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Sample records for beaches confer fitness

  1. Conference summary: 6th International conference on hyperons, charm, and beauty hadrons (BEACH04)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Joel N.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The 6th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm, and Beauty Hadrons (BEACH04) treated us to a wonderful array of new results. Here the author attempts to summarize the talks and discuss the conference highlights.

  2. Enforced Clonality Confers a Fitness Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    In largely clonal plants, splitting of a maternal plant into potentially independent plants (ramets) is usually spontaneous; however, such fragmentation also occurs in otherwise non-clonal species due to application of external force. This process might play an important yet largely overlooked role for otherwise non-clonal plants by providing a mechanism to regenerate after disturbance. Here, in a 5-year garden experiment on two short-lived, otherwise non-clonal species, Barbarea vulgaris and Barbarea stricta, we compared the fitness of plants fragmented by simulated disturbance (“enforced ramets”) both with plants that contemporaneously originate in seed and with individuals unscathed by the disturbance event. Because the ability to regrow from fragments is related to plant age and stored reserves, we compared the effects of disturbance applied during three different ontogenetic stages of the plants. In B. vulgaris, enforced ramet fitness was higher than the measured fitness values of both uninjured plants and plants established from seed after the disturbance. This advantage decreased with increasing plant age at the time of fragmentation. In B. stricta, enforced ramet fitness was lower than or similar to fitness of uninjured plants and plants grown from seed. Our results likely reflect the habitat preferences of the study species, as B. vulgaris occurs in anthropogenic, disturbed habitats where body fragmentation is more probable and enforced clonality thus more advantageous than in the more natural habitats preferred by B. stricta. Generalizing from our results, we see that increased fitness yielded by enforced clonality would confer an evolutionary advantage in the face of disturbance, especially in habitats where a seed bank has not been formed, e.g., during invasion or colonization. Our results thus imply that enforced clonality should be taken into account when studying population dynamics and life strategies of otherwise non-clonal species in disturbed

  3. Proceedings of the 2010 CIAE Pre-Conference (59th, Clearwater Beach, Florida, October 24-26, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for International Adult Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 International Pre-Conference of the Commission on International Adult Education (CIAE), American Association for Adult & Continuing (AAACE), was successfully conducted from October 24-26, at the Hilton Clearwater Beach Resort, Clearwater Beach, Florida. This publication includes the papers presented during the conference. These are: (1)…

  4. PREFACE: XI Conference on Beauty, Charm, Hyperons in Hadronic Interactions BEACH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, Marco

    2014-11-01

    This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 11th International Conference on Hyperons, Charm and Beauty Hadrons, currently known as the BEACH Conferences. The BEACH conferences cover a broad range of physics topics in the field of Hyperon and heavy-flavor physics. This conference continues the BEACH series, which began with a meeting in Strasbourg in 1995 and since then offers a biennial opportunity for both theorists and experimentalists from the high-energy physics community to discuss all aspects of flavour physics. The 11th Conference took place in the Lecture Theatre of the Physics West Building of the University of Birmingham (United Kingdom) from July 22nd to July 26th and was attended by 107 participants. All of the sessions were plenary sessions accommodating review talks and shorter contributions discussing both theory and recent experiments. At the end of the conference Valerie Gibson (Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK) and Sebastian Jaeger (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, UK) summarized and put in context all the presentations of the conference giving two very interesting Summary talks. These Conference Proceedings are particularly interesting since, due to the long shutdown of the LHC in Geneva (CH), most of the data presented were from the entire data set available. This volume in fact offers an interesting panorama of the present situation and allows a comparison of the experimental data and the theory in a field that is always in continuous evolution. The conference was impeccably organized by the Local Organizing Committee chaired by Cristina Lazzeroni (Birmingham Univeristy, Birmingham, UK) that I want to thank particularly here. Many from the University Staff have contributed to the smooth running of the conference. We would like to thank the Local Scientific Secretariat for their invaluable help in making the conference a truly enjoyable and unforgettable event; a special thanks

  5. PROCEEDINGS: SECOND CONFERENCE ON WASTE HEAT MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION HELD AT MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA IN DECEMBER 1978, VOLUME 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document most presentations made during the Second Conference on Waste Heat Management and Utilization, held December 4-6, 1978, at Miami Beach, FL. Presentations were grouped by areas of concern: general, utilization, mathematical modeling, ecological effects, co...

  6. PROCEEDINGS: SECOND CONFERENCE ON WATER HEAT MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION HELD AT MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA IN DECEMBER 1978, VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document most presentations made during the Second Conference on Waste Heat Management and Utilization, held December 4-6, 1978, at Miami Beach, FL. Presentations were grouped by areas of concern: general, utilization, mathematical modeling, ecological effects, co...

  7. Curriculum Materials Exhibited at the 1976 ASCD Annual Conference (31st, Miami Beach, Florida, March 13-17, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, H. Minnie, Comp.; And Others

    This catalog lists all curriculum materials submitted for display at the 1976 Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Conference in Miami Beach. Materials are grouped according to subject matter, with separate sections for general curriculum development, adult education, art, bilingual education, career education, consumer…

  8. Phenotypic plasticity confers multiple fitness benefits to a mimic.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Fabio; Feeney, William E; Ferrari, Maud C O; Waldie, Peter A; Phillips, Genevieve A C; McClure, Eva C; Sköld, Helen N; Salzburger, Walter; Marshall, N Justin; Cheney, Karen L

    2015-03-30

    Animal communication is often deceptive; however, such dishonesty can become ineffective if it is used too often, is used out of context, or is too easy to detect [1-3]. Mimicry is a common form of deception, and most mimics gain the greatest fitness benefits when they are rare compared to their models [3, 4]. If mimics are encountered too frequently or if their model is absent, avoidance learning of noxious models is disrupted (Batesian mimicry [3]), or receivers become more vigilant and learn to avoid perilous mimics (aggressive mimicry [4]). Mimics can moderate this selective constraint by imperfectly resembling multiple models [5], through polymorphisms [6], or by opportunistically deploying mimetic signals [1, 7]. Here we uncover a novel mechanism to escape the constraints of deceptive signaling: phenotypic plasticity allows mimics to deceive targets using multiple guises. Using a combination of behavioral, cell histological, and molecular methods, we show that a coral reef fish, the dusky dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus), flexibly adapts its body coloration to mimic differently colored reef fishes and in doing so gains multiple fitness benefits. We find that by matching the color of other reef fish, dottybacks increase their success of predation upon juvenile fish prey and are therefore able to deceive their victims by resembling multiple models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that changing color also increases habitat-associated crypsis that decreases the risk of being detected by predators. Hence, when mimics and models share common selective pressures, flexible imitation of models might inherently confer secondary benefits to mimics. Our results show that phenotypic plasticity can act as a mechanism to ease constraints that are typically associated with deception. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:25802153

  9. A Conference on Planning for Documentation and the National Conference Follow-up Program (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, February 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansker, Judith

    This document reports on the activities of the Southeastern Teacher Corps Network's 1979 conference on planning for the documentation and follow-up survey of educational conferences. Topics discussed at the meeting include developing the skills and operational procedures for documentation processes in Network organizations, and developing the…

  10. Limitations of fitting angular scattering from single cells (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xing; Cannaday, Ashley E.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    The literature contains several reports of Mie-like fits to angular-domain elastic scattering measurements from multiple cells or isolated mitochondria. In these studies, the sampling volume typically contains hundreds or thousands of mitochondria, allowing for the size distribution of mitochondria to be modeled as a smooth function, (e.g. Gaussian or log-normal) with a small number of free parameters. In the case of a single-cell volume containing significantly fewer mitochondria, the true size distribution will no longer be as smooth. Increasing the number of free parameters can lead to unstable fits, however, as the forward-directed angular scattering pattern from such a population illuminated with 785 nm light is a monotonically decaying radial function with few distinct features. Using simulations, we have investigated the limitations of modeling single-cell mitochondrial scattering using smooth population distributions of Mie scatterers. In different instances, the fidelity of the estimated size information can be limited by the number of organelles, the angular detection range, or the non-ideality of the data (both speckle and shot noise). We will describe the conditions under which each of these effects dominates. We will also discuss whether mean and standard deviation are the best sizes to report from such Mie modeling, or if there are other size parameters that have greater fidelity to the true, non-smooth size distributions.

  11. The National Women's Leadership Conference on Fitness. Proceedings. (Washington, D.C., April 6-7, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The principal addresses at this Women's Leadership Conference on Fitness were: (1) "Keynote Address" (C. Carson Conrad); (2) "Essential Nature of Fitness" (Lawrence E. Lamb); (3) "Effects of Exercise on Women from 20-50 Years Old" (Sharon Plowman); (4) "Fitness in Older Women" (Everett L. Smith); (5) "Female Musculo-Skeletal System" (Robert P.…

  12. A Synopsis of the National Conference on Fitness and Aging (Washington, DC, September 10-11, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This report contains presentations and program descriptions given at a conference on physical fitness and older adults. Included are: (1) Keynote Address (Richard S. Schweiker); (2) "Government's Role in Fitness for the Aging" (Pete V. Domenici and Beverly B. Byron); (3) "What Is Aging?" (James Skinner); (4) Medical Implications of Fitness and…

  13. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  14. Proceedings of the 2002 ASCUE Summer Conference (35th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 9-13, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    This 2002 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings briefly describes ASCUE and its listserv, lists board members, and provides abstracts of the pre-conference workshops. The conference papers and abstracts that follow cover: principles of visual communication in Web design; Blackboard 5--Web-based course…

  15. Proceedings of the 2000 ASCUE Summer Conference (33rd, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 11-15, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    This 2000 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings first highlights keynote speakers and describes the pre-conference workshops. The conference papers and abstracts that follow discuss: strategic planning for faculty, staff, and student development; a network lab; the Blackboard course delivery system;…

  16. Proceedings of the 2001 ASCUE Summer Conference (34th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 10-14, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    This 2001 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings briefly describes ASCUE and its listserver, lists the 2000-2001 ASCUE Board Members, and provides abstracts of the pre-conference workshops. The conference papers and abstracts of papers that follow include: "Microsoft Project 2000--Keeping Projects on Time…

  17. News Conference: Brecon hosts 10th teacher's conference Summer school: Science summer school heads to Crete Award: The Corti Science Prize Radioactivity: Scottish beach is no beta off Workshop: Heureka project promotes teaching Experiments: Spanish project proves that learning science can be exciting Lecture: IOP schools lecture journeys from x-rays to antimatter Correction to the news item 'Delegates experience universality' Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    Conference: Brecon hosts 10th teacher's conference Summer school: Science summer school heads to Crete Award: The Corti Science Prize Radioactivity: Scottish beach is no beta off Workshop: Heureka project promotes teaching Experiments: Spanish project proves that learning science can be exciting Lecture: IOP schools lecture journeys from x-rays to antimatter Correction to the news item 'Delegates experience universality' Forthcoming events

  18. The Legionella pneumophila kai operon is implicated in stress response and confers fitness in competitive environments

    PubMed Central

    Loza-Correa, Maria; Sahr, Tobias; Rolando, Monica; Daniels, Craig; Petit, Pierre; Skarina, Tania; Valero, Laura Gomez; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Honoré, Nadine; Savchenko, Aleksey; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Legionella pneumophila uses aquatic protozoa as replication niche and protection from harsh environments. Although L. pneumophila is not known to have a circadian clock, it encodes homologues of the KaiBC proteins of Cyanobacteria that regulate circadian gene expression. We show that L. pneumophila kaiB, kaiC and the downstream gene lpp1114, are transcribed as a unit under the control of the stress sigma factor RpoS. KaiC and KaiB of L. pneumophila do not interact as evidenced by yeast and bacterial two-hybrid analyses. Fusion of the C-terminal residues of cyanobacterial KaiB to Legionella KaiB restores their interaction. In contrast, KaiC of L. pneumophila conserved autophosphorylation activity, but KaiB does not trigger the dephosphorylation of KaiC like in Cyanobacteria. The crystal structure of L. pneumophila KaiB suggests that it is an oxidoreductase-like protein with a typical thioredoxin fold. Indeed, mutant analyses revealed that the kai operon-encoded proteins increase fitness of L. pneumophila in competitive environments, and confer higher resistance to oxidative and sodium stress. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that L. pneumophila KaiBC resemble Synechosystis KaiC2B2 and not circadian KaiB1C1. Thus, the L. pneumophila Kai proteins do not encode a circadian clock, but enhance stress resistance and adaption to changes in the environments. PMID:23957615

  19. Visions and Revisions. Annual Alliance/ACE Conference (16th, St. Pete Beach, Florida, October 3-5, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance, an Association for Alternative Degree Programs.

    These proceedings consist of 20 presentations made during 5 sessions at a conference dealing with alternative degree programs for adults. The following papers are included: "Narrative Reasoning as Assessment" (Richard M. Ashbrook); "Political and Administrative Issues in Developing a Distance Learning Based Program" (Margaret Foss, Conni R.…

  20. Spotlight on Technology. Proceedings of the RESNA '99 Annual Conference (Long Beach, California, June 25-29, 1999). Volume 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprigle, Stephen, Ed.

    This book contains the proceedings of the annual RESNA (Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology) conference, which focused on technology and individuals with disabilities. Papers and presentations are grouped into the following nine major categories: (1) assistive technology and cognitive disabilities; (2) augmentative and…

  1. Young People: Fit for Life? St. Catharine's Conference (Windsor, England, United Kingdom, October 1996). Conference Report No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhalgh, Claire

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest within the media and in government about young people who are spending more time in front of the television or computer than in physical activities. A 1996 conference examined these issues and addressed concerns that young people's lack of activity has a detrimental effect upon their health and…

  2. IEEE/AIAA/NASA Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 9th, Virginia Beach, VA, Oct. 15-18, 1990, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on digital avionics discusses vehicle-management systems, spacecraft avionics, special vehicle avionics, communication/navigation/identification systems, software qualification and quality assurance, launch-vehicle avionics, Ada applications, sensor and signal processing, general aviation avionics, automated software development, design-for-testability techniques, and avionics-software engineering. Also discussed are optical technology and systems, modular avionics, fault-tolerant avionics, commercial avionics, space systems, data buses, crew-station technology, embedded processors and operating systems, AI and expert systems, data links, and pilot/vehicle interfaces.

  3. Structural applications of mechanical alloying; Proceedings of the ASM International Conference, Myrtle Beach, SC, Mar. 27-29, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Froes, F.H.; Debarbadillo, J.J. Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV )

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on mechanically alloyed (MA) products discusses their aerospace and industrial applications, the design and isothermal forging of Ni-base oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) superalloys, the microstructure and tensile properties of ODS ferritic alloys, the high temperature corrosion resistance of MA refractory products, the mechanical properties of novel MA Fe-based ODS alloys, and dispersoids in MA metals. Also discussed are MA Al-alloys for aircraft applications, the microstructure and properties of MA Al-Mn, the MA processing of the Ti-Al system, the origin of the strength of MA Al alloys, the interaction of Al with SiC during MA processing, the synthesis of chromium silicide via MA, and the MA production of 'TiC-steel'.

  4. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 9th, Cocoa Beach, FL, January 20-23, 1985, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    The present conference discusses testing methods for ceramic matrix composites, developments in ceramic fibers, space transportation systems thermal protection materials, ceramics for heat engines and other severe environments, thermal sprayed coatings, the development status of ceramic tribology, and the fabrication of ceramics and hard metals. Specific attention is given to the mechanical characterization of ceramic and glass matrix composites, the application of fracture mechanics to fiber composites, the degradation properties of Nicalon SiC fibers, ceramic matrix toughening, SiC/glass composite phases, ceramic composite manufacture by infiltration, and ceramic coatings for the Space Shuttle's surface insulation. Also treated are design principles for anisotropic brittle materials, ceramics for intense radiant heat applications, ceramic-coated tip seals for turbojet engines, composite production by low pressure plasma deposition, tribology in military systems, lubrication for ceramics, a systems approach to the grinding of structural ceramics, and the fabrication of inorganic foams by microwave irradiation.

  5. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 11th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 18-23, 1987, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    The present conference on advanced ceramic materials discusses topics in the fields of NDE, coating/joining/tribology techniques, fracture and interface phenomena, whisker- and particulate-reinforced composites, fiber and whisker properties, SiC and Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, glass/glass-ceramic matrix composites, alumina-matrix composites, ceramic materials for space structures, and SiC- and Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/-matrix composites. Attention is given to ceramic characterization by thermal wave imaging, an advanced ceramic-to-metal joining process, the fracture modes of brittle-matrix unidirectional composites, the oxidation of SiC-containing composites, particulate matter in SiC whiskers, corrosion reactions in SiC ceramics, melt-infiltrated ceramic-matrix composites, environmental effects in toughened ceramics, and a ceramic composite heat exchanger.

  6. OCT-based profiler for automating ocular surface prosthetic fitting (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H.; Maguluri, Gopi N.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Patel, Chirag; Agranat, Josh; Tomashevskaya, Olga; Bonte, Eugene; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The use of a Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Environment (PROSE) device is a revolutionary treatment for military patients that have lost their eyelids due to 3rd degree facial burns and for civilians who suffer from a host of corneal diseases. However, custom manual fitting is often a protracted painful, inexact process that requires multiple fitting sessions. Training for new practitioners is a long process. Automated methods to measure the complete corneal and scleral topology would provide a valuable tool for both clinicians and PROSE device manufacturers and would help streamline the fitting process. PSI has developed an ocular anterior-segment profiler based on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which provides a 3D measure of the surface of the sclera and cornea. This device will provide topography data that will be used to expedite and improve the fabrication process for PROSE devices. OCT has been used to image portions of the cornea and sclera and to measure surface topology for smaller contact lenses [1-3]. However, current state-of-the-art anterior eye OCT systems can only scan about 16 mm of the eye's anterior surface, which is not sufficient for covering the sclera around the cornea. In addition, there is no systematic method for scanning and aligning/stitching the full scleral/corneal surface and commercial segmentation software is not optimized for the PROSE application. Although preliminary, our results demonstrate the capability of PSI's approach to generate accurate surface plots over relatively large areas of the eye, which is not currently possible with any other existing platform. Testing the technology on human volunteers is currently underway at Boston Foundation for Sight.

  7. Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Kei; Gerlach, Nina; Sacristán, Soledad; Nakano, Ryohei Thomas; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Neumann, Ulla; Ramírez, Diana; Bucher, Marcel; O'Connell, Richard J; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A staggering diversity of endophytic fungi associate with healthy plants in nature, but it is usually unclear whether these represent stochastic encounters or provide host fitness benefits. Although most characterized species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens, we show here that C. tofieldiae (Ct) is an endemic endophyte in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations in central Spain. Colonization by Ct initiates in roots but can also spread systemically into shoots. Ct transfers the macronutrient phosphorus to shoots, promotes plant growth, and increases fertility only under phosphorus-deficient conditions, a nutrient status that might have facilitated the transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles. The host's phosphate starvation response (PSR) system controls Ct root colonization and is needed for plant growth promotion (PGP). PGP also requires PEN2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism, a component of innate immune responses, indicating a functional link between innate immunity and the PSR system during beneficial interactions with Ct. PMID:26997485

  8. Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Hiruma, Kei; Gerlach, Nina; Sacristán, Soledad; Nakano, Ryohei Thomas; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Neumann, Ulla; Ramírez, Diana; Bucher, Marcel; O’Connell, Richard J.; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Summary A staggering diversity of endophytic fungi associate with healthy plants in nature, but it is usually unclear whether these represent stochastic encounters or provide host fitness benefits. Although most characterized species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum are destructive pathogens, we show here that C. tofieldiae (Ct) is an endemic endophyte in natural Arabidopsis thaliana populations in central Spain. Colonization by Ct initiates in roots but can also spread systemically into shoots. Ct transfers the macronutrient phosphorus to shoots, promotes plant growth, and increases fertility only under phosphorus-deficient conditions, a nutrient status that might have facilitated the transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles. The host’s phosphate starvation response (PSR) system controls Ct root colonization and is needed for plant growth promotion (PGP). PGP also requires PEN2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism, a component of innate immune responses, indicating a functional link between innate immunity and the PSR system during beneficial interactions with Ct. PMID:26997485

  9. Environmentally co‐occurring mercury resistance plasmids are genetically and phenotypically diverse and confer variable context‐dependent fitness effects

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ellie; Lilley, Andrew K.; Paterson, Steve; Spiers, Andrew J.; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Plasmids are important mobile elements that can facilitate genetic exchange and local adaptation within microbial communities. We compared the sequences of four co‐occurring pQBR family environmental mercury resistance plasmids and measured their effects on competitive fitness of a P seudomonas fluorescens  SBW25 host, which was isolated at the same field site. Fitness effects of carriage differed between plasmids and were strongly context dependent, varying with medium, plasmid status of competitor and levels of environmental mercury. The plasmids also varied widely in their rates of conjugation and segregational loss. We found that few of the plasmid‐borne accessory genes could be ascribed functions, although we identified a putative chemotaxis operon, a type IV pilus‐encoding cluster and a region encoding putative arylsulfatase enzymes, which were conserved across geographically distant isolates. One plasmid, pQBR55, conferred the ability to catabolize sucrose. Transposons, including the mercury resistance Tn5042, appeared to have been acquired by different pQBR plasmids by recombination, indicating an important role for horizontal gene transfer in the recent evolution of pQBR plasmids. Our findings demonstrate extensive genetic and phenotypic diversity among co‐occurring members of a plasmid community and suggest a role for environmental heterogeneity in the maintenance of plasmid diversity. PMID:25969927

  10. An Endogenous Accelerator for Viral Gene Expression Confers a Fitness Advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Melissa; Bolovan-Fritts, Cynthia; Dar, Roy D.; Womack, Andrew; Simpson, Michael L; Shenk, Thomas; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction circuits have long been known to differentiate between signals by amplifying inputs to different levels. Here, we describe a novel transcriptional circuitry that dynamically converts greater input levels into faster rates, without increasing the final equilibrium level (i.e. a rate amplifier). We utilize time-lapse microscopy to study human herpesvirus (cytomegalovirus) infection of live cells in real time. Strikingly, our results show that transcriptional activators accelerate viral gene expression in single cells without amplifying the steady-state levels of gene products in these cells. Experiment and modeling show that rate amplification operates by dynamically manipulating the traditional gain-bandwidth feedback relationship from electrical circuit theory to convert greater input levels into faster rates, and is driven by highly self-cooperative transcriptional feedback encoded by the virus s essential transactivator, IE2. This transcriptional rate-amplifier provides a significant fitness advantage for the virus and for minimal synthetic circuits. In general, rate-amplifiers may provide a mechanism for signal-transduction circuits to respond quickly to external signals without increasing steady-state levels of potentially cytotoxic molecules.

  11. The Response of the Institution to External Forces: Proactive or Reactive? Conference Proceedings of the Southern Association for Institutional Research (Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 30-November 1, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orahood, Mary Alyce, Ed.

    The proceedings of the 1985 conference of the Southern Association for Institutional Research (SAIR) is presented. The focus was preparing colleges to anticipate and respond to the demand of accrediting bodies, federal agencies, and state legislatures. Contents include: a conference agenda; a keynote address, summaries of pre-conference workshops,…

  12. ICORE '98: Proceedings from the International Conference on Outdoor Recreation and Education (12th, Fort Walton Beach, Florida, October 20-24, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rob, Comp.

    This proceedings of a conference on outdoor recreation and education contains conference papers and summaries of presentations and panel sessions. Following a summary of conference activities, the 14 entries are: "Working Together in Outdoor Programming: How Can It Work for You?" (W. T. Taylor, Jim Gilbert, Patsy Kott, Linda Potter-Rosenkrantz,…

  13. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  14. National Aquatic Conference on Professional Standards in Aquatics and Approaches to Certification (2nd, Long Beach, California, October 22-25, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This conference report is divided into two sections, as was the conference. The first section treats professional standards for aquatic education. Covered in detailed outlines of premises and skills are professional standards for the physical educator, the aquatic instructor, the aquatic specialist, and the aquatic administrator. The second…

  15. School Reform and Related Issues. Proceedings of the Conference of the University Urban Schools National Task Force (5th, Palm Beach, Florida, November 11-12, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossone, Richard M., Ed.; Polishook, Irwin, Ed.

    The theme of the conference reported on here was school reform and related issues. An introductory statement, "Thoughts on School Reform," by Jerome Bruner, and a list of conference participants are followed by a group of papers on education and politics. The papers are "Reform and Partnership in Education," by Albert Shanker; "Mandating…

  16. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference. Proceedings (27th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 12-16, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Rick, Ed.; Armel, Donald, Ed.

    Topics addressed by 40 papers from a conference on microcomputers include: developing a campus wide computer ethics policy; integrating new technologies into professional education; campus computer networks; computer assisted instruction; client/server architecture; competencies for entry-level computing positions; auditing and professional…

  17. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference. Proceedings (25th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 21-25, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Small Computer Users in Education, Greencastle, IN.

    Forty-three papers from a conference on microcomputers are presented under the following headings: Computing in the Curriculum, Information and Computer Science Information; Institutional and Administrative Computing, and Management, Services, and Training. Topics of the papers include the following: telecommunications projects that work in…

  18. Assessing Impact: Evidence and Action. Presentations from the AAHE Conference on Assessment & Quality (Miami Beach, Florida, June 11-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Ewell, Peter T.; Gelman, Sherril B.; Kuh, George; Marchese, Theodore J.; Miller, Margaret A.; Wiggins, Grant

    This collection of seven major presentations at a 1997 conference on assessment and quality in higher education includes three plenary presentations and four introductions to program strands. In "Accountability and Assessment in a Second Decade: New Looks or Same Old Story?" Peter T. Ewell stresses the importance of defining the academic integrity…

  19. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference. Proceedings (28th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 18-22, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armel, Donald, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on microcomputers are: "Organizational Leadership through Information Technology" (John A. Anderson); "Multimedia in the Classroom--Rejuvenating the Literacy Course" (Stephen T. Anderson, Sr.); "Something New about Notetaking: A Computer-Based Instructional Experiment" (Donald Armel); "Reflections on Electronic Frontiers…

  20. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference Proceedings (30th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 7-12, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on small college computing issues are: "An On-line Microcomputer Course for Pre-service Teachers" (Mary K. Abkemeier); "The Mathematics and Computer Science Learning Center (MLC)" (Solomon T. Abraham); "Multimedia for the Non-Computer Science Faculty Member" (Stephen T. Anderson, Sr.); "Achieving Continuous Improvement:…

  1. Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Summer Conference Proceedings (29th, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 9-13, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on small college computing issues are: "Ethics, Privacy, and Security in Higher Education Technology" (John A. Anderson); "Multimedia in the Classroom: Recollections After Two Years" (Stephen T. Anderson Sr.); "Creating a Computer Competency Requirement for Mary Washington College Students" (David J. Ayersman, Ernest C.…

  2. BEACHES HEALTH SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Baterial samples were taken at swimming beaches (primarily freshwater beaches) in Region 10 while evaluating potential bacterial sources (e.g., people, cattle, pets, septic systems, runoff, birds). For each beach selected, the preferred sampling is: background, low/no use period...

  3. Virtual Beach Manager Toolset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Manager Toolset (VB) is a set of decision support software tools developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tools are being developed under the umbrella of...

  4. New materials in civil aviation; Proceedings of the Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, Long Beach, CA, Oct. 13-16, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The present conference discusses an evaluation of the Bell 206L and Sikorsky S-76 helicopters' composite components, the application of advanced composites to civil aircraft primary structures, and the experiences obtained over the course of a decade with the DC-10's composite rudders. Also discussed are the lessons learned in the DC-10 carbon/epoxy rudder development program and the cost effectiveness of weight reduction measures involving advanced materials substitution.

  5. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 12th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 17-22, 1988, Proceedings. Parts 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the development status of advanced ceramics, the engineering applications of ceramic-matrix composites, modeling and theoretical considerations of engineering ceramics, the role of interfaces in ceramic-matrix composites, and polycrystalline oxide-matrix composites. Also discussed are glass- and glass-ceramic-matrix composites, carbide- and nitride-matrix composites, the synthesis methods as well as the properties and applications of ceramic matrix-reinforcing whiskers, fibers, and powders, and various SDI-related advanced ceramic materials for use in orbital systems.

  6. Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, 13th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Jan. 15-18, 1989, Collection of Papers. Parts 1 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The present conference on advanced ceramics discusses topics in matrix-infiltration and processing techniques, the failure analysis of monolithic ceramics, the processing of polycrystalline oxide-matrix ceramic composites, the processing and properties of monolithic ceramics, ceramic composite interface phenomena, and ceramic NDE and characterization. Attention is given to chemical vapor infiltration for composites, dense ceramics via controlled melt oxidation, supertough silicon nitride, the properties of pressureless-sintered alumina-matrix/30 vol pct SiC composites, and toughening in metal particulate/glass-ceramic composites. Also discussed are the joining of silicon nitride for heat-engine applications, nitridation mechanisms in silicon powder compacts, the synthesis and properties of ceramic fibers, a technique for interfacial bond strength measurement, the degradation of SiC whiskers at elevated temperatures, and the correlation of NDE and fractography in Si3N4.

  7. Addressing the Standards for Foreign Language Learning. Dimension '97. Selected Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M., Ed.

    Seven papers from the annual conference are presented. "Developing Tomorrow's Technology-Using Foreign Language Teachers: Where We Are, Where We Are Going" (Marjorie H. DeWert, Audrey Heining-Boynton) looks at whether language teachers are being trained to take full advantage of educational technology. "Foreign Language Placement in Postsecondary…

  8. The Odyssey Continues: Dimension 2001. Selected Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, March 8-10, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, C. Maurice, Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes the following: (1) "Four Decades of Foreign Language Education: Are We Still at Cheese Station N?" (T. Bruce Fryer); (2) "Teaching French with the Internet: What the Students Want vs. What They Do" (Jean-Louis P. Dassier); (3) "Learning Behind the Screen: Computers, Conversations, Communities" (Laura…

  9. VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE AREA BETWEEN THE BEACH (LEFT) AND BEACH ROAD. NOTE THE RESIDENCES ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF BEACH ROAD. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Wave Overtopping of a Barrier Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, E. B.; Laudier, N.; Macmahan, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    The rate of wave overtopping of a barrier beach is measured and modeled as a first step in modeling the breaching of a beach impounding an ephemeral river. Unique rate of wave overtopping data are obtained from the measure of the Carmel River, California, lagoon filling during a time when the lagoon is closed-off and there is no river inflow. Volume changes are calculated from measured lagoon height changes owing to wave overtopping by a stage-volume curve, then center differenced and averaged to provide volume rates of change in the lagoon. Wave height and period are obtained from CDIP MOPS directional wave spectra data in 15m fronting the beach. Beach morphology was measured by GPS walking surveys and interpolated for beach slopes and berm heights. Three empirical overtopping models by van der Meer and Janssen (1995), Hedges and Reis (1998) and Pullen et al. (2007) with differing parameterizations on wave height, period and beach slope and calibrated using extensive laboratory data obtained over plane, impermeable beaches are compared with the data. In addition, the run-up model by Stockdon et al. (2006) based on field data is examined. Three wave overtopping storm events are considered when morphology data were available less than 2 weeks prior to the event. The models are tuned to fit the data using a reduction factor to account for beach permeability, berm characteristics, non-normal wave incidence and surface roughness influence. It is concluded that the Stockdon et al. (2006) model underestimates run-up as no overtopping is predicted with this model. The three empirical overtopping models behaved similarly well with regression coefficients ranging 0.72 to 0.86 using a reasonable range of reduction factors 0.66 - 0.81 with an average of 0.74.

  11. Languages for the Nation. Dimension 2008. Selected Proceedings of the 2008 Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Carol, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Dimension" is the annual volume containing the selected, refereed, edited Proceedings of each year's conference. The Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT), held its annual conference, April 3-5, 2008, at the Springmaid Beach Resort and Conference Center, in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, in collaboration with the South Carolina Foreign…

  12. Stability of College Students' Fit with Their Academic Major and the Relationship between Academic Fit and Occupational Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghandour, Louma

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the fit between students' interests and their academic choices at different stages of their college careers. Using image theory (Beach, 1990) as an integrated theory of person-vocation fit, this investigation focuses on the stability of academic fit during college and the relationship between fit with academic choice and fit…

  13. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach locational data for BEACH Act. Beach locations are coded onto route.drain (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of NHD to create Point Events and Linear Events. Beach locations are coded onto region.rch (Waterbody Reach) feature of NHD to create NHD Waterbody Shapefiles...

  14. A Naturally Occurring rev1-vpu Fusion Gene Does Not Confer a Fitness Advantage to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Simon M.; Hopfensperger, Kristina; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Kreider, Edward F.; Learn, Gerald H.; Lee, Lan-Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sauter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Pandemic strains of HIV-1 (group M) encode a total of nine structural (gag, pol, env), regulatory (rev, tat) and accessory (vif, vpr, vpu, nef) genes. However, some subtype A and C viruses exhibit an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and the vpu gene are placed in the same open reading frame. Although this rev1-vpu gene fusion is present in a considerable fraction of HIV-1 strains, its functional significance is unknown. Results Examining infectious molecular clones (IMCs) of HIV-1 that encode the rev1-vpu polymorphism, we show that a fusion protein is expressed in infected cells. Due to the splicing pattern of viral mRNA, however, these same IMCs also express a regular Vpu protein, which is produced at much higher levels. To investigate the function of the fusion gene, we characterized isogenic IMC pairs differing only in their ability to express a Rev1-Vpu protein. Analysis in transfected HEK293T and infected CD4+ T cells showed that all of these viruses were equally active in known Vpu functions, such as down-modulation of CD4 or counteraction of tetherin. Furthermore, the polymorphism did not affect Vpu-mediated inhibition of NF-кB activation or Rev-dependent nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs. There was also no evidence for enhanced replication of Rev1-Vpu expressing viruses in primary PBMCs or ex vivo infected human lymphoid tissues. Finally, the frequency of HIV-1 quasispecies members that encoded a rev1-vpu fusion gene did not change in HIV-1 infected individuals over time. Conclusions Expression of a rev1-vpu fusion gene does not affect regular Rev and Vpu functions or alter HIV-1 replication in primary target cells. Since there is no evidence for increased replication fitness of rev1-vpu encoding viruses, this polymorphism likely emerged in the context of other mutations within and/or outside the rev1-vpu intergenic region, and may have a neutral phenotype. PMID:26554585

  15. Campus Technology: Anticipating the Future. Proceedings of the Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Annual Conference (38th, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 12-16, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.; Smith, Carol L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings presented the theme "Campus Technology: Anticipating the Future." The conference introduced its ASCUE Officers and Directors, and provides abstracts of the pre-conference workshops. The full-text conference papers in this document include: (1) Developing…

  16. Leading Strategic & Cultural Change through Technology. Proceedings of the Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Annual Conference (37th, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, June 6-10, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter, Ed.; Smith, Carol L., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) conference proceedings presented the theme "Leading Strategic & Cultural Change through Technology." The conference introduced its ASCUE Officers and Directors, and provides abstracts of the pre-conference workshops. The full-text conference papers in this document include: (1)…

  17. Hawaii Beach Monitoring Program: Beach Profile Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Hillman, Kindra P.

    2001-01-01

    Coastal erosion is widespread and locally severe in Hawaii and other low-latitude areas. Typical erosion rates in Hawaii are in the range of 15 to 30 cm/yr (0.5 to 1 ft/yr; Hwang, 1981; Sea Engineering, Inc., 1988; Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc.,1991). Recent studies on Oahu (Fletcher et al., 1997; Coyne et al., 1996) have shown that nearly 24%, or 27.5 km (17.1 mi) of an original 115 km (71.6 mi) of sandy shoreline (1940's) has been either significantly narrowed (17.2 km; 10.7 mi) or lost (10.3 km; 6.4 mi). Nearly one-quarter of the islands' beaches have been significantly degraded over the last half-century and all shorelines have been affected to some degree. Oahu shorelines are by far the most studied, however, beach loss has been identified on the other islands as well, with nearly 13 km (8 mi) of beach likely lost due to shoreline hardening on Maui (Makai Engineering, Inc. and Sea Engineering, Inc., 1991). Causes of coastal erosion and beach loss in Hawaii are numerous but, unfortunately, poorly understood and rarely quantified. Construction of shoreline protection structures limits coastal land loss, but does not alleviate beach loss and may actually accelerate the problem by prohibiting sediment deposition in front of the structures. Other factors contributing to beach loss include: a) reduced sediment supply; b) large storms; and, c) sea-level rise. Reduction in sand supply, either from landward or seaward (primarily reef) sources, can have a myriad of causes. Obvious causes such as beach sand mining and emplacement of structures that interrupt natural sediment transport pathways or prevent access to backbeach sand deposits, remove sediment from the active littoral system. More complex issues of sediment supply can be related to reef health and carbonate production which, in turn, may be linked to changes in water quality. Second, the accumulated effect of large storms is to transport sediment beyond the littoral system. Third

  18. BACTERIA, BEACHES AND SWIMMABLE WATERS: INTRODUCING VIRTUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe beaches meet water quality standards and are valued for their aesthetics and the recreational opportunities that they afford. In the United States recreational water quality assessments and beach closure decisions are presently based on samples of enterococci or Escherichia ...

  19. Estimating the fitness advantage conferred by permissive neuraminidase mutations in recent oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jeff; Hooper, Kathryn A; Petrie, Stephen; Lee, Raphael; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Reh, Lucia; Guarnaccia, Teagan; Baas, Chantal; Xue, Lumin; Vitesnik, Sophie; Leang, Sook-Kwan; McVernon, Jodie; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; McCaw, James M; Bloom, Jesse D; Hurt, Aeron C

    2014-04-01

    Oseltamivir is relied upon worldwide as the drug of choice for the treatment of human influenza infection. Surveillance for oseltamivir resistance is routinely performed to ensure the ongoing efficacy of oseltamivir against circulating viruses. Since the emergence of the pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), the proportion of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses that are oseltamivir resistant (OR) has generally been low. However, a cluster of OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, encoding the neuraminidase (NA) H275Y oseltamivir resistance mutation, was detected in Australia in 2011 amongst community patients that had not been treated with oseltamivir. Here we combine a competitive mixtures ferret model of influenza infection with a mathematical model to assess the fitness, both within and between hosts, of recent OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In conjunction with data from in vitro analyses of NA expression and activity we demonstrate that contemporary A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more capable of acquiring H275Y without compromising their fitness, than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in 2009. Furthermore, using reverse engineered viruses we demonstrate that a pair of permissive secondary NA mutations, V241I and N369K, confers robust fitness on recent H275Y A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which correlated with enhanced surface expression and enzymatic activity of the A(H1N1)pdm09 NA protein. These permissive mutations first emerged in 2010 and are now present in almost all circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Our findings suggest that recent A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more permissive to the acquisition of H275Y than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, increasing the risk that OR A(H1N1)pdm09 will emerge and spread worldwide. PMID:24699865

  20. Virtual Beach: Decision Support Tools for Beach Pathogen Prediction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Virtual Beach Managers Tool (VB) is decision-making software developed to help local beach managers make decisions as to when beaches should be closed due to predicted high levels of water borne pathogens. The tool is being developed under the umbrella of EPA's Advanced Monit...

  1. Morphodynamics of Prograding Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term coastal evolution often results from the cumulative effects of small residual differences between relatively large signals. In light of dire projections of sea level rise over the next several decades to century, there is a strong societal need for accurate forecasts of net interannual- to decadal-scale coastal change. However, our present understanding of the processes responsible for storm-induced erosion and coastal recession is significantly more advanced than our knowledge of coastal recovery during calm periods. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with progading beaches we synthesize findings from a long-term (15 years) beach morphology monitoring program in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Most of the beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) were eroded during the two intense winters of 1997/1998 (a major El Niño event) and 1998/1999 (a moderate La Niña event). Subsequent to these winters the beaches have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year resulting in significant shoreline advance. During this same period as many as two to three new foredunes formed with backshore beach profiles accumulating sand at rates of well over 10 m3/m/yr. Interestingly, these large signals of horizontal and vertical coastal advance have occurred on beaches in which nearshore morphological variability is dominated by net offshore sandbar migration. Net offshore sandbar migration follows a three-stage process; bar generation near the shoreline, seaward migration, and bar degeneration in the outer nearshore with a cyclic return period of approximately 4 to 5 years in the region. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for the sediment supplied to the beaches and dunes during the study

  2. Morphodynamics of Accreting Beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Sherwood, C. R.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Beaches along the Pacific Northwest coast of the US have been shown to have large seasonal variability in shoreline position with several 10's of meters of recession occurring during the winter (high-energy waves) and typically similar scales of beach recovery during the summer (low-energy waves). However, many beaches along the Columbia River littoral cell (northwest Oregon and southwest Washington) have exhibited net residual progradation of several meters per year over decades, resulting in significant shoreline realignment. This historical shoreline advance has been primarily due to the dispersal of sand from the flanks of the ebb-tidal deltas following jetty construction at the entrances to the Columbia River and Grays Harbor. The installation of jetties removed the shallow shoals from the influence of tidal currents, resulting in a shoreface profile that was too shallow for the inherent wave energy. Onshore transport of large quantities of sand occurred over the next several decades, decreasing through time. While much of the original source material is now exhausted, many beaches today are still rapidly accreting on inter-annual time scales. Gradients in alongshore sediment transport, net onshore directed cross-shore sediment transport within the surf zone, and cross-shore feeding from a shoreface out of equilibrium with forcing conditions may each be partially responsible for this continued accretion. The primary morphodynamic mechanism for sub-aerial beach growth, and shoreline progradation on a seasonal scale, is hypothesized to be the development, onshore migration, and welding of inter-tidal (swash) bars to the upper beach face. To investigate the processes and morphodynamics associated with accreting beaches we have completed two field experiments and are applying computational models that link measured sediment transport to wave and current forcing. Experiments completed in Spring 2001 and Summer 2002 combined process measurements with observations of

  3. Virtual Beach 3: User's Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beac...

  4. Fitness Conferred by BCR-ABL Kinase Domain Mutations Determines the Risk of Pre-Existing Resistance in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Skaggs, Brian; Gorre, Mercedes; Sawyers, Charles L.; Michor, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the first human malignancy to be successfully treated with a small molecule inhibitor, imatinib, targeting a mutant oncoprotein (BCR-ABL). Despite its successes, acquired resistance to imatinib leads to reduced drug efficacy and frequent progression of disease. Understanding the characteristics of pre-existing resistant cells is important for evaluating the benefits of first-line combination therapy with second generation inhibitors. However, due to limitations of assay sensitivity, determining the existence and characteristics of resistant cell clones at the start of therapy is difficult. Here we combined a mathematical modeling approach using branching processes with experimental data on the fitness changes (i.e., changes in net reproductive rate) conferred by BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations to investigate the likelihood, composition, and diversity of pre-existing resistance. Furthermore, we studied the impact of these factors on the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Our approach predicts that in most patients, there is at most one resistant clone present at the time of diagnosis of their disease. Interestingly, patients are no more likely to harbor the most aggressive, pan-resistant T315I mutation than any other resistance mutation; however, T315I cells on average establish larger-sized clones at the time of diagnosis. We established that for patients diagnosed late, the relative benefit of combination therapy over monotherapy with imatinib is significant, while this benefit is modest for patients with a typically early diagnosis time. These findings, after pre-clinical validation, will have implications for the clinical management of CML: we recommend that patients with advanced-phase disease be treated with combination therapy with at least two tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22140458

  5. Shoreline relaxation at pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Medina, Raul; Kakeh, Nabil; González, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    A new physical concept of relaxation time is introduced in this research as the time required for the beach to dissipate its initial perturbation. This concept is investigated using a simple beach-evolution model of shoreline rotation at pocket beaches, based on the assumption that the instantaneous change of the shoreline plan-view shape depends on the long-term equilibrium plan-view shape. The expression of relaxation time is developed function of the energy conditions and the physical characteristics of the beach; it increases at longer beaches having coarse sediments and experiencing low-energy conditions. The relaxation time, calculated by the developed model, is validated by the shoreline observations extracted from video images at two artificially embayed beaches of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean) suffering from perturbations of sand movement and a nourishment project. This finding is promising to estimate the shoreline response and useful to improve our understanding of the dynamic of pocket beaches and their stability.

  6. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  7. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies: 1993. [Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Public Policy Education Committee (43rd, Clearwater Beach, Florida, September 12-15, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

    The annual conference of the National Public Policy Education Committee (NPPEC) is held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. This publication contains 26 conference papers: "Rural America and the Information Revolution: An Exploration of Possibilities and Potentialities" (David…

  8. Non-Traditional and Interdisciplinary Programs: Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of Non-Traditional and Interdisciplinary Programs (5th, Virginia Beach, Virginia, May 4-6, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Kathleen, Comp.

    Nearly 100 conference papers from the George Mason University annual conference on nontraditional and interdisciplinary studies are presented. The are grouped into 14 categories: (1) assessment of prior learning, which includes "Lifelong Learning: Integrating the Liberal Arts and Experience in Adult General Education" (J. Gary Bernhard) and…

  9. Getting Aquainted with Beaches and Coasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWall, Allan E.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a shoreline is formed and how it changes, and why its changes do not always coincide with human plans. Subjects discussed include beaches, beach processes, inlets and beaches, and a marine glossary. (Author/DS)

  10. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  11. Beach-cusp formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger, A.H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments on beach-cusp formation were undertaken to document how the cuspate form develops and to test the edge-wave hypothesis on the uniform spacing of cusps. These involved observations of cusps forming from an initially plane foreshore. The cuspate form was observed to be a product of swash modification of an intertidal beach ridge as follows. A ridge, cut by a series of channels quasi-equally spaced along its length, was deposited onto the lower foreshore. The ridge migrated shoreward with flood tide, while the longshore positions of the channels remained fixed. On ebb tide, changes in swash circulation over the ridge allowed the upwash to flow shoreward through the channels and the channel mouths were eroded progressively wider until adjacent mouths met, effecting a cuspate shape. Measured spacings of cusps, ranging in size from less than 1 m to more than 12 m, agree well with computed spacings due to either zero-mode subharmonic or zero-mode synchronous edge waves. Edge-wave-induced longshore variations in run up will cause water ponded behind a ridge to converge at points of low swash and flow seaward as relatively narrow currents eroding channels spaced at one edge-wave wavelength for synchronous edge waves or one half wavelength for subharmonic edge waves. The channels are subsequently modified into cusp troughs as described above.

  12. Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of stern from starboard side showing through hull fittings for steering rods. - Sub Marine Explorer, Located along the beach of Isla San Telmo, Pearl Islands, Isla San Telmo, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  13. Beach Volume Change Using Uav Photogrammetry Songjung Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, C. I.; Oh, T. S.

    2016-06-01

    Natural beach is controlled by many factors related to wave and tidal forces, wind, sediment, and initial topography. For this reason, if numerous topographic data of beach is accurately collected, coastal erosion/acceleration is able to be assessed and clarified. Generally, however, many studies on coastal erosion have limitation to analyse the whole beach, carried out of partial area as like shoreline (horizontal 2D) and beach profile (vertical 2D) on account of limitation of numerical simulation. This is an important application for prevention of coastal erosion, and UAV photogrammetry is also used to 3D topographic data. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to 3D map and beach volume change. UAV (Quadcopter) equipped with a non-metric camera was used to acquire images in Songjung beach which is located south-east Korea peninsula. The dynamics of beach topography, its geometric properties and estimates of eroded and deposited sand volumes were determined by combining elevation data with quarterly RTK-VRS measurements. To explore the new possibilities for assessment of coastal change we have developed a methodology for 3D analysis of coastal topography evolution based on existing high resolution elevation data combined with low coast, UAV and on-ground RTK-VRS surveys. DSMs were obtained by stereo-matching using Agisoft Photoscan. Using GCPs the vertical accuracy of the DSMs was found to be 10 cm or better. The resulting datasets were integrated in a local coordinates and the method proved to be a very useful fool for the detection of areas where coastal erosion occurs and for the quantification of beach change. The value of such analysis is illustrated by applications to coastal of South Korea sites that face significant management challenges.

  14. Mutations Conferring Resistance to SCH6, a Novel Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitor: Reduced DNA Replication Fitness and Partial Rescue by Second-Site Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, MinKyung; Tong, Xiao; Skelton, Angela; Chase, Robert; Chen, Tong; Prongay, Andrew; Bogen, Stephane L.; Saksena, Anil K.; Njoroge, F. George; Veselenak, Ronald L.; Pyles, Richard B.; Bourne, Nigel; Malcolm, Bruce A.; Lemon, Stanley M.

    2008-06-30

    Drug resistance is a major issue in the development and use of specific antiviral therapies. Here we report the isolation and characterization of hepatitis C virus RNA replicons resistant to a novel ketoamide inhibitor of the NS3/4A protease, SCH6 (originally SCH446211). Resistant replicon RNAs were generated by G418 selection in the presence of SCH6 in a dose-dependent fashion, with the emergence of resistance reduced at higher SCH6 concentrations. Sequencing demonstrated remarkable consistency in the mutations conferring SCH6 resistance in genotype 1b replicons derived from two different strains of hepatitis C virus, A156T/A156V and R109K. R109K, a novel mutation not reported previously to cause resistance to NS3/4A inhibitors, conferred moderate resistance only to SCH6. Structural analysis indicated that this reflects unique interactions of SCH6 with P{prime}-side residues in the protease active site. In contrast, A156T conferred high level resistance to SCH6 and a related ketoamide, SCH503034, as well as BILN 2061 and VX-950. Unlike R109K, which had minimal impact on NS3/4A enzymatic function, A156T significantly reduced NS3/4A catalytic efficiency, polyprotein processing, and replicon fitness. However, three separate second-site mutations, P89L, Q86R, and G162R, were capable of partially reversing A156T-associated defects in polyprotein processing and/or replicon fitness, without significantly reducing resistance to the protease inhibitor.

  15. WebWise 2.0: The Power of Community. WebWise Conference on Libraries and Museums in the Digital World Proceedings (9th, Miami Beach, Florida, March 5-7, 2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David

    2009-01-01

    Since it was coined by Tim O'Reilly in formulating the first Web 2.0 Conference in 2004, the term "Web 2.0" has definitely caught on as a designation of a second generation of Web design and experience that emphasizes a high degree of interaction with, and among, users. Rather than simply consulting and reading Web pages, the Web 2.0 generation is…

  16. 23S rRNA mutation A2074C conferring high-level macrolide resistance and fitness cost in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Yulian; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2009-12-01

    To examine the development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and assess the fitness of the macrolide-resistant mutants, two macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni strains, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 33291 and H1, from different geographic areas were exposed to tylosin in vitro. Multiple mutant strains were obtained from the selection. Most of the high-level macrolide-resistant strains derived from the selection exhibited the A2074C transversion in all three copies of 23S rRNA and displayed strong stability in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. The competition experiments demonstrated that the strains containing the A2074C transversion imposed a fitness cost in competition mixtures. In addition, the fitness cost of the mutation was not ameliorated after approximately 500 generations of evolution under laboratory conditions. These findings indicate that the A2074C transversion in C. jejuni is not only correlated with stable and high-level macrolide resistance but also associated with a fitness cost. PMID:19857128

  17. Human Health at the Beach

    MedlinePlus

    ... near the site where polluted discharges enter the water. Pollution can also come from high concentrations of farm ... is available online. Other Beach Safety Topics Beyond water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health ...

  18. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  19. Preliminary Model Results of Beach Profile Dynamics with Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reniers, A. J.; Koktas, M.; Gallagher, E. L.; Wadman, H. M.; Brodie, K. L.; Johnson, B. D.; McNinch, J.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of spatial variation in grain size within the surf and swash zone is often ignored in numerical modeling whereas Upon closer inspection, a broad range of grain sizes is visible on a beach. This could potentially lead to a significant mismatch between predictions and observations of profile evolution given the strong sensitivity of sediment transport formulae to the grain size. To explore this in more detail, numerical simulations with XBeach have been performed to simulate the observations of changes in beach profile and stratigraphy within the swash zone at Duck, NC, under a range of wave and tidal conditions (see presentations by Wadman et al., and Gallagher et al. for complementary information on the observations at this conference). The research focus is to establish the morphodynamic response to the sediment dynamics at short and longer time scales in the presence of stratigraphy. A better understanding of the mechanisms and subsequently improved modeling will provide more accurate predictions of the morphodynamic response of the beach during moderate and extreme conditions. It will also help in the interpretation of sediment layering of the beach to relate to past extreme storms on geological time scales.

  20. Popham Beach, Maine: An example of engineering activity that saved beach property without harming the beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Joseph T.

    2013-10-01

    Beach and property erosion on coasts is a widespread and chronic problem. Historical approaches to this issue, including seawalls and sand replenishment, are often inappropriate or too expensive. In Maine, seawalls were banned in 1983 and replenishment is too costly to employ. Replacement of storm-damaged buildings is also not allowed, and a precedent case on Popham Beach, Maine required that the owner remove an unpermitted building from a site where an earlier structure was damaged. When the most popular park in Maine, Popham Beach State Park, experienced inlet associated erosion that threatened park infrastructure (a bathhouse), temporary measures were all that the law allowed. Because it was clear that the inlet channel causing the erosion would eventually change course, the state opted to erect a temporary seawall with fallen trees at the site. This may or may not have slowed the erosion temporarily, but reassured the public that "something was being done". Once a storm cut a new tidal inlet channel and closed off the old one, tidal water still entered the former channel and continued to threaten the bathhouse. To ultimately save the property, beach scraping was employed. Sand was scraped from the lower beach to construct a sand berm that deflected the tidal current away from the endangered property. This action created enough time for natural processes to drive the remains of the former spit onto the beach and widen it significantly. Whereas many examples of engineering practices exist that endanger instead of saving beaches, this example is one of an appropriate engineering effort to rescue unwisely located beach-front property.

  1. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, M. L.; Guza, R. T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2011-04-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach.

  2. Equilibrium shoreline response of a high wave energy beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, M.L.; Guza, R.T.; O'Reilly, W. C.; Hansen, J.E.; Barnard, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Four years of beach elevation surveys at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, are used to extend an existing equilibrium shoreline change model, previously calibrated with fine sand and moderate energy waves, to medium sand and higher-energy waves. The shoreline, characterized as the cross-shore location of the mean high water contour, varied seasonally by between 30 and 60 m, depending on the alongshore location. The equilibrium shoreline change model relates the rate of horizontal shoreline displacement to the hourly wave energy E and the wave energy disequilibrium, the difference between E and the equilibrium wave energy that would cause no change in the present shoreline location. Values for the model shoreline response coefficients are tuned to fit the observations in 500 m alongshore segments and averaged over segments where the model has good skill and the estimated effects of neglected alongshore sediment transport are relatively small. Using these representative response coefficients for 0.3 mm sand from Ocean Beach and driving the model with much lower-energy winter waves observed at San Onofre Beach (also 0.3 mm sand) in southern California, qualitatively reproduces the small seasonal shoreline fluctuations at San Onofre. This consistency suggests that the shoreline model response coefficients depend on grain size and may be constant, and thus transportable, between sites with similar grain size and different wave climates. The calibrated model response coefficients predict that for equal fluctuations in wave energy, changes in shoreline location on a medium-grained (0.3 mm) beach are much smaller than on a previously studied fine-grained (0.2 mm) beach. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Landing Techniques in Beach Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ2(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ2(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ2(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key Points About 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot. Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women. Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions. Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  4. Landing techniques in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Markus; Rindler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish a detailed and representative record of landing techniques (two-, left-, and right-footed landings) in professional beach volleyball and compare the data with those of indoor volleyball. Beach volleyball data was retrieved from videos taken at FIVB World Tour tournaments. Landing techniques were compared in the different beach and indoor volleyball skills serve, set, attack, and block with regard to sex, playing technique, and court position. Significant differences were observed between men and women in landings following block actions (χ(2)(2) = 18.19, p < 0.01) but not following serve, set, and attack actions. Following blocking, men landed more often on one foot than women. Further differences in landings following serve and attack with regard to playing technique and position were mainly observed in men. The comparison with landing techniques in indoor volleyball revealed overall differences both in men (χ(2)(2) = 161.4, p < 0.01) and women (χ(2)(2) = 84.91, p < 0.01). Beach volleyball players land more often on both feet than indoor volleyball players. Besides the softer surface in beach volleyball, and therefore resulting lower loads, these results might be another reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions compared to indoor volleyball. Key PointsAbout 1/3 of all jumping actions in beach volleyball result in a landing on one foot.Especially following block situations men land on one foot more often than women.Landing techniques are related to different techniques and positions.Landings on one foot are less common in beach volleyball than indoor volleyball. This could be a reason for fewer injuries and overuse conditions. PMID:24149150

  5. One Size Does Not Fit All: Individualized Instruction in a Standardized Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moores, Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    This essay is based on a keynote address, "A Tour of the Horizons," presented to the 2012 annual conference of the Association of College Educators/Deaf and Hard of Hearing (ACE/DHH), held in Atlantic Beach, Florida.

  6. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  7. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  8. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  9. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  10. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  11. 76 FR 37700 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  12. 77 FR 14321 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Waterway in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the Myrtle Beach Triathlon. The Myrtle Beach...

  13. Selected Papers Presented at MODSIM World 2011 Conference and Expo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E. (Compiler); Bullock, Leanna S. (Compiler)

    2012-01-01

    Selected papers from MODSIM World 2011 Conference & Expo are contained in this NASA Conference Publication (CP). MODSIM World 2011 was held in Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 11-14, 2011. The theme of the 2011 conference & expo was "Overcoming Critical Global Challenges with Modeling & Simulation". The conference program consisted of five technical tracks - Defense, Homeland Security & First Responders; Education; Health & Medicine; The Human Dimension; and Serious Games & Virtual Worlds.

  14. Migrant Education. Third Annual Regional Workshop (Virginia Beach, Va., March 5-9, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachman, Cynthia P., Comp.

    The Third Annual Regional Workshop on Migrant Education was held on March 5-9, 1972 in Virginia Beach, Virginia. This conference was for migrant educators from the Eastern Stream states extending from the Gulf of Mexico north to New England. Over 480 participants met, coordinating their ideas and experiences to create a better world for the…

  15. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2... Licensee and Owner from ``FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC'' to ``NextEra Energy Point Beach, LLC.''...

  16. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  17. Aeolian sediment transport on a beach with a varying sediment supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, S.; Arens, S. M.; de Schipper, M. A.; Ranasinghe, R.

    2014-12-01

    Variability in aeolian sediment transport rates have traditionally been explain by variability in wind speed. Although it is recognised in literature that limitations in sediment supply can influence sediment transport significantly, most models that predict aeolian sediment transport attribute a dominant role to the magnitude of the wind speed. In this paper it is proposed that spatio-temporal variability of aeolian sediment transport on beaches can be dominated by variations in sediment supply rather than variations in wind speed. A new dataset containing wind speed, direction and sediment transport is collected during a 3 day field campaign at Vlugtenburg beach, The Netherlands. During the measurement campaign, aeolian sediment transport varied in time with the tide while wind speed remained constant. During low tide, measured transport was significantly larger than during high tide. Measured spatial gradients in sediment transport at the lower and upper beaches during fairly constant wind conditions suggest that aeolian sediment transport on beaches may be partly governed by the spatial variability in sediment supply, with relatively large supply in the intertidal zone when exposed and small supply on the upper beach due to sorting processes. The measurements support earlier findings that the intertidal zone can be significant source of sediment for sediment transport on beaches. Both a traditional cubic model (with respect to the wind speed) and a newly proposed linear model are fitted to the field data. The fit quality of both types of models are found to be similar.

  18. Evolution of KaiC-Dependent Timekeepers: A Proto-circadian Timing Mechanism Confers Adaptive Fitness in the Purple Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Peijun; Mori, Tetsuya; Zhao, Chi; Thiel, Teresa; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2016-01-01

    Circadian (daily) rhythms are a fundamental and ubiquitous property of eukaryotic organisms. However, cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotic group for which bona fide circadian properties have been persuasively documented, even though homologs of the cyanobacterial kaiABC central clock genes are distributed widely among Eubacteria and Archaea. We report the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris (that harbors homologs of kaiB and kaiC) only poorly sustains rhythmicity in constant conditions–a defining characteristic of circadian rhythms. Moreover, the biochemical characteristics of the Rhodopseudomonas homolog of the KaiC protein in vivo and in vitro are different from those of cyanobacterial KaiC. Nevertheless, R. palustris cells exhibit adaptive kaiC-dependent growth enhancement in 24-h cyclic environments, but not under non-natural constant conditions. Therefore, our data indicate that Rhodopseudomonas does not have a classical circadian rhythm, but a novel timekeeping mechanism that does not sustain itself in constant conditions. These results question the adaptive value of self-sustained oscillatory capability for daily timekeepers and establish new criteria for circadian-like systems that are based on adaptive properties (i.e., fitness enhancement in rhythmic environments), rather than upon observations of persisting rhythms in constant conditions. We propose that the Rhodopseudomonas system is a "proto" circadian timekeeper, as in an ancestral system that is based on KaiC and KaiB proteins and includes some, but not necessarily all, of the canonical properties of circadian clocks. These data indicate reasonable intermediate steps by which bona fide circadian systems evolved in simple organisms. PMID:26982486

  19. Beach lamination: Nature and origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    A distinctive two-fold sedimentation unit characterizes lamination in the upper swash zone of beaches. Within the unit a fine and/or a heavy mineral rich layer at the base grades upward into a coarser and/or a heavy mineral poor layer at the top. This distinctive type of lamination results from grain segregation within bed flow during wave backwash. ?? 1969.

  20. Inside the "Long Beach Way"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article features Long Beach Unified School District, the 2003 winner of a prestigious prize in urban education. The district of more than 90,000 students is the first winner of the award to return to the competition as a finalist. Its reappearance on the list after earning the prize in 2003 raises interesting questions about how districts…

  1. Virtual Beach 3: user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyterski, Mike; Brooks, Wesley; Galvin, Mike; Wolfe, Kurt; Carvin, Rebecca; Roddick, Tonia; Fienen, Mike; Corsi, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Beach version 3 (VB3) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations at recreational beaches. VB3 is primarily designed for beach managers responsible for making decisions regarding beach closures or the issuance of swimming advisories due to pathogen contamination. However, researchers, scientists, engineers, and students interested in studying relationships between water quality indicators and ambient environmental conditions will find VB3 useful. VB3 reads input data from a text file or Excel document, assists the user in preparing the data for analysis, enables automated model selection using a wide array of possible model evaluation criteria, and provides predictions using a chosen model parameterized with new data. With an integrated mapping component to determine the geographic orientation of the beach, the software can automatically decompose wind/current/wave speed and magnitude information into along-shore and onshore/offshore components for use in subsequent analyses. Data can be examined using simple scatter plots to evaluate relationships between the response and independent variables (IVs). VB3 can produce interaction terms between the primary IVs, and it can also test an array of transformations to maximize the linearity of the relationship The software includes search routines for finding the "best" models from an array of possible choices. Automated censoring of statistical models with highly correlated IVs occurs during the selection process. Models can be constructed either using previously collected data or forecasted environmental information. VB3 has residual diagnostics for regression models, including automated outlier identification and removal using DFFITs or Cook's Distances.

  2. Sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya

    2010-05-01

    This study attempts to establish a system for the sequential monitoring of beach litter using webcams placed at the Ookushi beach, Goto Islands, Japan, to establish the temporal variability in the quantities of beach litter every 90 min over a one and a half year period. The time series of the quantities of beach litter, computed by counting pixels with a greater lightness than a threshold value in photographs, shows that litter does not increase monotonically on the beach, but fluctuates mainly on a monthly time scale or less. To investigate what factors influence this variability, the time derivative of the quantity of beach litter is compared with satellite-derived wind speeds. It is found that the beach litter quantities vary largely with winds, but there may be other influencing factors. PMID:20392465

  3. Carbonate Beaches: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nairn, R.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    of 40 years. The long-term predictive tool for carbonate beach evolution provided valuable support to developing coastal zone management policy and actions to preserve the beaches in their natural form, minimizing the need for artificial nourishment of the beaches. Many models of sediment movement on shorelines are derived from clastic examples, and fit carbonate coastlines only with difficulty. We have combined field surveys of benthic biota, estimates of sediment production from skeletal growth and bioerosion, and sediment destruction by comminution and dissolution with dynamic models of sediment movement in the littoral zone, achieving improved understanding of coastal processes of erosion and deposition. Mauritius is fringed by shallow lagoons, often with luxuriant stands of Acropora. The offshore region is exhumed Pleistocene-all the sediment on the beaches comes from the lagoons. From surveys of coral cover, and estimates of sediment production from reef, sand and hardground areas, we produced dynamic models that faithfully hindcast shoreline dynamics for decades, and allowed identification of regions especially vulnerable to erosion. On the south coast of Barbados, one of the main issues in stabilising and rehabilitation the coastline is the balance between sediment from longshore drift and local sources. By identifying localised areas of characteristic sediment-producers (e.g., the foraminiferan Homotrema rubrum, the green alga Halimeda), we were able to determine the balance between proximal and distal sediment sources. The resulting model hindcasts the coastline through all the major hurricanes of the past 30 years.

  4. Recharge into a shingle beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, T.

    1984-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater recharge in the U.K. has been calculated by the Penman method on a monthly basis, using values of potential evaporation derived from averaged meteorological data and monthly totals of rainfall. Recent work by K.W.F. Howard and J.W. Lloyd has shown that these monthly totals considerably underestimate recharge calculated over shorter time periods and they suggested that 1-day, or at worst, 10-day intervals should be used. In this paper field experiments to measure recharge into a shingle beach are reported. These experiments were made with a lysimeter over a 6-yr. period and have shown that recharge into the shingle occurs whenever significant precipitation occurs, even during the summer months. The Penman model is shown to be unrealistic for estimating recharge into such a beach and an alternative model for calculating recharge is proposed. This model is shown to yield good results.

  5. Contact with beach sand among beach-goers and risk of illness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recently, numerous studies of fecal contamination of beach sand have triggered interest among scientists, the news media, and the general public. Evidence shows that beach sand harbors higher concentrations of fecal indicator organisms (microbes considered to indicate...

  6. Beach monitoring criteria: reading the fine print

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Beach monitoring programs aim to decrease swimming-related illnesses resulting from exposure to harmful microbes in recreational waters, while providing maximum beach access. Managers are advised by the U.S. EPA to estimate microbiological water quality based on a 5-day geometric mean of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations or on a jurisdiction-specific single-sample maximum; however, most opt instead to apply a default single-sample maximum to ease application. We examined whether re-evaluation of the U.S. EPA ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) and the epidemiological studies on which they are based could increase public beach access without affecting presumed health risk. Single-sample maxima were calculated using historic monitoring data for 50 beaches along coastal Lake Michigan on various temporal and spatial groupings to assess flexibility in the application of the AWQC. No calculation on either scale was as low as the default maximum (235 CFU/100 mL) that managers typically use, indicating that current applications may be more conservative than the outlined AWQC. It was notable that beaches subject to point source FIB contamination had lower variation, highlighting the bias in the standards for these beaches. Until new water quality standards are promulgated, more site-specific application of the AWQC may benefit beach managers by allowing swimmers greater access to beaches. This issue will be an important consideration in addressing the forthcoming beach monitoring standards.

  7. USING HYDROGRAPHIC DATA AND THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH MODEL TO TEST PREDICTIONS OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling study of 2006 Huntington Beach (Lake Erie) beach bacteria concentrations indicates multi-variable linear regression (MLR) can effectively estimate bacteria concentrations compared to the persistence model. Our use of the Virtual Beach (VB) model affirms that fact. VB i...

  8. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS USING EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence shows that traditional persistence-based beach closure decision making is inadequate, beaches are closed when they could be open and kept open when they should be closed. Intense interest is now focused on efforts to nowcast beach conditions using surrogate variables, su...

  9. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  10. VISUAL BEACH: SOFTWARE FOR ACHIEVING BEACH AESTHETIC AND PUBLIC HEALTH PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 directs the EPA to assure that 100% of significant public beaches are managed by 2008. Under the Act EPA is developing a program to monitor beach water quality and strategies for timely notification of the public...

  11. 130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DETAILS. Sheet 11 of 11 (#3284) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LIGHTING DIAGRAM. Sheet lO of 11 (#3283) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  13. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  14. 120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 2 of 11 (#3274) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  15. 7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST FROM BEACH; SHOWING 27TH BENT LANDWARD TO MAXWELL'S RESTAURANT, NEPTUNE'S GALLEY (RIGHT OF CENTER) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  16. 8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING 17TH BENT TO END; NEPTUNE'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: EXTENSION DETAILS Sheet 7 of 11 (#3280) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF STAIRWAY UP FROM BEACH TO PIER APPROACH, NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. 127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: FRAMING DETAILS Sheet 8 of 11 (#3281) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  20. 121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXISTING PIER Sheet 3 of 11 (#3275) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GROUND VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM BEACH; SHOWING (LEFT-RIGHT) CAPTAIN'S GALLEY'S GALLEY TO END OF PIER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  2. 122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: LAYOUT OF EXTENSION TO PIER Sheet 4 of 11 (#3276) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER APPROACH TO MID-SECTION Sheet 1 of 9 (#3252) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: BOAT LANDING DETAILS Sheet 9 of 11 (#3282) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING SOUTH. BANDSHELL IS AT RIGHT Photograph #1574-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: REPAIR DETAILS Sheet 5 of 11 (#3277) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. PLAN AND ELEVATION OF HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: PIER MID-SECTION TO END Sheet 2 of 9 (#3253) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  10. Long Beach's Pivotal Turn around RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article briefly describes the tiered approach to intervention adopted by the Long Beach Unified School District. Long Beach Unified School District is the state's third largest urban school district with more than 90,000 students, 84 percent of whom are minority and 68 percent of whom qualify for free and reduced price lunch, and where over…

  11. A Study of Sandy Beach Zonation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Steve K.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the study of sandy beach zonations as a seashore activity for either high school or lower-level college courses in biology, ecology, or marine biology. Students first draw a profile of a beach scene and then collect specimens from the zones of the shore. In a laboratory, students identify their specimens and relate them to the beach…

  12. PREDICTING BACTERIAL CONCENTRATION ON THE NATION'S BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A classical example of the failure of institutions and environmental technology to protect the nation's aesthetic, recreational, and public health values is represented by the July-August, 1999 Huntington Beach, California beach closure. This multi-million dollar regional public ...

  13. Earthquakes and beach ridges on Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, J.; Ortuno, M.; Thibault, C.; Higman, B.; Pinegina, T.

    2003-04-01

    There are several proposed origins for beach ridges, or berms, with the majority of studies focused on Atlantic-type margins. Primary factors invoked for beach-ridge formation include changes in sea-level, in wave climate, and in sediment supply. On subduction-zone margins, co-seismic deformation can force any of these three factors. For example, subsidence of the shoreline (local sea level rise) will generally lead to coastal erosion, whereas shoreline uplift (subduing local wave climate) will strand beach ridges. Earthquake-triggered landslides may significantly increase sediment supply. Some authors working on Pacific margins have correlated either beach ridges (e.g., A. Kurbatov on Kamchatka; P. Saltonstall and G. Carver on Kodiak), or buried erosional scarps (e.g. R.A. Meyers et al., Washington State) with subduction-zone earthquakes and the seismic cycle. Our work on Kamchatka provides examples where buried scarps and beach ridges are superimposed, each pair of which we interpret to be the result of a single seismic cycle, apparently consistent with some other data and interpretations (Kodiak, particularly). That is, in a setting where the shoreline subsides during an earthquake and recovers thereafter, beach ridges overlie buried scarps. In one case on Kamchatka, in southern Vestnik Bay, there is a spectacular outcrop illustrating this relationship. This model by no means explains all beach ridges, so identifying earthquake-forced beach ridges remains a challenge.

  14. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  15. Suprabenthic biodiversity of Catalan beaches (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munilla, T.; San Vicente, C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the suprabenthos has been carried out on 13 diverse type beaches in Catalonian coast (NE of Spain). A total of 29 717 specimens, belonging to 145 species and eight different zoological groups (mysids, amphipods, cumaceans, isopods, tanaidaceans, decapods, pycnogonids, and teleostean fishes) were obtained. The suprabenthos of Catalan beaches were characterized by a mean density of 40 ind. m -2, by the abundance of Mysids (75% of the total density) and by the higher diversity of Amphipods (64 species). Five population species were considered as typical of suprabenthic assemblages: Schistomysis assimilis, Mesopodopsis slabberi, Atylus guttatus, Pontocrates altamarinus, and Cumopsis goodsir. Four main types of beaches with different number of suprabenthic species and densities and three main faunistic groups are described and related to environmental physical factors of the analysed beaches (morphodynamics, exposure, etc.). The macrofaunal trend about to that the species richness decrease from dissipative to reflective beaches is confirmed for the suprabenthic communities.

  16. Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashi, Ferim; Nikolli, Pal

    2015-04-01

    Dynamics of Shengjini beach (Albania) Pal Nikolli , Ferim GASHI Through archaeological and historical data, presentations of ancient topographic, cartographic materials (topographic maps obtained at different periods from 1870 to 1990), aerial photographs (2007), satellite images (2014) and direct measurements, paper defines and analyzes the position of the coastline of Shengjini beach (Lezha) from century XVI until today. The coastline of the Shengjini city (port) to Drin River estuary is oriented north-south direction and is approximately 10.5 km long. This part of the coast is sandy and sediment comes mainly from the River Drin and distributed by currents along the coast. In this paper are make provision for the position of the coastline in the future and analyzed the possibilities of human intervention in the coastal environment , etc. This work forms the basis for the issuance of necessary data required for various projections at the coastal environment Shëngjini. Results of this study will have a significant impact on state policies for integrated management of the coastal zone in the study and development of tourism. Key words: GIS, Remonte Sennsing, cartography, management of coastal zone, tourism, environment.

  17. Fitness Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... that gets your heart pumping, such as dancing, running, or swimming laps. How hard you exercise matters, too. You can learn how to measure your workout to see if it is light, medium, or intense. Fitness for all Do you have an illness or ...

  18. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  19. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  20. A hybrid beach morphology model applied to a high energy sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunarathna, Harshinie; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Reeve, Dominic E.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the application of a hybrid coastal morphodynamic model to forecast inter-annual beach change is discussed through the prediction of beach change in a high energy sandy beach over a period of 5 years. The modelling approach combines a `reduced-physics' formulation with a data-driven approach through an inverse technique to form the hybrid coastal morphodynamic model. The beach considered for the demonstration of the model is the Narrabeen Beach, which is a dynamic sand beach located in New South Wales, Australia. Despite its simplicity, we find that the model is able to capture beach change at Narrabeen Beach at inter-annual timescales with root mean square error between measured and computed beach profiles less than 0.4 m on average. Even though the model is used to forecast inter-annual beach change in this study, its ability to predict beach change is not limited to that timescale but depends on the frequency of historic beach profile measurements available to determine key unknown parameters of the model. Also, the length of profile forecasts largely depends on the length of available historic measurements where longer data sets allow longer predictions within a range of beach behaviour contained in the observations. The ability of the model to reliably forecast coastal change at inter-annual and potentially at other timescales, and its high efficiency make it possible to be used in providing multiple simulations required for probabilistic coastal change forecasts which will be very useful for coastal management purposes.

  1. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  2. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, which authorize operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and...

  3. The Different Faces of San Francisco's Ocean Beach: Analyzing Sand Size and Beach Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Labit, R.; Lui, S.; Rodriquez, I.; Yi, C.; Yu, M.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean Beach is located along the western edge of San Francisco adjacent to the Pacific Ocean. Erosion along the southern part of the beach is threatening a nearby highway and water treatment plant. To better understand this beach and the processes that form it, our SF-ROCKS research group collected data from seven locations along its length. We used an auto-level surveying instrument to measure beach profiles and we collected sand samples that were measured using sieves and a sieve shaker. We plotted profiles and grain-size data using Excel and Surfer software. The sediment is mostly fine sand, and the means of all samples range between 0.19-0.26 mm. There may be little variation along the beach because only small sand grains have survived the long journey from their Sierra Nevada source. Profile shape does vary along the beach. The profile at the northern end is about three times wider than the profile at the southern end. The northern profile is flatter overall, but all profiles had a steep beach face in August, when the data were collected. The differences in beach profiles may be related to position relative to the offshore bar, which appears to provide sand to the northern part of the beach. Our group will collect more data in November to see what changes have occurred after the large-wave season has begun. We will use Surfer software to compare summer and fall profiles, to see where sediment has been added and where sediment has been removed. We will also compare our results to the data collected by Dr. Patrick Barnard and his research group at the U.S. Geological Survey, who are using an All-Terrain Vehicle to measure beach profiles and a camera to measure sediment size. We will use our analysis of beach variations to make recommendations for reducing beach erosion.

  4. Morphodynamics of a mesotidal rocky beach: Palmeras beach, Gorgona Island National Natural Park, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, A. M.; Bernal, G. R.; Osorio, A. F.; Botero, V.

    2014-10-01

    The response of a rocky beach to different possible combinations of hydrodynamic conditions (tides, waves, oceanic currents) has been little studied. In this work, the morphodynamic response to different hydrodynamic forcing is evaluated from sedimentological and geomorphological analysis in seasonal and medium term (19 years) scale in Palmeras beach, located in the southwest of Gorgona Island National Natural Park (NNP), a mesotidal rocky island on the Colombian Pacific continental shelf. Palmeras is an important nesting area of two types of marine turtles, with no anthropogenic stress. In the last years, coastal erosion has reduced the beach width, restricting the safe areas for nesting and conservation of these species. Until now, the sinks, sources, reservoirs, rates, and paths of sediments were unknown, as well as their hydrodynamic forcing. The beach seasonal variability, from October 2010 to August 2012, was analyzed based on biweekly or monthly measurements of five beach profiles distributed every 200 m along the 1.2 km of beach length. The main paths for sediment transport were defined from the modeling of wave currents with the SMC model (Coastal Modeling System), as well as the oceanic currents, simulated for the dry and wet seasons of 2011 using the ELCOM model (Estuary and Lake COmputer Model). Extreme morphologic variations over a time span of 19 years were analyzed with the Hsu and Evans beach static equilibrium parabolic model, from one wave diffraction point which dominates the general beach plan shape. The beach lost 672 m3/m during the measuring period, and erosional processes were intensified during the wet season. The beach trends responded directly to a wave mean energy flux change, resulting in an increase of up to 14 m in the width northward and loss of sediments in the beach southward. This study showed that to obtain the integral morphodynamic behavior of a rocky beach it is necessary to combine information of hydrodynamic, sedimentology

  5. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  6. Distribution, characterization, and exposure of MC252 oil in the supratidal beach environment.

    PubMed

    Lemelle, Kendall R; Elango, Vijaikrishnah; Pardue, John H

    2014-07-01

    The distribution and characteristics of MC252 oil:sand aggregates, termed surface residue balls (SRBs), were measured on the supratidal beach environment of oil-impacted Fourchon Beach in Louisiana (USA). Probability distributions of 4 variables, surface coverage (%), size of SRBs (mm(2) of projected area), mass of SRBs per m(2) (g/m(2)), and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes in the SRBs (mg of crude oil component per kg of SRB) were determined using parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques. Surface coverage of SRBs, an operational remedial standard for the beach surface, was a gamma-distributed variable ranging from 0.01% to 8.1%. The SRB sizes had a mean of 90.7 mm(2) but fit no probability distribution, and a nonparametric ranking was used to describe the size distributions. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 2.5 mg/kg to 126 mg/kg of SRB. Individual PAH concentration distributions, consisting primarily of alkylated phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes, and chrysenes, did not consistently fit a parametric distribution. Surface coverage was correlated with an oil mass per unit area but with a substantial error at lower coverage (i.e., <2%). These data provide probabilistic risk assessors with the ability to specify uncertainty in PAH concentration, exposure frequency, and ingestion rate, based on SRB characteristics for the dominant oil form on beaches along the US Gulf Coast. PMID:24902670

  7. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  8. Macrodebris and microplastics from beaches in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Laglbauer, Betty J L; Franco-Santos, Rita Melo; Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Brunelli, Lisa; Papadatou, Maria; Palatinus, Andreja; Grego, Mateja; Deprez, Tim

    2014-12-15

    The amount of marine debris in the environment is increasing worldwide, which results in an array of negative effects to biota. This study provides the first account of macrodebris on the beach and microplastics in the sediment (shoreline and infralittoral) in relation to tourism activities in Slovenia. The study assessed the quality and quantity of macrodebris and the quality, size and quantity of microplastics at six beaches, contrasting those under the influences of tourism and those that were not. Beach cleanliness was estimated using the Clean Coast Index. Tourism did not seem to have an effect on macrodebris or microplastic quantity at beaches. Over 64% of macrodebris was plastic, and microplastics were ubiquitous, which calls for classification of plastics as hazardous materials. Standard measures for marine debris assessment are needed, especially in the form of an all-encompassing debris index. Recommendations for future assessments are provided for the Adriatic region. PMID:25440193

  9. What Is the Impact of Beach Debris?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Jax, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Presents a marine education activity. Students construct a web of changes that shows potential problems caused by solid waste on beaches. They then determine whether each change is an increase or a decrease from previous conditions. (Author/SOE)

  10. Differentiating experts' anticipatory skills in beach volleyball.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos of attack sequences that were occluded at three different times and to predict the outcome of these situations. Results showed that expert players and coaches (who were both perceptual-motor experts) outperformed the expert referees (who were watching experts but did not have the same motor expertise) and the control group in the latest occlusion condition (i.e., at spiker-ball contact). This finding suggests that perceptual-motor expertise may contribute to successful action anticipation in beach volleyball. PMID:22276408

  11. Plastics and beaches: a degrading relationship.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Biesinger, Mark C; Grifi, Meriem

    2009-01-01

    Plastic debris in Earth's oceans presents a serious environmental issue because breakdown by chemical weathering and mechanical erosion is minimal at sea. Following deposition on beaches, plastic materials are exposed to UV radiation and physical processes controlled by wind, current, wave and tide action. Plastic particles from Kauai's beaches were sampled to determine relationships between composition, surface textures, and plastics degradation. SEM images indicated that beach plastics feature both mechanically eroded and chemically weathered surface textures. Granular oxidation textures were concentrated along mechanically weakened fractures and along the margins of the more rounded plastic particles. Particles with oxidation textures also produced the most intense peaks in the lower wavenumber region of FTIR spectra. The textural results suggest that plastic debris is particularly conducive to both chemical and mechanical breakdown in beach environments, which cannot be said for plastics in other natural settings on Earth. PMID:18834997

  12. Elements of a predictive model for determining beach closures on a real time basis: the case of 63rd Street Beach Chicago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olyphant, Greg A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Data on hydrometeorological conditions and E. coli concentration were simultaneously collected on 57 occasions during the summer of 2000 at 63rd Street Beach, Chicago, Illinois. The data were used to identify and calibrate a statistical regression model aimed at predicting when the bacterial concentration of the beach water was above or below the level considered safe for full body contact. A wide range of hydrological, meteorological, and water quality variables were evaluated as possible predictive variables. These included wind speed and direction, incoming solar radiation (insolation), various time frames of rainfall, air temperature, lake stage and wave height, and water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity. The best-fit model combined real-time measurements of wind direction and speed (onshore component of resultant wind vector), rainfall, insolation, lake stage, water temperature and turbidity to predict the geometric mean E.coliconcentration in the swimming zone of the beach. The model, which contained both additive and multiplicative (interaction) terms, accounted for 71% of the observed variability in the log E. coliconcentrations. A comparison between model predictions of when the beach should be closed and when the actualbacterial concentrations were above or below the 235 cfu 100 ml-1 threshold value, indicated that the model accurately predicted openingsversus closures 88% of the time.

  13. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  14. An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexandrakis, George; Poulos, Serafim Ε

    2014-01-01

    Erosion is a major threat for coasts worldwide, beaches in particular, which constitute one of the most valuable coastal landforms. Vulnerability assessments related to beach erosion may contribute to planning measures to counteract erosion by identifying, quantifying and ranking vulnerability. Herein, we present a new index, the Beach Vulnerability Index (BVI), which combines simplicity in calculations, easily obtainable data and low processing capacity. This approach provides results not only for different beaches, but also for different sectors of the same beach and enables the identification of the relative significance of the processes involved. It functions through the numerical approximation of indicators that correspond to the mechanisms related to the processes that control beach evolution, such as sediment availability, wave climate, beach morhodynamics and sea level change. The BVI is also intended to be used as a managerial tool for beach sustainability, including resilience to climate change impact on beach erosion. PMID:25123815

  15. Setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Linda; Nel, Ronel; Holness, Stephen; Sink, Kerry; Schoeman, David

    2014-10-01

    Representative and adequate reserve networks are key to conserving biodiversity. This begs the question, how much of which features need to be placed in protected areas? Setting specifically-derived conservation targets for most ecosystems is common practice; however, this has never been done for sandy beaches. The aims of this paper, therefore, are to propose a methodology for setting conservation targets for sandy beach ecosystems; and to pilot the proposed method using data describing biodiversity patterns and processes from microtidal beaches in South Africa. First, a classification scheme of valued features of beaches is constructed, including: biodiversity features; unique features; and important processes. Second, methodologies for setting targets for each feature under different data-availability scenarios are described. From this framework, targets are set for features characteristic of microtidal beaches in South Africa, as follows. 1) Targets for dune vegetation types were adopted from a previous assessment, and ranged 19-100%. 2) Targets for beach morphodynamic types (habitats) were set using species-area relationships (SARs). These SARs were derived from species richness data from 142 sampling events around the South African coast (extrapolated to total theoretical species richness estimates using previously-established species-accumulation curve relationships), plotted against the area of the beach (calculated from Google Earth imagery). The species-accumulation factor (z) was 0.22, suggesting a baseline habitat target of 27% is required to protect 75% of the species. This baseline target was modified by heuristic principles, based on habitat rarity and threat status, with final values ranging 27-40%. 3) Species targets were fixed at 20%, modified using heuristic principles based on endemism, threat status, and whether or not beaches play an important role in the species' life history, with targets ranging 20-100%. 4) Targets for processes and 5

  16. Lifeguard Training: Principles and Administration. A Manual for Developing and Administering Lifeguard Systems for Pools and Beaches. Second Edition, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Gordon T., Ed.; Hill, Rolland, Ed.

    This manual for developing and administering lifeguard systems for pools and beaches is divided into three sections. Section 1, "Personnel," suggests prerequisites for lifeguard training, personal health, fitness and inservice training, and preventive lifeguarding. Section 2, "Operations," discusses the following: a) water conditions of surf…

  17. 78 FR 35596 - Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone'' in the Federal Register (77 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Long Beach Regatta, Powerboat Race, Atlantic Ocean, Long Beach, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed...

  18. Predictive Modeling of Microbial Indicators for Timely Beach Notifications and Advisories at Marine Beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine beaches are occasionally contaminated by unacceptably high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) that exceed EPA water quality criteria. Here we describe application of a recent version of the software package Virtual Beach tool (VB 3.0.6) to build and evaluate multiple...

  19. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  20. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking....

  1. Advanced Decision-Support for Coastal Beach Health: Virtual Beach 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach is a free decision-support system designed to help beach managers and researchers construct, evaluate, and operate site-specific statistical models that can predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) based on environmental conditions that are more readily mea...

  2. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  3. 76 FR 54703 - Safety Zone; Myrtle Beach Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Triathlon, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC in the Federal Register (76 FR 124). We received... Intracoastal Waterway, Myrtle Beach, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway in...

  4. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal bloom at a Great Lakes beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beac...

  5. Behavioural adaptations of two sympatric sandhoppers living on a mesotidal European Atlantic sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, Filipa; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2014-06-01

    Behavioural adaptations of supralittoral species on sandy beaches are expressed as responses to environmental changes and constitute a key factor in their survival and evolution. Two sympatric talitrid amphipods (Talitrus saltator and Britorchestia brito) from a mesotidal exposed sandy beach on the European Atlantic coast (Portugal) were compared as regards orientation and littoral zonation patterns under natural conditions. Orientation experiments were carried out during spring and summer 2011 and 2012 at Quiaios beach, a highly dynamic exposed sandy beach. Multiple regression models were fitted to the angular data and the environmental effects on orientation were investigated for each species. Both talitrids were shown to be well orientated towards the shoreline and finely adapted to the mesotidal environment but a different use of local cues and climatic features between the two species was apparent. T. saltator showed a lower precision in the orientation performance (with a bimodal distribution sea- and land-wards), with less dependence on the sun cues and higher dependence on climatic features. In addition, the zonation of T. saltator was across the land-sea axis during both seasons. For B. brito the landscape vision, sun visibility and the tidal range enhanced the orientation to the shoreline. On this mesotidal Atlantic beach, T. saltator appeared to have a more flexible orientation with respect to B. brito, which appeared to be more dependent on the conditions offered by the intertidal zone, a behaviour confirmed by its restricted zonation below the high tide mark. Consequently, T. saltator showed a more flexible behaviour that may be considered an important evolutionary adaptation to dynamic and mesotidal sandy beaches.

  6. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where

  7. Long or short? Investigating the effect of beach length and other environmental parameters on macrofaunal assemblages of Maltese pocket beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidun, A.; Schembri, P. J.

    2008-08-01

    Despite numerous published studies that have evaluated the influence of different physical parameters, including beach slope, sediment organic content and grain size, on beach macrofaunal assemblages, very few studies have investigated the influence of beach length on biotic attributes of the same assemblages. Four beaches on the Maltese Islands were sampled using pitfall traps at night for eight consecutive seasons during 2001-2003. Macrofaunal collections were dominated by arthropods, mostly isopods (especially Tylos europaeus) and tenebrionid beetles (especially Phaleria spp.). The environmental variables of beach slope, exposure to wave action, sediment organic content, mean particle diameter, log beach length, beach width and the beach deposit index (BDI) were regressed against a number of biotic parameters, including log individual abundance, total species, Shannon-Wiener ( H') diversity index value and the psammophilic fraction of the total species collected, whilst BIO-ENV and NMDS were used to identify the physical parameter which could best explain observed biotic patterns. RELATE was used to assess the long-term persistence of macrofaunal assemblages on beaches of different lengths. Results from this study suggest that, whilst the influence of beach length and beach width on individual abundance and total species number is unimportant, these 'beach-area' parameters may affect the taxonomic composition of a beach assemblage, mainly in terms of the psammophilic fraction of assemblages, as well as the permanence of macrofaunal assemblages on a beach. Shorter and narrower beaches were found to be more prone to sporadic and random events of colonisation by euryoecious species. In the absence of human disturbance and mass mortality events, beaches of limited dimensions can still maintain stable macrofaunal assemblages. Individual abundance and total species number could not be related to a single or small suite of physical parameters. The study further

  8. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  9. Internal structure of a barrier beach as revealed by ground penetrating radar (GPR): Chesil beach, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Cassidy, Nigel J.; Pile, Jeremy

    2009-03-01

    Chesil Beach (Dorset) is one of the most famous coastal landforms on the British coast. The gravel beach is over 18 km long and is separated for much of its length from land by a tidal lagoon known as The Fleet. The beach links the Isle of Portland in the east to the mainland in the west. Despite its iconic status there is little available information on its internal geometry and evolutionary history. Here we present a three-fold model for the evolution of Chesil Beach based on a series of nine ground penetrating radar (GPR) traverses located at three sites along its length at Abbotsbury, Langton Herring and at Ferry Bridge. The GPR traverses reveal a remarkably consistent picture of the internal structure of this barrier beach. The first phase of evolution involves the landward transgression of a small sand and gravel beach which closed upon the coast leading to deposition of freshwater peat between 5 and 7 k yr BP. The second evolutionary phase involves the 'bulking-out' of the beach during continued sea level rise, but in the presence of abundant gravel supplied by down-drift erosion of periglacial slope deposits. This episode of growth was associated with a series of washover fans which accumulated on the landward flank of the barrier increasing its breadth and height but without significant landward transgression of the barrier as a whole. The final phase in the evolution of Chesil Beach involves the seaward progradation of the beach crest and upper beach face associated with continued sediment abundance, but during a still-stand or slight fall in relative sea level. This phase may provide further evidence of a slight fall in relative sea level noted elsewhere along the South Coast of Britain and dated to between 1.2 and 2.4 k yr BP. Subsequently the barrier appears to have become largely inactive, except for the reworking of sediment on the beach face during storm events. The case study not only refines the evolutionary picture of Chesil Beach, but

  10. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  11. USING PUBLIC-DOMAIN MODELS TO ESTIMATE BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stretches of beach along popular Huntington Beach, California are occassionally closed to swimming due to high levels of bacteria. One hypothesized source is the treated wastewater plume from the Orange County Sanitation District's (OCSD) ocean outfall. While three independent sc...

  12. Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Route No. 1 near east end, view toward Overton Beach and Lake Mead, view to northeast - Route No. 1-Overton-Lake Mead Road, Between Overton Beach & Park Boundary, 6 miles south of Overton, Overton, Clark County, NV

  13. Extreme precipitation and beach closures in the great lakes region: evaluating risk among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Bush, Kathleen F; Fossani, Cheryl L; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gronlund, Carina J; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-02-01

    As a result of climate change, extreme precipitation events are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. Runoff from these extreme events poses threats to water quality and human health. We investigated the impact of extreme precipitation and beach closings on the risk of gastrointestinal illness (GI)-related hospital admissions among individuals 65 and older in 12 Great Lakes cities from 2000 to 2006. Poisson regression models were fit in each city, controlling for temperature and long-term time trends. City-specific estimates were combined to form an overall regional risk estimate. Approximately 40,000 GI-related hospital admissions and over 100 beach closure days were recorded from May through September during the study period. Extreme precipitation (≥90th percentile) occurring the previous day (lag 1) is significantly associated with beach closures in 8 of the 12 cities (p < 0.05). However, no association was observed between beach closures and GI-related hospital admissions. These results support previous work linking extreme precipitation to compromised recreational water quality. PMID:24534768

  14. Mobilization and transport of naturally occurring enterococci in beach sands subject to transient infiltration of seawater.

    PubMed

    Russell, Todd L; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the transport of enterococci (ENT) from naturally contaminated beach sands to the groundwater table via infiltrating seawater using field, laboratory, and modeling experiments. ENT were readily mobilized and transported through the unsaturated zone during infiltration events in both the field and laboratory column experiments. Detachment mechanisms were investigated using a modified version of HYDRUS-1D. Three models for detachment kinetics were tested. Detachment kinetics that are first order with respect to the rate of change in the water content and attached surface bacterial concentrations were found to provide a best fit between predicted and observed data. From these experimental and model results we conclude that detachment mechanisms associated with the rapid increases in pore water content such as air-water interface scouring and thin film expansion are likely drivers of ENT mobilization in the investigated system. These findings suggest that through-beach transport of ENT may be an important pathway through which ENT from beach sands are transported to beach groundwater where they may be discharged to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:22533299

  15. Burrowing inhibition by fine textured beach fill: Implications for recovery of beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.

    2014-10-01

    Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress

  16. Monitoring of beach enteromorpha variation with near shore video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yali; Yu, Xinsheng; Yan, Zhijin; Yi, Weidong

    2014-07-01

    Beach is an important coastal protective barrier and tourism resources. Beach environment monitoring can help beach managers to make feasible decisions. Digital image of video monitoring technology can provide high resolution information of temporal and spatial variation of near shore in real time. The application of Video monitoring technology has been implemented in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach. The clustering method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to extract beach enteromorpha changs for the digital images. Analysis results show that, the period of enteromorpha in Qingdao's Shilaoren beach was mainly from the early July to the mid-August in 2011, and the decline of enteromorpha is mainly associated with the rising temperature in the mid-August. Storm has significant impact on the beach enteromorpha. Tourists' activity space on the beach will decrease due to the enteromorpha covering on the beach, which affects beach tourism activities. Therefore, it's necessary to make preventive measures to avoid enteromorpha piling up on the beach, which is of great importance to the bathing beach environment and tourism development.

  17. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  18. 103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. VIEW OF BEACH STRUCTURES ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PACIFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY CAR (UPPER LEFT), CONCESSION STANDS (LOWER LEFT), BANDSHELL (RIGHT), AND PIER IN BACKGROUND Photograph #5352-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1914 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  19. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  20. POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) TECHNOLOGY IN VISUAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2000, the US Congress passed the Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act under which the EPA has the mandate to manage all significant public beaches by 2008. As a result, EPA, USGS and NOAA are developing the Visual Beach program which consists of software eq...

  1. Beaches in Motion. Interaction and Environmental Change. Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    The terms "high energy" and "low energy" refer to the amount of energy a wave has that reaches the face of a beach. In this student guide, two types of beaches are investigated. The objective is to be able to identify whether a beach is of high or low energy. Background information is provided, as well as instructions and worksheets for activities…

  2. 107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. VIEW OF BEACH DEVELOPMENT ON NORTHWEST SIDE OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. SECTION OF PIER IS IN BACKGROUND Photograph #1579-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1930-31 prior to replacement of original light standards in 1930-31 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. Selected Papers Presented at MODSIM World 2009 Conference and Expo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E. (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Selected papers from MODSIM World 2009 Conference and Expo are contained in this NASA Conference Publication (CP). MODSIM World 2009 was held in Virginia Beach, Virginia, October 14-16, 2009, at the Virginia Beach Convention Center. The theme of the 2009 conference and expo was "21st Century Decision-Making: The Art of Modeling & Simulation." The 79 submitted papers were peer-reviewed and 64 were accepted for presentation at MODSIM World 2009. As a condition of acceptance, the first author was responsible for securing/obtaining all permissions associated with the general release and public availability of the paper. Further, the first authors also had to grant NASA the right to include their papers in the NASA CP. There are 53 papers in this NASA CP.

  4. fits2hdf: FITS to HDFITS conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    fits2hdf ports FITS files to Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files in the HDFITS format. HDFITS allows faster reading of data, higher compression ratios, and higher throughput. HDFITS formatted data can be presented transparently as an in-memory FITS equivalent by changing the import lines in Python-based FITS utilities. fits2hdf includes a utility to port MeasurementSets (MS) to HDF5 files.

  5. Beach Cusps: Spatial distribution and time evolution at Massaguaçú beach (SP), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, H. H.; Siegle, E.; Sousa, P. H.

    2013-05-01

    Beach cusps are crescentic morphological structures observed on the foreshore of beaches characterized by steep seaward protruding extensions, called cusp horns, and gently sloped landward extensions, called cusp embayments. Their formation depends on the grain size, beach slope, tidal range and incoming waves. Cusps are best developed on gravel or shingle beaches, small tidal range with a large slope for incoming waves generate a well-developed swash excursion. These structures are quickly responding to wave climate and tidal range, changing the position of the rhythmic features on the beach face. Beach cusps are favored by normal incoming waves, while oblique waves tend to wash these features out. This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of rhythmic features such as beach cusps in Massaguaçú embayment (Caraguatatuba, northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil). This embayment has an extension of 7.5 km with reflective beaches cusped mainly in its more exposed central portion. The data set for this study consists of a series of video images (Argus system), covering a stretch of the beach. Visible beach cusps were digitalized from these rectified images. Results obtained from the images were related to the wave climate, water level and the storm surges. Results show that the cusps on the upper portion of the foreshore were more regular and present than the cusps on the lower portion of the foreshore due to the tidal modulation of wave action. The cusp spacing on the upper portion of the foreshore is of about 38 m and the lower portion of the foreshore is of about 28 m and their presence was correlated with the wave direction and water elevation. As expected, waves approaching with shore-normal angles (southeast direction) were favorable to the formation of beach cusps while the waves from the southwest, south, east and northeast generated a longshore current that reduced or destroyed any rhythmic feature. Other important forcing was

  6. Beaches, Dunes, and Barrier Islands. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of a leader overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The leader overview describes the nature of beaches, dunes, and barrier islands, tracing their development, settlement, and management and…

  7. An Interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Beatrice Beach Szekely, a comparative education scholar that specialized in the Soviet Union. She was editor of the journal "Soviet Education" from 1970 to 1989. During the interview, Szekely talked about how she became personally involved in Russian/Soviet studies of education. She related that her interest…

  8. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    ScienceCinema

    Wayne Hu

    2010-01-08

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  9. Erosion in the Beaches of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synolakis, C. E.; Foteinis, S.; Voukouvalas, V.; Kalligeris, N.

    2009-04-01

    In the past decade, erosion rates for the coastlines of Greece are rapidly increasing. Many beaches on the northern coast of the island have substantially retreated, while others have disappeared or will disappear within the present or the following decade if no action is taken. For the better understanding and visualization of the current situation, specific examples of rapid erosion are described and afterwards we speculate as to the causes. We infer that, as in other parts of the Mediterranean, the causes are anthropogenic and include removal of sand dunes to build roads, sand mining from beaches and rivers, permanent building construction within the active coastal zone, on or too close to shoreline, and poor design of coastal structures. The reason behind the rapid erosion of Greece coastlines is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management and antiquated legislation. We conclude that unless urgent measures for the protection and even salvation of the beaches are taken and if the sand mining and dune removal does not stop, then several beaches will disappear within the present and the following decade.

  10. Cosmology at the Beach Lecture: Wayne Hu

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hu

    2009-03-02

    Wayne Hu lectures on Secondary Anisotropy in the CMB. The lecture is the first in a series of 3 he delivered as part of the "Cosmology at the Beach" winter school organized by Berkeley Lab's George Smoot in Los Cabos, Mexico from Jan. 12-16, 2009.

  11. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  12. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  13. Coastal strategies to predict Escherichia coli concentrations for beaches along a 35 km stretch of Southern Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Nevers, Meredith B; Whitman, Richard L

    2008-06-15

    To understand the fate and movement of Escherichia coli in beach water, numerous modeling studies have been undertaken including mechanistic predictions of currents and plumes and empirical modeling based on hydrometeorological variables. Most approaches are limited in scope by nearshore currents or physical obstacles and data limitations; few examine the issue from a larger spatial scale. Given the similarities between variables typically included in these models, we attempted to take a broader view of E. coli fluctuations by simultaneously examining twelve beaches along 35 km of Indiana's Lake Michigan coastline that includes five point-source outfalls. The beaches had similar E. coli fluctuations, and a best-fit empirical model included two variables: wave height and an interactive term comprised of wind direction and creekturbidity. Individual beach R2 was 0.32--0.50. Data training-set results were comparable to validation results (R2 = 0.48). Amount of variation explained by the model was similar to previous reports for individual beaches. By extending the modeling approach to include more coastline distance, broader-scale spatial and temporal changes in bacteria concentrations and the influencing factors can be characterized. PMID:18605570

  14. Coastal strategies to predict Escherichia coli concentrations for beaches along a 35 km stretch of southern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, M.B.; Whitman, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the fate and movement of Escherichia coli in beach water, numerous modeling studies have been undertaken including mechanistic predictions of currents and plumes and empirical modeling based on hydrometeorological variables. Most approaches are limited in scope by nearshore currents or physical obstacles and data limitations; few examine the issue from a larger spatial scale. Given the similarities between variables typically included in these models, we attempted to take a broader view of E. coli fluctuations by simultaneously examining twelve beaches along 35 km of Indiana's Lake Michigan coastline that includes five point-source outfalls. The beaches had similar E. coli fluctuations, and a best-fit empirical model included two variables: wave height and an interactive term comprised of wind direction and creek turbidity. Individual beach R2 was 0.32-0.50. Data training-set results were comparable to validation results (R2 = 0.48). Amount of variation explained by the model was similar to previous reports for individual beaches. By extending the modeling approach to include more coastline distance, broader-scale spatial and temporal changes in bacteria concentrations and the influencing factors can be characterized. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  15. The effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Hua, G.; Tao, X.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Beach slope changes the tidal induced saltwater-freshwater circulations in coastal aquifers. However, the effect of beach slope on tidal influenced saltwater-freshwater mixing process is far from understood. Based on sand flume experiments and numerical simulations, we investigated the intrusion process of saltwater into freshwater under tidal forcing and variable beach slopes. The sand flume experiment results show that milder slope induces larger upper saline plume (USP) and seaward salt wedge interface (SWI) under tidal forcing. While, the steady state SWI keeps stagnant with different beach slopes. Consistent with the previous research, our numerical simulations also show a lager flux exchange across the milder beach induced by the tidal fluctuations. The groundwater table fluctuates more intensify with deeper beach slope. The next step of our study will pay attention to the effect of beach slope on the instability of USP which induces the salt-fingering flow.

  16. Conference Simulation in an English Composition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a conference format in teaching a required English composition course. The focus of the course is student research and presentation; thus, simulating a conference was a natural fit for the course's overall goals. Students worked in one of four committees: the Call for Proposals Committee, the Proposal Evaluation…

  17. Quantifying Beach Response to Episodic Large Wave Events, a Predictive Empirical Model, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    Predicting beach response on an event scale is extremely difficult due to highly variable spatial and temporal conditions, lack of data on antecedent beach morphology, generic model shortcomings, and uncertainty of local forcing parameters. Each beach system is unique and classical beach erosion models may not be applicable to many high-energy beaches, especially those receiving large long-period waves. Therefore, developing an empirical model is the best way to predict future beach response at a given site. Based on 12 closely spaced (temporally) GPS topographic surveys during the winter of 2005-2006 at Ocean Beach, in San Francisco, California, we have developed a predictive empirical model that relates sub-aerial beach response to observed wave height, period, and direction. The model will provide important information to coastal managers, who will be able to better predict and mitigate possible loss from a forecasted wave event. Ocean Beach, located immediately south of the Golden Gate in San Francisco, is a high-energy, intermediate- slope beach that is exposed to waves generated in both the North and South Pacific. Winter breaking wave heights frequently reach 4 m and can exceed 7 m, with periods sometimes greater than 20 s. Our observations demonstrate that large seasonal variations in the sub-aerial beach profile are likely forced by several single large wave events. These events have led to the partial destruction of a recreational parking lot at the south end of the beach where an erosion hot spot is currently located, and continued erosion will threaten other parts of public infrastructure. This study, in combination with other ongoing research at Ocean Beach, will provide valuable insight that will not only aid local personnel in their management decisions but also contribute to a better understanding of sediment transport at high-energy beaches.

  18. Do School Uniforms Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kerry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, Long Beach (California) Unified School District began requiring uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. Now, half of all urban school systems and many suburban schools have uniform policies. Research on uniforms' effectiveness is mixed. Tightened dress codes may be just as effective and less litigious. (MLH)

  19. Reproductive fitness advantage of BCR-ABL expressing leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Traulsen, Arne; Pacheco, Jorge M; Dingli, David

    2010-08-01

    Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes confer a fitness advantage to cells that can lead to cancer. The tumor phenotype normally results from the interaction of many mutant genes making it difficult to estimate the fitness advantage provided by any oncogene, except when tumors depend on one oncogene only. We utilize a model of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), to quantitate the fitness advantage conferred by expression of BCR-ABL in hematopoietic cells from in vivo patient data. We show that BCR-ABL expression provides a high fitness advantage, which explains why this single mutation drives the chronic phase of CML. PMID:20153920

  20. Physical Fitness at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Thomas B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes decline in youth fitness, emphasizing role of camping programs in youth fitness education. Describes Michigan camp's fitness program, consisting of daily workouts, fitness education, and record keeping. Describes fitness consultants' role in program. Discusses program's highlights and problems, suggesting changes for future use. Shows…

  1. Biomedical Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of Biomedical Conferences, Vivo Metric Systems Co. has produced cardiac electrodes based on NASA technology. Frequently in science, one highly specialized discipline is unaware of relevant advances made in other areas. In an attempt to familiarize researchers in a variety of disciplines with medical problems and needs, NASA has sponsored conferences that bring together university scientists, practicing physicians and manufacturers of medical instruments.

  2. Integrated protecting plan for beach erosion. A case study in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakis, Stelios; Alexandrakis, George; Kozyrakis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are among the most active areas on Earth, being subjected to extreme wind / wave conditions, thus vulnerable to erosion. In Greece and Crete in particular, beach zones are extremely important for the welfare of the inhabitants, since, apart for the important biological and archaeological value of the beach zones, the socio-economic value is critical since a great number of human activities are concentrated in such areas (touristic facilities, fishing harbors etc.). The present study investigates the erosional procedures observed in Plaka beach, E. Crete, Greece, a highly touristic developed area with great archaeological interest and proposes a cost-effective solution. The factors taken into consideration for the proposed solution in reducing the erosion of the beach were the study of the climatological, geological and geomorphological regime of the area, the recent (~70 years) shifting of the coastline through the study of topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite images, the creation of detailed bathymetric and seabed classification maps of the area and finally, a risk analysis in terms of erosional phenomena. On the basis of the above, it is concluded that the area under investigation is subjected to an erosional rate of about 1 m/10 years and the total land-loss for the past 70 years is about 4600 m2. Through the simulation of the wave regime we studied 3 possible scenarios, the "do-nothing" scenario, the construction of a detached submerged breakwater at the depth of 3 meters and, finally, the armoring of the existing beach-wall through the placement of appropriate size and material boulders, forming an artificial slope for the reducing of the wave breaking energy and a small scale nourishment plan. As a result, through the modeling of the above, the most appropriate and cost-effective solution was found to be the third, armoring of the existing coastal wall and nourishment of the beach periodically, thus the further undermining of the

  3. Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2004-06-01

    This volume discusses the role of humans in transforming the coastal landscape. The book details the many ways beaches and dunes are eliminated, altered and replaced and the differences between natural landforms and the human artefacts that replace them. Emphasis is placed on the importance of retaining naturally functioning beaches and dunes in ways that achieve natural values while accommodating development and use. The issues dealt with in this book will be of interest to practising coastal engineers and research scientists, as well as to planners and managers of coastal resources at all levels of government. It will be of particular value to investigators planning for the future of coastal development under accelerated sea level rise. The book will also be useful as a reference text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in geography, geology, ecology and other disciplines dealing with the interaction between science, technology and society.

  4. A single amino acid change resulting in loss of fluorescence of eGFP in a viral fusion protein confers fitness and growth advantage to the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, Phat X.; Panda, Debasis; Das, Phani B.; Das, Subash C.; Das, Anshuman; Pattnaik, Asit K.

    2012-10-25

    Using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding eGFP fused in-frame with an essential viral replication protein, the phosphoprotein P, we show that during passage in culture, the virus mutates the nucleotide C289 within eGFP of the fusion protein PeGFP to A or T, resulting in R97S/C amino acid substitution and loss of fluorescence. The resultant non-fluorescent virus exhibits increased fitness and growth advantage over its fluorescent counterpart. The growth advantage of the non-fluorescent virus appears to be due to increased transcription and replication activities of the PeGFP protein carrying the R97S/C substitution. Further, our results show that the R97S/C mutation occurs prior to accumulation of mutations that can result in loss of expression of the gene inserted at the G-L gene junction. These results suggest that fitness gain is more important for the recombinant virus than elimination of expression of the heterologous gene.

  5. Sand beach bacteria: enumeration and characterization.

    PubMed

    Khiyama, H M; Makemson, J C

    1973-09-01

    Bacteria in the water-saturated sand of a relatively unpolluted sand beach were enumerated by direct microscope and viable counting. The number of interstitial bacteria was estimated to be a significant fraction of the total number of bacteria present. Three hundred sixty-two strains were isolated and submitted to cultural and biochemical tests. Fermentational abilities and the production of indole suggested that a significant number of these bacteria were symbiotically associated with resident metazoans. PMID:4356458

  6. Sand Beach Bacteria: Enumeration and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Khiyama, H. M.; Makemson, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Bacteria in the water-saturated sand of a relatively unpolluted sand beach were enumerated by direct microscope and viable counting. The number of interstitial bacteria was estimated to be a significant fraction of the total number of bacteria present. Three hundred sixty-two strains were isolated and submitted to cultural and biochemical tests. Fermentational abilities and the production of indole suggested that a significant number of these bacteria were symbiotically associated with resident metazoans. PMID:4356458

  7. Evaluation of a sunscreen during a typical beach period

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Daniela; Fernandes, Lina; Nascimento, Tânia; Grenha, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Amongst the radiations reaching the Earth's surface, the ultraviolet rays are the ones receiving most attention from the scientists, given their damaging potential for humans exposed to them. To minimize the harm caused by such exposure, human beings are strongly recommended to use sunscreens, which are pharmaceutical preparations containing filters that confer protection against radiation. As this protection is strongly dependent on the properties of these filters, it is very important to ensure their stability even when under aggressive conditions, such as the typical high temperatures of summer in South Europe. In this study, a commercial sunscreen emulsion was tested in vitro for a period of time intended to simulate a beach period of 15 days, with regard to the maintenance of its sun protection factor (SPF). Moreover, the organoleptic characteristics were also monitored by macroscopic analysis. Materials and Methods: To perform this study, temperature conditions similar to those observed from June to August in Faro (Portugal) were simulated in vitro. The SPF was determined by spectrophotometry, with subsequent application of the Mansur equation. Results and Conclusion: No significant alterations were observed during the considered period under the specific conditions of this study. PMID:21814431

  8. Partnerships for the Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    The YMCA has helped train and employ fitness leaders while educating the public on physical fitness. Colleges and universities can help develop careers in fitness while maintaining their traditional role of developing teachers and coaches. (DF)

  9. Antibody engineering and therapeutics conference

    PubMed Central

    Larrick, James W; Parren, Paul WHI; Huston, James S; Plückthun, Andreas; Bradbury, Andrew; Tomlinson, Ian M; Chester, Kerry A; Burton, Dennis R; Adams, Gregory P; Weiner, Louis M; Scott, Jamie K; Alfenito, Mark R; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    The 25th anniversary of the Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics Conference, the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA, December 7–11, 2014. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the event will celebrate past successes, educate participants on current activities and offer a vision of future progress in the field. Keynote addresses will be given by academic and industry experts Douglas Lauffenburger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Ira Pastan (National Cancer Institute), James Wells (University of California, San Francisco), Ian Tomlinson (GlaxoSmithKline) and Anthony Rees (Rees Consulting AB and Emeritus Professor, University of Bath). These speakers will provide updates of their work, placed in the context of the substantial growth of the industry over the past 25 years. PMID:25517297

  10. Tenth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, R.; Colton, M.; Deblonde, G.; Jedlovec, G.; Lee, T.

    2000-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society held its Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography in conjunction with the 80th Annual Meeting in Long Beach, California. For the second consecutive conference, a format that consisted of primarily posters, complemented by invited theme oriented oral presentations, and panel discussions on various aspects on satellite remote sensing were utilized. Joint sessions were held with the Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence, the Eleventh Conference on Middle Atmosphere, and the Eleventh symposium on Global Change Studies. In total, there were 23 oral presentations, 170 poster presentations, and four panel discussions. Over 450 people representing a wide spectrum of the society attended one or more of the sessions in the five-day meeting. The program for the Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography can viewed in the October 1999 issue of the Bulletin.

  11. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  12. Textural analysis of Point Calimere beach sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyapal, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    Grain size analysis helps to identify the nature of coastal and sedimentary environments.This parameters provide an insight in to the nature and the energy flux of the transporting agents and their nature of depositional environment. The Beach sediments from the Point Calimere coast are studied for analysis the impact of wave action over the coast. Cauvery and its tributaries are the Chief source for sediments are by the deposits. This dynamic coast of South India is reported to have accretion and erosion at invariably high degrees. Also the impact of land ocean interaction is at high intensity. Further there are chains of Dunes along this coast. The geomorphology of this coast is not a uniform stretch, it has curvature Point Calimere in the south and straight coast towards North. wave properties like reflection, refraction and diffraction are noticed along the study area. Beach Samples were collected along selected zones and their properties were studied in laboratory after sieving half phi interval. Mean mode, sorting, skewness and other statistics are calculated using moment and Folk and Ward graphical methods. This region has three different zones of waves and this wave impact shapes the coast. In few zones erosion were noticed and in few sited deposition Results expressed in metric units, provided of compositionally variable sediments. . The statistical results and field surveys of Point Calimere beach sand samples reveal sediment accretion and wave environments respectivelyGeographic coordinates of sampling stationt; t;

  13. Rescues conducted by surfers on Australian beaches.

    PubMed

    Attard, Anna; Brander, Robert W; Shaw, Wendy S

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%). Most surfer rescue events occur during conditions of moderate waves and sunny, fine weather with the highest proportion of rescues occurring on quiet beaches with few people around (26%). Swimming is the activity associated with most rescue events (63%), followed by board riding (25%). Males aged 18-29 represent the largest demographic of people rescued. Surfers with prior water-safety training are more likely to perform a higher number of rescues, however ability to perform rescues is not associated with formal training, but rather number of years' experience surfing. Seventy-eight percent of surfers were happy to help, while 28% expressed feelings of annoyance or inconvenience, generally towards unwary swimmers. Results of this research suggest that 63% of surfers feel they have saved a life. This value may be enhanced through improved training of surfers in basic water safety rescue techniques. PMID:26056968

  14. PROCEEDINGS OF THE BIENNIAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF INSTRUCTORS OF THE BLIND, INC. (46TH, MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA, JUNE 28-JULY 2, 1962).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Instructors of the Blind, St. Louis, MO.

    THE PUBLICATION REPORTS THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 46TH BIENNIAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF INSTRUCTORS OF THE BLIND (MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA, JUNE 28-JULY 2, 1962). ADDRESSES, PAPERS, AND PANEL DISCUSSIONS COVER THE TOPICS OF MOBILITY, EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, SELF CONCEPT IN BLIND CHILDREN, AND PHYSICAL FITNESS. ALSO INCLUDED ARE COMMITTEE…

  15. Shifts in the microbial community composition of Gulf Coast beaches following beach oiling.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan J; Huse, Susan M; Morrison, Hilary G; Peake, Colin S; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with coastal sands serve as a natural biofilter, providing essential nutrient recycling in nearshore environments and acting to maintain coastal ecosystem health. Anthropogenic stressors often impact these ecosystems, but little is known about whether these disturbances can be identified through microbial community change. The blowout of the Macondo Prospect reservoir on April 20, 2010, which released oil hydrocarbons into the Gulf of Mexico, presented an opportunity to examine whether microbial community composition might provide a sensitive measure of ecosystem disturbance. Samples were collected on four occasions, beginning in mid-June, during initial beach oiling, until mid-November from surface sand and surf zone waters at seven beaches stretching from Bay St. Louis, MS to St. George Island, FL USA. Oil hydrocarbon measurements and NOAA shoreline assessments indicated little to no impact on the two most eastern beaches (controls). Sequence comparisons of bacterial ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions isolated from beach sands located to the east and west of Mobile Bay in Alabama demonstrated that regional drivers account for markedly different bacterial communities. Individual beaches had unique community signatures that persisted over time and exhibited spatial relationships, where community similarity decreased as horizontal distance between samples increased from one to hundreds of meters. In contrast, sequence analyses detected larger temporal and less spatial variation among the water samples. Superimposed upon these beach community distance and time relationships, was increased variability in bacterial community composition from oil hydrocarbon contaminated sands. The increased variability was observed among the core, resident, and transient community members, indicating the occurrence of community-wide impacts rather than solely an overprinting of oil hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria onto otherwise relatively stable sand

  16. 109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF PIER TAKEN FROM BEACH, LOOKING WEST. VIEW SHOWS ART DECO BUILDINGS ADDED IN 1931 AND 5TH TEE ADDED IN 1940 Photograph #5369-HB. Photographer unknown, c. 1945, based on clothing of sunbathers; view probably taken in mid-1945 after the U.S. Army vacated the pier and it was reopened to the public. - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Nevers, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of E. coli in recreational beach water are highly variable both locally and temporally, but a broader understanding of these fluctuations may be explained through coastal observations. Currently, beach contamination study approaches tend to be site-specific underthe belief that politically delineated beaches are unique and management of beaches cannot be regionally oriented. E. coli data collected over five years from 23 Chicago beaches clearly identified ambient linked patterns at the regional scale. Temporal fluctuations were similar, with all beaches having simultaneous peaks and troughs of E. coli concentrations. Spatially, E. coli concentrations for beaches more closely situated were more closely correlated, indicating spatial autocorrelation. Julian day, wave height, and barometric pressure explained up to 40% of the variation, a value comparable to individual, less parsimonious site-specific models. Day of sampling could explain the majority of the variation in E. coli concentrations, more so than beach, depth, or time of day. Comparing beaches along a targeted coastline allows a better understanding of inherent background regional fluctuations and, ultimately, better predictions of E. coli concentrations in coastal recreational water.

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Cal State Division Beaches and Parks Collection Photo 1958 Rephoto 1960 EAST ELEVATION - Adams & Company Building, 1014 Second Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Hyperspectral image classifier based on beach spectral feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhang; Lianru, Gao; Bing, Zhang

    2014-03-01

    The seashore, especially coral bank, is sensitive to human activities and environmental changes. A multispectral image, with coarse spectral resolution, is inadaptable for identify subtle spectral distinctions between various beaches. To the contrary, hyperspectral image with narrow and consecutive channels increases our capability to retrieve minor spectral features which is suit for identification and classification of surface materials on the shore. Herein, this paper used airborne hyperspectral data, in addition to ground spectral data to study the beaches in Qingdao. The image data first went through image pretreatment to deal with the disturbance of noise, radiation inconsistence and distortion. In succession, the reflection spectrum, the derivative spectrum and the spectral absorption features of the beach surface were inspected in search of diagnostic features. Hence, spectra indices specific for the unique environment of seashore were developed. According to expert decisions based on image spectrums, the beaches are ultimately classified into sand beach, rock beach, vegetation beach, mud beach, bare land and water. In situ surveying reflection spectrum from GER1500 field spectrometer validated the classification production. In conclusion, the classification approach under expert decision based on feature spectrum is proved to be feasible for beaches.

  20. Shore litter along sandy beaches of the Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Claereboudt, Michel R

    2004-11-01

    Beach debris abundance and weight were estimated from surveys on 11 beaches of the Gulf of Oman along the Omani coast. Debris were collected on two occasions from 100 m transects, sorted and categorized by origin and type. Overall contaminations ranged from 0.43 to 6.01 items m(-1) of beach front on different beaches with a mean value of 1.79+/-1.04 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of weight, contamination levels ranged from 7.8 to 75.44 gm(-1) of beach front with a mean contamination of 27.02+/-14.48 gm(-1) (95% C.I). In terms of numbers of items, plastic debris ranked first on all beaches followed by either wood items or other organic materials such as cigarette butts. Industrial debris remained few on all beaches (<10%). Most debris had a local origin and, in terms of numbers, were associated with beach recreational activities whereas fishing debris represented the largest proportion of the debris in terms of weight. There were notable differences between beaches in the relative abundance of recreation-related and fishing-related debris. PMID:15530520

  1. Changes along a seawall and natural beaches: Fourchon, LA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossa, Joann; Nakashima, Lindsay D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares shoreline and beach morphology changes and responses to storms from 1985 to 1988 along sections of a rapidly eroding coast at the Bayou Lafourche headland, Louisiana. A beach consisting of a cement-filled bag seawall and nourishment was compared with natural beaches to the west and east of the project. Local patterns of beach response could be attributed to several recent processes and historical conditions. Hurricane Gilbert, which made landfall in Mexico, caused about 70% of the sediment loss on both the artificially-stablized and the natural shorelines over this three-year period.

  2. Using a watershed-centric approach to identify potentially impacted beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Of particular concern are beaches impacted by human fecal contamination and urban runoff. This poster demonstrates a methodology to identify potentially impacted beaches using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Since h...

  3. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  4. Beyond beach width: Steps toward identifying and integrating ecological envelopes with geomorphic features and datums for sandy beach ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Quigley, Brenna J.

    2013-10-01

    Our understanding of ecological responses to climatic and anthropogenic forcing lags far behind that of physical or geomorphic responses for beach ecosystems. Reconciling geomorphic features of beaches with ecological features, such as intertidal zones and mobile biota that are not described by beach width alone, could help address this issue. First, although intertidal zones characterized by distinct groups of mobile burrowing animals are described for beaches, the locations and elevations of these zones do not coincide with standard shoreline datums. Second, intertidal zonation on beaches is extremely dynamic due to the combination of unstable sandy substrate and a highly mobile biota; shifting strongly with tides, waves, storms, and beach conditions. We propose that beach biota use ecological "envelopes" of cross-shore habitat to cope with constantly changing beach conditions. We estimated the extent of these "envelopes" for a variety of taxa on tidal to daily, semi-lunar and seasonal to annual time scales, using literature values on cross-shore animal movements and a field study of the positions of intertidal beds of two species of typical mid and upper shore beach invertebrates. Daily or tidal cross-shore movement varied most (1 m to 100 m) with daily "envelopes" covering 7% to 85% of the available beach width. Semi-lunar movement (12 m) and envelopes (28%) were relatively small, while estimated annual "envelopes" were large, averaging 61% of beach width. The large scope of annual ecological envelopes relative to beach widths reflects how intertidal animals escape seasonally extreme or episodically harsh conditions. Intertidal bed positions of a talitrid amphipod and an opheliid polychaete correlated well with selected beach features in our field study suggesting that incorporation of ecological envelopes in models of shoreline evolution may be feasible. Describing ecological zones in terms of more dynamic shoreline features, such as total water level (TWL

  5. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments. PMID:27065444

  6. Secondary production of sandy beach macrofauna: An evaluation of predictive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Cardoso, Ricardo Silva; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Turra, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    During the last three decades, several predictive models have been developed to estimate the somatic production of macroinvertebrates. Although the models have been evaluated for their ability to assess the production of macrobenthos in different marine ecosystems, these approaches have not been applied specifically to sandy beach macrofauna and may not be directly applicable to this transitional environment. Hence, in this study, a broad literature review of sandy beach macrofauna production was conducted and estimates obtained with cohort-based and size-based methods were collected. The performance of nine models in estimating the production of individual populations from the sandy beach environment, evaluated for all taxonomic groups combined and for individual groups separately, was assessed, comparing the production predicted by the models to the estimates obtained from the literature (observed production). Most of the models overestimated population production compared to observed production estimates, whether for all populations combined or more specific taxonomic groups. However, estimates by two models developed by Cusson and Bourget provided best fits to measured production, and thus represent the best alternatives to the cohort-based and size-based methods in this habitat. The consistent performance of one of these Cusson and Bourget models, which was developed for the macrobenthos of sandy substrate habitats (C&BSS), shows that the performance of a model does not depend on whether it was developed for a specific taxonomic group. Moreover, since some widely used models (e.g., the Robertson model) show very different responses when applied to the macrofauna of different marine environments (e.g., sandy beaches and estuaries), prior evaluation of these models is essential.

  7. Conference Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Cait

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes an original conference, organised by the Child Care Research Forum (http://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/ccrf/), which brought together experts from all over Northern Ireland to showcase some of the wealth of research with children and young people that is going on in the country today. Developed around the six high-level outcomes of…

  8. NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING THE EPA VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on sample counts, which typically require a day or more to analyze. Sometimes called the persistence model, because conditions are assumed to persist, experie...

  9. MEETING IN MEXICO: NOWCASTING AND FORECASTING BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATION USING EPA'S VIRTUAL BEACH SOFTWARE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beaches in the United States of (North) America are subject to closure when bacterial counts exceed water quality criteria. Many authorities base these decisions on water samples that typically require at least 18 hours to analyze. This persistence approach, or model, often leads...

  10. 12. annual environmental management and technology conference west -- HazMat `96 west: Technical papers

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This conference was held November 5--7, 1996 in Long Beach, California as part of the Environmental Management and Technology and Exhibition/West. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on methods and site characterization technologies for environmental monitoring and remedial action planning of hazardous materials. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  11. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Lomando, Anthony J.

    1997-06-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can be distinguished on the basis of differences in composition, texture, geographical position, and age. Whereas the composition of beachrock is similar to that of the adjacent marginal reef sediments, cayrock is enriched in benthic foraminifera. Intertidal beachrock is moderately to well sorted and well cemented, while supratidal cayrock is very well sorted, poorly cemented and friable. Beachrock occurs preferentially on windward beaches of sand-shingle Gays on the middle and southern barrier reefs and on the isolated platforms Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. Cayrock only occurs on larger mangrove-sand Gays of the isolated platforms Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and the northern barrier reef. 14C-dating of ten whole-rock and mollusk shell samples produced calibrated dates between AD 345 and AD 1435 for beachrock and between BC 1085 and AD 1190 for cayrock. The large-scale distribution of beachrock in Belize supports the contention that physical processes such as water agitation rather than biological processes control beachrock formation and distribution. Only on windward sides of cays that are close to the reef crest, where large amounts of seawater flush the beaches, considerable amounts of cements can be precipitated to produce beachrock. Cayrock forms due to cementation in the vadose zone and is only preserved on larger, stable mangrove-sand cays.

  12. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  13. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  14. Falcon Beach School Closure Review. Research 87-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Planning and Research Branch.

    Falcon Beach School is a small school experiencing declining school enrollment and increasing operational costs. In February, 1987, Falcon Beach School was announced as a candidate for closure. The Planning and Research Branch of Manitoba Education conducted an economic and social analysis of the school operations. This research report provides…

  15. The Beach--A Natural Protection from the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensabaugh, William M.

    1983-01-01

    The beach and sand dunes are the first line of defense protecting the land from the sea. The effectiveness of the beach is caused by its sloping surface which dissipates the energy of waves and by the flexibility of the slope which changes as the waves change. The process and rate of accretion and erosion are dependent on the size and frequency of…

  16. View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is in the foreground, the pier to the right. The painted octagonal window is above the deck. Avila's Front Street is at the rear of the building. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  17. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  18. At Long Beach, Success Is Measured by Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The California State University campus at Long Beach graduated 8,720 students last month. Each one got the opportunity to walk the stage, and F. King Alexander, the university's president, shook every hand. California State at Long Beach has made graduating a greater number of its 38,000 students its top priority. The slogan "Graduation Begins…

  19. Howard Beach Youth: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Linda S.; Lichter, S. Robert

    This assessment of the climate of racial and ethnic attitudes in Howard Beach (New York) was conducted at John Adams High School, the public school attended by the greatest number of high school children in the Howard Beach community. The survey of 1,217 students was administered in December, 1986, several weeks before the incident in which a…

  20. 270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    270. OFFICERS' QUARTERS (FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES) AT DOG PATCH BEACH, C. 1939. VIEW NORTH DOWN GREENWICH ROAD TOWARD FORMER SUMMER COTTAGES, CONVERTED TO OFFICER'S QUARTERS, OVER-LOOKING DOG PATCH BEACH. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  1. RECREATIONAL BEACH WATER QUALITY MONITORING WITH QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recreational beaches are an important economic and aesthetic asset to communities, states and the nation as a whole. Considerable resources are expended each year in monitoring the water at these beaches for fecal indicator bacteria as a means of determining if it is safe for pu...

  2. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  3. Tracer Studies In Laboratory Beach Simulating Tidal Influences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of oil spills on tidally influenced beaches commonly involves the addition of a nutrient solution to the contaminated region of the beach at low tide to stimulate the growth of indigenous oil-degrading bacteria. Maximizing the residentce time of nutrients in the be...

  4. Virtual Beach v2.2 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach version 2.2 (VB 2.2) is a decision support tool. It is designed to construct site-specific Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict pathogen indicator levels (or fecal indicator bacteria, FIB) at recreational beaches. MLR analysis has outperformed persisten...

  5. Bodies that Matter: Performing White Possession on the Beach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreton-Robinson, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    Beaches remain important places within indigenous coastal peoples' territories, although the silence about our ownership is deafening. Many authors have argued that within Australian popular culture the beach is a key site where racialized and gendered transgressions, fantasies, and desires are played out, but none have elucidated how these…

  6. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertke, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    At some coastal beaches, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria can differ substantially between multiple points at the same beach at the same time. Because of this spatial variability, the recreational water quality at beaches is sometimes determined by stratifying a beach into several areas and collecting a sample from each area to analyze for the concentration of fecal-indicator bacteria. The average concentration of bacteria from those points is often used to compare to the recreational standard for advisory postings. Alternatively, if funds are limited, a single sample is collected to represent the beach. Compositing the samples collected from each section of the beach may yield equally accurate data as averaging concentrations from multiple points, at a reduced cost. In the study described herein, water samples were collected at multiple points from three Lake Erie beaches and analyzed for Escherichia coli on modified mTEC agar (EPA Method 1603). From the multiple-point samples, a composite sample (n = 116) was formed at each beach by combining equal aliquots of well-mixed water from each point. Results from this study indicate that E. coli concentrations from the arithmetic average of multiple-point samples and from composited samples are not significantly different (t = 1.59, p = 0.1139) and yield similar measures of recreational water quality; additionally, composite samples could result in a significant cost savings.

  7. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LAKE TEXOMA BEACHES, 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biological and inorganic assessment of five beaches on Lake Texoma was conducted from September 1999 through July 2001. Water samples for each beach site were divided into two groups, a swimming season and non-swimming season. Water properties such as temperature, alkalinity,...

  8. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  9. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.

  10. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on Alabama beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayworth, J. S.; Clement, T. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2011-07-01

    From mid June 2010 to early August 2010, the white sandy beaches along Alabama's Gulf coast were inundated with crude oil discharged from the Deepwater Horizon well. The long-term consequences of this environmental catastrophe are still unfolding. Although BP has attempted to clean up some of these beaches, there still exist many unanswered questions regarding the physical, chemical, and ecological state of the oil contaminated beach system. In this paper, we present our understanding of what is known and known to be unknown with regard to the current state of Alabama's beaches in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Motivated by our observations of the evolving distribution of oil in Alabama's beaches and BP's clean-up activities, we offer our thoughts on the lessons learned from this oil spill disaster.