented the largest proportion of the debris in terms of weight. There were notable differences between beaches in the relative abundance of recreation-related and fishing-related debris. PMID:15530520

  2. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  3. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  4. Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.

    2013-10-01

    Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL

  5. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. PMID:27065444

  6. Conference Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Cait

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes an original conference, organised by the Child Care Research Forum (http://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/ccrf/), which brought together experts from all over Northern Ireland to showcase some of the wealth of research with children and young people that is going on in the country today. Developed around the six high-level outcomes of…

  7. Secondary production of sandy beach macrofauna: An evaluation of predictive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Cardoso, Ricardo Silva; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Turra, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    During the last three decades, several predictive models have been developed to estimate the somatic production of macroinvertebrates. Although the models have been evaluated for their ability to assess the production of macrobenthos in different marine ecosystems, these approaches have not been applied specifically to sandy beach macrofauna and may not be directly applicable to this transitional environment. Hence, in this study, a broad literature review of sandy beach macrofauna production was conducted and estimates obtained with cohort-based and size-based methods were collected. The performance of nine models in estimating the production of individual populations from the sandy beach environment, evaluated for all taxonomic groups combined and for individual groups separately, was assessed, comparing the production predicted by the models to the estimates obtained from the literature (observed production). Most of the models overestimated population production compared to observed production estimates, whether for all populations combined or more specific taxonomic groups. However, estimates by two models developed by Cusson and Bourget provided best fits to measured production, and thus represent the best alternatives to the cohort-based and size-based methods in this habitat. The consistent performance of one of these Cusson and Bourget models, which was developed for the macrobenthos of sandy substrate habitats (C&BSS), shows that the performance of a model does not depend on whether it was developed for a specific taxonomic group. Moreover, since some widely used models (e.g., the Robertson model) show very different responses when applied to the macrofauna of different marine environments (e.g., sandy beaches and estuaries), prior evaluation of these models is essential.

  8. 12. annual environmental management and technology conference west -- HazMat `96 west: Technical papers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This conference was held November 5--7, 1996 in Long Beach, California as part of the Environmental Management and Technology and Exhibition/West. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on methods and site characterization technologies for environmental monitoring and remedial action planning of hazardous materials. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  9. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  10. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  11. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  12. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  13. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  14. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  15. Howard Beach Youth: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Linda S.; Lichter, S. Robert

    This assessment of the climate of racial and ethnic attitudes in Howard Beach (New York) was conducted at John Adams High School, the public school attended by the greatest number of high school children in the Howard Beach community. The survey of 1,217 students was administered in December, 1986, several weeks before the incident in which a…

  16. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  17. The Beach--A Natural Protection from the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensabaugh, William M.

    1983-01-01

    The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…

  18. View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is in the foreground, the pier to the right. The painted octagonal window is above the deck. Avila's Front Street is at the rear of the building. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  19. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  20. Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

  1. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  2. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  3. RECREATIONAL BEACH WATER QUALITY MONITORING WITH QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...

  4. Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

    Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

  5. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  6. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  7. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  8. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  9. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  10. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  11. The fitness costs of antibiotic resistance mutations

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Anita H; Wong, Alex; Kassen, Rees

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is increasing in pathogenic microbial populations and is thus a major threat to public health. The fate of a resistance mutation in pathogen populations is determined in part by its fitness. Mutations that suffer little or no fitness cost are more likely to persist in the absence of antibiotic treatment. In this review, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the fitness costs associated with single mutational events that confer resistance. Generally, these mutations were costly, although several drug classes and species of bacteria on average did not show a cost. Further investigations into the rate and fitness values of compensatory mutations that alleviate the costs of resistance will help us to better understand both the emergence and management of antibiotic resistance in clinical settings. PMID:25861385

  12. Probabilistic assessment of beach and dune changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Stockdon, H.; Haines, J.; Krabill, W.; Swift, R.; Brock, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recent availability of spatially-dense airborne lidar data makes assessment of the vulnerability of beaches and dunes to storm impacts practical over long reaches of coast. As an initial test, elevations of the tops (D high) and bases (Dlow) of foredune ridges along a 55-km reach on the northern Outer Banks, NC were found to have considerable spatial variability suggesting that different parts of the barrier island would respond differently to storms. Comparing statistics of storm wave runup to D high and Dlow, we found that net erosion due to overwash and dune retreat should be greatest at the northern and southern ends of the study area and least in the central section. This predicted spatial pattern of storm-induced erosion is similar to the spatial pattern of long-term erosion of the shoreline which may be controlled by additional processes (such as gradients in longshore transport) as well as the cross-shore processes considered here. However, consider feedback where at erosional hot spots there is a deficit of sand (caused by gradients in longshore transport) which lead to lower dunes and enhanced erosional cross-shore processes, such as overwash. Hence, the erosional hot spots would be exacerbated, further increasing the vulnerability of the beach and dunes to net erosion.

  13. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSINGS TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  14. USING TODAY'S DATA TO CLOSE THE BEACH TODAY. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) RAPID BEACH CLOSING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in the measurement of fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the water at these beaches to determine whether thes...

  15. 76 FR 22928 - Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Nextera Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to the Proposed License Amendment To Increase the Maximum Reactor Power Level The U.S....

  16. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... revisions to 10 CFR Part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967... Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The NRC staff's safety evaluation will be provided in the... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach...

  17. 75 FR 20802 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan on holding a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach, Wantagh, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  18. THE VISUAL BEACH NUMERICAL MODEL: A DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC MODELING APPROACH TO ACHIEVING US BEACHES AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the BEACH Act of 2000, EPA has committed to a program to monitor beach water quality and develop strategies, including modeling, for timely notification of the public when bacterial contamination poses a risk to bathers. EPA's goal is to manage 100% of significant public be...

  19. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise Current Sports Medicine Reports Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal Guidelines Books & Multimedia Sports Medicine Basics Fact Sheets Sports Medicine & Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Fit ...

  20. Proper fitting shoes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping they will stretch ... should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping ...

  1. Fitness Shoes and Clothes

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Fitness Shoes and Clothes Choosing the right clothing and ... be a great motivator! Download the Tip Sheet Fitness Shoes and Clothes (PDF, 436.87 KB) You ...

  2. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  3. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Public Information Newsletters ACSM Blog ACSM Blog Search By ... Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Home Public Information Newsletters Fit Society Page ACSM Fit Society ® ...

  4. The responses of artificial embayed beaches to storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, E.; Guillén, J.; Ribas, F.

    2009-09-01

    The plan-view and the profile shape of sandy beaches largely depend on the incoming wave-energy (Wright and Short, 1984). In this sense, storm events are responsible for major changes in the configuration of sandy beaches and the cumulative effect of storms and fair-weather conditions determines the morphodynamic state of a certain beach. With increasing wave energy, the beach will change from the Reflective state to the Low Tide Terrace, Transverse Bar and Rip, Rhythmic Bar and Beach, Longshore Bar and Trough and finally to the Dissipative beach state. These morphodynamic states are also observed at artificial embayed beaches, although artificial groins limit alongshore sediment transport and protect sections of the beach from waves approaching from a range of directions (Short and Masselink, 1999). This contribution focuses on the morphological changes of the shoreline and the submerged sandbars of artificial embayed (sandy) beaches due to the effect of high-wave conditions associated to storms. We characterize the morphological response of the emerged and submerged beach profile of two of the artificial embayed beaches of the Barcelona city coast (NW Mediterranean). The two embayed beaches under study are single-barred beaches subject to the same climatic conditions but with different morphological characteristics. The study comprises more than 4 years of data, from November 2001 to March 2006, obtained through an Argus video system (Holman and Stanley, 2007). The extraction of the shoreline and barline locations is accomplished using 10-minute time-exposure video images. Shorelines were extracted directly from oblique images (see Ojeda and Guillén, [2008] for a complete description) and rectified afterwards. Sandbars were inferred from the rectified time-exposure video images based on the preferential wave breaking over shallow areas, so they required a minimum significant wave height (Hs) which allowed the occurrence of a clear wave-breaking pattern. The

  5. Equilibrium Beach Profiles on the East and West U.S. Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; McNinch, J. E.; O'Reilly, W.

    2012-12-01

    Beach elevation change observations from the United States west and east coasts are used to identify statistically the dominant cross-shore patterns in sand level fluctuations, and these changes are related to equilibrium beach profile concepts. Three to seven years of observations at four beaches in Southern California include monthly surveys of the subaerial (near MSL) beach, and quarterly surveys from the backbeach to about 8m depth. At Duck, North Carolina, observations include 31 years of monthly surveys from the dunes to about 8m depth. On the Southern California beaches, the dominant seasonal pattern is subaerial erosion in winter and accretion in summer. Seasonal fluctuations of 3m in shoreline vertical sand levels, and 50m in subaerial beach width, are not uncommon. The sand eroded from the shoreline in winter is stored in an offshore sand bar and returns to the beach face in summer. Wave conditions in Southern California also vary seasonally, with energetic waves arriving from the north in winter, and lower energy, longer period southerly swell arriving in summer. A spectral refraction model, initialized with a regional network of directional wave buoys, is used to estimate hourly wave conditions, in 10m water depth. Using an equilibrium hypothesis, that the shoreline (defined as the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) change rate depends on the wave energy and the wave energy disequilibrium, Yates (2009) modeled the time-varying shoreline location at several Southern California beaches with significant skill. The four free model parameters were calibrated to fit observations. Following Yates (2009), we extend the equilibrium shoreline model to include the horizontal displacement of other elevation contours. At the Southern California sites, the modeled contour translation depends on the incident wave energy, the present contour configuration, and observation-based estimates of the contour behavior (based on EOF spatial amplitudes). At Duck, seasonal

  6. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePlus

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  7. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics Conference

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Scott, Jamie; Larrick, James W; Plückthun, Andreas; Veldman, Trudi; Adams, Gregory P; Parren, Paul WHI; Chester, Kerry A; Bradbury, Andrew; Reichert, Janice M; Huston, James S

    2013-01-01

    The Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference, which serves as the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA from Sunday December 8 through Thursday December 12, 2013. The scientific program will cover the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development, and provide updates on recent progress in areas from basic science through approval of antibody therapeutics. Keynote presentations will be given by Leroy Hood (Institute of System Biology), who will discuss a systems approach for studying disease that is enabled by emerging technology; Douglas Lauffenburger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), who will discuss systems analysis of cell communication network dynamics for therapeutic biologics design; David Baker (University of Washington), who will describe computer-based design of smart protein therapeutics; and William Schief (The Scripps Research Institute), who will discuss epitope-focused immunogen design.   In this preview of the conference, the workshop and session chairs share their thoughts on what conference participants may learn in sessions on: (1) three-dimensional structure antibody modeling; (2) identifying clonal lineages from next-generation data sets of expressed VH gene sequences; (3) antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; (4) the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on the antibody response; (5) directed evolution; (6) antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; (7) use of knowledge-based design to guide development of complementarity-determining regions and epitopes to engineer or elicit the desired antibody; (8) optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; (9) antibodies in a complex environment; (10) polyclonal, oligoclonal and bispecific antibodies; (11) antibodies to watch in 2014; and (12) polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity.

  8. Estimating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance from beach seine data collected in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Hendrix, A. Noble

    2016-01-01

    Resource managers rely on abundance or density metrics derived from beach seine surveys to make vital decisions that affect fish population dynamics and assemblage structure. However, abundance and density metrics may be biased by imperfect capture and lack of geographic closure during sampling. Currently, there is considerable uncertainty about the capture efficiency of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by beach seines. Heterogeneity in capture can occur through unrealistic assumptions of closure and from variation in the probability of capture caused by environmental conditions. We evaluated the assumptions of closure and the influence of environmental conditions on capture efficiency and abundance estimates of Chinook salmon from beach seining within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay. Beach seine capture efficiency was measured using a stratified random sampling design combined with open and closed replicate depletion sampling. A total of 56 samples were collected during the spring of 2014. To assess variability in capture probability and the absolute abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon, beach seine capture efficiency data were fitted to the paired depletion design using modified N-mixture models. These models allowed us to explicitly test the closure assumption and estimate environmental effects on the probability of capture. We determined that our updated method allowing for lack of closure between depletion samples drastically outperformed traditional data analysis that assumes closure among replicate samples. The best-fit model (lowest-valued Akaike Information Criterion model) included the probability of fish being available for capture (relaxed closure assumption), capture probability modeled as a function of water velocity and percent coverage of fine sediment, and abundance modeled as a function of sample area, temperature, and water velocity. Given that beach seining is a ubiquitous sampling technique for

  9. Next conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Toney, Michael F.

    2010-11-01

    After the successful conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science (SRPS) in Rolduc Abbey (the Netherlands), we are now looking forward to the next meeting in this topical series started in 1995 by H G Zachmann, one of the pioneers of the use of synchrotron radiation techniques in polymer science. Earlier meetings were held in Hamburg (1995), Sheffield (2002), Kyoto (2006), and Rolduc (2009). In September of 2012 the Synchrotron Radiation and Polymer Science V conferences will be organized in a joint effort by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory Advanced Light Source at LBL Advanced Light Source at LBL The conference will be organised in the heart of beautiful San Francisco. The program will consist of invited and contributed lectures divided in sessions on the use of synchrotron SAXS/WAXD, imaging and tomography, soft x-rays, x-ray spectroscopy, GISAXS and reflectivity, micro-beams and hyphenated techniques in polymer science. Poster contributions are more than welcome and will be highlighted during the poster sessions. Visits to both SLAC as well as LBL will be organised. San Francisco can easily be reached. It is served by two major international airports San Francisco International Airport and Oakland International Airport. Both are being served by most major airlines with easy connections to Europe and Asia as well as national destinations. Both also boast excellent connections to San Francisco city centre. We are looking forward to seeing you in the vibrant city by the Bay in September 2012. Golden gate bridge Alexander Hexemer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Michael F Toney Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Pk, CA 94025, USA E-mail: ahexemer@lbl.gov, mftoney@slac.stanford.edu

  10. Wave-Induced Groundwater Flows in a Freshwater Beach Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malott, S. S.; Robinson, C. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-induced recirculation across the sediment-water interface can impact the transport of pollutants through a beach aquifer and their ultimate flux into coastal waters. The fate of nutrients (e.g. from septic and agricultural sources) and fecal indicator bacteria (e.g. E. coil) near the sediment-water interface are of particular concern as these pollutants often lead to degradation of recreational water quality and nearshore ecosystems. This paper presents detailed field measurements of groundwater flows in a freshwater beach aquifer on Lake Huron over periods of intensified wave conditions. Quantifying wave-driven processes in a freshwater beach aquifer enables wave effects to be studied in isolation from density and tidal effects that complicate groundwater flows in marine beaches. Water exchange across the sediment-water interface and groundwater flow patterns were measured using groundwater wells, arrays of vertically nested pressure transducers and manometers. Results show that wave action induces rapid infiltration/exfiltration across the sediment-water interface and a larger recirculation cell through the beach aquifer. Field data is used to validate a numerical groundwater model of wave-induced groundwater flows. While prior studies have simulated the effects of waves on beach groundwater flows, this study is the first attempt to validate these sophisticated modeling approaches. Finally, field data illustrating the impact of wave-induced groundwater flows on nutrient and bacteria fate and transport in beach aquifers will also be presented.

  11. Conferences revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radcliffe, Jonathan

    2008-08-01

    Way back in the mid-1990s, as a young PhD student, I wrote a Lateral Thoughts article about my first experience of an academic conference (Physics World 1994 October p80). It was a peach of a trip - most of the lab decamped to Grenoble for a week of great weather, beautiful scenery and, of course, the physics. A whole new community was there for me to see in action, and the internationality of it all helped us to forget about England's non-appearance in the 1994 World Cup finals.

  12. Conference Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, James, Jr.; Thomas, Valerie

    2000-01-01

    The MU-SPIN conference focused on showcasing successful experiences with information technology to enhance faculty and student development in areas of scientific and technical research and education. And it provided a forum for discussing increased participation of MU-SPIN schools in NASA Flight Missions and NASA Educational and Public Outreach activities. Opportunities for Involvement sessions focused on Space Science, Earth Science, Education, and Aeronautics. These sessions provided insight into the missions of NASA's enterprises and NASA's Education program. Presentations by NASA scientists, university Principal Investigators, and other affiliates addressed key issues for increased minority involvement.

  13. 77 FR 26229 - Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, FL; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Meloy Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach... the U.S. Coast Guard Base Miami Beach, Florida (Base Miami Beach). Base Miami Beach is composed of multiple U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) units, both land and waterside. The facility has one of the...

  14. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and...

  15. 33 CFR 110.214 - Los Angeles and Long Beach harbors, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Los Angeles and Long Beach... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.214 Los Angeles and Long Beach... the Captain of the Port Los Angeles-Long Beach, the pilot stations for the Port of Long Beach and...

  16. TESTING A BEACH BACTERIA MODEL IN LAKE MICHIGAN AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures due to high bacterial concentrations deprive the public and disrupt the tourist industry. Almost half the Lake Michigan beaches are closed more than 10% of the time. In 1999 the six-mile long beach in Huntington Beach, California was closed in July and August. Due ...

  17. Synthesis study of an erosion hot spot, Ocean Beach, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Erikson, Li H.

    2012-01-01

    A synthesis of multiple coastal morphodynamic research efforts is presented to identify the processes responsible for persistent erosion along a 1-km segment of 7-km-long Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. The beach is situated adjacent to a major tidal inlet and in the shadow of the ebb-tidal delta at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. Ocean Beach is exposed to a high-energy wave climate and significant alongshore variability in forcing introduced by varying nearshore bathymetry, tidal forcing, and beach morphology (e.g., beach variably backed by seawall, dunes, and bluffs). In addition, significant regional anthropogenic factors have influenced sediment supply and tidal current strength. A variety of techniques were employed to investigate the erosion at Ocean Beach, including historical shoreline and bathymetric analysis, monthly beach topographic surveys, nearshore and regional bathymetric surveys, beach and nearshore grain size analysis, two surf-zone hydrodynamic experiments, four sets of nearshore wave and current experiments, and several numerical modeling approaches. Here, we synthesize the results of 7 years of data collection to lay out the causes of persistent erosion, demonstrating the effectiveness of integrating an array of data sets covering a huge range of spatial scales. The key findings are as follows: anthropogenic influences have reduced sediment supply from San Francisco Bay, leading to pervasive contraction (i.e., both volume and area loss) of the ebb-tidal delta, which in turn reduced the regional grain size and modified wave focusing patterns along Ocean Beach, altering nearshore circulation and sediment transport patterns. In addition, scour associated with an exposed sewage outfall pipe causes a local depression in wave heights, significantly modifying nearshore circulation patterns that have been shown through modeling to be key drivers of persistent erosion in that area.

  18. Nourishment practices on Australian sandy beaches: a review.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Belinda C; Jones, Alan R; Goodwin, Ian D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2012-12-30

    It is predicted that the coastal zone will be among the environments worst affected by projected climate change. Projected losses in beach area will negatively impact on coastal infrastructure and continued recreational use of beaches. Beach nourishment practices such as artificial nourishment, replenishment and scraping are increasingly used to combat beach erosion but the extent and scale of projects is poorly documented in large areas of the world. Through a survey of beach managers of Local Government Areas and a comprehensive search of peer reviewed and grey literature, we assessed the extent of nourishment practices in Australia. The study identified 130 beaches in Australia that were subject to nourishment practices between 2001 and 2011. Compared to projects elsewhere, most Australian projects were small in scale but frequent. Exceptions were nine bypass projects which utilised large volumes of sediment. Most artificial nourishment, replenishment and beach scraping occurred in highly urbanised areas and were most frequently initiated in spring during periods favourable to accretion and outside of the summer season of peak beach use. Projects were generally a response to extreme weather events, and utilised sand from the same coastal compartment as the site of erosion. Management was planned on a regional scale by Local Government Authorities, with little monitoring of efficacy or biological impact. As rising sea levels and growing coastal populations continue to put pressure on beaches a more integrated approach to management is required, that documents the extent of projects in a central repository, and mandates physical and biological monitoring to help ensure the engineering is sustainable and effective at meeting goals. PMID:23103149

  19. Beach boundary layer: a framework for addressing recreational water quality impairment at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stanley B; Sanders, Brett F

    2010-12-01

    Nearshore waters in bays, harbors, and estuaries are frequently contaminated with human pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria. Tracking down and mitigating this contamination is complicated by the many point and nonpoint sources of fecal pollution that can degrade water quality along the shore. From a survey of the published literature, we propose a conceptual and mathematical framework, the "beach boundary layer model", for understanding and quantifying the relative impact of beach-side and bay-side sources of fecal pollution on nearshore water quality. In the model, bacterial concentration in ankle depth water C(ankle) [bacteria L(-3)] depends on the flux m'' [bacteria L(-2) T(-1)] of fecal bacteria from beach-side sources (bather shedding, bird and dog feces, tidal washing of sediments, decaying vegetation, runoff from small drains, and shallow groundwater discharge), a cross-shore mass transfer velocity k [L T(-1)] that accounts for the physics of nearshore transport and mixing, and a background concentration C(bay) [bacteria L(-3)] attributable to bay-side sources of pollution that impact water quality over large regions (sewage outfalls, creeks and rivers): C(ankle) = m''/k + C(bay). We demonstrate the utility of the model for identifying risk factors and pollution sources likely to impact shoreline water quality, and evaluate the model's underlying assumptions using computational fluid dynamic simulations of flow, turbulence, and mass transport in a trapezoidal channel. PMID:20949912

  20. Kennedy Space Center ocean beach erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A. J.; Obrien, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Dune barrier erosion and possible breakthrough due to storm and hurricane wave activity is studied near Mosquito Lagoon, in Kennedy Space Center property. The results of a geological as well as hydrodynamic appraisal of the problem area indicate that no inlet has existed across the dune barrier since 500 A.D., and that there is little likelihood of a possible breakthrough inlet remaining open permanently, primarily because the relatively shallow lagoon does not contain enough volume of water to maintain an inlet between the ocean and the lagoon. It is therefore recommended that only minimal measures, such as closing up the man-made passes across the dunes, be carried out to ensure continuation of the action of natural beach maintaining processes.

  1. Mechanisms for beach erosion during storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Paul E.

    1993-11-01

    Simultaneous time-series measurements of waves, currents, and suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) were obtained from the surf zone of a high energy, macrotidal, dissipative beach (Llangennith, Gower, South Wales, U.K.) during "storm" and "calm" conditions. A collocated pressure transducer (PT), electromagnetic current meter (EMCM) and optical backscatter sensor (OBS) were used to measure waves, bi-directional currents and SSCs respectively. Incident wave heights were found to be saturated in the inner surf zone. As the incident waves decayed shorewards, low frequency (infragravity) oscillations in water level and current velocity grew. During the storm, the inner surf zone was dominated by strong (± 1m s -1), low frequency (≈0.01Hz), cross-shore fluid motions which accounted for up to 80% of the total spectral energy. Suspension events associated with the infragravity motions reached peak concentrations of over 70 g l -1, 0.04 m above the bed, and persisted for periods of 30-40 s. Co-spectra between the SSC and cross-shore velocity time-series were computed and used to examine the frequency dependence of the near-bed cross-shore (suspended) sediment transport rate, which was seen to be composed of mainly onshore transport due to asymmetric flows at incident wave frequencies, and predominantly offshore transport coupled with infragravity oscillations in the cross-shore current velocity. A mean (steady) transport component was also measured in association with the undertow (directed offshore). The combined effect of the infragravity band and mean offshore transport components was responsible for the erosion of the beach during the storm

  2. The Conference Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolls, Blanche; Hartman, Linda; Corey, Linda; Marcoux, Betty; Jay, M. Ellen; England, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Includes five articles on conference experiences: preplanning for a library conference; top ten reasons to attend an AASL (American Association of School Librarians) national conference; why should you bother to fill out a conference evaluation form; a case for conferences; and AASL tours. (LRW)

  3. Mechanical grooming and beach award status are associated with low strandline biodiversity in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilburn, Andre S.

    2012-07-01

    Beach grooming and beach award status are both shown to be associated with low macroinvertebrate taxon richness in Scotland. Previous studies in California have revealed that mechanical raking to remove wrack from sandy beaches has negative ecological consequences for coastal ecosystems. In the current study the presence and absence of eight common taxa that inhabit beached wrack on sandy beaches in Scotland was assessed at 60 sites, 24 of which were groomed and 29 of which were in receipt of a beach award. On average 4.86 of the eight taxa were found to be present on ungroomed beaches, whereas only 1.13 taxa were present on groomed beaches. Thus, beach grooming seems to be having a major effect on the biodiversity of beach macroinvertebrates in Scotland. Fewer macroinvertebrate taxa were also found on award (1.5) compared to non-award (4.38) beaches. It was also revealed that award beaches were much more likely to be groomed than non-award beaches, with 69% of award beaches surveyed being groomed compared to only 6% of non-award beaches. This pattern is surprising as the awarding bodies discourage the removal of seaweed and regulations state that beached wrack should only be removed if it constitutes a nuisance. It is concluded that award status, not nuisance level, has the main factor driving most beach grooming and that this has resulted in the substantial loss of macroinvertebrate biodiversity from award beaches in Scotland. In conclusion it is shown that beach grooming has a substantial negative impact upon strandline macroinvertebrate biodiversity in Scotland and that grooming is much more likely to occur on award beaches.

  4. Effects of Rainfall on E. coli Concentrations at Door County, Wisconsin Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Kleinheinz, Gregory T.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Hughes, Sarah; Brown, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall and its associated storm water runoff have been associated with transport of many pollutants into beach water. Fecal material, from a variety of animals (humans, pets, livestock, and wildlife), can wash into beach water following rainfall and result in microbial contamination of the beach. Many locales around the world issue pre-emptive beach closures associated with rainfall. This study looked at eight beaches located in Door County, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan to determine the impact of rainfall on E. coli concentrations in beach water. Water samples were collected from beach water and storm water discharge pipes during rainfall events of 5 mm in the previous 24 hours. Six of the eight beaches showed a significant association between rainfall and elevated beach water E. coli concentrations. The duration of the impact of rainfall on beach water E. coli concentrations was variable (immediate to 12 hours). Amount of rainfall in the days previous to the sampling did not have significant impact on the E. coli concentrations measured in beach water. Presence of storm water conveyance pipes adjacent to the beach did not have a uniform impact on beach water E. coli concentrations. This study suggests that each beach needs to be examined on its own with regard to rain impacts on E coli concentrations in beach water. PMID:20182543

  5. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, P.T.

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  6. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, Patrick T.

    1981-01-01

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  7. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  8. 18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SAND BEACH WITH SUNBATHERS AND UMBRELLAS. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF REFRESHMENT STAND Photocopy of 1930-1940 photograph - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  9. 1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks Collection Copy 1960 Original 1894 NORTHEAST ELEVATION (FRONT) - Plaza Fire House, 126 Plaza Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Park Collection Sketch of 1854 Rephoto of 1960 EAST ELEVATION - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks Collection Copy 1960 Original 1887 NORTHEAST ELEVATION (FRONT) - Plaza Fire House, 126 Plaza Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Park Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 EAST ELEVATION WITH OTHER BUILDINGS - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Beaches & Parks Collection Copy 1960 Original 1920 NORTHEAST ELEVATION (FRONT) - Plaza Fire House, 126 Plaza Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Div. of Beaches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Div. of Beaches & Parks Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER ELEVATION - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal. State Div. Beaches & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal. State Div. Beaches & Parks Collection Sketch of 1857 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER ELEVATION - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. Measuring the effects of stormwater mitigation on beach attendance.

    PubMed

    Atiyah, Perla; Pendleton, Linwood; Vaughn, Ryan; Lessem, Neil

    2013-07-15

    Many studies have used valuation techniques to predict the potential effect of environmental improvements on human use of coastal areas, but there is a lack of post hoc empirical evidence that these policies indeed affect the way people use coastal areas. A panel data approach is developed to statistically determine how storm drain diversions affected attendance at 26 beaches in Southern California. This study uses a 10-year time series of data to conduct a statistical analysis of attendance at beaches with and without diversions and before and after the diversions were installed, while controlling for all observable, confounding factors. Results indicate that beach attendance increased at beaches with diversions compared to those that did not have diversions (between 350,000 and 860,000 visits annually at a 95% confidence interval). Establishing this link between mitigation policies and human use patterns can lead to better management of coastal areas. PMID:23711842

  18. 25. SAME AREA, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: PATH, BEACH DRIVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SAME AREA, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: PATH, BEACH DRIVE, AND PARK ROAD ATOP ROCK FACE. NOTE STONE INFILL MIMICKING NATURAL STONE OUTCROPPING. VIEW N. - Rock Creek Park Road System, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BEACH TOILET BUILDING, OFFICE AND FIRST AID BUILDING, PLANS, ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS Drawing No. 103-07 - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  20. Overview of the area leading to beaching ramp, looking across ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the area leading to beaching ramp, looking across water of west loch. View facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. VIEW INLAND (MAUKA) FROM BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE APPROXIMATE 46' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW INLAND (MAUKA) FROM BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE APPROXIMATE 46' DISTANCE BETWEEN RESIDENCES 26 AND 28 WORCHESTER AVENUE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural Resources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown MAP OF SUTTER'S FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. The role of fringing coral reefs on beach morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz de Alegria-Arzaburu, Amaia; Mariño-Tapia, Ismael; Enriquez, Cecilia; Silva, Rodolfo; González-Leija, Mariana

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the degree of energy dissipation provided by a fringing coral reef, and its role on the morphodynamics of adjacent beaches in terms of volumetric sediment transport. Morphological data were collected from the microtidal Mexican Caribbean beaches of Puerto Morelos, fringed by a reef, and Cancun, without a reef, from September 2007 to May 2011. Being exposed to the same offshore wave conditions, the morphodynamics of the coral reef-fronted beach were compared with those of the adjacent beach without a coral reef. Spatio-temporal changes in beach morphology were determined applying empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) to the shorelines extracted from the topographic data, and it was concluded that Puerto Morelos was considerably less dynamic than Cancun. The longshore energy fluxes were larger in Cancun, and the subaerial morphological differences in both beaches and under the same offshore conditions demonstrated that Puerto Morelos was particularly stable under shore-normal easterly waves. A calibrated phase-averaged wave model was implemented to determine the amount of wave energy dissipation across the coral reef. For energetic shore-normal waves the model determined that the semi-emerged coral reef was capable of reducing up to 85% of the incident wave height. The reef-crest height controlled the amount of wave energy dissipation, and the distance between the reef-crest and the shore determined the vulnerability of the beach to morphological changes. Reef-crest degradation by 1 m resulted in a 10% increase in incoming wave energy, which resulted in 0.9 m3/h/m of sand being mobilised along the beaches closer to the reef.

  4. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future

  5. Geographic variation in sandy beach macrofauna community and functional traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodil, I. F.; Compton, T. J.; Lastra, M.

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beaches are a common ocean-dominated ecosystem along the north coast of Spain. We conducted field surveys at 39 beaches distributed between 1° and 9°W, ca. 2000 km along this geographic region to document broad patterns of macrobenthic communities, and to describe their association with variables characterising both the beach environment and the characteristics of the adjacent ocean waters. Macrofaunal functional traits are considered to be an informative measure that can be useful for many ecosystem-level questions, as they are based on what organisms do (i.e., their ecological function) rather than on their identification alone. Boosted regression-trees analysis showed that the occurrence of the main taxonomic groups and feeding guilds were differentially associated with the prevailing beach features along this coastline. The occurrence (presence/absence) of molluscs was best explained by the concentration of chlorophyll-a and wave exposure whereas those of crustaceans and polychaetes were best explained by an ensemble of variables including beach slope, sea surface temperature and grain size. A comparison of the feeding guilds demonstrated that the occurrence of suspension feeders was best explained by chlorophyll-a and wave exposure, whereas the occurrence of deposit feeders was best explained by beach slope, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of predators and scavengers was best explained by sea surface temperature and beach slope. Based on the patterns presented here, we confirm that the upwelling events that occur regularly on this coastline are a structuring agent for beach communities. Future work needs to examine the role of the oceanographic conditions of the region for they might represent the driving forces behind large-scale shifts in macrofauna communities.

  6. Evaluation of airborne topographic lidar for quantifying beach changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Brock, J.; List, J.; Hansen, M.; Holman, R.A.; Manizade, S.; Sontag, J.; Meredith, A.; Morgan, K.; Yunkel, J.K.; Frederick, E.B.; Stockdon, H.

    2003-01-01

    A scanning airborne topographic lidar was evaluated for its ability to quantify beach topography and changes during the Sandy Duck experiment in 1997 along the North Carolina coast. Elevation estimates, acquired with NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), were compared to elevations measured with three types of ground-based measurements - 1) differential GPS equipped all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that surveyed a 3-km reach of beach from the shoreline to the dune, 2) GPS antenna mounted on a stadia rod used to intensely survey a different 100 m reach of beach, and 3) a second GPS-equipped ATV that surveyed a 70-km-long transect along the coast. Over 40,000 individual intercomparisons between ATM and ground surveys were calculated. RMS vertical differences associated with the ATM when compared to ground measurements ranged from 13 to 19 cm. Considering all of the intercomparisons together, RMS ??? 15 cm. This RMS error represents a total error for individual elevation estimates including uncertainties associated with random and mean errors. The latter was the largest source of error and was attributed to drift in differential GPS. The ??? 15 cm vertical accuracy of the ATM is adequate to resolve beach-change signals typical of the impact of storms. For example, ATM surveys of Assateague Island (spanning the border of MD and VA) prior to and immediately following a severe northeaster showed vertical beach changes in places greater than 2 m, much greater than expected errors associated with the ATM. A major asset of airborne lidar is the high spatial data density. Measurements of elevation are acquired every few m2 over regional scales of hundreds of kilometers. Hence, many scales of beach morphology and change can be resolved, from beach cusps tens of meters in wavelength to entire coastal cells comprising tens to hundreds of kilometers of coast. Topographic lidars similar to the ATM are becoming increasingly available from commercial vendors and should, in the future

  7. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  8. HazMat 94 West/Spring. Second annual environmental management and technology conference West/Spring: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This conference was held April 26--28, 1994 in Long Beach, California as part of the Environmental Management and Technology and Exhibition West/Spring. The objective of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on new environmental technologies, especially in the field of hazardous waste management. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  9. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  10. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco Rafael; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world's ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  11. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems. PMID:26411697

  12. Global diversity patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: a biogeographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafael Barboza, Francisco; Defeo, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Unlike the advances generated on land, the knowledge of global diversity patterns in marine ecosystems is limited to a small number of studies. For sandy beaches, which dominate the world’s ocean shores, previous meta-analyses highlighted the role of beach morphodynamics in explaining species richness patterns. Oceanographic variables and historical processes have not been considered, even though they could be main predictors of community structure. Our work, based on 256 sandy beaches around the world, analysed species richness considering for the first time temperature, salinity and primary productivity. Biogeographic units (realms, provinces and ecoregions) were used to incorporate historical factors in modelling processes. Ecoregions, which implicitly include isolation and coastal complexity among other historical geographic factors, best represented trends in species richness worldwide. Temperature was a main predictor of species richness, which increased from temperate to tropical sandy beaches. Species richness increased with tide range and towards wide beaches with gentle slopes and fine grains, which is consistent with the hypothesis that habitat availability has an important role in structuring sandy beach communities. The role of temperature and habitat availability suggests that ocean warming and sea level rise could affect the distribution of obligate species living in these narrow ecosystems.

  13. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  14. Visual assessment of bayed beach stability with computer software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fontoura Klein, Antonio Henrique; Vargas, Ariel; Raabe, André Luís. Alice; Hsu, John R. C.

    2003-12-01

    The parabolic bay shape model is the only morphological model that has the mechanism for the evaluating beach stability and predicting shoreline changes arising from structures built on a curved beach. However, application of this parabolic model has been largely in manual form, by tracing the calculated bay shape on a map or aerial photograph after hand calculation. To overcome this drawback, a software package called model for equilibrium planform of bay beaches (MEPBAY) written in Object Pascal language is proposed to facilitate the model application. MEPBAY calculates the idealized shoreline planform of a headland-bay beach in static equilibrium based on the parabolic model. It then presents the results graphically on a screen display overlaying the image of the existing beach. It thus allows the stability of a headland-bay beach to be assessed visually by comparing the existing shoreline periphery with the static equilibrium planform. The software offers a friendly environment from simple input to instant visualization of the results. MEPBAY not only helps students understand the morphological process, but also provides engineers with a valuable tool for practical applications on shoreline protection and coastal management.

  15. Post-earthquake coastal evolution and recovery of an embayed beach in central-southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Carolina; Rojas, Daniel; Quezada, Matías; Quezada, Jorge; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are significant factors for change along active margin shores, and influence coastal evolution. The Chilean coast was affected in 2010 by a subduction earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 8.8 and also by a trans-Pacific tsunami, which generated violent geomorphologic changes and damaged homes. Following these events, the magnitude of the changes which affect Chile's central-southern coast (37°S) and the role of subduction earthquakes in coastal evolution on a historical scale were investigated. At Lebu bay (an embayed beach) data were generated for variations in time and space along the shoreline, topographical and bathymetric changes in the bay, and for morphodynamic littoral processes. Logarithmic and parabolic models were applied to the shoreline along with map overlays in order to determine changes. The shoreline processes were analyzed based on statistics for waves, tides and sediment transport for pre- and post-tsunami conditions. An average accretion rate of 2.80 m/year (1984-2010) was established for the shoreline, with a strong trend towards accretion in the last 30 years. A parabolic function best represented the general form of the shoreline, although the presence of a river in the concave zone affected the fit in this sector. Two factors controlled historical changes on the beach: one of anthropic origin in addition to the earthquake and tsunami on February 27th, 2010. The post-earthquake recovery was fast, and currently the beach is in a stable condition despite the inter-seismic subsidence process previous to the event. This coastal system showed a high resilience in the face of coastal geomorphological changes induced by high-impact natural disturbances. However, the opposite occurred in relation to changes induced by anthropogenic disturbances.

  16. Fun Fitness Runs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scantling, Ed; Strand, Brad

    1997-01-01

    Fitness runs are planned activities that make running more interesting. The paper outlines five types of fitness runs, all of which can be modified to conform to different facilities, age groups, or available time. The activities have students playing detective, playing cards, deciphering words, learning about calories, and playing wolf. (SM)

  17. Fitness and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Catherine R.

    This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

  18. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  19. Fitness in Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive…

  20. Fitness Day. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Jeanne

    This lesson plan introduces students to the concept of supply and demand by appealing to bodily/kinesthetic intelligences. Students participate in a fitness class and then analyze the economic motives behind making an individual feel better after a fitness activity; i.e., analyzing how much an individual would pay for a drink and snack after a…

  1. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  2. Physical Fitness and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, Jill M.

    Human beings are a delicate balance of mind, body, and spirit, so an imbalance in one domain affects all others. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that physical fitness may have on such human characteristics as personality and behavior. A review of the literature reveals that physical fitness is related to, and can affect,…

  3. Investigation of medium-term barred beach behavior using 28-year beach profile data and Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Yanagishima, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    A 28-year beach profile dataset for a stretch of the Hasaki coast in Japan was examined using Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (REOF) analysis to investigate the cross-shore variation in the characteristics of beach profile change. The data were obtained weekly, on a micro-tidal wave-dominated intermediate beach, along a survey line extending from the backshore to a water depth of approximately 5 m. REOF analysis using the first eight empirical orthogonal functions led to the study area being divided into five unique zones based on beach profile change patterns, namely the backshore, the foreshore, the inner and outer transition zones and the bar-trough zone. Although these zones were notably distinct from one another, the profiles in foreshore and the shoreward part of the inner transition zone changed in the same way over periods of 6 and 12 months.

  4. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal squeeze, or foreshore narrowing, is a result of marine encroachment, such as sea-level rise in the presence of a back-beach barrier, terrestrial encroachment, such as coastal development, or both. In California, the permanent coastal population increased by almost 10 million people between 1980 and 2003, and an additional 130 million beachgoers visit Southern California beaches each year. Beaches in California are an important component of the state and federal economy and provide hundreds of thousands of jobs. Approximately 14% of the California coast from Marin County to the Mexican border is artificially armored with seawalls, rip rap, or revetment, more than half of which protects back-beach developments or lower-lying dynamic regions like harbors and dunes. Many sandy beaches that do not have back-beach armoring are still restricted by commercial and residential infrastructure, parking lots, and roadways. Although these types of coastal infrastructure are not back-beach barriers by intentional design like seawalls and rip rap, they still restrict beaches from landward migration and can cause significant placement loss of the beach. Nearly 67 km, or 44% of the total length of sandy coastline from Long Beach to the U.S.-Mexico border is backed by such infrastructure. This study is part of a broader effort to catalog the extent to which California’s beaches are restricted in the back beach, to describe the effects of back-beach barriers on sandy beach morphology, and to predict how these different beaches might behave with future sea-level rise. Beach morphology, shoreface characteristics, and historical rates of shoreline change were compared between select beaches with back-beach barriers and unrestricted beaches using 1997 LiDAR data and shoreline rates of change published in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change report. Although preliminary results of the morphological analysis show that there is no statistically

  5. Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, David B.

    2014-07-01

    This conference on ``Multi-wavelength AGN Surveys and Studies'' has provided a detailed look at the explosive growth over the past decade, of available astronomical data from a growing list of large scale sky surveys, from radio-to-gamma rays. We are entering an era were multi-epoch (months to weeks) surveys of the entire sky, and near-instantaneous follow-up observations of variable sources, are elevating time-domain astronomy to where it is becoming a major contributor to our understanding of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). While we can marvel at the range of extragalactic phenomena dispayed by sources discovered in the original ``Markarian Survey'' - the first large-scale objective prism survey of the Northern Sky carried out at the Byurakan Astronomical Observtory almost a half-century ago - it is clear from the talks and posters presented at this meeting that the data to be be obtained over the next decade will be needed if we are to finally understand which phase of galaxy evolution each Markarian Galaxy represents.

  6. Conference summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    To do justice to so many interesting contributions, both in the form of papers presented as talks and posters represented only by titles in these proceedings, will be difficult. Rather than attempting to list contributions from the individual areas in a representative fashion, I will attempt to see how a few of the striking contributions fit into, or alter, our views on major questions we have been trying to answer during the past few decades — questions dealing with the structure and evolution of the universe, the formation of galaxies and stars, and the origins of the solar system, in short everything from Comets to Cosmology — though I will reverse the order, starting here with cosmological questions and ending up with comets, or rather with zodiacal dust.

  7. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  8. Limitations of inclusive fitness

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  9. Erosion of the beaches of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skanavis, V.; Kalligeris, N.; Maravelakis, N.; Foteinis, S.; Sartzetakis, G.; Papadogiannis, K.; Synolakis, C.

    2014-12-01

    The coastlines of Greece face a substantial erosion problem with some shoreline retreating at rates up to 1m/year. This problem remains largely unrecognized for quantitative measurements of shoreline retreat rates are scarce, while coastal wave measurements for extended period of time are entirely non existent. Most if not all coastal engineering studies rely on SMB type forecasts. Worse, structures are still designed with simple laboratory models that purport to even model coastal erosion, without the benefit of any numerical simulations. As a result, in some areas, the structures have accelerated the erosion in adjacent beaches. We present the first ever coastal wave measurements in shallow waters in Greece. From December 2010 to April 2014, three AWACs - instruments that measure wave heights, directions and three dimensional velocity profiles were deployed in 20-25m water depths in the Bay of Chanea, Crete. The measurements revealed waves higher than expected from simple forecasting models. We also present estimates of coastline retreat for the Bay of Chanea and other regions in Crete.

  10. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  11. Flared tube attachment fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkire, I. D.; King, J. P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tubes can be flared first, then attached to valves and other flow line components, with new fitting that can be disassembled and reused. Installed fitting can be disassembled so parts can be inspected. It can be salvaged and reused without damaging flared tube; tube can be coated, tempered, or otherwise treated after it has been flared, rather than before, as was previously required. Fitting consists of threaded male portion with conical seating surface, hexagonal nut with hole larger than other diameter of flared end of tube, and split ferrule.

  12. Hopeful monsters and morphogens at the beach.

    PubMed

    Niswander, Lee; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2002-11-01

    The Santa Cruz Developmental Biology Conference (August 15-19, 2002) provided the latest insights into how a single cell is transformed into a complex organism. Organisms that flower, slither, walk and fly continue to provide new insights into the cell biological and molecular mechanisms that control cell movement, signalling pathways and post-transcriptional regulation; hopeful monsters sit at our doorstep to provide new insight into evolutionary change and human disease. PMID:12415285

  13. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  14. Effects of beach morphology and waves on onshore larval transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, A.; Reniers, A.; Paris, C. B.; Shanks, A.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larvae of intertidal species grow offshore, and migrate back to the shore when they are ready to settle on their adult substrates. In order to reach the habitat, they must cross the surf zone, which is characterized as a semi-permeable barrier. This is accomplished through physical forcing (i.e., waves and current) as well as their own behavior. Two possible scenarios of onshore larval transport are proposed: Negatively buoyant larvae stay in the bottom boundary layer because of turbulence-dependent sinking behavior, and are carried toward the shore by streaming of the bottom boundary layer; positively buoyant larvae move to the shore during onshore wind events, and sink to the bottom once they encounter high turbulence (i.e., surf zone edge), where they are carried by the bottom current toward the shore (Fujimura et al. 2014). Our biophysical Lagrangian particle tracking model helps to explain how beach morphology and wave conditions affect larval distribution patterns and abundance. Model results and field observations show that larval abundance in the surf zone is higher at mildly sloped, rip-channeled beaches than at steep pocket beaches. Beach attributes are broken up to examine which and how beach configuration factors affect larval abundance. Modeling with alongshore uniform beaches with variable slopes reveal that larval populations in the surf zone are negatively correlated with beach steepness. Alongshore variability enhances onshore larval transport because of increased cross-shore water exchange by rip currents. Wave groups produce transient rip currents and enhance cross-shore exchange. Effects of other wave components, such as wave height and breaking wave rollers are also considered.

  15. Heart Rate and Motion Analysis by GPS in Beach Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Julen; Casamichana, David

    2010-01-01

    Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years very little scientific research has been conducted into the sport. A pilot study was carried out with the aim of examining the physiological (heart rate) and physical (motion analysis) responses of beach soccer players during competitive matches. Ten players (age 25.5 ± 0.5 years; height 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight 78.2 ± 5.6 kg.) were studied over five beach soccer matches. The physiological demands were analysed by measuring heart rate (HR) using telemetric devices, while the physical profile was evaluated by recording motion and speed by means of GPS devices. During competitive matches, players obtained a HRmean of 165.2 bpm (86.5% HRmax), with 59.3% of the time participating (TP) corresponding to values above 90% of the HRmax. The distance covered per minute of participation was 97.7 m, with 9.5% of this distance corresponding to high-intensity running and 2.5% to sprint; the work:rest ratio was 1.4:1 and the maximum speed 21.7 km·h-1. These results showed that beach soccer is an intermittent physical activity of greater intensity than other team games. It requires a major contribution from the anaerobic system as emphasis is placed on players making quick bursts of high-intensity activity separated by brief rest periods. Key points The distance covered per minute of play is around 100 m. Beach soccer is an intermittent sport with a work:rest ratio of 1.4:1. The playing surface in beach soccer is an important handicap to obtain maximum speeds. Beach soccer has a high physiological intensity, with more than half of the game is spent at intensities above 90 % of the HRmax. PMID:24149392

  16. Monitoring and modeling nearshore dredge disposal for indirect beach nourishment, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.; Lescinski, Jamie; Elias, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Nearshore dredge disposal was performed during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, a high energy tidal and wave environment. This trial run was an attempt to provide a buffer to a reach of coastline where wave attack during the winter months has had a severe impact on existing sewage infrastructure. Although the subsequent beach response was inconclusive, after one year the peak of the disposal mound had migrated ~100 m toward the shore, providing evidence that annual dredge disposal at this site could be beneficial over the long-term by at the very least providing: 1) additional wave dissipation during storms 2) compatible sediment to feed nearshore bars, 3) sediment cover on an exposed sewage outfall pipe, and 4) a viable alternative to the shoaling offshore disposal site. Numerical modeling suggests that despite the strong tidal currents in the region, wave forcing is the dominant factor moving the sediment slowly toward shore, and placing sediment at just slightly shallower depths (e.g. 9 m) in the future would have a more immediate impact.

  17. An integrated coastal modeling system for analyzing beach processes and beach restoration projects, SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; Medina, R.; Gonzalez-Ondina, J.; Osorio, A.; Méndez, F. J.; García, E.

    2007-07-01

    A user-friendly system called coastal modeling system (SMC) has been developed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and the University of Cantabria. The system includes several numerical models specifically developed for the application of the methodology proposed in the Spanish Beach Nourishment and Protection Manual. According to this methodology, the SMC is structured into five -modules: (1) Pre-process module; (2) Short-term module; (3) Long-term module; (4) Coastal terrain module; and (5) Tutorial module. The pre-process module allows the processing of a database of morphodynamic information used as input for the different programs and models of the SMC. Short-, Long-term modules include numerical models to analyze coastal systems on different scales of variability (hours-months-years) and are composed of morphodynamic evolution models in cross-profile 2DV and beach plan 2DH. The coastal terrain module allows the user to modify the working bathymetry and to combine bathymetries from different sources in only one working bathymetry. The tutorial module includes a comprehensive collection of coastal engineering design and analysis software. The SMC has a dynamic design and allows the incorporation of future new databases and morphodynamic models. The SMC system is freely distributed to coastal practitioners and has already been implemented in several countries.

  18. Ground-water resources of the Riviera Beach area, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The so-called ' shallow aquifer ' composed chiefly of sand, shells, sandstone, and limestone, is the principal source of freshwater in the Riviera Beach area, Fla. The major water-bearing zone consists of cemented layers of sand and shells, about 100 ft thick, in the lower part of the aquifer. The quality of the water in the shallow aquifer is generally suitable for public supply except locally along C-17 Canal where the dissolved solids concentration exceeds 500 milligrams per liter. The configuration of the water table is greatly influenced by Lake Worth, C-17 Canal, West Palm Beach water catchment area, rainfall, and municipal pumpage. The major threat to development of water supplies, and possibly to the continuation of a current withdrawal rate of over 5 mgd, is seawater (Lake Worth), but the combined effects of increased pumpage, reduced recharge resulting from increased land development, and below normal rainfall, have caused seawater to advance inland in the aquifer. Additional supplies could be developed to the west. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

  20. Conference Scene

    PubMed Central

    Leeder, J Steven; Lantos, John; Spielberg, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for clinicians, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies is to better understand the relative contributions of ontogeny and genetic variation to observed variability in drug disposition and response across the pediatric age spectrum from preterm and term newborns, to infants, children and adolescents. Extrapolation of adult experience with pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine to pediatric patients of different ages and developmental stages, is fraught with many challenges. Compared with adults, pediatric pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics involves an added measure of complexity as variability owing to developmental processes, or ontogeny, is superimposed upon genetic variation. Furthermore, some pediatric diseases have no adult correlate or are more prevalent in children compared with adults, and several adverse drug reactions are unique to children, or occur at a higher frequency in children. The primary objective of this conference was to initiate an ongoing series of annual meetings on ‘Pediatric Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine’ organized by the Center for Personalized Medicine and Therapeutic Innovation and Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Medical Therapeutics at Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics in Kansas City, MO, USA. The primary goals of the inaugural meeting were: to bring together clinicians, basic and translational scientists and allied healthcare practitioners, and engage in a multi- and cross-disciplinary dialog aimed at implementing personalized medicine in pediatric settings; to provide a forum for the presentation and the dissemination of research related to the application of pharmacogenomic strategies to investigations of variability of drug disposition and response in children; to explore the ethical, legal and societal implications of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine that are unique to children; and finally, to create networking opportunities for stimulating discussion

  1. Validation of the Enterococci indicator for bacteriological quality monitoring of beaches in Malaysia using a multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Asmat; Dada, Ayokunle C; Usup, Gires; Heng, Lee Y

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no established bacteriological beach quality monitoring (BQM) program in place in Malaysia. To initiate cost-effective, sustainable bacteriological BQM schemes for the ultimate goal of protecting public health, policy decision makers need to be provided robust, indigenous empirical findings that validate appropriate water quality parameters for inclusion in such monitoring programs. This is the first study that assesses the validity of enterococci as an ideal indicator for bacteriological BQM in Malaysia using a multivariate approach. Beach water and sand samples from 7 beach locations were analyzed for a total of twenty-one microbial and non-microbial water quality parameters. A multivariate approach incorporating cluster analyses (CA), principal component analyses (PCA), and factor analysis (FA) was also adopted. Apart from the weak correlations of Staphylococcus aureus with concentrations of Vibro species (r = 0.302, p = 0.037) and total coliforms (r = 0.392, p = 0.006) in seawater, no correlation existed between S. aureus concentration and other parameters. Faecal coliforms failed to correlate with any of the tested parameters. Enterococci also correlated with more quality parameters than faecal coliforms or any other indicator. Multiple linear regressions highlighted a significant, best fit model that could predict enterococci concentrations in relation to other parameters with a maximum predictive success of 69.64%. PCA/FA clearly delineated enterococci and faecal coliforms as parameters that weighed strongly for BQM while Staphylococcus aureus, faecal coliforms and enterococci weighed strongly for beach sand quality monitoring. On the whole, higher correlations of enterococci levels with other parameters than was observed for faecal coliforms suggest that the former be considered a preferred parameter of choice for BQM in Malaysia. Our findings provide meaningful evidence particularly as it relates to the correlation of

  2. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  3. WOLF: FITS file processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior

    2012-12-01

    WOLF processes FITS files and generates photometry files, annotated JPGs, opacity maps, background, transient detection and luminance changes detection. This software was used to process data for the Night Sky Live project.

  4. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Strengthen your bones and muscles Improve your mental health and mood Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you're an older adult Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise ...

  5. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  6. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  7. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  8. Low faunal diversity on Maltese sandy beaches: fact or artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, Alan; Azzopardi, Marthese; Saliba, Stephen; Schembri, Patrick J.

    2003-10-01

    Eight sandy beaches on Malta and two on Gozo were sampled for macrofauna to test the hypothesis that Maltese beaches have an intrinsically low diversity. Stations distributed in the supralittoral (dry zone), mediolittoral (wet zone) and upper infralittoral (submerged zone to 1 m water depth) were sampled by sieving core samples and standardised searching during daytime, and pitfall trapping and standardised sweeping of the water column using a hand-net at night, as appropriate. Physical parameters of the sediment were measured and human occupancy of the beaches was estimated. From the supralittoral and mediolittoral, 39 species represented by 1584 individuals were collected by the combined techniques of pitfall trapping, sieving and standard searching. For Ramla beach, which had the highest diversity, 267 individuals representing 25 infaunal species were collected by sieving from a combined volume of 1.175 m 3 of sand, and 149 individuals representing 28 epifaunal species were collected by standardised searching from a combined area of 700 m 2 of sand during two winter and two summer sampling sessions between 1992 and 1993. For nine other beaches sampled during the summer of 2000, only six macrofaunal species were collected from core samples, with overall population densities ranging from 4.13 to 45.45 individuals m -2. Only 92 individuals belonging to 12 species were collected by hand-net from the uppermost infralittoral of five beaches sampled using this method during the summer of 2000. Taxa of gastropods, bivalves, decapods, mysids and staphylinid beetles generally abundant on Mediterranean sandy beaches, were entirely absent from the beaches sampled. Few correlations that could explain the impoverishment of Maltese sandy beaches were found between physical parameters and faunal abundances, and other factors such as inadequate sampling effort, human disturbance and marine pollution were also excluded; however, seasonally biased sampling may partly explain the

  9. Detached macroalgae: Its importance to inshore sandy beach fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Kyla K.; Wilding, Thomas A.; Horstmeyer, Lena; Weigl, Simon; Heymans, Johanna J.

    2014-10-01

    Kelp forests shed a large proportion of their biomass through storm-mediated defoliation, senescence of kelp blades, and constant erosion of particulate organic matter from the kelp fronds. Much of this detached macroalgae drifts in the water column and is deposited on intertidal zones of beaches. Detached macroalgae may provide inshore sandy beach fauna with refuge and food subsidies in an exposed and bare environment, with limited in situ primary production. We evaluated the relationship between detached macroalgae and the density of inshore fauna, where 'inshore' was the body of water extending from low water seawards for approximately 50 m. Inshore fauna were sampled using a push-net (1 mm mesh) on 11 beaches, and using a beam-trawl (4 mm mesh) on a subset of 8 beaches. On each beach, the density of detached macroalgae in the water column was quantified, together with a suite of physico-chemical beach characteristics. Push-net samples principally comprised omnivorous and detritivorous crustaceans such as gammarid amphipods, mysids and valviferan isopods, which have limited swimming abilities and reside inshore year-round. Beam-trawl fauna were mainly carnivorous decapods and fish, which undergo seasonal inshore-offshore migrations to utilize sandy beaches as nursery habitats. Linear models predicted increases of 11% (95% CI: 3.5-19%) and 2.4% (95% CI: 0.7-4.2%) in the density of push-net and beam-trawl fauna, respectively, with a 1 ℓ.100 m-3 increase in detached macroalgae. This suggests that detached macroalgae is more important in the provision of food and shelter to small, weak-swimming detritivores/omnivores than to larger and more mobile predators. The densities of large predators were mostly explained by physical beach characteristics, which overshadowed the role of macroalgae. Maximum abundances of decapods and fish were found on wide, flat beaches with low wave heights. Large accumulations of macroalgae may inhibit the foraging efficiencies of

  10. Planview Geometry and morphological characteristics of pocket beaches on the Catalan coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D.; Guillén, J.; López, L.; Pellegrino, V.

    2009-07-01

    Coastal planform studies are a relevant initial stage before launching detailed dynamic field experiments. The aim of this study is to define the planform characteristics of 72 Catalan pocket beaches, natural and man-made, and to determine their sheltering effect, embaymentization and their status of equilibrium. Planform measurements were performed on SIGPAC, 1:5000 orthophoto sets and wave climate was provided by Puertos del Estado (Wana model). Planform parameters were applied and coastal planview indexes were determined. The study shows that the Catalan pocket beaches display a wide range of indentation, suggesting that no single structural, tectonic or morphological control dominates their planform. The man-made pocket beaches typically display indentations which are smaller than those shown by natural pocket beaches. Headland spacing and beach area are positively correlated. The more indented bays are, the shorter their beaches become. Low-indented pocket beaches are the widest and the longest ones. Deep indentation contributes towards beach protection and energy dissipation which counteracts rip efficiency and inhibits the formation of mega-rips. Pocket beaches often show gradual and moderate alongshore changes in texture and beach morphology. One third of the Catalan pocket beaches are "sediment starved", i.e., 60% and more of their embayed shorelines are deprived of beach sediments. Examination of the status of equilibrium demonstrates that most of the Catalan pocket beaches are in an unstable mode, with indentation ratios that are unrelated to the wave obliquity.

  11. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do

  12. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors

  13. Predicting 'very poor' beach water quality gradings using classification tree.

    PubMed

    Thoe, Wai; Choi, King Wah; Lee, Joseph Hun-wei

    2016-02-01

    A beach water quality prediction system has been developed in Hong Kong using multiple linear regression (MLR) models. However, linear models are found to be weak at capturing the infrequent 'very poor' water quality occasions when Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL. This study uses a classification tree to increase the accuracy in predicting the 'very poor' water quality events at three Hong Kong beaches affected either by non-point source or point source pollution. Binary-output classification trees (to predict whether E. coli concentration exceeds 610 counts/100 mL) are developed over the periods before and after the implementation of the Harbour Area Treatment Scheme, when systematic changes in water quality were observed. Results show that classification trees can capture more 'very poor' events in both periods when compared to the corresponding linear models, with an increase in correct positives by an average of 20%. Classification trees are also developed at two beaches to predict the four-category Beach Water Quality Indices. They perform worse than the binary tree and give excessive false alarms of 'very poor' events. Finally, a combined modelling approach using both MLR model and classification tree is proposed to enhance the beach water quality prediction system for Hong Kong. PMID:26837834

  14. History of monitoring beaches around Dounreay, and some future work.

    PubMed

    Toole, Joe

    2007-09-01

    Since the first finds of radioactive particles on beaches in north Caithness in the early 1980s, a programme of beach monitoring has been and continues to be undertaken by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, UKAEA. This programme has evolved over the years: gradually more intensive monitoring has been required by the site regulator, the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), while UKAEA have managed the deployment of increasingly more sophisticated radiation detection technology to meet or exceed regulatory expectations. This paper provides an overview of the beach monitoring programmes, and summarises how many particles have been detected, where they have been found, and how radioactive they are. The large number of in situ measurements typically recorded during surveys and the large areas of beach sands monitored are illustrated by reference to survey data acquired in the first half of 2005. Finally, the implications of the detection of a small particle at a large public beach some 23 km east of the Dounreay site are briefly discussed, as is the nature of some future work related to this environmental legacy. PMID:17768314

  15. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. PMID:22478201

  16. Effects of the Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, on shore processes and beach morphology: Chapter J in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Kirk W.

    1968-01-01

    Some 10,000 miles of shoreline in south-central Alaska was affected by the subsidence or uplift associated with the great Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964. The changes in shoreline processes and beach morphology that were suddenly initiated by the earthquake were similar to those ordinarily caused by gradual changes in sea level operating over hundreds of years, while other more readily visible changes were similar to some of the effects of great but short-lived storms. Phenomena became available for observation within a few hours which would otherwise not have been available for many years. In the subsided areas—including the shorelines of the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and Cook Inlet—beaches tended to flatten in gradient and to recede shoreward. Minor beach features were altered or destroyed on submergence but began to reappear and to stabilize in their normal shapes within a few months after the earthquake. Frontal beach ridges migrated shoreward and grew higher and wider than they were before. Along narrow beaches backed by bluffs, the relatively higher sea level led to vigorous erosion of the bluff toes. Stream mouths were drowned and some were altered by seismic sea waves, but they adjusted within a few months to the new conditions. In the uplifted areas, generally around Prince William Sound, virtually all beaches were stranded out of reach of the sea. New beaches are gradually developing to fit new sea levels, but the processes are slow, in part because the material on the lower parts of the old beaches is predominantly fine grained. Streams were lengthened in the emergent areas, and down cutting and bank erosion have increased. Except at Homer and a few small villages, where groins, bulkheads, and cobble-filled baskets were installed, there has been little attempt to protect the postearthquake shorelines. The few structures that were built have been only partially successful because there was too little time to study the habits of the new shore

  17. Ames Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

  18. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness. PMID:16046225

  19. Health effects associated with cyanobacteria exposure among beach attendees in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are associated with adverse human health effects, although among marine waters, the pyrrhophyta, including dinoflagellates are more recognized as health hazards. We recruited beach attendees during summer 2009, at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...

  20. Wave energy level and geographic setting correlate with Florida beach water quality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Haus, Brian K; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Kelly, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-15

    Many recreational beaches suffer from elevated levels of microorganisms, resulting in beach advisories and closures due to lack of compliance with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. We conducted the first statewide beach water quality assessment by analyzing decadal records of fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci and fecal coliform) levels at 262 Florida beaches. The objectives were to depict synoptic patterns of beach water quality exceedance along the entire Florida shoreline and to evaluate their relationships with wave condition and geographic location. Percent exceedances based on enterococci and fecal coliform were negatively correlated with both long-term mean wave energy and beach slope. Also, Gulf of Mexico beaches exceeded the thresholds significantly more than Atlantic Ocean ones, perhaps partially due to the lower wave energy. A possible linkage between wave energy level and water quality is beach sand, a pervasive nonpoint source that tends to harbor more bacteria in the low-wave-energy environment. PMID:26892203

  1. The EMPACT Beaches Project Results from a Study on Microbiological Monitoring in Recreational Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring for Public Access and Community Tracking) Beaches project has attempted to define which characteristics are most signifi cant with regard to monitoring approaches. This project examined five beach environments to determine the factors that mos...

  2. Recreational water exposures and health effects at a tropical and a runoff impacted beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Studies conducted by the EPA at beaches with nearby treated sewage discharges established associations between gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses among swimmers and measurements of fecal indicator bacteria, Enterococcus and Bacteroidales (marine beaches only) measured by...

  3. 77 FR 5185 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Scotts Hill, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... Figure Eight Beach Homeowners Association, who owns and operates the Figure Eight Swing Bridge across...

  4. Assessment of the aesthetic quality of a selection of beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Somerville, S E; Miller, K L; Mair, J M

    2003-09-01

    The aesthetic quality of fourteen beaches in the Firth of Forth, Scotland was surveyed between May and July 2002 using a protocol designed by the UK's National Aquatic Litter Group (NALG). Local authority beach cleaning regimes influence the amount of litter found on beaches. Frequent and thorough beach cleaning is necessary to maintain high aesthetic standards. Bathing and amenity beaches achieved higher aesthetic quality than non-bathing and non-amenity beaches. The aesthetic quality of rural and urban beaches was very similar. The NALG protocol appears more complicated to use than other beach litter surveys. However, the classification system generates results that are easily interpreted by the general public. Furthermore, the NALG protocol could be combined with coastal zone management plans as a useful environmental performance indicator. PMID:12932501

  5. A simple model to estimate the impact of sea-level rise on platform beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica Afonso

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of future beach evolution in response to sea-level rise are needed to assess coastal vulnerability. A research gap is identified in providing adequate predictive methods to use for platform beaches. This work describes a simple model to evaluate the effects of sea-level rise on platform beaches that relies on the conservation of beach sand volume and assumes an invariant beach profile shape. In closed systems, when compared with the Inundation Model, results show larger retreats; the differences are higher for beaches with wide berms and when the shore platform develops at shallow depths. The application of the proposed model to Cascais (Portugal) beaches, using 21st century sea-level rise scenarios, shows that there will be a significant reduction in beach width.

  6. 78 FR 18848 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ..., NC. This deviation is necessary to accommodate the 6th annual PPD Beach2Battleship iron and half iron... be closed to navigation to accommodate the 6th annual PPD Beach2Battleship iron and half...

  7. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. PMID:25460060

  8. A method for determining average beach slope and beach slope variability for U.S. sandy coastlines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, Kara S.; Long, Joseph W.; Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards compares measurements of beach morphology with storm-induced total water levels to produce forecasts of coastal change for storms impacting the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines of the United States. The wave-induced water level component (wave setup and swash) is estimated by using modeled offshore wave height and period and measured beach slope (from dune toe to shoreline) through the empirical parameterization of Stockdon and others (2006). Spatial and temporal variability in beach slope leads to corresponding variability in predicted wave setup and swash. For instance, seasonal and storm-induced changes in beach slope can lead to differences on the order of 1 meter (m) in wave-induced water level elevation, making accurate specification of this parameter and its associated uncertainty essential to skillful forecasts of coastal change. A method for calculating spatially and temporally averaged beach slopes is presented here along with a method for determining total uncertainty for each 200-m alongshore section of coastline.

  9. Radioactive minerals in the Yakataga beach placers, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Radioactivity of nine samples of beach placer deposits in the Yakataga area, southern Alaska, was studied in 1948. The samples were given to the Geological Survey by prospectors operating in the area operating in the area. The heavy-mineral fractions from the concentrates average 0.044 percent equivalent uranium. Three minerals, all members of the zircon group, contain the radioactive material in the sample; one mineral is uranium-bearing, the other two are thorium-bearing. Unless the concentration of radioactive minerals in the beach deposits is considerably higher than the present qualitative data indicate, the placers at Yakataga beach do not constitute a feasible source of supply of radioactive materials.

  10. External costs of coastal beach pollution: an hedonic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for inputing a monetary value to the loss in beach recreational services that would result from a hypothetical oil spill in the Georges Bank area combines an oil-spill risk analysis model with a hedonic pricing model of the market for tourist accommodations on Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard. The estimate of beach pollution costs associated with offshore oil development allows a rational judgment of whether the benefits of developing offshore oil outweigh the costs. The method is an effort to improve the economic efficiency of coastal zone management. The report concludes with a discussion of the many sources of uncertainty and suggestions for overcoming them. Five appendices present information on the models, variables, questionnaire responses, beaches, and factor patterns. 7 figures, 27 tables.

  11. Factors influencing the detection of beach plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Oppel, Steffen; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-08-01

    Marine plastic pollution is a global problem with considerable ecological and economic consequences. Quantifying the amount of plastic in the ocean has been facilitated by surveys of accumulated plastic on beaches, but existing monitoring programmes assume the proportion of plastic detected during beach surveys is constant across time and space. Here we use a multi-observer experiment to assess what proportion of small plastic fragments is missed routinely by observers, and what factors influence the detection probability of different types of plastic. Detection probability across the various types of plastic ranged from 60 to 100%, and varied considerably by observer, observer experience, and biological material present on the beach that could be confused with plastic. Blue fragments had the highest detection probability, while white fragments had the lowest. We recommend long-term monitoring programmes adopt survey designs accounting for imperfect detection or at least assess the proportion of fragments missed by observers. PMID:27363010

  12. Mapping beach morphodynamics remotely: A novel application tested on South African sandy shores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Schoeman, David

    2011-03-01

    Sandy beaches have been identified as threatened ecosystems but despite the need to conserve them, they have been generally overlooked. Systematic conservation planning (SCP) has emerged as an efficient method of selecting areas for conservation priority. However, SCP analyses require digital shapefiles of habitat and species diversity. Mapping these attributes for beaches from field data can take years and requires exhaustive resources. This study thus sought to derive a methodology to classify and map beach morphodynamic types from satellite imagery. Since beach morphodynamics is a strong predictor of macrofauna diversity, they could be considered a good surrogate for mapping beach biodiversity. A dataset was generated for 45 microtidal beaches (of known morphodynamic type) by measuring or coding for several physical characteristics from imagery acquired from Google Earth. Conditional inference trees revealed beach width to be the only factor that significantly predicted beach morphodynamic type, giving four categories: dissipative, dissipative-intermediate, intermediate and reflective. The derived model was tested by using it to predict the morphodynamic type of 28 other beaches of known classification. Model performance was good (75% prediction accuracy) but misclassifications occurred at the three breaks between the four categories. For beaches around these breaks, consideration of surf zone characteristics in addition to beach width ameliorated the misclassifications. The final methodology yielded a 93% prediction accuracy of beach morphodynamic type. Overlaying other considerations on this classification scheme could provide additional value to the layer, such that it also describes species' spatial patterns. These could include: biogeographic regions, estuarine versus sandy beaches and short versus long beaches. The classification scheme was applied to the South African shoreline as a case study. The distribution of the beach morphodynamic types was partly

  13. Personality and reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Eaves, L J; Martin, N G; Heath, A C; Hewitt, J K; Neale, M C

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between reproductive success (number of biological children) and personality was explored in 1101 postmenopausal females from the Australian twin registry. The quadratic response surface relating fitness to extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N) showed a saddle point at intermediate levels of E and N. Selection was shown to be stabilizing, i.e., having an intermediate optimum, along the axis low E, low N-high E, high N and more mildly disruptive, having greater fitness in the extremes, along the axis low N, high E-high N, low E. Neither dimension of personality considered by itself showed a significant linear or quadratic relationship to reproductive success. Sections through the fitness surface, however, show selection tends to favor high neuroticism levels in introverts and low neuroticism levels in extroverts. PMID:2288546

  14. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  15. Swash zone characteristics at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.

  16. Cluster analysis of radionuclide concentrations in beach sand.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, R J; James, I R; Jennings, P J; Koeyers, J E

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents a method in which natural radionuclide concentrations of beach sand minerals are traced along a stretch of coast by cluster analysis. This analysis yields two groups of mineral deposit with different origins. The method deviates from standard methods of following dispersal of radionuclides in the environment, which are usually based on the construction of lines of equal concentrations. The paper focuses on the methodology of quantitatively correlating activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in two groups of minerals. The methodology is widely applicable, but is demonstrated for natural radioactivity in beach sands along the coast of South West Australia. PMID:11214891

  17. Longshore currents over barred beach with mild slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Zhi-li

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory experiment and numerical simulations of wave-driven longshore currents by random waves on barred beaches with slopes of 1:100 and 1:40 were conducted to investigate the bimodal feature of mean longshore currents, with emphasis on the location and ratio of two peaks of longshore currents. The location and ratio of two peaks are controlled by the sand bar. The influences of wave heights and beach slopes on the longshore currents are discussed. Numerical simulations were also performed to compute the measured velocity profile, with the emphasis on the effect of lateral mixing, bottom friction and surface rollers on numerical results.

  18. 76 FR 16297 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA... of the Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Drawbridge across Cerritos Channel, mile 4.9, at Long Beach, CA... Channel, at Long Beach, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides a vertical clearance of 37 feet...

  19. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  20. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  1. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  2. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  3. 77 FR 27624 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Cerritos Channel, Long Beach, CA.... Heim Drawbridge across Cerritos Channel, mile 4.9, at Long Beach, CA. The deviation is necessary to... Drawbridge, mile 4.9, over Cerritos Channel, at Long Beach, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides...

  4. 33 CFR 334.990 - Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Long Beach Harbor, Calif.; naval... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.990 Long Beach.... Naval Base Los Angeles, Long Beach, California, and such agencies as he may designate....

  5. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...This action modifies the Palm Beach International Airport, FL, Class C airspace area by raising the floor of Class C airspace over Palm Beach County Park Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance safety and increase the efficiency of air traffic operations in the Palm Beach, FL, terminal...

  6. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  7. 77 FR 38005 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Kings Beach Independence Day Fireworks display from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. on July 3... from Tahoe Keys Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA at position 39 13'55'' N, 120...

  8. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  10. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  11. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  13. 78 FR 47191 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Albemarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Albemarle Sound to Sunset Beach, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AICW), Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Wrightsville Beach, NC. The deviation is necessary to facilitate electrical system and equipment upgrades...

  14. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  15. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  16. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  17. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  18. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  19. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  20. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  1. 76 FR 28025 - Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Edison Mission Holding Beach, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order... Mission Holding Beach, LLC (EMHB) filed a petition for declaratory order requesting that the Federal...), that it will acquire from, and then lease back to their current owner, AES Huntington Beach, LLC....

  2. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  3. 76 FR 29642 - Special Local Regulations; Miami Super Boat Grand Prix, Miami Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ..., Miami Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of ] Miami Beach, Florida... Beach. The special local regulations will establish the following two areas: A race area, where...

  4. 33 CFR 117.821 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. 117.821 Section 117.821 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 117.821 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albermarle Sound to Sunset Beach. (a) The drawbridges across... this paragraph: (1) Onslow Beach Swing Bridge, mile 240.7, at Cap Lejeune, NC, between 7 a.m. and 7...

  5. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  6. 78 FR 39599 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA AGENCY: Coast... safety zone for the Independence Day Fireworks, Kings Beach, CA in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco... Marina to the launch site off of Kings Beach, CA in approximate position 39 13'55'' N, 120 01'42'' W...

  7. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  8. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  9. 33 CFR 80.160 - Montauk Point, NY to Atlantic Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Beach, NY. 80.160 Section 80.160 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Atlantic Beach, NY. (a) A line drawn from the Shinnecock Inlet East Breakwater Light to Shinnecock... southernmost extremity of the spit of land at the western end of Oak Beach. (d) A line drawn from Jones...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  11. 36 CFR 3.17 - What regulations apply to swimming areas and beaches?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... swimming areas and beaches? 3.17 Section 3.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... and beaches? (a) The superintendent may designate areas as swimming areas or swimming beaches in... flotation devices, glass containers, kites, or incompatible activities in swimming areas or swimming...

  12. 76 FR 23187 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; New Jersey Intracoastal Waterway (NJICW), Beach Thorofare, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... (NJICW), Beach Thorofare, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... regulations governing the operation of the Route 30/Absecon Boulevard Bridge across Beach Thorofare, at NJICW...-lift span of the Route 30/Absecon Boulevard Bridge across Beach Thorofare along the NJICW, at...

  13. 77 FR 64411 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW), Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ...), Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulation.... 74 Bridge across the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC. The... Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW) mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC has a vertical clearance of 20 feet,...

  14. Field Guide to Beaches. Early Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, John H.

    The study of beaches and their capacity as an interface between land, air, and water is presented. Students investigate shore phenomena to better understand the beach's history and possible future. Also discussed is the interaction between man and the beach, from weather effects to pollution. Laboratory investigations of samples collected from the…

  15. 75 FR 52461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Wrightsville Beach, NC and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ..., Wrightsville Beach, NC and Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice..., mile 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach, NC, and the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear... 283.1, at Wrightsville Beach and the Isabel S. Holmes Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear...

  16. 76 FR 77119 - Special Local Regulations; Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Parade, Intracoastal Waterway, Pompano Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... Waterway in Pompano Beach, Florida during the Pompano Beach Holiday Boat Parade on Sunday, December 11... Santa Barbara, transit north on the Intracoastal Waterway, and end at the Hillsborough Bridge....

  17. 75 FR 67214 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Wrightsville Channel, Wrightsville Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Beach, NC in the Federal Register (75 FR 56024). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... Battleship Full and Half Iron Distance Triathlon,'' to be held on the waters adjacent to Wrightsville Beach... 13, 2010, the Wilmington YMCA will sponsor the ``Beach 2 Battleship Full and Half Iron...

  18. 76 FR 48879 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Alabama Beach Mouse General... endangered Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) in Baldwin County, Alabama. The GCP analyzes... availability of the proposed GCP and the dEIS. These documents analyze the take of the Alabama beach...

  19. 75 FR 52549 - Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General Conservation Plan; Fort Morgan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General... Beach Mouse General Conservation Plan (ABM GCP) Project. We are preparing the ABM GCP under the... are included in the plan: Alabama beach mouse (ABM) (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates), Loggerhead...

  20. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  1. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  2. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  3. Fitting the cervical cap.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, A K; Baker, N N; Haney, S L

    1988-07-01

    The cervical cap is now available for general use by American women. Several steps are necessary to select women who are good candidates for cap usage and to successfully fit the cap. Many women are not good candidates for the cap. The cap is generally not suitable for women who have recently become sexually active or who are first-time contraceptors. Many users are women who cannot use more widely available contraceptives. Successful cap use requires a highly motivated, persistent woman who will correctly insert and remove her cap. The size, shape, length, position and location of the cervix must be assessed by the clinician prior to fitting the cap. The cervix should be visually inspected for lesions or cervicitis and a Pap smear should be taken. After an initial cap is selected, the stability of the cap, gaps between the cap and cervix, areas of uncovered cervix and the adequacy of the suction seal should be assessed. The woman should be taught how to insert and remove the cap. Additionally, she should be instructed to use a backup method of contraception until she is sure that the cap will remain in place during sexual intercourse. Successful cap fitting requires a careful, methodical approach by the clinician and a carefully selected, highly motivated client. This article presents the steps of cervical cap fitting. PMID:3405494

  4. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  5. Measuring Your Fitness Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... you’re becoming more fit, such as increased energy, greater ability to perform daily tasks, or even an improved outlook on life. VISIT www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life l Read more about increasing your activity level. l Print useful tools. l Order a free exercise guide or DVD. l Share your exercise ...

  6. Making the Fitness Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Sheri J.; Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine

    2005-01-01

    Children's fitness levels are decreasing at an alarming rate. The Centers for Disease Control has determined that approximately 33% of children do not regularly engage in vigorous physical activity (CDC, 2002). As a result, childhood obesity has increased 100% since 1980 in the United States due to physical inactivity (CDC, 2004). A well-planned…

  7. Talking Sport and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  8. Finding What Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical association between two variables is one of the fundamental statistical ideas in school curricula. Reasoning about statistical association has been deemed one of the most important cognitive activities that humans perform. Students are typically introduced to statistical association through the study of the line of best fit because it…

  9. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  10. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  11. North beach (Nazaré) sand tracer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Taborda, Rui; Ribeiro, Mónica; Cascalho, João; Silva, Ana; Bosnic, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The littoral in the vicinity of Nazaré (West Portuguese coast) is characterized by two distinct coastal stretches separated by Nazaré headland: a northern sector (Norte beach) characterized by a high energetic continuous sandy beach and a southern sector (Nazaré bay beach) that corresponds to an embayed beach, sheltered by the Nazaré headland. The bay is a geomorphological expression of the Nazaré canyon head, which acts as powerful sediment sink, capturing the large longshore net southward transport at Norte beach generated by the north Atlantic high energetic swell. The northern side of the canyon head is carved on highly resistant Cretaceous limestone sustaining an underwater vertical relief that emerges on the Nazaré headland, creating a unusual nearshore wave pattern. This wave pattern not only concentrates high energy levels at the Norte beach but also contributes to local complex longshore drift gradients capable of inducing beach seasonal cross-shore variations of more than 200 m. The main factors that influence local sediment budget are: (1) canyon head capturing and (2) headland sediment bypassing. To obtain a direct measure of the net longshore drift at Norte beach (upstream boundary of the system) a large scale fluorescent tracer experiment was performed. The data will be used to validate longshore transport formulas in a high energetic environment and to access Nazaré canyon head sediment loss. Considering the anticipation of high transport rates, approximately 10 tonnes of native sand where coated with orange fluorescent ink using a set of concrete mixers. The experiment took place on the 9th to 15th September 2013 period and followed the continuous injection method (CIM). The CIM approach was justified by the expected high energy levels that inhibits sediment sampling across the surf zone. During the tracer injection procedure (approx. 5 hours), sediment sampling was performed at 13 sites along a rectilinear coastal stretch extended through

  12. A Comprehensive Study on Coastline Process and Sedimentary Dynamics, Sardinera Beach, Mona Island, P.R.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Delga, A. M.; Ramirez, W. R.

    2008-12-01

    Sardinera beach in Mona Island, Puerto Rico, has a great recreational and ecological value and is an important research place to gather information on shoreline processes in an area far from the main land and with only scarce man made influences. Beach rock exposures present along the shoreline in Sardinera Beach have increased considerably during the last decade. A new management plan is being developed for Mona Island and the Department of Natural Resources (DNRA) of Puerto Rico wants to better understand the beach sand dynamics on this and other Mona Island beaches. This research includes field and laboratory work that characterize coastal sedimentary processes and helps to better understand the shoreline changes as well as seasonal variations in sand movement and composition. This work also establish the logistics and methodology basis for further studies that will expand to other Mona Island beaches. Benchmarks, GPS coordinates, and landmarks were used to establish ten permanent beach profiles along Sardinera Beach. Beach profiles were (and will be) measured monthly. Sardinera Beach sands are composed mostly of carbonate (CaCO3) components, products of the combination of biological, chemical and diagenetic processes, high grade of micritization, and of lithic limestone fragments. Sand composition differences between Sardinera Beach, the Mona Shelf and adjacent beach, reef crest and reef lagoon systems suggest Sardinera sands are not replenished by the modern marine components produced in these environments. The input of "fresh bioclasts" in this beach seems to be limited by natural (beach rock) and mane made (dock) barriers along the shore and by alteration in the current patterns produced by the man made aperture of the reef. Sardinera's micritized and recrystalized sand deposits seem to have been re-transported between the reefal lagoon and the beach. Sand volume analysis indicates a total sand loss of 1,322 m3 between the months of September to April

  13. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. The General Conference Mennonites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    General Conference Mennonites and Old Order Amish are compared and contrasted in the areas of physical appearance, religious beliefs, formal education, methods of farming, and home settings. General Conference Mennonites and Amish differ in physical appearance and especially in dress. The General Conference Mennonite men and women dress the same…

  15. Parent Conferences. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Roslyn; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents six workshop sessions on parent conferences: (1) "Parents' Perspectives on Conferencing" (R. Duffy); (2) "Three Way Conferences" (G. Zeller); (3) "Conferencing with Parents of Infants" (K. Albrecht); (4) "Conferencing with Parents of School-Agers" (L. G. Miller); (5) "Cross Cultural Conferences" (J. Gonzalez-Mena); and (6) "Working with…

  16. Building Bridges to Literacy. The Twenty-Seventh Yearbook: A Peer Reviewed Publication of the College Reading Association. [Papers from the College Reading Association Conference, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Patricia E., Ed.; Sampson, Mary Beth, Ed.; Dugan, JoAnn R., Ed.; Brancato, Barrie, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The theme of the College Reading Association 2004 annual conference in Delray Beach, Florida, was "Building Bridges: Reaching beyond Our Borders." The articles in this yearbook show how reflection and thinking outside the box will make a difference in preservice teacher education. This Yearbook begins with Wayne Linek's presidential address. In…

  17. Palm Beach Community College Strategic Plan, 1999-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Seymour

    This report addresses strategies and action plans for Palm Beach Community College (PBCC) (Florida) between 1999-2004. As part of a commitment to achieve specific, measurable end results, the college has set various objectives, including: (1) develop, implement and institutionalize a mission driven strategic budget for the 1999-2000 fiscal year;…

  18. 20. 8" PIPELINE ON BEACH AND ALONG PALI, VIEW WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 8" PIPELINE ON BEACH AND ALONG PALI, VIEW WEST TOWARD KALAWAO. NOTE GATE VALVE (LARGER) AND BLOW-OFF VALVE (SMALLER). PIPELINE GENERALLY AT 20' ABOVE SEA LEVEL. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  19. Highly Valued Degrees at California State University, Long Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) received the national award from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) for Excellence and Innovation in Student Success and Completion, recognizing record high graduation rates with a diverse student population, significantly above comparable institutions.…

  20. Golden opportunities: A horizon scan to expand sandy beach ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Weston, Michael A.; Schoeman, David S.; Olds, Andrew D.; Huijbers, Chantal M.; Connolly, Rod M.

    2015-05-01

    Robust ecological paradigms and theories should, ideally, hold across several ecosystems. Yet, limited testing of generalities has occurred in some habitats despite these habitats offering unique features to make them good model systems for experiments. We contend this is the case for the ocean-exposed sandy beaches. Beaches have several distinctive traits, including extreme malleability of habitats, strong environmental control of biota, intense cross-boundary exchanges, and food webs highly reliant on imported subsidies. Here we sketch broad topical themes and theoretical concepts of general ecology that are particularly well-suited for ecological studies on sandy shores. These span a broad range: the historical legacies and species traits that determine community assemblages; food-web architectures; novel ecosystems; landscape and spatial ecology and animal movements; invasive species dynamics; ecology of disturbances; ecological thresholds and ecosystem resilience; and habitat restoration and recovery. Collectively, these concepts have the potential to shape the outlook for beach ecology and they should also encourage marine ecologists to embrace, via cross-disciplinary ecological research, exposed sandy beach systems that link the oceans with the land.

  1. Wireless Time Tracking Improves Productivity at CSU Long Beach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charmack, Scott; Walsh, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Describes California State University Long Beach's implementation of new maintenance management software, which integrated maintenance, inventory control, and key control and allows technicians to enter and receive information through handheld wireless devices for more accurate time accounting. The school estimates a 10 percent increase in…

  2. 75 FR 82382 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... formula introduced with the fiscal year 2010 grants (see 75 FR 1373, January 11, 2010). How does EPA... announcing the availability of the fiscal year 2010 grants (75 FR 1373, January 11, 2010). How will the... FR 15446, 15449 (March 31, 2003)). For the 2011 beach season, the deadline for states to...

  3. The Palm Beach County Family Study Second Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Lyons, Sandra; Gouvea, Marcia; Haywood, Thomas; Winje, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    The Children's Services Council (CSC) of Palm Beach County commissioned Chapin Hall Center for Children to conduct a longitudinal study to examine the effects of this service system on children and families. The goal of the longitudinal study is to describe the characteristics and needs of families the service system is intended to serve, how they…

  4. Seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).

  5. 2. COTTAGES, NORTH SIDE OF OCEAN PATHWAY EAST OF BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COTTAGES, NORTH SIDE OF OCEAN PATHWAY EAST OF BEACH AVENUE, (NOS. 17, 15, 13, 11, 7 AND 5), GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH - Town of Ocean Grove, East terminus of State Route 33, south of Asbury Park, Ocean Grove, Monmouth County, NJ

  6. Empirical Modeling of Microbial Indicators at a South Carolina Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concerns about water quality at beaches have prompted the development of multiple linear regression and other models that can be used to "nowcast" levels of bacterial indicators. Hydrometeorological and biogeochemical data from summer, 2009 were used to develop empirical m...

  7. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    PubMed Central

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  8. Beach-spawning fishes, terrestrial eggs, and air breathing.

    PubMed

    Martin, K L M; Van Winkle, R C; Drais, J E; Lakisic, H

    2004-01-01

    Many fishes have independently evolved beach spawning with oviposition at the water's edge. These include intertidal, subtidal, and estuarine, as well as a few freshwater, species. Their spectacular reproductive behavior at the boundary of water and land has focused attention on adults, but they emerge either briefly or not at all. The need for air breathing is more apparent in the eggs, and the reasons for emergence are more applicable to eggs than to the adults of most beach-spawning fishes. There is little evidence of air breathing in the adults, unless they are regularly emerged at other times as well. Conversely, eggs metabolize in air and show substantial emergence tolerance. We consider beach spawning a form of parental care in fishes. The adults place eggs so they will be emerged into air during part or all of incubation, providing increased temperatures, oxygen availability, and protection. Beach spawning provides habitat segregation at different points in the life history, with air emergence early in the life cycle and a return to water at hatching. The parents take great risks to spawn at the water's edge to give their offspring the most advantageous beginning in life. PMID:15547793

  9. Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

    PubMed

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-12-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  10. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury.

    PubMed

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players' experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27-42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual's inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players' self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community. PMID:26331135

  11. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury

    PubMed Central

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players’ experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27–42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual’s inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players’ self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community. PMID:26331135

  12. The effects of large beach debris on nesting sea turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to understand the effects of large beach debris on sea turtle nesting behavior as well as the effectiveness of large debris removal for habitat restoration. Large natural and anthropogenic debris were removed from one of three sections of a sea turtle nesting beach and distributions of nests and false crawls (non-nesting crawls) in pre- (2011–2012) and post- (2013–2014) removal years in the three sections were compared. The number of nests increased 200% and the number of false crawls increased 55% in the experimental section, whereas a corresponding increase in number of nests and false crawls was not observed in the other two sections where debris removal was not conducted. The proportion of nest and false crawl abundance in all three beach sections was significantly different between pre- and post-removal years. The nesting success, the percent of successful nests in total nesting attempts (number of nests + false crawls), also increased from 24% to 38%; however the magnitude of the increase was comparably small because both the number of nests and false crawls increased, and thus the proportion of the nesting success in the experimental beach in pre- and post-removal years was not significantly different. The substantial increase in sea turtle nesting activities after the removal of large debris indicates that large debris may have an adverse impact on sea turtle nesting behavior. Removal of large debris could be an effective restoration strategy to improve sea turtle nesting.

  13. Health effects of beach water pollution in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, W. H.; Chang, K. C.; Hung, R. P.; Kleevens, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies of beach water pollution were conducted in Hong Kong in the summers of 1986 and 1987. For the main study in 1987, a total of 18741 usable responses were obtained from beachgoers on nine beaches at weekends. The study indicated the overall perceived symptom rates for gastrointestinal, ear, eye, skin, respiratory, fever and total illness were significantly higher for swimmers than non-swimmers; and the swimming-associated symptom rates for gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory and total illness were higher at 'barely acceptable' beaches than at 'relatively unpolluted' ones. Escherichia coli was found to be the best indicator of the health effects associated with swimming in the beaches of Hong Kong. It showed the highest correlation with combined swimming-associated gastroenteritis and skin symptom rates when compared with other microbial indicators. A linear relationship between E. coli and the combined symptom rates was established. Staphylococci were correlated with ear, respiratory and total illness, but could not be used for predicting swimming-associated health risks. They should be used to complement E. coli. The setting of health-related bathing-water quality standards based on such a study is discussed. PMID:2384140

  14. 25. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (from Division of Beaches and Parks, State of California, Department of Natural REsources) Photographer unknown, Date unknown SUTTER'S MAP OF FORT WITH SUPERIMPOSED OUTLINE OF FORT - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. Excerpts from Daytona Beach Community College Institutional Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daytona Beach Community Coll., FL. Mid-Florida Research and Business Center.

    A study was conducted by Daytona Beach Community College's (DBCC's) Mid-Florida Research and Business Center to determine the market for the educational services which fall within the mission of DBCC, to identify target populations within that market, to explore educational needs and perceived desires, and to examine community opinions of DBCC and…

  16. Plastics Distribution and Degradation on Lake Huron Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbyszewski, M.; Corcoran, P.

    2009-05-01

    The resistivity of plastic debris to chemical and mechanical weathering processes poses a serious threat to the environment. Numerous marine beaches are littered with plastic fragments that entangle and become ingested by organisms including birds, turtles and plankton. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the amount and effects of plastics pollution on marine organisms, relatively little is known about the distribution and quantity of polymer types along lacustrine beaches. Plastic particles sampled from selected beaches on Lake Huron were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine polymer composition. The majority of the plastic fragments are industrial pellets composed of polypropylene and polyethylene. Varying degrees of oxidation are indicated by multiple irregular peaks in the lower wavenumber region on the FTIR spectra. The oxidized pellets also represent the plastic particles with the most pronounced surface textures, as identified using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Crazes and flakey, fibrous, or granular textures are consistent with chemical weathering processes, whereas gauges and pits occur through abrasion during mechanical weathering. Further textural and compositional analysis will indicate which polymer types are more resistant to weathering processes. Additional investigation of the distribution of plastic debris along the beaches of Lake Huron will indicate the amount and primary transport directions of resistant plastic debris polluting one of Ontario's Great Lakes.

  17. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacate, M. O.; Evenson, W. E.; Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S.

    2010-04-01

    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  18. A Comparison of Four Different Beach Profiling Techniques at St Leonards, Victoria - An Example of a Collaborative Stakeholder Research Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L.; Miner, A. S.; Wynn, N.; Turner, D.

    2015-12-01

    Many beaches in Australia are under attack from shoreline erosion due rising sea levels and the action of waves. St Leonard's beach, a tourist town on the Victorian coastline, is of concern from this destructive erosion and the threat to the economic stability of the town. The major cause of erosion in this area is related to waves created from strong to gale force north to north-easterly winds. This in turn produces a northerly longshore current along with sediment suspension leading to a negative sediment budget. Ongoing and systematic monitoring of the shoreline movement is important to ensure the coast is understood and effectively managed now and into the future. Coastal land managers and agencies are required to find 'cost-effective' and 'fit-for-purpose' coastal monitoring methodologies which are affordable and efficient. This project forges a collaboration of stakeholders from academia, public sector land manager, local government and the private sector to compare four different methods of obtaining beach profiles. The four methods of obtaining beach profiles used for comparison are: 1. traditional survey method along transects using a total station theodolite, 2. traditional survey method along transects using a builder's grade laser level, 3. a small multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to produce a full 3D digital surface model of the study area, and 4. an experimental stationary device to produce a limited 3D model along a designated transect using terrestrial photogrammetric approach via a small GPS enabled camera. Assessment is made by comparing the method's precision, spatial coverage, expertise and equipment requirements/costs, preparation time, field acquisition time, number of people required in the field, post-acquisition processing time, and applicability for community use. Whilst is must be very clearly stated that all methods proved to be successful, the preliminary results of the "workflow and resourcing" assessment ranked the methods in

  19. Seasonal Variation of Surface Sediments in the Gochang Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Sol Ip

    2014-05-01

    The Gochang Beach, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, was studied in terms of four season variations of surface sediment and sedimentary environment. The Gochang Beach consists of the Dongho, Kwangseungri, Myeongsasipri beaches from north to south. During the four seasons of spring (May), summer (August), and fall (November), and winter (February), surface sediments of 135 sites were sampled across nine survey lines (15 sites in each survey line), respectively. The pocket-type Dongho Beach is mainly composed of fine to coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. The average of grain size is the coarsest in the summer. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel band of fine and medium sands during three seasons of spring, fall, and winter, whereas medium sands dominated in the northern part of the study area during the summer. These results suggest that a tide is more effective than a wave in the surface sediments of the Dongho Beach during the summer. The surface sediments of the Kwangseungri Beach are mainly composed of fine-grained sands, and the mean grain size is the coarsest in winter. Mud facies partly exists in summer, whereas it is nearly absent in winter. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel band of fine and medium sands during spring, fall, and winter. In the northern part, the study area is dominated by fine sands during summer, whereas by coarse sands during winter. These results are interpreted that tide is more effective than wave on the surface sediment distribution of the Kwangseungri Beach during summer season. The open-coast Myeongsasipri Beach is mainly composed of fine to medium sand, the distribution of which shows a coast-parallel trend. Grain-size distribution shows a bi-modal trend in the summer and winter and a uni-mode in the spring and fall. Grain size of the winter is the coarsest among those of four seasons. During the winter, the upper tidal flat was

  20. Third NASA Advanced Composites Technology Conference, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John G., Jr. (Compiler); Bohon, Herman L. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Third NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Conference held at Long Beach, California, 8-11 June 1992. The ACT Program is a major multi-year research initiative to achieve a national goal of technology readiness before the end of the decade. Conference papers recorded results of research in the ACT Program in the specific areas of automated fiber placement, resin transfer molding, textile preforms, and stitching as these processes influence design, performance, and cost of composites in aircraft structures. Papers sponsored by the Department of Defense on the Design and Manufacturing of Low Cost Composites (DMLCC) are also included in Volume 2 of this document.

  1. Morphological developments after a beach and shoreface nourishment at Vlugtenburg beach, the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schipper, M. A.; de Vries, S.; Ranasinghe, R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Stive, M. J. F.

    2012-04-01

    For the last decades Dutch coastal policy requires sand nourishments to mitigate the effects of coastal erosion. Over time, the nourishment strategy has evolved from direct protection approach to a feeder approach; instead of placing the sand on the beach or dune where it directly benefits safety, sand is placed on the shoreface or alongshore concentrated. Subsequently natural processes redistribute the sand over the profile and alongshore. With the shift in nourishment approach, a study was started to investigate in detail how nourished sand is redistributed in space and time. Here we present results from a high resolution bathymetric survey campaign conducted at Vlugtenburg beach at the south west coast of the Netherlands. At this site a beach and shoreface nourishment of 5.4 million m3 was installed in spring 2009, moving the shoreline approximately 250 m forward. Since the completion of the project, a total of 22 profiles were measured monthly extending from the dunefoot to 9 m below mean sea level. These surveys are executed using walking GPS surveys for the subaerial part and jetski surveys for the subaqueous part. Observations show that the morphodynamic evolution can be characterized by two stages; first a period of rapid changes followed by a period of more stable topography. In the first period, 12 to 15 months after construction, a large cross shore (offshore) movement of the nourished sand is found. The cross shore movement results from a rapid adaptation of the construction profile (characterized by a steep foreshore slope from -2 to -4 m) to a more natural profile with a large subtidal bar. A sediment budget analysis over all 28 surveys up to present shows a gradual loss of volume. As topographic changes below the -8 m and above +3 m are small, it is most likely that the majority of the sediment deficit can be contributed to alongshore losses. Furthermore, the domain itself is subdivided in various coastal sections, revealing that the cross shore

  2. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  3. Chandra FITS Dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelman, S. L.; Rots, A. H.; Michaud, K.; Blecksmith, S. E.

    2004-07-01

    Well-defined data and metadata specifications are fundamental for the operation of large observing facilities. We have collected the complete body of FITS keywords, as used in Chandra data products, into a dictionary database that provides easy access to their use and meaning. We present an account of the functionality of the dictionary, as well as a description of the database design and details of the tools which display the dictionary.

  4. Fitting the phenomenological MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    AbdusSalam, Shehu S.; Allanach, Benjamin C.; Quevedo, Fernando; Feroz, Farhan; Hobson, Mike

    2010-05-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using 'nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the {mu} parameter, the amount of fine-tuning, dark matter properties, and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior-independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  5. One dimensional modeling of anthropogenic beach berm erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic beach berms (sometimes called artificial berms or artificial dunes) are in use internationally to guard against beach overtopping and consequent coastal flooding. Berms can be constructed on a seasonal basis or in anticipation of a hazardous event, e.g., when a storm is expected to arrive coincident with an astronomical high tide. In either case, a common approach is to scrape sand from the foreshore with heavy equipment and deposit it on the crest of the natural beach dune, thus providing added protection from the possibility of wave overtopping. Given the potential for higher sea levels globally and more extreme storm events, anthropogenic berms will surely be tested to their limits and will ultimately fail, causing flooding. A better understanding of the conditions under which these berms fail is therefore needed to support coastal flood risk management. An experimental campaign in Newport Beach, California was conducted to document the dynamic erosion of prototype beach berms under a rising tide and mild to moderate wave conditions. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) of the berm produced a digital model of how the berm shape evolved over time. Here, a numerical model of swash zone hydromorphodynamics based on shallow-water flow physics is presented to evaluate whether and to what extent the timing and degree of berm erosion and overtopping can be predicted from first principles. The model tightly couples flow and sediment transport within an approximate Riemann solver, and thus is of the Godunov-type variety of finite volume schemes. Additionally, the model includes an avalanching scheme to account for non-hydrodynamic slumping down the angle of repose. Results indicate that it is possible to calibrate the model for a particular event, and then successfully predict erosion for another event, but due to parameter sensitivities, it is unlikely that the model can be applied at a site without calibration (true prediction).

  6. Two-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Anthropogenic Beach Berm Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic beach berms (sometimes called artificial berms or artificial dunes) temporarily enhance the ability of beaches to withstand overtopping and thus guard against coastal flooding. However, the combination of a rising tide, storm surge, and/or waves may erode anthropogenic berms in a matter of hours or less and cause flooding [1]. Accurate forecasts of coastal flooding therefore demand the ability to predict where and when berms fail and the volume of water that overtops into defended coastal lowlands. Here, a two-dimensional numerical model of swash zone waves and erosion is examined as a tool for predicting the erosion of anthropogenic beach berms. The 2D model is known as a Debris Flow Model (DFM) because it tightly couples flow and sediment transport within an approximate Riemann solver and is able to resolve shocks in fluid/sediment interface [2]. The DFM also includes a two dimensional avalanching scheme to account for gravity-driven slumping of steep slopes. The performance of the DFM is examined with field-scale anthropogenic berm erosion data collected at Newport Beach, California. Results show that the DFM can be applied in the swash zone to resolve wave-by-wave flow and sediment transport. Results also show that it is possible to calibrate the model for a particular event, and then predict erosion for another event, but predictions are sensitive to model parameters, such as erosion and avalanching. References: [1] Jochen E. Schubert, Timu W. Gallien, Morteza Shakeri Majd, and Brett F. Sanders. Terrestrial laser scanning of anthropogenic beach berm erosion and overtopping. Journal of Coastal Research In-Press, 2014. [2] Morteza Shakeri Majd and Brett F. Sanders. The LHLLC scheme for Two-Layer and Two-Phase transcritical flows over a mobile bed with avalanching, wetting and drying. Advances in Water Resources, 64, 16-31, 2014.

  7. Beach Profile Behaviour in Tidal Environments: A Morphological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabeu, A. M.; Medina, R.; Vidal, C.

    2004-05-01

    Tourism is an important economical activity in Spain that represents 10% of its GDP and provides a million jobs. Spain is the world's second more visited country, receiving 7% of world tourists. Eighty per cent of these visitors choose their destination somewhere along the 2500 km of beaches. Consequently, many efforts are currently addressed to their maintenance and conservation. However, the coastal management policies must be sustained by the deep knowledge of the beach behaviour and the physical processes implied. A morphological model, with certain predictive capacities, to describe the beach profile behaviour is proposed, integrating the wave and tide influence. It is based on the concept of the two-section (surf and shoaling) equilibrium beach profile, and has been validated with field and laboratory data. The model is described by means of two parameters: the modal tidal range and the dimensionless fall velocity (Ω ). Tide is considered a local variable whose principal effect is the lengthening of the intertidal or surf profile. The greater the tidal range, the wider the intertidal profile. The dimensionless fall velocity defines the transition from dissipative to reflective situations in beaches of any given tidal range. The morphological changes predicted by the proposed model in the surf and shoaling sections occur in the opposite direction. Whilst in the surf profile the slope close to the high tidal level becomes steeper and the concavity of whole section increases; in the shoaling profile, the upper part flattens resulting in a less concave section related to the decrease of Ω . In this transition, the slope break between surf and shoaling profiles becomes smoother and difficult to identify. This work was funded by projects REN2003-02822 MAR, REN2003-03233 MAR, VEM2003-20093-C03-03 of the Spanish MCYT and PGDIT03RMA30101PR of the Galician Government (XUGA). Contribution No 304 of XM2 group.

  8. Beach Soccer Injuries During the Japanese National Championships

    PubMed Central

    Shimakawa, Tomoyuki; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Kawasoe, Yoko; Yoshimura, Kouji; Chinen, Yuma; Eimon, Kazuya; Chibana, Wataru; Shirota, Shinichi; Kadekawa, Kei; Bahr, Roald; Uezato, Tomomi; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The frequency and severity of injury in beach soccer are unknown. Purpose: To estimate the incidence rates, characteristics, and risk factors for injuries associated with beach soccer. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The same sports physician examined and recorded injuries incurred during the Japanese National Beach Soccer Championships in 2013 and 2014. Posttournament follow-up was made for all injuries. Match exposure for each player was recorded through video review to examine individual risk factors. Results: A total of 58 injuries were recorded during 54 matches. The overall injury rate was 179.0 (95% CI, 138.4-231.6), and the time-loss injury rate was 28.2 (95% CI, 14.7-54.1) per 1000 player-hours. The foot/toe (34.9%) was the most frequently injured area, followed by the lower leg (22.2%) and thigh (11.1%). There was only 1 ankle injury (1.6%). The most frequent injury type was contusions (60.3%), followed by lacerations/abrasions (14.3%) and sprains/ligament injuries (6.3%). Only 4 injuries resulted in ≥30 days of time-loss (7.4%). After adjusting for age, a previous history of severe injury and longer experience of beach soccer were significantly associated with injury risk. Conclusion: The time-loss injury rate in this study was comparable to the rates reported during the matches of soccer or futsal tournaments. However, a greater incidence of foot/toe injury and lacerations/abrasions as well as a lower incidence of ankle injury distinguished beach soccer from soccer and futsal, possibly related to the specific playing conditions of being barefoot on a sand surface. PMID:26862537

  9. Field evidence of beach profile evolution toward equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Yates, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    An equilibrium framework is used to describe the evolution of the cross-shore profile of five beaches (medium grain size sand) in southern California. Elevations were observed quarterly on cross-shore transects extending from the back beach to 8 m depth, for 3-10 years. Transects spaced 100 m in the alongshore direction are alongshore averaged into nineteen 700-900 m long sections. Consistent with previous observations, changes about the time average profile in many sections are captured by the first mode empirical orthogonal function (EOF). The first EOF poorly describes sections with hard substrate (less than roughly 80% sandy bottom) and also fails near the head of a submarine canyon and adjacent to an inlet. At the 12 well-described sections, the time-varying amplitude of the first EOF, the beach state A, describes the well-known seasonal sand exchange between the shoreline and offshore (roughly between 4 and 7 m depth). We show that the beach state change rate dA/dt depends on the disequilibrium between the present state A and wave conditions, consistent with the equilibrium concepts of Wright and Short (1984) and Wright et al. (1985). Empirically determined, optimal model coefficients using the framework of Yates et al. (2009a, 2011) vary between sections, but a single set of globally optimized values performs almost as well. The model implements equilibrium concepts using ad hoc assumptions and empirical parameter values. The similarity with observed profile change at five southern California beaches supports the underlying model equilibrium hypotheses, but for unknown reasons the model fails at Duck, NC.

  10. Disentangling Diversity Patterns in Sandy Beaches along Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Francisco R.; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  11. Modeling system for predicting enterococci levels at Holly Beach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zaihong; Deng, Zhiqiang; Rusch, Kelly A; Walker, Nan D

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new modeling system for nowcasting and forecasting enterococci levels in coastal recreation waters at any time during the day. The modeling system consists of (1) an artificial neural network (ANN) model for predicting the enterococci level at sunrise time, (2) a clear-sky solar radiation and turbidity correction to the ANN model, (3) remote sensing algorithms for turbidity, and (4) nowcasting/forecasting data. The first three components are also unique features of the new modeling system. While the component (1) is useful to beach monitoring programs requiring enterococci levels in early morning, the component (2) in combination with the component (1) makes it possible to predict the bacterial level in beach waters at any time during the day if the data from the components (3) and (4) are available. Therefore, predictions from the component (2) are of primary interest to beachgoers. The modeling system was developed using three years of swimming season data and validated using additional four years of independent data. Testing results showed that (1) the sunrise-time model correctly reproduced 82.63% of the advisories issued in seven years with a false positive rate of 2.65% and a false negative rate of 14.72%, and (2) the new modeling system was capable of predicting the temporal variability in enterococci levels in beach waters, ranging from hourly changes to daily cycles. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the new modeling system in predicting enterococci levels in coastal beach waters. Applications of the modeling system will improve the management of recreational beaches and protection of public health. PMID:26186681

  12. Disentangling diversity patterns in sandy beaches along environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Francisco R; Gómez, Julio; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Species richness in sandy beaches is strongly affected by concurrent variations in morphodynamics and salinity. However, as in other ecosystems, different groups of species may exhibit contrasting patterns in response to these environmental variables, which would be obscured if only aggregate richness is considered. Deconstructing biodiversity, i.e. considering richness patterns separately for different groups of species according to their taxonomic affiliation, dispersal mode or mobility, could provide a more complete understanding about factors that drive species richness patterns. This study analyzed macroscale variations in species richness at 16 Uruguayan sandy beaches with different morphodynamics, distributed along the estuarine gradient generated by the Rio de la Plata over a 2 year period. Species richness estimates were deconstructed to discriminate among taxonomic groups, supralittoral and intertidal forms, and groups with different feeding habits and development modes. Species richness was lowest at intermediate salinities, increasing towards oceanic and inner estuarine conditions, mainly following the patterns shown for intertidal forms. Moreover, there was a differential tolerance to salinity changes according to the habitat occupied and development mode, which determines the degree of sensitivity of faunal groups to osmotic stress. Generalized (additive and linear) mixed models showed a clear increase of species richness towards dissipative beaches. All taxonomic categories exhibited the same trend, even though responses to grain size and beach slope were less marked for crustaceans and insects than for molluscs or polychaetes. However, supralittoral crustaceans exhibited the opposite trend. Feeding groups decreased from dissipative to reflective systems, deposit feeders being virtually absent in the latter. This deconstructive approach highlights the relevance of life history strategies in structuring communities, highlighting the relative

  13. Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

    This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

  14. Proposal for an integral quality index for urban and urbanized beaches.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Eduard; Jimenez, Jose A; Sarda, Rafael; Villares, Miriam; Pinto, Josep; Fraguell, Rosa; Roca, Elisabet; Marti, Carolina; Valdemoro, Herminia; Ballester, Ramon; Fluvia, Modest

    2010-05-01

    A composite index, based on function analysis and including thirteen sub-indices, was developed to assess the overall quality of urban and urbanized beaches in the Mediterranean area. The aggregation of components and sub-indices was based on two questionnaires completed by beach users and experts. Applying the new Beach Quality Index (BQI) demonstrated that the quality of beaches could be improved. In general, the strongest aspects of the beaches assessed were those related to short-term user demand, and the weakest were those related to the consequences of human pressure on the area, in particular, erosion problems. The composite index is intended to be used together with Environmental Management Beach Systems (EMBs) as a hierarchical management scorecard and in monitoring programs. This new tool could also make planning more proactive by synthesizing the state of the most important beach processes. PMID:20383636

  15. Proposal for an Integral Quality Index for Urban and Urbanized Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariza, Eduard; Jimenez, Jose A.; Sarda, Rafael; Villares, Miriam; Pinto, Josep; Fraguell, Rosa; Roca, Elisabet; Marti, Carolina; Valdemoro, Herminia; Ballester, Ramon; Fluvia, Modest

    2010-05-01

    A composite index, based on function analysis and including thirteen sub-indices, was developed to assess the overall quality of urban and urbanized beaches in the Mediterranean area. The aggregation of components and sub-indices was based on two questionnaires completed by beach users and experts. Applying the new Beach Quality Index (BQI) demonstrated that the quality of beaches could be improved. In general, the strongest aspects of the beaches assessed were those related to short-term user demand, and the weakest were those related to the consequences of human pressure on the area, in particular, erosion problems. The composite index is intended to be used together with Environmental Management Beach Systems (EMBs) as a hierarchical management scorecard and in monitoring programs. This new tool could also make planning more proactive by synthesizing the state of the most important beach processes.

  16. Impact of erosion and accretion on the distribution of enterococci in beach sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gast, Rebecca J.; Gorrell, Levi; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Bacterial pathogens in coastal sediments may pose a health risk to users of beaches. Although recent work shows that beach sands harbor both indicator bacteria and potential pathogens, it is neither known how deep within beach sands the organisms may persist nor if they may be exposed during natural physical processes. In this study, sand cores of approximately 100 cm depth were collected at three sites across the beach face in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, before, during, and after large waves from an offshore hurricane. The presence of DNA from the fecal indicator bacterium Enterococci was detected in subsamples at different depths within the cores by PCR amplification. Erosion and accretion of beach sand at the three sites were also determined for each sampling day. The results indicate that ocean beach sands with persisting enterococci signals could be exposed and redistributed when wind, waves, and currents cause beach erosion or accretion.

  17. Responses of ghost crabs to habitat modification of urban sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Stelling-Wood, Talia P; Clark, Graeme F; Poore, Alistair G B

    2016-05-01

    Sandy beaches in highly urbanised areas are subject to a wide range of human impacts. Ghost crabs are a commonly used ecological indicator on sandy beaches, as they are key consumers in these systems and counting burrow openings allows for rapid assessment of population size. This study assessed the pressures of urbanisation on sandy beaches in the highly urbanised estuary of Sydney Harbour. Across 38 beaches, we examined which physical beach properties, management practices and human induced habitat modification best predicted ghost crab distributions. Of all variables measured, the frequency of mechanical beach cleaning was the most important predictor of crab abundance, with low burrow densities at the highest cleaning frequency and the highest densities at beaches cleaned at the intermediate frequency (≤3 times per week). These results indicate that ghost crab populations in Sydney Harbour are more robust to the impacts of urbanisation than previously thought. PMID:26970686

  18. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved. PMID:22704152

  19. Pro-Environmental Beach Driving is Uncommon and Ineffective in Reducing Disturbance to Beach-Dwelling Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Michael A.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lynn, David

    2014-05-01

    Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended ( P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches.

  20. Pro-environmental beach driving is uncommon and ineffective in reducing disturbance to beach-dwelling birds.

    PubMed

    Weston, Michael A; Schlacher, Thomas A; Lynn, David

    2014-05-01

    Vehicles on beaches cause numerous deleterious effects to coastal wildlife. These impacts may, hypothetically, be lessened if drivers act to reduce disturbance. Since it is unknown to what extent such behavior occurs, and whether it can reduce disturbance, we quantified the behavior of drivers who encountered birds on open-coast, sandy beaches in eastern Australia and the consequent bird responses. Drivers of commercial tourist buses never slowed or altered course ("evaded birds") to avoid disturbing birds; conversely, 34 % of drivers of private cars did evade birds. Drivers of vehicles with fishing rod holders tended (P = 0.09) to evade birds more frequently than non-fishing vehicles. Evasion, when it occurred, was modest, and did not significantly decrease the intensity of bird response or the probability of escapes on the wing. Voluntary behavioral adjustments to alleviate impacts on wildlife may be unworkable, suggesting that other solutions (e.g., beach closures) might be the only effective and feasible way to reduce disturbance to birds on ocean beaches. PMID:24599507

  1. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  2. Stability of a very coarse-grained beach at Carmel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Monastery Beach at Carmel, California, is a pocket beach composed of very coarse to granular sediment. In profile, the beach has a well-defined berm crest; a steep foreshore; and a gently sloping, barless offshore covered by large, long-crested oscillation ripples. Carmel Submarine Canyon heads a few hundred meters offshore of the beach, and San Jose Creek, a small ephemeral steam, ponds onshore of the central part of the berm. Wave conditions vary greatly during a year because the beach lies open to the Pacific Ocean for azimuths between 270??-322??N whence come a variety of wave types. Even with a variable wave climate, Monastery Beach has maintained a swell profile for almost three years. Aperiodic beach surveys show that the beach responds little to seasonal changes in wave climate. Four survey lines maintained the same swell profile throughout the study period. The fifth line maintained a stable profile only across the foreshore; the berm was twice artificially breached during storms to prevent upstream flooding along San Jose Creek. In comparison, Carmel Beach, a nearby beach composed of medium sand, commonly alternates between swell and storm profiles. The increased stability of Monastery Beach relative to Carmel Beach is attributed to two factors: grain size differences and location within Carmel Bay. Rebuilding proceeded very slowly along the breached part of the berm at Monastery Beach. The probable cause of such a low recovery rate is that oscillation ripples trapped the sand that was carried offshore when San Jose Creek eroded the beach. The ripples, which are active under high-energy conditions, approach dormancy under low-energy conditions. Each ripple, therefore, acts like a reservoir, retaining sand during most swell conditions. ?? 1981.

  3. Physical Fitness & Sports Medicine. Specialized Bibliography Series No. 1988-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrias, Karen, Comp.; And Others

    The subjects covered in this bibliogaphy (1,406 citations) include the history of sports and sports medicine, sports injuries, physical fitness throughout various stages of life, and the current status of physical fitness in the United States. The first section includes journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers in three areas: history…

  4. PACE VIII. Focus on Fitness: For Elementary and Middle Schools Curriculum/Instruction/Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This volume contains 13 presentations from the 1995 PACE (Positive Approaches to Children's Education) conference. The titles are: "Y's Way to a Healthy Heart" (Cheryl Arnold); "Fitness Games: Lets Activate Everyone" (Noel Bewley); "The Heart Obstacle Course" (Felice Cloyd); "Fitness Fun For Everyone" (Kathy Dean); "How To Organize a 'Health and…

  5. Aeolian vertical mass flux profiles above a dry and moist sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotnicka, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The vertical distribution of aeolian mass flux was investigated in a natural beach environment. Field experiments conducted on the beach of the Łeba Barrier, southern Baltic coast, Poland, measured the sand transport rate and the vertical mass flux distribution above dry rippled sand and a moist flat sandy surface. The experiments were intended to show the changes in the vertical distribution of sand with changing wind speed. All the data represent maximum flux conditions achieved during alongshore winds. Sand transport was measured using 0.5 m-high vertically segmented sand traps, the wind speed and direction were monitored at 1 m elevation. The obtained dataset comprises 65 measurements on dry surfaces and 51 measurements on moist sandy surfaces. The sand transport rate above the moist surface was higher than above the dry surface, but higher velocities gave smaller differences between the surfaces. The saltation layer was thicker above the moist surface than above the dry surface. All the vertical sand flux profiles are best described by exponential decay functions. Analysis of the normalised flux profiles grouped by wind velocity shows that the fitted curves are less inclined for moist surfaces than dry surfaces.The regression coefficients depict a marked trend in which the intercept decreases and the slope increases with increasing wind speed; this indicates that more sand is transported at higher elevations above the bed and less at lower elevations. The proportion of total transport seems to be independent of wind speed at elevations of approximately 35 mm and 50 mm above the dry and moist surfaces, respectively. Differences between the measured- and exponential-fit values of mass flux are particularly distinct close to the bed, where the exponential fit either over- or under-predicts the measured values. Over-predictions occur in weaker winds, whereas under-predictions become more pronounced as the wind becomes stronger and when the layer in which the

  6. Biofilm formation, gel and esp gene carriage among recreational beach Enterococci.

    PubMed

    Asmat, Ahmad; Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Gires, Usup

    2014-09-01

    Biofilm production, gel and esp gene carriage was enumerated among forty six vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin susceptible enterococci (VSE) beach isolates. A higher proportion (61.54%) of biofilm producers was observed among beach sand as compared to beach water enterococci isolates (30%) indicating that enterococci within the sand column may be more dependent on biofilm production for survival than their beach water counterparts. Correlation analysis revealed strongly negative correlation (r=-0.535, p=0.015) between vancomycin resistance and biofilm formation. Given the observation of high prevalence of biofilm production among beach sand and the concomitant absence of esp gene carriage in any of the isolate, esp gene carriage may not be necessary for the production of biofilms among beach sand isolates. On the whole beach sand and water isolates demonstrated clearly different prevalence levels of vancomycin resistance, biofilm formation, esp and gel gene carriage. Application of these differences may be found useful in beach microbial source tracking studies. Tested starved cells still produced biofilm albeit at lower efficiencies. Non-dividing enterococci in beach sand can survive extended periods of environmental hardship and can resume growth or biofilm production in appropriate conditions thus making them infectious agents with potential health risk to recreational beach users. PMID:25168975

  7. Groundwater transport and the freshwater-saltwater interface below sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Tyler B.; Wilson, Alicia M.

    2016-07-01

    Current conceptual models for groundwater flow in beaches highlight an upper saline plume, which is separated from the lower salt wedge by a zone of brackish to fresh groundwater discharge. There is currently limited knowledge of what conditions allow an upper saline plume to exist and what factors control its formation. We used variable-density, saturated-unsaturated, transient groundwater flow models to investigate the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface in beaches with slopes varying from 0.1 to 0.01, in the absence of waves. We also varied hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity, tidal amplitude and inflow of fresh groundwater. The simulated salinity configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interfaces varied significantly. No upper saline plumes formed in any beach with hydraulic conductivities less than 10 m/d. The slope of the beach was also a significant control. Steeper beach faces allowed stronger upper saline plumes to develop. Median sediment grain size of the beach is strongly correlated to both beach slope and permeability, and therefore the development of an upper saline plume. Prior studies of groundwater flow and salinity in beaches have used a range of theoretical dispersivities and the appropriate values of dispersivity to be used to represent real beaches remains unclear. We found the upper saline plume to weaken with the use of larger values of dispersivity. Our results suggest that upper saline plumes do not form in all beaches and may be less common than previously considered.

  8. On the profile evolution of three artificial pebble beaches at Marina di Pisa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the profiles of three artificial coarse-grained beaches located at Marina di Pisa (Tuscany, Italy) were monitored from April 2008 to May 2009 in order to define the response of the beaches to major storms that occurred during the study. Two beaches are similar, the third differs in length and in the level of protection, being less than half the length of the others and devoid of an offshore submerged breakwater. The work was achieved by means of accurate topographic surveys intended to reconstruct the beach profile from the backshore up to the foreshore-upper shoreface transition (step). The surveys were performed with an RTK-GPS instrument, which provided extremely precise recording of the beach. The most significant features of the beaches were tracked during each survey; in particular, the landward foot of the storm berm, the crest of the storm berm, the coastline, and the step crest were monitored. Five cross-shore transects were traced on each beach. Along these transects, any meaningful slope change was recorded to obtain accurate sections of the beach. The field datasets were processed with AutoCAD software to compare the beach profile evolution during the year-long research. The results showed a comparable evolution of the twin beaches: the resulting storm berm retreat of about 15 to 19 m is a remarkable feature considering the coarse grain size and the offshore protection. Due to the absence of the breakwater, the third beach was characterized by even higher values of recession (over 20 m), and showed hints of wave reflection-related processes after the huge, steep storm berm had been formed and grown after the high energy events. These processes were not as evident on the twin beaches. These results underline the different response of three similar protection schemes, and the importance that frequent monitoring of the beach morphology holds when it comes to coastal management issues.

  9. A preliminary comparative assessment of the meiofaunal communities of Maltese pocket sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Deidun, Alan; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Gianni, Fabrizio

    2014-10-01

    Whilst the macrofaunal communities of Maltese pocket sandy beaches have been extensively studied, the meiofaunal communities of the same beaches are virtually unknown. The main aims of the current study include the acquisition of preliminary data on the occurrence of meiofaunal higher taxa on Maltese pocket sandy beaches, the comparison between the Maltese beach meiofaunal communities with those on other Mediterranean sandy beaches and the assessment of the influence of a selected number of beach physical parameters on the same communities. Seven sandy beaches in the Maltese Islands were sampled during spring 2012, with sediment samples being collected at the Mean Sea Level (mediolittoral zone). Median grain size and sediment organic and water content were measured for each beach. A total of 13 higher meiofaunal taxa were recorded from the Maltese sandy beaches. The meiofaunal abundance ranged between 50 and 1392 individuals/10 cm2, whilst the number of meiofaunal higher taxa recorded at a single sampling station ranged between 5 and 10. Mean grain size and sorting coefficient appeared to have the highest influence on variations in Maltese meiofaunal communities. Based on conducted analysis it is suggested that inter-beach dispersal of meiofaunal propagules for Maltese beaches is restricted to short distances and does not operate over distances exceeding 5-10 km. This in turn results in some degree of compartmentalisation of the same assemblages. The meiofaunal assemblages recorded from the Maltese beaches exhibited comparable densities to those recorded on other Central Mediterranean sandy beaches and no significant differences in community structure at higher taxa level were observed.

  10. Global patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: Species richness, abundance, biomass and body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton

    2013-10-01

    Global patterns in species richness in sandy beach ecosystems have been poorly understood until comparatively recently, because of the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases at continental scales. We analyze information from more than 200 sandy beaches around the world, which harbor hundreds of macrofauna species, and explore latitudinal trends in species richness, abundance and biomass. Species richness increases from temperate to tropical sites. Abundance follows contrasting trends depending on the slope of the beach: in gentle slope beaches, it is higher at temperate sites, whereas in steep-slope beaches it is higher at the tropics. Biomass follows identical negative trends for both climatic regions at the whole range of beach slopes, suggesting decreasing rates in carrying capacity of the environment towards reflective beaches. Various morphodynamic variables determine global trends in beach macrofauna. Species richness, abundance and biomass are higher at dissipative than at reflective beaches, whereas a body size follows the reverse pattern. A generalized linear model showed that large tidal range (which determines the vertical dimension of the intertidal habitat), small size of sand particles and flat beach slope (a product of the interaction among wave energy, tidal range and grain size) are correlated with high species richness, suggesting that these parameters represent the most parsimonious variables for modelling patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. Large-scale patterns indicate a scaling of abundance to a body size, suggesting that dissipative beaches harbor communities with highest abundance and species with the smallest body sizes. Additional information for tropical and northern hemisphere sandy beaches (underrepresented in our compilation) is required to decipher more conclusive trends, particularly in abundance, biomass and body size. Further research should integrate meaningful oceanographic variables, such as temperature and primary

  11. Shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2003-10-01

    Frequent morning surveys of birds were conducted on 1 km of beach in southern California to investigate shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach. The overall mean abundance (98.6 individuals km -1), estimated biomass (9.6 kg km -1), and species richness (5.5 species km -1) of shorebirds observed were very high for a sandy beach in the temperate zone. Eight species, sanderling ( Calidris alba), semipalmated plover ( Charadrius semipalmatus), marbled godwit ( Limosa fedoa), black-bellied plover ( Pluvialis squatarola), western sandpiper ( Calidris mauri), willet ( Catoptrophorus semipalmatus), surfbird ( Aphriza virgata), and whimbrel ( Numenius phaeopus), occurred in overall mean abundances >1 bird km -1 and accounted for 97% of the abundance and biomass of shorebirds. Sanderlings were the most abundant shorebird every year (64% of individuals and 35% of the biomass). Different species of abundant shorebirds exhibited distinct patterns of use of beach habitat, including fall, spring, and winter peaks in abundance. Temporal variation in shorebird use on seasonal and interannual scales was associated with migration patterns, and also with habitat availability and condition. Seasonal variation in monthly mean abundance and estimated biomass of shorebirds varied over more than an order of magnitude and followed a similar pattern in each year, reaching maxima in the fall or winter (161-280 individuals km -1 and 15.4-23.9 kg km -1) and minima in May or June (3-11 individuals km -1 and 0.8-2.2 kg km -1). A minor peak in shorebird abundance and biomass coinciding with spring migration was observed in April of most years. The number of species of shorebirds observed in individual surveys ranged from 0 to 11 species km -1 and was positively and significantly correlated with abundance. Monthly mean species richness and the total species observed monthly followed similar seasonal patterns, ranging from annual maxima of 7.4-9.1 and 12-17 species km -1 between August and October

  12. In situ ingestion of microfibres by meiofauna from sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Felipe; Domenico, Maikon Di; Amaral, A Cecilia Z; Martínez, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Brett C; Worsaae, Katrine; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Cunha Lana, Paulo da

    2016-09-01

    Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents of meiofauna from six sandy beaches in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Out of twenty taxonomic groups, three species of the common sandy beach annelid Saccocirrus displayed in situ ingestion of microfibres in all sites. Laboratory observations showed that species of Saccocirrus are able to egest microfibres with no obvious physical injury. We suggest that their non-selective microphagous suspension-feeding behaviour makes Saccocirrus more prone to ingest microfibres. Although microfibres are rapidly egested with no apparent harm, there is still the potential for trophic transfer into marine food webs through predation of Saccocirrus. PMID:27321884

  13. Backshore sill beach and dune erosion control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, J.W.

    1988-03-08

    A backshore sill beach and dune erosion control system is described comprising: a supporting protective apron formed of weather and water resistant cloth. The apron includes a flat base portion and an angularly sloped portion extending seaward of the base portion, a toe scour anchor tube connected to the seaward end of the apron sloped portion, and longitudinal sand-filled geotextile containers placed upon the apron base portion each extending longitudinally shore parallel to the incoming surf. The sand-filled geotextile containers are specifically placed upon the beach in a pyramidal longitudinally extending shore parallel relation to an area being protected whereby wave action impacts upon relatively soft surfaces of the containers and is dissipated before normally impacting surfaces that would otherwise be eroded.

  14. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  15. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  16. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ... vigorous program for people of all ability and fitness levels. Dance video games and DVDs are also ...

  17. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance Your Way to Fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  18. Identifying Preserved Storm Events on Beaches from Trenches and Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadman, H. M.; Gallagher, E. L.; McNinch, J.; Reniers, A.; Koktas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research suggests that even small scale variations in grain size in the shallow stratigraphy of sandy beaches can significantly influence large-scale morphology change. However, few quantitative studies of variations in shallow stratigraphic layers, as differentiated by variations in mean grain size, have been conducted, in no small part due to the difficulty of collecting undisturbed sediment cores in the energetic lower beach and swash zone. Due to this lack of quantitative stratigraphic grain size data, most coastal morphology models assume that uniform grain sizes dominate sandy beaches, allowing for little to no temporal or spatial variations in grain size heterogeneity. In a first-order attempt to quantify small-scale, temporal and spatial variations in beach stratigraphy, thirty-five vibracores were collected at the USACE Field Research Facility (FRF), Duck, NC, in March-April of 2014 using the FRF's Coastal Research and Amphibious Buggy (CRAB). Vibracores were collected at set locations along a cross-shore profile from the toe of the dune to a water depth of ~1m in the surf zone. Vibracores were repeatedly collected from the same locations throughout a tidal cycle, as well as pre- and post a nor'easter event. In addition, two ~1.5m deep trenches were dug in the cross-shore and along-shore directions (each ~14m in length) after coring was completed to allow better interpretation of the stratigraphic sequences observed in the vibracores. The elevations of coherent stratigraphic layers, as revealed in vibracore-based fence diagrams and trench data, are used to relate specific observed stratigraphic sequences to individual storm events observed at the FRF. These data provide a first-order, quantitative examination of the small-scale temporal and spatial variability of shallow grain size along an open, sandy coastline. The data will be used to refine morphological model predictions to include variations in grain size and associated shallow stratigraphy.

  19. Tungiasis in a beach volleyball player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Persico, Maria Chiara; Valsecchi, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Tungiasis is an infestation caused by penetration of the skin by the gravid female of the flea Tunga penetrans Linnaeus 1758 (Insecta, Siphonaptera: Tungidae). Tunga penetrans is currently found in Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, and Central Asia. Prevalence is very high in Brazil. We present a case of tungiasis in an Italian beach volleyball player who acquired the infestation in Brazil. PMID:21817006

  20. SE-FIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation