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Sample records for beam current transformer

  1. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-06-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  2. A new method to calculate the beam charge for an integrating current transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuchi; Han Dan; Zhu Bin; Dong Kegong; Tan Fang; Gu Yuqiu

    2012-09-15

    The integrating current transformer (ICT) is a magnetic sensor widely used to precisely measure the charge of an ultra-short-pulse charged particle beam generated by traditional accelerators and new laser-plasma particle accelerators. In this paper, we present a new method to calculate the beam charge in an ICT based on circuit analysis. The output transfer function shows an invariable signal profile for an ultra-short electron bunch, so the function can be used to evaluate the signal quality and calculate the beam charge through signal fitting. We obtain a set of parameters in the output function from a standard signal generated by an ultra-short electron bunch (about 1 ps in duration) at a radio frequency linear electron accelerator at Tsinghua University. These parameters can be used to obtain the beam charge by signal fitting with excellent accuracy.

  3. LANSCE beam current limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the beam current limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beamline below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Optimization of Drive-Bunch Current Profile for Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Beam-Driven Acceleration Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Prokop, C.R.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2012-07-08

    In recent years, wakefield acceleration has gained attention due to its high acceleration gradients and cost effectiveness. In beam-driven wakefield acceleration, a critical parameter to optimize is the transformer ratio. It has been shown that current shaping of electron beams allows for enhanced (> 2) transformer ratios. In this paper we present the optimization of the pulse shape of the drive bunch for dielectric-wakefield acceleration.

  5. A modified beam-to-earth transformation to measure short-wavelength internal waves with an acoustic Doppler current profiler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scotti, A.; Butman, B.; Beardsley, R.C.; Alexander, P.S.; Anderson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The algorithm used to transform velocity signals from beam coordinates to earth coordinates in an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) relies on the assumption that the currents are uniform over the horizontal distance separating the beams. This condition may be violated by (nonlinear) internal waves, which can have wavelengths as small as 100-200 m. In this case, the standard algorithm combines velocities measured at different phases of a wave and produces horizontal velocities that increasingly differ from true velocities with distance from the ADCP. Observations made in Massachusetts Bay show that currents measured with a bottom-mounted upward-looking ADCP during periods when short-wavelength internal waves are present differ significantly from currents measured by point current meters, except very close to the instrument. These periods are flagged with high error velocities by the standard ADCP algorithm. In this paper measurements from the four spatially diverging beams and the backscatter intensity signal are used to calculate the propagation direction and celerity of the internal waves. Once this information is known, a modified beam-to-earth transformation that combines appropriately lagged beam measurements can be used to obtain current estimates in earth coordinates that compare well with pointwise measurements. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  6. Direct current transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  7. LANSCE Beam Current Limiter (XL)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is an engineered safety system that provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated proton beams. The Beam Current Limiter (XL), as an active component of the RSS, limits the maximum average current in a beamline, thus the current available for a beam spill accident. Exceeding the pre-set limit initiates action by the RSS to mitigate the hazard (insertion of beam stoppers in the low energy beam transport). The beam limiter is an electrically isolated, toroidal transformer and associated electronics. The device was designed to continuously monitor beamline currents independent of any external timing. Fail-safe operation was a prime consideration in its development. Fail-safe operation is defined as functioning as intended (due to redundant circuitry), functioning with a more sensitive fault threshold, or generating a fault condition. This report describes the design philosophy, hardware, implementation, operation, and limitations of the device.

  8. Nondestructive synchronous beam current monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-12-15

    A fast current transformer is mounted after the deflectors of the Berkeley 88-Inch Cyclotron. The measured signal is amplified and connected to the input of a lock-in amplifier. The lock-in amplifier performs a synchronous detection of the signal at the cyclotron second harmonic frequency. The magnitude of the signal detected is calibrated against a Faraday cup and corresponds to the beam intensity. It has exceptional resolution, long term stability, and can measure the beam current leaving the cyclotron as low as 1 nA.

  9. Beam current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kuchnir, Moyses; Mills, Frederick E.

    1987-01-01

    A current sensor for measuring the DC component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivites in the nano-ampere range.

  10. Beam current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kuchnir, M.; Mills, F.E.

    1984-09-28

    A current sensor for measuring the dc component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivities in the nano-ampere range.

  11. Temperature-sensitive junction transformations for mid-wavelength HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detector arrays by laser beam induced current microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Weicheng; Hu, Weida Lin, Tie; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei; Cheng, Xiang'ai Wang, Rui

    2014-11-10

    In this paper, we report on the disappearance of the photosensitive area extension effect and the unusual temperature dependence of junction transformation for mid-wavelength, n-on-p HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detector arrays. The n-type region is formed by B{sup +} ion implantation on Hg-vacancy-doped p-type HgCdTe. Junction transformations under different temperatures are visually captured by a laser beam induced current microscope. A physical model of temperature dependence on junction transformation is proposed and demonstrated by using numerical simulations. It is shown that Hg-interstitial diffusion and temperature activated defects jointly lead to the p-n junction transformation dependence on temperature, and the weaker mixed conduction compared with long-wavelength HgCdTe photodiode contributes to the disappearance of the photosensitive area extension effect in mid-wavelength HgCdTe infrared detector arrays.

  12. 60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER WAS USED TO SENSE HIGH CURRENT BEING GENERATED ON GENERATOR NUMBER 3 AND REDUCE IT TO A LOWER, EXACT ANALOG VALUE THAT COULD BE SAFELY HANDLED AND MONITORED WITH THE CONTROL CIRCUITRY. THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER IS LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CONNECTING BUS ABOVE THE TRANSFORMER WAS REMOVED FOR SALVAGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  13. Charged particle beam current monitoring tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.C.

    1994-10-01

    A tutorial presentation is made on topics related to the measurement of charged particle beam currents. The fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism pertinent to the problem is reviewed. The physics is presented with a stress on its interpretation from an electrical circuit theory point of view. The operation of devices including video pulse current transformers, direct current transformers, and gigahertz bandwidth wall current style transformers is described. Design examples are given for each of these types of devices. Sensitivity, frequency response, and physical environment are typical parameters which influence the design of these instruments in any particular application. Practical engineering considerations, potential pitfalls, and performance limitations are discussed.

  14. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  15. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam current measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, D.; Day, L.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.-U.; Martinez, D.; Power, J. F.; Shurter, R.; Stettler, M.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Two types of current measurements are used. The first is an AC or pulsed-current measurement which uses three LANL built toroids. They are placed in the beamline in such a way as to measure important transmission parameters and act as a differential current-loss machine protection system. The second system is a DC current measurement used to measure cw beam characteristics and uses toroids from Bergoz Inc. There are two of these systems, so they can also be used for transmission measurements. The AC system uses custom processing electronics whereas the DC system uses a modified Bergoz® electronics system. Both systems feature data acquisition via a series of custom TMS320C40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of these systems, the calibration technique, the differential current loss measurements and fast-protection processing, current droop characteristics for the AC system, and existing system noise levels. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  16. Solid-state current transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farnsworth, D. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A signal transformation network which is uniquely characterized to exhibit a very low input impedance while maintaining a linear transfer characteristic when driven from a voltage source and when quiescently biased in the low microampere current range is described. In its simplest form, it consists of a tightly coupled two transistor network in which a common emitter input stage is interconnected directly with an emitter follower stage to provide virtually 100 percent negative feedback to the base input of the common emitter stage. Bias to the network is supplied via the common tie point of the common emitter stage collector terminal and the emitter follower base stage terminal by a regulated constant current source, and the output of the circuit is taken from the collector of the emitter follower stage.

  17. Coherent signal-subspace transformation beam former

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.-F.; Kaveh, M.

    1990-08-01

    A family of coherent signal-subspace transformation (CST) preprocessors for improving the performance of beam formers is presented. The proposed beam former includes a CST preprocessor followed by a frequency-independent mulling procedure. If the exact CST preprocessor is used, it is shown that the steering and nulling responses of the CST beam former become frequency independent. This CST beam former is also interpreted as a wideband minimum-variance distortionless response (MVDR) beam former for minimizing the total interference and noise powers. Several classes of the CST matrix are proposed and discussed. Unlike the traditional linearly constrained beam formers, the CST beam former effectively nulls the narrowband and wideband correlated interfences(s). Simulation results show that even low-order approximate CST preprocessors substantially improve the nulling and the steering bandwidth of general arrays.

  18. Effective shielding to measure beam current from an ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bayle, H.; Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Marroncle, J.; Senée, F.; Simon, C.; Tuske, O.

    2014-02-15

    To avoid saturation, beam current transformers must be shielded from solenoid, quad, and RFQ high stray fields. Good understanding of field distribution, shielding materials, and techniques is required. Space availability imposes compact shields along the beam pipe. This paper describes compact effective concatenated magnetic shields for IFMIF-EVEDA LIPAc LEBT and MEBT and for FAIR Proton Linac injector. They protect the ACCT Current Transformers beyond 37 mT radial external fields. Measurements made at Saclay on the SILHI source are presented.

  19. Transformer ratio improvement for beam based plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, Brendan; Rosenzweig, James; Barber, Samuel; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Williams, Oliver; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl

    2012-12-21

    Increasing the transformer ratio of wakefield accelerating systems improves the viability of present novel accelerating schemes. The use of asymmetric bunches to improve the transformer ratio of beam based plasma systems has been proposed for some time[1, 2] but suffered from lack appropriate beam creation systems. Recently these impediments have been overcome [3, 4] and the ability now exists to create bunches with current profiles shaped to overcome the symmetric beam limit of R {<=} 2. We present here work towards experiments designed to measure the transformer ratio of such beams, including theoretical models and simulations using VORPAL (a 3D capable PIC code) [5]. Specifically we discuss projects to be carried out in the quasi-nonlinear regime [6] at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory and the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.

  20. Transformation-optical Fan-beam Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Xianghui; Wang, Hui; Su, He; Lei, Zhenya; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Aofang; Chen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Gradient-index dielectric lenses are generated based on the coordinate transformation by compressing the homogeneous air spaces quasi-conformally towards and outwards the primary source. The three-dimensional modeling is then performed through revolving the prescribed transformational media 180 degrees around the focal point to reach the architecture of barrel-vaults. It is found that all these two- and three-dimensional transformation-optical designs are capable of producing fan-beams efficiently over a broad frequency range with their main lobes possessing the narrow beamwidth in one dimension and the wide beamwidth in the other, while having the great ability of the wide angular scanning. Finally, we propose to construct such four types of fan-beam lenses through multiple-layered dielectrics with non-uniformed perforations and experimentally demonstrate their excellent performances in the fan-beam synthesis. PMID:26847048

  1. Transformation-optical Fan-beam Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Xianghui; Wang, Hui; Su, He; Lei, Zhenya; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Aofang; Chen, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Gradient-index dielectric lenses are generated based on the coordinate transformation by compressing the homogeneous air spaces quasi-conformally towards and outwards the primary source. The three-dimensional modeling is then performed through revolving the prescribed transformational media 180 degrees around the focal point to reach the architecture of barrel-vaults. It is found that all these two- and three-dimensional transformation-optical designs are capable of producing fan-beams efficiently over a broad frequency range with their main lobes possessing the narrow beamwidth in one dimension and the wide beamwidth in the other, while having the great ability of the wide angular scanning. Finally, we propose to construct such four types of fan-beam lenses through multiple-layered dielectrics with non-uniformed perforations and experimentally demonstrate their excellent performances in the fan-beam synthesis.

  2. A transmission-loss monitor using current transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J.F.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Jason, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    A system for measuring the amount of beam-charge loss in a linear-accelerator structure has been developed that uses a pair of beam-current transformers, otherwise used to monitor the linac beam current. This system is necessary to enable the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) fast-protect system to shut off the accelerated beam in the event of a beam loss that would deposit sufficient energy to damage the accelerator structure. The present GTA accelerator consists of a 2.5-MeV, H{sup {minus}} RFQ, an intermediate matching section (IMS) and a single DTL cavity with an output energy of 3.2-MeV and transmitted current of 35 mA. Based on the RFQ output beam, melting of the copper structures will occur when about 40 nC of beam is deposited in a point loss. For a grazing angle of 30 mrad, up to 640 nC may be tolerated. The beam-current-transmission-loss monitor (BCTLM) system in conjunction with the fast-protect system measures the amount of beam loss between two toroidal beam-current monitors and automatically terminates the macropulse when the integrated loss reaches a predetermined set point. The design and operation of the BCTLM system used in the IMS and DTL section of the accelerator is described.

  3. High transformer ratio drive beams for wakefield accelerator studies

    SciTech Connect

    England, R. J.; Ng, C.-K.; Frederico, J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Muggli, P.; Joshi, C.; An, W.; Andonian, G.; Mori, W.; Lu, W.

    2012-12-21

    For wakefield based acceleration schemes, use of an asymmetric (or linearly ramped) drive bunch current profile has been predicted to enhance the transformer ratio and generate large accelerating wakes. We discuss plans and initial results for producing such bunches using the 20 to 23 GeV electron beam at the FACET facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and sending them through plasmas and dielectric tubes to generate transformer ratios greater than 2 (the limit for symmetric bunches). The scheme proposed utilizes the final FACET chicane compressor and transverse collimation to shape the longitudinal phase space of the beam.

  4. Beam coordinate transformations from DICOM to DOSXYZnrc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Lixin; Jiang, Runqing; Osei, Ernest K.

    2012-12-01

    Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format is the de facto standard for communications between therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. A plan generated by a treatment planning system (TPS) is often exported in DICOM format. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc is a widely used Monte Carlo (MC) package for modelling the Linac head and simulating dose delivery in radiotherapy. It has its own definition of beam orientation, which is not in compliance with the one defined in the DICOM standard. MC dose calculations using information from TPS generated plans require transformation of beam orientations to the DOSXYZnrc coordinate system (c.s.) and the transformation is non-trivial. There have been two studies on the coordinate transformations. The transformation equation sets derived have been helpful to BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc users. However, the transformation equation sets are complex mathematically and not easy to program. In this study, we derive a new set of transformation equations, which are more compact, easily understandable, and easier for computational implementation. The derivation of the polar angle θ and the azimuthal angle φ used by DOSXYZnrc is similar to the existing studies by applying a series of rotations to a vector in DICOM patient c.s. The derivation of the beam rotation ϕcol for DOSXYZnrc, however, is different. It is obtained by a direct combination of the actual collimator rotation with the projection of the couch rotation to the collimator rotating plane. Verification of the transformation has been performed using clinical plans. The comparisons between TPS and MC results show very good geometrical agreement for field placements, together with good agreement in dose distributions.

  5. Beam coordinate transformations from DICOM to DOSXYZnrc.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lixin; Jiang, Runqing; Osei, Ernest K

    2012-12-21

    Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format is the de facto standard for communications between therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. A plan generated by a treatment planning system (TPS) is often exported in DICOM format. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc is a widely used Monte Carlo (MC) package for modelling the Linac head and simulating dose delivery in radiotherapy. It has its own definition of beam orientation, which is not in compliance with the one defined in the DICOM standard. MC dose calculations using information from TPS generated plans require transformation of beam orientations to the DOSXYZnrc coordinate system (c.s.) and the transformation is non-trivial. There have been two studies on the coordinate transformations. The transformation equation sets derived have been helpful to BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc users. However, the transformation equation sets are complex mathematically and not easy to program. In this study, we derive a new set of transformation equations, which are more compact, easily understandable, and easier for computational implementation. The derivation of the polar angle θ and the azimuthal angle φ used by DOSXYZnrc is similar to the existing studies by applying a series of rotations to a vector in DICOM patient c.s. The derivation of the beam rotation ϕ(col) for DOSXYZnrc, however, is different. It is obtained by a direct combination of the actual collimator rotation with the projection of the couch rotation to the collimator rotating plane. Verification of the transformation has been performed using clinical plans. The comparisons between TPS and MC results show very good geometrical agreement for field placements, together with good agreement in dose distributions. PMID:23175216

  6. An integrating current transformer for fast extraction from the HIRFL-CSR main ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun-Xia; Zheng, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Mao, Rui-Shi; Yin, Yan; Yuan, You-Jin; Yang, Jian-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    For any experiment that uses the beam of an accelerator, monitoring the beam intensity is always an important concern. It is particularly useful if one can continuously measure the beam current without disturbing the beam. We report here on test experiments for an Integrating Current Transformer (ICT) used to measure fast extraction beams from the HIRFL-CSR main ring (CSRm). The laboratory tests and beam intensity measurement results are presented in this paper. The influence of the kicker noise is also analyzed.

  7. In-line beam current monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, C. A., Jr.; Frost, C. A.

    1984-11-01

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  8. In-line beam current monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl A.; Frost, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  9. In-line beam current monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Frost, C.A.

    1984-11-13

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  10. Effective shielding to measure beam current from an ion source.

    PubMed

    Bayle, H; Delferrière, O; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Marroncle, J; Senée, F; Simon, C; Tuske, O

    2014-02-01

    To avoid saturation, beam current transformers must be shielded from solenoid, quad, and RFQ high stray fields. Good understanding of field distribution, shielding materials, and techniques is required. Space availability imposes compact shields along the beam pipe. This paper describes compact effective concatenated magnetic shields for IFMIF-EVEDA LIPAc LEBT and MEBT and for FAIR Proton Linac injector. They protect the ACCT Current Transformers beyond 37 mT radial external fields. Measurements made at Saclay on the SILHI source are presented. PMID:24593447

  11. Precision Absolute Beam Current Measurement of Low Power Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M. M.; Bevins, M. E.; Degtiarenko, P.; Freyberger, A.; Krafft, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    Precise measurements of low power CW electron beam current for the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Physics program have been performed using a Tungsten calorimeter. This paper describes the rationale for the choice of the calorimeter technique, as well as the design and calibration of the device. The calorimeter is in use presently to provide a 1% absolute current measurement of CW electron beam with 50 to 500 nA of average beam current and 1-3 GeV beam energy. Results from these recent measurements will also be presented.

  12. Apparatus and methods for continuous beam fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01

    A continuous beam Fourier transform mass spectrometer in which a sample of ions to be analyzed is trapped in a trapping field, and the ions in the range of the mass-to-charge ratios to be analyzed are excited at their characteristic frequencies of motion by a continuous excitation signal. The excited ions in resonant motions generate real or image currents continuously which can be detected and processed to provide a mass spectrum.

  13. DC-Compensated Current Transformer

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  14. High current ion beam transport using solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, R.; Spaedtke, P.

    2008-02-15

    In the framework of the future project FAIR several upgrade programs and construction of new facilities are in progress such as the U{sup 4+} upgrade for the existing high current injector and the new 70 MeV proton injector. For both injectors solenoids in the low energy beam transport section are foreseen to inject the beam into the following rf accelerator. The paper presents beam quality measurements of high current ion beams behind a solenoid using a slit-grid emittance measurement device, viewing targets, and a pepper pot measurement device at the high current test bench at GSI.

  15. Electronic voltage and current transformers testing device.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Chen, Ruimin; Xiao, Yong; Sun, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware. PMID:22368510

  16. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  17. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore » growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  18. Beam-halo measurements in high-current proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.K.; Chan, K.C.D.; Colestock, P.L.; Crandall, K.R.; Garnett, R.W.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Lysenko, W.; Qiang, J.; Schneider, J.D.; Schulze, M.E.; Sheffield, R.L.; Smith, H.V.; Wangler, T.P.

    2002-01-11

    We present results from an experimental study of the beam halo in a high-current 6.7-MeV proton beam propagating through a 52-quadrupole periodic-focusing channel. The gradients of the first four quadrupoles were independently adjusted to match or mismatch the injected beam. Emittances and beamwidths were obtained from measured profiles for comparisons with maximum emittance-growth predictions of a free-energy model and maximum halo-amplitude predictions of a particle-core model. The experimental results support both models and the present theoretical picture of halo formation.

  19. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOEpatents

    Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1985-04-16

    The present invention is a current transformer for operating currents larger than 2kA (two kiloamps) that is capable of detecting a millivolt level resistive voltage in the presence of a large inductive voltage. Specifically, the present invention includes substantially cylindrical primary turns arranged to carry a primary current and substantially cylindrical secondary turns arranged coaxially with and only partially within the primary turns, the secondary turns including an active winding and a dummy winding, the active and dummy windings being coaxial, longitudinally separated and arranged to mutually cancel voltages excited by commonly experienced magnetic fields, the active winding but not the dummy winding being arranged within the primary turns.

  20. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  1. Transformer current sensor for superconducting magnetic coils

    DOEpatents

    Shen, Stewart S.; Wilson, C. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    A transformer current sensor having primary turns carrying a primary current for a superconducting coil and secondary turns only partially arranged within the primary turns. The secondary turns include an active winding disposed within the primary turns and a dummy winding which is not disposed in the primary turns and so does not experience a magnetic field due to a flow of current in the primary turns. The active and dummy windings are wound in opposite directions or connected in series-bucking relationship, and are exposed to the same ambient magnetic field. Voltages which might otherwise develop in the active and dummy windings due to ambient magnetic fields thus cancel out. The resultant voltage is purely indicative of the rate of change of current flowing in the primary turns.

  2. Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude

    DOEpatents

    Bogaty, John M.; Clifft, Benny E.; Bollinger, Lowell M.

    1995-01-01

    A beam current limiter for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity.

  3. Indirectly sensing accelerator beam currents for limiting maximum beam current magnitude

    DOEpatents

    Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Bollinger, L.M.

    1995-08-08

    A beam current limiter is disclosed for sensing and limiting the beam current in a particle accelerator, such as a cyclotron or linear accelerator, used in scientific research and medical treatment. A pair of independently operable capacitive electrodes sense the passage of charged particle bunches to develop an RF signal indicative of the beam current magnitude produced at the output of a bunched beam accelerator. The RF signal produced by each sensing electrode is converted to a variable DC voltage indicative of the beam current magnitude. The variable DC voltages thus developed are compared to each other to verify proper system function and are further compared to known references to detect beam currents in excess of pre-established limits. In the event of a system malfunction, or if the detected beam current exceeds pre-established limits, the beam current limiter automatically inhibits further accelerator operation. A high Q tank circuit associated with each sensing electrode provides a narrow system bandwidth to reduce noise and enhance dynamic range. System linearity is provided by injecting, into each sensing electrode, an RF signal that is offset from the bunching frequency by a pre-determined beat frequency to ensure that subsequent rectifying diodes operate in a linear response region. The system thus provides a large dynamic range in combination with good linearity. 6 figs.

  4. SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE BEAM CURRENT MONITOR ELECTRONICS.

    SciTech Connect

    KESSELMAN,M.; DAWSON,W.C.

    2002-05-06

    This paper will discuss the present electronics design for the beam current monitor system to be used throughout the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The beam is composed of a micro-pulse structure due to the 402.5MHz RF, and is chopped into mini-pulses of 645ns duration with a 300ns gap, providing a macro-pulse of 1060 mini-pulses repeating at a 60Hz rate. Ring beam current will vary from about 15ma peak during studies, to about 50Amps peak (design to 100 amps). A digital approach to droop compensation has been implemented and initial test results presented.

  5. Beam current controller for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-10-28

    The present invention relates to the design and use of an ion source with a rapid beam current controller for experimental and medicinal purposes. More particularly, the present invention relates to the design and use of a laser ion source with a magnetic field applied to confine a plasma flux caused by laser ablation.

  6. Spiral-like multi-beam emission via transformation electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz Lustrac, André de

    2014-01-14

    Transformation electromagnetics offers an unconventional approach for the design of novel radiating devices. Here, we propose an electromagnetic metamaterial able to split an isotropic radiation into multiple directive beams. By applying transformations that modify distance and angles, we show how the multiple directive beams can be steered at will. We describe transformation of the metric space and the calculation of the material parameters. Different transformations are proposed for a possible physical realization through the use of engineered artificial metamaterials. Full wave simulations are performed to validate the proposed approach. The idea paves the way to interesting applications in various domains in microwave and optical regimes.

  7. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, M.

    2013-11-07

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ∼ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  8. Hough Transform Based Corner Detection for Laser Beam Positioning

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2005-07-26

    In laser beam alignment in addition to detecting position, one must also determine the rotation of the beam. This is essential when a commissioning new laser beam for National Ignition Facility located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. When the beam is square, the positions of the corners with respect to one another provides an estimate of the rotation of the beam. This work demonstrates corner detection in the presence or absence of a second order non-uniform illumination caused by a spatial mask. The Hough transform coupled with illumination dependent pre-processing is used to determine the corner points. We show examples from simulated and real NIF images.

  9. Note: A real-time beam current density meter

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Junliang; Yu Deyang; Ruan Fangfang; Xue Yingli; Wang Wei

    2013-03-15

    We have developed a real-time beam current density meter for charged particle beams. It measures the mean current density by collimating a uniform and large diameter primary beam. The suppression of the secondary electrons and the deflection of the beam were simulated, and it was tested with a 105 keV Ar{sup 7+} ion beam.

  10. Saturation current spikes eliminated in saturable core transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Unsaturating composite magnetic core transformer, consisting of two separate parallel cores designed so impending core saturation causes signal generation, terminates high current spike in converter primary circuit. Simplified waveform, demonstrates transformer effectiveness in eliminating current spikes.

  11. Beam-induced graphitic carbon cage transformation from sumanene aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Jun-ichi Tachi, Masashi; Murakami, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Hidehiro; Morita, Yuki; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2014-01-27

    We found that electron-beam irradiation of sumanene aggregates strongly enhanced their transformation into a graphitic carbon cage, having a diameter of about 20 nm. The threshold electron dose was about 32 mC/cm{sup 2} at 200 keV, but the transformation is still induced at 20 keV. The transformation sequence suggested that the cage was constructed accompanied by the dynamical movement of the transiently linked sumanene molecules in order to pile up inside the shell. Thus, bond excitation in the sumanene molecules rather than a knock-on of carbon atoms seems to be the main cause of the cage transformation.

  12. Optimization of beam transformation system for laser-diode bars.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junhong; Guo, Linhui; Wu, Hualing; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Songxin; Wu, Deyong

    2016-08-22

    An optimized beam transformation system (BTS) is proposed to improve the beam quality of laser-diode bars. Through this optimized design, the deterioration of beam quality after the BTS can be significantly reduced. Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the optimized system enables the beam quality of a mini-bar (9 emitters) approximately equal to 5.0 mm × 3.6 mrad in the fast-axis and slow-axis. After beam shaping by the optimized BTS, the laser-diode beam can be coupled into a 100 μm core, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) fiber with an output power of over 100 W and an electric-optical efficiency of 46.8%. PMID:27557249

  13. Requirements for neutral beam current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Dory, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraphs on the use of neutral beam current drive in future tokamaks. Current profiles, slowing down distributions, beam destabilization of alfven waves and plasma parameters are some items covered in this paper. (DWL)

  14. Precision intercomparison of beam current monitors at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Kazimi, R.; Dunham, B.; Krafft, G.A.; Legg, r.; Liang, C.; Sinclair, C.; Mamosser, J.

    1995-12-31

    The CEBAF accelerator delivers a CW electron beam at fundamental 1497 MHz, with average beam current up to 200 {mu}A. Accurate, stable nonintercepting beam current monitors are required for: setup/control, monitoring of beam current and beam losses for machine protection and personnel safety, and providing beam current information to experimental users. Fundamental frequency stainless steel RF cavities have been chosen for these beam current monitors. This paper reports on precision intercomparison between two such RF cavities, an Unser monitor, and two Faraday cups, all located in the injector area. At the low beam energy in the injector, it is straightforward to verify the high efficiency of the Faraday cups, and the Unser monitor included a wire through it to permit an absolute calibration. The cavity intensity monitors have proven capable of stable, high precision monitoring of the beam current.

  15. Transformer ratio saturation in a beam-driven wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. P.; Martorelli, R.; Pukhov, A.

    2015-12-01

    We show that for beam-driven wakefield acceleration, the linearly ramped, equally spaced train of bunches typically considered to optimise the transformer ratio only works for flat-top bunches. Through theory and simulation, we explain that this behaviour is due to the unique properties of the plasma response to a flat-top density profile. Calculations of the optimal scaling for a train of Gaussian bunches show diminishing returns with increasing bunch number, tending towards saturation. For a periodic bunch train, a transformer ratio of 23 was achieved for 50 bunches, rising to 40 for a fully optimised beam.

  16. Transformer ratio saturation in a beam-driven wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J. P.; Martorelli, R.; Pukhov, A.

    2015-12-15

    We show that for beam-driven wakefield acceleration, the linearly ramped, equally spaced train of bunches typically considered to optimise the transformer ratio only works for flat-top bunches. Through theory and simulation, we explain that this behaviour is due to the unique properties of the plasma response to a flat-top density profile. Calculations of the optimal scaling for a train of Gaussian bunches show diminishing returns with increasing bunch number, tending towards saturation. For a periodic bunch train, a transformer ratio of 23 was achieved for 50 bunches, rising to 40 for a fully optimised beam.

  17. 59. VIEW OF FUSES AND A CURRENT TRANSFORMER LOCATED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. VIEW OF FUSES AND A CURRENT TRANSFORMER LOCATED IN THE SIGNAL POWER CONDITIONING ROOM. THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER (UPPER RIGHT) IS AN INDUCTION COUPLED SENSOR WHICH IS USED TO REDUCE HIGH CURRENT TO ANALOGOUS LOW VALUES SAFE TO USE IN CONTROL ROOM CIRCUITRY. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  18. Improvements of a Beam Current Monitor by using a High Tc Current Sensor and SQUID at the RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Fukunishi, N.; Kase, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Inamori, S.; Kon, K.

    2014-05-01

    To measure a beam current non-destructively, a conventional DC current transformer (DCCT) has been used at accelerator facilities. However, the current resolution of the DCCT is worse than 1μA. This current resolution is sufficient for electron and proton accelerators in which the beam intensity is high, but it is not sufficient for lower intensity heavy-ion beams. Thus, superconducting technology has been applied to the precise measurement of the beam current. In particular, to measure the DC current of high-energy heavy-ion beams non-destructively at high resolution, a high critical temperature (HTc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) beam current monitor (HTc SQUID monitor) has been developed for use in the radioactive isotope beam factory (RIBF) at RIKEN in Japan. Beginning this year, the magnetic shielding system has been greatly reinforced. The measurement resolution is determined by the signal to noise ratio, that is improved by attenuating the external magnetic noise and is mainly produced by the distribution and transmission lines from the high current power supplies. The new strong magnetic shielding system can attenuate the external magnetic noise to 10-10.

  19. Electron-Beam Induced Transformations of Layered Tin Dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Sutter, E; Huang, Y; Komsa, H-P; Ghorbani-Asl, M; Krasheninnikov, A V; Sutter, P

    2016-07-13

    By combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and associated analytical methods with first-principles calculations, we study the behavior of layered tin dichalcogenides under electron beam irradiation. We demonstrate that the controllable removal of chalcogen atoms due to electron irradiation, at both room and elevated temperatures, gives rise to transformations in the atomic structure of Sn-S and Sn-Se systems so that new phases with different properties can be induced. In particular, rhombohedral layered SnS2 and SnSe2 can be transformed via electron beam induced loss of chalcogen atoms into highly anisotropic orthorhombic layered SnS and SnSe. A striking dependence of the layer orientation of the resulting SnS-parallel to the layers of ultrathin SnS2 starting material, but slanted for transformations of thicker few-layer SnS2-is rationalized by a transformation pathway in which vacancies group into ordered S-vacancy lines, which convert via a Sn2S3 intermediate to SnS. Absence of a stable Sn2Se3 intermediate precludes this pathway for the selenides, hence SnSe2 always transforms into basal plane oriented SnSe. Our results provide microscopic insights into the transformation mechanism and show how irradiation can be used to tune the properties of layered tin chalcogenides for applications in electronics, catalysis, or energy storage. PMID:27336595

  20. Direct-Current Monitor With Flux-Reset Transformer Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canter, Stanley

    1993-01-01

    Circuit measures constant or slowly-varying unidirectional electrical current using flux-reset transformer coupling. Measurement nonintrusive in sense that no need for direct contact with wire that carries load current to be measured, and no need to install series resistive element in load-current path. Toroidal magnetic core wrapped with coil of wire placed around load-current-carrying wire, acts as transformer core, load-current-carrying wire acts as primary winding of transformer, and coil wrapped on core acts as secondary winding.

  1. Start-to-end beam dynamics simulation of double triangular current profile generation in Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, G.; Power, J.; Kim, S. H.; Gai, W.; Kim, K.-J.; Cho, M. H.; Namkung, W.

    2012-12-21

    Double triangular current profile (DT) gives a high transformer ratio which is the determining factor of the performance of collinear wakefield accelerator. This current profile can be generated using the emittance exchange (EEX) beam line. Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility plans to generate DT using the EEX beam line. We conducted start-to-end simulation for the AWA beam line using PARMELA code. Also, we discuss requirements of beam parameters for the generation of DT.

  2. Transformation of spin current by antiferromagnetic insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khymyn, Roman; Lisenkov, Ivan; Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Ivanov, Boris A.

    2016-06-01

    It is demonstrated theoretically that a thin layer of an anisotropic antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator can effectively conduct spin current through the excitation of a pair of evanescent AFM spin wave modes. The spin current flowing through the AFM is not conserved due to the interaction between the excited AFM modes and the AFM lattice and, depending on the excitation conditions, can be either attenuated or enhanced. When the phase difference between the excited evanescent modes is close to π /2 , there is an optimum AFM thickness for which the output spin current reaches a maximum, which can significantly exceed the magnitude of the input spin current. The spin current transfer through the AFM depends on the ambient temperature and increases substantially when temperature approaches the Néel temperature of the AFM layer.

  3. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  4. Beam profile for the Herschel-SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Makiwa, Gibion; Naylor, David A; Ferlet, Marc; Salji, Carl; Swinyard, Bruce; Polehampton, Edward; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D

    2013-06-01

    One of the instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory is the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE). SPIRE employs a Fourier transform spectrometer with feed-horn-coupled bolometers to provide imaging spectroscopy. To interpret the resultant spectral images requires knowledge of the wavelength-dependent beam, which in the case of SPIRE is complicated by the use of multimoded feed horns. In this paper we describe a series of observations and the analysis conducted to determine the wavelength dependence of the SPIRE spectrometer beam profile. PMID:23736346

  5. Suppression of current fluctuations in an intense electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J. R.; Lewellen, J. W.

    2010-10-15

    When an intense beam encounters an aperture, the transmitted current depends on the properties of the beam and the transport channel, as well as those of the aperture itself. In some cases, an increase in the incident beam current will be exactly compensated by an increase in the incident beam area, so that the current density at the aperture remains unchanged. When this occurs, the transmitted beam current becomes independent of changes in the incident beam current, providing a passive means for suppressing current fluctuations in the beam. In this article, a key requirement for the existence of this condition is derived. This requirement is shown to be fulfilled in the case of an idealized uniform focusing channel in the small-signal limit, but to be violated when the current fluctuations are not small. Even in this case, the apertured transport system retains the ability to suppress--but not totally eliminate--fluctuations in the transmitted beam current for a wide range of incident beam currents.

  6. Online diagnoses of high current-density beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1994-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has proposed several CW-proton-beam facilities for production of tritium or transmutation of nuclear waste with beam-current densities greater than 5 mA/mm{sup 2}. The primary beam-diagnostics-instrumentation requirement for these facilities is provision of sufficient beam information to understand and minimize beam-loss. To accomplish this task, the beam-diagnostics instrumentation must measure beam parameters such as the centroids and profiles, total integrated current, and particle loss. Noninterceptive techniques must be used for diagnosis of high-intensity CW beam at low energies due to the large quantity of power deposited in an interceptive diagnostic device by the beam. Transverse and longitudinal centroid measurements have been developed for bunched beams by measuring and processing image currents on the accelerator walls. Transverse beam-profile measurement-techniques have also been developed using the interaction of the particle beam with the background gases near the beam region. This paper will discuss these noninterceptive diagnostic Techniques.

  7. High-current beam dynamics and transport, theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of beam physics and technology factors determining the current and brightness of ion and electron beams in linear accelerators will be reviewed. Topics to be discussed including phase-space density constraints of particle sources, low-energy beam transport include charge neutralization, emittance growth due to mismatch, energy exchange, instabilities, nonlinear effects, and longitudinal bunching.

  8. Optomechanical control of transforming Bessel beams in a c-cut of lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranin, V. D.; Karpeev, S. V.; Khonina, S. N.

    2016-02-01

    Transformation of zero-order Bessel beams into a second-order vortex beam in the process of propagation in a c-cut of CaCO3 and LiNbO3 crystals has been investigated experimentally. The possibility of controlling beam transformation by means of changing the wavefront curvature of the illuminating beam is shown. Aperiodic transformation of a Bessel beam by illumination of diffractive axicon with convergent light is noted.

  9. Elimination of inrush current of transformers and distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Asghar, M.S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Repeated switching of distribution transformers take place due to poor generation and load shading. The transformer mounted on electric locomotive is also regularly reswitched after crossing each buffer zone between two substations. The steady-state magnetizing current of a transformer is about 5% of the full load current.But the transient inrush current may be as high as ten times the full-load current. The switching instant decides the nature and magnitude of the switching current and it is used here to control the inrush current. Another method is adopted by placing a capacitor at the secondary side of the unloaded transformer connected at the sending or receiving end of the distribution line. Third method is proposed using the distribution line as a low-pass filter. In case of a three-phase transformer, when it is switched, inrush current flows in either one or two phase windings. Instead of a simultaneous switching of all the phases (windings), each winding of transformer is switched at predetermined switching instants sequentially. Thus inrush currents are contained to steady-state level using an instant-controlled switching circuit. Switching of all phases completes within 1/3 or 1/4 of the power-cycle depending upon the mode of transformer configuration and the switching strategy. The switching current is found same as the steady-state no-load current. These schemes are useful for traction transformer as well as for poorly supplied and poorly maintained distribution lines including traction line which are subjected to repeated switching.

  10. A Superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D. R.; Joseph, J. M.; Lizarazo, J.; Prestemon, S. O.; Miller, G.; Weijers, H. W.

    2010-02-15

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10 464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  11. A superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing.

    PubMed

    Godeke, A; Dietderich, D R; Joseph, J M; Lizarazo, J; Prestemon, S O; Miller, G; Weijers, H W

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10,464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples. PMID:20370213

  12. Laser diagnostic for high current H{sup {minus}} beams

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.E.

    1998-05-05

    In the last 5 years, significant technology advances have been made in the performance, size, and cost of solid-state diode-pumped lasers. These developments enable the use of compact Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers as a beam diagnostic for high current H{sup {minus}} beams. Because the threshold for photodetachment is only 0.75 eV, and the maximum detachment cross section is 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} cm{sup 2} at 1.5 eV, a 50 mJ/pulse Q-switched Nd:YAG laser can neutralize a significant fraction of the beam in a single 10-ns wide pulse. The neutral beam maintains nearly identical parameters as the parent H{sup {minus}} beam, including size, divergence, energy, energy spread, and phase spread. A dipole magnet can separate the neutral beam from the H{sup {minus}} beam to allow diagnostics on the neutral beam without intercepting the high-current H{sup {minus}} beam. Such a laser system can also be used to extract a low current proton beam, or to induce fluorescence in partially stripped heavy ion beams. Possible beamline diagnostic systems will be reviewed, and the neutral beam yields will be calculated.

  13. Damage Identification in Beam Structure using Spatial Continuous Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeliukstis, R.; Rucevskis, S.; Wesolowski, M.; Kovalovs, A.; Chate, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the applicability of spatial continuous wavelet transform (CWT) technique for damage identification in the beam structure is analyzed by application of different types of wavelet functions and scaling factors. The proposed method uses exclusively mode shape data from the damaged structure. To examine limitations of the method and to ascertain its sensitivity to noisy experimental data, several sets of simulated data are analyzed. Simulated test cases include numerical mode shapes corrupted by different levels of random noise as well as mode shapes with different number of measurement points used for wavelet transform. A broad comparison of ability of different wavelet functions to detect and locate damage in beam structure is given. Effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated experimentally on two aluminum beams containing single mill-cut damage. The modal frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained via finite element models for numerical simulations and by using a scanning laser vibrometer with PZT actuator as vibration excitation source for the experimental study.

  14. Modeling of explosive electron emission and electron beam dynamics in high-current devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, S. V.; Gurinovich, A. A.

    2014-03-01

    Based on a detailed analysis of explosive electron emission in high-current electronic devices, we formulate a system of equations that describes the expansion of the cathode plasma and the generation of high-current electron beams. The system underlies the numerical algorithm for the hybrid code which enables simulating the charged particles' dynamics in high-current vircators with open resonators. Using the Gabor-Morlet transform, we perform the time-frequency analysis of vircator radiation.

  15. Gaussian laser beam transformation into an optical vortex beam by helical lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicijevic, Ljiljana; Topuzoski, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the Fresnel diffraction characteristics of the hybrid optical element which is a combination of a spiral phase plate (SPP) with topological charge p and a thin lens with focal length f, named the helical lens (HL). As incident a Gaussian laser beam is treated, having its waist a distance ζ from the HL plane and its axis passing through the centre of the HL. It is shown that the SPP introduces a phase singularity of pth order to the incident beam, while the lens transforms the beam characteristic parameters. The output light beam is analyzed in detail: its characteristic parameters and focusing properties, amplitude and intensity distributions and the vortex rings profiles, and radii, at any z distance behind the HL plane, as well as in the near and far field.

  16. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, A. Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V.; Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W.; Dubey, S. K.; Javidi, B.

    2014-03-10

    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  17. Wave Transformation and Breaking on a Sheared Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zippel, S.; Thomson, J. M.; Rusch, C.

    2014-12-01

    Waves shoaling against tidal currents at river inlets have long been a hazard to navigation. We present measurements of waves, currents, and turbulence from SWIFT drifters at the Columbia River Mouth to diagnose wave transformation, breaking, and the resulting turbulence. In particular, down-looking velocity profiles, measured onboard the drifters, allow for evaluation of wave transformation on a vertically sheared current, for which theory exists but few in situ measurements are available. One consequence of wave transformation is steepening and breaking, which is identified using visual images, increased near surface turbulence, and gradients in wave energy flux. Vertical turbulent dissipation profiles measured during breaking are compared to existing scalings developed for deep and shallow water and expanded to the intermediate depth conditions common at the Columbia River Mouth. The analysis is intended to improve hydrodynamic models, especially two-way coupled wave-current models, and to aid navigation by better predicting dangerous wave conditions.

  18. Electrical measurement techniques for pulsed high current electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Struve, K.W.

    1986-04-01

    The advent of high current (1 to 100 kA), moderate energy (>10 MeV), short pulse (1 to 100 ns) electron accelerators used for charged particle beam research has motivated a need to complement standard diagnostics with development of new diagnostic techniques to measure electron beam parameters. A brief survey is given of the diagnostics for measuring beam current, position, size, energy, and emittance. While a broad scope of diagnostics will be discussed, this survey will emphasize diagnostics used on the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) and Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA). Focus is placed on diagnostics measuring beam current, position and size. Among the diagnostics discussed are resistive wall current monitors, B/sub theta/ loops, Rogowski coils, Faraday cups, and x-ray wire diagnostics. Operation at higher current levels also increases radiation and electromagnetic pulse interference. These difficulties and methods for circumventing them are also discussed.

  19. Limiting current of intense electron beams in a decelerating gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Thompson, C.; Karakkad, J. A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    For numerous applications, it is desirable to develop electron beam driven efficient sources of electromagnetic radiation that are capable of producing the required power at beam voltages as low as possible. This trend is limited by space charge effects that cause the reduction of electron kinetic energy and can lead to electron reflection. So far, this effect was analyzed for intense beams propagating in uniform metallic pipes. In the present study, the limiting currents of intense electron beams are analyzed for the case of beam propagation in the tubes with gaps. A general treatment is illustrated by an example evaluating the limiting current in a high-power, tunable 1-10 MHz inductive output tube (IOT), which is currently under development for ionospheric modification. Results of the analytical theory are compared to results of numerical simulations. The results obtained allow one to estimate the interaction efficiency of IOTs.

  20. Drift distance survey in DPIS for high current beam production

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesue,T.; Okamura, M.; Kondo, K.; Tamura, J.; Kashiwagi, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2009-09-20

    In a laser ion source, plasma drift distance is one of the most important design parameters. Ion current density and beam pulse width are defined by plasma drift distance between laser target and beam extraction position. In direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), which uses a laser ion source and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, we can apply relatively higher electric field at the beam extraction due to the unique shape of a positively biased electrode. However, when we aim at very high current acceleration like several tens of mA, we observed mismatched beam extraction conditions. We tested three different ion current at ion extraction region by changing plasma drift distance to study better extraction condition. In this experiment, C{sup 6+} beam was accelerated. We confirmed that the matching condition can be improved by controlling plasma drift distance.

  1. Current Technologies and Related Issues for Mushroom Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sinil; Ha, Byeong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom transformation requires a series of experimental steps, including generation of host strains with a desirable selective marker, design of vector DNA, removal of host cell wall, introduction of foreign DNA across the cell membrane, and integration into host genomic DNA or maintenance of an autonomous vector DNA inside the host cell. This review introduces limitations and obstacles related to transformation technologies along with possible solutions. Current methods for cell wall removal and cell membrane permeabilization are summarized together with details of two popular technologies, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and restriction enzyme-mediated integration. PMID:25892908

  2. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOEpatents

    Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

    1987-06-29

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

  3. Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Ralph L.; Guilford, Richard P.; Stichman, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

  4. Dynamics of a high-current relativistic electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Strelkov, P. S.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Ivanov, I. E. Shumeiko, D. V.

    2015-06-15

    The dynamics of a high-current relativistic electron beam is studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. The beam is formed in a magnetically insulated diode with a transverse-blade explosive-emission cathode. It is found experimentally that the radius of a 500-keV beam with a current of 2 kA and duration of 500 ns decreases with time during the beam current pulse. The same effect was observed in numerical simulations. This effect is explained by a change in the shape of the cathode plasma during the current pulse, which, according to calculations, leads to a change in the beam parameters, such as the electron pitch angle and the spread over the longitudinal electron momentum. These parameters are hard to measure experimentally; however, the time evolution of the radial profile of the beam current density, which can be measured reliably, coincides with the simulation results. This allows one to expect that the behavior of the other beam parameters also agrees with numerical simulations.

  5. Low Impedance Bellows for High-current Beam Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G; Nassiri, A; Waldschmidt, G J; Yang, Y; Feingold, J J; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Wang, H; Jang, J; Kim, S H

    2012-07-01

    In particle accelerators, bellows are commonly used to connect beamline components. Such bellows are traditionally shielded to lower the beam impedance. Excessive beam impedance can cause overheating in the bellows, especially in high beam current operation. For an SRF-based accelerator, the bellows must also be particulate free. Many designs of shielded bellows incorporate rf slides or fingers that prevent convolutions from being exposed to wakefields. Unfortunately these mechanical structures tend to generate particulates that, if left in the SRF accelerator, can migrate into superconducting cavities, the accelerator's critical components. In this paper, we describe a prototype unshielded bellows that has low beam impedance and no risk of particulate generation.

  6. Method for measuring and controlling beam current in ion beam processing

    DOEpatents

    Kearney, Patrick A.; Burkhart, Scott C.

    2003-04-29

    A method for producing film thickness control of ion beam sputter deposition films. Great improvements in film thickness control is accomplished by keeping the total current supplied to both the beam and suppressor grids of a radio frequency (RF) in beam source constant, rather than just the current supplied to the beam grid. By controlling both currents, using this method, deposition rates are more stable, and this allows the deposition of layers with extremely well controlled thicknesses to about 0.1%. The method is carried out by calculating deposition rates based on the total of the suppressor and beam currents and maintaining the total current constant by adjusting RF power which gives more consistent values.

  7. Laser diagnostic for high current H{sup {minus}} beams

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Laser photodetachment can be used on high current, high energy H{sup {minus}} beams to carry out a wide variety of beam diagnostic measurements parasitically during normal operation, without having to operate the facility at either reduced current or duty cycle. Suitable Q-switched laser systems are small, inexpensive, and can be mounted on or near the beamline. Most of the proposed laser-based diagnostics techniques have already been demonstrated.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATOR DATA REPORTING SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION TO TREND ANALYSIS OF BEAM CURRENT DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, M.J.; Blokland, W.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed ongoing information about the ion beam quality is crucial to the successful operation of the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In order to provide the highest possible neutron production time, ion beam quality is monitored to isolate possible problems or performance-related issues throughout the accelerator and accumulator ring. For example, beam current monitor (BCM) data is used to determine the quality of the beam transport through the accelerator. In this study, a reporting system infrastructure was implemented and used to generate a trend analysis report of the BCM data. The BCM data was analyzed to facilitate the identifi cation of monitor calibration issues, beam trends, beam abnormalities, beam deviations and overall beam quality. A comparison between transformed BCM report data and accelerator log entries shows promising results which represent correlations between the data and changes made within the accelerator. The BCM analysis report is one of many reports within a system that assist in providing overall beam quality information to facilitate successful beam operation. In future reports, additional data manipulation functions and analysis can be implemented and applied. Built-in and user-defi ned analytic functions are available throughout the reporting system and can be reused with new data.

  9. Cumulative Beam Breakup in Linear Accelerators with Arbitrary Beam Current Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Delayen

    2003-06-01

    An analytical formalism for the solution of cumulative beam breakup in linear accelerators with arbitrary time dependence of beam current is presented, and a closed-form expression for the time and position dependence of the transverse displacement is obtained. It is applied to the behavior of single bunches and to the steady state and transient behavior of dc beams and beams composed of point-like and finite length bunches. This formalism is also applied to the problem of cumulative beam breakup in the presence of random displacement of cavities and focusing elements, and a general solution is presented.

  10. Current Correlations in a Majorana Beam Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haim, Arbel; Berg, Erez; von Oppen, Felix; Oreg, Yuval

    We study current correlations in a T-junction composed of a grounded topological superconductor and of two normal-metal leads which are biased at a voltage V. We show that the existence of an isolated Majorana zero mode in the junction dictates a universal behavior for the cross correlation of the currents through the two normal-metal leads of the junction. The cross correlation is negative and approaches zero at high bias voltages as - 1 / V . This behavior is robust in the presence of disorder and multiple transverse channels, and persists at finite temperatures. In contrast, an accidental low-energy Andreev bound state gives rise to non-universal behavior of the cross correlation. We employ numerical transport simulations to corroborate our conclusions.

  11. Current correlations in a Majorana beam splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haim, Arbel; Berg, Erez; von Oppen, Felix; Oreg, Yuval

    2015-12-01

    We study current correlations in a T junction composed of a grounded topological superconductor and of two normal-metal leads which are biased at a voltage V . We show that the existence of an isolated Majorana zero mode in the junction dictates a universal behavior for the cross correlation of the currents through the two normal-metal leads of the junction. The cross correlation is negative and approaches zero at high bias voltages as -1 /V . This behavior is robust in the presence of disorder and multiple transverse channels, and persists at finite temperatures. In contrast, an accidental low-energy Andreev bound state gives rise to nonuniversal behavior of the cross correlation. We employ numerical transport simulations to corroborate our conclusions.

  12. A determination of the current density in electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Current gathering rotating probe techniques were used to examine the envelope shape and power density profile of electron beams used in electron beam welding devices. The electron power density contours which determine the shape of the weld vapor cavity, penetration, and local heat distribution were considered. A mathematical analysis consistent with a rotating probe technique necessary to determine the current density distribution (assumed symmetrically radial) in a cross-section of the beam is provided. An explanation of the experimental technique for obtaining data, a BASIC language computer program to determine the current density from the data, and a study indicating the level of confidence to be associated with results obtained are also provided. An example of the application of the analysis to some experimental electron beam data is included.

  13. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1994-11-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

  14. Photoacoustic transformation of Bessel light beams in magnetoactive superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Mityurich, G. S.; Chernenok, E. V.; Sviridova, V. V.; Serdyukov, A. N.

    2015-03-15

    Photoacoustic transformation of the TE mode of a Bessel light beam (BLB) has been studied for piezoelectric detection in short-period superlattices formed by magnetoactive crystals of bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) and bismuth silicate (Bi{sub 12}SiO{sub 20}) types. It is shown that the resulting signal amplitude can be controlled using optical schemes of BLB formation with a tunable cone angle. A resonant increase in the signal amplitude has been found in the megahertz range of modulation frequencies and its dependences on the BLB modulation frequency, geometric sizes of the two-layer structure and piezoelectric transducer, radial coordinate of the polarization BLB mode, and dissipative superlattice parameters are analyzed.

  15. Conceptual design of a beam steering lens through transformation electromagnetics.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianjia; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; de Lustrac, André

    2015-05-18

    In this paper, based on transformation electromagnetics, the design procedure of a lens antenna, which steers the radiated beam of a patch array, is presented. Laplace's equation is adopted to construct the mapping between the virtual space and the physical space. The two dimensional (2D) design method can be extended to a potential three-dimensional (3D) realization, and with a proper parameter simplification, the lens can be further realized by common metamaterials or isotropic graded refractive index (GRIN) materials. Full wave simulations are performed to validate the proposed concept. It is observed that by placing the lens on a feeding source, we are able to steer the radiation emitted by the latter source. PMID:26074547

  16. The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Leung Shingyu; Qian Jianliang

    2010-11-20

    We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schroedinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in . In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.

  17. Amplification of S-1 Spheromak current by an inductive current transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, S.C.; Janos, A.; Yamada, M.

    1985-11-01

    We attempt to predict the consequences of adding an inductive current transformer (OH Transformer) to the present S-1 Spheromak experiment. Axisymmetric modeling with only classical dissipation shows an increase of toroidal current and a shrinking and hollowing of the current channel, conserving toroidal flux. These unstable profiles will undergo helical reconnection, conserving helicity K = ..integral.. A-vector x B-vector d tau while increasing the toroidal flux and decreasing the poloidal flux so that the plasma relaxes toward the Taylor state. This flux rearrangement is modeled by a new current viscosity term in the mean-field Ohm's law which conserves helicity and dissipates energy.

  18. Space charge templates for high-current beam modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobiev, Leonid G.; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01

    A computational method to evaluate space charge potential and gradients of charged particle beam in the presence of conducting boundaries, has been introduced. The three-dimensional (3D) field of the beam can be derived as a convolution of macro Green's functions (template fields), satisfying the same boundary conditions, as the original beam. Numerical experiments gave a confidence that space charge effects can be modeled by templates with enough accuracy and generality within dramatically faster computational times than standard combination: a grid density + Poisson solvers, realized in the most of Particle in Cell codes. The achieved rapidity may significantly broaden the high-current beam design space, making the optimization in automatic mode possible, which so far was only feasible for simplest self-field formulations such as rms envelope equations. The template technique may be used as a standalone program, or as an optional field solver in existing beam dynamics codes both in one-passage structures and in rings.

  19. Profile, Current, and Halo Monitors of the PROSCAN Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Doelling, Rudolf

    2004-11-10

    PROSCAN, an extended medical facility using proton beams for the treatment of deep-seated tumors and eye melanoma, is under construction at PSI. Ionization chambers and secondary emission monitors will be used as current monitors and in a multi-strip configuration as profile monitors at the PROSCAN beam lines. A thin and a thick version of these detectors are in preparation as well as a 4-segment ionization chamber to detect the beam halo. Electromagnetic and microphonic noise from the signal and high-voltage cables, saturation due to recombination, and the evaluation of the profiles are discussed, as well as measures to detect failures of the detectors during operation.

  20. Current limiting mechanisms in electron and ion beam experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    The emission and collection of current from satellites or rockets in the ionosphere is a process which, at equilibrium, requires a balance between inward and outward currents. In most active experiments in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, the emitted current exceeds the integrated thermal current by one or more orders of magnitude. The system response is typically for the emitted current to be limited by processes such as differential charging of insulating surfaces, interactions between an emitted beam and the local plasma, and interactions between the beam and local neutral gas. These current limiting mechanisms have been illustrated for 20 years in sounding rocket and satellite experiments, which are reviewed here. Detailed presentations of the Spacecraft Charging at High Altitude (SCATHA) electron and ion gun experiments are used to demonstrate the general range of observed phenomena.

  1. Focusing of high-current laser-driven ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, J.; Jabłoński, S.

    2007-04-01

    Using a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic code, it is shown that a dense high-current ion beam driven by a short-pulse laser can be effectively focused by curving the target front surface. The focused beam parameters essentially depend on the density gradient scale length of the preplasma Ln and the surface curvature radius RT. When Ln⩽0.5λL (λL is the laser wavelength) and RT is comparable with the laser beam aperture dL, a significant fraction of the accelerated ions is focused on a spot much smaller than dL, which results in a considerable increase in the ion fluence and current density. Using high-contrast multipetawatt picosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensity (˜1020W/cm2), focused ion (proton) current densities approaching those required for fast ignition of DT fuel seem to be feasible.

  2. Plasma charge current for controlling and monitoring electron beam welding with beam oscillation.

    PubMed

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process. PMID:23242276

  3. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process. PMID:23242276

  4. Propagation properties of Bessel and Bessel-Gaussian beams in a fractional Fourier transform optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2010-03-01

    The properties of Bessel-Gaussian beams (BGBs) and Bessel beams (BBs) propagating through a fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system have been investigated. The analytical transformation formulae for BBs and BGBs propagation through a FRT optical system are derived based on definition of the FRT in the cylindrical coordinate system. By using the derived formula, numerical examples are illustrated.

  5. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Yue; Li Binhong

    2011-02-15

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  6. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yue; Li, Bin Hong

    2011-02-01

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site. PMID:21361633

  7. DPSS Laser Beam Quality Optimization Through Pump Current Tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, Rob; Callen, Alice; Sukuta, Sydney; /San Jose City Coll.

    2012-03-30

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate how a DPSS laser beam's quality parameters can be simultaneously optimized through pump current tuning. Two DPSS lasers of the same make and model were used where the laser diode pump current was first varied to ascertain the lowest RMS noise region. The lowest noise was found to be 0.13% in this region and the best M{sup 2} value of 1.0 and highest laser output power were simultaneously attained at the same current point. The laser manufacturer reported a M{sup 2} value of 1.3 and RMS noise value of .14% for these lasers. This study therefore demonstrates that pump current tuning a DPSS laser can simultaneously optimize RMS Noise, Power and M{sup 2} values. Future studies will strive to broaden the scope of the beam quality parameters impacted by current tuning.

  8. A neutron diagnostic for high current deuterium beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rebai, M.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Cavenago, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Tollin, M.; Croci, G.; Gervasini, G.; Ghezzi, F.; Grosso, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Murtas, F.; Gorini, G.

    2012-02-15

    A neutron diagnostic for high current deuterium beams is proposed for installation on the spectral shear interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER, Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) test beam facility. The proposed detection system is called Close-contact Neutron Emission Surface Mapping (CNESM). The diagnostic aims at providing the map of the neutron emission on the beam dump surface by placing a detector in close contact, right behind the dump. CNESM uses gas electron multiplier detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron-proton converter foil. The cathode is made of a thin polythene film and an aluminium film; it is designed for detection of neutrons of energy >2.2 MeV with an incidence angle < 45 deg. CNESM was designed on the basis of simulations of the different steps from the deuteron beam interaction with the beam dump to the neutron detection in the nGEM. Neutron scattering was simulated with the MCNPX code. CNESM on SPIDER is a first step towards the application of this diagnostic technique to the MITICA beam test facility, where it will be used to resolve the horizontal profile of the beam intensity.

  9. Discrimination of orbital angular momentum modes of the terahertz vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changming; Wei, Xuli; Niu, Liting; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-06-13

    We present an efficient method to discriminate orbital angular momentum (OAM) of the terahertz (THz) vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer. The mode transformer performs a log-polar coordinate transformation of the input THz vortex beam, which consists of two 3D-printed diffractive elements. A following lens separates each transformed OAM mode to a different lateral position in its focal plane. This method enables a simultaneous measurement over multiple OAM modes of the THz vortex beam. We experimentally demonstrate the measurement of seven individual OAM modes and two multiplexed OAM modes, which is in good agreement with simulations. PMID:27410274

  10. Return Current Electron Beams and Their Generation of "Raman" Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.

    1998-11-01

    For some years, we(A. Simon and R. W. Short, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53), 1912 (1984). have proposed that the only reasonable explanation for many of the observations of "Raman" scattering is the presence of an electron beam in the plasma. (The beam creates a bump-on-tail instability.) Two major objections to this picture have been observation of Raman when no n_c/4 surface was present, with no likely source for the electron beam, and the necessity for the initially outward directed beam to bounce once to create the proper waves. Now new observations on LLE's OMEGA(R. Petrasso et al), this conference. and at LULI(C. Labaune et al)., Phys. Plasma 5, 234 (1998). have suggested a new origin for the electron beam. This new scenario answers the previous objections, maintains electron beams as the explanation of the older experiments, and may clear up puzzling observations that have remained unexplained. The new scenario is based on two assumptions: (1) High positive potentials develop in target plasmas during their creation. (2) A high-intensity laser beam initiates spark discharges from nearby surfaces to the target plasma. The resulting return current of electrons should be much more delta-like, is initially inwardly directed, and no longer requires the continued presence of a n_c/4 surface. Scattering of the interaction beam from the BOT waves yields the observed Raman signal. Experimental observations that support this picture will be cited. ``Pulsation'' of the scattering and broadband ``flashes'' are a natural part of this scenario. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

  11. Electron beam current in high power cylindrical diode

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Menon, R.; Mitra, S.; Sharma, Vishnu; Singh, S. K.; Nagesh, K. V.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2010-01-15

    Intense electron beam generation studies were carried out in high power cylindrical diode to investigate the effect of the accelerating gap and diode voltage on the electron beam current. The diode voltage has been varied from 130 to 356 kV, whereas the current density has been varied from 87 to 391 A/cm{sup 2} with 100 ns pulse duration. The experimentally obtained electron beam current in the cylindrical diode has been compared with the Langmuir-Blodgett law. It was found that the diode current can be explained by a model of anode and cathode plasma expanding toward each other. However, the diode voltage and current do not follow the bipolar space-charge limited flow model. It was also found that initially only a part of the cathode take part in the emission process. The plasma expands at 4.2 cm/mus for 1.7 cm anode-cathode gap and the plasma velocity decreases for smaller gaps. The electrode plasma expansion velocity of the cylindrical diode is much smaller as compared with the planar diode for the same accelerating gap and diode voltage. Therefore, much higher voltage can be obtained for the cylindrical diodes as compared with the planar diodes for the same accelerating gap.

  12. Beam Dynamics Aspects of High Current Beams in a Superconducting Proton Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellomo, Giovanni; Pagani, Carlo; Pierini, Paolo

    1997-05-01

    High current CW proton linac accelerators have been recently proposed for nuclear waste transmutation and concurrent energy production. In most of the designs the high energy part (100 MeV up to 1-2 GeV) of the linac employs low frequency superconducting structures (352-700 MHz). Here we present beam dynamics issues for the high current (10-50 mA) beams in the superconducting section of such an accelerator, based on 352 MHz β-graded, LEP style cavities, as proposed at Linac 96(C. Pagani, G. Bellomo, P. Pierini, ``A High Current Proton Linac with 352 MHz SC Cavities'', Proceedings of the XVIII Int. Linear Acc. Conf., eds. C. Hill, M. Vretenar, CERN 96-07, 15 November 1996). In particular, smooth beam propagation along the linac has been reached with decreasing phase advances along the linac, and the design has been updated to match the beam dynamics results. Mismatching oscillations are discussed, as they are considered to cause beam halo and, consequently, beam losses.

  13. Innovative real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement under large beam current irradiation for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Suda, M.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Endo, S.; Hamano, T.; Arai, S.; Higashimata, A.

    2012-10-01

    We developed a real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement on a target under large beam current irradiation, and without any complex radiation detectors or electrical circuits. We measured the beam profiles on a target by observing the target temperature using an infrared-radiation thermometer camera. The target temperatures were increased and decreased quickly by starting and stopping the beam irradiation within 1 s in response speed. Our method could trace beam movements rapidly. The beam size and position were calibrated by measuring O-ring heat on the target. Our method has the potential to measure beam profiles at beam current over 1 mA for proton and deuteron with the energy around 3 MeV and allows accelerator operators to adjust the beam location during beam irradiation experiments without decreasing the beam current.

  14. Energy loss due to eddy current in linear transformer driver cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. A.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Manylov, V. I.; Vizir, V. A.; Stygar, W. A.

    2010-07-01

    In linear transformer drivers [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] as well as any other linear induction accelerator cavities, ferromagnetic cores are used to prevent the current from flowing along the induction cavity walls which are in parallel with the load. But if the core is made of conductive material, the applied voltage pulse generates the eddy current in the core itself which heats the core and therefore also reduces the overall linear transformer driver (LTD) efficiency. The energy loss due to generation of the eddy current in the cores depends on the specific resistivity of the core material, the design of the core, as well as on the distribution of the eddy current in the core tape during the remagnetizing process. In this paper we investigate how the eddy current is distributed in a core tape with an arbitrary shape hysteresis loop. Our model is based on the textbook knowledge related to the eddy current generation in ferromagnetics with rectangular hysteresis loop, and in usual conductors. For the reader’s convenience, we reproduce some most important details of this knowledge in our paper. The model predicts that the same core would behave differently depending on how fast the applied voltage pulse is: in the high frequency limit, the equivalent resistance of the core reduces during the pulse whereas in the low frequency limit it is constant. An important inference is that the energy loss due to the eddy current generation can be reduced by increasing the cross section of the core over the minimum value which is required to avoid its saturation. The conclusions of the model are confirmed with experimental observations presented at the end of the paper.

  15. Bessel beam transformation in c-cuts of uniaxial crystals by varying the source wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranin, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    Transformation of Bessel beam of a zero order to Bessel beam of the second order in c-cut of CaCO3 crystal is experimentally investigated. Possibility of output beam control at changing of wavelength and using of a diffraction axicon is shown. Full transformation of beams at changing of wavelength Δλ=1.5 nanometers is received at initial wavelength λ=637.5 nanometers for a crystal of CaCO3 with 15 mm long and a diffraction axicon with period of 2 microns. The theoretical value of necessary wavelength changing is Δλ=1.7 nanometers that is according with experimental results.

  16. A review of high beam current RFQ accelerators and funnels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.D.

    1998-12-01

    The authors review the design features of several high-current (> 20-mA) and high-power (> 1-mA average) proton or H{sup {minus}} injectors, RFQs, and funnels. They include a summary of observed performance and will mention a sampling of new designs, including the proposed incorporation of beam choppers. Different programs and organizations have chosen to build the RFQ in diverse configurations. Although the majority of RFQs are either low-current or very low duty-factor, several versions have included high-current and/or high-power designs for either protons or H{sup {minus}} ions. The challenges of cooling, handling high space-charge forces, and coupling with injectors and subsequent accelerators are significant. In all instances, beam tests were a valuable learning experience, because not always did these as-built structures perform exactly as predicted by the earlier design codes. They summarize the key operational parameters, indicate what was achieved, and highlight what was learned in these tests. Based on this generally good performance and high promise, even more challenging designs are being considered for new applications that include even higher powers, beam funnels and choppers.

  17. Beam position and total current monitor for heavy ion fusion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Berners, D.; Reginato, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Heavy Ion Fusion requires moderate currents, 1-10A, for a duration of about 1 {mu}s. For accurate beam transport, the center of charge must be located to within {plus_minus} 100 {mu}m. Beam position and intensity may be excited at frequencies approaching 10 MHz, and the monitoring system must have adequate bandwidth to respond at these frequencies. We have modified the Rogowski technique by using distributed reactance multiturn magnetic loops so that it is suitable for measuring current position as well as amplitude. Four identical stripline coils are wound one per quadrant around a non magnetic core. The sensitivity is similar to that of a lumped coil system, with the added advantage of increased bandwidth. The voltages induced on the four separate coils are compared and suitable signal conditioning is performed to recover beam position and intensity information.

  18. Beam position and total current monitor for heavy ion fusion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Berners, D.; Reginato, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Heavy Ion Fusion requires moderate currents, 1-10A, for a duration of about 1 [mu]s. For accurate beam transport, the center of charge must be located to within [plus minus] 100 [mu]m. Beam position and intensity may be excited at frequencies approaching 10 MHz, and the monitoring system must have adequate bandwidth to respond at these frequencies. We have modified the Rogowski technique by using distributed reactance multiturn magnetic loops so that it is suitable for measuring current position as well as amplitude. Four identical stripline coils are wound one per quadrant around a non magnetic core. The sensitivity is similar to that of a lumped coil system, with the added advantage of increased bandwidth. The voltages induced on the four separate coils are compared and suitable signal conditioning is performed to recover beam position and intensity information.

  19. Theory of dynamic transformation of light beams by conduction electrons in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chumak, A.A.; Levshin, A.E.; Tomchuk, P.M.; Vinetskii, V.L.

    1986-08-01

    An expression describing the effect of nonstationary energy transfer in a photoresponsive medium is derived. The dynamic transformation of light beams by free charge carriers in multivalley semiconductors is considered. Estimates are obtained for the amplification factor GAMMA.

  20. Neutral Beam Current Drive in Spheromak plasma and plasma stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlstein, L. D.; Jayakumar, R. J.; Hudson, B.; Hill, D. N.; Lodestro, L. L.; McLean, H. S.; Fowler, T. K.; Casper, T. A.

    2007-11-01

    A key question for the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) is understanding how spheromaks can be sustained by other current drive tools such as neutral beam current drive. Another question is whether the present relationship between current and maximum spheromak magnetic field (plasma beta) is related to Alcator-like ohmic confinement limit or is a stability limit. Using the code CORSICA, the fraction of neutral beam current drive that can be achieved has been calculated for different injection angles with a fixed equilibrium. It is seen that relaxing the equilibrium with this drive simply drives the core safety factor to low values. Other equilibria where the NBI may give aligned current drive are being explored. Free-boundary equilibria calculations are underway to see what hyper-resistivity model gives the observed sustained SSPX performance and include that in the NBI calculations. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48.

  1. High Accuracy Beam Current Monitor System for CEBAF'S Experimental Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    J. Denard; A. Saha; G. Lavessiere

    2001-07-01

    CEBAF accelerator delivers continuous wave (CW) electron beams to three experimental Halls. In Hall A, all experiments require continuous, non-invasive current measurements and a few experiments require an absolute accuracy of 0.2 % in the current range from 1 to 180 {micro}A. A Parametric Current Transformer (PCT), manufactured by Bergoz, has an accurate and stable sensitivity of 4 {micro}A/V but its offset drifts at the muA level over time preclude its direct use for continuous measurements. Two cavity monitors are calibrated against the PCT with at least 50 {micro}A of beam current. The calibration procedure suppresses the error due to PCT's offset drifts by turning the beam on and off, which is invasive to the experiment. One of the goals of the system is to minimize the calibration time without compromising the measurement's accuracy. The linearity of the cavity monitors is a critical parameter for transferring the accurate calibration done at high currents over the whole dynamic range. The method for measuring accurately the linearity is described.

  2. Hybrid monitor for both beam position and tilt of pulsed high-current beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, J. He, X.; Ma, C.; Zhao, L.; Li, Q.; Dai, Z.

    2014-09-15

    A Hybrid beam monitor, integrated with both azimuthal and axial B-dot probes, was designed for simultaneous measurement of both beam position and beam angle for pulsed high-current beams at the same location in beam pipe. The output signals of axial B-dot probes were found to be mixed with signals caused by transverse position deviation. In order to eliminate the unwanted signals, an elimination method was developed and its feasibility tested on a 50-Ω coaxial line test stand. By this method, a waveform, shape-like to that of input current and proportional to the tilt angle, was simulated and processed by following integration step to achieve the tilt angle. The tests showed that the measurement error of displacement and tilt angle less than 0.3 mm and 1.5 mrad, respectively. The latter error could be reduced with improved probes by reducing the inductance of the axial B-dot probe, but the improvement reached a limit due to some unknown systemic mechanism.

  3. Experimental study on superconducting fault current limiting transformer for fault current suppression and system stability improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, H.; Hayakawa, N.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Okubo, H.

    2002-08-01

    We have been developing a superconducting fault current limiting transformer (SFCLT) with 3-phase, 500/275 kV, 625 MVA and optimized the main parameters by EMTP simulation. In this paper, we designed and fabricated an experimental scale-down model of SFCLT with 3-phase, 275/105 V, 6.25 kVA, using NbTi superconducting wire. We introduced the experimental model SFCLT into a transient network analyzer consisted of synchronous generators, transformers, transmission lines, circuit breakers and an infinite bus. It was revealed that experimental model had effective function-parameters as was simulated and experimental results clarified the effectiveness of SFCLT having both functions of the fault current suppression and the system stability improvement in a future superconducting power system.

  4. Cone beam CT: a current overview of devices

    PubMed Central

    Nemtoi, A; Czink, C; Haba, D; Gahleitner, A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review and compare the properties of all the available cone beam CT (CBCT) devices offered on the market, while focusing especially on Europe. In this study, we included all the different commonly used CBCT devices currently available on the European market. Information about the properties of each device was obtained from the manufacturers’ official available data, which was later confirmed by their representatives in cases where it was necessary. The main features of a total of 47 CBCT devices that are currently marketed by 20 companies were presented, compared and discussed in this study. All these CBCT devices differ in specific properties according to the companies that produce them. The summarized technical data from a large number of CBCT devices currently on the market offer a wide range of imaging possibilities in the oral and maxillofacial region. PMID:23818529

  5. A high-current calibration system based on indirect comparison of current transformer and Rogowski coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pandian; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Hongbin; Li, Hongfeng

    2013-12-01

    The calibration of the protective current transformer (CT) is of particular importance, since its accuracy at high currents is crucial to the correct operation of the subsequent relay protection devices. Conventional calibration methods have been using an electromagnetic CT which contains an iron core as the standard CT. The iron core is big and difficult to manufacture for high-current measurement, and the serious residual magnetism of the iron core at high currents can lead to excessive measurement errors. This paper proposes a calibration system based on indirect comparison of CT and Rogowski coil, i.e. using an iron-core CT to correct the error of the Rogowski coil at low currents, which may be caused by the position of the current-carrying conductor and so on, and then using the calibrated Rogowski coil as the standard transformer at high currents for its good linearity and wide dynamic range, and there is no magnetic saturation. Since the output of the Rogowski coil needs to be integrated, an improved digital integrator based on direct current (dc) negative feedback is adopted, which can effectively eliminate the influences of temperature drift, time drift and dc offset caused by the analogue circuit. The measurement errors of each part of the calibration system have also been discussed, and the test results show that the accuracy of the system can reach up to the 0.05S Class and the uncertainties are 0.038% for ratio and 0.68‧ for phase in the range 500 A to 50 kA.

  6. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, Alexander Alessi, James G. Beebe, Edward N.; Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard

    2015-01-09

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio < 4.5 are requested by many heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  7. Isotopic germanium targets for high beam current applications at GAMMASPHERE.

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J. P.; Lauritsen, T.

    2000-11-29

    The creation of a specific heavy ion residue via heavy ion fusion can usually be achieved through a number of beam and target combinations. Sometimes it is necessary to choose combinations with rare beams and/or difficult targets in order to achieve the physics goals of an experiment. A case in point was a recent experiment to produce {sup 152}Dy at very high spins and low excitation energy with detection of the residue in a recoil mass analyzer. Both to create the nucleus cold and with a small recoil-cone so that the efficiency of the mass analyzer would be high, it was necessary to use the {sup 80}Se on {sup 76}Ge reaction rather than the standard {sup 48}Ca on {sup 108}Pd reaction. Because the recoil velocity of the {sup 152}Dy residues was very high using this symmetric reaction (5% v/c), it was furthermore necessary to use a stack of two thin targets to reduce the Doppler broadening. Germanium targets are fragile and do not withstand high beam currents, therefore the {sup 76}Ge target stacks were mounted on a rotating target wheel. A description of the {sup 76}Ge target stack preparation will be presented and the target performance described.

  8. High-power Čerenkov microwave oscillators utilizing High-Current nanosecond Electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, S. D.; Polevin, S. D.; Rostov, V. V.

    1996-12-01

    A short review is given of results obtained at the Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences on generating high-power microwave radiation. Most of the research was devoted to a study of stimulated Čerenkov radiation from relativistic electron beams. It is shown that the efficiency of a relativistic 3-cm backward wave tube with a nonuniform coupling resistance can reach 35%. High-frequency radiation was discovered in the emission spectrum of the Čerenkov oscillators and it was shown that the nature of the radiation was associated with the stimulated scattering of low-frequency radiation by the relativistic electrons. Radiation with a power of 500 MW was obtained in the 8-mm wavelength range using a two-beam Čerenkov oscillator. High-current pulse-periodic nanosecond accelerators with a charging device utilizing a Tesla transformer were used in the experiments. The possibility was demonstrated of generating high-power microwave radiation with a pulse-repetition frequency of up to 100 Hz. An average power of ˜500 W was achieved from the relativistic oscillators. A relativistic backward wave tube with a high-current electron beam was used to make a prototype nanosecond radar device. Some of the results presented were obtained jointly with the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Applied Physics. Questions concerning multiwave Čerenkov interaction are not considered in this paper.

  9. Effects of MHD instabilities on neutral beam current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Podestà, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; White, R. B.

    2015-04-17

    One of the primary tools foreseen for heating, current drive (CD) and q-profile control in future fusion reactors such as ITER and a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility is the neutral beam injection (NBI). However, fast ions from NBI may also provide the drive for energetic particle-driven instabilities (e.g. Alfvénic modes (AEs)), which in turn redistribute fast ions in both space and energy, thus hampering the control capabilities and overall efficiency of NB-driven current. Based on experiments on the NSTX tokamak (M. Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557), the effects of AEs and other low-frequency magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities on NB-CD efficiency are investigated. When looking at the new fast ion transport model, which accounts for particle transport in phase space as required for resonant AE perturbations, is utilized to obtain consistent simulations of NB-CD through the tokamak transport code TRANSP. It is found that instabilities do indeed reduce the NB-driven current density over most of the plasma radius by up to ~50%. Moreover, the details of the current profile evolution are sensitive to the specific model used to mimic the interaction between NB ions and instabilities. Finally, implications for fast ion transport modeling in integrated tokamak simulations are briefly discussed.

  10. Effects of MHD instabilities on neutral beam current drive

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Podestà, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; White, R. B.

    2015-04-17

    One of the primary tools foreseen for heating, current drive (CD) and q-profile control in future fusion reactors such as ITER and a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility is the neutral beam injection (NBI). However, fast ions from NBI may also provide the drive for energetic particle-driven instabilities (e.g. Alfvénic modes (AEs)), which in turn redistribute fast ions in both space and energy, thus hampering the control capabilities and overall efficiency of NB-driven current. Based on experiments on the NSTX tokamak (M. Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557), the effects of AEs and other low-frequency magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities on NB-CDmore » efficiency are investigated. When looking at the new fast ion transport model, which accounts for particle transport in phase space as required for resonant AE perturbations, is utilized to obtain consistent simulations of NB-CD through the tokamak transport code TRANSP. It is found that instabilities do indeed reduce the NB-driven current density over most of the plasma radius by up to ~50%. Moreover, the details of the current profile evolution are sensitive to the specific model used to mimic the interaction between NB ions and instabilities. Finally, implications for fast ion transport modeling in integrated tokamak simulations are briefly discussed.« less

  11. High-energy tritium beams as current drivers in tokamak reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Grisham, L.R.

    1983-04-01

    The effect on neutral-beam design and reactor performance of using high-energy (approx. 3-10 MeV) tritium neutral beams to drive steady-state tokamak reactors is considered. The lower current of such beams leads to several advantages over lower-energy neutral beams. The major disadvantage is the reduction of the reactor output caused by the lower current-drive efficiency of the high-energy beams.

  12. Transforming a spatially coherent light beam into a diffused beam of small diffusion angle using suitable surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashtdar, M.; Tavassoly, M. T.

    2013-11-01

    Imposing a phase random distribution in an interval larger than 2π on a spatially coherent light beam transforms the beam into a diffuse one. However, if the required random phase distribution is imposed by a rough transparent plate immersed in a transparent liquid or covered by another transparent material of refractive index close to that of the plate, the diffused light is confined in a small cone around the light incident angle. This renders to fabricate diffusers with high transmission efficiency that has applications in computer displays, bar code scanners, and image forming systems including conventional optical microscopes.

  13. Current interruption and particle beam generation by a plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdin, G.; Venneri, F.

    1982-11-01

    Through collaboration with Dr. K. H. Schoenbach of Texas Tech University the plasma focus opening switch (PFOS) was revised to answer basic questions as to utility of the concept. To estimate the plasma temperature and classical resistivity a soft X-ray spectrometer and X-ray pinhole camera were developed. The temperature was estimated from a coronal model to range between 0.4 to 0.5 keV for either a nitrogen or neon impurity (1 to 2%) in deuterium at 3 torr. Strong pinches were observed in pure neon (0.6 torr) with an electron temperature in the same range. The corresponding classical resistance of the pinch is 9 m omega whereas 500 m omega is more consistent with output voltage pulse and current flow at interruption indicating anomalous resistivity is present. A one-dimensional two-fluid computer code has been developed to model anomalous resistivity in the pinch phase and preliminary results are consistent with the snowplow model. The final analysis of the plasma focus particle beam generation experiments was completed and a strong correlation was found for the beam-target model as the mechanism for neutron production in the Illinois plasma focus device.

  14. Experimental validation of ultra-thin metalenses for N-beam emissions based on transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuang; Ding, Xumin; Wo, Deliang; Meng, Fanrong; Wu, Qun

    2016-02-01

    A general design of metalenses for N-beam emissions is proposed based on transformation optics. A linear mapping function is adopted to achieve the homogeneous characterization of the transforming medium, which is therefore easy to be achieved compared with previous designs limited by inhomogeneity based on transformation optics. To verify the theoretical design, a four-beam antenna constructed with ultrathin, homogenous, and uniaxial anisotropic metalens is designed, fabricated, and measured. It is shown that the realized gain of the four-beam antenna is increased by 6 dB compared with the single dipole source, while working frequency and relative bandwidth are kept unchanged. The measured far-field pattern verifies theoretical design procedure.

  15. Generalised Hermite-Gaussian beams and mode transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-05-01

    Generalised Hermite-Gaussian modes (gHG modes), an extended notion of Hermite-Gaussian modes (HG modes), are formed by the summation of normal HG modes with a characteristic function α, which can be used to unite conventional HG modes and Laguerre-Gaussian modes (LG modes). An infinite number of normalised orthogonal modes can thus be obtained by modulation of the function α. The gHG mode notion provides a useful tool in analysis of the deformation and transformation phenomena occurring in propagation of HG and LG modes with astigmatic perturbation.

  16. Rapid measurement of charged particle beam profiles using a current flux grating

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Samit; Chowdhury, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2015-02-15

    The principle and physics issues of charged particle beam diagnostics using a current flux grating are presented. Unidirectional array of conducting channels with interstitial insulating layers of spacing d is placed in the beam path to capture flux of charge and electronically reproduce an exact beam current profile with density variation. The role of secondary electrons due to the impinging particle beam (both electron and ion) on the probe is addressed and a correction factor is introduced. A 2-dimensional profile of the electron beam is obtained by rotating the probe about the beam axis. Finally, a comparison of measured beam profile with a Gaussian is presented.

  17. Wigner distribution and fractional Fourier transform for two-dimensional symmetric optical beams.

    PubMed

    Alieva, T; Bastiaans, M J

    2000-12-01

    A useful relationship between the fractional Fourier transform power spectra of a two-dimensional symmetric optical beam, on the one hand, and its Wigner distribution, on the other, is established. This relationship allows a significant simplification of the standard procedure for the reconstruction of the Wigner distribution from the field intensity distributions in the fractional Fourier domains. The Wigner distribution of a symmetric optical beam is analyzed, both in the coherent and in the partially coherent case. PMID:11140492

  18. Equipment for Beam Current and Electron Energy Monitoring During Industry Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.

    1997-05-01

    The electron beam irradiation sterilization is placed first among all types of medical items sterilization. The quality of sterilization is determined by value of dose, which is in one's turn determined by beam current, electron energy and beam scanning system parameters. Therefore this parameters have to be controlled during the irradiation process. The equipment for beam current and electron energy monitoring allows to control beam current, electron energy spectrum and nominal deflection of electron beam when scanning during the irradiation process each scanning period or, for example, each tenth period by request.

  19. Collinear Acousto-Optical Transformation of Bessel Light Beams in Biaxial Gyrotropic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyi, V. N.; Kulak, G. V.; Krokh, G. V.; Shakin, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    The collinear acousto-optical transformation of Bessel light beams in biaxial gyrotropic crystals into two annular, internal conical refraction beams with orthogonal elliptical polarization is studied. It is found that the diffraction efficiency is maximal (~50-60%) for low ultrasound intensities and varies slightly with further increases in acoustic power. At high ultrasound intensities, the intensities of the transmitted and diffracted annular beams differ insignificantly. The possible use of this acousto-optical interaction for creating collinear tuneable narrow-band acousto-optical filters at low ultrasonic frequencies is demonstrated.

  20. Current understanding and issues on electron beam injection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1988-01-01

    The status of the physics understanding involved in electron beam injection in space is reviewed. The paper examines our understanding of beam plasma interactions and their associated wave and energized particle spectra of the processes involved in the beam plasma discharge, and of the vehicle charge neutralization. 'Strawman' models are presented for comparison with experimental observations.

  1. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron beam control using an inductive current divider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.

    2015-11-01

    Kinetic, time-dependent, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of the inductive current divider are presented. The inductive current divider is a passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. The current divider concept was proposed and studied theoretically in a previous publication [Swanekamp et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 023107 (2015)]. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2) with the injected beam current given by Ib = I1 + I2. The simulations are in agreement with the theory which predicts that the total force on the beam trajectory is proportional to (I2-I1) and the force on the beam envelope is proportional to Ib. Independent control over both the current density and the beam angle at the target is possible by choosing the appropriate current-divider geometry. The root-mean-square (RMS) beam emittance (ɛRMS) varies as the beam propagates through the current divider to the target. For applications where control of the beam trajectory is desired and the current density at the target is similar to the current density at the entrance foil, there is a modest 20% increase in ɛRMS at the target. For other applications where the beam is pinched to a current density ˜5 times larger at the target, ɛRMS is 2-3 times larger at the target.

  2. Developing high brightness and high current beams for HIF injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, Larry; Grote, Dave; Kwan, Joe

    2002-05-24

    The US Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is continuing research into ion sources and injectors that simultaneously provide high current (0.5-1.0 Amps) and high brightness (normalized emittance better than 1.0 {pi}-mm-mr). The central issue of focus is whether to continue pursuing the traditional approach of large surface ionization sources or to adopt a multiaperture approach that transports many smaller ''beamlets'' separately at low energies before allowing them to merge. For the large surface source concept, the recent commissioning of the 2-MeV injector for the High Current eXperiment has increased our understanding of the beam quality limitations for these sources. We have also improved our techniques for fabricating large diameter aluminosilicate sources to improve lifetime and emission uniformity. For the multiaperture approach, we are continuing to study the feasibility of small surface sources and a RF induced plasma source in preparation for beamlet merging experiments, while continuing to run computer simulations for better understanding of this alternate concept. Experiments into both architectures will be performed on a newly commissioned ion source test stand at LLNL called STS-500. This stand test provides a platform for testing a variety of ion sources and accelerating structures with 500 kV, 17-microsecond pulses. Recent progress in these areas will be discussed as well as plans for future experiments.

  3. Direct-current proton-beam measurements at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Joseph; Stevens, Ralph R.; Schneider, J. David; Zaugg, Thomas

    1995-09-15

    Recently, a CW proton accelerator complex was moved from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to Los Alamos National Laboratory. This includes a 50-keV dc proton injector with a single-solenoid low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) and a CW 1.25-MeV, 267-MHz radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The move was completed after CRL had achieved 55-mA CW operation at 1.25 MeV using 250-kW klystrode tubes to power the RFQ. These accelerator components are prototypes for the front end of a CW linac required for an accelerator-driven transmutation linac, and they provide early confirmation of some CW accelerator components. The injector (ion source and LEBT) and emittance measuring unit are installed and operational at Los Alamos. The dc microwave ion source has been operated routinely at 50-keV, 75-mA hydrogen-ion current. This ion source has demonstrated very good discharge and H2 gas efficiencies, and sufficient reliability to complete CW RFQ measurements at CRL. Proton fraction of 75% has been measured with 550-W discharge power. This high proton fraction removes the need for an analyzing magnet. Proton LEBT emittance measurements completed at Los Alamos suggest that improved transmission through the RFQ may be achieved by increasing the solenoid focusing current. Status of the final CW RFQ operation at CRL and the installation of the RFQ at Los Alamos will be given.

  4. Direct-current proton-beam measurements at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, J.; Stevens, R.R.; Schneider, J.D.; Zaugg, T.

    1994-08-01

    Recently, a CW proton accelerator complex was moved from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to Los Alamos National Laboratory. This includes a 50-keV dc proton injector with a single-solenoid low-energy beam transport system (LEBT) and a CW 1.25-MeV, 267-MHz radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The move was completed after CRL had achieved 55-mA CW operation at 1.25 MeV using 250-kW klystrode tubes to power the RFQ. These accelerator components are prototypes for the front end of a CW linac required for an accelerator-driven transmutation linac, and they provide early confirmation of some CW accelerator components. The injector (ion source and LEBT) and emittance measuring unit are installed and operational at Los Alamos. The dc microwave ion source has been operated routinely at 50-keV, 75-mA hydrogen-ion current. This ion source has demonstrated very good discharge and H{sub 2} gas efficiencies, and sufficient reliability to complete CW RFQ measurements at CRL. Proton fraction of 75% has been measured with 550-W discharge power. This high proton fraction removes the need for an analyzing magnet. Proton LEBT emittance measurements completed at Los Alamos suggest that improved transmission through the RFQ may be achieved by increasing the solenoid focusing current. Status of the final CW RFQ operation at CRL and the installation of the RFQ at Los Alamos is given.

  5. Transformation of the optical vortex light beams in holographic elements with embedded phase singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviridova, S. V.; Bekshaev, A. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Transformations of spatial characteristics of optical vortex (OV) light beams at passing through a computer-generated hologram (CGH) that imparts an additional phase singularity ("fork" hologram) are investigated. The spatial structure of the diffracted beam is studied for different combinations of the incident OV order m, embedded topological charge of the CGH q and the diffraction order n. Variations of the intensity distribution are investigated experimentally. Due to the incident beam displacement with respect to the CGH optical axis, the diffracted beam profile is deformed, rotates in the azimuthal direction in agreement with the internal energy circulation and its 'center of gravity' is displaced orthogonally to the incident beam displacement. The results are compared with theoretical predictions based on two models of the incident OV beam. As, in experiment, the incident beam was created from the Gaussian beam passed another fork hologram, the Kummer beam model seems presumably more relevant but the standard Laguerre-Gaussian model in some cases fits the experimental data quite well.

  6. Transformation of the optical vortex light beams in holographic elements with embedded phase singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviridova, S. V.; Bekshaev, A. Y.

    2011-09-01

    Transformations of spatial characteristics of optical vortex (OV) light beams at passing through a computer-generated hologram (CGH) that imparts an additional phase singularity ("fork" hologram) are investigated. The spatial structure of the diffracted beam is studied for different combinations of the incident OV order m, embedded topological charge of the CGH q and the diffraction order n. Variations of the intensity distribution are investigated experimentally. Due to the incident beam displacement with respect to the CGH optical axis, the diffracted beam profile is deformed, rotates in the azimuthal direction in agreement with the internal energy circulation and its 'center of gravity' is displaced orthogonally to the incident beam displacement. The results are compared with theoretical predictions based on two models of the incident OV beam. As, in experiment, the incident beam was created from the Gaussian beam passed another fork hologram, the Kummer beam model seems presumably more relevant but the standard Laguerre-Gaussian model in some cases fits the experimental data quite well.

  7. Eigenfunctions and eigenoperators of cyclic integral transforms with application to Gaussian beam propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, Matthew S.

    An integral transform which reproduces a transformable input function after a finite number N of successive applications is known as a cyclic transform. Of course, such a transform will reproduce an arbitrary transformable input after N applications, but it also admits eigenfunction inputs which will be reproduced after a single application of the transform. These transforms and their eigenfunctions appear in various applications, and the systematic determination of eigenfunctions of cyclic integral transforms has been a problem of interest to mathematicians since at least the early twentieth century. In this work we review the various approaches to this problem, providing generalizations of published expressions from previous approaches. We then develop a new formalism, differential eigenoperators, that reduces the eigenfunction problem for a cyclic transform to an eigenfunction problem for a corresponding ordinary differential equation. In this way we are able to relate eigenfunctions of integral equations to boundary-value problems, which are typically easier to analyze. We give extensive examples and discussion via the specific case of the Fourier transform. We also relate this approach to two formalisms that have been of interest to the mathematical physics community---hyperdifferential operators and linear canonical transforms. We show how this new approach reproduces known results of Fourier optics regarding free-space diffractive propagation of Gaussian beams in both one and two dimensions. Finally we discuss the group-theoretical aspects of the formalism and describe an isomorphism between roots of the identity transform and complex roots of unity. In the appendix we derive several technical results related to integrability and transformability of solutions in the Fourier transform case, and we prove two theorems---one of them new---on polynomial roots. We conclude that the formalism offers a new and equally valuable perspective on an interesting

  8. Asymptotic normality of kernel estimators for images observed under the radon transform in fan beam design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proksch, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    We consider a nonparametric, two-dimensional regression model that describes observations of Radon transformed images, i.e., an inverse regression model. Reconstructions from deterministic fan beam design by a certain kind of kernel-type estimators are considered and their asymptotic properties are investigated. The problem discussed is related to medical imaging procedures such as computerized tomography (CT).

  9. Improved Envelope And Centroid Equations for High Current Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genoni, Thomas C.; Hughes, Thomas P.

    2002-04-01

    The standard envelope equation for electron beams (e.g., Lee-Cooper), neglects self-field contributions from the beam rotation and the slope of the beam envelope. We have carried out an expansion which includes these effects to first order, resulting in a new equation for the beam edge radius. The change in beam kinetic energy due to spacecharge depression as the beam radius varies is also included. For the centroid equation, we have included the "self-steering" effect due to the curvature of the beam orbit. To leading order, there is a cancellation between the self-steering effect and the spacecharge depression of the beam energy, so that a more accurate centroid equation is obtained by using the undepressed value of the energy (i.e., the total beam energy) to calculate the orbit. We have implemented the envelope and centroid equations in the LAMDA code. The effect of the new terms will be illustrated with calculations for the DARHT accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  10. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  11. Temperature calculations of heat loads in rotating target wheels exposed to high beam currents.

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J. P.; Gabor, R.; Neubauer, J.

    2000-11-29

    In heavy-ion physics, high beam currents can eventually melt or destroy the target. Tightly focused beams on stationary targets of modest melting point will exhibit short lifetimes. Defocused or wobbled beams are employed to enhance target survival. Rotating targets using large diameter wheels can help overcome target melting and allow for higher beam currents to be used in experiments. The purpose of the calculations in this work is to try and predict the safe maximum beam currents which produce heat loads below the melting point of the target material.

  12. Improved Envelope and Centroid Equations for High Current Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genoni, Thomas C.; Hughes, Thomas P.; Thoma, Carsten H.

    2002-12-01

    The standard envelope equation for charged particle beams (e.g., Lee-Cooper) neglects self-field contributions from the beam rotation and the slope of the beam envelope. We have carried out an expansion that includes these effects to first order, resulting in a new equation for the edge radius. The change in beam kinetic energy due to space-charge depression as the beam radius varies is also included. For the centroid equation, we have included the "self-steering" effect due to the curvature of the beam orbit. To leading order, there is a cancellation between the self-steering effect and the space-charge depression of the beam energy, so that a more accurate centroid equation is obtained by using the undepressed value of the energy (i.e., the total beam energy) to calculate the orbit. We have implemented the envelope and centroid equations in the Lamda code [1]. The effect of the new terms will be illustrated with calculations for the DARHT accelerators at the Los Alamos National Laboratory [2].

  13. Resistive wall heating due to image current on the beam chamber for a superconducting undulator.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. H. )

    2012-03-27

    The image-current heating on the resistive beam chamber of a superconducting undulator (SCU) was calculated based on the normal and anomalous skin effects. Using the bulk resistivity of copper for the beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated for the residual resistivity ratios (RRRs) of unity at room temperature to 100 K at a cryogenic temperature as the reference. Then, using the resistivity of the specific aluminum alloy 6053-T5, which will be used for the SCU beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated. An electron beam stored in a storage ring induces an image current on the inner conducting wall, mainly within a skin depth, of the beam chamber. The image current, with opposite charge to the electron beam, travels along the chamber wall in the same direction as the electron beam. The average current in the storage ring consists of a number of bunches. When the pattern of the bunched beam is repeated according to the rf frequency, the beam current may be expressed in terms of a Fourier series. The time structure of the image current is assumed to be the same as that of the beam current. For a given resistivity of the chamber inner wall, the application ofthe normal or anomalous skin effect will depend on the harmonic numbers of the Fourier series of the beam current and the temperature of the chamber. For a round beam chamber with a ratius r, much larger than the beam size, one can assume that the image current density as well as the density square, may be uniform around the perimeter 2{pi}r. For the SCU beam chamber, which has a relatively narrow vertical gap compared to the width, the effective perimeter was estimated since the heat load should be proportional to the inverse of the perimeter.

  14. Controlling hollow relativistic electron beam orbits with an inductive current divider

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Ottinger, P. F.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Zier, J. C.

    2015-02-06

    A passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam is proposed using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2). An envelope equation appropriate for a hollow electron beam is derived and applied to the current divider. The force on the beam trajectory is shown to be proportional to (I2-I1), while the average force on the envelope (the beam width) is proportional to the beam current Ib = (I2 + I1). The values of I1 and I2 depend on the inductances in the return-current path geometries. Proper choice of the return-current geometries determines these inductances and offers control over the beam trajectory. As a result, solutions using realistic beam parameters show that, for appropriate choices of the return-current-path geometry, the inductive current divider can produce a beam that is both pinched and straightened so that it approaches a target at near-normal incidence with a beam diameter that is on the order of a few mm.

  15. Controlling hollow relativistic electron beam orbits with an inductive current divider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Ottinger, P. F.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Zier, J. C.

    2015-02-06

    A passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam is proposed using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2). An envelope equation appropriate for a hollow electron beam is derived and applied to the current divider. The force on the beam trajectory is shown to be proportional to (I2-I1), while the average force on the envelope (the beam width) is proportional to the beam current Ib = (I2 + I1). The values of I1more » and I2 depend on the inductances in the return-current path geometries. Proper choice of the return-current geometries determines these inductances and offers control over the beam trajectory. As a result, solutions using realistic beam parameters show that, for appropriate choices of the return-current-path geometry, the inductive current divider can produce a beam that is both pinched and straightened so that it approaches a target at near-normal incidence with a beam diameter that is on the order of a few mm.« less

  16. Controlling hollow relativistic electron beam orbits with an inductive current divider

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Ottinger, P. F.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Zier, J. C.

    2015-02-15

    A passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam is proposed using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I{sub 1}), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I{sub 2}). An envelope equation appropriate for a hollow electron beam is derived and applied to the current divider. The force on the beam trajectory is shown to be proportional to (I{sub 2}-I{sub 1}), while the average force on the envelope (the beam width) is proportional to the beam current I{sub b} = (I{sub 2} + I{sub 1}). The values of I{sub 1} and I{sub 2} depend on the inductances in the return-current path geometries. Proper choice of the return-current geometries determines these inductances and offers control over the beam trajectory. Solutions using realistic beam parameters show that, for appropriate choices of the return-current-path geometry, the inductive current divider can produce a beam that is both pinched and straightened so that it approaches a target at near-normal incidence with a beam diameter that is on the order of a few mm.

  17. Heavy ion linac as a high current proton beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Winfried; Adonin, Aleksey; Appel, Sabrina; Gerhard, Peter; Heilmann, Manuel; Heymach, Frank; Hollinger, Ralph; Vinzenz, Wolfgang; Vormann, Hartmut; Yaramyshev, Stepan

    2015-05-01

    A significant part of the experimental program at Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is dedicated to pbar physics requiring a high number of cooled pbars per hour. The primary proton beam has to be provided by a 70 MeV proton linac followed by two synchrotrons. The new FAIR proton linac will deliver a pulsed proton beam of up to 35 mA of 36 μ s duration at a repetition rate of 4 Hz (maximum). The GSI heavy ion linac (UNILAC) is able to deliver world record uranium beam intensities for injection into the synchrotrons, but it is not suitable for FAIR relevant proton beam operation. In an advanced machine investigation program it could be shown that the UNILAC is able to provide for sufficient high intensities of CH3 beam, cracked (and stripped) in a supersonic nitrogen gas jet into protons and carbon ions. This advanced operational approach will result in up to 3 mA of proton intensity at a maximum beam energy of 20 MeV, 1 0 0 μ s pulse duration and a repetition rate of up to 2.7 Hz delivered to the synchrotron SIS18. Recent linac beam measurements will be presented, showing that the UNILAC is able to serve as a proton FAIR injector for the first time, while the performance is limited to 25% of the FAIR requirements.

  18. Performance analyses for fast variable optical attenuator-based optical current transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Pu; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xuefeng; Shan, Xuekang; Sun, Xiaohan

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of the electro-optic hybrid optical current transformer (HOCT) proposed by ourselves for high-voltage metering and protective relaying application. The transformer makes use of a fast variable optical attenuator (FVOA) to modulate the lightwave according to the voltage from the primary current sensor, such as low-power current transformer (LPCT). In order to improve the performance of the transformer, we use an optic-electro feedback loop with the PID control algorithm to compensate the nonlinearity of the FVOA. The linearity and accuracy of the transformer were analyzed and tested. The results indicate that the nonlinearity of the FVOA is completely compensated by the loop and the ratio and phase errors are under 0.07% and 5 minutes respectively, under the working power of less than 1 mW power. The transformer can be immune to the polarization and wavelength drift, and also robust against the environmental interference.

  19. Experimental validation of a transformation optics based lens for beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jianjia; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; de Lustrac, André

    2015-10-01

    A transformation optics based lens for beam control is experimentally realized and measured at microwave frequencies. Laplace's equation is adopted to construct the mapping between the virtual and physical spaces. The metamaterial-based lens prototype is designed using electric LC resonators. A planar microstrip antenna source is used as transverse electric polarized wave launcher for the lens. Both the far field radiation patterns and the near-field distributions have been measured to experimentally demonstrate the beam steering properties. Measurements agree quantitatively and qualitatively with numerical simulations, and a non-narrow frequency bandwidth operation is observed.

  20. Experimental validation of a transformation optics based lens for beam steering

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Jianjia; Burokur, Shah Nawaz Lustrac, André de

    2015-10-12

    A transformation optics based lens for beam control is experimentally realized and measured at microwave frequencies. Laplace's equation is adopted to construct the mapping between the virtual and physical spaces. The metamaterial-based lens prototype is designed using electric LC resonators. A planar microstrip antenna source is used as transverse electric polarized wave launcher for the lens. Both the far field radiation patterns and the near-field distributions have been measured to experimentally demonstrate the beam steering properties. Measurements agree quantitatively and qualitatively with numerical simulations, and a non-narrow frequency bandwidth operation is observed.

  1. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron beam control using an inductive current divider

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.

    2015-11-18

    Kinetic, time-dependent, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of the inductive current divider are presented. The inductive current divider is a passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam’s return current. The current divider concept was proposed and studied theoretically in a previous publication [Phys. Plasmas 22, 023107 (2015)] A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1) while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2) with the injected beam current given by Ib=I1+I2. The simulations are in agreement with the theory which predicts that the total forcemore » on the beam trajectory is proportional to (I2-I1) and the force on the beam envelope is proportional to Ib. For a fixed central post, the beam trajectory is controlled by varying the outer conductor radius which changes the inductance in the return-current path. The simulations show that the beam emittance is approximately constant as the beam propagates through the current divider to the target. As a result, independent control over both the current density and the beam angle at the target is possible by choosing the appropriate return-current geometry.« less

  2. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron beam control using an inductive current divider

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.

    2015-11-18

    Kinetic, time-dependent, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of the inductive current divider are presented. The inductive current divider is a passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam’s return current. The current divider concept was proposed and studied theoretically in a previous publication [Phys. Plasmas 22, 023107 (2015)] A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1) while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2) with the injected beam current given by Ib=I1+I2. The simulations are in agreement with the theory which predicts that the total force on the beam trajectory is proportional to (I2-I1) and the force on the beam envelope is proportional to Ib. For a fixed central post, the beam trajectory is controlled by varying the outer conductor radius which changes the inductance in the return-current path. The simulations show that the beam emittance is approximately constant as the beam propagates through the current divider to the target. As a result, independent control over both the current density and the beam angle at the target is possible by choosing the appropriate return-current geometry.

  3. RAMPING UP THE SNS BEAM CURRENT WITH THE LBNL BASELINE H- SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P; Han, Baoxi; Murray Jr, S N; Newland, Denny J; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two years the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has ramped up the repetition rate, pulse length, and the beam current to reach 540 kW, which has challenged many subsystems including the H- source designed and built by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This paper discusses the major modifications of the H- source implemented to consistently and routinely output the beam current required by the SNS beam power ramp up plan. At this time, 32 mA LINAC beam current are routinely produced, which meets the requirement for 690 kW planned for end of 2008. In June 2008, a 14-day production run used 37 mA, which is close to the 38 mA required for 1.44 MW. A medium energy beam transport (MEBT) beam current of 46 mA was demonstrated on September 2, 2008.

  4. Transformation and Transformational Leadership: A Review of the Current and Relevant Literature for Academic Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Norman B; Rawson, James V; Slade, Catherine P; Bledsoe, Martin

    2016-05-01

    With the US healthcare system on an unsustainable course, change is inevitable. Changes in the healthcare landscape impacting radiology include changing payment models, rapid adoption of digital technology, changes in radiology resident certifying exams, and the rise of consumerism in health care. Academic Radiology will be part of that change with none of its missions spared. What matters is not that change is coming but how Academic Radiology responds to change. Do we ignore, adapt, adopt others' practices, or lead change? Change management or transformation is a management skill set that can be learned and developed. Transformational leadership is a leadership style defined by the relationships between the leaders and the followers and the results they are able to achieve together to meet organizational goals. In this paper, we provide a review of key change management theories, as well as practical advice for self-reflection and development of leadership behaviors that promote effective change management and organizational transformation, particularly in a complex industry like Academic Radiology. PMID:26971043

  5. Direct Measurement of Electron Beam Induced Currents in p-type Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Han, M.G.; Zhu, Y.; Sasaki, K.; Kato, T.; Fisher, C.A.J.; Hirayama, T.

    2010-08-01

    A new method for measuring electron beam induced currents (EBICs) in p-type silicon using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with a high-precision tungsten probe is presented. Current-voltage (I-V) curves obtained under various electron-beam illumination conditions are found to depend strongly on the current density of the incoming electron beam and the relative distance of the beam from the point of probe contact, consistent with a buildup of excess electrons around the contact. This setup provides a new experimental approach for studying minority carrier transport in semiconductors on the nanometer scale.

  6. Precise spectrum reconstruction of the Fourier transforms imaging spectrometer based on polarization beam splitters.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenyi; Zhang, Chunmin; Jia, Chenling; Mu, Tingkui; Li, Qiwei; Zhang, Lin

    2013-04-15

    A method was proposed to precisely reconstruct the spectrum from the interferogram taken by the Fourier transform imaging spectrometer (FTIS) based on the polarization beam splitters. Taken the FTISs based on the Savart polariscope and Wollaston prism as examples, the distorted spectrums were corrected via the proposed method effectively. The feasibility of the method was verified via simulation. The distorted spectrum, recovered from the interferogram taken by the polarization imaging spectrometer developed by us, was corrected. PMID:23595463

  7. Drug policy in China. Transformations, current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Li, S

    1997-07-01

    The pharmaceutical sector in China developed rapidly with the implementation of the market-oriented economic reforms, which began at the end of the 1970s. From 1980 to 1988 the production of drugs quadrupled, subsequently increasing at an annual rate of 20%, and consumption of drugs correspondingly increased. The increase in drug production was largely a result of the increase in the number of pharmaceutical companies, particularly the number of private joint ventures, of which there were none in 1980 and 1900 in 1994, accounting for 37% of the total number of pharmaceutical companies. With the transformation of the Chinese pharmaceutical market, some new problems have appeared. The low efficiency of pharmaceutical companies, poor-quality drugs, unfair competition and misuse of drugs have been of great concern to the Chinese government. Some countermeasures have been taken, but the problems remain. Increases in the age of the Chinese population, increases in income and changes in disease patterns, together with membership of the World Trade Organization will promote the development of the pharmaceutical market. However, health-insurance reform, an essential drug list, the separation of drugs from services, and controls on the increases in hospital revenue will reduce the demand for drugs. Pharmaceutical companies in China face both opportunities and challenges. The trend in development of the pharmaceutical market depends on the outcome of the interaction between the factors that increase, and those that decrease, the demand for drugs. While the general trend is towards an increase in the demand for drugs and the expansion of the pharmaceutical market, downward fluctuation is inevitable if effective health reforms of cost control are introduced nationwide. PMID:10169383

  8. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron beam control using an inductive current divider

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.

    2015-11-15

    Kinetic, time-dependent, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of the inductive current divider are presented. The inductive current divider is a passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. The current divider concept was proposed and studied theoretically in a previous publication [Swanekamp et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 023107 (2015)]. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I{sub 1}), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I{sub 2}) with the injected beam current given by I{sub b} = I{sub 1} + I{sub 2}. The simulations are in agreement with the theory which predicts that the total force on the beam trajectory is proportional to (I{sub 2}−I{sub 1}) and the force on the beam envelope is proportional to I{sub b}. Independent control over both the current density and the beam angle at the target is possible by choosing the appropriate current-divider geometry. The root-mean-square (RMS) beam emittance (ε{sub RMS}) varies as the beam propagates through the current divider to the target. For applications where control of the beam trajectory is desired and the current density at the target is similar to the current density at the entrance foil, there is a modest 20% increase in ε{sub RMS} at the target. For other applications where the beam is pinched to a current density ∼5 times larger at the target, ε{sub RMS} is 2–3 times larger at the target.

  9. Elimination of the induced current error in magnetometers using superconducting flux transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Dummer, D.; Weyhmann, W.

    1987-10-01

    The changing magnetization of a sample in a superconducting flux transformer coupled magnetometer induces a current in the transformer which in turn changes the field at the sample. This ''image'' field and the error caused by it can be eliminated by sensing the current in the loop and nulling it by feedback through a mutual inductance. We have tested the technique on the superconducting transition of indium in an applied magnetic field and shown that the observed width of the transition is greatly reduced by maintaining zero current in the flux transformer.

  10. Microstructures and properties of zirconium-702 irradiated by high current pulsed electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shen; Cai, Jie; Lv, Peng; Zhang, Conglin; Huang, Wei; Guan, Qingfeng

    2015-09-01

    The microstructure, hardness and corrosion resistance of zirconium-702 before and after high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation have been investigated. The microstructure evolution and surface morphologies of the samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results indicate that the sample surface was melted after HCPEB irradiation, and martensitic phase transformation occurred. Besides, two kinds of craters as well as ultrafine structures were obtained in the melted layer. TEM observations suggest that high density dislocations and deformation twins were formed after HCPEB irradiation. With the increasing of pulses, microhardness of the irradiated samples was increased from the initial 178 Hv to 254 Hv. The corrosion resistance was tested by using electrode impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization curves. Electrochemical results show that, after HCPEB irradiation, all the samples had better corrosion resistance in 1 mol HNO3 solution compared to the initial one, among which the 5-pulsed sample owned the best corrosion resistance. Ultrafine structures, martensitic phase transformation, surface porosities, dislocations and deformation twins are believed to be the dominant reasons for the improvement of the hardness and corrosion resistance.

  11. A NEW DIFFERENTIAL AND ERRANT BEAM CURRENT MONITOR FOR THE SNS* ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Peters, Charles C

    2013-01-01

    A new Differential and errant Beam Current Monitor (DBCM) is being implemented for both the Spallation Neutron Source's Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) and the Super Conducting Linac (SCL) accelerator sections. These new current monitors will abort the beam when the difference between two toroidal pickups exceeds a threshold. The MEBT DBCM will protect the MEBT chopper target, while the SCL DBCM will abort beam to minimize fast beam losses in the SCL cavities. The new DBCM will also record instances of errant beam, such as beam dropouts, to assist in further optimization of the SNS Accelerator. A software Errant Beam Monitor was implemented on the regular BCM hardware to study errant beam pulses. The new system will take over this functionality and will also be able to abort beam on pulse-to-pulse variations. Because the system is based on the FlexRIO hardware and programmed in LabVIEW FPGA, it will be able to abort beam in about 5 us. This paper describes the development, implementation, and initial test results of the DBCM, as well as errant beam examples.

  12. Increasing Extracted Beam Current Density in Ion Thrusters through Plasma Potential Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Neil; Foster, John

    2015-09-01

    A gridded ion thruster's maximum extractable beam current is determined by the space charge limit. The classical formulation does not take into account finite ion drift into the acceleration gap. It can be shown that extractable beam current can be increased beyond the conventional Child-Langmuir law if the ions enter the gap at a finite drift speed. In this work, ion drift in a 10 cm thruster is varied by adjusting the plasma potential relative to the potential at the extraction plane. Internal plasma potential variations are achieved using a novel approach involving biasing the magnetic cusps. Ion flow variations are assessed using simulated beam extraction in conjunction with a retarding potential analyzer. Ion beam current density changes at a given total beam voltage in full beam extraction tests are characterized as a function of induced ion drift velocity as well.

  13. Determination of Vapor Pressure-Temperature Relationships of Current Use Pesticides and Transformation Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures of current use organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos methyl, diazinon, fipronil) and selected transformation products (chlorpyrifos oxon, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) were determined at multiple...

  14. Improved electron beam weld design and control with beam current profile measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giedt, Warren H.

    The determination of machine settings for making an electron beam weld still involves trial and error tests. Also, even after settings are selected, serious variations in penetration may occur. Results are presented to demonstrate that improved weld consistency and quality can be obtained with measurement of the beam size and intensity distribution.

  15. Acceleration and stability of a high-current ion beam in induction fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas', V. I.; Manuilenko, O. V.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Federovskaya, O. V.

    2013-03-01

    A one-dimensional nonlinear analytic theory of the filamentation instability of a high-current ion beam is formulated. The results of 2.5-dimensional numerical particle-in-cell simulations of acceleration and stability of an annular compensated ion beam (CIB) in a linear induction particle accelerator are presented. It is shown that additional transverse injection of electron beams in magnetically insulated gaps (cusps) improves the quality of the ion-beam distribution function and provides uniform beam acceleration along the accelerator. The CIB filamentation instability in both the presence and the absence of an external magnetic field is considered.

  16. Acceleration and stability of a high-current ion beam in induction fields

    SciTech Connect

    Karas', V. I.; Manuilenko, O. V.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Federovskaya, O. V.

    2013-03-15

    A one-dimensional nonlinear analytic theory of the filamentation instability of a high-current ion beam is formulated. The results of 2.5-dimensional numerical particle-in-cell simulations of acceleration and stability of an annular compensated ion beam (CIB) in a linear induction particle accelerator are presented. It is shown that additional transverse injection of electron beams in magnetically insulated gaps (cusps) improves the quality of the ion-beam distribution function and provides uniform beam acceleration along the accelerator. The CIB filamentation instability in both the presence and the absence of an external magnetic field is considered.

  17. A stationary wavelet transform based approach to registration of planning CT and setup cone beam-CT images in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun-Min; Yue, Hai-Zhen; Zhuo, Zhi-Zheng; Yan, Hua-Gang; Liu, Di; Li, Hai-Yun

    2014-05-01

    Image registration between planning CT images and cone beam-CT (CBCT) images is one of the key technologies of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Current image registration methods fall roughly into two categories: geometric features-based and image grayscale-based. Mutual information (MI) based registration, which belongs to the latter category, has been widely applied to multi-modal and mono-modal image registration. However, the standard mutual information method only focuses on the image intensity information and overlooks spatial information, leading to the instability of intensity interpolation. Due to its use of positional information, wavelet transform has been applied to image registration recently. In this study, we proposed an approach to setup CT and cone beam-CT (CBCT) image registration in radiotherapy based on the combination of mutual information (MI) and stationary wavelet transform (SWT). Firstly, SWT was applied to generate gradient images and low frequency components produced in various levels of image decomposition were eliminated. Then inverse SWT was performed on the remaining frequency components. Lastly, the rigid registration of gradient images and original images was implemented using a weighting function with the normalized mutual information (NMI) being the similarity measure, which compensates for the lack of spatial information in mutual information based image registration. Our experiment results showed that the proposed method was highly accurate and robust, and indicated a significant clinical potential in improving the accuracy of target localization in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). PMID:24729043

  18. Beam and pump currents for a MARS anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.D.; Devoto, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The MARS anchor has been modeled and analyzed with a numerical bounce-average Fokker-Planck treatment. The interactions between the various ion classes (passing, spanning and trapped) are treated in detail. Consistent solutions have been obtained for the complete asymmetric anchor. For baseline MARS parameters, 5.7 MW per end must be delivered by the anchor neutral beams, and 6.5 A per end must be pumped to maintain the sloshing ion axial density profiles.

  19. A new method of rapid power measurement for MW-scale high-current particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yongjian; Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Zhimin; Xie, Yahong; Liu, Sheng; Liang, Lizheng; Jiang, Caichao; Sheng, Peng; Yu, Ling

    2015-09-01

    MW-scale high current particle beams are widely applied for plasma heating in the magnetic confinement fusion devices, in which beam power is an important indicator for efficient heating. Generally, power measurement of MW-scale high current particle beam adopts water flow calorimetry (WFC). Limited by the principles of WFC, the beam power given by WFC is an averaged value. In this article a new method of beam power for MW-scale high-current particle beams is introduced: (1) the temperature data of thermocouples embedded in the beam stopping elements were obtained using high data acquire system, (2) the surface heat flux of the beam stopping elements are calculated using heat transfer, (3) the relationships between positions and heat flux were acquired using numerical simulation, (4) the real-time power deposited on the beam stopping elements can be calculated using surface integral. The principle of measurement was described in detail and applied to the EAST neutral beam injector for demonstration. The result is compared with that measured by WFC. Comparison of the results shows good accuracy and applicability of this measuring method.

  20. Nonlinear Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Pre-formed Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Gennady Shvets; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2001-01-30

    The propagation of a high-current finite-length ion beam in a cold pre-formed plasma is investigated. The outcome of the calculation is the quantitative prediction of the degree of charge and current neutralization of the ion beam pulse by the background plasma. The electric magnetic fields generated by the ion beam are studied analytically for the nonlinear case where the plasma density is comparable in size with the beam density. Particle-in-cell simulations and fluid calculations of current and charge neutralization have been performed for parameters relevant to heavy ion fusion assuming long, dense beams with el >> V(subscript b)/omega(subscript b), where V(subscript b) is the beam velocity and omega subscript b is the electron plasma frequency evaluated with the ion beam density. An important conclusion is that for long, nonrelativistic ion beams, charge neutralization is, for all practical purposes, complete even for very tenuous background plasmas. As a result, the self-magnetic force dominates the electric force and the beam ions are always pinched during beam propagation in a background plasma.

  1. Transport and Measurements of High-Current Electron Beams from X pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonov, Alexey V.; Mingaleev, Albert R.; Romanova, Vera M.; Tarakanov, Vladimir P.; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Pikuz, Sergey A.; Blesener, Isaac C.; Kusse, Bruce R.; Hammer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Generation of electron beams is an unavoidable property of X-pinches and other pulsed-power-driven pinches of different geometry. Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups with different geometry's are discussed. Of particular interest is the partially neutralized nature of the beam propagating from the X-pinch to a diagnostic system. Two scenarios of electron beam propagation from X-pinch to Faraday cup are analyzed by means of computer simulation using the PIC-code KARAT. The first is longitudinal neutralization by ions extracted from plasma at an output window of the X-pinch diode; the second is the beam transport through a plasma background between the diode and a diagnostic system.

  2. Transport and Measurements of High-Current Electron Beams from X pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, Alexey V.; Mingaleev, Albert R.; Romanova, Vera M.; Tarakanov, Vladimir P.; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Pikuz, Sergey A.; Blesener, Isaac C.; Kusse, Bruce R.; Hammer, David A.

    2009-01-21

    Generation of electron beams is an unavoidable property of X-pinches and other pulsed-power-driven pinches of different geometry. Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups with different geometry's are discussed. Of particular interest is the partially neutralized nature of the beam propagating from the X-pinch to a diagnostic system. Two scenarios of electron beam propagation from X-pinch to Faraday cup are analyzed by means of computer simulation using the PIC-code KARAT. The first is longitudinal neutralization by ions extracted from plasma at an output window of the X-pinch diode; the second is the beam transport through a plasma background between the diode and a diagnostic system.

  3. Surface modification of structural materials by low-energy high-current pulsed electron beam treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Panin, A. V. E-mail: kms@ms.tsc.ru; Kazachenok, M. S. E-mail: kms@ms.tsc.ru; Sinyakova, E. A.; Borodovitsina, O. M.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Leontieva-Smirnova, M. V.

    2014-11-14

    Microstructure formation in surface layers of pure titanium and ferritic-martensitic steel subjected to electron beam treatment is studied. It is shown that low energy high-current pulsed electron beam irradiation leads to the martensite structure within the surface layer of pure titanium. Contrary, the columnar ferrite grains grow during solidification of ferritic-martensitic steel. The effect of electron beam energy density on the surface morphology and microstructure of the irradiated metals is demonstrated.

  4. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Deyang Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-15

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O{sup 3+} ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  5. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deyang; Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-01

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O3+ ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  6. Effect of the electrostatic plasma lens on the emittance of ahigh-current heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Chekh, Yu.; Goncharov, A.; Protsenko, I.; Brown, I.G.

    2004-01-10

    We describe measurements we have made of the emittance of a high-current, moderate-energy ion beam after transport through a permanent-magnet electrostatic plasma lens. The results indicate the absence of emittance growth due to the lens, when the lens is adjusted for optimal beam focusing. The measured emittance for a 16 keV Cu{sup 2+} ion beam formed by a vacuum arc ion source was about 0.4 {pi} {center_dot} mm {center_dot} mrad at a beam current of 50 mA rising more-or-less linearly to 1.5 {pi} {center_dot} mm {center_dot} mrad at 250 mA, and was conserved in beam transport through the lens. These results have significance for the application of high-current ion sources and the electrostatic plasma lens to particle accelerator injection.

  7. Formation of an ion beam in an elementary cell with inhomogeneous emission current density

    SciTech Connect

    Kotelnikov, I. A.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Tiunov, M. A.

    2008-02-15

    A well-known Pierce solution that allows focusing a beam of charged particles using properly shaped electrodes outside the beam aperture is generalized to the case of an accelerating system with inhomogeneous emission current density. It is shown that the defocusing effect of the space charge can, in principle, be evenly compensated over the entire cross section of the beam. In contrast to the beam with a uniform emission current density, both the electric potential and the transverse electric field must be controlled along the beam boundary in order to eliminate the angular divergence. However, eliminating the angular spread evenly across the beam constitutes a mathematically ill-posed problem which needs to be solved with the use of one or another method of regularization. An alternative way of diminishing beam emittance is proposed for the beam where the emission current is uniform across the entire aperture except for a narrow beam edge layer and a simple formula for the Pierce electrodes is derived. Numerical simulation has proved the reasonable accuracy of our analytical theory.

  8. Formation of an ion beam in an elementary cell with inhomogeneous emission current density.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikov, I A; Davydenko, V I; Ivanov, A A; Tiunov, M A

    2008-02-01

    A well-known Pierce solution that allows focusing a beam of charged particles using properly shaped electrodes outside the beam aperture is generalized to the case of an accelerating system with inhomogeneous emission current density. It is shown that the defocusing effect of the space charge can, in principle, be evenly compensated over the entire cross section of the beam. In contrast to the beam with a uniform emission current density, both the electric potential and the transverse electric field must be controlled along the beam boundary in order to eliminate the angular divergence. However, eliminating the angular spread evenly across the beam constitutes a mathematically ill-posed problem which needs to be solved with the use of one or another method of regularization. An alternative way of diminishing beam emittance is proposed for the beam where the emission current is uniform across the entire aperture except for a narrow beam edge layer and a simple formula for the Pierce electrodes is derived. Numerical simulation has proved the reasonable accuracy of our analytical theory. PMID:18315193

  9. Transformer-rectifier flux pump using inductive current transfer and thermally controlled Nb(3)Sn cryotrons.

    PubMed

    Atherton, D L; Davies, R

    1979-10-01

    Transformer-rectifier flux pumps using thermally switched Nb(3)Sn cryotrons are being investigated as a loss make-up device for the proposed isochorically operated (sealed) superconducting magnets for the Canadian Maglev vehicle. High currents (1000 A) were obtained in an experimental flux pump using inductive current transfer and operating at 2 Hz. PMID:18699368

  10. Numerical Simulation of Non-Inductive Current Driven Scenario in EAST Using Neutral Beam Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jinfang; Wang, Ji; Hu, Chundong

    2015-01-01

    For achieving the scientific mission of long pulse and high performance operation, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) applies fully superconducting magnet technology and is equiped with high power auxiliary heating system. Besides RF (Radio Frequency) wave heating, neutral beam injection (NBI) is an effective heating and current drive method in fusion research. NBCD (Neutral Beam Current Drive) as a viable non-inductive current drive source plays an important role in quasi-steady state operating scenario for tokamak. The non-inductive current driven scenario in EAST only by NBI is predicted using the TSC/NUBEAM code. At the condition of low plasma current and moderate plasma density, neutral beam injection heats the plasma effectively and NBCD plus bootstrap current accounts for a large proportion among the total plasma current for the flattop time.

  11. The backward phase flow and FBI-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beams for the Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Shingyu; Qian, Jianliang

    2010-11-01

    We propose the backward phase flow method to implement the Fourier-Bros-Iagolnitzer (FBI)-transform-based Eulerian Gaussian beam method for solving the Schrödinger equation in the semi-classical regime. The idea of Eulerian Gaussian beams has been first proposed in [12]. In this paper we aim at two crucial computational issues of the Eulerian Gaussian beam method: how to carry out long-time beam propagation and how to compute beam ingredients rapidly in phase space. By virtue of the FBI transform, we address the first issue by introducing the reinitialization strategy into the Eulerian Gaussian beam framework. Essentially we reinitialize beam propagation by applying the FBI transform to wavefields at intermediate time steps when the beams become too wide. To address the second issue, inspired by the original phase flow method, we propose the backward phase flow method which allows us to compute beam ingredients rapidly. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithms.

  12. Comment on paper: "Generation of dark hollow beams by using a fractional radial Hilbert transform system"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ez-zariy, L.; Nebdi, H.; Belafhal, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper comments on a recently published work dealing with: "Generation of dark hollow beams by using a radial Hilbert transform system" by Q. Xie and D. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 275 (2007) 394. The authors have applied an integral, valid only for the integer orders, in cases of fractional ones. In addition, in their main result established by Eq. (11), the authors have neglected the dependence of some terms on the parameter summation. So, in the actual comment, we will give the main exact closed-form of the considered theory.

  13. Thermally induced transformations of amorphous carbon nanostructures fabricated by electron beam induced deposition.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Dhaval D; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Kim, Songkil; Fedorov, Andrei G; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2011-03-01

    We studied the thermally induced phase transformations of electron-beam-induced deposited (EBID) amorphous carbon nanostructures by correlating the changes in its morphology with internal microstructure by using combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution confocal Raman microscopy. These carbon deposits can be used to create heterogeneous junctions in electronic devices commonly known as carbon-metal interconnects. We compared two basic shapes of EBID deposits: dots/pillars with widths from 50 to 600 nm and heights from 50 to 500 nm and lines with variable heights from 10 to 150 nm but having a constant length of 6 μm. We observed that during thermal annealing, the nanoscale amorphous deposits go through multistage transformation including dehydration and stress-relaxation around 150 °C, dehydrogenation within 150-300 °C, followed by graphitization (>350 °C) and formation of nanocrystalline, highly densified graphitic deposits around 450 °C. The later stage of transformation occurs well below commonly observed graphitization for bulk carbon (600-800 °C). It was observed that the shape of the deposits contribute significantly to the phase transformations. We suggested that this difference is controlled by different contributions from interfacial footprints area. Moreover, the rate of graphitization was different for deposits of different shapes with the lines showing a much stronger dependence of its structure on the density than the dots. PMID:21319745

  14. Fully phase multiple information encoding based on superposition of two beams and Fresnel-transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2015-12-01

    A novel asymmetric multiple information encoding using superposition of two beams and Fresnel transform, is proposed. In this scheme, each channel of individual user image is separately phase encoded and then modulated by random phase mask. The three modulated user channels are independently multiplied to produce three complex user channels. They are individually multiplied with three channels of carrier image and Fresnel transformed, and then phase- and amplitude truncated to produce first set of three encrypted channels and three asymmetric keys. Now each channel of secret image is normalized, phase-only masked, and then independently multiplied by corresponding modulated user channels. The three resultant channels are separately multiplied to construct three complex secret channels. Afterward, the three encrypted channels are multiplied with corresponding three complex secret channels and Fresnel transformed, and then phase- and amplitude truncated to obtain second set of three encrypted channels and three asymmetric keys. The wavelengths and propagation distances of two Fresnel transforms, and two asymmetric keys are common keys to all authorized-users, while two individual keys are provided to each authorized-user. The encryption process is implemented digitally while the decryption process can be performed optoelectronically. The proposed method is asymmetric, noniterative and larger multiplexing capacity without any cross-talk noise effects. Owing to the individual user image based method, high robustness against existing attacks can be achieved. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and efficient.

  15. Transforming nursing education: a review of current curricular practices in relation to Benner's latest work.

    PubMed

    Handwerker, Sarah M

    2012-01-01

    Current societal and healthcare system trends highlight the need to transform nursing education to prepare nurses capable of outstanding practice in the 21st century. Patricia Benner and colleagues urged nurse educators to transform their practice in the 2010 publication Educating Nurses, A Call to Radical Transformation. Frequently utilized pedagogical frameworks in nursing education include behaviorism and constructivism. Much of the structure and basis for instruction and evaluation can be found rooted in these philosophies. By first exploring both behaviorism and constructivism and then relating their use in nursing education to the call to transform, educators can be encourage to examine current practice and possibly modify aspects to include more rich experiential learning. PMID:23092804

  16. A DSP-Based Beam Current Monitoring System for Machine Protection Using Adaptive Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    J. Musson; H. Dong; R. Flood; C. Hovater; J. Hereford

    2001-06-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab is currently using an analog beam current monitoring (BCM) system for its machine protection system (MPS), which has a loss accuracy of 2 micro-amps. Recent burn-through simulations predict catastrophic beam line component failures below 1 micro-amp of loss, resulting in a blind spot for the MPS. Revised MPS requirements target an ultimate beam loss accuracy of 250 nA. A new beam current monitoring system has been developed which utilizes modern digital receiver technology and digital signal processing concepts. The receiver employs a direct-digital down converter integrated circuit, mated with a Jefferson Lab digital signal processor VME card. Adaptive filtering is used to take advantage of current-dependent burn-through rates. Benefits of such a system include elimination of DC offsets, generic algorithm development, extensive filter options, and interfaces to UNIX-based control systems.

  17. Sparking limits, cavity loading, and beam breakup instability associated with high-current rf linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Faehl, R.J.; Lemons, D.S.; Thode, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    The limitations on high-current rf linacs due to gap sparking, cavity loading, and the beam breakup instability are studied. It appears possible to achieve cavity accelerating gradients as high as 35 MV/m without sparking. Furthermore, a linear analysis, as well as self-consistent particle simulations of a multipulsed 10 kA beam, indicated that only a negligible small fraction of energy is radiated into nonfundamental cavity modes. Finally, the beam breakup instability is analyzed and found to be able to magnify initial radial perturbations by a factor of no more than about 20 during the beam transit time through a 1 GeV accelerator.

  18. Auroral electron beams - Electric currents and energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, R. L.

    1981-09-01

    The energy sources, electric equipotentials and electric currents associated with auroral electron acceleration observed during rocket flight 18:152 are discussed. Steep flow gradients at the interface between the convection boundary layer and the plasma sheet are considered as the probable source of energy for dayside and dawn and dusk auroras, while it is suggested that the cross tail potential drop may provide an energy source for some midnight auroras. Birkeland currents that flow along distorted field lines are shown possibly to be important in the mechanism that produces U-shaped equipotentials in the ionosphere, as well as unexpected jumps in ionospheric or magnetotail currents and unusual electric fields and plasma drift in the magnetotail. The production of equipotential structures under oppositely directed higher-altitude electric fields is discussed, and it is pointed out that cold ionospheric plasma can enter the structure in a cusp-shaped region where fields are weak. The rocket data reveals that the sudden change in conductivity at the edge of the bright arc and the constancy of the electric field produce sudden changes in the Hall and Pedersen currents. It is concluded that current continuity is satisfied primarily by east-west changes in the electric field or conductivity.

  19. Neutral beam current driven operation of the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T.C.; Bhadra, D.K.; Burrell, K.H.; Callis, R.W.; Chance, M.S.; Chu, M.S.; Colleraine, A.P.; Greene, J.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Harvey, R.W.; Hill, D.N.; Kim, J.; Lao, L.; Matsuoka, M.; Petersen, P.I.; Porter, G.D.; St. John, H.; Stallard, B.W.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.

    1988-03-01

    Neutral beam current drive experiment in the DII-D tokamak with a single null poloidal divertor are described. A plasma current of 0.34 MA has been sustained entirely by neutral beams with H-mode quality energy confinement. Poloidal beta values reach 3.5 without disruption or coherent magnetic activity, suggesting that these plasmas may be entering the second stability regime. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Limiting electron beam current for cyclic induction acceleration in a constant guide field

    SciTech Connect

    Kanunnikov, V.N.

    1982-09-01

    Theoretical relations are derived for the limiting beam current in a cyclic induction accelerator (CIA) with a constant guide field. The calculations are in agreement with the available experimental data. It is shown that the limiting average beam current in a CIA is of the order of 100 microamperes, i.e., the level attained in microtrons and linear accelerators. The CIA may find industrial applications.

  1. Role of the rise rate of beam current in the microwave radiation of vircator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Limin; Cheng, Guoxin; Zhang, Le; Ji, Xiang; Chang, Lei; Xu, Qifu; Liu, Lie; Wen, Jianchun; Li, Chuanlu; Wan, Hong

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of the rise rate of beam current on the microwave radiation of a virtual cathode oscillator (vircator) is presented. Interestingly, it was observed that the rise rate of the beam current increased as the pulse shot proceeded, which is accompanied by the decrease in microwave power. By comparing the experimental results of two cathode materials (carbon fiber and stainless steel), it was found that the above behavior is independent of the cathode materials. The ion flow, induced by the repetitive action of beam electrons with the anode grid, directly affects the development of beam current. A twice-increased process of ion flow was observed, and there are two factors involved in this process, namely, the reflection of electrons between the cathode and virtual cathode and the effect of one-time bombardment of electron beam. After the irradiation of pulsed electron beam, some microprotrusions toward the cathode appeared on the anode surface, with a quasiperiodic structure. The appearance of ion flow, as the anode plasma forms, increases the beam current and enhances the beam current density. The anode plasma is generated relatively easily as the shot test proceeds, due to the aging of anode grid, which allows the possibility of the decrease in the microwave power. As the pulse shot proceeds, the changes in the rise rate of beam current are closely related to the aging process of anode surface. Therefore, the further enhancement of vircator efficiency needs to lengthen the lifetime of anode, besides the optimization of explosive emission cathodes.

  2. Transverse distribution of beam current oscillations of a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, O; Toivanen, V; Komppula, J; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H

    2014-02-01

    The temporal stability of oxygen ion beams has been studied with the 14 GHz A-ECR at JYFL (University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics). A sector Faraday cup was employed to measure the distribution of the beam current oscillations across the beam profile. The spatial and temporal characteristics of two different oscillation "modes" often observed with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS are discussed. It was observed that the low frequency oscillations below 200 Hz are distributed almost uniformly. In the high frequency oscillation "mode," with frequencies >300 Hz at the core of the beam, carrying most of the current, oscillates with smaller amplitude than the peripheral parts of the beam. The results help to explain differences observed between the two oscillation modes in terms of the transport efficiency through the JYFL K-130 cyclotron. The dependence of the oscillation pattern on ion source parameters is a strong indication that the mechanisms driving the fluctuations are plasma effects. PMID:24593488

  3. Instrument for spatially resolved simultaneous measurements of forces and currents in particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spethmann, A.; Trottenberg, T.; Kersten, H.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a device for spatially resolved and simultaneous measurements of forces and currents in particle beams, especially in beams composed of ions and neutral atoms. The forces are exerted by the impinging beam particles on a plane circular conductive target plate of 20 mm diameter mounted on a pendulum with electromagnetic force compensation. The force measurement in the micronewton range is achieved by electromagnetic compensation by means of static Helmholtz coils and permanent magnets attached to the pendulum. Exemplary measurements are performed in the 1.2 keV beam of a broad beam ion source. The simultaneous measurements of forces and currents onto the same target are compared with each other and with Faraday cup measurements.

  4. Instrument for spatially resolved simultaneous measurements of forces and currents in particle beams.

    PubMed

    Spethmann, A; Trottenberg, T; Kersten, H

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a device for spatially resolved and simultaneous measurements of forces and currents in particle beams, especially in beams composed of ions and neutral atoms. The forces are exerted by the impinging beam particles on a plane circular conductive target plate of 20 mm diameter mounted on a pendulum with electromagnetic force compensation. The force measurement in the micronewton range is achieved by electromagnetic compensation by means of static Helmholtz coils and permanent magnets attached to the pendulum. Exemplary measurements are performed in the 1.2 keV beam of a broad beam ion source. The simultaneous measurements of forces and currents onto the same target are compared with each other and with Faraday cup measurements. PMID:25638122

  5. Instrument for spatially resolved simultaneous measurements of forces and currents in particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Spethmann, A. Trottenberg, T. Kersten, H.

    2015-01-15

    The article presents a device for spatially resolved and simultaneous measurements of forces and currents in particle beams, especially in beams composed of ions and neutral atoms. The forces are exerted by the impinging beam particles on a plane circular conductive target plate of 20 mm diameter mounted on a pendulum with electromagnetic force compensation. The force measurement in the micronewton range is achieved by electromagnetic compensation by means of static Helmholtz coils and permanent magnets attached to the pendulum. Exemplary measurements are performed in the 1.2 keV beam of a broad beam ion source. The simultaneous measurements of forces and currents onto the same target are compared with each other and with Faraday cup measurements.

  6. Analytical Analysis and Case Study of Transient Behavior of Inrush Current in Power Transformer for Designing of Efficient Circuit Breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmanpreet, Singh, Sukhwinder; Kumar, Ashok; Kaur, Parneet

    2010-11-01

    Stability & security are main aspects in electrical power systems. Transformer protection is major issue of concern to system operation. There are many mall-trip cases of transformer protection are caused by inrush current problems. The phenomenon of transformer inrush current has been discussed in many papers since 1958. In this paper analytical analysis of inrush current in a transformer switched on dc and ac supply has been done. This analysis will help in design aspects of circuit breakers for better performance.

  7. Photorefractive two-beam coupling joint transform correlator: modeling and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nehmetallah, G; Khoury, J; Banerjee, P P

    2016-05-20

    The photorefractive two-beam coupling joint transform correlator combines two features. The first is embedded semi-adaptive optimality, which weighs the correlation against clutter and noise in the input, and the second is the intrinsic dynamic range compression nonlinearity, which improves several metrics simultaneously without metric trade-off. Although the two beam coupling correlator was invented many years ago, its outstanding performance was recognized on only relatively simple images. There was no study about the performance of this correlator on complicated images and using different figures of merit. In this paper, the study is extended to more complicated images. For the first time, to our knowledge, we demonstrate simultaneous improvement in metrics performance without metric trade-off. The performance was evaluated compared to the classical joint transform correlator. A typical experimental result to validate the simulation results was also shown in this work. The best performing operation parameters were identified to guide the experimental work and for future comparison with other well-known optimal correlation filters. PMID:27411127

  8. Impact of quasi-dc currents on three-phase distribution transformer installations

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, B.W.; Barnes, P.R. ); Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Schafer, D.A. )

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes a series of tests designed to determine the response of quasi-dc currents on three-phase power distribution transformers for electric power systems. In general, if the dc injection is limited to the primary side of a step-down transformer, significant harmonic distortion is noted and an increase in the reactive power demand results. For dc injection on the secondary (load) side of the step-down transformer the harmonic content at the secondary side is quite high and saturation occurs with a relatively low level of dc injection; however, the reactive power demand is significantly lower. These tests produced no apparent damage to the transformers. Transformer damage is dependent on the duration of the dc excitation, the level of the excitation, and on thermal characteristics of the transfer. The transformer response time is found to be much shorter than seen in power transformer tests at lower dc injection levels. This shorter response time suggests that the response time is strongly dependent on the injected current levels, and that higher levels of dc injection for shorter durations could produce very high reactive power demands and harmonic distortion within a few tenths of a second. The added reactive power load could result in the blowing of fuses on the primary side of the transformer for even moderate dc injection levels, and neutral currents are quite large under even low-level dc injection. This smoking neutral'' results in high-level harmonic injection into equipment via the neutral and in possible equipment failure.

  9. Electromagnetic characterization of current transformer with toroidal core under sinusoidal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivica, Branko; Milovanovic, Alenka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new procedure for the electromagnetic analysis of a measuring current transformer under sinusoidal conditions in its electrical and magnetic circuit. The influence of the magnetic hysteresis has been taken into account using the measured inverse magnetization curve and phase lag between the time waveforms of the magnetic field and the magnetic induction. Using the proposed analysis, ratio and phase errors of the current transformer have been calculated. The results of the calculation have been compared with experimental results and a good agreement has been found.

  10. Low-impedance plasma systems for generation of high-current low-energy electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    The results of experimental investigation and numerical modeling of the generation of low-energy (tens of keV) high-current (up to tens of kA) electron beams in a low-impedance system consisting of a plasma-filled diode with a long plasma anode, an auxiliary hot cathode, and an explosive emission cathode. The low-current low-voltage beam from the auxiliary cathode in an external longitudinal magnetic field is used to produce a long plasma anode, which is simultaneously the channel of beam transportation by residual gas ionization. The high-current electron beam is formed from the explosive emission cathode placed in the preliminarily formed plasma. Numerical modeling is performed using the KARAT PIC code.

  11. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  12. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol■ sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon■. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  13. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    SciTech Connect

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  14. RESULTS OF BEAM TESTS ON A HIGH CURRENT EBIS TEST STAND.

    SciTech Connect

    BEEBE,E.; ALESSI,J.; BELLAVIA,S.; HERSHCOVITCH,A.; KPONOU,A.; LOCKEY,R.; PIKIN,A.; PRELEC,K.; KUZNETSOV,G.; TIUNOV,M.

    1999-03-29

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory there is an R&D program to design an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) for use in a compact ion injector to be developed for the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). The BNL effort is directed at developing an EBIS with intensities of 3 x 10{sup 9} particles/pulse of ions such as Au{sup 35+} and U{sup 45+}, and requires an electron beam on the order of 10A. The construction of a test stand (EBTS) with the full electron beam power and 1/3 the length of the EBIS for RHIC is nearing completion. Initial commissioning of the EBTS was made with pulsed electron beams of duration < 1ms and current up to 13 A. Details of the EBTS construction, results of the pulse tests, and preparations for DC electron beam tests are presented.

  15. Emittance growth from charge density changes in high-current beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Crandall, K.R.; Mills, R.S.

    1986-01-21

    We use the relation between field energy and rms emittance, together with the property of charge-density homogenization for intense nonuniform beams in linear focusing systems, to derive equations for emittance growth and minimum final emittance. We discuss three problems in which this charge redistribution mechnism is isolated: the 1-D continuous sheet beam, the 2-D continuous round beam, and the 3-D spherical bunch. For each of the three problems, we identify and compare scaling parameters tha determine the emittance growth and minimum final emittance as a function of beam current, emittance, and external focusing strength. Numerical simulations are used to test the equations, to show that the charge redistribution mechanism results in very rapid emittance growth, and to study the detailed time evolution of the beams.

  16. Mapping of ion beam induced current changes in FinFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, C. D.; Schuh, A.; Batra, A.; Persaud, A.; Rangelow, I. W.; Bokor, J.; Lo, C. C.; Cabrini, S.; Olynick, D.; Duhey, S.; Schenkel, T.

    2008-09-30

    We report on progress in ion placement into silicon devices with scanning probealignment. The device is imaged with a scanning force microscope (SFM) and an aligned argon beam (20 keV, 36 keV) is scanned over the transistor surface. Holes in the lever of the SFM tip collimate the argon beam to sizes of 1.6 mu m and 100 nm in diameter. Ion impacts upset the channel current due to formation of positive charges in the oxide areas. The induced changes in the source-drain current are recorded in dependence of the ion beam position in respect to the FinFET. Maps of local areas responding to the ion beam are obtained.

  17. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  18. Recirculation acceleration of high current relativistic electron beams--a feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.

    1981-06-01

    One of the advanced accelerator concepts under study at NBS involves multiplying the energy gained by a long-pulse, high current relativistic electron beam by directing the beam several times through the same induction accelerator during the time of one voltage pulse. Should this concept of the recirculation acceleration of intense electron beams be proven feasible, the savings in cost, size, and weight of a high current accelerator would be considerable. Energy gain by recirculation acceleration through a small-scale proof-of principle facility has been demonstrated at NBS. The study employs a 750A, 750keV electron beam pulse, 2 microsec long, generated by a linear induction accelerator of unique design which was also developed at NBS.

  19. The effect of beam-driven return current instability on solar hard X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, D.; Mcquillan, P.; Brown, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of electrostatic wave generation by a return current driven by a small area electron beam during solar hard X-ray bursts is discussed. The marginal stability method is used to solve numerically the electron and ion heating equations for a prescribed beam current evolution. When ion-acoustic waves are considered, the method appears satisfactory and, following an initial phase of Coulomb resistivity in which T sub e/T sub i rise, predicts a rapid heating of substantial plasma volumes by anomalous ohmic dissipation. This hot plasma emits so much thermal bremsstrahlung that, contrary to previous expectations, the unstable beam-plasma system actually emits more hard X-rays than does the beam in the purely collisional thick target regime relevant to larger injection areas. Inclusion of ion-cyclotron waves results in ion-acoustic wave onset at lower T sub e/T sub i and a marginal stability treatment yields unphysical results.

  20. Analysis of longitudinal beam dynamics behavior and rf system operative limits at high-beam currents in storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; Fox, J. D.; van Winkle, D.; Teytelman, D.

    2008-06-01

    A dynamics simulation model is used to estimate limits of performance of the positron-electron project (PEP-II). The simulation captures the dynamics and technical limitations of the low level radio frequency (LLRF) system, the high-power rf components, and the low-order mode coupled-bunch longitudinal beam dynamics. Simulation results showing the effect of nonlinearities on the LLRF loops, and studies of the effectiveness of technical component upgrades are reported, as well as a comparison of these results with PEP-II measurements. These studies have led to the estimation of limits and determining factors in the maximum stored current that the low energy ring/high energy ring (LER/HER) can achieve, based on system stability for different rf station configurations and upgrades. In particular, the feasibility of the PEP-II plans to achieve the final goal in luminosity, which required an increase of the beam currents to 4 A for LER and 2.2 A for HER, is studied. These currents are challenging in part because they would push the longitudinal low-order beam mode stability to the limit, and the klystron forward power past a level of satisfactory margin. An acceptable margin is defined in this paper, which in turn determines the corresponding klystron forward power limitation.

  1. Ion beam-induced amorphous-to-tetragonal phase transformation and grain growth of nanocrystalline zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, Jie; Zhang, Jiaming; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen; Lu, Fengyuan; Haider, Hani; Garvin, Kevin; Weber, William J.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2009-05-26

    Nanocrystalline zirconia has recently attracted extensive research interest due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties as compared to bulk zirconia counterparts, and it is of particular importance to control the phase stability of different polymorphs (amorphous, cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases) at different size regimes. In this paper, we performed ion beam bombardments on bilayers (amorphous and cubic) of pure nano-zirconia using 1 MeV Kr2+ irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that amorphous zirconia transforms to a tetragonal structure under irradiation at room temperature, suggesting that the tetragonal phase is more energetically favorable under these conditions. The final grain size of the tetragonal zirconia can be controlled by irradiation conditions. The irradiation-induced nanograins of tetragonal ZrO2 are stable at ambient conditions and maintain their physical integrity over a long period of time after irradiation. These results demonstrated that ion-beam modification methods provide the means to control the phase stability and structure of zirconia polymorphs.

  2. Coherent beam control with an all-dielectric transformation optics based lens.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianjia; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André

    2016-01-01

    Transformation optics (TO) concept well known for its huge possibility in patterning the path of electromagnetic waves is exploited to design a beam steering lens. The broadband directive in-phase emission in a desired off-normal direction from an array of equally fed radiators is numerically and experimentally reported. Such manipulation is achieved without the use of complex and bulky phase shifters as it is the case in classical phased array antennas. The all-dielectric compact low-cost lens prototype presenting a graded permittivity profile is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology. The array of radiators is composed of four planar microstrip antennas realized using standard lithography techniques and is used as excitation source for the lens. To validate the proposed lens, we experimentally demonstrate the broadband focusing properties and in-phase directive emissions deflected from the normal direction. Both the far-field radiation patterns and the near-field distributions are measured and reported. Measurements agree quantitatively and qualitatively with numerical full-wave simulations and confirm the corresponding steering properties. Such experimental validation paves the way to inexpensive easy-made all-dielectric microwave lenses for beam forming and collimation. PMID:26729400

  3. Coherent beam control with an all-dielectric transformation optics based lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jianjia; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André

    2016-01-01

    Transformation optics (TO) concept well known for its huge possibility in patterning the path of electromagnetic waves is exploited to design a beam steering lens. The broadband directive in-phase emission in a desired off-normal direction from an array of equally fed radiators is numerically and experimentally reported. Such manipulation is achieved without the use of complex and bulky phase shifters as it is the case in classical phased array antennas. The all-dielectric compact low-cost lens prototype presenting a graded permittivity profile is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology. The array of radiators is composed of four planar microstrip antennas realized using standard lithography techniques and is used as excitation source for the lens. To validate the proposed lens, we experimentally demonstrate the broadband focusing properties and in-phase directive emissions deflected from the normal direction. Both the far-field radiation patterns and the near-field distributions are measured and reported. Measurements agree quantitatively and qualitatively with numerical full-wave simulations and confirm the corresponding steering properties. Such experimental validation paves the way to inexpensive easy-made all-dielectric microwave lenses for beam forming and collimation.

  4. Coherent beam control with an all-dielectric transformation optics based lens

    PubMed Central

    YI, Jianjia; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André

    2016-01-01

    Transformation optics (TO) concept well known for its huge possibility in patterning the path of electromagnetic waves is exploited to design a beam steering lens. The broadband directive in-phase emission in a desired off-normal direction from an array of equally fed radiators is numerically and experimentally reported. Such manipulation is achieved without the use of complex and bulky phase shifters as it is the case in classical phased array antennas. The all-dielectric compact low-cost lens prototype presenting a graded permittivity profile is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology. The array of radiators is composed of four planar microstrip antennas realized using standard lithography techniques and is used as excitation source for the lens. To validate the proposed lens, we experimentally demonstrate the broadband focusing properties and in-phase directive emissions deflected from the normal direction. Both the far-field radiation patterns and the near-field distributions are measured and reported. Measurements agree quantitatively and qualitatively with numerical full-wave simulations and confirm the corresponding steering properties. Such experimental validation paves the way to inexpensive easy-made all-dielectric microwave lenses for beam forming and collimation. PMID:26729400

  5. High current proton beams production at Simple Mirror Ion Source 37.

    PubMed

    Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Razin, S; Sidorov, A; Golubev, S; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the latest results of high current proton beam production at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility at the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP RAS). In this experimental setup, the plasma is created and the electrons are heated by 37.5 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW in a simple mirror trap fulfilling the ECR condition. Latest experiments at SMIS 37 were performed using a single-aperture two-electrode extraction system. Proton beams with currents up to 450 mA at high voltages below 45 kV were obtained. The maximum beam current density was measured to be 600 mA/cm(2). A possibility of further improvement through the development of an advanced extraction system is discussed. PMID:24593436

  6. Current-voltage relation for a field ionizing He beam detector

    SciTech Connect

    DePonte, D. P.; Elliott, Greg S.; Kevan, S. D.

    2009-02-15

    Emerging interest in utilizing the transverse coherence properties of thermal energy atomic and molecular beams motivates the development of ionization detectors with near unit detection efficiency and adequate spatial resolution to resolve interference fringes of submicron dimension. We demonstrate that a field ionization tip coupled to a charged particle detector meets these requirements. We have systematically studied the current-voltage relationship for field ionization of helium using tungsten tips in diffuse gas and in a supersonic helium beam. For all 16 tips used in this study, the dependence of ion current on voltage for tips of fixed radius was found to differ from that for tips held at constant surface electric field. A scaling analysis is presented to explain this difference. Ion current increased on average to the 2.8 power of voltage for a tip at fixed field and approximately fifth power of voltage for fixed radius for a liquid nitrogen cooled tip in room temperature helium gas. For the helium beam, ion current increased as 2.2 power of voltage with constant surface field. The capture region of the tips was found to be up to 0.1 {mu}m{sup 2} for diffuse gas and 0.02 {mu}m{sup 2} in the beam. Velocity dependence and orientation of tip to beam were also studied.

  7. Theory of beam induced current characterization of grain boundaries in polycrystalline solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donolato, C.

    1983-03-01

    A theoretical analysis is given of the induced current profiles at grain boundaries in polycrystalline solar cells, as obtained by light or electron beam excitation. The area A and the variance sigma-squared of the contrast profile of a grain boundary are calculated for realistic generations as functions of the interface recombination velocity v(s) and the minority carrier diffusion length L. A new graphical procedure is proposed which allows the simultaneous determination of v(s) and L from the measured values of A and sigma. The evaluation of an experimental electron beam-induced current profile illustrates the applicability of the theory.

  8. Hilbert versus Concordia transform for three-phase machine stator current time-frequency monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajin, Baptiste; Chabert, Marie; Regnier, Jérémi; Faucher, Jean

    2009-11-01

    This paper deals with mechanical fault diagnosis in three-phase induction machines from stator current measurements. According to machine models, mechanical faults lead to amplitude and/or phase modulations of the measured stator current with possibly time varying carrier frequency. The modulation diagnosis requires a univocal definition of the instantaneous phase and amplitude. This is performed by associating a complex signal to the real measured one. For a convenient separate modulation diagnosis, the complex signal instantaneous phase and amplitude are expected to carry, respectively, information about the phase and amplitude modulations. The complex signal is classically obtained through the Hilbert transform. Under Bedrosian conditions, the so-called analytic signal allows a separate modulation diagnosis. However, mechanical faults may also produce fast modulations violating the Bedrosian conditions. This study proposes an alternative complex signal representation which takes advantage of the three stator current measurements available in a three-phase machine. From two stator current measurements, the Concordia transform builds a complex vector, the so-called space vector, which unconditionally allows separate modulation diagnosis. This paper applies and compares the Hilbert and Concordia transforms, theoretically and in case of simulated and experimental signals with various modulation frequency ranges.

  9. A Four Channel Beam Current Monitor Data Acquisition System Using Embedded Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Jr., Robert Mitchell; Dalmas, Dale A.; Dale, Gregory E.

    2015-08-11

    Data acquisition from multiple beam current monitors is required for electron accelerator production of Mo-99. A two channel system capable of recording data from two beam current monitors has been developed, is currently in use, and is discussed below. The development of a cost-effective method of extending this system to more than two channels and integrating of these measurements into an accelerator control system is the main focus of this report. Data from these current monitors is digitized, processed, and stored by a digital data acquisition system. Limitations and drawbacks with the currently deployed digital data acquisition system have been identified as have been potential solutions, or at least improvements, to these problems. This report will discuss and document the efforts we've made in improving the flexibility and lowering the cost of the data acquisition system while maintaining the minimum requirements.

  10. Characterization of the beam transmission improvements for p- and n-LDD implantations on a single wafer high current spot beam implanter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeide, Matthias; Kondratenko, Serguei; Deichler, Josef

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization of the biased beam guide option installed in the 200 mm Axcelis Optima HDx single wafer high current spot beam implanter and its use for energy contamination free, drift mode p-LDD and n-LDD implantations. Biased beam guide mode allows reduction of space charge potential and corresponding transmission loss from beam blow up, resulting in horizontally and vertically smaller ion beams. Smaller, highly focused beams have several advantages, such as improved beam transmission, higher dose rate, and require reduced overscan area. Higher beam transmission and higher beam current combined with reduced overscan are two factors that directly affect throughput and productivity. We demonstrate these improvements for several important logic processes. A characterization of the effects of beam guide bias voltage for a 90 nm CMOS logic is reported in detail. The p-LDD and n-LDD implantations investigated were BF2+, As+, and As2+ in the energy range between 3 keV and 5 keV, both with and without Germanium pre-amorphization. The presented and discussed results include beam parameters, throughput results, beam setup performance, and device data. The results have shown that the biased beam guide mode can significantly improve the throughput for the LDD implantations in the energy range of interest.

  11. Modulation of auroral electrojet currents using dual HF beams with ELF phase offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The modulation of naturally occuring ionospheric currents with high power radio waves in the high frequency (HF, 3-10 MHz) band is a well known technique for generation of extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves. We use the heating facility of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) to investigate the effect of using dual HF beams with an ELF/VLF phase offset between the modulation waveforms. Experiments with offset HF beams confirm the model of independent ELF/VLF sources. Experiments with co-located HF beams exhibit interaction between the first and second harmonics of the modulated tones when square and sine wave modulation waveforms are employed. Using ELF/VLF phase offsets for co-loacted beams is also shown to be a potential diagnostic for the D-region ionospheric profile.

  12. Current status and future prospect of electron beam sterilization in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Ichiro

    1998-06-01

    It seems that electron beam sterilization is being current topic among all applications in Japan and that this tendency will continue until when major companies interested in the technology complete introducing electron beam. Since the Ministry of Health and Welfare(MOHW) officially issued revised regulation on GMP for medical devices in 1995, EtO has become the method regarded as time and money consuming one. On the contrary, electron beam has become as relatively economical and desirable method to achieve same result by its characteristics such as high productivity, rather easy validation and consequent cost reduction, although less penetration limit the kind of products to be treated. Status and prospect of electron beam sterilization in Japan will be presented in the paper along with accelerator related technologies.

  13. A detector based on silica fibers for ion beam monitoring in a wide current range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, M.; Braccini, S.; Carzaniga, T. S.; Ereditato, A.; Nesteruk, K. P.; Scampoli, P.

    2016-03-01

    A detector based on doped silica and optical fibers was developed to monitor the profile of particle accelerator beams of intensity ranging from 1 pA to tens of μA. Scintillation light produced in a fiber moving across the beam is measured, giving information on its position, shape and intensity. The detector was tested with a continuous proton beam at the 18 MeV Bern medical cyclotron used for radioisotope production and multi-disciplinary research. For currents from 1 pA to 20 μA, Ce3+ and Sb3+ doped silica fibers were used as sensors. Read-out systems based on photodiodes, photomultipliers and solid state photomultipliers were employed. Profiles down to the pA range were measured with this method for the first time. For currents ranging from 1 pA to 3 μA, the integral of the profile was found to be linear with respect to the beam current, which can be measured by this detector with an accuracy of ~1%. The profile was determined with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm. For currents ranging from 5 μA to 20 μA, thermal effects affect light yield and transmission, causing distortions of the profile and limitations in monitoring capabilities. For currents higher than ~1 μA, non-doped optical fibers for both producing and transporting scintillation light were also successfully employed.

  14. Evaluation of conductor stresses in a pulsed high-current toroidal transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, Peter J; Rousculp, Chritopher L; Reass, William A; Oro, David M; Merrill, Frank E; Greigo, Jeffery R; Reinovsky, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    The Precision, High-Energy Density, Liner Implosion Experiment (PHELIX) pulsed power driver is currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. When operational PHELIX will provide 5-10 MAmps of peak current with pulse rise-time of {approx} 5-10 ms. Crucial to the performance of PHELIX is a multi-turn primary, single-turn secondary, current step-up toroidal transformer, R{sub major} {approx} 30 cm, R{sub minor} {approx} 10 cm. The transformer lifetime should exceed 100 shots. Therefore it is essential that the design be robust enough to survive the magnetic stresses produced by high currents. In order to evaluate their design, two methods have been utilized. First, an analytical evaluation has been performed. By identifying the magnetic forces as J{sub 1}{sup 2}/2 {del}L{sub 1} + J{sub 1}J{sub 2}{del}M{sub 12}, where J{sub 1} and J{sub 2} are currents in two circuits, coupled by mutual inductance M{sub 12} and L{sub 1} is the self-inductance of the circuit carrying current J{sub 1}, analytical estimates of stress can be obtained. These results are then compared to a computational MHD model of the same system and to a full finite-element, electromagnetic simulation.

  15. Phase transformation studies in unirradiated and proton beam irradiated Ni-Ti alloy between 25 and 100°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, Rana; Afzal, Naveed; Ahmad, R.

    2012-06-01

    The stress-induced phase transformation characteristics of unirradiated and proton beam irradiated NiTi alloy were investigated at different tests temperatures. The wire-shaped NiTi specimens were irradiated by 2 MeV proton beam for 30 min at room temperature to a flux of 1019 protons/m2 s. Engineering stress-strain (S-S) curves of both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were obtained using a materials testing machine at 25, 50, 75 and 100°C. The results indicate a single-stage phase transformation from austenite to martensite (B2-B19‧) in unirraidated specimens at all the test temperatures. In contrast, in the case of the irradiated specimens, a two-stage austenite-rhombohedral-martensite (B2-R-B19‧) phase transformation is observed at 25 and 50°C. The B2-R-B19‧ phase transformation, however, is found to change into B2-B19‧ transformation at 75 and 100°C. The stress required to initiate the B19‧ phase transformation (σMS) and the plateau range are found to be lower in irradiated specimens compared with those of the unirradiated specimens. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of the formation of Ni4Ti3 precipitates in irradiated specimens and their consequences on the phase transformations.

  16. Limiting current enhancements for a relativistic electron beam propagating through coaxial cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Baedke, W. C.

    2009-09-15

    An investigation of the space-charge-limited (SCL) currents for un-neutralized relativistic electron beams drifting through an infinitely long dielectrically lined coaxial cylindrical structure with a biased inner conductor is presented. To begin, an approximate limiting current expression is developed for an un-neutralized finite-width relativistic electron beam drifting through a biased coaxial cylindrical structure, which contains no dielectric liner. The SCL currents are then numerically calculated and compared to the approximation and it is shown that there is good agreement between the two. Building on this, the SCL currents are then numerically calculated when a dielectric liner, which encloses the finite-width electron beam, is present. It is shown that when a dielectric liner is present, there is a point at which increases in the SCL currents saturate and increasing the relative dielectric constant provides no additional increase in the expected SCL currents. In addition, it is demonstrated that the dielectric liner, in conjunction with the biased inner conductor, provides significant SCL current enhancements when compared to a system with no dielectric liner and no biased inner conductor. Finally, the possibility of dielectric breakdown is addressed as well as the amount of accumulated charge at the vacuum-dielectric interface.

  17. A squid-based beam current monitor for FAIR/CRYRING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geithner, Rene; Kurian, Febin; Reeg, Hansjörg; Schwickert, Marcus; Neubert, Ralf; Seidel, Paul; Stöhlker, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    A SQUID-based beam current monitor was developed for the upcoming FAIR-Project, providing a non-destructive online monitoring of the beam currents in the nA-range. The cryogenic current comparator (CCC) was optimized for lowest possible noise-limited current resolution together with a high system bandwidth. This CCC is foreseen to be installed in the CRYRING facility (CRYRING@ESR: A study group report www.gsi.de/fileadmin/SPARC/documents/Cryring/ReportCryring_40ESR.PDF), working as a test bench for FAIR. In this contribution we present results of the completed CCC for FAIR/CRYRING and also arrangements that have been done for the installation of the CCC at CRYRING, regarding the cryostat design.

  18. Low leakage current gate dielectrics prepared by ion beam assisted deposition for organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Su; Jo, Sung Jin; Kim, Jong Bok; Ryu, Seung Yoon; Noh, Joo Hyon; Baik, Hong Koo; Lee, Se Jong; Kim, Youn Sang

    2007-12-01

    This communication reports on the fabrication of low operating voltage pentacene thin-film transistors with high-k gate dielectrics by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). These densely packed dielectric layers by IBAD show a much lower level of leakage current than those created by e-beam evaporation. These results, from the fact that those thin films deposited with low adatom mobility, have an open structure, consisting of spherical grains with pores in between, that acts as a significant path for leakage current. By contrast, our results demonstrate the potential to limit this leakage. The field effect mobility, on/off current ratio, and subthreshold slope obtained from pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) were 1.14 cm2/V s, 105, and 0.41 V/dec, respectively. Thus, the high-k gate dielectrics obtained by IBAD show promise in realizing low leakage current, low voltage, and high mobility pentacene TFTs.

  19. Current transformer model with hysteresis for improving the protection response in electrical transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matussek, Robert; Dzienis, Cezary; Blumschein, Jörg; Schulte, Horst

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a generic enhanced protection current transformer (CT) model with saturation effects and transient behavior is presented. The model is used for the purpose of analysis and design of power system protection algorithms. Three major classes of protection CT have been modeled which all take into account the nonlinear inductance with remanence effects. The transient short-circuit currents in power systems are simulated under CT saturation condition. The response of a common power system protection algorithm with respect to robustness to nominal parameter variations and sensitivity against maloperation is demonstrated by simulation studies.

  20. Control and readout of current-induced magnetic flux quantization in a superconducting transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, C.; Hackens, B.; Golubović, D. S.; Poli, S.; Faniel, S.; Magnus, W.; Schoenmaker, W.; Bayot, V.; Maes, H.

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate a simple and robust method for inducing and detecting changes of magnetic flux quantization in the absence of an externally applied magnetic field. In our device, an isolated ring is interconnected with two access loops via permalloy cores, forming a superconducting transformer. By applying and tuning a direct current at the first access loop, the number of flux quanta trapped in the isolated ring is modified without the aid of an external field. The flux state of the isolated ring is simply detected by recording the evolution of the critical current of the second access loop.

  1. Analysis of misoperation of the differential current relay applied in a Y-Y-Y-{Delta} transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.; Tang, J.

    1995-09-01

    Transformers play an important role in power transmission and distribution systems. For the operation of transformers, the differential current relay is the most important kind of relay in transformer protective relays in present power system.s In principle, a differential current relay may safely and quickly remove the internal fault occurring inside a transformer and in the feeder between the transformer and the busbar within the range of protection. When an external fault happens outside of the transformer, the relay should be reliably locked to ensure that the protected transformer can normally operate. However, because transformers have many different structures and winding connections forms, especially some specially winding-connected transformers, misconnection of the differential current relay may happen in some circumstances. When an external fault occurs, the relay connected in the incorrect way may cause misoperation of the relay, enlarging the range of the system fault. This paper illustrates a misoperation of a set of differential relays applied in a special multi-winding transformer, with triple-Y-connected windings and an additional delta-connected winding, due to the misconnection of the relays in field. An analysis of the difference of the equivalent circuits between the triple-Y-connected winding transformer and the triple-Y-connected winding with an additional delta-connected winding transformer is presented. Some measures to prevent those mistakes are discussed in this paper.

  2. Discharge current and current of supershort avalanche E-beam at volume nanosecond discharge in non-uniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Rybka, Dmitrii V.; Baksht, Evgenii H.; Kostyrya, Igor'D.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2008-01-01

    The gas diode current-voltage characteristics at the voltage pulses applied from the RADAN and SM-3NS pulsers, and generation of an supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) have been studied experimentally in an inhomogeneous electric field upon a nanosecond breakdown in an air gap at atmospheric pressure. Displacement currents with amplitude over 1 kA have been observed and monitored. It is shown that the displacement current amplitude gets increased due to movement of the dense plasma front and charging of a "capacitor" formed between plasma and anode. The SAEB generation time relatively to the discharge current pulses and the gap voltage were determined in the experiments. It is shown that the SAEB current maximum at the pulser voltages of hundreds kV is registered on the discharge current pulse front, before the discharge current peak of the gas diode capacitance, and the delay time of these peaks is determined by the value of an interelectrode spacing. The delay time in case of a gap of 16 mm and air breakdown at atmospheric pressure was ~100 ps, and in case of 10 mm it was less than 50 ps.

  3. Propagation, beam geometry, and detection distortions of peak shapes in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra.

    PubMed

    Yetzbacher, Michael K; Belabas, Nadia; Kitney, Katherine A; Jonas, David M

    2007-01-28

    Using a solution of Maxwell's equations in the three-dimensional frequency domain, femtosecond two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectra that include distortions due to phase matching, absorption, dispersion, and noncollinear excitation and detection of the signal are calculated for Bloch, Kubo, and Brownian oscillator relaxation models. For sample solutions longer than a wavelength, the resonant propagation distortions are larger than resonant local field distortions by a factor of approximately L/lambda, where L is the sample thickness and lambda is the optical wavelength. For the square boxcars geometry, the phase-matching distortion is usually least important, and depends on the dimensionless parameter, L sin(2)(beta)Deltaomega/(nc), where beta is the half angle between beams, n is the refractive index, c is the speed of light, and Deltaomega is the width of the spectrum. Directional filtering distortions depend on the dimensionless parameter, [(Deltaomega)w(0) sin(beta)/c](2), where w(0) is the beam waist at the focus. Qualitatively, the directional filter discriminates against off diagonal amplitude. Resonant absorption and dispersion can distort 2D spectra by 10% (20%) at a peak optical density of 0.1 (0.2). Complicated distortions of the 2DFT peak shape due to absorption and dispersion can be corrected to within 10% (15%) by simple operations that require knowledge only of the linear optical properties of the sample and the distorted two-dimensional spectrum measured at a peak optical density of up to 0.5 (1). PMID:17286491

  4. Propagation, beam geometry, and detection distortions of peak shapes in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetzbacher, Michael K.; Belabas, Nadia; Kitney, Katherine A.; Jonas, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Using a solution of Maxwell's equations in the three-dimensional frequency domain, femtosecond two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectra that include distortions due to phase matching, absorption, dispersion, and noncollinear excitation and detection of the signal are calculated for Bloch, Kubo, and Brownian oscillator relaxation models. For sample solutions longer than a wavelength, the resonant propagation distortions are larger than resonant local field distortions by a factor of ˜L/λ, where L is the sample thickness and λ is the optical wavelength. For the square boxcars geometry, the phase-matching distortion is usually least important, and depends on the dimensionless parameter, Lsin2(β )Δω/(nc), where β is the half angle between beams, n is the refractive index, c is the speed of light, and Δω is the width of the spectrum. Directional filtering distortions depend on the dimensionless parameter, [(Δω )w0sin(β)/c]2, where w0 is the beam waist at the focus. Qualitatively, the directional filter discriminates against off diagonal amplitude. Resonant absorption and dispersion can distort 2D spectra by 10% (20%) at a peak optical density of 0.1 (0.2). Complicated distortions of the 2DFT peak shape due to absorption and dispersion can be corrected to within 10% (15%) by simple operations that require knowledge only of the linear optical properties of the sample and the distorted two-dimensional spectrum measured at a peak optical density of up to 0.5 (1).

  5. Spatially-Resolved Beam Current and Charge-State Distributions for the NEXT Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, James E.; Diamant, Kevin D.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Plume characterization tests with the 36-cm NEXT ion engine are being performed at The Aerospace Corporation using engineering-model and prototype-model thrusters. We have examined the beam current density and xenon charge-state distribution as functions of position on the accel grid. To measure the current density ratio j++/j+, a collimated Eprobe was rotated through the plume with the probe oriented normal to the accel electrode surface at a distance of 82 cm. The beam current density jb versus radial position was measured with a miniature planar probe at 3 cm from the accel. Combining the j++/j+ and jb data yielded the ratio of total Xe+2 current to total Xe+1 current (J++/J+) at forty operating points in the standard throttle table. The production of Xe+2 and Xe+3 was measured as a function of propellant utilization to support performance and lifetime predictions for an extended throttle table. The angular dependence of jb was measured at intermediate and far-field distances to assist with plume modeling and to evaluate the thrust loss due to beam divergence. Thrust correction factors were derived from the total doubles-to-singles current ratio and from the far-field divergence data

  6. Research on small signal detection of optical voltage/current transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Guoqing; Cai, Xingguo; Guo, Zhizhong; Yu, Wenbin; Huo, Guangyu

    2013-08-01

    This paper researches the signal conditioning program of optical voltage/current transformer and the imbalance during the transmission of dual optical path, gives a brief introduction to the basic principle of optical voltage transformer based on electro-optic Pockels effect and optical current transformer based on Faraday Magnetic-optical Effect, and induces a general expression form of output light intensities This paper research on the signal modulation methods for the system: AC and DC modulations. What is more, the advantages and disadvantages of both modulations in the system will be analyzed. Considering the characteristics that the systematic noise and signal have the spectrum overlapping and that when there is any fault, the fact that in the small signal detection system the output SNR of AC modulation is better than that of DC modulation will be proved. For the parameter changes caused by the environment factors, the feedback control linked by the DSP is imported, it automatically adjusts the balance of the two branch parameters, acquires the measured component in the condition of the two branch unbalance parameters. Furthermore, this paper researches on the influence of imbalance of the dual optical path on the signal detection system. It analyzes the error characteristics due to different kinds of losses and to component matching disorders and other intrinsic factors and then put forward the method to calculate balancing factors by means of the RMS of 50Hz signal. The result proves that using this method can improve the output SNR of optical voltage/current transformer to some extent.

  7. Investigation of nonthermal particle effects on ionization dynamics in high current density ion beam transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, H. K.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Wang, P.; Moses, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Olson, C. L.; Welch, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Light ion inertial fusion experiments require the presence of a moderate density background gas in the transport region to provide charge and current neutralization for a high current density ion beam. In this article, we investigate the effects of nonthermal particles such as beam ions or non-Maxwellian electron distributions on the ionization dynamics of the background gas. In particular, we focus on the case of Li beams being transported in an argon gas. Nonthermal particles as well as thermal electrons are included in time-dependent collisional-radiative calculations to determine time-dependent atomic level populations and charge state distributions in a beam-produced plasma. We also briefly discuss the effects of beam ions and energetic electrons on the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral regions. It is found that the mean charge state of the gas, and hence the electron density, is significantly increased by collisions with energetic particles. This higher ionization significantly impacts the VUV spectral region, where numerous resonance lines occur. On the other hand, the visible spectrum tends to be less affected because the closely spaced excited states are populated by lower energy thermal electrons.

  8. Current neutralization and focusing of intense ion beams with a plasma-filled solenoidal lens. I

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.V.; Sudan, R.N.

    1996-12-01

    The response of the magnetized plasma in an axisymmetric, plasma-filled, solenoidal magnetic lens, to intense light ion beam injection is studied. The lens plasma fill is modeled as an inertialess, resistive, electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) fluid since characteristic beam times {tau} satisfy 2{pi}/{omega}{sub {ital pe}},2{pi}/{Omega}{sub {ital e}}{lt}{tau}{le}2{pi}/{Omega}{sub {ital i}} ({omega}{sub {ital pe}} is the electron plasma frequency and {Omega}{sub {ital e},{ital i}} are the electron, ion gyrofrequencies). When the electron collisionality satisfies {nu}{sub {ital e}}{lt}{Omega}{sub {ital e}}, the linear plasma response is determined by whistler wave dynamics. In this case, current neutralization of the beam is reduced on the time scale for whistler wave transit across the beam. The transit time is inversely proportional to the electron density and proportional to the angle of incidence of the beam with respect to the applied solenoidal field. In the collisional regime ({nu}{sub {ital e}}{gt}{Omega}{sub {ital e}}) the plasma return currents decay on the normal diffusive time scale determined by the conductivity. The analysis is supported by two-and-one-half dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Transverse match of high peak-current beam into the LANSCE DTL using PARMILA

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, F.E.; Rybarcyk, L.J.

    1996-09-01

    A new algorithm that uses a multiparticle PARMILA-based code to match high peak current H{sup +} beam ({approx}21 mA) into the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) drift tube linac (DTL) has been developed. Two single cell rf bunchers in the low energy beam transport (LEBT) prepare the initially unbunched beam for DTL capture. The transverse distribution at the entrance to the DTL is set with four quadrupoles in the 1.26 m between the last transverse emittance measuring station and the DTL entrance. Previous matching algorithms used TRACE and TRACE 3-D to determine these quadrupole strengths. PARMILA simulation show this procedure produces non-zero mismatch and additional emittance growth through the DTL for high current beams. Because of strong space-charge forces and a rapidly forming longitudinal bunch, simple envelope calculations do not model the beam evolution in the LEBT well. A PARMILA model of this region was combined with ant iterative search routine to set the LEBT quadrupole strengths to achieve a better transverse match into the DTL. Simulations predict a significant reduction in transverse emittance at the exit of the DTL over the typical TRACE 3-D result.

  10. Beam extraction and high stability operation of high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P. Mishra, L.; Kewlani, H.; Mittal, K. C.; Patil, D. S.

    2014-03-15

    A high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source is designed and developed for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The plasma discharge in the ion source is stabilized by minimizing the reflected microwave power using four stub auto tuner and magnetic field. The optimization of extraction geometry is performed using PBGUNS code by varying the aperture, shape, accelerating gap, and the potential on the electrodes. While operating the source, it was found that the two layered microwave window (6 mm quartz plate and 2 mm boron nitride plate) was damaged (a fine hole was drilled) by the back-streaming electrons after continuous operation of the source for 3 h at beam current of 20–40 mA. The microwave window was then shifted from the line of sight of the back-streaming electrons and located after the water-cooled H-plane bend. In this configuration the stable operation of the high current ion source for several hours is achieved. The ion beam is extracted from the source by biasing plasma electrode, puller electrode, and ground electrode to +10 to +50 kV, −2 to −4 kV, and 0 kV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 30–40 mA is recorded on Faraday cup at 40 keV of beam energy at 600–1000 W of microwave power, 800–1000 G axial magnetic field and (1.2–3.9) × 10{sup −3} mbar of neutral hydrogen gas pressure in the plasma chamber. The dependence of beam current on extraction voltage, microwave power, and gas pressure is investigated in the range of operation of the ion source.