Science.gov

Sample records for beam system pleps

  1. PLEPS study of ions implanted RAFM steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojak, S.; Slugeň, V.; Egger, W.; Ravelli, L.; Petriska, M.; Veterníková, J.; Stacho, M.; Sabelová, V.

    2014-04-01

    Current nuclear power plants (NPP) require radiation, heat and mechanical resistance of their structural materials with the ability to stay operational during NPP planned lifetime. Radiation damage much higher, than in the current NPP, is expected in new generations of nuclear power plants, such as Generation IV and fusion reactors. Investigation of perspective structural materials for new generations of nuclear power plants is among others focused on study of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels. These steels have good characteristics as reduced activation, good resistance to volume swelling, good radiation, and heat resistance. Our experiments were focused on the study of microstructural changes of binary Fe-Cr alloys with different chromium content after irradiation, experimentally simulated by ion implantations. Fe-Cr alloys were examined, by Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) at FRM II reactor in Garching (Munich), after helium ion implantations at the dose of 0.1 C/cm2. The investigation was focused on the chromium effect and the radiation defects resistivity. In particular, the vacancy type defects (monovacancies, vacancy clusters) have been studied. Based on our previous results achieved by conventional lifetime technique, the decrease of the defects size with increasing content of chromium is expected also for PLEPS measurements.

  2. Electron beam focusing system

    SciTech Connect

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  3. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  4. Focused ion beam system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Ji, Qing; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  5. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam. An accelerator electrode device downstream from the extraction grids is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam. The application of the system to ion implantation is mentioned.

  6. Ion beam lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-08-02

    A maskless plasma-formed ion beam lithography tool provides for patterning of sub-50 nm features on large area flat or curved substrate surfaces. The system is very compact and does not require an accelerator column and electrostatic beam scanning components. The patterns are formed by switching beamlets on or off from a two electrode blanking system with the substrate being scanned mechanically in one dimension. This arrangement can provide a maskless nano-beam lithography tool for economic and high throughput processing.

  7. Ion beam accelerator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described that combines geometrical and electrostatic focusing to provide high ion extraction efficiency and good focusing of an accelerated ion beam. The apparatus includes a pair of curved extraction grids (16, 18) with multiple pairs of aligned holes positioned to direct a group of beamlets (20) along converging paths. The extraction grids are closely spaced and maintained at a moderate potential to efficiently extract beamlets of ions and allow them to combine into a single beam (14). An accelerator electrode device (22) downstream from the extraction grids, is at a much lower potential than the grids to accelerate the combined beam.

  8. Rolling Beam Umbilical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatem, B. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The decision to make the Centaur Vehicle a Space Transportation System (STS) payload meant that new ground support equipment provisions at Launch Pads Pads 39A and 39B were required. These new equipment provisions were needed to service the Centaur vehicle while it was installed in the Orbiter's payload bay prior to launch. This paper describes the design of a new rolling beam umbilical syste (RBUS) being added to the pad fixed service structure (FSS) in order to provide the primary functions of liquid hydrogen (LH2) fill, drain, and vent. The carrier plate itself is a Government-furnished equipment item and of necessity became a T-O disconnect. This permits quick offloading in the event of an abort prior to lift-off. In addition to the rolling beam structure, mechanisms, and fluid lines, it was necessary to design and build a carrier plate simulator to support early development testing of the mast at the Launch Equipment Test Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The RBUS is designed to be compatible with the rotating service structure (RSS) to the extent that the umbilical may be deployed with the RSS mated with the vehicle. It is also designed to clear the RSS as the RSS rotates back out of the way. Accessibility to the Orbiter aft compartment via the 50-1 door had to be maintained.

  9. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  10. Laser beam alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Kasner, William H.; Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.

    1984-01-01

    A plurality of pivotal reflectors direct a high-power laser beam onto a workpiece, and a rotatable reflector is movable to a position wherein it intercepts the beam and deflects a major portion thereof away from its normal path, the remainder of the beam passing to the pivotal reflectors through an aperture in the rotating reflector. A plurality of targets are movable to positions intercepting the path of light traveling to the pivotal reflectors, and a preliminary adjustment of the latter is made by use of a low-power laser beam reflected from the rotating reflector, after which the same targets are used to make a final adjustment of the pivotal reflectors with the portion of the high-power laser beam passed through the rotating reflector.

  11. The SSC beam scraper system

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, M.A.; Mokhov, N.V.; Yazynin Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino )

    1991-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of a full-scale study of a beam scraping system that is designed to guarantee reliable operation of the SSC throughout the whole cycle and for minimum background for experiments at the interaction regions. The machine aperture limits and beam loss formation are analyzed. Simulation programs and a calculational model are described. The physics of beam scraping is explored, and measures to increase significantly the system efficiency are determined. A tolerable scraping rate, taking into account scraper material integrity, quench limits in downstream superconducting magnets, radiation shielding requirements, and minimal beam halo levels at the IPs are also determined. Finally, a complete multi-component scraper system in the SSC East Cluster is proposed. Throughout the paper we define a scraper as a primary absorber consisting of precise movable jaws that have a flat inner edge along the circulation beam and which may be forced to touch the beam halo in horizontal or vertical planes. Secondary absorbers -- collimators -- are destined to intercept outscattered protons and other particles produced in scraper material. All these are surrounded with a radiation shielding. 15 refs., 50 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  13. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A; Beloussov, Alexandre V; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B; Salem, Dana

    2013-12-03

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  14. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A; Beloussov, Alexandre V; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B; Salem, Dana

    2013-06-25

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  15. Proton beam therapy control system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2010-09-21

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  16. Progress in KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinaga, Mitsuhiro; Flanagan, John W.; Fukuma, Hitoshi; Furuya, Takaaki; Hiramatsu, Shigenori; Ikeda, Hitomi; Ishii, Hitoshi; Kikutani, Eiji; Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki; Mori, Kenji; Tejima, Masaki; Tobiyama, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    The paper describes several topics relating to the beam instrumentation systems at the KEKB B-factory (KEKB) from 2003 to the end of its operation. It covers 1) measurement of the tilt angle of a bunch caused by a crab cavity, 2) a diagnostic system for beam aborts, 3) bunch feedback and related systems, and 4) progress in the beam position monitor system.

  17. KTeV beam systems design report

    SciTech Connect

    Bocean, V.; Childress, S.; Coleman, R.

    1997-09-01

    The primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E799-II and E832 are discussed. The specifications are presented and justified. The technical details of the implementation of the primary beam transport and stability are detailed. The target, beam dump, and radiation safety issues are discussed. The details of the collimation system for the pair of secondary beams are presented.

  18. New binary systems: beaming binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. C.; Weingrill, J.; Mazeh, T.; Ribas, I.

    2011-11-01

    Exoplanet missions such as COROT and Kepler are providing precise photometric follow-up data of new kinds of variable stars undetected till now. Beaming binaries are among these objects. On these binary systems, the orbital motion of their components is fast enough to produce a detectable modulation on the received flux due to relativistic effects (Zucker et al. 2007). The great advantage of these systems is that it is possible to reconstruct the radial velocity curve of the system from this photometric modulation and thus, orbital parameters such as the mass ratio and the semi-major axis can be estimated from photometry without the necessity of spectroscopic follow-up. In this poster, we briefly introduce the analysis of this kind of binary systems and in particular, the eclipsing cases.

  19. The LEDA beam-position measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Stettler, M.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the beam-position measurement system being developed for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) and the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The system consists of a beam-position monitor (BPM) probe, cabling, down-converter module, position/intensity module, on-line error-correction system, and the necessary control system interfaces. The modules are built on the VXI-interface standard and are capable of duplex data transfer with the control system. Some of the key, system parameters are: position-measurement bandwidth of at least 180 kHz, the ability to measure beam intensity, a beam-position measurement accuracy of less than 1.25 percent of the bore radius, a beam-current dynamic range of 46 dB, a total system dynamic range in excess of 75 dB, and built-in on-line digital-system-error correction.

  20. Focused electron and ion beam systems

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Persaud, Arun; Ji, Qing; Jiang, Ximan

    2004-07-27

    An electron beam system is based on a plasma generator in a plasma ion source with an accelerator column. The electrons are extracted from a plasma cathode in a plasma ion source, e.g. a multicusp plasma ion source. The beam can be scanned in both the x and y directions, and the system can be operated with multiple beamlets. A compact focused ion or electron beam system has a plasma ion source and an all-electrostatic beam acceleration and focusing column. The ion source is a small chamber with the plasma produced by radio-frequency (RF) induction discharge. The RF antenna is wound outside the chamber and connected to an RF supply. Ions or electrons can be extracted from the source. A multi-beam system has several sources of different species and an electron beam source.

  1. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Baker, John; Collins, Leland F.; Kuklo, Thomas C.; Micali, James V.

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  2. Plasma formed ion beam projection lithography system

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette; Ngo, Vinh; Zahir, Nastaran

    2002-01-01

    A plasma-formed ion-beam projection lithography (IPL) system eliminates the acceleration stage between the ion source and stencil mask of a conventional IPL system. Instead a much thicker mask is used as a beam forming or extraction electrode, positioned next to the plasma in the ion source. Thus the entire beam forming electrode or mask is illuminated uniformly with the source plasma. The extracted beam passes through an acceleration and reduction stage onto the resist coated wafer. Low energy ions, about 30 eV, pass through the mask, minimizing heating, scattering, and sputtering.

  3. Superconducting magnet system for muon beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Johnson, R.P.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Novitski, I.; Yonehara, K.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    A helical cooling channel has been proposed to quickly reduce the six-dimensional phase space of muon beams for muon colliders, neutrino factories, and intense muon sources. A novel superconducting magnet system for a muon beam cooling experiment is being designed at Fermilab. The inner volume of the cooling channel is filled with liquid helium where passing muon beam can be decelerated and cooled in a process of ionization energy loss. The magnet parameters are optimized to match the momentum of the beam as it slows down. The results of 3D magnetic analysis for two designs of magnet system, mechanical and quench protection considerations are discussed.

  4. Low energy beam transport system developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H- beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H- beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H- beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H- beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  5. Gamma beam system at ELI-NP

    SciTech Connect

    Ur, Calin Alexandru

    2015-02-24

    The Gamma Beam System of ELI-NP will produce brilliant, quasi-monochromatic gamma-ray beams via Inverse Compton Scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The scattered radiation is Doppler upshifted by more than 1,000,000 times and is forward focused in a narrow, polarized, tunable, laser-like beam. The gamma-ray beam at ELI-NP will be characterized by large spectral density of about 10{sup 4} photons/s/eV, narrow bandwidth (< 0.5%) and tunable energy from 200 keV up to about 20 MeV. The Gamma Beam System is a state-of-the-art equipment employing techniques and technologies at the limits of the present-day's knowledge.

  6. Progress of beam diagnosis system for EAST neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. J.; Hu, C. D.; Yu, L.; Liang, L. Z.; Zhang, W. T.; Chen, Y.; Li, X.

    2016-02-01

    Neutral beam injection has been recognized as one of the most effective means for plasma heating. According to the research plan of the EAST physics experiment, two sets of neutral beam injector (NBI) were built and operational in 2014. The paper presents the development of beam diagnosis system for EAST NBI and the latest experiment results obtained on the test-stand and EAST-NBI-1 and 2. The results show that the optimal divergence angle is (0.62°, 1.57°) and the full energy particle is up to 77%. They indicate that EAST NBI work properly and all targets reach or almost reach the design targets. All these lay a solid foundation for the achievement of high quality plasma heating for EAST.

  7. Beaming: an asymmetric telepresence system.

    PubMed

    Steed, Anthony; Steptoe, William; Oyekoya, Wole; Pece, Fabrizio; Weyrich, Tim; Kautz, Jan; Friedman, Doron; Peer, Angelika; Solazzi, Massimiliano; Tecchia, Franco; Bergamasco, Massimo; Slater, Mel

    2012-01-01

    The Beaming project recreates, virtually, a real environment; using immersive VR, remote participants can visit the virtual model and interact with the people in the real environment. The real environment doesn't need extensive equipment and can be a space such as an office or meeting room, domestic environment, or social space. PMID:24807305

  8. System evaluations of laser power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    1992-01-01

    The major technology options for high-energy FELs and adaptive optics available to the Space Laser Energy (SELENE) program are reviewed. Initial system evaluations of these options are described. A feasibility assessment of laser power beaming is given.

  9. Final focus system for high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2003-05-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The NTX final focus system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final focus lattice consists of four pulsed quadrupole magnets. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. We will present experimental results from NTX on beam envelope and phase space distributions, and compare these results with particle simulations using the particle-in-cell code WARP.

  10. Energy-beam-driven rapid fabrication system

    DOEpatents

    Keicher, David M.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Greene, Donald L.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Harwell, Lane D.; Jeantette, Francisco P.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.; Schmale, David T.

    2002-01-01

    An energy beam driven rapid fabrication system, in which an energy beam strikes a growth surface to form a molten puddle thereon. Feed powder is then injected into the molten puddle from a converging flow of feed powder. A portion of the feed powder becomes incorporated into the molten puddle, forcing some of the puddle contents to freeze on the growth surface, thereby adding an additional layer of material. By scanning the energy beam and the converging flow of feed powder across the growth surface, complex three-dimensional shapes can be formed, ready or nearly ready for use. Nearly any class of material can be fabricated using this system.

  11. Low energy beam transport system developments

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  12. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO/sub 2/ fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO/sub 2/ alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence.

  13. Laser beam modeling in optical storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treptau, J. P.; Milster, T. D.; Flagello, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model has been developed that simulates light propagating through an optical data storage system. A model of a laser beam that originates at a laser diode, propagates through an optical system, interacts with a optical disk, reflects back from the optical disk into the system, and propagates to data and servo detectors is discussed.

  14. Resistive-wall wake effect in the beam delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Delayen; Juhao Wu; T.O. Raubenheimer; Jiunn-Ming Wang

    2004-08-16

    General formulae for resistive-wall induced beam dilution are presented and then applied to the final beam delivery system of linear colliders. Criteria for the design of final beam delivery systems are discussed.

  15. TPX Neutral Beam Injection System design

    SciTech Connect

    von Halle, A.; Bowen, O.N.; Edwards, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    The existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Neutral Beam system is proposed to be modified for long pulse operation on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Day one of TPX will call for one TFTR beamline modified for 1000 second pulse lengths oriented co-directional to the plasma current. The system design will be capable of accommodating an additional co-directional and a single counter directional beamline. For the TPX conceptual design, every attempt was made to use existing Neutral Beam hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary systems, service infrastructure, and control systems. This paper describes the moderate modifications required to the power systems, the ion sources, and the beam impinged surfaces of the ion dumps, the calorimeters, the various beam scrapers, and the neutralizers. Also described are the minimal modifications required to the vacuum, cryogenic, and gas systems and the major modification of replacing the beamline-torus duct in its entirety. Operational considerations for Neutral Beam subsystems over 1000 second pulse lengths will be explored including proposed operating scenarios for full steady state operation.

  16. Laser beam centering and pointing system

    DOEpatents

    Rushford, Michael Charles

    2015-01-13

    An optical instrument aligns an optical beam without the need for physical intervention of the instrument within the apparatus or platforms from which the trajectory of the beam to be ascertained. The alignment apparatus and method enable the desired function to be realized without the placement of physical apertures or sensors directly in the path of the beam through the system whose spatial position and slope is to be sought. An image plane provides the observer with a pair of well-defined images that are indicative of the beam centering and pointing alignment parameters. The optical alignment can be realized without the need for referencing to an external or fixed set of coordinates or fiducials. The instrument can therefore service situations where adverse environments would otherwise prohibit the use of such instruments, including regions of high radiation, high temperature, vacuum and/or cryogenic atmospheres.

  17. SSC Linac Beam Position Monitor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, G. Roberto; Jones, Alan A.; Mills, Mark R.

    1994-10-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), Linac Beam Position Monitor System is designed to measure beam position and phase. Forty-three monitors will be installed in the Linac and Transfer Line. The position measurement provides information on the transverse beam position in the beam pipe with respect to a mechanical reference. The phase measurement provides information on the difference between the longitudinal phase of the beam and the radio frequency reference signal (rf reference), to be used for phase scanning and time of flight measurement. The system design and the prototypes are complete, and the series is under fabrication. The signals to be processed are extracted from four striplines, down-converted to a convenient intermediate frequency and fed into position and phase electronics. The position electronics is realized with the log-ratio technique, and the phase electronics uses a new digital technique that overcomes most of the problems of existing systems. Both position and phase analog electronics are mounted on identical VXI motherboards, containing analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) and digital circuitry.

  18. SSC Linac Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, G.R.; Jones, A.A.; Mills, M.R. )

    1994-10-10

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), Linac Beam Position Monitor System is designed to measure beam position and phase. Forty-three monitors will be installed in the Linac and Transfer Line. The position measurement provides information on the transverse beam position in the beam pipe with respect to a mechanical reference. The phase measurement provides information on the difference between the longitudinal phase of the beam and the radio frequency reference signal (rf reference), to be used for phase scanning and time of flight measurement. The system design and the prototypes are complete, and the series is under fabrication. The signals to be processed are extracted from four striplines, down-converted to a convenient intermediate frequency and fed into position and phase electronics. The position electronics is realized with the log-ratio technique, and the phase electronics uses a new digital technique that overcomes most of the problems of existing systems. Both position and phase analog electronics are mounted on identical VXI motherboards, containing analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) and digital circuitry.

  19. The AGS Booster beam loss monitor system

    SciTech Connect

    Beadle, E.R.; Bennett, G.W.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A beam loss monitor system has been developed for the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster accelerator, and is designed for use with intensities of up to 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} protons and carbon to gold ions at 50-3 {times} 10{sup 9} ions per pulse. This system is a significant advance over the present AGS system by improving the sensitivity, dynamic range, and data acquisition. In addition to the large dynamic range achievable, it is adaptively shifted when high losses are detected. The system uses up to 80 argon filled ion chambers as detectors, as well as newly designed electronics for processing and digitizing detector outputs. The hardware simultaneously integrates each detector output, interfaces to the beam interrupt systems, and digitizes all 80 channels to 21 bits at 170 KHz. This paper discuses the design, construction, and operation of the system. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  20. RHIC BEAM LOSS MONITOR SYSTEM INITIAL OPERATION.

    SciTech Connect

    WITKOVER,R.L.; MICHNOFF,R.J.; GELLER,J.M.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) System is designed to prevent beam loss quenching of the superconducting magnets, and acquire loss data. Four hundred ion chambers are located around the rings to detect losses. The required 8-decade range in signal current is compressed using an RC pre- integrator ahead of a low current amplifier. A beam abort may be triggered if fast or slow losses exceed programmable threshold levels. A micro-controller based VME module sets references and gains and reads trip status for up to 64 channels. Results obtained with the detectors in the RHIC Sextant Test and the prototype electronics in the AGS-to-RHIC (AtR) transfer line are presented along with the present status of the system.

  1. Systems analysis on laser beamed power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiders, Glenn W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA SELENE power beaming program is intended to supply cost-effective power to space assets via Earth-based lasers and active optics systems. Key elements of the program are analyzed, the overall effort is reviewed, and recommendations are presented.

  2. Collisionless relaxation in beam-plasma systems

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Ekaterina Yu.

    2001-05-01

    This thesis reports the results from the theoretical investigations, both numerical and analytical, of collisionless relaxation phenomena in beam-plasma systems. Many results of this work can also be applied to other lossless systems of plasma physics, beam physics and astrophysics. Different aspects of the physics of collisionless relaxation and its modeling are addressed. A new theoretical framework, named Coupled Moment Equations (CME), is derived and used in numerical and analytical studies of the relaxation of second order moments such as beam size and emittance oscillations. This technique extends the well-known envelope equation formalism, and it can be applied to general systems with nonlinear forces. It is based on a systematic moment expansion of the Vlasov equation. In contrast to the envelope equation, which is derived assuming constant rms beam emittance, the CME model allows the emittance to vary through coupling to higher order moments. The CME model is implemented in slab geometry in the absence of return currents. The CME simulation yields rms beam sizes, velocity spreads and emittances that are in good agreement with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for a wide range of system parameters. The mechanism of relaxation is also considered within the framework of the CME system. It is discovered that the rapid relaxation or beam size oscillations can be attributed to a resonant coupling between different modes of the system. A simple analytical estimate of the relaxation time is developed. The final state of the system reached after the relaxation is complete is investigated. New and accurate analytical results for the second order moments in the phase-mixed state are obtained. Unlike previous results, these connect the final values of the second order moments with the initial beam mismatch. These analytical estimates are in good agreement with the CME model and PIC simulations. Predictions for the final density and temperature are developed that show

  3. Beam Emittance Measurement with Laser Wire Scanners in the ILC Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Agapov, I.; Blair, G.A.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the beam phase-space is essential for the next generation of electron accelerators. A scheme for beam optics optimization and beam matrix reconstruction algorithms for the diagnostics section of the beam delivery system of the International Linear Collider based on laser-wire beam profile monitors are discussed. Possible modes of operation of the laser-wire system together with their corresponding performance are presented. Based on these results, prospects for reconstructing the ILC beam emittance from representative laser-wire beam size measurements are evaluated.

  4. Molecular-beam gas-sampling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. S.; Knuth, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    A molecular beam mass spectrometer system for rocket motor combustion chamber sampling is described. The history of the sampling system is reviewed. The problems associated with rocket motor combustion chamber sampling are reported. Several design equations are presented. The results of the experiments include the effects of cooling water flow rates, the optimum separation gap between the end plate and sampling nozzle, and preliminary data on compositions in a rocket motor combustion chamber.

  5. The AGS Booster Beam Position Monitor system

    SciTech Connect

    Ciardullo, D.J.; Abola, A.; Beadle, E.R.; Smith, G.A.; Thomas, R.; Van Zwienen, W.; Warkentien, R.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    To accelerate both protons and heavy ions, the AGS Booster requires a broadband (multi-octave) beam position monitoring system with a dynamic range spanning several orders of magnitude (2 {times} 10{sup 10} to 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} particles per pulse). System requirements include the ability to acquire single turn trajectory and average orbit information with {plus minus} 0.1 mm resolution. The design goal of {plus minus} 0.5 mm corrected accuracy requires that the detectors have repeatable linear performance after periodic bakeout at 300 {degree}C. The system design and capabilities of the Booster Beam Position Monitor will be described, and initial results presented. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  6. RHIC beam loss monitor system design

    SciTech Connect

    Witkover, R.; Zitvogel, E.; Michnoff, R.

    1997-07-01

    The Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) System is designed to prevent the quenching of RHIC magnets due to beam loss, provide quantitative loss data, and the loss history in the event of a beam abort. The system uses 400 ion chambers of a modified Tevatron design. To satisfy fast (single turn) and slow (100 msec) loss beam criteria and provide sensitivity for studies measurements, a range of over 8 decades is needed. An RC pre-integrator reduces the dynamic range for a low current amplifier. This is digitized for data logging. The output is also applied to an analog multiplier which compensates the energy dependence, extending the range of the abort comparators. High and low pass filters separate the signal to dual comparators with independent programmable trip levels. Up to 64 channels, on 8 VME boards, are controlled by a micro-controller based VME module, decoupling it from the front-end computer (FEC) for real-time operation. Results with the detectors in the RHIC Sextant Test and the electronics in the AGS-to-RHIC (AtR) transfer line will be presented.

  7. Indexing system for optical beam steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Mark T.; Cannon, David M.; Debra, Daniel B.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Mansfield, Joseph A.; Carmichael, Roger E.; Lissol, Peter S.; Pryor, G. M.; Miklosy, Les G.; Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indexing system for optical-beam steering. The cryogenic beam-steering mechanism is a 360-degree rotation device capable of discrete, high-precision alignment positions. It uses low-precision components for its rough alignment and kinematic design to meet its stringent repeatability and stability requirements (of about 5 arcsec). The principal advantages of this design include a decoupling of the low-precision, large angular motion from the high-precision alignment, and a power-off alignment position that potentially extends the life or hold time of cryogenic systems. An alternate design, which takes advantage of these attributes while reducing overall motion, is also presented. Preliminary test results show the kinematic mount capable of sub-arc second repeatability.

  8. Ion beam figuring system in NUDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Xie, Xuhui; Dai, Yifan; Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi

    2007-12-01

    Ion beam figuring (IBF) is an optical fabrication technique that provides highly deterministic process to correct surface figure error of previously polished surfaces by using a directed, inert and neutralized ion beam to physically sputter material from the optic surface. Recently, an ion beam figuring system KDIFS-500 has been designed and built in National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) of the P.R. China. KDIFS-500 is capable of processing workpiece up to Φ500mm. Line scanning process was discussed in detail for estimating the parameters of the beam removal function (BRF) in process. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the BRF increases gradually in process and by employing a stability control, the BRF can be kept stable in process. Finally, a Φ95 mm plano optical sample of CVD coated SiC substrate has been figured in two process iterations for demonstrating the correction capability of the KDIFS-500. Their figure convergence ratios reached 5.8 and 2.1 respectively. The actual figure residual errors were basically consistent with the predicted error. These consistencies indicated that the IBF processes on KDIFS-500 are predictable deterministic processes.

  9. Colliding beam fusion reactor space propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Binderbauer, Michl W.; Rostoker, Norman; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; O'Toole, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    We describe a space propulsion system based on the Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor (CBFR). The CBFR is a high-beta, field-reversed, magnetic configuration with ion energies in the range of hundreds of keV. Repetitively-pulsed ion beams sustain the plasma distribution and provide current drive. The confinement physics is based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equation, including a Fokker Planck collision operator and all sources and sinks for energy and particle flow. The mean azimuthal velocities and temperatures of the fuel ion species are equal and the plasma current is unneutralized by the electrons. The resulting distribution functions are thermal in a moving frame of reference. The ion gyro-orbit radius is comparable to the dimensions of the confinement system, hence classical transport of the particles and energy is expected and the device is scaleable. We have analyzed the design over a range of 106-109 Watts of output power (0.15-150 Newtons thrust) with a specific impulse of, Isp~106 sec. A 50 MW propulsion system might involve the following parameters: 4-meters diameter×10-meters length, magnetic field ~7 Tesla, ion beam current ~10 A, and fuels of either D-He3,P-B11,P-Li6,D-Li6, etc. .

  10. System of video observation for electron beam welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptenok, V. D.; Seregin, Y. N.; Bocharov, A. N.; Murygin, A. V.; Tynchenko, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    Equipment of video observation system for electron beam welding process was developed. Construction of video observation system allows to reduce negative effects on video camera during the process of electron beam welding and get qualitative images of this process.

  11. Transverse beam feedback system for PLS storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. Y.; Park, M. K.; Kim, D. T.; Kang, H. S.; Hwang, W. H.; Nam, S. H.

    2001-07-01

    As the stored beam current increases over 240 mA, transverse coupled-beam instability limits higher beam current in Pohang Light Source. A bunch by bunch transverse feedback system has been developed to cure these beam instabilities. It consists of beam oscillation detectors, betatron phase adjuster, power amplifiers and a stripline kicker. Design of each circuit and its functions are described with simple trigonometric equations. The result of the beam test has shown more than 30 dB damping of the beam oscillation in the full bandwidth of the system.

  12. Hybrid laser-beam-shaping system for rotatable dual beams with long depth of focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Fu-Lung; Chen, Cheng-Huan; Lin, Yu-Chung; Lin, Mao-Chi

    2016-08-01

    A laser processing system consisting of two diffractive elements and one refractive element is proposed enabling a Gaussian laser beam to be transformed into two beams with a depth of focus of up to 150 µm and focal spot smaller than 5 µm. For specific laser processing, the two beams are rotatable when the beam-splitting diffractive element is rotated. The overall system is versatile for laser cutting and drilling.

  13. Neutral Beam Power System for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, S.; Bowen, O.N.; O`Conner, T.; Edwards, J.; Fromm, N.; Hatcher, R.; Newman, R.; Rossi, G.; Stevenson, T.; von Halle, A.

    1993-11-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will utilize to the maximum extent the existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) equipment and facilities. This is particularly true for the TFTR Neutral Beam (NB) system. Most of the NB hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, power systems, service infrastructure, and control systems can be used as is. The major changes in the NB hardware are driven by the new operating duty cycle. The TFTR Neutral Beam was designed for operation of the Sources for 2 seconds every 150 seconds. The TPX requires operation for 1000 seconds every 4500 seconds. During the Conceptual Design Phase of TPX every component of the TFTR NB Electrical Power System was analyzed to verify whether the equipment can meet the new operational requirements with our without modifications. The Power System converts 13.8 kV prime power to controlled pulsed power required at the NB sources. The major equipment involved are circuit breakers, auto and rectifier transformers surge suppression components, power tetrodes, HV Decks, and HVDC power transmission to sources. Thermal models were developed for the power transformers to simulate the new operational requirements. Heat runs were conducted for the power tetrodes to verify capability. Other components were analyzed to verify their thermal limitations. This paper describes the details of the evaluation and redesign of the electrical power system components to meet the TPX operational requirements.

  14. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, A.; Binderbauer, M.; Liu, F.; Qerushi, A.; Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F. J.

    2004-02-01

    The Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion System, CBFR-SPS, is an aneutronic, magnetic-field-reversed configuration, fueled by an energetic-ion mixture of hydrogen and boron11 (H-B11). Particle confinement and transport in the CBFR-SPS are classical, hence the system is scaleable. Fusion products are helium ions, α-particles, expelled axially out of the system. α-particles flowing in one direction are decelerated and their energy recovered to ``power'' the system; particles expelled in the opposite direction provide thrust. Since the fusion products are charged particles, the system does not require the use of a massive-radiation shield. This paper describes a 100 MW CBFR-SPS design, including estimates for the propulsion-system parameters and masses. Specific emphasis is placed on the design of a closed-cycle, Brayton-heat engine, consisting of heat-exchangers, turbo-alternator, compressor, and finned radiators.

  15. Beam Position Monitor System for PEP II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stephen R.; Aiello, G.Roberto; Hendrickson, Linda J.; Johnson, Ronald G.; Mills, Mark R.; Olsen, Jeff J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12

    We describe the beam position monitor system built for PEP-II, the B-factory at SLAC. The system reports beam position for bunches of between 5 x 10{sup 8} and 8 x 10{sup 10} electron charges, either singly or as continuous streams of bunches every 4.2 ns. Resolution at full charge is to be better than 10 microns in a single turn. Higher resolution is available via on-board multi-turn averaging. The position signal is processed in a 20 MHz bandwidth around 952 MHz. This bandwidth, rather broader than that typical of RF position monitors, allows good resolution for low charge single bunches. Additional novel features include stringent control of return losses in order to minimize cross-talk between nearby bunches which may contain very different charges. The digitizing electronics is multiplexed between the two PEP-II storage rings. Design, construction, and installation experience, as well as first results with beam are presented.

  16. Switched steerable multiple beam antenna system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Richard S.

    1988-09-01

    A steerable multibeam five element cross-feed cluster antenna system is described. The feed power is divided into five branches. Each branch includes a switching network comprised of a plurality of time delay elements each individually controlled by a respective electromagnetic latching switch. Frequency independent individual two-dimensional beam steering at intermediate (IF) scanning frequencies is thereby provided wherein discrete incremental time delays are introduced by the switching networks into each branch and the signals recombined thereafter to form each beam. The electromagnetic latched switching reduces power consumption and permits higher power switching and reciprocal coincident tranmsit and receive operation. Frequency independence due to incremental time delay switching permits coincident reciprocal operation and steering for transmit-receive signal paths carrying different transmit-receive frequencies. Diagonal quarter wave plates in the waveguides alter polarization from the circular to orthogonal linear to provide transmitter-receiver isolation.

  17. Jefferson Lab personnel safety fast beam kicker system

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, K.; Garza, O.; Stitts, E.; Areti, H.; O`Sullivan, M.

    1997-08-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) uses a continuous electron beam with up to 800 kilowatts of average beam power. The laboratory beam containment policy requires that in the event of an errant beam striking a beam blocking device, the beam must be shut off by three methods in less than 1 millisecond. One method implemented is to shut off the beam at the gun. Two additional methods have been developed which use fast beam kickers to deflect the injector beam on to a water cooled aperture. The kickers designed and implemented at Jefferson lab are able to deflect the injector beam in less than 200 microseconds. The kicker system includes self-test and monitoring capabilities that enable the system to be used for personnel safety.

  18. An interactive beam position monitor system simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.A.; Shea, T.J.

    1993-03-01

    A system simulator has been implemented to aid the development of the RHIC position monitor system. Based on the LabVIEW software package by National Instruments, this simulator allows engineers and technicians to interactively explore the parameter space of a system during the design phase. Adjustable parameters are divided into three categories: beam, pickup, and electronics. The simulator uses these parameters in simple formulas to produce results in both time-domain and frequencydomain. During the prototyping phase, these simulated results can be compared to test data acquired with the same software package. The RHIC position monitor system is presented as an example, but the software is applicable to several other systems as well.

  19. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  20. Determining noise temperatures in beam waveguide systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbriale, W.; Veruttipong, W.; Otoshi, T.; Franco, M.

    1994-01-01

    A new 34-m research and development antenna was fabricated and tested as a precursor to introducing beam waveguide (BWG) antennas and Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies into the NASA/JPL Deep Space Network. For deep space use, system noise temperature is a critical parameter. There are thought to be two major contributors to noise temperature in a BWG system: the spillover past the mirrors, and the conductivity loss in the walls. However, to date, there are no generally accepted methods for computing noise temperatures in a beam waveguide system. An extensive measurement program was undertaken to determine noise temperatures in such a system along with a correspondent effort in analytic prediction. Utilizing a very sensitive radiometer, noise temperature measurements were made at the Cassegrain focus, an intermediate focal point, and the focal point in the basement pedestal room. Several different horn diameters were used to simulate different amounts of spillover past the mirrors. Two analytic procedures were developed for computing noise temperature, one utilizing circular waveguide modes and the other a semiempirical approach. The results of both prediction methods are compared to the experimental data.

  1. RHIC electron lens beam transport system design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Raparia, D.

    2010-10-01

    To apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC, two electron lenses are designed and will be installed at IP10. Electron beam transport system is one of important subsystem, which is used to transport electron beam from electron gun side to collector side. This system should be able to change beam size inside superconducting magnet and control beam position with 5 mm in horizontal and vertical plane. Some other design considerations for this beam transport system are also reported in this paper. The head-on beam-beam effect is one of important nonlinear source in storage ring and linear colliders, which have limited the luminosity improvement of many colliders, such as SppS, Tevatron and RHIC. In order to enhance the performance of colliders, beam-beam effects can be compensated with direct space charge compensation, indirect space charge compensation or betatron phase cancellation scheme. Like other colliders, indirect space charge compensation scheme (Electron Lens) was also proposed for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam-beam compensation at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The two similar electron lenses are located in IR10 between the DX magnets. One RHIC electron lens consists of one DC electron gun, one superconducting magnet, one electron collector and beam transport system.

  2. The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bell, A. J.; Dabrowski, A.; Guthoff, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Müller, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Pfeiffer, D.; Ryjov, V.; Stickland, D.; Schimdt, R.; Walsh, R.

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the two large, general purpose experiments situated at the LHC at CERN. As with all high energy physics experiments, knowledge of the beam conditions and luminosity is of vital importance. The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM) is installed in CMS to protect the detector and to provide feedback to LHC on beam conditions. It is composed of several sub-systems that measure the radiation level close to or inside all sub-detectors, monitor the beam halo conditions with different time resolution, support beam tuning and protect CMS in case of adverse beam conditions by firing a beam abort signal. This paper presents three of the BRM subsystems: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), which is designed for fast flux monitoring, measuring with nanosecond time resolution, both the beam halo and collision products; the Beam Scintillator Counters (BSC), that provide hit rates and time information of beam halo and collision products; and the Beam Conditions Monitors (BCM) used as a protection system that can trigger a beam dump when beam losses occur in order to prevent damage to the pixel and tracker detectors. A description of the systems and a characterization on the basis of data collected during LHC operation is presented.

  3. TFTR neutral-beam power system

    SciTech Connect

    Winje, R.A.

    1982-10-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Power System (NBPS) consists of the accelerator grid power supply and the auxiliary power supplies required to operate the TFTR 120-keV ion sources. The current configuration of the NBPS including the 11-MVA accelerator grid power supply and the Arc and Filament power supplies isolated for operation at accelerator grid voltages up to 120 kV, is described. The prototype NBPS has been assembled at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and has been operated. The results of the initial operation and the description and resolution of some of the technical problems encountered during the commissioning tests are presented.

  4. Spallation neutron source beam loss monitor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassner, D.; Witkover, R.; Cameron, P.; Power, J.

    2000-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source facility to be built at ORNL is designed to accumulate 2×1014 protons at 1.0 GeV and deliver them to the experimental target in one bunch at 60 Hz. To achieve this goal and protect the machine from excessive radiation activation, an uncontrolled loss criteria of 1 part in 104 (1 W/m) has been specified. Measured losses will be conditioned to provide machine tuning data, a beam abort trigger, and logging of loss history. The design of the distributed loss monitor system utilizing argon-filled glass ionization chambers and scintillator-photomultipliers will be presented.

  5. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, G. Q.; Lei, G. J.; Cao, J. Y.; Duan, X. R.

    2012-07-15

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage ({approx}100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  6. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zou, G Q; Lei, G J; Cao, J Y; Duan, X R

    2012-07-01

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage (∼100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak. PMID:22852685

  7. The ILC Beam Delivery System - Conceptual Design and RD Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2005-05-27

    The Beam Delivery System of the ILC has many stringent and sometimes conflicting requirements. To produce luminosity, the beams must be focused to nanometer size. To provide acceptable detector backgrounds, particles far from the beam core must be collimated. Unique beam diagnostics and instrumentation are required to monitor parameters of the colliding beams such as the energy spectrum and polarization. The detector and beamline components must be protected against errant beams. After collision, the beams must also be transported to the beam dumps safely and with acceptable losses. An international team is actively working on the design of the ILC Beam Delivery System in close collaboration. Details of the design, recent progress and remaining challenges will be summarized in this paper.

  8. Conceptual Design of Neutral Beam Injection System for EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundong; NBI Team

    2012-06-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) system with two neutral beam injections will be constructed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in two stages for high power auxiliary plasmas heating and non-inductive current drive. Each NBI can deliver 2~4 MW beam power with 50~80 keV beam energy in 10~100 s pulse length. Each elements of the NBI system are presented in this contribution.

  9. Multiple beam antenna/switch system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In the study of the Multiple Beam Antenna/Switch for the space to ground link (SGL) uplink and downlink services, several issues related to system engineering, antenna, transmit/receive, and switch systems were addressed and the results are provided. Bandwidth allocation at Ku band is inadequate to serve the data rate requirements for the forward and return services. Rain and depolarization effects at EHF, especially at Ka band, pose a significant threat to the link availabilities at heavy rain areas. Hardware induced effects such as the nonlinear characteristics of the power amplifier may necessitate the use of linearizers and limiters. It is also important to identify the components that are susceptible to the space radiation effects and shield or redesign them with rad-hard technologies for meeting the requirements of the space environment.

  10. Improved beam spot measurements in the 2nd generation proton beam writing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yong; van Mourik, Martin W.; Santhana Raman, P.; van Kan, Jeroen A.

    2013-07-01

    Nanosized ion beams (especially proton and helium) play a pivotal role in the field of ion beam lithography and ion beam analysis. Proton beam writing has shown lithographic details down to the 20 nm level, limited by the proton beam spot size. Introducing a smaller spot size will allow smaller lithographic features. Smaller probe sizes, will also drastically improve the spatial resolution for ion beam analysis techniques. Among many other requirements, having an ideal resolution standard, used for beam focusing and a reliable focusing method, is an important pre-requisite for sub-10 nm beam spot focusing. In this paper we present the fabrication processes of a free-standing resolution standard with reduced side-wall projection and high side-wall verticality. The resulting grid is orthogonal (90.0° ± 0.1), has smooth edges with better than 6 nm side-wall projection. The new resolution standard has been used in focusing a 2 MeV H2+ beam in the 2nd generation PBW system at Center for Ion Beam Applications, NUS. The beam size has been characterized using on- and off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) and ion induced secondary electron detection, carried out with a newly installed micro channel plate electron detector. The latter has been shown to be a realistic alternative to STIM measurements, as the drawback of PIN diode detector damage is alleviated. With these improvements we show reproducible beam focusing down to 14 nm.

  11. Operation of the NuMI beam monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Zwaska, Robert M.; Indurthy, Dharma; Keisler, Ryan; Kopp, Sacha; Mendoza, Steven; Pavlovich, Zarko; Proga, Marek; Bishai, Mary; Diwan, Milind; Viren, Brett; Harris, Deborah A.; Marchionni, Alberto; Morfin, Jorge; McDonald, Jeffrey; Naples, Donna; Northacker, David; Erwin, Albert; Ping, Huican; Velissaris, Cristos; /Texas U. /Brookhaven /Fermilab /Pittsburgh U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-06-01

    The NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) facility produces an intense neutrino beam for experiments. The NuMI Beam Monitoring system is four arrays of ion chambers that measure the intensity and distribution of the remnant hadron and tertiary muon beams produced in association with the neutrinos. The ion chambers operate in an environment of high particle fluxes and high radiation.

  12. Lunar orbiting microwave beam power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Edgar H.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    A microwave beam power system using lunar orbiting solar powered satellite(s) and surface rectenna(s) was investigated as a possible energy source for the Moon's surface. The concept has the potential of reduced system mass by placing the power source in orbit. This can greatly reduce and/or eliminate the 14 day energy storage requirement of a lunar surface solar system. Also propellants required to de-orbit to the surface are greatly reduced. To determine the practicality of the concept and the most important factors, a zero-th order feasibility analysis was performed. Three different operational scenarios employing state of the art technology and forecasts for two different sets of advanced technologies were investigated. To reduce the complexity of the problem, satellite(s) were assumed in circular equatorial orbits around the Moon, supplying continuous power to a single equatorial base through a fixed horizontal rectenna on the surface. State of the art technology yielded specific masses greater than 2500 kg/kw, well above projections for surface systems. Using advanced technologies the specific masses are on the order of 100 kg/kw which is within the range of projections for surface nuclear (20 kg/kw) and solar systems (500 kg/kw). Further studies examining optimization of the scenarios, other technologies such as lasers transmitters and nuclear sources, and operational issues such as logistics, maintenance and support are being carried out to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the Moon and Mars.

  13. Commissioning kilovoltage cone-beam CT beams in a radiation therapy treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Alaei, Parham; Spezi, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of accounting of the dose from kilovoltage cone-beam CT in treatment planning has been discussed previously for a single cone-beam CT (CBCT) beam from one manufacturer. Modeling the beams and computing the dose from the full set of beams produced by a kilovoltage cone-beam CT system requires extensive beam data collection and verification, and is the purpose of this work. The beams generated by Elekta X-ray volume imaging (XVI) kilovoltage CBCT (kV CBCT) system for various cassettes and filters have been modeled in the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) and used to compute dose to stack and anthropomorphic phantoms. The results were then compared to measurements made using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The agreement between modeled and measured depth-dose and cross profiles is within 2% at depths beyond 1 cm for depth-dose curves, and for regions within the beam (excluding penumbra) for cross profiles. The agreements between TPS-calculated doses, TLD measurements, and Monte Carlo simulations are generally within 5% in the stack phantom and 10% in the anthropomorphic phantom, with larger variations observed for some of the measurement/calculation points. Dose computation using modeled beams is reasonably accurate, except for regions that include bony anatomy. Inclusion of this dose in treatment plans can lead to more accurate dose prediction, especially when the doses to organs at risk are of importance. PMID:23149789

  14. Beam-path conditioning for high-power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, T.; Johnson, D.; Languirand, M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of mirrors and windows by high-power radiation from a laser transmitter produces turbulent density gradients in the gas near the optical surfaces. If the gradients are left uncontrolled, the resulting phase errors reduce the intensity on the target and degrade the signal returned to a receiver. Beam path conditioning maximizes the efficiency of the optical system by alleviating thermal turbulence within the beam path. Keywords: High power radiation, Beam path, Optical surface, Laser beams, Reprints. (JHD)

  15. Solitons and beam reflection in an ion-beam plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Kono, M.

    1986-04-01

    Reflection and acceleration of resonant particles by solitons have been studied numerically in an ion-beam plasma system based on a hybrid code. A soliton whose velocity is less than the beam velocity is amplified first in a self-similar way because of the beam bunching up to the onset of reflection and then is supplied with energy lost by the reflected beam. The soliton is saturated by emission of a baby soliton, which in turn grows again until it emits another baby soliton. These processes repeat themselves. A soliton with a velocity larger than that of the beam initiates beam acceleration. The beam reflection associated with the collision processes of solitons is also observed.

  16. Particle beam injector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Guethlein, Gary

    2013-06-18

    Methods and devices enable coupling of a charged particle beam to a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. Coupling of the charged particle beam is accomplished, at least in-part, by relying on of sensitivity of the input phase space acceptance of the radio frequency quadrupole to the angle of the input charged particle beam. A first electric field across a beam deflector deflects the particle beam at an angle that is beyond the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole. By momentarily reversing or reducing the established electric field, a narrow portion of the charged particle beam is deflected at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole. In another configuration, beam is directed at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole by the first electric field and is deflected beyond the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole due to the second electric field.

  17. A picosecond beam-timing system for the OMEGA laser

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Donaldson, W. R.; Katz, J.; Huff, R.; Hill, E. M.; Kelly, J. H.; Kwaitkowski, J.; Brannon, R. B.; Boni, R.

    2016-05-27

    Here, a timing system is demonstrated for the OMEGA Laser System that guarantees all 60 beams will arrive on target simultaneously with a root mean square variability of 4 ps. The system relies on placing a scattering sphere at the target position to couple the UV light from each beam into a single photodetector.

  18. Development of a focused ion beam micromachining system

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, J.G.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    Focused ion beams are currently being investigated for many submicron fabrication and analytical purposes. An FIB micromachining system consisting of a UHV vacuum system, a liquid metal ion gun, and a control and data acquisition computer has been constructed. This system is being used to develop nanofabrication and nanomachining techniques involving focused ion beams and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  19. Electron cyclotron beam measurement system in the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Kamio, S. Takahashi, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T.

    2014-11-15

    In order to evaluate the electron cyclotron (EC) heating power inside the Large Helical Device vacuum vessel and to investigate the physics of the interaction between the EC beam and the plasma, a direct measurement system for the EC beam transmitted through the plasma column was developed. The system consists of an EC beam target plate, which is made of isotropic graphite and faces against the EC beam through the plasma, and an IR camera for measuring the target plate temperature increase by the transmitted EC beam. This system is applicable to the high magnetic field (up to 2.75 T) and plasma density (up to 0.8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}). This system successfully evaluated the transmitted EC beam profile and the refraction.

  20. Designing a beam transport system for RHIC's electron lens

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Raparia, D.

    2011-03-28

    We designed two electron lenses to apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC; they will be installed near IP10. The electron-beam transport system is an important subsystem of the entire electron-lens system. Electrons are transported from the electron gun to the main solenoid and further to the collector. The system must allow for changes of the electron beam size inside the superconducting magnet, and for changes of the electron position by 5 mm in the horizontal- and vertical-planes.

  1. Double deflection system for an electron beam device

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Norman W.; Golladay, Steven D.; Crewe, Albert V.

    1978-01-01

    A double deflection scanning system for electron beam instruments is provided embodying a means of correcting isotropic coma, and anisotropic coma aberrations induced by the magnetic lens of such an instrument. The scanning system deflects the beam prior to entry into the magnetic lens from the normal on-axis intersection of the beam with the lens according to predetermined formulas and thereby reduces the aberrations.

  2. Neutral-beam systems for magnetic-fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J. H.

    1981-08-10

    Neutral beams for magnetic fusion reactors are at an early stage of development, and require considerable effort to make them into the large, reliable, and efficient systems needed for future power plants. To optimize their performance to establish specific goals for component development, systematic analysis of the beamlines is essential. Three ion source characteristics are discussed: arc-cathode life, gas efficiency, and beam divergence, and their significance in a high-energy neutral-beam system is evaluated.

  3. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  4. Beam shaping in high-power laser systems with using refractive beam shapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2012-06-01

    Beam Shaping of the spatial (transverse) profile of laser beams is highly desirable by building optical systems of high-power lasers as well in various applications with these lasers. Pumping of the crystals of Ti:Sapphire lasers by the laser radiation with uniform (flattop) intensity profile improves performance of these ultrashort pulse high-power lasers in terms of achievable efficiency, peak-power and stability, output beam profile. Specifications of the solid-state lasers built according to MOPA configuration can be also improved when radiation of the master oscillator is homogenized and then is amplified by the power amplifier. Features of building these high power lasers require that a beam shaping solution should be capable to work with single mode and multimode beams, provide flattop and super-Gauss intensity distributions, the consistency and divergence of a beam after the intensity re-distribution should be conserved and low absorption provided. These specific conditions are perfectly fulfilled by the refractive field mapping beam shapers due to their unique features: almost lossless intensity profile transformation, low output divergence, high transmittance and flatness of output beam profile, extended depth of field, adaptability to real intensity profiles of TEM00 and multimode laser sources. Combining of the refractive field mapping beam shapers with other optical components, like beam-expanders, relay imaging lenses, anamorphic optics makes it possible to generate the laser spots of necessary shape, size and intensity distribution. There are plenty of applications of high-power lasers where beam shaping bring benefits: irradiating photocathode of Free Electron Lasers (FEL), material ablation, micromachining, annealing in display making techniques, cladding, heat treating and others. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type, with emphasis on the features important for building and applications

  5. RHIC beam permit and quench detection communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Conkling, C.R. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    A beam permit module has been developed to concentrate RHIC, subsystem sensor outputs, permit beam, and initiate emergency shutdowns. The modules accept inputs from the vacuum, cryogenic, power supply, beam loss, and superconducting magnet quench detection systems. Modules are located at equipment locations around the RHIC ring. The modules are connected by three fiberoptic communications links; a beam permit link, and two magnet power supply interlock links. During operation, carrier presence allows beam. If a RHIC subsystem detects a fault, the beam permit carrier terminates - initiating a beam dump. If the fault was a superconducting magnet quench, a power supply interlock carrier terminates - initiating an emergency magnet power dump. In addition, the master module triggers an event to cause remote sensors to log and hold data at the time-of-failure.

  6. Beam position monitor system for PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, G.R.; Johnson, R.G.; Martin, D.J.; Mills, M.R.; Olsen, J.J.; Smith, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system for PEP-II, the B-Factory under construction at SLAC, is described in this paper. The system must measure closed orbit for a 3-A multibunch beam and turn-by-turn position for a low-current single bunch injected in a 200-ns gap in the multibunch beam. A system that combines broadband and narrowband capabilities and provides data at high bandwidth was designed. It includes a filter-isolator box (FIB) that selects a harmonic of the bunch spacing (952 MHz) and absorbs the other frequency components; a CAMAC-based wideband I&Q demodulator, ADC, and signal processor that provides beam position information to the control system; and a calibrator that must work even in presence of beam, correcting for electronic measurement errors. This paper describes the system requirements, the electronics design, and the laboratory tests. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Optimization of beam transformation system for laser-diode bars.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junhong; Guo, Linhui; Wu, Hualing; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Songxin; Wu, Deyong

    2016-08-22

    An optimized beam transformation system (BTS) is proposed to improve the beam quality of laser-diode bars. Through this optimized design, the deterioration of beam quality after the BTS can be significantly reduced. Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the optimized system enables the beam quality of a mini-bar (9 emitters) approximately equal to 5.0 mm × 3.6 mrad in the fast-axis and slow-axis. After beam shaping by the optimized BTS, the laser-diode beam can be coupled into a 100 μm core, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) fiber with an output power of over 100 W and an electric-optical efficiency of 46.8%. PMID:27557249

  8. Electron beam size measurements in the Fermilab Electron Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, T.K.; Burov, A.V.; Bolshakov, T.B.; Shemyakin, A.; Seletskiy, S.M.; /Rochester U.

    2005-09-01

    The Fermilab Electron Cooling Project requires a straight trajectory and constant beam size to provide maximum cooling of the antiprotons in the Recycler. A measurement system was developed using movable apertures and steering bumps to measure the beam size in a 20m long, nearly continuous, solenoid. This paper will focus on results of these measurements of the beam size and the difficulties in making those measurements.

  9. Electron Beam Size Measurements in the Fermilab Electron Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, T. K.; Burov, A. V.; Bolshakov, T. B.; Shemyakin, A.; Seletskiy, S. M.

    2006-03-20

    The Fermilab Electron Cooling Project requires a straight trajectory and constant beam size to provide maximum cooling of the antiprotons in the Recycler. A measurement system was developed using movable apertures and steering bumps to measure the beam size in a 20m long, nearly continuous, solenoid. This paper will focus on results of these measurements of the beam size and the difficulties in making those measurements.

  10. Operation of the NuMI Beam Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Zwaska, Robert M.; Indurthy, Dharma; Keisler, Ryan; Kopp, Sacha; Mendoza, Steven; Pavlovich, Zarko; Proga, Marek; Bishai, Mary; Diwan, Milind; Viren, Brett; Harris, Debbie; Marchionni, Alberto; Morfin, Jorge; McDonald, Jeffrey; Naples, Donna; Northacker, David; Erwin, Albert; Ping, Huican; Velissaris, Cristos

    2006-11-20

    The NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) facility produces an intense neutrino beam for experiments. The NuMI Beam Monitoring system consists of four arrays of ion chambers that measure the intensity and distribution of the remnant hadron and tertiary muon beams produced in association with the neutrinos. The ion chambers operate in an environment of high particle fluxes and high radiation.

  11. Maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Barletta, William A.; Patterson, David O.; Gough, Richard A.

    2005-05-03

    A maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography system is a system for projecting patterns onto a resist layer on a wafer with feature size down to below 100 nm. The MMRL system operates without a stencil mask. The patterns are generated by switching beamlets on and off from a two electrode blanking system or pattern generator. The pattern generator controllably extracts the beamlet pattern from an ion source and is followed by a beam reduction and acceleration column.

  12. 20 GHz high power onboard beam switching circuit for multi-beam satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, K.; Tanaka, T.

    A newly developed K-band beam switching circuit is presented. The K-band beam switching circuit for multibeam satellite system is effective to improve the transponder utilization efficiency. The beam switching circuit divides the output of a transponder among several different light traffic beams in a time division manner. The single pole double throw (SPDT) beam switching circuit consists of one circulator, one 90 degree hybrid coupler, and two 0/pi reflection type PIN diode phase shifters. A trially manufactured SPDT switching circuit has high power handling capability of more than 10 watts, low insertion loss of less than 1.2 dB, high isolation of more than 23 dB, and high speed switching time of faster than 100 nanoseconds in the frequency band between 18.85 GHz and 19.15 GHz.

  13. Data acquisition system for KOMAC beam monitoring using EPICS middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2015-10-01

    The beam diagnostics instrument used to measure the beam properties is one of the important devices for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator of the KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). A data acquisition system (DAQ) is required to collect the output beam signals conditioned in the analog front-end circuitry of a beam loss monitor (BLM) and a beam position monitor (BPM). The electrical beam signal must be digitized, and the sampling has to be synchronized to a global timing system that produces a pulse signal for the pulsed beam operation. The digitized data must be accessible by the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS)-based control system, which manages all accelerator control. An input output controller (IOC), which runs Linux on a central process unit (CPU) module with a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) express-based Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) card, has been adopted to satisfy the requirements. An associated Linux driver and EPICS device support module have also been developed. The IOC meets the requirements, and the development and maintenance of software for the IOC is very efficient. In this paper, the details of the DAQ system for the BLM and the BPM with the introduction of the KOMAC beam-diagnostics devices, along with the performance, are described.

  14. Simple electron beam guiding system including automatic capture circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, W.; Schulenburg, M.; Freund, F.

    1980-08-01

    The spatial stability of the point of impact of an electron beam is a stringent requirement in some experiments such as soft x-ray spectroscopy using a focussing curved crystal spectrometer. The occasinally poor design of moderately priced electron guns, thermal instabilities, electromagnetic stray fields and so on, make spot stabilization an arduous task. The problem can be solved to some extent by a simple electron beam guiding system: a small fraction of the electron beam is captured by a metal wire mounted in the vicinity of the target. The beam position is fixed, if this fraction is controlled by a feedback loop via the deflection plates of the gun.

  15. The Superconducting Magnets of the ILC Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; He, P.; Jain, A.; Marone, A.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2007-09-28

    The ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS) uses a variety of superconducting magnets to maximize luminosity and minimize background. Compact final focus quadrupoles with multifunction correction coils focus incoming beams to few nanometer spot sizes while focusing outgoing disrupted beams into a separate extraction beam line. Anti-solenoids mitigate effects from overlapping focusing and the detector solenoid field. Far from the interaction point (IP) strong octupoles help minimize IP backgrounds. A low-field but very large aperture dipole is integrated with the detector solenoid to reduce backgrounds from beamstrahlung pairs generated at the IP. Physics requirements and magnetic design solutions for the BDS superconducting magnets are reviewed in this paper.

  16. DETAIL VIEW OF FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER SYSTEM; INNER END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER SYSTEM; INNER END CONNECTION OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING AT UPPER LEFT; FLOOR BEAM CAMBER RODS AND CAMBER SHOE AT L3, AT RIGHT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH. - Henszey's Wrought-Iron Arch Bridge, Spanning Ontelaunee Creek at Kings Road, Wanamakers, Lehigh County, PA

  17. Wakefield Effects in the Beam Delivery System of the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Seryi, A.; /SLAC

    2007-06-27

    The main linac of the International Linear Collider (ILC) accelerates short, high peak current bunches into the Beam Delivery System (BDS) on the way to the interaction point. In the BDS wakefields, excited by the resistance of the beam pipe walls and by beam pipe transitions, will tend to degrade the emittance of the beam bunches. In this report we calculate the effect on single bunch emittance of incoming jitter or drift, and of misalignments of the beam pipes with respect to the beam axis, both analytically and through multi-particle tracking. As we want to keep emittance growth due to this effect small, we consider also mitigation measures of changing the metallic surface material and/or the beam pipe aperture. The wake effects are studied in that part of the BDS which includes the collimation and final focus systems. Typical ILC beam parameters are given in Table 1. Initially a stainless steel (SS) beam pipe is considered. Note that the ILC collimator wakes, though very important, are not included in this study; their effects have been studied elsewhere [1]. Note also that similar methods are presented in recent reports Refs. [2],[3].

  18. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Heath A; Shurter, Robert B.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  19. A beam waveguide linearly polarized KU band feed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flannery, J. B.

    The linearly polarized KU band beam waveguide feed system considered was designed for use with large Cassegrain antennas typical of those associated with satellite comunications earth stations. The beam waveguide technique permits fixed ground installations of the transmitters and low noise receivers and eliminates the large equipment room usually mounted behind the reflector vertex. The feed system consists of a tapered corrugated wall horn, a matching network, a TE21 mode coupler, three differential phase shifters, a choke coupled rotatable, orthogonal mode transducer, and a servo amplifier system. Attention is given to TE21 mode coupler operation, TE21 mode coupling and directivity, a horn description, a beam wave description, and polarization control.

  20. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%. PMID:26192526

  1. Positive and negative ion beam merging system for neutral beam production

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2005-12-13

    The positive and negative ion beam merging system extracts positive and negative ions of the same species and of the same energy from two separate ion sources. The positive and negative ions from both sources pass through a bending magnetic field region between the pole faces of an electromagnet. Since the positive and negative ions come from mirror image positions on opposite sides of a beam axis, and the positive and negative ions are identical, the trajectories will be symmetrical and the positive and negative ion beams will merge into a single neutral beam as they leave the pole face of the electromagnet. The ion sources are preferably multicusp plasma ion sources. The ion sources may include a multi-aperture extraction system for increasing ion current from the sources.

  2. 17. LOWER CHORD CONNECTION, FLOOR BEAM & STRINGER SYSTEMS, WALKWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. LOWER CHORD CONNECTION, FLOOR BEAM & STRINGER SYSTEMS, WALKWAY CANTILEVER SUPPORTS; WALKWAY CANTILEVER SUPPORTS; LOOKING N - Traer Street Bridge, Spanning Shell Rock River at Traer Street, Greene, Butler County, IA

  3. Space fabrication demonstration system composite beam cap fabricator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A detailed design for a prototype, composite beam cap fabricator was established. Inputs to this design included functional tests and system operating requirements. All required materials were procured, detail parts were fabricated, and one composite beam cap forming machine was assembled. The machine was demonstrated as a stand-alone system. Two 12-foot-long beam cap members were fabricated from laminates graphite/polysulfane or an equivalent material. One of these members, which as structurally tested in axial compression, failed at 490 pounds.

  4. BECOLA Beam Line Construction and Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedicini, Eowyn; Minamisono, Kei; Barquest, Brad; Bollen, Georg; Klose, Andrew; Mantica, Paul; Morrissey, Dave; Ringle, Ryan; Schwarz, Stefan; Vinnikova, Sophia

    2010-11-01

    The BECOLA (BEam COoler and LAser spectroscopy) facility is being installed at NSCL for experiments on radioactive nuclides.ootnotetextK. Minamisono et al, Proc. Inst. Nucl. Theory 16, 180 (2009). Low energy ion beams will be cooled/bunched in an RFQ ion trap and then extracted to a max of 60 kV. The ion beam will be neutralized through a charge exchange cell (CEC), and remaining ions will be removed by a deflector and collected in a Faraday cup. Collinear laser spectroscopy will be used to measure the atomic hyperfine structure, and nuclear properties will be extracted. The assembly, vacuum testing, and optical alignment of the CEC have been completed and the ion deflector and Faraday cup were also assembled. Stabilization of the Ti:sapphire laser to be used for spectroscopy is achieved through a feedback loop using a precision wavelength meter that is calibrated by a stabilized He-Ne laser. Coupling the He-Ne laser into a single-mode optical fiber was optimized for stable operation of the feedback loop. Finally, a wall chart of nuclear moments was prepared to view trends in μ and Q for nuclear ground states for planning future measurements.

  5. A Programmable Beam Shaping System for Tailoring the Profile of High Fluence Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Heebner, J; Borden, M; Miller, P; Stolz, C; Suratwala, T; Wegner, P; Hermann, M; Henesian, M; Haynam, C; Hunter, S; Christensen, K; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Awwal, A; Franks, M; Marley, E; Williams, K; Scanlan, M; Budge, T; Monticelli, M; Walmer, D; Dixit, S; Widmayer, C; Wolfe, J; Bude, J; McCarty, K; DiNicola, J

    2010-11-10

    Customized spatial light modulators have been designed and fabricated for use as precision beam shaping devices in fusion class laser systems. By inserting this device in a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain, 'blocker' obscurations can be programmed into the beam profile to shadow small isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. In this two stage system, 1920 x 1080 bitmap images are first imprinted on incoherent, 470 nm address beams via pixilated liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) modulators. To realize defined masking functions with smooth apodized shapes and no pixelization artifacts, address beam images are projected onto custom fabricated optically-addressable light valves. Each valve consists of a large, single pixel liquid cell in series with a photoconductive Bismuth silicon Oxide (BSO) crystal. The BSO crystal enables bright and dark regions of the address image to locally control the voltage supplied to the liquid crystal layer which in turn modulates the amplitude of the coherent beams at 1053 nm. Valves as large as 24 mm x 36 mm have been fabricated with low wavefront distortion (<0.5 waves) and antireflection coatings for high transmission (>90%) and etalon suppression to avoid spectral and temporal ripple. This device in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy represents a new approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics.

  6. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  7. Simulation of a beam rotation system for a spallation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Tibor; Reggiani, Davide; Seidel, Mike; Talanov, Vadim; Wohlmuther, Michael

    2015-04-01

    With a nominal beam power of nearly 1 MW on target, the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ), ranks among the world's most powerful spallation neutron sources. The proton beam transport to the SINQ target is carried out exclusively by means of linear magnetic elements. In the transport line to SINQ the beam is scattered in two meson production targets and as a consequence, at the SINQ target entrance the beam shape can be described by Gaussian distributions in transverse x and y directions with tails cut short by collimators. This leads to a highly nonuniform power distribution inside the SINQ target, giving rise to thermal and mechanical stresses. In view of a future proton beam intensity upgrade, the possibility of homogenizing the beam distribution by means of a fast beam rotation system is currently under investigation. Important aspects which need to be studied are the impact of a rotating proton beam on the resulting neutron spectra, spatial flux distributions and additional—previously not present—proton losses causing unwanted activation of accelerator components. Hence a new source description method was developed for the radiation transport code MCNPX. This new feature makes direct use of the results from the proton beam optics code TURTLE. Its advantage to existing MCNPX source options is that all phase space information and correlations of each primary beam particle computed with TURTLE are preserved and transferred to MCNPX. Simulations of the different beam distributions together with their consequences in terms of neutron production are presented in this publication. Additionally, a detailed description of the coupling method between TURTLE and MCNPX is provided.

  8. Electron beam EUV patterned mask inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keizo; Kitayama, Yasunobu; Fiekowsky, Peter

    2011-11-01

    EUV lithography is expected to begin production in 2014. Production of successful EUV photomasks requires patterned mask inspection (PMI). The ultimate PMI tool is expected to utilize actinic (EUV) illumination. Development of such a tool is expected to require three years after funding. Current test EUV masks, such as 22 nm, can be inspected using 193 nm wavelength deep UV (DUV) inspection tools similar to those currently being used for DUV masks. The DUV inspection tools may be extended for the 16 nm node. However EUV production is expected to start with 11 nm node masks which cannot be inspected with proposed DUV inspection tools. Therefore E-beam inspection (EBI) is discussed as the interim PMI method. EBI has the advantage of high resolution and the disadvantages of low inspection speed and relative insensitivity to ML defects (in the multi-layer material). EBI inspection speed is limited by the pixel size, pixel capture rate and the number of electron columns. The pixel rate is limited by the detector time-resolution, the beam current, and the detection efficiency. Technical improvements in beam focus, secondary electron detection, and defect detection and analysis provide good performance for 22 nm node masks. We discuss the advances and show that performance can be extrapolated for 16 and 11 nm node patterned mask inspections. We present sensitivity and false-defect frequency results of using the Holon EBI tool on 22 nm test masks and a roadmap for extending its operation for use on 16 and 11 nm node masks for inspections requiring 2-5 hours per mask.

  9. Potential measurements with heavy ion beam probe system on LHD.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, A; Ido, T; Nakamura, S; Toi, K; Nishiura, M; Kato, S

    2010-10-01

    The heavy ion beam probe system in the Large Helical Device (LHD) was improved as follows. At first, the additional new sweeper was installed into the diagnostic port to extend the observable region. By using this sweeper, the potential profile was measured in a wider minor radius range than in previous experiments, in the case of outward shifted magnetic configuration of LHD. Next, the real time control system was installed to control the probe beam orbit for measuring the potential in plasma with large plasma current. In this system, a digital signal processor was used to control the probe beam in real time. The system worked well in the fixed position observation mode. In the sweeping mode for profile measurement, this control system became unstable. The details of this system and the experimental results are reported in this article. PMID:21033999

  10. ADVANCEMENT OF THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.AHRENS,L.MI,J.OERTER,B.SANDBERG,J.WARBURTON,D.

    2003-05-12

    As one of the most critical system for RHIC operation, the beam abort kicker system has to be highly available, reliable, and stable for the entire operating range. Along with the RHIC commission and operation, consistent efforts have been spend to cope with immediate issues as well as inherited design issues. Major design changes have been implemented to achieve the higher operating voltage, longer high voltage hold-off time, fast retriggering and redundant triggering, and improved system protection, etc. Recent system test has demonstrated for the first time that both blue ring and yellow ring beam abort systems have achieved more than 24 hours hold off time at desired operating voltage. In this paper, we report break down, thyratron reverse arcing, and to build a fast re-trigger system to reduce beam spreading in event of premature discharge.

  11. Potential measurements with heavy ion beam probe system on LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, A.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Ido, T.; Toi, K.; Nakamura, S.

    2010-10-15

    The heavy ion beam probe system in the Large Helical Device (LHD) was improved as follows. At first, the additional new sweeper was installed into the diagnostic port to extend the observable region. By using this sweeper, the potential profile was measured in a wider minor radius range than in previous experiments, in the case of outward shifted magnetic configuration of LHD. Next, the real time control system was installed to control the probe beam orbit for measuring the potential in plasma with large plasma current. In this system, a digital signal processor was used to control the probe beam in real time. The system worked well in the fixed position observation mode. In the sweeping mode for profile measurement, this control system became unstable. The details of this system and the experimental results are reported in this article.

  12. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Wang, N.; Miller, D. W.; Yang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 × 10 × 8 cm3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  13. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  14. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  15. Diagnostic system for profiling micro-beams

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Palmer, Todd A.; Teruya, Alan T.; Walton, Chris C.

    2007-10-30

    An apparatus for characterization of a micro beam comprising a micro modified Faraday cup assembly including a first layer of material, a second layer of material operatively connected to the first layer of material, a third layer of material operatively connected to the second layer of material, and a fourth layer of material operatively connected to the third layer of material. The first layer of material comprises an electrical conducting material and has at least one first layer radial slit extending through the first layer. An electrical ground is connected to the first layer. The second layer of material comprises an insulating material and has at least one second layer radial slit corresponding to the first layer radial slit in the first layer of material. The second layer radial slit extends through the second layer. The third layer of material comprises a conducting material and has at least one third layer radial slit corresponding to the second layer radial slit in the second layer of material. The third layer radial slit extends through the third layer. The fourth layer of material comprises an electrical conducting material but does not have slits. An electrical measuring device is connected to the fourth layer. The micro modified Faraday cup assembly is positioned to be swept by the micro beam.

  16. Optical system design for high-energy particle beam diagnostics.

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B. X. Y.

    2002-08-29

    Radiation generated by high-energy particle beams is widely used to characterize the beam properties. While the wavelengths of radiation may vary from visible to x-rays, the physics underlying the engineering designs are similar. In this tutorial, we discuss the basic considerations for the optical system design in the context of beam instrumentation and the constraints applied by high-radiation environments. We cover commonly used optical diagnostics: fluorescence flags, visible and x-ray synchrotron radiation imaging. Emphases will be on achieving desired resolution, accuracy, and reproducibility.

  17. Log-ratio technique for beam position monitor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto Aiello, G.; Mills, M.R. )

    1992-07-10

    Recent progress in the development of a beam position monitor system (BPM), based on the log-ratio technique, is described in this paper. A complete electronic analysis is presented, showing linearity, dynamic range, noise, RF burst response, and temperature dependence. A calibration technique has been developed, which corrects the errors due to mismatched channels and electronics drift. This technique is particularly effective because of the log-ratio property for beam position monitoring. This circuit is the most likely candidate for beam position monitor electronics at the SSC.

  18. Fast ion beam chopping system for neutron generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.; Miller, T. G.; Van Staagen, P. K.

    2005-02-01

    Fast deuterium (D+) and tritium (T+) ion beam pulses are needed in some neutron-based imaging systems. A compact, integrated fast ion beam extraction and chopping system has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for these applications, and beam pulses with 15ns full width at half maximum have been achieved. Computer simulations together with experimental tests indicate that even faster pulses are achievable by shortening the chopper voltage rise time. This chopper arrangement will be implemented in a coaxial neutron generator, in which a small point-like neutron source is created by multiple 120keV D+ ion beams hitting a titanium target at the center of the source.

  19. Fast ion beam chopping system for neutron generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Leung, K.N.; Reijonen, J.; Miller, T.G.; Van Staagen, P.K.

    2005-02-01

    Fast deuterium (D{sup +}) and tritium (T{sup +}) ion beam pulses are needed in some neutron-based imaging systems. A compact, integrated fast ion beam extraction and chopping system has been developed and tested at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for these applications, and beam pulses with 15 ns full width at half maximum have been achieved. Computer simulations together with experimental tests indicate that even faster pulses are achievable by shortening the chopper voltage rise time. This chopper arrangement will be implemented in a coaxial neutron generator, in which a small point-like neutron source is created by multiple 120 keV D{sup +} ion beams hitting a titanium target at the center of the source.

  20. A large distributed digital camera system for accelerator beam diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Honkavaara, K.

    2005-07-01

    Optical diagnostics, providing images of accelerated particle beams using radiation emitted by particles impinging a radiator, typically a fluorescent screen, has been extensively used, especially on electron linacs, since the 1970's. Higher intensity beams available in the last decade allow extending the use of beam imaging techniques to perform precise measurements of important beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and energy spread using optical transition radiation (OTR). OTR-based diagnostics systems are extensively used on the superconducting TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac driving the vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (VUV-FEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron facility. Up to 30 optical diagnostic stations have been installed at various positions along the 250-m-long linac, each equipped with a high-performance digital camera. This paper describes the new approach to the design of the hardware and software setups required by the complex topology of such a distributed camera system.

  1. The CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) fast shutdown system

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, J.; Woodworth, E.

    1990-09-01

    Because of the high power in the CEBAF beam, equipment must be protected in the event of beam loss. The policy that has been adopted is to require a positive permissive signal from each of several inputs in order to operate the gun that starts the beam. If the permissive is removed, the gun shuts off within 20 {mu}s. The inputs that are now monitored include radiation monitors that detect beam loss directly, vacuum monitors (which also observe the status of various in-line valves), and general input from the rf system, which combines detection of klystron failure, arcs, and rf window high temperature. The system is expandable, so other fault detectors can be added if experience shows their necessity.

  2. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2014-07-29

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  3. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2015-08-11

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  4. ISABELLE accelerator software, control system, and beam diagnostic philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    Cornacchia, M.; Humphrey, J.W.; Niederer, J.; Poole, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The ISABELLE Project combines two large proton accelerators with two storage rings in the same facility using superconducting magnet technology. This combination leads to severe constraints on beam loss in magnets and involves complex treatment of magnetic field imperfections and correction elements. The consequent demands placed upon beam diagnostics, accelerator model programs, and the computer oriented control system are discussed in terms of an illustrative operation scenario.

  5. Beam Diagnostics Based on AC Modulation of System Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tiefenback

    2004-11-10

    To improve the performance of operating accelerators, quantities such as lattice functions, beam transfer functions, betatron frequencies, etc, can be measured turn by turn with beam position monitors or from difference measurements using step changes in system parameters. Spectral measurements in closed orbit machines provide accurate values for some properties. But for open-ended systems and some measurements in closed-orbit machines, periodic modulation can be very useful for obtaining information about the beam line. Using examples from existing machines, we compare and contrast beam based modulation techniques and step function or passive measurements. For example, large amplitude dipole modulation in rings can be used in dedicated exploration of nonlinear optical properties without beam degradation, even allowing for tune spread effects. Low-level modulation can provide real-time system monitoring with no adverse effect on beam users. Examples considered include fully resonant dipole modulation in storage rings such as RHIC (hadrons) and PEP-II (electrons), and the continuous low-level modulation used in the CEBAF recirculating electron linac for real-time feedback to improve availability.

  6. Cyclotron axial ion-beam-buncher system

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, R.W.; Swenson, D.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1982-02-11

    Adiabatic ion bunching is achieved in a cyclotron axial ion injection system through the incorporation of a radio frequency quadrupole system, which receives ions from an external ion source via an accelerate-decelerate system and a focusing einzel lens system, and which adiabatically bunches and then injects the ions into the median plane of a cyclotron via an electrostatic quadrupole system and an inflection mirror.

  7. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system.

    PubMed

    Yatsuka, E; Hatae, T; Vayakis, G; Bassan, M; Itami, K

    2013-10-01

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated. PMID:24182106

  8. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Bassan, M.; Itami, K.; Vayakis, G.

    2013-10-15

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  9. Particle selection and beam collimation system for laser-accelerated proton beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Fourkal, Eugene; Li, Jinsheng; Ma, Chang-Ming

    2005-03-01

    In a laser-accelerated proton therapy system, the initial protons have broad energy and angular distributions, which are not suitable for direct therapeutic applications. A compact particle selection and collimation device is needed to deliver small pencil beams of protons with desired energy spectra. In this work, we characterize a superconducting magnet system that produces a desired magnetic field configuration to spread the protons with different energies and emitting angles for particle selection. Four magnets are set side by side along the beam axis; each is made of NbTi wires which carry a current density of approximately 10(5) A/cm2 at 4.2 K, and produces a magnetic field of approximately 4.4 T in the corresponding region. Collimation is applied to both the entrance and the exit of the particle selection system to generate a desired proton pencil beam. In the middle of the magnet system, where the magnetic field is close to zero, a particle selection collimator allows only the protons with desired energies to pass through for therapy. Simulations of proton transport in the presence of the magnetic field show that the selected protons have successfully refocused on the beam axis after passing through the magnetic field with the optimal magnet system. The energy spread for any given characteristic proton energy has been obtained. It is shown that the energy spread is a function of the magnetic field strength and collimator size and reaches the full width at half maximum of 25 MeV for 230 MeV protons. Dose distributions have also been calculated with the GEANT3 Monte Carlo code to study the dosimetric properties of the laser-accelerated proton beams for radiation therapy applications. PMID:15839352

  10. Packet communication system for a multi-beam beam switched satellite repeater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a packet-switched communication system using a multi-beam, beam switched satellite repeater. The protocol provides a combination of random access via Slotted ALOHA techniques and demand assigned access using collision requests. This allows efficient bandwidth usage and low average delays. Minimization of earth station cost was a major objective. This was achieved by transferring the bulk of the system complexity to the satellite repeater and the (ground) network controller. This centrally controlled protocol would allow greater system stability and would permit system reconfiguration in response to changes in traffic intensity. Sufficient signalling is also incorporated to allow both rate diversity to combat fading and timing corrections to account for satellite drift.

  11. Industrial beam delivery system for ultra-short pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Max C.; Wedel, Björn; Kayander, Ilya; Niemeyer, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    Beam delivery systems are an integral part of industrial laser equipment. Separating laser source and application fiber optic beam delivery is employed wherever great flexibility is required. And today, fiber optic beam delivery of several kW average power is available for continuous wave operation using multimode step index fibers with core diameters of several 100 μm. However, during short-pulse or even ultra-short pulse laser operation step index fibers fail due to high power density levels and nonlinear effects such as self-focusing and induced scattering. Hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCF) are an alternative to traditional fibers featuring light propagation mostly inside a hollow core, enabling high power handling and drastically reduced nonlinear effects. These fibers have become available during the past decade and are used in research but also for fiber laser systems and exhibit a growing popularity. We report on using HC-PCF fibers and their integration into an industrial beam delivery package comparable to today's fiber optic standards and will discuss power handling, beam quality and efficiency as well as future prospects of this technology. In a preliminary industrial beam delivery setup 300 fs pulses at 100 W average power could be delivered.

  12. Electromagnetic instability in an electron beam-ion channel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, D.; Tang, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    The transverse electromagnetic instability in the electron beam-ion channel system is investigated using kinetic theory. The equilibrium distribution function of a relativistic electron beam, which takes into account a strong ion channel effect, is obtained. The linearized Vlasov equation is solved and the dispersion relation of the system is derived by perturbing the equilibrium with a high frequency electromagnetic wave (EMW). Analysis of the dispersion relation shows that the coupling of the electron beam with the transverse high frequency EMW is achieved through the deflection of the beam electrons due to the synergistic effects of the transverse high frequency EMW and transverse betatron oscillation. The numerical calculation finds that a branch of slow wave instability (SWI) with a wide frequency band is excited. The attenuation index of the SWI increases and its frequency band broadens as the normalized beam radii increases. Besides, the SWI will be suppressed as the longitudinal velocity of the electron beam increases to a certain value; meanwhile, a bunch of fast wave instability (FWI) is excited, which is equal to the increase of the relativistic factor. Also both the SWI and the FWI reach maximum when the EMW frequency meets a resonance condition.

  13. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Peggs, Stephen G.; Brennan, J. Michael; Tuozzolo, Joseph E.; Zaltsman, Alexander

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  14. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Darrow, M. Isobe, Takashi Kondo, M. Sasao, and the CHS Group National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, Japan

    2010-02-03

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  15. Study of a final focus system for high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Bieniosek, Frank M.; Shuman, Derek B.; Waldron, William L.

    2004-06-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The final focus scenario in an HIF driver consists of several large aperture quadrupole magnets followed by a drift section in which the beam space charge is neutralized by a plasma. This beam is required to hit a millimeter-sized target spot at the end of the drift section. The objective of the NTX experiments and associated theory and simulations is to study the various physical mechanisms that determine the final spot size (radius r{sub s}) at a given distance (f) from the end of the last quadrupole. In a fusion driver, f is the standoff distance required to keep the chamber wall and superconducting magnets properly protected. The NTX final quadrupole focusing system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final spot is determined by the conditions of the beam entering the quadrupole section, the beam dynamics in the magnetic lattice, and the plasma neutralization dynamics in the drift section. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. In this paper, we will describe the theoretical and experimental aspects of the beam dynamics in the quadrupole lattice, and how these physical effects influence the final beam size. In particular, we present theoretical and experimental results on the dependence of final spot size on geometric aberrations and perveance.

  16. DATA ACQUISITION FOR SNS BEAM LOSS MONITOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    YENG,Y.GASSNER,D.HOFF,L.WITKOVER,R.

    2003-10-13

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) beam loss monitor system uses VME based electronics to measure the radiation produced by lost beam. Beam loss signals from cylindrical argon-filled ion chambers and neutron detectors will be conditioned in analog front-end (AFE) circuitry. These signals will be digitized and further processed in a dedicated VME crate. Fast beam inhibit and low-level, long-term loss warnings will be generated to provide machine protection. The fast loss data will have a bandwidth of 35kHz. While the low level, long-term loss data will have much higher sensitivity. This is further complicated by the 3 decade range of intensity as the Ring accumulates beam. Therefore a bandwidth of 100kHz and dynamic range larger than 21 bits data acquisition system will be required for this purpose. Based on the evaluation of several commercial ADC modules in preliminary design phase, a 24 bits Sigma-Delta data acquisition VME bus card was chosen as the SNS BLM digitizer. An associated vxworks driver and EPICS device support module also have been developed at BNL. Simulating test results showed this system is fully qualified for both fast loss and low-level, long-term loss application. The first prototype including data acquisition hardware setup and EPICS software (running database and OPI clients) will be used in SNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL) system commissioning.

  17. RAMI Analyses of Heating Neutral Beam and Diagnostic Neutral Beam Systems for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D. H.; Lee, S.; Hemsworth, R.; van Houtte, D.; Okayama, K.; Sagot, F.; Schunke, B.; Svensson, L.

    2011-09-01

    A RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Inspectability) analysis has been performed for the heating (& current drive) neutral beam (HNB) and diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) systems of the ITER device [1-3]. The objective of these analyses is to implement RAMI engineering requirements for design and testing to prepare a reliability-centred plan for commissioning, operation, and maintenance of the system in the framework of technical risk control to support the overall ITER Project. These RAMI requirements will correspond to the RAMI targets for the ITER project and the compensating provisions to reach them as deduced from the necessary actions to decrease the risk level of the function failure modes. The RAMI analyses results have to match with the procurement plan of the systems.

  18. System requirements for laser power beaming to geosynchronous satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, R.D.; McKechnie, T.S.; Neal, D.R.

    1994-03-01

    Geosynchronous satellites use solar arrays as their primary source of electrical power. During earth eclipse, which occurs 90 times each year, the satellites are powered by batteries, but the heavy charge-discharge cycle decreases their life expectancy. By beaming laser power to satellites during the eclipses, satellite life expectancy can be significantly increased. In this paper, the authors investigate the basic system parameters and trade-offs of using reactor pumped laser technology to beam power from the Nevada Test Site. A first order argument is used to develop a consistent set of requirements for such a system.

  19. Understanding Beam Alignment in a Coherent Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Roychoudhari, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Optical beam alignment in a coherent lidar (or ladar) receiver system plays a critical role in optimizing its performance. Optical alignment in a coherent lidar system dictates the wavefront curvature (phase front) and Poynting vector) matching of the local oscillator beam with the incoming receiver beam on a detector. However, this alignment is often not easy to achieve and is rarely perfect. Furthermore, optical fibers are being increasingly used in coherent lidar system receivers for transporting radiation to achieve architectural elegance. Single mode fibers also require stringent mode matching for efficient light coupling. The detector response characteristics vary with the misalignment of the two pointing vectors. Misalignment can lead to increase in DC current. Also, a lens in front of the detector may exasperate phase front and Poynting vector mismatch. Non-Interaction of Waves, or the NIW property indicates the light beams do not interfere by themselves in the absence of detecting dipoles. In this paper, we will analyze the extent of misalignment on the detector specifications using pointing vectors of mixing beams in light of the NIW property.

  20. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Gronberg, J; Ross, M; Khainovski, O; Kolomensky, Y; Loscutoff, P; Slater, M; Thomson, M; Ward, D; Boogert, S; Vogel, V; Meller, R; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; Miller, D; Frisch, J; Hinton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Smith, S; Smith, T; White, G; Orimoto, T; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

    2005-09-12

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns.

  1. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Positron Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S.; Chung, C.; Fitsos, P.; Gronberg, J.; Ross, M.; Khainovski, O.; Kolomensky, Y.; Loscutoff, P.; Slater, M.; Thomson, M.; Ward, D.; Boogert, S.; Vogel, V.; Meller, R.; Lyapin, A.; Malton, S.; Miller, D.; Frisch, J.; Hinton, S.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-07-06

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved--ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns.

  2. Compact pulsed electron beam system for microwave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Banerjee, P.; Prabaharan, T.; Adhikary, B.; Verma, R.; Sharma, A.; Shyam, A.

    2012-11-01

    A compact 180 kV electron beam system is designed for high power microwave generation. The electron beam system is consists of a secondary energy storage device, which can deliver energy to the load at faster rate than usual primary energy storage system such as tesla transformers or marx generator. The short duration, high voltage pulse with fast rise time and good flattop is applied to vacuum diode for high power microwave generation. The compact electron beam system is made up of single turn primary tesla transformer which charges a helical pulse forming line and transfers its energy to vacuum diode through a high voltage pressurized spark gap switch. We have used helical pulse forming line which has higher inductance as compared to coaxial pulse forming line, which in turns increases, the pulse width and reduce the length of the pulse forming line. Water dielectric medium is used because of its high dielectric constant, high dielectric strength and efficient energy storage capability. The time dependent breakdown property and high relative permittivity of water makes it an ideal choice for this system. The high voltage flat-top pulse of 90 kV, 260 ns is measured across the matched load. In this article we have reported the design details, simulation and initial experimental results of 180 kV pulsed electron beam system for high power microwave generation.

  3. A Nonlinear Elastic Beam System with Inelastic Contact Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.L. White, L.W.

    2002-12-19

    In this paper we study freely propagating inertial, i.e., unforced, waves, in an elastic beam constrained so that all motion takes place above and on a flat, rigid support surface, subject to a gravitational force and a compressive longitudinal load. Contact between the beam and the support surface is assumed to be completely inelastic. A nonlinear beam model is used, incorporating a quartic extension of the familiar quadratic potential energy functional for the standard Euler-Bernoulli model. After briefly reviewing the rationale for the model and some of its properties, as developed in earlier articles, we present existence and uniqueness results for the constrained system obtained with the use of a 'penalty function' approach involving the addition of a 'uni-directional friction' dissipative term, active only when the constraint is violated, to the unconstrained system.

  4. Instrumentation system for long-pulse MFTF neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, D.M.

    1981-09-30

    The instrumentation system for long pulse neutral beams for MFTFS consists of monitoring and protective circuitry. Global synchronization of high speed monitoring data across twenty-four neutral beams is achieved via an experiment wide fiber optic timing system. Fiber optics are also used as a means of isolating signals at elevated voltages. An excess current monitor, interrupt monitor, sparkdown detector, spot detector and gradient grid ratio detector form the primary protection for the neutral beam source. A unique hierarchical interlocking scheme allows other protective devices to be factored into the shutdown circuitry of the power supply so that the initiating cause of a shutdown can be isolated and even allows some non-critical devices to be safely ignored for a period of time.

  5. Progress on the development of APS beam position monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.; Chung, Youngjoo.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the development status of the beam position monitoring system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a third-generation light source now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory. The accelerator complex will consist of an electron linac, a positron linac, a positron accumulator ring (PAR), an injector synchrotron and a storage ring. For beam position measurement, striplines will be used on the linacs, while button-type pickups will be used on the injector synchrotron and the storage ring. A test stand with a prototype injector synchrotron beam position monitor (BPM) unit has been built, and we present the results of position calibration measurements using a wire. Comparison of the results with theoretical calculations will be presented. The current effort on similar storage ring BPM system measurements will also be discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system.

    PubMed

    Coutrakon, G; Wang, N; Miller, D W; Yang, Y

    2010-12-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 × 10 × 8 cm(3) target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy. PMID:21076200

  7. Physics Design Considerations for Diagnostic X Electron Beam Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-J

    2000-04-10

    The Diagnostic X (D-X) beamlines will transport the DARHT-II beam from the end of the accelerator to the Diagnostic X firing point providing four lines of sight for x-ray radiography. The design goal for the Diagnostic X beamline is to deliver four x-ray pulses with the DARHT-II dose format and time integrated spot size on each line of sight. The D-X beamline's final focus should be compatible with a range of first conjugates from 1 m-5 m. Furthermore, the D-X beamline operational parameters and the beamline layout should not preclude a possible upgrade to additional lines of sight. The DARHT-II accelerator is designed to deliver beams at a rate of 1 pulse per minute or less. Tuning the D-X beamline with several hundred optical elements would be time consuming. Therefore, minimizing the required number of tuning shots for the D-X beamline is also an important design goal. Many different beamline configurations may be able to accomplish these design objectives, and high beam quality (i.e., high current and low emittance) must be maintained throughout the chosen beamline configuration in order to achieve the DARHT-II x-ray dose format. In general, the longer the distance a beam travels, the harder it is to preserve the beam quality. Therefore, from the point of view of maintaining beam quality, it is highly desirable to minimize the beamline length. Lastly, modification to the DARHT-II building and the downstream transport should be minimized. Several processes can degrade beam quality by increasing the beam emittance, increasing the time-varying transverse beam motion, creating a beam halo, or creating a time-varying beam envelope. In this report, we consider those processes in the passive magnet lattice beamline and indicate how they constrain the beamline design. The physics design considerations for the active components such as the kicker system will be discussed in Ref. 2. In Sec. I, we discuss how beam emittance affects the x-ray forward dose. We also

  8. Polarimeters and Energy Spectrometers for the ILC Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect

    Boogert, S.; Hildreth, M.; Kafer, D.; List, J.; Monig, K.; Moffeit, K.C.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Riemann, S.; Schreiber, H.J.; Schuler, P.; Torrence, E.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2009-02-24

    This article gives an overview of current plans and issues for polarimeters and energy spectrometers in the Beam Delivery System of the ILC. It is meant to serve as a useful reference for the Detector Letter of Intent documents currently being prepared. Concepts for high precision polarization and energy measurements exist. These concepts have resulted in detailed system layouts that are included in the RDR description for the Beam Delivery System. The RDR includes both upstream and downstream polarimeters and energy spectrometers for both beams. This provides needed complementarity and redundancy for achieving the precision required, with adequate control and demonstration of systematic errors. The BDS polarimeters and energy spectrometers need to be a joint effort of the ILC BDS team and the Detector collaborations, with collaboration members responsible for the performance and accuracy of the measurements. Details for this collaboration and assigning of responsibilities remain to be worked out. There is also a demonstrated need for Detector physicists to play an active role in the design and evaluation of accelerator components that impact beam polarization and beam energy capabilities, including the polarized source and spin rotator systems. A workshop was held in 2008 on ILC Polarization and Energy measurements, which resulted in a set of recommendations for the ILC design and operation. Additional input and action is needed on these from the Detector collaborations, the Research Director and the GDE. Work is continuing during the ILC engineering design phase to further optimize the polarimeter and energy spectrometer concepts and fully implement them in the ILC. This includes consideration for alternative methods, detailed design and cost estimates, and prototype and test beam activities.

  9. A molecular beam/quadrupole mass spectrometer system with synchronized beam modulation and digital waveform analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Adams, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    A performance evaluation is conducted for a molecular beam/mass spectrometer (MB/MS) system, as applied to a 1-30 torr microwave-discharge flow reactor (MWFR) used in the formation of the methylperoxy radical and a study of its subsequent destruction in the presence or absence of NO(x). The modulated MB/MS system is four-staged and differentially pumped. The results obtained by the MWFR study is illustrative of overall system performance, including digital waveform analysis; significant improvements over previous designs are noted in attainable S/N ratio, detection limit, and accuracy.

  10. A Laser Lock System using Multiple Overlapping Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Stuart; Francis, Ben; Erickson, Christopher; Durfee, Dallin

    2010-10-01

    We describe a system wherein the lock of trapping, ionizing, and ion resonance lasers for a Sr experiment are bootstrapped together in a single neutral atom vapor cell. This is done by overlapping beams to optically pump the atoms into the necessary states.

  11. 9. VIEW OF THE BEAM SYSTEM OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF THE BEAM SYSTEM OF SARATOGA GAS LIGHT COMPANY GASHOLDER NO. 2 HOUSE, LOOKING EAST. WHITE (PAINTED) CAST IRON TIE PLATES ARE VISIBLE ON BASE OF ROOF TRUSSES. - Saratoga Gas Light Company, Gasholder No. 2, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Substation Facility, intersection of Excelsior & East Avenues, Saratoga Springs, NY

  12. A scanned beam THz imaging system for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Li, Wenzao; Suen, Jon; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bennett, David; Bajwa, Neha; Brown, Elliott; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Singh, Rahul

    2011-10-01

    THz medical imaging has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of suitable applications. One aspect of THz medical imaging research not often adequately addressed is pixel acquisition rate and phenomenology. The majority of active THz imaging systems use translation stages to raster scan a sample beneath a fixed THz beam. While these techniques have produced high resolution images of characterization targets and animal models they do not scale well to human imaging where clinicians are unwilling to place patients on large translation stages. This paper presents a scanned beam THz imaging system that can acquire a 1 cm2 area with 1 mm2 pixels and a per-pixel SNR of 40 dB in less than 5 seconds. The system translates a focused THz beam across a stationary target using a spinning polygonal mirror and HDPE objective lens. The illumination is centered at 525 GHz with ~ 125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth and the component layout is designed to optically co-locate the stationary source and detector ensuring normal incidence across a 50 mm × 50 mm field of view at standoff of 190 mm. Component characterization and images of a test target are presented. These results are some of the first ever reported for a short standoff, high resolution, scanned beam THz imaging system and represent an important step forward for practical integration of THz medical imaging where fast image acquisition times and stationary targets (patients) are requisite.

  13. Beam position monitor system of J-PARC RCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, N.; Kawase, M.; Hatakeyama, S.; Hiroki, S.; Saeki, R.; Takahashi, H.; Teruyama, Y.; Toyokawa, R.; Arakawa, D.; Hiramatsu, S.; Lee, S.; Satou, K.; Tejima, M.; Toyama, T.

    2012-06-01

    The J-PARC RCS is a 25 Hz Rapid-Cycling proton Synchrotron and its designed beam power is 1 MW. The beam position monitor (BPM) system at J-PARC RCS is described in this paper. The pre-defined diameter of the BPM detectors is larger than 250 mm, however, the system has to measure the beam position very accurately. In addition, it is necessary to have a large dynamic range. The system should work not only for the high intensity but also for low intensity, such as during beam commissioning, when the intensity is below 1% of the design intensity. There are 54 BPM detectors around the ring and most of them are placed inside steering magnets because of quite limited space. The BPM detector is an electro-static type and it has four electrodes, and a pair of electrodes gives a good linear response with a diagonal cut shape to detect the charge center precisely. The signal processing units, which are equipped with 14-bit 40 MS/s ADC and 600 MHz DSP, have been developed. They are accessed via shared memory space and controlled by EPICS. Such a processing unit is capable of recording the full 25 Hz pulse data for the so-called "COD mode" (averaged beam position calculation) and it can also store the whole waveform data for further analysis, like turn-by-turn position calculation. The resolution was estimated to be 20 μm for "COD mode" and to be 0.3 mm for the turn-by-turn mode with relatively low intensity of 8×1011 ppp. The position accuracy is estimated to be about 0.5 mm using a newly developed Beam Based Alignment (BBA) method.

  14. Beam Splitter For Welding-Torch Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    Compact welding torch equipped with along-the-torch vision system includes cubic beam splitter to direct preview light on weldment and to reflect light coming from welding scene for imaging. Beam splitter integral with torch; requires no external mounting brackets. Rugged and withstands vibrations and wide range of temperatures. Commercially available, reasonably priced, comes in variety of sizes and optical qualities with antireflection and interference-filter coatings on desired faces. Can provide 50 percent transmission and 50 percent reflection of incident light to exhibit minimal ghosting of image.

  15. Exact element modal analysis of beam/oscillator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broome, Taft H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Exact modal analysis of a beam/many-oscillator system is presented. Each oscillator consists of a discrete mass having rotational inertia, and two locally-dependent springs: one being rotational and the other, translational. A constant longitudinal force is applied to the mass, and its effect is coupled with the dynamic modes. The beam's distributed mass and other material properties, and its geometric properties, do not vary within spans bounded by the oscillators, but may vary from span to span. The classical separation-of-variables technique is used to obtain a dosedform description of the dynamic matrix, and the modal frequencies are determined as the zeros of this determinant.

  16. Implementation of Beam-Loss Monitor systems for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.G.

    1994-07-01

    Beam-Loss Monitors (BLM) are used with each accelerator in the Superconducting Super Collider complex. The primary purpose of these detectors is to protect the accelerators from damage due to the loss of protons. Although the range of primary beam energies to be covered is very large, 20 MeV to 20 TeV, we plan to maintain commonality of detectors and electronics as much as possible. In this report the plans for developing and implementing BLM systems for each of the accelerators will be discussed. Possible solutions to problems that have been identified are presented.

  17. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  18. Portable Electron-Beam Free-Form Fabrication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. Kevin; Petersen, Daniel D.; Taminger, Karen M.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    A portable electron-beam free-form fabrication (EB F3) system, now undergoing development, is intended to afford a capability for manufacturing metal parts in nearly net sizes and shapes. Although the development effort is oriented toward the eventual use of systems like this one to supply spare metal parts aboard spacecraft in flight, the basic system design could also be adapted to terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to supply spare parts on demand at locations remote from warehouses and conventional manufacturing facilities. Prior systems that have been considered for satisfying the same requirements (including prior free-form fabrication systems) are not easily portable because of their bulk and massive size. The mechanical properties of the components that such systems produce are often inferior to the mechanical properties of the corresponding original, conventionally fabricated components. In addition, the prior systems are not efficient in the utilization of energy and of feedstock. In contrast, the present developmental system is designed to be sufficiently compact and lightweight to be easily portable, to utilize both energy and material more efficiently, and to produce components that have mechanical properties approximating those of the corresponding original components. The developmental EB F3 system will include a vacuum chamber and associated vacuum pumps, an electron-beam gun and an associated power supply, a multiaxis positioning subsystem, a precise wire feeder, and an instrumentation system for monitoring and control. The electron-beam gun, positioning subsystem, and wire feeder will be located inside the vacuum chamber (see figure). The electron beam gun and the wire feeder will be mounted in fixed positions inside the domed upper portion of the vacuum chamber. The positioning subsystem and ports for the vacuum pumps will be located on a base that could be dropped down to provide full access to the interior of the chamber

  19. Physics Design Considerations for Diagnostic X Beam Transport System

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-J; Paul, A C

    2000-08-01

    Diagnostic X (D-X) transport system would extract the beam from the downstream transport line of the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-II[1]) and transport this beam to the D-X firing point via four branches of the beamline in order to provide four lines of sight for x-ray radiography. The design goal is to generate four DARHT-II-like x-ray pulses on each line of sight. In this paper, we discuss several potential beam quality degradation processes in the passive magnet lattice beamline and indicate how they constrain the D-X beamline design parameters, such as the background pressure, the pipe size, and the pipe material.

  20. THE SUPERCONDUCTION MAGNETS OF THE ILC BEAM DELIVERY SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    PARKER,B.; ANEREELA, M.; ESCALLIE, J.; HE, P.; JAIN, A.; MARONE, A.; NOSOCHKOV, Y.; SERYI, A.

    2007-06-25

    The ILC Reference Design Report was completed early in February 2007. The Magnet Systems Group was formed to translate magnetic field requirements into magnet designs and cost estimates for the Reference Design. As presently configured, the ILC will have more than 13,000 magnetic elements of which more than 2300 will be based on superconducting technology. This paper will describe the major superconducting magnet needs for the ILC as presently determined by the Area Systems Groups, responsible for beam line design, working with the Magnet Systems Group. The superconducting magnet components include Main Linac quadrupoles, Positron Source undulators, Damping Ring wigglers, a complex array of Final Focus superconducting elements in the Beam Delivery System, and large superconducting solenoids in the e{sup +} and e{sup -} Sources, and the Ring to Main Linac lines.

  1. Ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettiol, Andrew A.; Mi, Zhaohong; Vanga, Sudheer Kumar; Chen, Ce-belle; Tao, Ye; Watt, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Imaging fluorescence generated by MeV ions in biological systems such as cells and tissue sections requires a high resolution beam (<100 nm), a sensitive detection system and a fluorescent probe that has a high quantum efficiency and low bleaching rate. For cutting edge applications in bioimaging, the fluorescence imaging technique needs to break the optical diffraction limit allowing for sub-cellular structure to be visualized, leading to a better understanding of cellular function. In a nuclear microprobe this resolution requirement can be readily achieved utilizing low beam current techniques such as Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM). In recent times, we have been able to extend this capability to fluorescence imaging through the development of a new high efficiency fluorescence detection system, and through the use of new novel fluorescent probes that are resistant to ion beam damage (bleaching). In this paper we demonstrate ion beam induced fluorescence imaging in several biological samples, highlighting the advantages and challenges associated with using this technique.

  2. Proton beam scattering system optimization for clinical and research applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wroe, A. J.; Schulte, R. W.; Slater, J. D.; Barnes, S.; McAuley, G.; Slater, J. M.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To develop and test a method for optimizing and constructing a dual scattering system in passively scattered proton therapy. Methods: A beam optics optimization algorithm was developed to optimize the thickness of the first scatterer (S1) and the profile (of both the high-Z material and Lexan) of the second scatterer (S2) to deliver a proton beam matching a given set of parameters, including field diameter, fluence, flatness, and symmetry. A new manufacturing process was also tested that allows the contoured second scattering foil to be created much more economically and quickly using Cerrobend casting. Two application-specific scattering systems were developed and tested using both experimental and Monte Carlo techniques to validate the optimization process described. Results: A scattering system was optimized and constructed to deliver large uniform irradiations of radiobiology samples at low dose rates. This system was successfully built and tested using film and ionization chambers. The system delivered a uniform radiation field of 50 cm diameter (to a dose of {+-}7% of the central axis) while the depth dose profile could be tuned to match the specifications of the particular investigator using modulator wheels and range shifters. A second scattering system for intermediate field size (4 cm < diameter < 10 cm) stereotactic radiosurgery and radiation therapy (SRS and SRT) treatments was also developed and tested using GEANT4. This system improved beam efficiency by over 70% compared with existing scattering systems while maintaining field flatness and depth dose profile. In both cases the proton range uniformity across the radiation field was maintained, further indicating the accuracy of the energy loss formalism in the optimization algorithm. Conclusions: The methods described allow for rapid prototyping of scattering foils to meet the demands of both research and clinical beam delivery applications in proton therapy.

  3. Beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.

    1993-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and X-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the vacuum chamber eddy current induced by the AC corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the X-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will be presented.

  4. Modified read-out system of the beam phase measurement system for CSNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jiao-Ni; Zeng, Lei; Wang, Biao; Li, Peng; Li, Fang; Xu, Tao-Guang; Li, Zi-Gao

    2013-10-01

    The customized beam phase measurement system can meet the requirement of beam loss control of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ). However, its read-out part cannot satisfy the requirement of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). CSNS uses the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) as its control system. So it is necessary to develop the EPICS read-out system consisting of EPICS IOC databases, driver support and OPIs. The new system has been successfully tested in the RFQ. In the future, it will be applied to the beam diagnostics of CSNS.

  5. A computational procedure for multibody systems including flexible beam dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, J. D.; Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure suitable for the solution of equations of motions for flexible multibody systems has been developed. The flexible beams are modeled using a fully nonlinear theory which accounts for both finite rotations and large deformations. The present formulation incorporates physical measures of conjugate Cauchy stress and covariant strain increments. As a consequence, the beam model can easily be interfaced with real-time strain measurements and feedback control systems. A distinct feature of the present work is the computational preservation of total energy for undamped systems; this is obtained via an objective strain increment/stress update procedure combined with an energy-conserving time integration algorithm which contains an accurate update of angular orientations. The procedure is demonstrated via several example problems.

  6. Beam loss ion chamber system upgrade for experimental halls

    SciTech Connect

    D. Dotson; D. Seidman

    2005-08-01

    The Beam loss Ion Chamber System (BLICS) was developed to protect Jefferson Labs transport lines, targets and beam dumps from a catastrophic ''burn through''. Range changes and testing was accomplished manually requiring the experiment to be shut down. The new upgraded system is based around an ''off the shelf'' Programmable Logic Controller located in a single control box supporting up to ten individual detectors. All functions that formerly required an entry into the experimental hall and manual adjustment can be accomplished from the Machine Control Center (MCC). A further innovation was the addition of a High Voltage ''Brick'' at the detector location. A single cable supplies the required voltage for the Brick and a return line for the ion chamber signal. The read back screens display range, trip point, and accumulated dose for each location. The new system is very cost effective and significantly reduces the amount of lost experimental time.

  7. Beam Loss Ion Chamber System Upgrade for Experimental Halls

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Dotson; D.J. Seidman

    2005-05-16

    The Beam loss Ion Chamber System (BLICS) was developed to protect Jefferson Labs transport lines, targets and beam dumps from a catastrophic ''burn through''. Range changes and testing was accomplished manually requiring the experiment to be shut down. The new upgraded system is based around an ''off the shelf'' Programmable Logic Controller located in a single control box supporting up to ten individual detectors. All functions that formerly required an entry into the experimental hall and manual adjustment can be accomplished from the Machine Control Center (MCC). A further innovation was the addition of a High Voltage ''Brick'' at the detector location. A single cable supplies the required voltage for the Brick and a return line for the ion chamber signal. The read back screens display range, trip point, and accumulated dose for each location. The new system is very cost effective and significantly reduces the amount of lost experimental time.

  8. RHIC Beam Loss Monitor System Design and Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkover, R.; Zitvogel, E.; Michnoff, R.

    1997-05-01

    The Beam Loss Monitor System is designed to prevent the quenching of RHIC magnets due to beam loss, provide quantitative loss data, and the loss history in the event of a beam abort. To satisfy fast (single turn) and slow (100 msec) loss beam abort criteria and provide sensitivity for studies measurements, a range of over 8 decades is needed. The system uses 400 ion chambers of a modified Tevatron design. An RC pre-integrator reduces the dynamic range for a low current amplifier. This is digitized by a standard RHIC VME MADC preceded by a switchable gain amplifier. The output also goes to an analog multiplier used to reduce energy dependence, extending the range of the abort comparators. Fast and slow filters separate the signal to dual comparators with independent trip levels. The gains, fast and slow abort levels, and abort bit masks are set for each channel on receipt of specific RHIC Event Codes. Up to 64 channels, on 8 VME boards, are controlled by a BNL designed micro-controller based VME module, decoupling it from the front-end computer for real-time operation.

  9. The Final Focus Test Beam laser referene system

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, V.E.; Ruland, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    The original design for the SLAC linac included an alignment reference system with 270 diffraction gratings situated along the 3000 meter linac. These gratings have provided SLAC with a global reference line repeatable to within 200 micro meters. For the Final Focus Test Beam, this laser system has been extended and 13 new diffraction gratings have been installed. Improvements targets and the availability of new instruments allows us to evaluate the performance of the laser reference system at the 510 micro meter level. An explanation of the system and the results of our evaluation are presented.

  10. Design of a Particle Beam Satellite System for Lunar Prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berwald, D. H.; Nordin, P.

    1993-01-01

    One potential use for neutral particle beam (NPB) technology is as an active orbital probe to investigate the composition of selected locations on the lunar surface. Because the beam is narrow and can be precisely directed, the NPB probe offers possibilities for high resolution experiments that cannot be accomplished using passive techniques. Rather, the combination of both passive and active techniques can be used to provide both full-coverage mapping (passively) at low resolution (tens of kilometers) and high-resolution information for discrete locations of special interest. A preliminary study of NPB applicability for this dual-use application was recently conducted. The study was completed in Feb. 1993. A novel feature was the consideration of the use of a Russian launch vehicle (e.g., the Proton). The use of other Russian space hardware and capabilities was also encouraged. This paper describes the lunar prospector system design. Other researchers discuss the issues and opportunities involving lunar scientific experimentation using an NPB. The NPB lunar prospector utilizes a modified design of the Far Field Optics Experiment (FOX). Like the Earth-orbiting FOX, the core capability of the NPB lunar prospector will be a pulsed RF LINAC that produces a 5-MeV proton beam that is projected to the target with a 30-micro-r beam divergence and a 10-micro-r beam-pointing accuracy. Upon striking the lunar surface, the proton beam will excite characteristic radiation (e.g., X-rays) that can be sensed by one or more detectors on the NPB platform or on a separate detector satellite.

  11. Cavity Beam Position Monitor System for ATF2

    SciTech Connect

    Boogert, Stewart; Boorman, Gary; Swinson, Christina; Ainsworth, Robert; Molloy, Stephen; Aryshev, Alexander; Honda, Yosuke; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; Frisch, Josef; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Nelson, Janice; Smith, Tonee; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Heo, Ae-young; Kim, Eun-San; Kim, Hyoung-Suk; Kim, Youngim; /Kyungpook Natl. U. /University Coll. London /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Fermilab /Pohang Accelerator Lab.

    2012-07-09

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) in KEK, Japan, is a prototype scaled demonstrator system for the final focus required for a future high energy lepton linear collider. The ATF2 beam-line is instrumented with a total of 38 C and S band resonant cavity beam position monitors (CBPM) with associated mixer electronics and digitizers. The current status of the BPM system is described, with a focus on operational techniques and performance. The ATF2 C-band system is performing well, with individual CBPM resolution approaching or at the design resolution of 50 nm. The changes in the CBPM calibration observed over three weeks can probably be attributed to thermal effects on the mixer electronics systems. The CW calibration tone power will be upgraded to monitor changes in the electronics gain and phase. The four S-band CBPMs are still to be investigated, the main problem associated with these cavities is a large cross coupling between the x and y ports. This combined with the large design dispersion in that degion makes the digital signal processing difficult, although various techniques exist to determine the cavity parameters and use these coupled signals for beam position determination.

  12. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-08-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast in a rapid prototyping manner, to hard polymers that could even be produced by injection moulding, or to silica in which waveguides may either be written directly, or with grooves for optical fibers. Here, we review different solutions to the system and also show results obtained in a polymer chip with DUV written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers.

  13. The system of RF beam control for electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnyakov, A. M.; Chernousov, Yu. D.; Ivannikov, V. I.; Levichev, A. E.; Shebolaev, I. V.

    2015-06-01

    The system of RF control of three-electrode electron gun current is described. It consists of a source of microwave signal, coaxial line, coaxial RF switch and RF antenna lead. The system allows one to get the electron beam in the form of bunches with the frequency of the accelerating section to achieve the capture of particles in the acceleration mode close to 100%. The results of calculation and analysis of the elements of the system are presented. Characteristics of the devices are obtained experimentally. The results of using RF control in three-electrode electron gun at electron linear accelerator are described.

  14. Design method for four-reflector type beam waveguide systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betsudan, S.; Katagi, T.; Urasaki, S.

    1986-01-01

    Discussed is a method for the design of four reflector type beam waveguide feed systems, comprised of a conical horn and 4 focused reflectors, which are used widely as the primary reflector systems for communications satellite Earth station antennas. The design parameters for these systems are clarified, the relations between each parameter are brought out based on the beam mode development, and the independent design parameters are specified. The characteristics of these systems, namely spillover loss, crosspolarization components, and frequency characteristics, and their relation to the design parameters, are also shown. It is also indicated that design parameters which decide the dimensions of the conical horn or the shape of the focused reflectors can be unerringly established once the design standard for the system has been selected as either: (1) minimizing the crosspolarization component by keeping the spillover loss to within acceptable limits, or (2) minimizing the spillover loss by maintaining the crossover components below an acceptable level and the independent design parameters, such as the respective sizes of the focused reflectors and the distances between the focussed reflectors, etc., have been established according to mechanical restrictions. A sample design is also shown. In addition to being able to clarify the effects of each of the design parameters on the system and improving insight into these systems, the efficiency of these systems will also be increased with this design method.

  15. Compact Simultaneous-beam Optical Strain Measurement System, Phase 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lant, Christian T.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances on the laser speckle strain measurement system under development at NASA Lewis Research Center have resulted in a compact, easy-to-use measurement package having many performance improvements over previous systems. NASA has developed this high performance optical strain measurement system for high temperature material testing applications. The system is based on I. Yamaguchi's two-beam speckle-shift strain measurement theory, and uses a new optical design that allows simultaneous recording of laser speckle patterns. This design greatly improves system response over previous implementations of the two-beam speckle-shift technique. The degree of immunity to transient rigid body motions is no longer dependent on the data transfer rate. The system automatically calculates surface strains at a frequency of about 5 Hz using a high speed digital signal processor in a personal computer. This system is fully automated, and can be operated remotely. This report describes the designs and methods used by the system, and shows low temperature strain test results obtained from small diameter tungsten-rhenium and palladium-chrome wires.

  16. The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor Readout System

    SciTech Connect

    Dusatko, John; Browne, M.; Fisher, A.S.; Kotturi, D.; Norum, S.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor System is required to detect any loss radiation seen by the FEL undulators. The undulator segments consist of permanent magnets which are very sensitive to radiation damage. The operational goal is to keep demagnetization below 0.01% over the life of the LCLS. The BLM system is designed to help achieve this goal by detecting any loss radiation and indicating a fault condition if the radiation level exceeds a certain threshold. Upon reception of this fault signal, the LCLS Machine Protection System takes appropriate action by either halting or rate limiting the beam. The BLM detector consists of a PMT coupled to a Cherenkov radiator located near the upstream end of each undulator segment. There are 33 BLMs in the system, one per segment. The detectors are read out by a dedicated system that is integrated directly into the LCLS MPS. The BLM readout system provides monitoring of radiation levels, computation of integrated doses, detection of radiation excursions beyond set thresholds, fault reporting and control of BLM system functions. This paper describes the design, construction and operational performance of the BLM readout system.

  17. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  18. Flexible beam shaping system using fly's eye condenser.

    PubMed

    Lindlein, Norbert; Bich, Andreas; Eisner, Martin; Harder, Irina; Lano, Maik; Voelkel, Reinhard; Weible, Ken; Zimmermann, Maik

    2010-04-20

    Normally, fly's eye condensers are used to homogenize light. However, in the case of fully coherent light, a fly's eye condenser, in connection with some simple optical elements, such as a diffractive axicon, a grating, and a telescope, can be used as a quite flexible beam shaping system, forming arrays of rings, parts of rings, or other structures with varying diameters. We present the principle, some simulation results, and some first experimental results. PMID:20411020

  19. Method and system for treating an interior surface of a workpiece using a charged particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, David Richard

    2007-05-23

    A method and system of treating an interior surface on an internal cavity of a workpiece using a charged particle beam. A beam deflector surface of a beam deflector is placed within the internal cavity of the workpiece and is used to redirect the charged particle beam toward the interior surface to treat the interior surface.

  20. The Timing System of the Neutral Beam Injector on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Peng; Hu, Chundong; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Cui, Qinglong; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wu, Deyun; Zhang, Rui; Lin, Yulian

    2015-05-01

    In order to synchronize the elements of the EAST Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) spatially located in several places, a distributed Timing System (TS) is developed in this paper. The timing system provides a clock reference for synchronization and an interlock protection of the EAST NBI system. It sends timing signals to field devices, controls the pulse widths of the timing sequences, and provides a sampling clock for the Data Acquisition System (DAS). The timing system also generates analog waveforms to control power supplies and gas supplies according to the operator's configuration. The timing system is developed on a PXI (PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation) platform consisting of a LabVIEW workstation and a timing control terminal. The timing control terminal consists of a timing node and several control interface crates. Two timing nodes are configured in one beam line. Each node is responsible for the timing sequence, analog generation and feedback control for one ion source. The architecture and implementation of the timing system are presented in this paper.

  1. An electron beam imaging system for quality assurance in IORT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, F.; Rossi, M.; Morigi, M. P.; Brancaccio, R.; Paltrinieri, E.; Bettuzzi, M.; Romani, D.; Ciocca, M.; Tosi, G.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, M.

    2004-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy is a special radiotherapy technique, which enables a high dose of radiation to be given in a single fraction during oncological surgery. The major stumbling block to the large-scale application of the technique is the transfer of the patient, with an open wound, from the operating room to the radiation therapy bunker, with the consequent organisational problems and the increased risk of infection. To overcome these limitations, in the last few years a new kind of linear accelerator, the Novac 7, conceived for direct use in the surgical room, has become available. Novac 7 can deliver electron beams of different energies (3, 5, 7 and 9 MeV), with a high dose rate (up to 20 Gy/min). The aim of this work, funded by ENEA in the framework of a research contract, is the development of an innovative system for on-line measurements of 2D dose distributions and electron beam characterisation, before radiotherapy treatment with Novac 7. The system is made up of the following components: (a) an electron-light converter; (b) a 14 bit cooled CCD camera; (c) a personal computer with an ad hoc written software for image acquisition and processing. The performances of the prototype have been characterised experimentally with different electron-light converters. Several tests have concerned the assessment of the detector response as a function of impulse number and electron beam energy. Finally, the experimental results concerning beam profiles have been compared with data acquired with other dosimetric techniques. The achieved results make it possible to say that the developed system is suitable for fast quality assurance measurements and verification of 2D dose distributions.

  2. Beam delivery system with a non-digitized diffractive beam splitter for laser-drilling of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amako, J.; Fujii, E.

    2016-02-01

    We report a beam-delivery system consisting of a non-digitized diffractive beam splitter and a Fourier transform lens. The system is applied to the deep-drilling of silicon using a nanosecond pulse laser in the manufacture of inkjet printer heads. In this process, a circularly polarized pulse beam is divided into an array of uniform beams, which are then delivered precisely to the process points. To meet these requirements, the splitter was designed to be polarization-independent with an efficiency>95%. The optical elements were assembled so as to allow the fine tuning of the effective overall focal length by adjusting the wavefront curvature of the beam. Using the system, a beam alignment accuracy of<5 μm was achieved for a 12-mm-wide beam array and the throughput was substantially improved (10,000 points on a silicon wafer drilled in ~1 min). This beam-delivery scheme works for a variety of laser applications that require parallel processing.

  3. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, J. M.; Budde, M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensen, J. P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.

    2016-09-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.

  4. Heavy ion beam probe systems for tight aspect ratio tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, A.V.; Zimeleva, L.G.; Krupnik, L.I.; Nedzelskij, I.S.; Trofimenko, Y.V.; Minaev, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the specific features of the application of heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) systems to tight aspect ratio tokamaks. We present and compare the HIBP projects for the TUMAN-3, GLOBUS, and COMPASS, where the inner part of the plasma is not available for regular chord diagnostics, so the HIBP becomes very desirable. All existing tight aspect ratio facilities and projects have a low (less than 1.9 T) toroidal field that requires a comparatively low beam energy range. The natural elongation and triangularity in tight aspect ratio tokamaks require an accurate calculation of the three-dimensional magnetic field for probing optimization. In comparison with traditional tokamaks, the detector grids have a wider energy interval. In general, the trajectories and detector grids for tight aspect ratio tokamaks become similar to the stellarator ones. Traditional and new probing schemes are suggested and discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Transport of intense proton beam in the presence of subdominant species in a low energy beam transport system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, P. Sing; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of space-charge-dominated low energy proton beam in the presence of H2+ and H3+ beams has been studied in a solenoid based transport system using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation method. Multispecies envelope equation and random search technique have been used to transport and match the primary beam considering two options. The PIC simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H2+ and H3+ beams around the proton beam in the first case where the waist of the proton beam is formed in between the solenoids and it is absent in the second case where the beam size is kept large in between the solenoids. Separation of hollow distribution appears more distinct as the proton fraction is increased and is almost independent of the combination of H2+ and H3+ beams for a given proton fraction. This effect helps to reject the unwanted species more effectively. The evolution of rms size and emittance of the proton beam has been studied in the presence of a circular aperture using KV and Gaussian distributions for the species in both the cases.

  6. Instantaneous electron beam emittance measurement system based on the optical transition radiation principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Kai-Zhi; Yang, Guo-Jun; Shi, Jin-Shui; Deng, Jian-Jun; Li, Jin

    2014-01-01

    One kind of instantaneous electron beam emittance measurement system based on the optical transition radiation principle and double imaging optical method has been set up. It is mainly adopted in the test for the intense electron-beam produced by a linear induction accelerator. The system features two characteristics. The first one concerns the system synchronization signal triggered by the following edge of the main output waveform from a Blumlein switch. The synchronous precision of about 1 ns between the electron beam and the image capture time can be reached in this way so that the electron beam emittance at the desired time point can be obtained. The other advantage of the system is the ability to obtain the beam spot and beam divergence in one measurement so that the calculated result is the true beam emittance at that time, which can explain the electron beam condition. It provides to be a powerful beam diagnostic method for a 2.5 kA, 18.5 MeV, 90 ns (FWHM) electron beam pulse produced by Dragon I. The ability of the instantaneous measurement is about 3 ns and it can measure the beam emittance at any time point during one beam pulse. A series of beam emittances have been obtained for Dragon I. The typical beam spot is 9.0 mm (FWHM) in diameter and the corresponding beam divergence is about 10.5 mrad.

  7. Diode laser satellite systems for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Kwon, J. H.; Walker, G. H.; Humes, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    A power system composed of an orbiting laser satellite and a surface-based receiver/converter is described. Power is transmitted from the satellite to the receiver/converter by laser beam. The satellite components are: (1) solar collector; (2) blackbody; (3) photovoltaic cells; (4) heat radiators; (5) laser system; and (6) transmission optics. The receiver/converter components are: receiver dish; lenticular lens; photocells; and heat radiator. Although the system can be adapted to missions at many locations in the solar system, only two are examined here: powering a lunar habitat; and powering a lunar rover. Power system components are described and their masses, dimensions, operating powers, and temperatures, are estimated using known or feasible component capabilities. The critical technologies involved are discussed and other potential missions are mentioned.

  8. A geometric calibration method for cone beam CT systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kai; Kwan, Alexander L. C.; Miller, DeWitt F.; Boone, John M.

    2006-06-15

    Cone beam CT systems are being deployed in large numbers for small animal imaging, dental imaging, and other specialty applications. A new high-precision method for cone beam CT system calibration is presented in this paper. It uses multiple projection images acquired from rotating point-like objects (metal ball bearings) and the angle information generated from the rotating gantry system is also used. It is assumed that the whole system has a mechanically stable rotation center and that the detector does not have severe out-of-plane rotation (<2 deg.). Simple geometrical relationships between the orbital paths of individual BBs and five system parameters were derived. Computer simulations were employed to validate the accuracy of this method in the presence of noise. Equal or higher accuracy was achieved compared with previous methods. This method was implemented for the geometrical calibration of both a micro CT scanner and a breast CT scanner. The reconstructed tomographic images demonstrated that the proposed method is robust and easy to implement with high precision.

  9. Upgrade of beam energy measurement system at BEPC-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Yong; Cai, Xiao; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Guo, Di-Zhou; Wang, Jian-Li; Liu, Bai-Qi; Achasov, M. N.; Krasnov, A. A.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Pyata, E. E.; Mamoshkina, E. V.; Harris, F. A.

    2016-07-01

    The beam energy measurement system is of great importance for both BEPC-II accelerator and BES-III detector. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. In order to meet the requirements of data taking and improve the measurement accuracy, the system has continued to be upgraded, which involves the updating of laser and optics subsystems, replacement of a view-port of the laser to the vacuum insertion subsystem, the use of an electric cooling system for a high purity germanium detector, and improvement of the data acquisition and processing subsystem. The upgrade system guarantees the smooth and efficient measurement of beam energy at BEPC-II and enables accurate offline energy values for further physics analysis at BES-III. Supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)(11375206, 10775142, 10825524, 11125525, 11235011), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015CB856700, 2015CB856705), State key laboratory of particle and detection and electronics; and the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP); the RFBR grant(14-02-00129-a), U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, part of this work related to the design of ZnSe viewports is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (14-50-00080)

  10. Method and apparatus for timing of laser beams in a multiple laser beam fusion system

    DOEpatents

    Eastman, Jay M.; Miller, Theodore L.

    1981-01-01

    The optical path lengths of a plurality of comparison laser beams directed to impinge upon a common target from different directions are compared to that of a master laser beam by using an optical heterodyne interferometric detection technique. The technique consists of frequency shifting the master laser beam and combining the master beam with a first one of the comparison laser beams to produce a time-varying heterodyne interference pattern which is detected by a photo-detector to produce an AC electrical signal indicative of the difference in the optical path lengths of the two beams which were combined. The optical path length of this first comparison laser beam is adjusted to compensate for the detected difference in the optical path lengths of the two beams. The optical path lengths of all of the comparison laser beams are made equal to the optical path length of the master laser beam by repeating the optical path length adjustment process for each of the comparison laser beams. In this manner, the comparison laser beams are synchronized or timed to arrive at the target within .+-.1.times.10.sup.-12 second of each other.

  11. Beam measurements on the H- source and Low Energy Beam Transport system for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Thomae, R.; Gough, R.; Keller, R.; Leung, K.N.; Schenkel, T.; Aleksandrov, A.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2001-09-01

    The ion source and Low Energy Beam Transport section of the front-end systems presently being built by Berkeley Lab are required to provide 50 mA of H - beam current at 6% duty factor (1 ms pulses at 60 Hz) with a normalized rms emittance of less than 0.20 p-mm-mrad. Experimental results, including emittance, chopping, and steering measurements, on the performance of the ion source and LEBT system operated at the demanded beam parameters will be discussed.

  12. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  13. Beam Pipe HOM Absorber for 750 MHz RF Cavity Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland; Neubauer, Michael

    2014-10-29

    This joint project of Muons, Inc., Cornell University and SLAC was supported by a Phase I and Phase II grant monitored by the SBIR Office of Science of the DOE. Beam line HOM absorbers are a critical part of future linear colliders. The use of lossy materials at cryogenic temperatures has been incorporated in several systems. The design in beam pipes requires cylinders of lossy material mechanically confined in such a way as to absorb the microwave energy from the higher-order modes and remove the heat generated in the lossy material. Furthermore, the potential for charge build-up on the surface of the lossy material requires the conductivity of the material to remain consistent from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this program a mechanical design was developed that solved several design constraints: a) fitting into the existing Cornell load vacuum component, b) allowing the use of different material compositions, c) a thermal design that relied upon the compression of the lossy ceramic material without adding stress. Coating experiments were performed that indicated the design constraints needed to fully implement this approach for solving the charge build-up problem inherent in using lossy ceramics. In addition, the ACE3P program, used to calculate the performance of lossy cylinders in beam pipes in general, was supported by this project. Code development and documentation to allow for the more wide spread use of the program was a direct result of this project was well.

  14. Optimization of electrostatic dual-grid beam-deflection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Lathem, W. C.; Power, J. L.; Banks, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were performed to minimize accelerator grid erosion of a 5-cm diameter Kaufman ion thruster due to direct beam impingement. Several different screen hole diameters, pillow-shape-square screen holes, and dished screen grids were tried. The optimization was accomplished by copper plating the accelerator grid before testing each grid configuration on a thruster for a 2-hour run. The thruster beam sputtered copper and molybdenum from the accelerator grid where the beam impinged. The observed erosion patterns and measured accelerator currents were used to determine how to modify the accelerator system. The lowest erosion was obtained for a 50-percent open area pillow-shape-square-aperture screen grid, dished 0.043 centimeter convex toward the accelerator grid, which was positioned with the center of the screen grid 0.084 centimeter from the accelerator grid. During this investigation the accelerator current was reduced from 120 to 55 microamperes and was also more uniformly distributed over the area of the accelerator grid.

  15. Development of polyatomic ion beam system using liquid organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, G. H.; Nishida, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Kawashita, M.

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a new type of polyatomic ion beam system using liquid organic materials such as octane and ethanol, which consists of a capillary type of nozzle, an ionizer, a mass-separator and a substrate holder. Ion current extracted after ionization was 430 μA for octane and 200 μA for ethanol, respectively. The mass-analysis was realized using a compact E × B mass filter, and the mass-analyzed ion beams were transferred toward the substrate. The ion current density at the substrate was a few μA/cm2 for the mass-separated ion species. Interactions of polyatomic ion beams with silicon (Si) surfaces were investigated by utilizing the ellipsometry measurement. It was found that the damaged layer thickness irradiated by the polyatomic ions with a mass number of about 40 was smaller than that by Ar ion irradiation at the same incident energy and ion fluence. The result indicated that the rupture of polyatomic ions occurred upon its impact on the Si surface with an incident energy larger than a few keV. In addition, the chemical modification of Si surfaces such as wettability could be achieved by adjusting the incident energy for the ethanol ions, which included all the fragment ions.

  16. DIII-D Neutral Beam control system operator interface

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.J.; Campbell, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    A centralized graphical user interface has been added to the DIII-D Neutral Beam (NB) control systems for status monitoring and remote control applications. This user interface provides for automatic data acquisition, alarm detection and supervisory control of the four NB programmable logic controllers (PLC) as well as the Mode Control PLC. These PLCs are used for interlocking, control and status of the NB vacuum pumping, gas delivery, and water cooling systems as well as beam mode status and control. The system allows for both a friendly user interface as well as a safe and convenient method of communicating with remote hardware that formerly required interns to access. In the future, to enable high level of control of PLC subsystems, complete procedures is written and executed at the touch of a screen control panel button. The system consists of an IBM compatible 486 computer running the FIX DMACS{trademark} for Windows{trademark} data acquisition and control interface software, a Texas Instruments/Siemens communication card and Phoenix Digital optical communications modules. Communication is achieved via the TIWAY (Texas Instruments protocol link utilizing both fiber optic communications and a copper local area network (LAN). Hardware and software capabilities will be reviewed. Data and alarm reporting, extended monitoring and control capabilities will also be discussed.

  17. Programmable Beam Spatial Shaping System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heebner, J; Borden, M; Miller, P; Hunter, S; Christensen, K; Scanlan, M; Haynam, C; Wegner, P; Hermann, M; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Awwal, A; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Williams, K; Budge, T; Henesian, M; Stolz, C; Suratwala, T; Monticelli, M; Walmer, D; Dixit, S; Widmayer, C; Wolfe, J; Bude, J; McCarty, K; DiNicola, J M

    2011-01-21

    A system of customized spatial light modulators has been installed onto the front end of the laser system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The devices are capable of shaping the beam profile at a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain. Their primary function is to introduce 'blocker' obscurations at programmed locations within the beam profile. These obscurations are positioned to shadow small, isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. The modulators were designed to enable a drop-in retrofit of each of the 48 existing Pre Amplifier Modules (PAMs) without compromising their original performance specifications. This was accomplished by use of transmissive Optically Addressable Light Valves (OALV) based on a Bismuth Silicon Oxide photoconductive layer in series with a twisted nematic liquid crystal (LC) layer. These Programmable Spatial Shaper packages in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy have provided a robust approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics on NIF.

  18. Individual information beam broadcasting system using a PAL-SLM based CGH beam former for the location based information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Shunichi; Itoh, Hideo; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Takuichi; Lin, Xin; Tokuda, Masamitsu

    2006-01-01

    As an implementation of ubiquitous information service environments, we have been researching location-based information service systems at indoor and short distance area. The system should provide adequate information services, which fit the user's attributes, such as language, knowledge level and the volume of information, what is so-called "Right now, Here, and for Me" information services. Keeping privacy and security of the user is an important issue. Spatial optical communication technique is used for the system because the technique is easy to implement a location- and direction-based communication system. Information broadcasting in an area can be realized by an omnidirectional modulated light emission. However, the omnidirectional beam causes spill out of secure information to others, and has lower energy conservation than a focused beam communication. In this paper, a new spatial optical information broadcasting system, which can focus modulated beams only to intended users. CGH (Computer Generated Hologram) technique on a SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) is proposed and demonstrated. The system is composed of a PAL-SLM (Parallel Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator), an eye-safe semiconductor laser or a semiconductor laser pumped YAG laser for the beam emitter, and an infrared video camera with an infrared LED illuminator for user locator. Experimental results of beam deflecting characteristics are described on beam uniformity, deflecting angle and the enhancement, communication characteristics, and real time tracking of user with a corner-reflecting sheet.

  19. Electrical noise control in e-beam processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, R.

    1996-12-31

    Electrical noise can be a problem in any system. The risk rises when the system contains an energetic noise source like an e-beam. Relief is more certain when facts about noise propagation are fresh in mind and this is a practical over-view of just these things. Though known singly by technical people, these effects are now brought together and related to one another. This discussion cites the practical importance of skin effect, conductor self-inductance, and the four coupling mechanisms including the justly feared conductively coupled {open_quotes}ground loop{close_quotes}. A look at the valuable yet inexpensive single Faraday-shield transformer leads to system concepts like incidental returns and the often overlooked need for intentional noise-abatement conductors. The wrap-up addresses practical matters like noise propagation through power wiring, followed by specific suggestions and examples of system layouts that inherently avoid harmful noise couplings.

  20. Vacuum Chamber for the Measurement System of the Beam Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumova, E.; Achasov, M.; Dong, HaiYi; Qu, HuaMin; Krasnov, A.; Kosarev, A.; Muchnoi, N.; Pyata, E.; Xiao, Qiong; Mo, XiaoHu; Wang, YiFang; Zhukov, A.

    Vacuum chamber for the beam energy measurement system based on the Compton backscattering method is presented. The main elements of the chamber are GaAs entrance viewport and a copper mirror. The viewport design provides baking out of the vacuum chamber up to 250 °C. To produce the viewport, an original technology based on brazing GaAs plate by lead has been developed. The vacuum chambers were installed at the BEPC-II and VEPP-4 M colliders. After installation the residual gas pressure is about 10-10 Torr.

  1. Formation of H/sup -/ beams in reflex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bystritskii, V.M.; Volkov, S.N.; Krasik, Y.E.

    1986-11-01

    The formation of H/sup -/ beams in reflex systems has been studied. The use of charge-exchange method and suppression of the background from protons accelerated from the anode made it possible to determine the concentration of H/sup -/ ions in the plasma near the cathode at the level of 0.5--2%. The H/sup -/ current density lies in the range 0.25 +- 0.15 A/cm/sup 2/. A significant improvement in measurement accuracy can be achieved by using a deuterated coating on the cathode and by switching to a high accelerator current density.

  2. A high pressure modulated molecular beam mass spectrometric sampling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current state of understanding of free-jet high pressure sampling is critically reviewed and modifications of certain theoretical and empirical considerations are presented. A high pressure, free-jet expansion, modulated molecular beam, mass spectrometric sampling apparatus was constructed and this apparatus is described in detail. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the apparatus can be used to sample high temperature systems at pressures up to one atmosphere. Condensible high temperature gaseous species have been routinely sampled and the mass spectrometric detector has provided direct identification of sampled species. System sensitivity is better than one tenth of a part per million. Experimental results obtained with argon and nitrogen beams are presented and compared to theoretical predictions. These results and the respective comparison are taken to indicate acceptable performance of the sampling apparatus. Results are also given for two groups of experiments related to hot corrosion studies. The formation of gaseous sodium sulfate in doped methane-oxygen flames was characterized and the oxidative vaporization of metals was studied in an atmospheric pressure flowing gas system to which gaseous salt partial pressures were added.

  3. Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Suitoh, S.; Ohara, M.; Hagita, K.; Inoue, K.; Bassan, M.; Walsh, M.; Itami, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port.

  4. The AGS New Fast Extracted Beam System orbit bump pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.S.; Soukas, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    The AGS New Fast Extracted Beam System (New FEB) is designed for RHIC injection and the g-2 experiment, performing single bunch multiple extraction at the prf of 20 to 100 Hz up to 12 times per AGS cycle. Capacitor-discharge pulsers are required to produce local orbit bumps at the fast kicker and ejector magnet locations. These pulsers have to deliver half-sine current pulses at 1 KA peak with a base width of 5 msec. The discharge voltage will require approximately 800V with a [plus minus]0.1% accuracy. Direct charging will require a charger too costly and difficult to build because of the high prf. An alternative charging system is being developed to take advantage of the 1.5 sec idle time between each group of pulses. The charger power supply ratings and regulation requirements are thus greatly reduced. The system analysis and results from a prototype will be presented.

  5. The AGS New Fast Extracted Beam System orbit bump pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.S.; Soukas, A.V.

    1993-06-01

    The AGS New Fast Extracted Beam System (New FEB) is designed for RHIC injection and the g-2 experiment, performing single bunch multiple extraction at the prf of 20 to 100 Hz up to 12 times per AGS cycle. Capacitor-discharge pulsers are required to produce local orbit bumps at the fast kicker and ejector magnet locations. These pulsers have to deliver half-sine current pulses at 1 KA peak with a base width of 5 msec. The discharge voltage will require approximately 800V with a {plus_minus}0.1% accuracy. Direct charging will require a charger too costly and difficult to build because of the high prf. An alternative charging system is being developed to take advantage of the 1.5 sec idle time between each group of pulses. The charger power supply ratings and regulation requirements are thus greatly reduced. The system analysis and results from a prototype will be presented.

  6. Half-cone beam collimation for triple-camera SPECT systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianying; Jaszczak, R.J.; Van Mullekom, A. |

    1996-03-01

    Cone-beam collimators provide increased sensitivity at similar resolution compared to other collimators. The use of cone-beam collimators for brain imaging with triple-camera SPECT systems, however, results in truncation of the base of the brain because of clearance of the shoulders. A half-cone beam collimator does not have the problem of truncation. The objective of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of half-cone beam with parallel-beam and fan-beam collimators with similar resolution characteristics for SPECT imaging of the brain. A half-cone beam collimator with the focal point located towards the base of the brain was built for a triple-camera SPECT system. Spatial resolutions and sensitivities of three collimators were measured. When 10-cm from the collimator surface, the planar spatial resolutions FWHM in mm (point source sensitivities in cps-MBq) for half-cone beam, fan-beam and parallel-beam collimators were 5.2 (85.6), 5.1 (55.6) and 5.9 (39.7), respectively. Image quality was evaluated using a three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom and patient data. The deeper gray matter were more clearly visualized in the half-cone beam scans. Half-cone beam collimation provides higher sensitivity and offers the potential for improved brain imaging compared with parallel-beam and fan-beam collimation when used with a triple-camera SPECT system. 23 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Conceptual design of a solar power beaming space system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Tuyet N.

    The concept of Space-Based Solar Power (SBSP) is a global solution for the world energy crisis. SBSP has been discussed for decades; however, there still has not been a single watt transmitted down from orbit. A conceptual SBSP demonstration design has been developed for a system that will beam 300W of power to the Earth's surface. This demonstration is estimated to be at 25% efficiency due to atmospheric losses and laser conversion losses. A 2200W laser is a modular subsystem of the 100 kg payload flight demonstration. All of the technologies needed for this demonstration already exist. The demonstration includes the following modular subsystems: the laser system, the acquisition, tracking, and pointing system, the safety and control system, and the ground segment/receiver system. The ISS demonstration is estimated to cost approximately 12 million dollars. Tradeoff design studies and systems engineering evaluations were completed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this system. An Excel database was developed to help calculate some basic dynamics, creating an SBSP preliminary systems design tool for the demonstration.

  8. The effect of object shape and laser beam shape on lidar system resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hongchang; Wang, Jingyi; Ke, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In a LIDAR system, a pulsed laser beam is propagated to a scene, and then reflected back by objects. Ideally if the beam diameter and the pulse width are close to zero, then the reflected beam in time domain is similar to a delta function, which can accurately locate an object's position. However, in a practical system, the beam has finite size. Therefore, even if the pulse width is small, an object shape will make the reflected beam stretched along the time axis, then affect system resolution. In this paper, we assume the beam with Gaussian shape. The beam can be formulated as a delta function convolved with a shape function, such as a rectangular function, in time domain. Then the reflected beam can be defined as a system response function convolved with the shape function. We use symmetric objects to analyze the reflected beam. Corn, sphere, and cylinder objects are used to find a LIDAR system's response function. The case for large beam size is discussed. We assume the beam shape is similar to a plane wave. With this assumption, we get the simplified LIDAR system response functions for the three kinds of objects. Then we use tiny spheres to emulate an arbitrary object, and study its effect to the returned beam.

  9. Space propulsion and power beaming using millimeter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benford, J.; Dickinson, R.

    1995-11-01

    Past schemes for using beamed microwave power for space propulsion and providing power to space platforms have used microwaves below 10 GHz. Recent expansions of the high power microwave technology domain offer fundamental reassessment of the following missions: (1) location of orbital debris, (2) supplying power to loitering high-altitude airplanes, (3) satellite battery recharging, (4) imaging of asteroids, (5) orbit raising and transfer, (6) interplanetary probe launch to the outer planets and comets, and ultimately (7) launch into Earth orbit. This group of applications may be done by a ground-based system. The system would start small, being built for the near Earth missions, and be enlarged incrementally as the technology matures and confidence develops. Of particular interest are sources in the millimeter range where there are low loss atmospheric windows and MJ pulses are available in quasi-CW operation. A development scenario for these missions using millimeter wave technology is described.

  10. Beam manipulation and compression using broadband rf systems in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    G William Foster et al.

    2004-07-09

    A novel method for beam manipulation, compression, and stacking using a broad band RF system in circular accelerators is described. The method uses a series of linear voltage ramps in combination with moving barrier pulses to azimuthally compress, expand, or cog the beam. Beam manipulations can be accomplished rapidly and, in principle, without emittance growth. The general principle of the method is discussed using beam dynamics simulations. Beam experiments in the Fermilab Recycler Ring convincingly validate the concept. Preliminary experiments in the Fermilab Main Injector to investigate its potential for merging two ''booster batches'' to produce high intensity proton beams for neutrino and antiproton production are described.

  11. Dual axis translation apparatus and system for translating an optical beam and related method

    DOEpatents

    Cassidy, Kelly

    1991-01-01

    A dual axis translation device and system in accordance with this invention, for translating an optical beam along both an x-axis and a y-axis which are perpendicular to one another, has a beam directing means acting on said optical beam for directing the beam along a particular path transverse to said x and y axes. An arrangement supporting said beam directing means for movement in the x and y direction within a given plane is provided. The arrangement includes a first means for translating said beam directing means along the x-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said x-axis. The arrangement comprises a second means for translating said beam directing means along the y-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said y-axis.

  12. Combining the switched-beam and beam-steering capabilities in a 2-D phased array antenna system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-Che; Chen, Yin-Bing; Hwang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development, fabrication, and measurement of a novel beam-forming system consisting of 16 subarray antennas, each containing four aperture-coupled patch antennas, and the application of this system in smart wireless communication systems. The beam patterns of each of the subarray antennas can be switched toward one of nine zones over a half space by adjusting the specific phase delay angles among the four antenna elements. Furthermore, when all subarrays are pointed at the same zone, slightly continuous beam steering in around 1° increments can be achieved by dynamically altering the progressive phase delay angle among the subarrays. Phase angle calibration was implemented by coupling each transmitter output and down converter into the in-phase/quadrature baseband to calculate the correction factor to the weight. In addition, to validate the proposed concepts and the fabricated 2-D phased array antenna system, this study measured the far-field radiation patterns of the aperture-coupled patch array integrated with feeding networks and a phase-calibration system to carefully verify its spatially switched-beam and beam-steering characteristics at a center frequency of 2.4 GHz which can cover the industrial, scientific, and medical band and some long-term evolution applications. In addition, measured results were compared with calculated results, and agreement between them was observed.

  13. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  14. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, S.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.; Poggi, C.

    2011-12-01

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  15. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-01-01

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance. PMID:27187402

  16. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sandri, S.; Poggi, C.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2011-12-13

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  17. Construction of Superconducting Magnet System for the J-PARC Neutrino Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, T.; Wanderer, P.; Sasaki, K.; Ajima, Y.; Araoka, O.; Fujii, Y.; Hastings, N.; Higashi, N.; Iida, M.; Ishii, T.; Kimura, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Makida, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Ohhata, H.; Okamura, T.; Sakashita, K.; Sugawara, S.; Suzuki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tomaru, T.; Terashima, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Ichikawa, A.; Kakuno, H.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ganetis, G.; gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Muratore, J.; Parker, B.; Boussuge, T.; Charrier, J.-P.; Arakawa, M.; Ichihara, T.; Minato, T.; Okada, Y.; Itou, A.; Kumaki, T.; Nagami, M.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-10-18

    Following success of a prototype R&D, construction of a superconducting magnet system for J-PARC neutrino beam line has been carried out since 2005. A new conceptual beam line with the superconducting combined function magnets demonstrated the successful beam transport to the neutrino production target.

  18. Fail-safe ion chamber beam loss monitor system for personnel protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Plum, M. A.; Browman, A. A.; Macek, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    A fail-safe beam loss monitor system has been designed for use in the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) Radiation Security System (RSS). The latest version (Model III) has been in use since 1991. This system has been carefully designed to protect personnel from large radiation doses caused by errant beam conditions during beam transport. Due to limited shielding between the beam transport lines and occupied areas, personnel can safely occupy these areas only if the beam losses in the transport lines are sufficiently low. Although the usual solution is to increase the bulk shielding between the beam lines and the occupied areas, the physical dimensions of the site do not permit additional shielding to be added. In this paper we will discuss the design and implementation of the fail-safe beam loss monitor system.

  19. Experimental analysis of beam pointing system based on liquid crystal optical phase array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yubin; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an elementary non-mechanical beam aiming and steering system with a single liquid crystal optical phase array (LC-OPA) and charge-coupled device (CCD). With the conventional method of beam steering control, the LC-OPA device can realize one dimensional beam steering continuously. An improved beam steering strategy is applied to realize two dimensional beam steering with a single LC-OPA. The whole beam aiming and steering system, including an LC-OPA and a retroreflective target, is controlled by the monitor. We test the feasibility of beam steering strategy both in one dimension and in two dimension at first, then the whole system is build up based on the improved strategy. The experimental results show that the max experimental pointing error is 56 µrad, and the average pointing error of the system is 19 µrad.

  20. A safety system for gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Dhrubes; Morkoç, Hadis

    1991-08-01

    Gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE) is one of the newest developments in epitaxial growth technology wherein the group V sources such as arsine and phosphine are gaseous and in the form of hydrides, while the Group III sources such as indium, aluminum, gallium are all solids. However, the gases involved are very hazardous, extremely toxic, highly inflammable and explosive at elevated temperatures. Adequate care must be taken for the safe use of these gases so that this attractive technique can be properly utilized. This paper discusses the salient safety features of one such GSMBE system (installed in the Epicenter at the University of Illinois) consisting of a gas delivery system with its robust piping assembly, gas manifold and a scrubber. The system is integrated with a Multiple Point Toxic Gas Monitor (MPTGM) acting as the central alarm command system based on the concept of fail safe total safety. This alarm system is equipped with audio-visual alarms for a variety of monitored conditions and interlocks for automatic shutdown. A well-designed air flow pattern has been incorporated to provide good air quality in the laboratory and in the gas storage facility. Additionally a set of good laboratory practices ensured by administrative and personal control are instituted to reduce the hazards to an acceptable risk level.

  1. Beam dispersion measurements with wire scanners in the SLC final focus systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emma, P.; McCormick, D.; Ross, M.C.

    1993-05-01

    A method is described to make a direct measurement of the horizontal and vertical momentum dispersion of the electron and positron beams as they pass through the chromatic correction sections (CCS) of the SLC final focus systems. The method is advantageous since it cleanly separates betatron components of the beam size from dispersive components, can be measured during standard colliding beams machine conditions in a minute or two, and directly measures the energy-position correlation within the beam.

  2. Experimental analysis of beam aiming and pointing system with phased only spatial light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yubin; Feng, Guobin; Si, Lei

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an advanced non-mechanical beam aiming and pointing system is presented. Traditional beam steering is based on the mechanical systems. In the complex and expensive systems, beam jittering and many other problems are major limitations. However, beam steering with optical phased array (OPA) devices can realize agile beam control with random access pointing and high efficiency. Our system is mainly based on phased only spatial light modulators (SLM), which can realize beam steering non-mechanically. Based on the conventional one dimensional beam steering method of SLM, two dimensional beam steering method was presented at first in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the whole system. Then the whole system was tested. Our beam steering system can steer beam to a target which was moving at the speed of 3.8mrad/s within the field of view. The RMS error of the system was 0.0246mrad in one dimension, and 0.139mrad in two dimension respectively. Meanwhile the whole process was recorded by another camera in order to show the results.

  3. Systems Analysis for Modular Versus Multi-Beam HIF Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Logan, B G

    2005-01-26

    Previous modeling for HIF drivers concentrated on designs in which 100 or more beams are grouped in an array and accelerated through a common set of induction cores. The total beam energy required by the target is achieved by the combination of final ion energy, current per beam and number of beams. Economic scaling favors a large number of small ({approx}1 cm dia.) beams. An alternative architecture has now been investigated, which we refer to as a modular driver. In this case, the driver is subdivided into many (>10) independent accelerators with one or many beams each. A key objective of the modular driver approach is to be able to demonstrate all aspects of the driver (source-to-target) by building a single, lower cost module compared to a full-scale, multi-beam driver. We consider and compare several design options for the modular driver including single-beam designs with solenoid instead of quadrupole magnets in order to transport the required current per module in a single beam, solenoid/quad combinations, and multi-beam, all-quad designs. The drivers are designed to meet the requirements of the hybrid target, which can accommodate a larger spot size than the distributed radiator target that was used for the Robust Point Design. We compare the multi-beam and modular driver configuration for a variety and assumptions and identify key technology advances needed for the modular design.

  4. Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-09-02

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

  5. New beam-charge interlock system for radiation safety at the KEKB injector linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwada, T.; Kadokura, E.; Satoh, M.; Furukawa, K.

    2008-02-01

    A new beam-charge interlock system is under development for radiation safety and machine protection at the KEKB injector linac. A hardware-based interlock system is required instead of the present software-based interlock system in order to boost its reliability. This system restricts the integrated amount of beam charges delivered to four different storage rings. The beam charges are measured using wall-current monitors and detection electronics at six locations along the linac. The detection electronics independently transmits a beam-abort request through a twisted hardwire cable directly to the safety control system of the linac, when the integrated amount of beam charges exceeds a certain threshold level prescribed for each location. We describe the characteristics and performance of the new beam-charge interlock system along with the details of the experimental tests.

  6. Radiological Studies for the LCLS Beam Abort System

    SciTech Connect

    Santana Leitner, M.; Vollaire, J.; Mao, X.S.

    2008-03-25

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a pioneer hard x-ray free electron laser is currently under construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is expected that by 2009 LCLS will deliver laser pulses of unprecedented brightness and short length, which will be used in several forefront research applications. This ambitious project encompasses major design challenges to the radiation protection like the numerous sources and the number of surveyed objects. In order to sort those, the showers from various loss sources have been tracked along a detailed model covering 1/2 mile of LCLS accelerator by means of the Monte Carlo intra nuclear cascade codes FLUKA and MARS15. This article covers the FLUKA studies of heat load; prompt and residual dose and environmental impact for the LCLS beam abort system.

  7. Design study of the Low Energy Beam Transport system at RISP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Kim, Eunsan; Kim, Yonghwan; Hong, In-Seok

    2013-03-01

    We present the design status of LEBT for the RISP that consists of two 90 degree dipoles, a multi-harmonic buncher, pair solenoids, electrostatic quadrupoles and a high voltage platform. After ECR-IS with an energy of 10 keV/u, heavy-ion beams are selected by achromatic bending systems and then be bunched in the LEBT. A multi-harmonic buncher is used to achieve a small longitudinal emittance in the RFQ. We show the results on the optics design by using the TRANSPORT code and the beam tracking of two-charge beams by using the code IMPACT. We present the results and issues on beam dynamics simulaitons in the designed LEBT system. For heavy ion beams in the low energy system, we have to separate and select desire beam. we also transport beam from ECR to RFQ with high transmission.

  8. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydenko, V.; Amirov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Mishagin, V.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.; Karpushov, A. N.; Smirnov, A.; Uhlemann, R.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.

  9. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing.

    PubMed

    Davydenko, V; Amirov, V; Gorbovsky, A; Deichuli, P; Ivanov, A; Kolmogorov, A; Kapitonov, V; Mishagin, V; Shikhovtsev, I; Sorokin, A; Stupishin, N; Karpushov, A N; Smirnov, A; Uhlemann, R

    2016-02-01

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits. PMID:26932031

  10. Development of Step-and-Scan-Type XY-Stage System for Electron Beam Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Hiroyuki; Komatsubara, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Saji, Nobuhito; Miyashita, Masahiro; Amada, Akihisa; Tsunoda, Michio

    2007-09-01

    The trend towards minimization in ultralarge-scale integration (ULSI) fabrication requires an increasingly precise motion accuracy for an XY-stage in a high-vacuum environment of electron beam (e-beam) systems. Aerostatic bearings allow for an extremely smooth motion, because the slider of the XY-stage is supported by an air film under a noncontact condition. However, such an XY-stage in aerostatic bearings is not easily introduced into the e-beam systems because of the markedly high amount of exhaust gas leaking into a vacuum chamber. In this paper, we describe a newly developed hybrid XY-stage guided by aerostatic bearings equipped with a noncontact seal mechanism for scanning motion and by mechanical rolling guides for stepping motion.

  11. Advanced development of particle beam probe diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Crowley, T.P.; Connor, K.A.

    1990-11-01

    This progress report covers the period starting with the approval to go ahead with the 2 MeV heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) for TEXT Upgrade to the submission of the grant renewal proposal. During this period the co-principal investigators, R. L. Hickok and T. P. Crowley have each devoted 45% of their time to this Grant. Their effort has been almost exclusively devoted to the design and fabrication of the 2 MeV HIBP system. The 1989 report that described the advantages of a 2 MeV HIBP for TEXT Upgrade compared to the existing 0.5 MeV HIBP and outlined the design of the 2 MeV system is attached as Appendix A. Since the major effort under the renewal proposal will be the continued fabrication, installation and operation of the 2 MeV system on TEXT Upgrade, we describe some of the unique results that have been obtained with the 0.5 MeV system on TEXT. For completeness, we also include the preliminary operation of the 160 keV HIBP on ATF. We present the present fabrication status of the 2 MeV system with the exception of the electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy analyzer which is designed to operate with 400 kV on the top plate is a major development effort and is treated separately. Included in this section are the results obtained with a prototype no guard ring analyzer, the conceptual design for the 2 MeV analyzer, the status of the high voltage testing of full size analyzer systems and backup plans if it turns out that it is impossible to hold 400 kV on an analyzer this size.

  12. Performance of Doublet III neutral beam injector cryopumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Langhorn, A.R.; Kim, J.; Tupper, M.L.; Williams, J.P.; Fasolo, J.

    1984-04-01

    The Doublet III neutral beam injector system is based on three beamlines; each beamline employs two 80 kV/80 A hydrogen ion sources. Two liquid helium (LHe) cooled cryopanel arrays were designed as an integral part of the beamline in order to provide high differential pumping of hydrogen gas along the beamline. The cryopanel arrays consist of a front (nearer to the torus) disk panel (3 m/sup 2/ each side) with liquid nitrogen (LN/sub 2/) cooled chevrons and a rear cylindrical panel of modified Santeler panels (8 m/sup 2/) which also employs LN/sub 2/ cooled surfaces shielding LHe cooled surfaces. These cryopanels are piped in series. The LHe delivery is based on a closed-loop, forced-flow scheme intended for variable panel temperatures (3.7 to 4.3 K). It uses small tubes for mechanical flexibility and thermal resiliency providing ease of economic defrosting. The cryogenic system consists of a liquefier (100 l/h), a large Dewar, a heat exchanger, and a liquid ring pump. Three beamlines are serviced simultaneously by the system. Pumping speeds measured locally at ionization gauges, were well in excess of the 1.4 x 10/sup 6/ l/s design goal.

  13. The IBA Easy-E-Beam Integrated Processing System

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Galloway, Richard A.; Lisanti, Thomas F.

    2011-06-01

    IBA Industrial Inc., (formerly known as Radiation Dynamics, Inc.) has been making high-energy and medium-energy, direct-current proton and electron accelerators for research and industrial applications for many years. Some industrial applications of high-power electron accelerators are the crosslinking of polymeric materials and products, such as the insulation on electrical wires, multi-conductor cable jackets, heat-shrinkable plastic tubing and film, plastic pipe, foam and pellets, the partial curing of rubber sheet for automobile tire components, and the sterilization of disposable medical devices. The curing (polymerization and crosslinking) of carbon and glass fiber-reinforced composite plastic parts, the preservation of foods and the treatment of waste materials are attractive possibilities for future applications. With electron energies above 1.0 MeV, the radiation protection for operating personnel is usually provided by surrounding the accelerator facility with thick concrete walls. With lower energies, steel and lead panels can be used, which are substantially thinner and more compact than the equivalent concrete walls. IBA has developed a series of electron processing systems called Easy-e-Beam for the medium energy range from 300 keV to 1000 keV. These systems include the shielding as an integral part of a complete radiation processing facility. The basic concepts of the electron accelerator, the product processing equipment, the programmable control system, the configuration of the radiation shielding and some performance characteristics are described in this paper.

  14. Propagation properties of Bessel and Bessel-Gaussian beams in a fractional Fourier transform optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2010-03-01

    The properties of Bessel-Gaussian beams (BGBs) and Bessel beams (BBs) propagating through a fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system have been investigated. The analytical transformation formulae for BBs and BGBs propagation through a FRT optical system are derived based on definition of the FRT in the cylindrical coordinate system. By using the derived formula, numerical examples are illustrated.

  15. Dual beam optical system for pulsed laser ablation film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-09-24

    A laser ablation apparatus having a laser source outputting a laser ablation beam includes an ablation chamber having a sidewall, a beam divider for dividing the laser ablation beam into two substantially equal halves, and a pair of mirrors for converging the two halves on a surface of the target from complementary angles relative to the target surface normal, thereby generating a plume of ablated material emanating from the target. 3 figs.

  16. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Devicea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Ido, T.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Nishizawa, A.; Hamada, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (˜20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot.

  17. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, A. Ido, T.; Kato, S.; Hamada, Y.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2014-11-15

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (∼20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot.

  18. Neutral particle beam scoring system proof-of-principle experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, D.A.; Pontau, A.E.; Antolak, A.J.

    1986-10-01

    A method of scoring a ground-based neutral particle beam pointing experiment is described. Beam scoring in this context means performing beam direction measurements in the near field (tens of meters) sufficient to determine whether energy would be concentrated on a far-field target as desired in a pointing experiment. The principle of operation is to impress a high-resolution spatial modulation on the beam by inserting an array of shadow wires into the beam upstream of the steering magnet. At the downstream end of the beam line the shadows are detected using one or more scintillation screens and video cameras. Beam direction is determined by measuring the location of the shadows at a known distance downstream of the point of steering. A proof-of-principle experiment demonstrates that: (1) wire shadows can be created in a 50 MeV beam and propagate over the distances required; (2) images of sufficient brightness and resolution can be formed on scintillating screens excited by 50 MeV protons; and (3) CCD array cameras can operate in the radiation environment created near the beam line.

  19. Neutron production from beam-modifying devices in a modern double scattering proton therapy beam delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; DeLuca, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient. PMID:19147903

  20. Neutron production from beam-modifying devices in a modern double scattering proton therapy beam delivery system.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; Deluca, Paul M

    2009-02-21

    In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient. PMID:19147903

  1. Ghost reflections of Gaussian beams in anamorphic optical systems with an application to Michelson interferometer.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided. PMID:26906582

  2. Design of an LED-based compound optical system for a driving beam system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Aiming; Wang, Wei; Du, Zhengqing; Qiu, Peng; Wang, Junwei; Cai, Jinlin; Song, Xiaobo

    2013-04-20

    This paper proposes an LED-based compound optical system, which can be involved in the design of the driving beam system in automotive headlamps with high system efficiency and low power consumption. The compound system can meet the requirements announced in the UNECE regulation "Addendum 111: Regulation No. 112 Revision 2." Also, it is composed of a nonspherical reflector, a compound lens, and a two-dimensional diverging lens. Using a single device of high-brightness LED of merely 7.6 W, the specified illumination requirements for the driving beam can be achieved. As we have expected, on the test screen at a distance of 25 m, the simulation results, as well as the testing results for the prototype, can reach the illuminance distribution requirements, including all specified regions and key points. Moreover, this compound system enjoys the features of high compactness, high energy efficiency, and feasibility of manufacturing. PMID:23669678

  3. Laser beam homogenization, splitting and three spot image formation: system design, analysis and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd; Dickey, Fred; Brown, Dan

    2010-08-01

    Beam shaping technology can greatly improve laser process efficiency by enabling parallel processes and increasing precision, quality and process stability. This paper outlines a system design, optical code analysis and the bench testing of a patented [1,2] laser beam homogenization and imaging system using prism beam splitting to produce a three spot array. The system uses a beam integrator to produce a rectangular spot that is split into three beams by two prisms. A second set of prisms directs the two outer beams onto an imaging lens and sets the pitch of the virtual spots. These beams, with the central beam, are imaged to form three spots with the required pitch. A prototype system design was developed for two approaches based on the first principles. The prototype system parameters were adjusted to minimize the requirements of the elements such as the imaging lens and prisms. Since the two systems require a relatively fast imaging lens, and there are aberrations associated with the prisms, a detailed optical design was conducted to determine the performance of the two approaches and to assess the complexity of the imaging lens. This paper will present the various positive and negative attributes of the two beam shaper designs within an optical system and how the best design was selected for prototyping and bench testing. Various data will be presented at each stage of design evaluation to the final bench test.

  4. Alignment of optical system components using an ADM beam through a null assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Joseph E. (Inventor); Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for testing an optical surface includes a rangefinder configured to emit a light beam and a null assembly located between the rangefinder and the optical surface. The null assembly is configured to receive and to reflect the emitted light beam toward the optical surface. The light beam reflected from the null assembly is further reflected back from the optical surface toward the null assembly as a return light beam. The rangefinder is configured to measure a distance to the optical surface using the return light beam.

  5. Low-energy run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's beam generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, Lionel; Shemyakin, Alexander; Fedotov, Alexei; Kewisch, Jorg; /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    As a part of a feasibility study of using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for a low-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) run at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the cooler operation at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main result of the study is that the cooler beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. In a striking difference with running 4.3 MeV beam, no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed.

  6. Optimization of drift bias in an UHV based pulsed positron beam system

    SciTech Connect

    Anto, C. Varghese; Rajaraman, R.; Rao, G. Venugopal; Abhaya, S.; Parimala, J.; Amarendra, G.

    2012-06-05

    We report here the design of ultra high vacuum (UHV) compatible pulsed positron beam lifetime system, which combines the principles of a conventional slow positron beam and RF based pulsing scheme. The mechanical design and construction of the UHV system to house the beam has been completed and it has been tested for a vacuum of {approx} 10{sup -10} mbar. The voltages applied to the drift tube as a function of positron energies have been optimized using SIMION.

  7. Optical alignment influenced aberrations in laser beam delivery systems and their correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaggs, Michael; Haas, Gil

    2015-03-01

    Industrial high power laser systems are often evaluated based upon spatial profile of the beam before they are brought to focus for processing materials. It is therefore often assumed that if the raw beam profile is good that the focus is equally as good. The possibility of having good optics and poor alignment or bad optics and good alignment and therefore not achieve a good focal spot is quite high due to the fact that a raw beam spatial profile does not manifest third order aberrations. In such instances the focal spot will contain aberrations when there are slightly misaligned, poor quality, high power optics in the system such as a beam expander or eye piece and objective of a 3-axis galvo. Likewise, if the beam itself is not on axis, the third order aberrations of astigmatism and coma are likely to appear but again not be seen in the unfocused beams spatial profile. The third order aberrations of astigmatism, coma and spherical aberration can significantly alter both the size and spatial profile at the focus resulting in out of spec performance. The impact of beam and zoom expanders and their alignment in beam delivery systems is investigated by measuring both the far field unfocused and the far field focus beams using an all passive beam waist analyzer system.

  8. A wire scanner system for characterizing the BNL energy recovery LINAC beam position monitor system

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff R.; Biscardi, C.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Gassner, D.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.

    2012-04-15

    A stepper motor controlled wire scanner system has recently been modified to support testing of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Collider-Accelerator department's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) beam position monitor (BPM) system. The ERL BPM consists of four 9.33 mm diameter buttons mounted at 90 degree spacing in a cube with 1.875 inch inside diameter. The buttons were designed by BNL and fabricated by Times Microwave Systems. Libera brilliance single pass BPM electronic modules with 700 MHz bandpass filter, manufactured by Instrumentation Technologies, will be used to measure the transverse beam positions at 14 locations around the ERL. The wire scanner assembly provides the ability to measure the BPM button response to a pulsed wire, and evaluate and calibrate the Libera position measurement electronics. A description of the wire scanner system and test result data will be presented.

  9. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-07-01

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method. PMID:26233376

  10. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Kurashima, Satoshi Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-07-15

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method.

  11. Beam trajectory acquisition system for the arcs of the Stanford Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrin, J.L.; Ross, M.C.; Scott, B.D.; Wilson, D.S.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes the beam position monitoring system of the collider arcs at the Stanford Linear Collider. This beam position monitoring system is different from others at SLAC in its large amount of hardware and its use of ungated, self-triggered electronics. All of the processing electronics are installed in the accelerator tunnel. (JDH)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATOR DATA REPORTING SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION TO TREND ANALYSIS OF BEAM CURRENT DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, M.J.; Blokland, W.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed ongoing information about the ion beam quality is crucial to the successful operation of the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In order to provide the highest possible neutron production time, ion beam quality is monitored to isolate possible problems or performance-related issues throughout the accelerator and accumulator ring. For example, beam current monitor (BCM) data is used to determine the quality of the beam transport through the accelerator. In this study, a reporting system infrastructure was implemented and used to generate a trend analysis report of the BCM data. The BCM data was analyzed to facilitate the identifi cation of monitor calibration issues, beam trends, beam abnormalities, beam deviations and overall beam quality. A comparison between transformed BCM report data and accelerator log entries shows promising results which represent correlations between the data and changes made within the accelerator. The BCM analysis report is one of many reports within a system that assist in providing overall beam quality information to facilitate successful beam operation. In future reports, additional data manipulation functions and analysis can be implemented and applied. Built-in and user-defi ned analytic functions are available throughout the reporting system and can be reused with new data.

  13. Development of the charge exchange type beam scraper system at the J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.

    2016-03-01

    Improvement in injection beam quality at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex 3-GeV rapid cycle synchrotron is to mitigate beam loss at the injection section. We developed a charge-exchange type scraper system with a thin carbon foil to collimate the beam halo in the injection beam line of the synchrotron. The key issue to realize the scraper is a reduction of the beam loss induced by the multiple-scattering effect of charge-exchange foil placed at the scraper head. In order to determine the adequate foil thickness, a charge-exchange efficiency of a carbon foil and particle-tracking simulation study of the collimated beam have been performed assuming a realistic halo at the scraper section. Using the results of this study, we chose the thickness of a 520 μg /cm2 as the scraper foils to mitigate radiation dose around the L3BT scraper section. A charge-exchange scraper system that prevents the emission of radioactive fragments of the carbon foil was build. The system was put into operation to prove its effectiveness in eliminating the beam halo. From the result of a preliminary beam experiments, we confirmed that the installed scrapers eliminate a transverse beam tail or halo. After two days of operation with beam collimation, the radiation dose level around the scraper section was a tolerable one for the hands-on maintenance.

  14. Demonstration of the importance of a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system for BNCT facility.

    PubMed

    Chao, Der-Sheng; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutron beam monitoring system is indispensable to BNCT facility in order to achieve an accurate patient dose delivery. The neutron beam monitoring of a reactor-based BNCT (RB-BNCT) facility can be implemented through the instrumentation and control system of a reactor provided that the reactor power level remains constant during reactor operation. However, since the neutron flux in reactor core is highly correlative to complicated reactor kinetics resulting from such as fuel depletion, poison production, and control blade movement, some extent of variation may occur in the spatial distribution of neutron flux in reactor core. Therefore, a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system is needed to be installed in the vicinity of the beam path close to the beam exit of the RB-BNCT facility, where it can measure the BNCT beam intensity as closely as possible and be free from the influence of the objects present around the beam exit. In this study, in order to demonstrate the importance of a dedicated BNCT neutron beam monitoring system, the signals originating from the two in-core neutron detectors installed at THOR were extracted and compared with the three dedicated neutron beam monitors of the THOR BNCT facility. The correlation of the readings between the in-core neutron detectors and the BNCT neutron beam monitors was established to evaluate the improvable quality of the beam intensity measurement inferred by the in-core neutron detectors. In 29 sampled intervals within 16 days of measurement, the fluctuations in the mean value of the normalized ratios between readings of the three BNCT neutron beam monitors lay within 0.2%. However, the normalized ratios of readings of the two in-core neutron detectors to one of the BNCT neutron beam monitors show great fluctuations of 5.9% and 17.5%, respectively. PMID:26595774

  15. Correction of vortex laser beam in a closed-loop adaptive system with bimorph mirror.

    PubMed

    Starikov, F A; Kochemasov, G G; Koltygin, M O; Kulikov, S M; Manachinsky, A N; Maslov, N V; Sukharev, S A; Aksenov, V P; Izmailov, I V; Kanev, F Yu; Atuchin, V V; Soldatenkov, I S

    2009-08-01

    The phase correction of a vortex laser beam is undertaken in the closed-loop adaptive system including a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor with singular reconstruction technique and a bimorph piezoceramic mirror. After correction the vortex doughnutlike beam is focused into a beam with bright axial spot that considerably increases the Strehl ratio and optical system resolution. Since the phase break cannot be exactly reproduced on the flexible mirror surface, off-axis vortices appear in the far field at the beam periphery. PMID:19649065

  16. Propagation of the power-exponent-phase vortex beam in paraxial ABCD system.

    PubMed

    Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-08-01

    The general analytical formula for the propagation of the power-exponent-phase vortex (PEPV) beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived. On that basis the evolution of the intensity distribution of such a beam in free space and the focusing system is investigated. In addition, some experiments are carried out, which verify the theoretical predictions. Both of the theoretical and experimental results show that the beam's profile can be modulated by the topological charge and the power order of the PEPV beam. PMID:27505774

  17. Development of the beam extraction synchronization system at the Fermilab Booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiya, K.; Chaurize, S.; Drennan, C. C.; Pellico, W.; Sullivan, T.; Triplett, A. K.; Waller, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    The new beam extraction synchronization control system called "Magnetic Cogging" was developed at the Fermilab Booster and it replaces a system called "RF Cogging" as part of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP).[1] The flux throughput goal for the PIP is 2.2×1017 protons per hour, which is double the present flux. The flux increase will be accomplished by doubling the number of beam cycles which, in turn, will double the beam loss in the Booster accelerator if nothing else is done. The Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV and extracts it to the Main Injector (MI) or Recycler Ring (RR). Cogging controls the beam extraction gap position which is created early in the Booster cycle and synchronizes the gap to the rising edge of the Booster extraction kicker and the MI/RR injection kicker. The RF Cogging system controls the gap position by changing only the radial position of the beam thus limiting the beam aperture and creating beam loss due to beam scraping. The Magnetic Cogging system controls the gap position with the magnetic field of the dipole correctors while the radial position feedback keeps the beam on a central orbit. Also with Magnetic Cogging the gap creation can occur earlier in the Booster cycle when the removed particles are at a lower energy. Thus Magnetic Cogging reduces the deposited energy of the lost particles (beam energy loss) and results in less beam loss activation. Energy loss was reduced by 40% by moving the gap creation energy from 700 MeV to 400 MeV when the Booster Cogging system was switched from RF Cogging to Magnetic Cogging in March 2015.

  18. Design of Main Control Console Software in EAST Neutral Beam Injector's Control System for the First Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, De-Yun; Hu, Chun-Dong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuan-Zhe; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Cui, Qing-Long

    2013-10-01

    Neutral beam injector is one of the main plasma heating and plasma current driving methods for experimental advanced superconducting tokomaks (EAST). In order to realize visual operation of EAST neutral beam injector's control system (NBICS), main control console (MCC) is developed to work as the human-machine interface between the NBICS and physical operator. It can meet the requirements of visual control of NBICS by providing a user graphic interface. With the specific algorithms, the setup of power supply sequence is relatively independent and simple. Displaying the real-time feedback of the subsystems provides a reference for operators to monitor the status of the system. The MCC software runs on a Windows system and uses C++ language code while using client/server (C/S) mode, multithreading and cyclic redundancy check technology. The experimental results have proved that MCC provides a stability and reliability operation of NBICS and works as an effective man-machine interface at the same time.

  19. Performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring tested with clinical proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliero, M. A.; Bisogni, M. G.; Cerello, P.; Del Guerra, A.; Fiorina, E.; Liu, B.; Morrocchi, M.; Pennazio, F.; Pirrone, G.; Wheadon, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present the performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring during the irradiation of a PMMA phantom with a clinical proton beam. The experimental set-up was based on 4 independent detection modules. Two detection modules were placed at one side of a PMMA phantom and the other two modules were placed at the opposite side of the phantom. One detection module was composed of a Silicon Photon Multiplier produced by AdvanSiD coupled to a single scintillating LYSO crystal. The read-out system was based on the TOFPET ASIC managed by a Xilinx ML605 FPGA Evaluation Board (Virtex 6). The irradiation of the PMMA phantom was performed at the CNAO hadrontherapy facility (Pavia, Italy) with a 95 MeV pulsed proton beam. The pulsed time structure of the proton beam was reconstructed by each detection module. The β+ annihilation peak was successfully measured and the production of β+ isotopes emitters was observed as increasing number of 511 keV events detected during irradiation. Finally, after the irradiation, the half lives of the 11C and 15O radioactive isotopes were estimated.

  20. SSC detector muon sub-system beam tests

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, R.; Errede, S.; Gauthier, A.; Haney, M.; Karliner, I.; Liss, T.; O`Halloran, T.; Sheldon, P.; Simiatis, V.; Thaler, J.; Wiss, J.; Green, D.; Martin, P.; Morfin, J.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Okusawa, T.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Asano, Y.; Mann, T.; Davisson, R.; Liang, G.; Lubatti, H.; Wilkes, R.; Zhao, T.; Carlsmith, D.

    1993-08-01

    We propose to start a test-beam experiment at Fermilab studying the problems associated with tracking extremely high energy muons through absorbers. We anticipate that in this energy range the observation of the muons will be complicated by associated electromagnetic radiation Monte Carlo simulations of this background need to be tuned by direct observations. These beam tests are essential to determine important design parameters of a SSC muon detector, such as the choice of the tracking, geometry, hardware triggering schemes, the number of measuring stations, the amount of iron between measuring stations, etc. We intend to begin the first phase of this program in November of 1990 utilizing the Tevatron muon beam. We plan to measure the multiplicity, direction, and separation of secondary particles associated with the primary muon track as it emerges from an absorber. The second phase of beam test in 1992 or later will be a full scale test for the final design chosen in our muon subsystem proposal.

  1. The application of multilayer elastic beam in MEMS safe and arming system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guozhong Shi, Gengchen; Sui, Li; Yi, Futing; Wang, Bo

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, a new approach for a multilayer elastic beam to provide a driving force and driving distance for a MEMS safe and arming system is presented. In particular this is applied where a monolayer elastic beam cannot provide adequate driving force and driving distance at the same time in limited space. Compared with thicker elastic beams, the bilayer elastic beam can provide twice the driving force of a monolayer beam to guarantee the MEMS safe and arming systems work reliably without decreasing the driving distance. In this paper, the theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental verification of the multilayer elastic beam is presented. The numerical simulation and experimental results show that the bilayer elastic provides 1.8–2 times the driving force of a monolayer, and a method that improves driving force without reducing the driving distance.

  2. Advanced rapid prototyping by laser beam sintering of metal prototypes: design and development of an optimized laser beam delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Manfred; Coremans, A.; Neubauer, Norbert; Niebling, F.

    1996-08-01

    Fast technological advances and steadily increasing severe worldwide competition force industry to respond all the time faster to new and chanced customer wishes. Some of the recently emerged processes, commonly referred to as 'rapid prototyping' (RP), have proved to be powerful tools for accelerating product and process development. Early approaches aimed at the automated production of plastic models. These techniques achieved industrial maturity extremely fast and are meanwhile established as standard utilities in the field of development/design processes. So far, their applicability to metal working industry was limited to design studies because the mechanical properties of the prototypes, e.g. modulus of elasticity and mechanical strength were not comparable to the final products they represented. Therefore, RP-processes aimed at the direct production of metallic prototypes gained more and more importance during recent years. A technique belonging to this group is manufacturing of prototypes by using a laser beam sintering machine capable of directly processing metal powders. This so called laser beam sintering process showed a great potential for direct manufacturing of functional tools and prototypes in early feasibility studies. Detailed examinations were performed at several research centers to determine the attainable quality of the parts concerning roughness, dimensional accuracy and mechanical strength. These examinations showed, that there still is a considerable demand for quality improvements of the previously mentioned parameters. The practical application and the potential for improvement of the geometrical accuracy of laser beam sintered parts by using a dual beam concept was proven. An innovative beam guiding and forming concept, similar to the previously mentioned patented beam guiding system, was developed and built with the goal to improve the process parameters governing mechanical properties as well as geometrical accuracy. Further reaching

  3. Development of High Power Electron Beam Measuring and Analyzing System for Microwave Vacuum Electron Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, C. J.; Wu, X. L.; Li, Q. S.; Li, C. S.

    The measurement and analysis of high power electron beam during its formation and transmission are the basic scientific problems and key techniques for the development of high performance microwave vacuum electron devices, which are widely used in the fields of military weapon, microwave system and scientific instruments. In this paper, the dynamic parameters measurement and analysis system being built in Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IECAS) recently are introduced. The instrument are designed to determine the cross-section, the current density, and the energy resolution of the high power electron beam during its formation and transmission process, which are available both for the electron gun and the electron optics system respectively. Then the three dimension trajectory images of the electron beam can be rebuilt and display with computer controlled data acquisition and processing system easily. Thus, much more complicated structures are considered and solved completely to achieve its detection and analysis, such as big chamber with 10-6 Pa high vacuum system, the controlled detector movement system in axis direction with distance of 600 mm inside the vacuum chamber, the electron beam energy analysis system with high resolution of 0.5%, and the electron beam cross-section and density detector using the YAG: Ce crystal and CCD imaging system et al. At present, the key parts of the instrument have been finished, the cross-section experiment of the electron beam have been performed successfully. Hereafter, the instrument will be used to measure and analyze the electron beam with the electron gun and electron optics system for the single beam and multiple beam klystron, gyrotron, sheet beam device, and traveling wave tube etc. thoroughly.

  4. Efficient, radiation-hardened, 400- and 800-keV neutral-beam injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.A.; Cooper, W.S.; Fink, J.A.; Goldberg, D.A.; Ruby, L.; Soroka, L.; Tanabe, J.

    1983-04-01

    We present designs for two negative-ion based neutral beam lines with reactor-level power output. Both beam lines make use of such technologically advanced features as high-current-density surface-conversion ion sources, transverse-field-focussing (TFF) acceleration and transport, and laser photodetachment. For the second of these designs, we also presented detailed beam and vacuum calculations, as well as a brief description of a proof-of-principle test system currently under development.

  5. High-power beam combining: a step to a future laser weapon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protz, Rudolf; Zoz, Jürgen; Geidek, Franz; Dietrich, Stephan; Fall, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Due to the enormous progress in the field of high-power fiber lasers during the last years commercial industrial fiber lasers are now available, which deliver a near-diffraction limited beam with power levels up to10kW. For the realization of a future laser weapon system, which can be used for Counter-RAM or similar air defence applications, a laser source with a beam power at the level of 100kW or more is required. At MBDA Germany the concept for a high-energy laser weapon system is investigated, which is based on such existing industrial laser sources as mentioned before. A number of individual high-power fiber laser beams are combined together, using one common beam director telescope. By this "geometric" beam coupling scheme, sufficient laser beam power for an operational laser weapon system can be achieved. The individual beams from the different lasers are steered by servo-loops, using fast tip-tilt mirrors. This principle enables the concentration of the total laser beam power at the common focal point on a distant target, also allowing fine tracking of target movements and first order compensation of turbulence effects on laser beam propagation. The proposed beam combination concept was demonstrated using several experimental set-ups. Different experiments were performed, to investigate laser beam target interaction and target fine tracking also at large distances. Content and results of these investigations are reported. An example for the lay-out of an Air Defence High Energy Laser Weapon (ADHELW ) is given. It can be concluded, that geometric high-power beam combining is an important step for the realization of a laser weapon system in the near future.

  6. A simple external-beam ion milliprobe system for in-air PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, Steve A.; Correll, F. D.; Huddle, James R.; Vanhoy, Jeff; Kulp, W. D.

    1991-05-01

    A simple external-beam ion milliprobe system was designed and constructed as part of an undergraduate honors research project. The system includes an adjustable object slit, a compact electrostatic quadrupole triplet lens, a lens positioner, and a shielded tip with a thin Kapton window through which the beam exits the accelerator vacuum and enters a sample enclosure with interlocked doors. Auxiliary equipment includes a four-segment lens-entrance collimator with a beam-current monitor that facilitates steering the beam and an interlock system that intercepts the beam when any of the doors to the sample enclosure are opened. Details of the design and construction of the system will be presented and its performance will be described.

  7. Commissioning and dosimetric characteristics of TrueBeam system: Composite data of three TrueBeam machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Zheng; Wu Qiuwen; Adamson, Justus; Ren Lei; Bowsher, James; Yan Hui; Thomas, Andrew; Yin Fangfang

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: A TrueBeam linear accelerator (TB-LINAC) is designed to deliver traditionally flattened and flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams. Although it has been widely adopted in many clinics for patient treatment, limited information is available related to commissioning of this type of machine. In this work, commissioning data of three units were measured, and multiunit comparison was presented to provide valuable insights and reliable evaluations on the characteristics of the new treatment system. Methods: The TB-LINAC is equipped with newly designed waveguide, carousel assembly, monitoring control, and integrated imaging systems. Each machine in this study has 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 MV flattened photon beams, and 6 MV and 10 MV FFF photon beams as well as 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, and 22 MeV electron beams. Dosimetric characteristics of the three new TB-LINAC treatment units are systematically measured for commissioning. High-resolution diode detectors and ion chambers were used to measure dosimetric data for a range of field sizes from 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 to 400 Multiplication-Sign 400 mm{sup 2}. The composite dosimetric data of the three units are presented in this work. The commissioning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), image-guided radiation therapy, and gating systems are also illustrated. Critical considerations of P{sub ion} of FFF photon beams and small field dosimetric measurements were investigated. Results: The authors found all PDDs and profiles matched well among the three machines. Beam data were quantitatively compared and combined through average to yield composite beam data. The discrepancies among the machines were quantified using standard deviation (SD). The mean SD of the PDDs among the three units is 0.12%, and the mean SD of the profiles is 0.40% for 10 MV FFF open fields. The variations of P{sub ion} of the chamber CC13 is 1.2 {+-} 0.1% under 6 MV FFF and 2.0 {+-} 0.5% under 10 MV FFF from dmax to

  8. Low-Energy Run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's Beam Generation System

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Shemyakin, A.; Fedotov, A.; Kewisch, J.; /Brookhaven

    2011-03-14

    In the context of the evaluation of possibly using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for the proposed low-energy RHIC run at BNL, operating the cooler at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main conclusion of this feasibility study is that the cooler's beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. The beam recirculation was stable for all tested parameters. In particular, a beam current of 0.38 A was achieved with the cathode magnetic field up to the maximum value presently available of 250 G. The energy ripple was measured to be 40 eV. A striking difference with running the 4.3 MeV beam (nominal for operation at FNAL) is that no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed. Electron cooling proposed to increase the luminosity of the RHIC collider for heavy ion beam energies below 10 GeV/nucleon [1] needs a good quality, 0.9-5 MeV electron beam. Preliminary design studies indicate that the scheme of the Recycler's electron cooler at FNAL is suitable for low-energy RHIC cooling and most parts of the cooler can be re-used after the end of the Tevatron Run II. To analyze issues related to the generation of the electron beam in the energy recovery mode and to gain experience with the beam transport at lower beam energy, a dedicated study was performed at FNAL with a beam run through a short beam line (so called U-bend). This report summarizes our findings and observations in the course of the measurements.

  9. Beam energy tracking system on Optima XEx high energy ion implanter

    SciTech Connect

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu; Wu Xiangyang; Geary, Cindy; Deluca, James

    2012-11-06

    The Axcelis Optima XEx high energy implanter is an RF linac-based implanter with 12 RF resonators for beam acceleration. Even though each acceleration field is an alternating, sinusoidal RF field, the well known phase-focusing principle produces a beam with a sharp quasi-monoenergetic energy spectrum. A magnetic energy filter after the linac further attenuates the low energy continuum in the energy spectrum often associated with RF acceleration. The final beam energy is a function of the phase and amplitude of the 12 resonators in the linac. When tuning a beam, the magnetic energy filter is set to the desired energy, and each linac parameter is tuned to maximize the transmission through the filter. Once a beam is set up, all the parameters are stored in a recipe, which can be easily tuned and has proven to be quite repeatable. The magnetic field setting of the energy filter selects the beam energy from the RF Linac accelerator, and in-situ verification of beam energy in addition to the magnetic energy filter setting has long been desired. An independent energy tracking system was developed for this purpose, using the existing electrostatic beam scanner as a deflector to construct an in-situ electrostatic energy analyzer. This paper will describe the system and performance of the beam energy tracking system.

  10. System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.N.

    1993-05-17

    We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

  11. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitor Systems for the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Guaglio, G.; Dehning, B.; Santoni, C.

    2005-06-08

    The increase of beam energy and beam intensity, together with the use of super conducting magnets, opens new failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole accelerator protection system. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system, and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particles losses at 7 TeV and assisted by the Fast Beam Current Decay Monitors at 450 GeV. At medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standard databases. All the data has been processed by reliability software (Isograph). The analysis spaces from the components data to the system configuration.

  12. Research of beam control system component simulation and separation method of the kinematics coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yufang; Xie, Xiaogang; Zhang, Jianzhu; An, Jianzhu; Zhang, Feizhou

    2015-02-01

    EasyLaser is component-based laser system simulation software. Beam control system simulation is a main part of EasyLaser, which can be used for systems with multi-optical paths, multi-wavelength beams, and multi-controllers. A new numerical method about general kinematics separation is proposed for beam control system simulation. It provides axis rotation conversion relationships due to orientation data of apparatus of system, such as gimal, sensor and optical mirror. It gives their coupling and uncoupling matrixes in kinematics and controller model. The matrixes could change every iterative time automatically during the dynamic tracking process. The main advantage of the method is more suitable to solve the problems that the gimbal movement and geometry optical transmission are considered simultaneously. By using the method, sensor images and undershoot data are updated automatically. And further the kinematic driver or controller signals are separated automatically. Therefore the tracking and beam control can be designed without consideration of the system kinematical composition. Then the beam control system simulation has the virtues of generality, flexibility, and usability. No matter what kinds of gimbal and optical path, designer needs only to consider tracking and beam control aspects. In addition, a union beam control example for atmosphere transmission correction is given. It includes tracking tilt mirror and adaptive optics system. Simulation results show that the low-frequency fluctuation is restrained effectively and the high-frequency fluctuation is corrected obviously.

  13. Development of dual-probe atomic force microscopy system using optical beam deflection sensors with obliquely incident laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Eika; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a dual-probe (DP) atomic force microscopy (AFM) system that has two independently controlled probes. The deflection of each cantilever is measured by the optical beam deflection (OBD) method. In order to keep a large space over the two probes for an objective lens with a large numerical aperture, we employed the OBD sensors with obliquely incident laser beams. In this paper, we describe the details of our developed DP-AFM system, including analysis of the sensitivity of the OBD sensor for detection of the cantilever deflection. We also describe a method to eliminate the crosstalk caused by the vertical translation of the cantilever. In addition, we demonstrate simultaneous topographic imaging of a test sample by the two probes and surface potential measurement on an α-sexithiophene (α-6T) thin film by one probe while electrical charges were injected by the other probe.

  14. Development of dual-probe atomic force microscopy system using optical beam deflection sensors with obliquely incident laser beams.

    PubMed

    Tsunemi, Eika; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a dual-probe (DP) atomic force microscopy (AFM) system that has two independently controlled probes. The deflection of each cantilever is measured by the optical beam deflection (OBD) method. In order to keep a large space over the two probes for an objective lens with a large numerical aperture, we employed the OBD sensors with obliquely incident laser beams. In this paper, we describe the details of our developed DP-AFM system, including analysis of the sensitivity of the OBD sensor for detection of the cantilever deflection. We also describe a method to eliminate the crosstalk caused by the vertical translation of the cantilever. In addition, we demonstrate simultaneous topographic imaging of a test sample by the two probes and surface potential measurement on an α-sexithiophene (α-6T) thin film by one probe while electrical charges were injected by the other probe. PMID:21456752

  15. Photon reflectivity distributions from the LHC beam screen and their implications on the arc beam vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahne, N.; Baglin, V.; Collins, I. R.; Giglia, A.; Pasquali, L.; Pedio, M.; Nannarone, S.; Cimino, R.

    2004-07-01

    In particle accelerators with intense positively charged bunched beams, an electron cloud may induce beam instabilities and the related beam induced electron multipacting (BIEM) can result in an undesired pressure rise. In a cryogenic machine such as the large hadron collider (LHC), the BIEM will introduce additional heat load. When present, synchrotron radiation (SR) may generate a significant number of photoelectrons, that may play a role in determining the onset and the detailed properties of the electron cloud related instability. Since electrons are constrained to move along field lines, those created on the accelerator equator in a strong vertical (dipole) field cannot participate in the e-cloud build-up. Therefore, for the LHC there has been a continuous effort to find solutions to absorb the photons on the equator. The solution adopted for the LHC dipole beam screens is a saw-tooth structure on the illuminated equator. SR from a bending magnet beamline at ELETTRA, Italy (BEAR) has been used to measure the reflectivities (forward, back-scattered and diffuse), for a flat and a saw-tooth structured Cu co-laminated surface using both white light SR, similar to the one emitted by LHC, and monochromatic light. Our data show that the saw-tooth structure does reduce the total reflectivity and modifies the photon energy distribution of the reflected photons. The implications of these results on the LHC arc vacuum system are discussed.

  16. Design and performance of a high resolution, low latency stripline beam position monitor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apsimon, R. J.; Bett, D. R.; Blaskovic Kraljevic, N.; Burrows, P. N.; Christian, G. B.; Clarke, C. I.; Constance, B. D.; Dabiri Khah, H.; Davis, M. R.; Perry, C.; Resta López, J.; Swinson, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    A high-resolution, low-latency beam position monitor (BPM) system has been developed for use in particle accelerators and beam lines that operate with trains of particle bunches with bunch separations as low as several tens of nanoseconds, such as future linear electron-positron colliders and free-electron lasers. The system was tested with electron beams in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan. It consists of three stripline BPMs instrumented with analogue signal-processing electronics and a custom digitizer for logging the data. The design of the analogue processor units is presented in detail, along with measurements of the system performance. The processor latency is 15.6 ±0.1 ns . A single-pass beam position resolution of 291 ±10 nm has been achieved, using a beam with a bunch charge of approximately 1 nC.

  17. Requirements and guidelines for NSLS experimental beam line vacuum systems: Revision A

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, C.; Halama, H.; Thomlinson, W.

    1986-10-01

    Requirements are provided for NSLS beam line front ends and vacuum interlocks. Guidelines are provided for UHV beam line vacuum systems, including materials, vacuum hardware (pumps, valves, and flanges), acoustic delay lines and beam line fast valves, instrumentation, fabrication and testing, and the NSLS cleaning facility. Also discussed are the design review for experimenters' equipment that would be connected to the NSLS and acceptance tests for any beam line to be connected with the ring vacuum. Also appended are a description of the acoustic delay line as well as the NSLS vacuum standards and NSLS procedures. (LEW)

  18. Use of a minimum-ellipse criterion in the study of ion-beam extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.; Sherman, J.D.; Allison, P.

    1985-01-01

    Ion-beam extraction systems may be optimized by ray-tracing codes. As a general criterion for comparing the geometry-dependent phase-space distributions, we first calculate the minimum-area ellipse that encloses all particles of any given two-dimensional phase-space distribution. Then, the relation between ellipse area and contained beam fraction is established by systematically finding and eliminating those particles that contribute most heavily to the emittance. Prescriptions for finding the minimum ellipse and beam fractions will be presented. The minimum and rms ellipses are compared for two code-calculated distributions that represent ion-beam extraction geometries. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

    2006-12-18

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

  20. Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Cambridge U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Cornell U., LNS /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-06-08

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  1. Portable radiography system using a relativistic electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Hoeberling, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    A portable radiographic generator is provided with an explosive magnetic flux compression generator producing the high voltage necessary to generate a relativistic electron beam. The relativistic electron beam is provided with target materials which generates the desired radiographic pulse. The magnetic flux compression generator may require at least two conventional explosively driven generators in series to obtain a desired output voltage of at least 1 MV. The cathode and anode configuration of the diode are selected to provide a switching action wherein a high impedance load is presented to the magnetic flux compression generator when the high voltage is being generated, and thereafter switching to a low impedance load to generate the relativistic electron beam. Magnetic flux compression generators can be explosively driven and provided in a relatively compact, portable form for use with the relativistic x-ray equipment.

  2. Portable radiography system using a relativistic electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Hoeberling, R.F.

    1987-09-22

    A portable radiographic generator is provided with an explosive magnetic flux compression generator producing the high voltage necessary to generate a relativistic electron beam. The relativistic electron beam is provided with target materials which generates the desired radiographic pulse. The magnetic flux compression generator may require at least two conventional explosively driven generators in series to obtain a desired output voltage of at least 1 MV. The cathode and anode configuration of the diode are selected to provide a switching action wherein a high impedance load is presented to the magnetic flux compression generator when the high voltage is being generated, and thereafter switching to a low impedance load to generate the relativistic electron beam. Magnetic flux compression generators can be explosively driven and provided in a relatively compact, portable form for use with the relativistic x-ray equipment. 8 figs.

  3. LIFTING BEAM DESIGN/ANALYSIS FOR THE DATA ACQUISITION AND CONTROL SYSTEM TRAILER

    SciTech Connect

    MACKEY TC; BENEGAS TR

    1993-03-15

    This supporting document details calculations completed to properly design an adjustable lifting beam. The main use of the lifting beam is to hoist the Data Acquisition and Controls Systems (DACS) trailer over a steam line. All design work was completed using the American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction (AISC, 1989) and Hanford Hoisting and Rigging Manual (WHC, 1992).

  4. Design and performance of an automated video-based laser beam alignment system

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, W.J. ); Kartz, M.W. ); Bliss, E.S.; English, R.E. Jr.; Peterson, R.L.; Thompson, G.R.; Uhlich, D.M. )

    1992-07-14

    This paper describes the design and performance of an automated, closed-loop, laser beam alignment system. Its function is to sense a beam alignment error in a laser beam transport system and automatically steer mirrors preceding the sensor location as required to maintain beam alignment. The laser beam is sampled by an optomechanical package which uses video cameras to sense pointing and centering errors. The camera outputs are fed to an image processing module, which includes video digitizers and uses image storage and software to sense the centroid of the image. Signals are sent through a VMEbus to an optical device controller'' (ODC), which drives stepper-motor actuators on mirror mounts preceding the beam-sampling location to return the beam alignment to the prescribed condition. Photodiodes are also used to extend the control bandwidth beyond that which is achievable with video cameras. This system has been operated at LLNL in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program to maintain the alignment of copper and dye laser beams, the latter to within [plus minus]2 [mu]r in pointing and less than 1 mm in centering. The optomechanical design of the instrumented package, which includes lens, mirror, and video mounts in a rigid housing, the automated control system architecture, and the performance of this equipment is described.

  5. Design and performance of an automated video-based laser beam alignment system

    SciTech Connect

    Rundle, W.J.; Kartz, M.W.; Bliss, E.S.; English, R.E. Jr.; Peterson, R.L.; Thompson, G.R.; Uhlich, D.M.

    1992-07-14

    This paper describes the design and performance of an automated, closed-loop, laser beam alignment system. Its function is to sense a beam alignment error in a laser beam transport system and automatically steer mirrors preceding the sensor location as required to maintain beam alignment. The laser beam is sampled by an optomechanical package which uses video cameras to sense pointing and centering errors. The camera outputs are fed to an image processing module, which includes video digitizers and uses image storage and software to sense the centroid of the image. Signals are sent through a VMEbus to an ``optical device controller`` (ODC), which drives stepper-motor actuators on mirror mounts preceding the beam-sampling location to return the beam alignment to the prescribed condition. Photodiodes are also used to extend the control bandwidth beyond that which is achievable with video cameras. This system has been operated at LLNL in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program to maintain the alignment of copper and dye laser beams, the latter to within {plus_minus}2 {mu}r in pointing and less than 1 mm in centering. The optomechanical design of the instrumented package, which includes lens, mirror, and video mounts in a rigid housing, the automated control system architecture, and the performance of this equipment is described.

  6. Neutral beam dose and sputtering characteristics in an ion implantation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Ash, R. L.; Berger, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    A technique and instrument design for calorimetric detection of the neutral atom content of a 60 keV argon ion beam. A beam sampling method is used to measure local heat flux to a small platinum wire at steady state; integration of power density profiles leads to a determination of equivalent neutral beam current. The fast neutral production occurs as a result of charge transfer processes in the region of the beam system between analyzing magnet and beam stop where the pressure remains less than .00001 torr. A description of the neutral beam detector is given in section along with a presentation of results. An elementary analysis of sputter material transport from target to substrate was performed; the analysis relates to semiconductor sputtering.

  7. Design of RF chopper system for improving beam quality in FEL injector with thermionic gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Qin, B.; Tan, P.; Hu, T.; Pei, Y.; Zhang, F.

    2014-08-01

    For a linac-based Free Electron Laser (FEL), good beam quality largely contributes to the success of the final radiation. An imperfection confronted with the HUST THz-FEL facility is the long beam tail that emerges in the electron gun and exists through the whole beam line. This paper proposes to deploy a chopper system after the electron gun to truncate the beam tails before they enter into the linac. Physical dimensions of the chopper cavity are discussed in detail and we have developed and derived new analytical expressions applying to all frequencies for the optimal design. Also, technical issues of the cavity are considered. Beam dynamic simulation is performed to examine the truncation effect and the results show that more than 78% of the beam tail can be removed effectively, while preserving the emittance and energy spread in acceptable level.

  8. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  9. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Seong Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-15

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  10. Mechanical beam isolator for high-power laser systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.; Vann, Charles S.

    1998-01-01

    A mechanical beam isolator uses rod-shaped elements having a Gaussian configuration to interrupt the path of a beam of photons or particles when the time-scale of the needed interruption is of the order of a microsecond or less. One or more of these rods is mounted transversely to, and penetrates through, a rotating shaft supported by bearings. Owing to the Gaussian geometry of the rods, they are able to withstand much higher rotation speeds, without tensile failure, than rods having any other geometrical shape.

  11. Mechanical beam isolator for high-power laser systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

    1998-07-07

    A mechanical beam isolator uses rod-shaped elements having a Gaussian configuration to interrupt the path of a beam of photons or particles when the time-scale of the needed interruption is of the order of a microsecond or less. One or more of these rods is mounted transversely to, and penetrates through, a rotating shaft supported by bearings. Owing to the Gaussian geometry of the rods, they are able to withstand much higher rotation speeds, without tensile failure, than rods having any other geometrical shape. 3 figs.

  12. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Baumbaugh, A.; Briegel, C.; Brown, B.C.; Capista, D.; Drennan, C.; Fellenz, B.; Knickerbocker, K.; Lewis, J.D.; Marchionni, A.; Needles, C.; Olson, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and show a number of examples of its use in both the Main Injector and Tevatron.

  13. Design of the ILC Prototype FONT4 Digital Intra-Train Beam-Based Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.; Christian, G.B.; Hartin, A.F.; Dabiri Khah, H.; White, G.R.; Clarke, C.C.; Perry, C.; Kalinin, A.; McCormick, D.J.; Molloy, S.; Ross, M.C.; /SLAC

    2007-04-16

    We present the design of the FONT4 digital intra-train beam position feedback system prototype and preliminary results of initial beam tests at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK. The feedback system incorporates a fast analogue beam position monitor (BPM) front-end signal processor, a digital feedback board, and a kicker driver amplifier. The short bunchtrain, comprising 3 electron bunches separated by c. 150ns, in the ATF extraction line was used to test components of the prototype feedback system.

  14. Signal distortion due to beam-pointing error in a chopper modulated laser system.

    PubMed

    Eklund, H

    1978-01-15

    The detector output has been studied for a long-distance system with a chopped cw laser as transmitter source. It is shown experimentally that the pulse distortion of the detected signal is dependent on the beam-pointing error. Parameters reflecting the pulse distortion are defined. The beam deviation in 1-D is found to be strongly related to these parameters. The result is in agreement with a theoretical model based upon the Fresnel diffraction theory. Possible applications in beam-tracking systems, communications systems, and atmospheric studies are discussed. PMID:20174398

  15. REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES FOR NSLS EXPERIMENTAL BEAM LINE VACUUM SYSTEMS-REVISION B.

    SciTech Connect

    FOERSTER,C.

    1999-05-01

    Typical beam lines are comprised of an assembly of vacuum valves and shutters referred to as a ''front end'', optical elements to monochromatize, focus and split the photon beam, and an experimental area where a target sample is placed into the photon beam and data from the interaction is detected and recorded. Windows are used to separate sections of beam lines that are not compatible with storage ring ultra high vacuum. Some experimental beam lines share a common vacuum with storage rings. Sections of beam lines are only allowed to vent up to atmospheric pressure using pure nitrogen gas after a vacuum barrier is established to protect ring vacuum. The front end may only be bled up when there is no current in the machine. This is especially true on the VUV storage ring where for most experiments, windows are not used. For the shorter wavelength, more energetic photons of the x-ray ring, beryllium windows are used at various beam line locations so that the monochromator, mirror box or sample chamber may be used in a helium atmosphere or rough vacuum. The window separates ring vacuum from the environment of the downstream beam line components. The stored beam lifetime in the storage rings and the maintenance of desirable reflection properties of optical surfaces depend upon hydrocarbon-free, ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage ring vacuum systems will operate at pressures of {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}10} Torr without beam and {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}9} Torr with beam. Systems are free of hydrocarbons in the sense that no pumps, valves, etc. containing organics are used. Components are all-metal, chemically cleaned and bakeable. To the extent that beam lines share a common vacuum with the storage ring, the same criteria will hold for beam line components. The design philosophy for NSLS beam lines is to use all-metal, hydrocarbon-free front end components and recommend that experimenters use this approach for common vacuum hardware downstream of front

  16. Applications of focused ion beam systems in gunshot residue investigation.

    PubMed

    Niewöhner, L; Wenz, H W

    1999-01-01

    Scanning ion microscopy technology has opened a new door to forensic scientists, allowing the GSR investigator to see inside a particle's core. Using a focused ion beam, particles can be cross-sectioned, revealing interior morphology and character that can be utilized for identification of the ammunition manufacturer. PMID:9987878

  17. A DSP-Based Beam Current Monitoring System for Machine Protection Using Adaptive Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    J. Musson; H. Dong; R. Flood; C. Hovater; J. Hereford

    2001-06-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab is currently using an analog beam current monitoring (BCM) system for its machine protection system (MPS), which has a loss accuracy of 2 micro-amps. Recent burn-through simulations predict catastrophic beam line component failures below 1 micro-amp of loss, resulting in a blind spot for the MPS. Revised MPS requirements target an ultimate beam loss accuracy of 250 nA. A new beam current monitoring system has been developed which utilizes modern digital receiver technology and digital signal processing concepts. The receiver employs a direct-digital down converter integrated circuit, mated with a Jefferson Lab digital signal processor VME card. Adaptive filtering is used to take advantage of current-dependent burn-through rates. Benefits of such a system include elimination of DC offsets, generic algorithm development, extensive filter options, and interfaces to UNIX-based control systems.

  18. A state of the art electron beam sterilization facility. An integrated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, James L.

    1998-06-01

    The design of an electron beam sterilization facility requires the integration of the accelerator, product handling system and shielding. The size and power of the accelerator as well as the characteristics of the product handling system are determined by the type and volume of products to be sterilized. The system controls must track the product as it moves from the non sterile area through the electron beam to the sterile area. The system must not only monitor identification, position, orientation etc., but also isolate those products which for any reason may not have been properly sterilized. The shielding design is a function of the requirements for the accelerator and product handling system with an overriding concern for worker safety. This paper discusses a state of the art electron beam sterilization facility designed to follow guidelines for electron beam sterilization published by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI).

  19. A Radio System for Avoiding Illuminating Aircraft with a Laser Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, W. A.; Murphy, T. W.; Melser, J. F.; Tu, J. K.; White, G. A.; Kassabian, K. H.; Bales, K.; Baumgartner, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    When scientific experiments require transmission of powerful laser or radio beams through the atmosphere, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires that precautions be taken to avoid inadvertent illumination of aircraft. At present, the FAA requires that laser operators use human spotters to protect against accidental illumination. Here, we describe a simple, inexpensive, and highly reliable electronic system for detecting aircraft entering the vicinity of a laser beam that makes use of the air traffic control (ATC) radio transponders required on most aircraft. The radio system uses two antennas, both aligned with the laser beam. One antenna has a broad beam and the other has a narrow beam. The ratio of the transponder power received in the narrow beam to that received in the broad beam gives a measure of the angular distance of the aircraft from the axis that is independent of the range or the transmitter power. This ratio is easily measured and can be used to shutter the laser when the aircraft is too close to the beam. Comparisons of prototype systems operating at both the Apache Point and W. M. Keck Observatory with an FAA database indicate successful identification of commercial airplanes passing near the telescope boresight.

  20. Analysis of longitudinal beam dynamics behavior and rf system operative limits at high-beam currents in storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; Fox, J. D.; van Winkle, D.; Teytelman, D.

    2008-06-01

    A dynamics simulation model is used to estimate limits of performance of the positron-electron project (PEP-II). The simulation captures the dynamics and technical limitations of the low level radio frequency (LLRF) system, the high-power rf components, and the low-order mode coupled-bunch longitudinal beam dynamics. Simulation results showing the effect of nonlinearities on the LLRF loops, and studies of the effectiveness of technical component upgrades are reported, as well as a comparison of these results with PEP-II measurements. These studies have led to the estimation of limits and determining factors in the maximum stored current that the low energy ring/high energy ring (LER/HER) can achieve, based on system stability for different rf station configurations and upgrades. In particular, the feasibility of the PEP-II plans to achieve the final goal in luminosity, which required an increase of the beam currents to 4 A for LER and 2.2 A for HER, is studied. These currents are challenging in part because they would push the longitudinal low-order beam mode stability to the limit, and the klystron forward power past a level of satisfactory margin. An acceptable margin is defined in this paper, which in turn determines the corresponding klystron forward power limitation.

  1. Dedicated Cone-Beam CT System for Extremity Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Al Muhit, Abdullah; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Thawait, Gaurav K.; Stayman, J. Webster; Packard, Nathan; Senn, Robert; Yang, Dong; Foos, David H.; Yorkston, John; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide initial assessment of image quality and dose for a cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scanner dedicated to extremity imaging. Materials and Methods A prototype cone-beam CT scanner has been developed for imaging the extremities, including the weight-bearing lower extremities. Initial technical assessment included evaluation of radiation dose measured as a function of kilovolt peak and tube output (in milliampere seconds), contrast resolution assessed in terms of the signal difference–to-noise ratio (SDNR), spatial resolution semiquantitatively assessed by using a line-pair module from a phantom, and qualitative evaluation of cadaver images for potential diagnostic value and image artifacts by an expert CT observer (musculoskeletal radiologist). Results The dose for a nominal scan protocol (80 kVp, 108 mAs) was 9 mGy (absolute dose measured at the center of a CT dose index phantom). SDNR was maximized with the 80-kVp scan technique, and contrast resolution was sufficient for visualization of muscle, fat, ligaments and/or tendons, cartilage joint space, and bone. Spatial resolution in the axial plane exceeded 15 line pairs per centimeter. Streaks associated with x-ray scatter (in thicker regions of the patient—eg, the knee), beam hardening (about cortical bone—eg, the femoral shaft), and cone-beam artifacts (at joint space surfaces oriented along the scanning plane—eg, the interphalangeal joints) presented a slight impediment to visualization. Cadaver images (elbow, hand, knee, and foot) demonstrated excellent visibility of bone detail and good soft-tissue visibility suitable to a broad spectrum of musculoskeletal indications. Conclusion A dedicated extremity cone-beam CT scanner capable of imaging upper and lower extremities (including weight-bearing examinations) provides sufficient image quality and favorable dose characteristics to warrant further evaluation for clinical use. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for

  2. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, T.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Naas, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-02-15

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed.

  3. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, T; Cee, R; Haberer, T; Naas, B; Peters, A

    2012-02-01

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed. PMID:22380336

  4. Method and system for controlling the position of a beam of light

    DOEpatents

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F.; Johnson, Gary W.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2011-08-09

    An method and system for laser beam tracking and pointing is based on a conventional position sensing detector (PSD) or quadrant cell but with the use of amplitude-modulated light. A combination of logarithmic automatic gain control, filtering, and synchronous detection offers high angular precision with exceptional dynamic range and sensitivity, while maintaining wide bandwidth. Use of modulated light enables the tracking of multiple beams simultaneously through the use of different modulation frequencies. It also makes the system resistant to interfering light sources such as ambient light. Beam pointing is accomplished by feeding back errors in the measured beam position to a beam steering element, such as a steering mirror. Closed-loop tracking performance is superior to existing methods, especially under conditions of atmospheric scintillation.

  5. COMPUTATIONAL BEAM DYNAMICS STUDIES FOR IMPROVING THE RING INJECTION AND EXTRACTION SYSTEMS IN SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Jeffrey A; Cousineau, Sarah M; Plum, Michael A; Wang, Jian-Guang

    2008-01-01

    The ring injection and extraction systems must function as designed in order for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to achieve its specified performance. In commissioning and early operations we have encountered problems that have been traced to these systems. We experienced high beam losses in and around the injection dump, the rectification of which has necessitated ongoing study and development by a multidisciplinary team. Results already include a number of enhancements of existing features and the addition of new elements and diagnostics. The problem in the extraction region stems from tilted beam distributions observed in the ring-to-target beam transport line (RTBT) and on the target, thus complicating the control of the beam-on-target distribution. This indicates the inadvertent introduction of x-y beam coupling somewhere upstream of the RTBT. The present paper describes computational studies, using the ORBIT Code, addressed at the detailed understanding and solution of these problems.

  6. Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; He, J. J.; Kim, A.

    2008-05-21

    A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N{sub 2} finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N{sub 2} tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm{sup 2} at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a {sup 7}Be beam of 2x10{sup 8} particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

  7. Secondary particle acquisition system for the CERN beam wire scanners upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirvent, J. L.; Dehning, B.; Emery, J.; Diéguez, A.

    2015-04-01

    The increasing requirements of CERN experiments make essential the upgrade of beam instrumentation in general, and high accuracy beam profile monitors in particular. The CERN Beam Instrumentation Group has been working during the last years on the Wire Scanners upgrade. These systems cross a thin wire through a circulating beam, the resulting secondary particles produced from beam/wire interaction are detected to reconstruct the beam profile. For the new secondary shower acquisition system, it is necessary to perform very low noise measurements with high dynamic range coverage. The aim is to design a system without tuneable parameters and compatible for any beam wire scanner location at the CERN complex. Polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition diamond detectors (pCVD) are proposed as new detectors for this application because of their radiation hardness, fast response and linearity over a high dynamic range. For the detector readout, the acquisition electronics must be designed to exploit the detector capabilities and perform bunch by bunch measurements at 40MHz. This paper describes the design challenges of such a system, analysing different acquisition possibilities from the signal integrity point of view. The proposed system architecture is shown in detail and the development status presented.

  8. Development of a raster electronics system for expanding the APT proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Chapelle, S.; Hubbard, E.L.; Smith, T.L.; Schulze, M.E.; Shafer, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    A 1700 MeV, 100 mA proton linear accelerator is being designed for Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT). A beam expansion system is required to uniformly irradiate a 19 x 190 cm tritium production target. This paper describes a beam expansion system consisting of eight ferrite dipole magnets to raster the beam in the x- and y-planes and also describes the salient features of the design of the electronics that are unique to the expander. Eight Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)-based modulators drive the raster magnets with triangular current waveforms that are synchronized using phase-locked loops (PLLs) and voltage controlled crystal oscillators (VCXOs). Fault detection circuitry shuts down the beam before the target can be damaged by a failure of the raster system. Test data are presented for the prototype system.

  9. Performance of a 10 Gbps FSO System Implementing Novel Beam Tracking a Dynamic Buffering Modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John; Valencia, J. Emilio; Peach, Robert; Visone, Chris; Burdge, Geoffrey; Vickers, John; Leclerc, Troy; Sauer, Paul; Andrews, Larry; Phillips, Ron

    2012-01-01

    A 10 Gbps Free space optical (FSO) system implements beam tracking, a high dynamic range optical receiver, and a dynamic buffering packet modem. Performance was characterized at the 4.5 km Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center Florida.

  10. Speckle reference beam holographic and speckle photographic interferometry in non-destructive test systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques of speckle beam holographic interferometry and speckle photographic interferometry are described. In particular, their practical limitations and their applications to the existing holographic nondestructive test system are discussed.

  11. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1994-11-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

  12. Vacuum system of the 3MeV industrial electron beam accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaprakash, D.; Mishra, R. L.; Ghodke, S. R.; kumar, M.; kumar, M.; Nanu, K.; Mittal, K. C., Dr

    2008-05-01

    One DC Accelerator, for electron beam of 3 MeV energy and 10 mA beam current, to derive 30 KW beam power for Industrial applications is nearing completion at Electron Beam Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. Beam-line of the accelerator is six meters long, consists of electron gun at top, followed by the accelerating column and finally the scan horn. Electron gun and the accelerating column is exposed to SF6 gas at six atmospheres. Area exposed to the vacuum is 65,000 sq: cm, and includes a volume of 200 litres. Vacuum of the order of 1×10-7mbar is desired. To ensure a good vacuum gradient, distributive pumping is implemented. Electron beam is scanned to a size of 5cm × 120cm, to get a useful beam coverage, for industrial radiation applications. The beam is extracted through a window of Titanium foil of 50μm thickness. A safety interlock, to protect the electron gun, accelerating column and sputter ion pumps, in case of a foil rupture, is incorporated. Foil change can be done without disturbing the vacuum in the other zones. System will be integrated to a master control system to take care of the various safety aspects, and to make it operator friendly.

  13. Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object using multi-beam imaging from an X-ray beam having a polychromatic distribution

    DOEpatents

    Parham, Christopher A; Zhong, Zhong; Pisano, Etta; Connor, Jr., Dean M

    2015-03-03

    Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object using a multi-beam imaging system from an x-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution are disclosed. According to one aspect, a method can include generating a first X-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution. Further, the method can include positioning a plurality of monochromator crystals in a predetermined position to directly intercept the first X-ray beam such that a plurality of second X-ray beams having predetermined energy levels are produced. Further, an object can be positioned in the path of the second X-ray beams for transmission of the second X-ray beams through the object and emission from the object as transmitted X-ray beams. The transmitted X-ray beams can each be directed at an angle of incidence upon one or more crystal analyzers. Further, an image of the object can be detected from the beams diffracted from the analyzer crystals.

  14. Status of the heavy ion beam probe system in the Large Helical Device.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, M; Ido, T; Shimizu, A; Nakano, H; Kato, T; Kato, S; Hamada, Y; Shevelko, V P; Janev, R K; Wada, M

    2008-02-01

    A heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) system has been installed into the Large Helical Device (LHD) to measure the spatial profile of the plasma potential and density fluctuations. The optimization of the HIBP system, especially the beam injector, is described. The negative ion beam is required for the MeV beam production in a tandem accelerator. A sputter-type heavy negative ion source has been developed as an intense Au(-) beam source to produce Au(+) beams with energy in the MeV range. The extraction electrodes and the Einzel lens system of the ion source have been designed taking into account the beam optics, and installed into the real machine. Throughout the plasma diagnostics on LHD experiments, the consumptions of vaporized caesium and gold target are being characterized for practical operations. In addition, the experimental charge fractions are compared with the theoretical fractions for understanding the charge-changing behavior of Au(-) ions and optimizing the fraction of Au(+) ions at the exit of the tandem accelerator of the HIBP system. PMID:18315266

  15. Test and control computer user's guide for a digital beam former test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, Robert E.; Mallasch, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A Digital Beam Former Test System was developed to determine the effects of noise, interferers and distortions, and digital implementations of beam forming as applied to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 2 (TDRS 2) architectures. The investigation of digital beam forming with application to TDRS 2 architectures, as described in TDRS 2 advanced concept design studies, was conducted by the NASA/Lewis Research Center for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. A Test and Control Computer (TCC) was used as the main controlling element of the digital Beam Former Test System. The Test and Control Computer User's Guide for a Digital Beam Former Test System provides an organized description of the Digital Beam Former Test System commands. It is written for users who wish to conduct tests of the Digital Beam forming Test processor using the TCC. The document describes the function, use, and syntax of the TCC commands available to the user while summarizing and demonstrating the use of the commands wtihin DOS batch files.

  16. Third-order theory of the Risley-prism-based beam steering system.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajun

    2011-02-10

    Nonparaxial ray tracing is performed to investigate the field scanned out by a single beam through two rotatable thick prisms with different parameters, and a general solution is obtained and then expanded into a power series to establish the third-order theory for Risley prisms that paves the way to investigate topics of interest such as optical distortions in the scan pattern and an analytical solution of the inverse problem of a Risley-prism-based laser beam steering system; i.e., the problem is concerned with how to direct a laser beam to any specified direction within the angular range of the system. PMID:21343989

  17. Development of the beam extraction synchronization system at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, K.; Chaurize, S.; Drennan, C. C.; Pellico, W.; Sullivan, T.; Triplett, A. K.; Waller, A. M.

    2015-07-28

    The new beam extraction synchronization control system called “Magnetic Cogging” was developed at the Fermilab Booster and it replaces a system called “RF Cogging” as part of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). [1] The flux throughput goal for the PIP is 2.2×1017 protons per hour, which is double the present flux. Thus, the flux increase will be accomplished by doubling the number of beam cycles which, in turn, will double the beam loss in the Booster accelerator if nothing else is done.

  18. Development of the beam extraction synchronization system at the Fermilab Booster

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seiya, K.; Chaurize, S.; Drennan, C. C.; Pellico, W.; Sullivan, T.; Triplett, A. K.; Waller, A. M.

    2015-07-28

    The new beam extraction synchronization control system called “Magnetic Cogging” was developed at the Fermilab Booster and it replaces a system called “RF Cogging” as part of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). [1] The flux throughput goal for the PIP is 2.2×1017 protons per hour, which is double the present flux. Thus, the flux increase will be accomplished by doubling the number of beam cycles which, in turn, will double the beam loss in the Booster accelerator if nothing else is done.

  19. Laser beam manifold and particle photography system for use in fluid velocity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, R. B.; Campbell, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser beam manifold and particle photography system has been developed for use in fluid velocity measurements. The laser manifold is a device which transforms a single laser beam into several uniform parallel beams. By orienting two manifolds mutually perpendicular, an optical grid can be formed which acts as a reference for fluid velocity measurements. This optical grid is for all practical purposes totally nonperturbing to the flow. Tracer particles moving in the plane of the grid are then photographed to yield fluid velocities that can be measured relative to the optical grid. System construction and theory are presented.

  20. System for transporting an electron beam to the atmosphere for a gun with a plasma emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, S. Yu.; Rempe, N. G.; Shidlovskiy, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the results of simulation of the gas flow in a gun with a plasma emitter and in the system for extracting the electron beam to the atmosphere, constructed on the basis of standard gasdynamic windows (GDWs). The design of the gun and GDWs is described. Calculations are performed for a pressure of about 10-3 Torr in the electron beam generation range. It is shown that the pressure drop to the atmospheric pressure in the system of electron beam extraction to the atmosphere can be ensured by two GDW stages evacuated by pumps with optimal performance.

  1. TOPOLOGY FOR A DSP BASED BEAM CONTROL SYSTEM IN THE AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    DELONG,J.BRENNAN,J.M.HAYES,T.LE,T.N.SMITH,K.

    2003-05-12

    The AGS Booster supports beams of ions and protons with a wide range of energies on a pulse-by-pulse modulation basis. This requires an agile beam control system highly integrated with its controls. To implement this system digital techniques in the form of Digital Signal Processors, Direct Digital Synthesizers, digital receivers and high speed Analog to Digital Converters are used. Signals from the beam and cavity pick-ups, as well as measurements of magnetic field strength in the ring dipoles are processed in real time. To facilitate this a multi-processor topology with high bandwidth data links is being designed.

  2. Space fabrication demonstration system. [beam builder and induction fastening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The development effort on the composite beam cap fabricator was completed within cost and close to abbreviated goals. The design and analysis of flight weight primary and secondary beam builder structures proceeded satisfactorily but remains curtailed until further funding is made available to complete the work. The induction fastening effort remains within cost and schedule constraints. Tests of the LARC prototype induction welder is continuing in an instrumented test stand comprised of a Dumore drill press (air over oil feed for variable applied loads) and a dynamometer to measure actual welding loads. Continued testing shows that the interface screening must be well impregnated with resin to ensure proper flow when bonding graphite-acrylic lap shear samples. Specimens prepared from 0.030 inch thick graphite-polyethersulfone are also available for future induction fastening evaluation.

  3. System and method for delivery of neutron beams for medical therapy

    DOEpatents

    Nigg, D.W.; Wemple, C.A.

    1999-07-06

    A neutron delivery system that provides improved capability for tumor control during medical therapy is disclosed. The system creates a unique neutron beam that has a bimodal or multi-modal energy spectrum. This unique neutron beam can be used for fast-neutron therapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), or both. The invention includes both an apparatus and a method for accomplishing the purposes of the invention. 5 figs.

  4. System and method for delivery of neutron beams for medical therapy

    DOEpatents

    Nigg, David W.; Wemple, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron delivery system that provides improved capability for tumor control during medical therapy. The system creates a unique neutron beam that has a bimodal or multi-modal energy spectrum. This unique neutron beam can be used for fast-neutron therapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), or both. The invention includes both an apparatus and a method for accomplishing the purposes of the invention.

  5. CEBAF beam loss accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Ursic, R.; Mahoney, K.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a beam loss accounting system for the CEBAF electron accelerator. This system samples the beam curent throughout the beam path and measures the beam current accurately. Personnel Safety and Machine Protection systems use this system to turn off the beam when hazardous beam losses occur.

  6. Comparative efficiency analysis of fiber-array and conventional beam director systems in volume turbulence.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Mikhail; Filimonov, Grigory; Ovchinnikov, Vladimir; Polnau, Ernst; Lachinova, Svetlana; Weyrauch, Thomas; Mangano, Joseph

    2016-05-20

    The performance of two prominent laser beam projection system types is analyzed through wave-optics numerical simulations for various atmospheric turbulence conditions, propagation distances, and adaptive optics (AO) mitigation techniques. Comparisons are made between different configurations of both a conventional beam director (BD) using a monolithic-optics-based Cassegrain telescope and a fiber-array BD that uses an array of densely packed fiber collimators. The BD systems considered have equal input power and aperture diameters. The projected laser beam power inside the Airy size disk at the target plane is used as the performance metric. For the fiber-array system, both incoherent and coherent beam combining regimes are considered. We also present preliminary results of side-by-side atmospheric beam projection experiments over a 7-km propagation path using both the AO-enhanced beam projection system with a Cassegrain telescope and the coherent fiber-array BD composed of 21 densely packed fiber collimators. Both wave-optics numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that, for similar system architectures and turbulence conditions, coherent fiber-array systems are more efficient in mitigation of atmospheric turbulence effects and generation of a hit spot of the smallest possible size on a remotely located target. PMID:27411147

  7. Cone beam computed tomography: Development of system characterization metrics and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt Benitez, Jose Ricardo

    Cone beam computed tomography has emerged as a promising medical imaging tool due to its short scanning time, large volume coverage and its isotropic spatial resolution in three dimensions among other characteristics. However, due to its inherent three-dimensionality, it is important to understand and characterize its physical characteristics to be able to improve its performance and extends its applications in medical imaging. One of the main components of a Cone beam computed tomography system is its flat panel detector. Its physical characteristics were evaluated in terms of spatial resolution, linearity, image lag, noise power spectrum and detective quantum efficiency. After evaluating the physical performance of the flat panel detector, metrics to evaluate the image quality of the system were developed and used to evaluate the systems image quality. Especially, the modulation transfer function and the noise power spectrum were characterized and evaluated for a PaxScan 4030CB FPD-based cone beam computed tomography system. Finally, novel applications using cone beam computed tomography images were suggested and evaluated for its practical application. For example, the characterization of breast density was evaluated and further studies were suggested that could impact the health system related to breast cancer. Another novel application was the utilization of cone beam computed tomography for orthopedic imaging. In this thesis, an initial assessment of its practical application was perform. Overall, three cone beam computed tomography systems were evaluated and utilized for different novel applications that would advance the field of medical imaging.

  8. The study of laser beam riding guided system based on 980nm diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhou; Xu, Haifeng; Sui, Xin; Yang, Kun

    2015-10-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  9. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research.

    PubMed

    Lampert, M; Anda, G; Czopf, A; Erdei, G; Guszejnov, D; Kovácsik, Á; Pokol, G I; Réfy, D; Nam, Y U; Zoletnik, S

    2015-07-01

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera's measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties. PMID:26233377

  10. Development of a machine protection system for the Superconducting Beam Test Facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, A.; Carmichael, L.; Church, M.; Neswold, R.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Fermilab's Superconducting RF Beam Test Facility currently under construction will produce electron beams capable of damaging the acceleration structures and the beam line vacuum chambers in the event of an aberrant accelerator pulse. The accelerator is being designed with the capability to operate with up to 3000 bunches per macro-pulse, 5Hz repetition rate and 1.5 GeV beam energy. It will be able to sustain an average beam power of 72 KW at the bunch charge of 3.2 nC. Operation at full intensity will deposit enough energy in niobium material to approach the melting point of 2500 C. In the early phase with only 3 cryomodules installed the facility will be capable of generating electron beam energies of 810 MeV and an average beam power that approaches 40 KW. In either case a robust Machine Protection System (MPS) is required to mitigate effects due to such large damage potentials. This paper will describe the MPS system being developed, the system requirements and the controls issues under consideration.

  11. FEL beam sharing systems for eight user`s stations of the FELI

    SciTech Connect

    Okuma, S.; Saeki, K.; Kobayashi, A.

    1995-12-31

    Two infrared free electron lasers (FELs) of the FELI are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20 {mu}m. Two kinds of FEL beam are sent from the exits of the optical cavities to the diagnostics room through the evacuated optical pipelines whose inner diameter is about 150 mm. From the diagnostic room to user`s stations, FEL beams are delivered through FEL beam sharing systems. Au-coated mirrors with fan-shaped holes are used instead of half mirrors such as ZnSe to share FEL beams to the diagnostics room and the following user`s stations, since maximum diameter of FEL beams is 50 mm in the wavelength range of 1-20 {mu}m and an opening angle of the fan-shaped holes can change a sharing ratio of delivering FEL average power for user`s stations; for instance, 10% to the diagnostics room and 90% to eight user`s stations. Each system enables us to use the same FEL beam simultaneously at the user`s stations. The two beam sharing systems will be installed in the user`s facility early in August.

  12. Industrial fiber beam delivery system for ultrafast lasers: applications and recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilzer, Sebastian; Funck, Max C.; Wedel, Björn

    2016-03-01

    Fiber based laser beam delivery is the method of choice for high power laser applications whenever great flexibility is required. For cw-lasers fiber beam delivery has long been established but has recently also become available for ultrafast lasers. Using micro-structured hollow core fibers that guide the laser beam mostly inside a hollow core, nonlinear effects and catastrophic damage that arise in conventional glass fibers can be avoided. Today, ultrafast pulses with several 100 μJ and hundreds of MW can be transmitted in quasi single mode fashion. In addition, the technology opens new possibilities for beam delivery systems as the pulse propagation inside the fiber can be altered on purpose. For example to shorten the pulse duration of picosecond lasers down into the femtosecond regime. We present a modular fiber beam delivery system for micromachining applications with industrial pico- and femtosecond lasers that is flexibly integrated into existing applications. Micro-structured hollow core fibers inside the sealed laser light cable efficiently guide high-power laser pulses over distances of several meters with excellent beam quality, while power, pulse duration and polarization are maintained. Robust and stable beam transport during dynamic operation as in robot or gantry systems will be discussed together with optional pulse compression.

  13. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    Lampert, M.; Anda, G.; Réfy, D.; Zoletnik, S.; Czopf, A.; Erdei, G.; Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I.; Nam, Y. U.

    2015-07-15

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  14. Application of MMIC modules in future multiple beam satellite antenna systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, J.

    1982-01-01

    Multiple beam antenna systems for advanced communication satellites operating in the 30/20 GHz frequency bands (30 GHz uplink, 20 GHz downlink) were developed. Up to twenty 0.3 deg HPBW fixed spot beams and six 0.3 deg HPBW scanning spot beams will be required. Array-fed dual reflector antenna systems in which monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phase shift and amplifier modules are used with each radiating element of the feed array for beam pointing and power gain were developed. The feasibility of distributed power amplification and beam pointing with MMIC modules in the elements of an array and to develop a data base for future development were demonstrated. The technical discussion centers around the potential advantages of ""monolithic'' antennas for specific applications as compared to systems using high powered TWT's. These include: reduced losses in the beam forming network; advantage of space combining and graceful degradation; dynamic control of beam pointing and illumination contour; and possibilities for cost and weight reduction.

  15. Modeling of the general astigmatic Gaussian beam and its propagation through 3D optical systems.

    PubMed

    Kochkina, Evgenia; Wanner, Gudrun; Schmelzer, Dennis; Tröbs, Michael; Heinzel, Gerhard

    2013-08-20

    The paper introduces the complete model of the general astigmatic Gaussian beam as the most general case of the Gaussian beam in the fundamental mode. This includes the laws of propagation, reflection, and refraction as well as the equations for extracting from the complex-valued beam description its real-valued parameters, such as the beam spot radii and the radii of curvature of the wavefront. The suggested model is applicable to the case of an oblique incidence of the beam at any 3D surface that can be approximated by the second-order equation at the point of incidence. Thus it can be used in simulations of a large variety of 3D optical systems. The provided experimental validation of the model shows good agreement with simulations. PMID:24085008

  16. Propagation of flat-topped multi-Gaussian beams through an apertured ABCD optical system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Qi; Zhu, Bao-Qiang; Liu, Dai-Zhong; Lin, Zun-Qi

    2009-10-01

    The generalized analytical expression for the propagation of flat-topped multi-Gaussian beams through a misaligned apertured ABCD optical system is derived. Using this analytical expression, the propagation characteristics of flat-topped multi-Gaussian beams through a spatial filter are investigated. The analytical formula of the electric field distribution in the focal plane is also derived for revealing the effects of the misalignment parameters clearly. It is found that different misalignment parameters have different influences on the electric field distributions of the beam focus spot and the output beam characteristics. The intensity distribution of the beam is mainly determined by the misalignment matrix element E, and the phase distribution is affected by the misalignment matrix elements G and E. PMID:19798391

  17. Collimation system design for beam loss localization with slipstacking injection in the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Brown, B.C.; Johnson, D.E.; Koba, K.; Kourbanis, I.; Mokhov, N.V.; Rakhno, I.L.; Sidorov, V.I.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Results of modeling with the 3-D STRUCT and MARS15 codes of beam loss localization and related radiation effects are presented for the slipstacking injection to the Fermilab Main Injector. Simulations of proton beam loss are done using multi-turn tracking with realistic accelerator apertures, nonlinear fields in the accelerator magnets and time function of the RF manipulations to explain the results of beam loss measurements. The collimation system consists of one primary and four secondary collimators. It intercepts a beam power of 1.6 kW at a scraping rate of 5% of 5.5E+13 ppp, with a beam loss rate in the ring outside the collimation region of 1 W/m or less. Based on thorough energy deposition and radiation modeling, a corresponding collimator design was developed that satisfies all the radiation and engineering constraints.

  18. An alpha particle measurement system using an energetic neutral helium beam in ITER (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Tanaka, N.; Terai, K.; Kaneko, O.; Kisaki, M.; Kobuchi, T.; Tsumori, K.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Shinto, K.; Wada, M.

    2012-02-15

    An energetic helium neutral beam is involved in the beam neutralization measurement system of alpha particles confined in a DT fusion plasma. A full size strong-focusing He{sup +} ion source (2 A, the beam radius of 11.3 mm, the beam energy less than 20 keV). Present strong-focusing He{sup +} ion source shows an emittance diagram separated for each beamlet of multiple apertures without phase space mixing, despite the space charge of a beamlet is asymmetric and the beam flow is non-laminar. The emittance of beamlets in the peripheral region was larger than that of center. The heat load to the plasma electrode was studied to estimate the duty factor for the ITER application.

  19. Area X-ray or UV camera system for high-intensity beams

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Sasa; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Hau-Riege, Stefan , Marchesini, Stefano

    2010-03-02

    A system in one embodiment includes a source for directing a beam of radiation at a sample; a multilayer mirror having a face oriented at an angle of less than 90 degrees from an axis of the beam from the source, the mirror reflecting at least a portion of the radiation after the beam encounters a sample; and a pixellated detector for detecting radiation reflected by the mirror. A method in a further embodiment includes directing a beam of radiation at a sample; reflecting at least some of the radiation diffracted by the sample; not reflecting at least a majority of the radiation that is not diffracted by the sample; and detecting at least some of the reflected radiation. A method in yet another embodiment includes directing a beam of radiation at a sample; reflecting at least some of the radiation diffracted by the sample using a multilayer mirror; and detecting at least some of the reflected radiation.

  20. Development of picoseconds Time of Flight systems in Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Ronzhin, A.; Albrow, M.; Demarteau, M.; Los, S.; Malik, S.; Pronko, S.; Ramberg, E.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez

    2010-11-01

    The goal of the work is to develop time of flight (TOF) system with about 10 picosecond time resolution in real beam line when start and stop counters separated by some distance. We name the distance as 'base' for the TOF. This 'real' TOF setup is different from another one when start and stop counters located next to each other. The real TOF is sensitive to beam momentum spread, beam divergence, etc. Anyway some preliminary measurements are useful with close placement of start and stop counter. We name it 'close geometry'. The work started about 2 years ago at Fermilab Meson Test Beam Facility (MTBF). The devices tested in 'close geometry' were Microchannel Plate Photomultipliers (MCP PMT) with Cherenkov radiators. TOF counters based on Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPms) with Cherenkov radiators also in 'close geometry' were tested. We report here new results obtained with the counters in the MTBF at Fermilab, including beam line data.

  1. Numerical simulation of nonlinear processes in a beam-plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Efimova, A. A. Berendeev, E. A.; Vshivkov, V. A.; Dudnikova, G. I.

    2015-10-28

    In the present paper we consider the efficiency of the electromagnetic radiation generation due to various nonlinear processes in the beam-plasma system. The beam and plasma parameters were chosen close to the parameters in the experiment on the GOL-3 facility (BINP SB RAS). The model of the collisionless plasma is described by system of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations with periodic boundary conditions. The parallel numerical algorithm is based on the particles-in-cell method (PIC) with mixed Euler-Lagrangian domain decomposition. Various scenarios of nonlinear evolution in the beam-plasma system under the influence of an external magnetic field in case of a low density beam were studied. The energy transfer from one unstable mode to the others modes was observed.

  2. Equilibria and vibration of a buckled beam with attached masses or spring-mass systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaut, Raymond H.; Virgin, Lawrence N.

    2016-09-01

    A buckled beam with immovable pinned ends is considered. Attached to the beam are either one concentrated mass, two concentrated masses, a spring-mass system (that could model a human, robot, or passive vibration absorber), or a horizontal rigid bar with two vertical end springs (a "bounce-pitch" system that could model an animal or a vehicle). In the theoretical analysis, the beam is modeled as an inextensible elastica. Equilibrium configurations are determined first. Then small free vibrations about equilibrium are examined, and the lowest frequencies and corresponding modes are computed. The effects of various parameters are investigated, such as the ratio of the span to the total arc length of the beam, the locations and weights of the attached masses and systems, and the stiffnesses of the springs. For the case of a single attached mass, experiments are conducted and the results are compared to the theoretical ones.

  3. Towards an objective evaluation of tolerances for beam modeling in a treatment planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel, A.; Ploquin, N.; Kay, I.; Dunscombe, P.

    2007-09-01

    The performance of a convolution/superposition based treatment planning system depends on the ability of the dose calculation algorithm to accurately account for physical interactions taking place in the tissue, key components of the linac head and on the accuracy of the photon beam model. Generally the user has little or no control over the performance of the dose calculation algorithm but is responsible for the accuracy of the beam model within the constraints imposed by the system. This study explores the dosimetric impact of limitations in photon beam modeling accuracy on complex 3D clinical treatment plans. A total of 70 photon beam models was created in the Pinnacle™ treatment planning system. Two of the models served as references for 6 MV and 15 MV beams, while the rest were created by perturbing the reference models in order to produce specific deviations in specific regions of the calculated dose profiles (central axis and transverse). The beam models were then used to generate 3D plans on seven CT data sets each for four different treatment sites (breast and conformal prostate, lung and brain). The equivalent uniform doses (EUD) of the targets and the principal organs at risk (OARs) of all plans (~1000) were calculated and compared to the EUDs delivered by the reference beam models. In general, accurate dosimetry of the target is most greatly compromised by poor modeling of the central axis depth dose and the horns, while the EUDs of the OARs exhibited the greatest sensitivity to beam width accuracy. Based on the results of this analysis we suggest a set of tolerances to be met during commissioning of the beam models in a treatment planning system that are consistent in terms of clinical outcomes as predicted by the EUD.

  4. Development of a low-energy beam transport system at KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Sato, Yoichi; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Seyong; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute has developed a heavy ion accelerator for fast neutron radiography [1]. To meet the requirements for fast neutron generation, we have developed an accelerator system that consists of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS), low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), medium-energy beam transport system, and drift tube linac. In this paper, we present the development of the LEBT system as a part of the heavy ion accelerator system, which operates from the ECR-IS to the RFQ entrance.

  5. Present status of the electron beam diagnostics system of the PLS-II linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Mungyung; Kim, Dotae; Kim, Jae Myung; Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Shin, Seunghwan; Huang, Jung Yun

    2015-02-01

    The PLS-II, the upgraded PLS (Pohang Light Source), has been providing users with photon beams in the top-up mode since March 2013. The requirements for the PLS-II linac to achieve the top-up injection are very demanding because it is a full energy injector with a very limited energy margin. One of the requirements is to ensure high injection efficiency in order to minimize the beam loss at the storage ring injection point and the experimental hall during injection because loss leads to a high radiation level in the experimental hall. The energy stability and energy spread of the accelerated electron beam are fundamental parameters to monitor and manage for high injection efficiency. An energy feedback system consisting of a stripline-type beam position monitor and the last klystron was implemented. To diagnose the injected beam's energy and energy spread in real time during top-up mode injection, we installed an optical transition radiation (OTR) monitor system upstream of the beam transport line (BTL) after the first bending magnet. The energy and the energy spread ranges can be controlled with a horizontal slit installed after the OTR monitor. The vertical beam size of the accelerated beam must be decreased for efficient injection because the electron beam is injected into the storage ring with many in-vacuum undulators of small gaps. For this purpose, two vertical slits were installed in the BTL region. We will describe mainly those instruments closely related to top-up operation, though other beam diagnostic instruments have been used since PLS.

  6. UV laser beam switching system for Yb trapped ion quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, David R.; Hensley, Joel M.; Parameswaran, Krishnan R.; Bamford, Douglas J.; Mount, Emily; Crain, Stephen; Kim, Jungsang

    2012-02-01

    Qubits based on trapped ions are being investigated as a promising platform for scalable quantum information processing. One challenge associated with the scalability of such a multi-qubit trapped ion system is the need for an ultraviolet (UV) laser beam switching and control system to independently modulate and address large qubit arrays. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel architecture for a laser beam control system for trapped ion quantum computing based on fast electro-optic amplitude switching and high-fidelity electromechanical beam shuttering using a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) deflector coupled into a single-mode optical fiber. We achieve a rise/fall time of 5 ns, power extinction of -31 dB, and pulse width repeatability of > 99.95% using an electrooptic switch based on a β-BaB2O4 (BBO) Pockels cell. A tilting MEMS mirror fabricated using a commercial foundry was used to steer UV light into a single-mode optical fiber, resulting in an electromechanical beam shutter that demonstrated a power extinction of -52 dB and a switching time of 2 μs. The combination of these two technologies allows for high-fidelity power extinction using a platform that does not suffer from temperature-induced beam steering due to changes in modulation duty cycle. The overall system is capable of UV laser beam switching to create the resolved sideband Raman cooling pulses, algorithm pulses, and read-out pulses required for quantum computing applications.

  7. Electron beam charge measurement on PHIL photo-injector using a microcontroller based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kamchi, N.; Chaumat, V.; Lepercq, P.; Monard, H.; Variola, A.

    2014-08-01

    PHIL [1] is an electron beam accelerator at LAL. It produces low energy (E < 5 MeV) and high current (maximum 2nC/bunch, 10 ps duration) electron bunch at a repetition frequency of 5Hz. The beam charge measurements are performed by two Faraday Cups (FC) at both ends of the beam line and also with two Integrating Current Transformer (ICT), installed immediately after the RF gun and at the end of the straight beam line (see figure 1). Extracted signals from the ICT and FC, are processed by electronic circuits, displayed on an oscilloscope, and used to calculate the beam charge manually using the oscilloscope features. This operation is not accurate, does't permit to follow and save the temporal evolution of the charge and cannot be integrated in the control command system. To overcome this problem, a new approach was adopted, based on two systems: An electronic back-end to integrate the signal from coming the charge measurement systems (20ns large pulse), and outputs a large duration signal (around 400μs) whose amplitude is proportional to the beam charge. A microcontroller is used to acquire the integrated signal with a repetition rate of 5Hz, make the analog-digital conversion, and calculate the mean beam charge. The output signal can be sent to the control command system for displaying and to automate other process, especially the measurements of the beam charge versus RF/Laser phase. This system offers good accuracy, with a resolution of around 1pC, and can be easily integrated in the control command system.

  8. The design and construction of a pulsed beam generation system based on high intensity cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, ShiZhong; Yin, ZhiGuo; Li, PengZhan; Song, GuoFang; Wu, LongCheng; Guan, FengPing; Xie, HuaiDong; Jia, XianLu; Lu, YinLong; Zhang, TianJue

    2011-12-01

    In order to perform the studies on a pulsed beam generation system based on a high intensity cyclotron, a test beam line with a pulsed beam generation for a 10 MeV compact cyclotron (CYCIAE-10) has been designed and constructed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). A 70 MHz continuous H-beam can be pulsed to the pulse length of less than 10 ns with a repetition rate of 4.4 MHz. The sine waveform with a frequency of 2.2 MHz is adopted for the chopper and a mesh structure with single drift and dual gaps is used for the 70 MHz buncher. A helical resonator is designed and constructed based on simulations and experiments on the RF matching for the chopper. A helical inductance loop that is exceptionally large of its kind and equipped with water cooling for the resonator has been successfully wound and a 500 W solid RF amplifier has been manufactured. A special measuring device has been designed, which can be used to measure both the DC beam and the pulsed beam. The required pulsed beam was obtained after pulsed beam tuning.

  9. Characteristics of mobile MOSFET dosimetry system for megavoltage photon beams.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A Sathish; Sharma, S D; Ravindran, B Paul

    2014-07-01

    The characteristics of a mobile metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (mobile MOSFET) detector for standard bias were investigated for megavoltage photon beams. This study was performed with a brass alloy build-up cap for three energies namely Co-60, 6 and 15 MV photon beams. The MOSFETs were calibrated and the performance characteristics were analyzed with respect to dose rate dependence, energy dependence, field size dependence, linearity, build-up factor, and angular dependence for all the three energies. A linear dose-response curve was noted for Co-60, 6 MV, and 15 MV photons. The calibration factors were found to be 1.03, 1, and 0.79 cGy/mV for Co-60, 6 MV, and 15 MV photon energies, respectively. The calibration graph has been obtained to the dose up to 600 cGy, and the dose-response curve was found to be linear. The MOSFETs were found to be energy independent both for measurements performed at depth as well as on the surface with build-up. However, field size dependence was also analyzed for variable field sizes and found to be field size independent. Angular dependence was analyzed by keeping the MOSFET dosimeter in parallel and perpendicular orientation to the angle of incidence of the radiation with and without build-up on the surface of the phantom. The maximum variation for the three energies was found to be within ± 2% for the gantry angles 90° and 270°, the deviations without the build-up for the same gantry angles were found to be 6%, 25%, and 60%, respectively. The MOSFET response was found to be independent of dose rate for all three energies. The dosimetric characteristics of the MOSFET detector make it a suitable in vivo dosimeter for megavoltage photon beams. PMID:25190992

  10. Characteristics of mobile MOSFET dosimetry system for megavoltage photon beams

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A. Sathish; Sharma, S. D.; Ravindran, B. Paul

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of a mobile metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (mobile MOSFET) detector for standard bias were investigated for megavoltage photon beams. This study was performed with a brass alloy build-up cap for three energies namely Co-60, 6 and 15 MV photon beams. The MOSFETs were calibrated and the performance characteristics were analyzed with respect to dose rate dependence, energy dependence, field size dependence, linearity, build-up factor, and angular dependence for all the three energies. A linear dose-response curve was noted for Co-60, 6 MV, and 15 MV photons. The calibration factors were found to be 1.03, 1, and 0.79 cGy/mV for Co-60, 6 MV, and 15 MV photon energies, respectively. The calibration graph has been obtained to the dose up to 600 cGy, and the dose-response curve was found to be linear. The MOSFETs were found to be energy independent both for measurements performed at depth as well as on the surface with build-up. However, field size dependence was also analyzed for variable field sizes and found to be field size independent. Angular dependence was analyzed by keeping the MOSFET dosimeter in parallel and perpendicular orientation to the angle of incidence of the radiation with and without build-up on the surface of the phantom. The maximum variation for the three energies was found to be within ± 2% for the gantry angles 90° and 270°, the deviations without the build-up for the same gantry angles were found to be 6%, 25%, and 60%, respectively. The MOSFET response was found to be independent of dose rate for all three energies. The dosimetric characteristics of the MOSFET detector make it a suitable in vivo dosimeter for megavoltage photon beams. PMID:25190992

  11. High dynamic range diamond detector acquisition system for beam wire scanner applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirvent, J. L.; Dehning, B.; Piselli, E.; Emery, J.; Dieguez, A.

    2016-03-01

    The CERN Beam Instrumentation group has been working during the last years on the beam wire scanners upgrade to cope up with the increasing requirements of CERN experiments. These devices are used to measure the beam profile by crossing a thin wire through a circulating beam, the resulting secondary particles produced from beam/wire interaction are detected and correlated with the wire position to reconstruct the beam profile. The upgraded secondary particles acquisition electronics will use polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamond detectors for particle shower measurements, with low noise acquisitions performed on the tunnel, near the detector. The digital data is transmitted to the surface through an optical link with the GBT protocol. Two integrator ASICs (ICECAL and QIE10) are being characterized and compared for detector readout with the complete acquisition chain prototype. This contribution presents the project status, the QIE10 front-end performance and the first measurements with the complete acquisition system prototype. In addition, diamond detector signals from particle showers generated by an operational beam wire scanner are analysed and compared with an operational system.

  12. Recent improvements to the DIII-D neutral beam instrumentation and control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, D.H.; Hong, R.

    1997-11-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam (NB) instrumentation and control (I and C) system provides for operational control and synchronization of the eight DIII-D neutral beam injection systems, as well as for pertinent data acquisition and safety interlocking. Recently, improvements were made to the I and C system. With the replacement of the NB control computers, new signal interfacing was required to accommodate the elimination of physical operator panels, in favor of graphical user interface control pages on computer terminal screens. The program in the mode control (MC) programmable logic controller (PLC), which serves as a logic-processing interface between the NB control computers and system hardware, was modified to improve the availability of NB heating of DIII-D plasmas in the event that one or more individual beam systems suddenly become unavailable while preparing for a tokamak experimental shot sequences. An upgraded computer platform was adopted for the NB control system operator interface and new graphical user interface pages were developed to more efficiently display system status data. A failure mode of the armor tile infrared thermometers (pyrometers), which serve to terminate beam pulsing if beam shine-through overheats wall thermal shielding inside the DIII-D tokamak, was characterized such that impending failures can be detected and repairs effected to mitigate beam system down-time. The hardware that controls gas flow to the beamline neutralizer cells was upgraded to reduce susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and interlocking was provided to terminate beam pulsing in the event of insufficient neutralizer gas flow. Motivation, implementation, and results of these improvements are presented.

  13. A prototype beam delivery system for the proton medical accelerator at Loma Linda (US)

    SciTech Connect

    Coutrakon, G.; Bauman, M.; Lesyna, D.; Miller, D.; Nusbaum, J.; Slater, J.; Johanning, J.; Miranda, J. ); DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Siebers, J. ); Ludewigt, B. )

    1991-11-01

    A variable energy proton accelerator was commissioned at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for use in cancer treatment at the Loma Linda University Medical Center. The advantages of precise dose localization by proton therapy, while sparing nearby healthy tissue, are well documented (R. R. Wilson, Radiology {bold 47}, 487 (1946); M. Wagner, Med. Phys. {bold 9}, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. {bold 10}, 831 (1983)). One of the components of the proton therapy facility is a beam delivery system capable of delivering precise dose distributions to the target volume in the patient. To this end, a prototype beam delivery system was tested during the accelerator's commissioning period. The beam delivery system consisted of a beam spreading device to produce a large, uniform field, a range modulator to generate a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP), and various beam detectors to measure intensity, beam centering, and dose distributions. The beam delivery system provided a uniform proton dose distribution in a cylindrical volume of 20-cm-diam area and 9-cm depth. The dose variations throughout the target volume were found to be less then {plus minus}5%. Modifications in the range modulator should reduce this considerably. The central axis dose rate in the region of the SOBP was found to be 0.4 cGy/spill with an incident beam intensity of 6.7{times}10{sup 9} protons/spill. With an accelerator repetition rate of 30 spills/min and expected intensity of 2.5{times}10{sup 10} protons/spills for patient treatment, this system can provide 50 cGy/min for a 20-cm-diam field and 9-cm range modulation. The distal edge of the spread out Bragg peak was observed at 27.5-cm depth with an incident proton energy of 235 MeV. The dose at the distal edge falls from 90% to 10% of peak value in 7 mm.

  14. A prototype beam delivery system for the proton medical accelerator at Loma Linda.

    PubMed

    Coutrakon, G; Bauman, M; Lesyna, D; Miller, D; Nusbaum, J; Slater, J; Johanning, J; Miranda, J; DeLuca, P M; Siebers, J

    1991-01-01

    A variable energy proton accelerator was commissioned at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for use in cancer treatment at the Loma Linda University Medical Center. The advantages of precise dose localization by proton therapy, while sparing nearby healthy tissue, are well documented [R. R. Wilson, Radiology 47, 487 (1946); M. Wagner, Med. Phys. 9, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. 10, 831 (1983)]. One of the components of the proton therapy facility is a beam delivery system capable of delivering precise dose distributions to the target volume in the patient. To this end, a prototype beam delivery system was tested during the accelerator's commissioning period. The beam delivery system consisted of a beam spreading device to produce a large, uniform field, a range modulator to generate a spread out Bragg peak (SOBP), and various beam detectors to measure intensity, beam centering, and dose distributions. The beam delivery system provided a uniform proton dose distribution in a cylindrical volume of 20-cm-diam area and 9-cm depth. The dose variations throughout the target volume were found to be less than +/- 5%. Modifications in the range modulator should reduce this considerably. The central axis dose rate in the region of the SOBP was found to be 0.4 cGy/spill with an incident beam intensity of 6.7 x 10(9) protons/spill. With an accelerator repetition rate of 30 spills/min and expected intensity of 2.5 x 10(10) protons/spill for patient treatment, this system can provide 50 cGy/min for a 20-cm-diam field and 9-cm range modulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1661367

  15. The CNAO dose delivery system for modulated scanning ion beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Giordanengo, S.; Marchetto, F.; Garella, M. A.; Donetti, M.; Bourhaleb, F.; Monaco, V.; Hosseini, M. A.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Cirio, R.; Ciocca, M.; Mirandola, A.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the system for the dose delivery currently used at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) for ion beam modulated scanning radiotherapy. Methods: CNAO Foundation, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and University of Torino have designed, built, and commissioned a dose delivery system (DDS) to monitor and guide ion beams accelerated by a dedicated synchrotron and to distribute the dose with a full 3D scanning technique. Protons and carbon ions are provided for a wide range of energies in order to cover a sizable span of treatment depths. The target volume, segmented in several layers orthogonally to the beam direction, is irradiated by thousands of pencil beams which must be steered and held to the prescribed positions until the prescribed number of particles has been delivered. For the CNAO beam lines, these operations are performed by the DDS. The main components of this system are two independent beam monitoring detectors, called BOX1 and BOX2, interfaced with two control systems performing the tasks of real-time fast and slow control, and connected to the scanning magnets and the beam chopper. As a reaction to any condition leading to a potential hazard, a DDS interlock signal is sent to the patient interlock system which immediately stops the irradiation. The essential tasks and operations performed by the DDS are described following the data flow from the treatment planning system through the end of the treatment delivery. Results: The ability of the DDS to guarantee a safe and accurate treatment was validated during the commissioning phase by means of checks of the charge collection efficiency, gain uniformity of the chambers, and 2D dose distribution homogeneity and stability. A high level of reliability and robustness has been proven by three years of system activity needing rarely more than regular maintenance and working with 100% uptime. Four identical and independent DDS devices have been tested showing

  16. MEMS-based beam steering system for individual addressing of trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Knoernschild, Caleb; Mount, Emily; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Gaultney, Daniel; van Rynbach, Andre; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2011-05-01

    One of the important components to implement large-scale trapped ion quantum information processing is a scalable technology to manipulate individual ions in a long linear chain of ions. So far, individual addressing has been demonstrated by steering a focused laser beam on individual ions with acousto-optic and electro-optic deflectors, by utilizing the Zeeman shift due to a magnetic field gradient, and by separating a single ion from the rest of the chain for individual exposure to laser light. Micro-mirrors based on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology can be used to design an alternative beam steering system which can handle multiple beams with different wavelengths and address locations in multiple dimensions. We will report our progress in integrating a MEMS beam steering system with an Yb ion trap experiment. Our MEMS system is designed to steer an ultraviolet beam with a waist of ~1.5 μm across a 20 μm range. To demonstrate the individual addressing capability, we plan to measure the Ramsey interference of the differential AC Stark shift induced by an individually-focused, far-detuned laser beam.

  17. Piezoelectric-based smart sensing system for I-beam structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Haifeng; Yu, Tzuyang; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, the I-beam has become one of the most important engineering structural components being applied in areas such as mechanical, civil, and constructional engineering. To ensure safety and proper maintenance, an effective and accurate structural health monitoring method/system for I-beams is urgently needed. This paper proposes a smart sensing system for I-beam crack detection that is based on the energy diffusivity (attenuation) between two individual piezoelectric transducers (PZTs). Sensor (one of the PZTs) responses are analyzed and applied to characterize the health status of the I-beam. Lab experiments are carried out for effective evaluation of this approach in structural health monitoring. The characteristics of crack distribution are studied by calculating and analyzing the energy diffusivity variation of the sensor responses to artificially cuttings to the I-beam. Moreover, instead of utilizing an actuator and a sensor, the system employs a couple of PZTs sensors, which offer the potential for in-field, in situ sensing with the sensor arrays. This smart sensing system can be applied in railway, metro, and iron-steel structures for I-beam health monitoring applications.

  18. Note: Design of transverse electron gun for electron beam based reactive evaporation system.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Namita; Barve, U D; Bhatia, M S; Das, A K

    2011-05-01

    In this paper design of a 10 kV, 10 kW transverse electron gun, suitable for reactive evaporation, supported by simulation and modeling, is presented. Simulation of the electron beam trajectory helps in locating the emergence aperture after 90° bend and also in designing the crucible on which the beam is finally incident after 270° bend. The dimension of emergence aperture plays a vital role in designing the differential pumping system between the gun chamber and the substrate chamber. Experimental validation is done for beam trajectory by piercing a stainless steel plate at 90° position which is kept above the crucible. PMID:21639554

  19. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Deyang Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-15

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O{sup 3+} ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  20. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.C.; Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F.

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command.

  1. Filter/moderator system for a BNCT beam of epithermal neutrons at nuclear reactor MARIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyminska, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a very promising form of cancer therapy, consisting in irradiating a stable isotope of boron (10B) concentrated in tumor cells with a low energy neutron beam. This technique makes it possible to destroy tumor cells, leaving healthy tissues practically unaffected. In order to carry out the therapy in the proper way, the proper range of the neutron beam energy has to be chosen. In this paper we present a filter/moderator system modeled with MCNP code in order to obtain an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT post at MARIA reactor in Swierk.

  2. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deyang; Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-01

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O3+ ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  3. An optical system to transform the output beam of a quantum cascade laser to be uniform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Jordan M.

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are a candidate for calibration sources in space-based remote sensing applications. However, the output beam from a QCL has some characteris- tics that are undesirable in a calibration source. The output beam from a QCL is polarized, both temporally and spatially coherent, and has a non-uniform bivariate Gaussian prole. These characteristics need to be mitigated before QCLs can be used as calibration sources. This study presents the design and implementation of an optical system that manipulates the output beam from a QCL so that it is spatially and angularly uniform with reduced coherence and polarization. (85 pages).

  4. Novel beam delivery system for microvia drilling using holographic and refractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2003-07-01

    The research and development of the optical system described was due in part to the virtual stalemate of current microvia dirlling technology within the High Density Interconnect market. The desire by industry to acquire faster processes for drilling microvias led to our research in the utilization of hybrid optical systems, where standard refractive and computer generated diffractive optics could be meshed to create a system that would out perform the current technology in the marketplace. The outcome of this work is covered in the following paper and will, at the outset, briefly cover the targeted market segment for which the beam delivery system was developed, as well as its general capabilities. The paper will cover the basic architecture and technology behind the laser optical beam delivery system, as well as the unique components that make up the assembly. Each of the optical elements within the system will be briefly described, and the CGH elements will be briefly explained, including a description of the software used. The laser beam characteristics at several points along the beam delivery will be discussed, as well as the final image formed at the target plane where the microvia is drilled. Specific performance details will be shared with regards to component efficiency, i.e. diffraction efficiency losses, as well as total system performance throughout the beam line. The final section will cover materials processing, including the remarkable process rate increases and microvia hole quality achieved.

  5. Far-field detection system for laser beams alignment and crystals alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Qin, H.; Zhu, B.

    2015-08-01

    Laser beams far-field alignment is very important for the high power laser facility as well as the frequency doubling crystals adjustment. Traditional beams alignment system and crystals alignment system are separated. That means, they use different optical image systems and CCD cameras, which will occupy larger space and use more money. A new farfield detection system of laser beams is presented with a big diffraction grating (37mm*37mm), a set of optical imaging components and a high resolution CCD camera. This detection system, which is fully demonstrated on the National Laser Facility of Israel, can align high power laser facility beams' direction as well as the frequency doubling crystals. The new system occupies small space in the spatial filter through off-axial grating sampling. The experimental results indicate that the average far-field alignment error is less than 5% of spatial filter pinhole diameter, and the average crystals' matching angle error is less than 10urad, which meet the alignment system requirements for beams and crystals.

  6. Single-beam water vapor detection system with automatic photoelectric conversion gain control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C. G.; Chang, J.; Wang, P. P.; Wang, Q.; Wei, W.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    A single-beam optical sensor system with automatic photoelectric conversion gain control is proposed for doing high reliability water vapor detection under relatively rough environmental conditions. Comparing to a dual-beam system, it can distinguish the finer photocurrent variations caused by the optical power drift and provide timely compensation by automatically adjusting the photoelectric conversion gain. This system can be rarely affected by the optical power drift caused by fluctuating ambient temperature or variation of fiber bending loss. The deviation of the single-beam system is below 1.11% when photocurrent decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is obviously lower than the dual-beam system (8.82%). We also demonstrate the long-term stability of the single-beam system by monitoring a 660 ppm by volume (ppmv) water vapor sample continuously for 24 h. The maximum deviation of the measured concentration during the whole testing period does not exceed 10 ppmv. Experiments have shown that the new system features better reliability and is more apt for remote sensing application which is often subject to light transmission loss.

  7. Channel correlation of transmit diversity FSO systems with partially coherent optical beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Yao, Mingwu; Yi, Xiang; Liu, Zengji; Qiu, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    Spatial diversity, including transmit diversity, has been proven to be a promising technique to mitigate turbulence-induced signal fading. However, due to the limitation of size in compact FSO (free-space optical) terminals, the transmit antennas cannot always be separated far enough from each other, resulting in increased channel correlation and deteriorated diversity performance. In this paper, we focus on the channel correlation statistics of transmit diversity FSO systems with two transmit beams. Specifically, we consider partially coherent optical beams, which reduce scintillation over fully coherent optical beams. We perform theoretical analysis and obtain some interesting numerical results, such as the degree of channel correlation which changed mainly with source correlation radius from 0.001 to 0.1 m. These results can be helpful for designing transmit diversity FSO systems with partially coherent beams.

  8. The TriBeam system: Femtosecond laser ablation in situ SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Echlin, McLean P.; Straw, Marcus; Randolph, Steven; Filevich, Jorge; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2015-02-15

    Femtosecond laser ablation offers the unique ability to remove material at rates that are orders of magnitude faster than existing ion beam technologies with little or no associated damage. By combining ultrafast lasers with state-of-the-art electron microscopy equipment, we have developed a TriBeam system capable of targeted, in-situ tomography providing chemical, structural, and topographical information in three dimensions of near mm{sup 3} sized volumes. The origins, development, physics, current uses, and future potential for the TriBeam system are described in this tutorial review. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • An emerging tool, the TriBeam, for in situ femtosecond (fs) laser ablation is presented. • Fs laser ablation aided tomography at the mm{sup 3}-scale is demonstrated. • Fs laser induced deposition of Pt is demonstrated at sub-diffraction limit resolution. • Fs laser surface structuring is reviewed as well as micromachining applications.

  9. Wavelength-division multiplexing of nano-optomechanical doubly clamped beam systems.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Vincent T K; Diao, Zhu; Freeman, Mark R; Hiebert, Wayne K

    2015-05-01

    Wavelength-division multiplexing is demonstrated for a set of two doubly clamped beams. Using a single input/output waveguide in a nanophotonic detection system, the two mechanical beams are independently addressable using different wavelength channels as determined by their respective racetrack resonator detection cavities. The two cavities slightly overlap, which also enables the mechanical frequency of both beams to be detected simultaneously with a single wavelength. Finally, to physically map which wavelength channel corresponds to which specific device, a heating laser is targeted individually on each beam to create a reversible mechanical frequency shift. This multiplexing method would allow for the simpler detection of large arrays of nanomechanical devices in a sensor system. PMID:25927755

  10. Overview of the SNS Target System Testing and Initial Beam Operation Experience

    SciTech Connect

    McManamy, Thomas J; Crabtree, J Allen; DeVore, Joe R; Jacobs, Lorelei L; Lousteau, David C; Rennich, Mark J

    2008-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) construction project has been completed including initial beam operation with the mercury target, moderators and associated systems. The project was initiated in 1999, with groundbreaking in December of 1999. Final integrated system testing for the mercury target, cryogenic moderators, shutter systems, water and other utility systems and all control and safety systems were completed in April 2006 and first beam on target delivered April 28, 2006. This paper will give an overview of the system testing conducted in preparation for beam operation and initial operating experience with low power beams. One area of testing was extensive remote handling testing in the Target Service Bay to demonstrate all key operations associated with the target and mercury loop. Many improvements were implemented as a result of this experience. Another set of tests involved bringing the supercritical cryogenic moderator systems on line. Again, lesions learned here resulted in system changes. Testing of the four water loops was very time consuming because of the complexity of the systems and many instrumentation issues had to be resolved. A temporary phosphor view screen was installed on the front of the target which has been extremely useful in evaluating the beam profile on the target. Initial profile results will be presented. Target System performance for initial beam operation will be discussed. In general, all systems performed well with excellent availability. There were some unexpected findings. For example, xenon spallation gas products are believed to have deposited on a downstream gold amalgamation bed designed to remove mercury vapor and increased the local dose rate. A summary of findings and plans for ramping up in power will be given.

  11. Laser beam control and diagnostic systems for the copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, E.S.; Peterson, R.L.; Salmon, J.T.; Thomas, R.A.

    1992-11-01

    The laser system described in the previous paper is used for experiments in which success requires tight tolerances on beam position, direction, and wavefront. Indeed, the optimum performance of the laser itself depends on careful delivery of copper laser light to the dye amplifiers, precise propagation of dye laser beams through restricted amplifier apertures, and accurate monitoring of laser power at key locations. This paper describes the alignment systems, wavefront correction systems, and laser diagnostics systems which ensure that the control requirements of both the laser and associated experiments are met. Because laser isotope separation processes utilize more than one wavelength, these systems monitor and control multiple wavelengths simultaneously.

  12. Development of a Prototype Low-Voltage Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. K.; Taminger, K. M.; Hafley, R. A.; Petersen, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Langley Research Center and Johnson Space Center are developing a solid freeform fabrication system utilizing an electron beam energy source and wire feedstock. This system will serve as a testbed for exploring the influence of gravitational acceleration on the deposition process and will be a simplified prototype for future systems that may be deployed during long-duration space missions for assembly, fabrication, and production of structural and mechanical replacement components. Critical attributes for this system are compactness, minimal mass, efficiency in use of feedstock material, energy use efficiency, and safety. The use of a low-voltage (less than 15kV) electron beam energy source will reduce radiation so that massive shielding is not required to protect adjacent personnel. Feedstock efficiency will be optimized by use of wire, and energy use efficiency will be achieved by use of the electron beam energy source. This system will be evaluated in a microgravity environment using the NASA KC-135A aircraft.

  13. Active control and experiment study of a flexible hub-beam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Guoping; Teng, Youyou; Lim, C. W.

    2010-05-01

    The first-order approximation coupling (FOAC) model was proposed recently for dynamics and control of flexible hub-beam systems. This model may deal with system dynamics for both low and high rotation speed, while the classical zeroth-order approximation coupling (ZOAC) model is only available for low rotation speed. This paper assumes the FOAC model to present experimental study of active positioning control of a flexible hub-beam system. Linearization and nonlinear control strategies are both considered. An experiment system based on a DSP TMS320F2812 board is introduced. The difference between linearization and nonlinear control strategies are studied both numerically and experimentally. Simulation and experimental results indicate that, linearized controller can make the system reach an expected position with suppressed vibration of flexible beam, but the time taken to position is longer than expected, whereas nonlinear controller works well with precise positioning, suppression of vibration and time control.

  14. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D.; Midttun, Ø.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.

    2015-04-08

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN’s acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H{sup −} beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm· mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H{sup −} ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H{sup −} ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H{sup −} ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H{sup −} source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  15. Design of laser beam expander in underwater high-repetition-rate range-gated imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2015-10-01

    Active underwater imaging systems, using an artificial light source for underwater target illumination, have preferable practical value in military and civil domain. Back-scattering of water impacts imaging system performance by reducing image contrast, and this is especially bad when the light source is close to the camera. Range-gated technique can effectively rejecting the back-scattering of water and improve the range of underwater target detection, while it can only collect image at certain distance for every laser impulse. High-repetition-rate green laser is a better light source in underwater range-gated imaging system. It has smaller pulse energy, while it can improve the imaging result. In order to illuminate the proper area underwater according to the different distance between the laser source and targets, there must be a magnifying-ratio variable beam expander to adjust the divergent angle of the laser. Challenges associated with magnifying-ratio computation and designing of beam expander are difficult to overcome due to the obvious refraction and forward-scattering of water. An efficiency computing method is presented to obtain the magnifying-ratio of beam expander. The illuminating area of laser beam can be computed according to the refraction index and beam spread function (BSF) which has already considered forward-scattering process. The magnifying-ratio range of beam expander should be 0.925~3.09 in order to obtain about φ1m illuminating area when the distance between laser and target is 10~40m. A magnifying-ratio variable beam expander is designed according to computation. Underwater experiments show that this beam expander plays an effective role on illuminating in underwater high-repetition-rate range-rated Imaging system.

  16. Detailed electrical characterization of the TARA neutral beam injector system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Shuster, M.S.; Berkman, V.J.; Torti, R.P.; Horne, S.F.; Coleman, J.W.

    1985-11-01

    Extensive use of modern automatic control, data acquisition and state of the art power supply technology has enabled detailed electrical characterization and optimization of the TARA ion source operating point. The TARA ion sources and power supplies are parameterized empirically and/or modeled theoretically. The sources are characterized in the basic three dimensional space: filament power, arc power, and gas pressure. Filament warm-up rate, arc voltage to current ratio, arc and filament power supply ripple, and beam current parameter subspace are also investigated. Characterization is done in terms of small and large signals, frequency response, hysteresis and linearity to enable optimal source stability in a fully regulated environment. Discharge density regulation with the filament power highly regulated has been achieved through power supply feedback on the arc current or a Langmuir probe in the discharge. Dynamic divergence correction by feedback from secondary emission detectors in the source beamline is discussed. 4 refs., 36 figs.

  17. SU-E-T-470: Beam Performance of the Radiance 330 Proton Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaryan, H; Nazaryan, V; Wang, F; Flanz, J; Alexandrov, V

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The ProTom Radiance 330 proton radiotherapy system is a fully functional, compact proton radiotherapy system that provides advanced proton delivery capabilities. It supports three-dimensional beam scanning with energy and intensity modulation. A series of measurements have been conducted to characterize the beam performance of the first installation of the system at the McLaren Proton Therapy Center in Flint, Michigan. These measurements were part of the technical commissioning of the system. Select measurements and results are presented. Methods: The Radiance 330 proton beam energy range is 70–250 MeV for treatment, and up to 330 MeV for proton tomography and radiography. Its 3-D scanning capability, together with a small beam emittance and momentum spread, provides a highly efficient beam delivery. During the technical commissioning, treatment plans were created to deliver uniform maps at various energies to perform Gamma Index analysis. EBT3 Gafchromic films were irradiated using the Planned irradiation maps. Bragg Peak chamber was used to test the dynamic range during a scan in one layer for high (250 MeV) and Low (70 MeV) energies. The maximum and minimum range, range adjustment and modulation, distal dose falloff (80%–20%), pencil beam spot size, spot placement accuracy were also measured. The accuracy testing included acquiring images, image registration, receiving correction vectors and applying the corrections to the robotic patient positioner. Results: Gamma Index analysis of the Treatment Planning System (TPS) data vs. Measured data showed more than 90% of points within (3%, 3mm) for the maps created by the TPS. At Isocenter Beam Size (One sigma) < 3mm at highest energy (250 MeV) in air. Beam delivery was within 0.6 mm of the intended target at the entrance and the exit of the beam, through the phantom. Conclusion: The Radiance 330 Beam Performance Measurements have confirmed that the system operates as designed with excellent clinical

  18. A data acquisition system for longitudinal beam properties in a rapid cycling synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Steimel, J.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A longitudinal beam properties, data acquisition system has been commissioned to operate in the Fermilab booster ring. This system captures real time information including beam synchronous phase, bunch length, and coupled bunch instability amplitudes as the beam is accelerated from 400 MeV to 8 GeV in 33 ms. The system uses an off-the-shelf Tektronix oscilloscope running Labview software and a synchronous pulse generator. This paper describes the hardware configuration and the software configuration used to optimize the data processing rate. The Fermilab Booster is currently pushed to its intensity limit due to the high demand from different experiments for protons. This will continue into the era of the intensity frontier. While intensity is the most critical parameter, emittance must be controlled as well. Longitudinal emittance is an important parameter for optimizing the slip stacking process in the Main Injector. Longitudinal instabilities can spoil the emittance, so it is important to monitor bunch lengths and bunch phase oscillations in the Booster. The Booster presents a special challenge when it comes to measuring beam properties. The acceleration ramp is short (33ms), and the RF frequency varies from 38-52.8 MHz. Standard instrumentation like spectrum analyzers and network analyzers cannot effectively measure beam properties, because they cannot track the changing frequencies. Early instrumentation involved a series of tracking oscillators, mixers, and diode detectors that would require vigilant calibration. There was a demand for a more robust means of gathering beam parameters.

  19. Exact free vibration of multi-step Timoshenko beam system with several attachments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghaly, S. H.; El-Sayed, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the natural frequencies, mode shapes of an axially loaded multi-step Timoshenko beam combined system carrying several attachments. The influence of system design and the proposed sub-system non-dimensional parameters on the combined system characteristics are the major part of this investigation. The effect of material properties, rotary inertia and shear deformation of the beam system for each span are included. The end masses are elastically supported against rotation and translation at an offset point from the point of attachment. A sub-system having two degrees of freedom is located at the beam ends and at any of the intermediate stations and acts as a support and/or a suspension. The boundary conditions of the ordinary differential equation governing the lateral deflections and slope due to bending of the beam system including the shear force term, due to the sub-system, have been formulated. Exact global coefficient matrices for the combined modal frequencies, the modal shape and for the discrete sub-system have been derived. Based on these formulae, detailed parametric studies of the combined system are carried out. The applied mathematical model is valid for wide range of applications especially in mechanical, naval and structural engineering fields.

  20. Performance of the beam chamber vacuum system of K = 500 cyclotron at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Gautam DuttaGupta, Anjan; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-07-15

    The beam chamber of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata's K = 500 superconducting cyclotron is pumped by liquid helium cooled cryopanel with liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield. Performance of the vacuum system was evaluated by cooling the cryopanel assembly with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Direct measurement of beam chamber pressure is quite difficult because of space restrictions and the presence of high magnetic field. Pressure gauges were placed away from the beam chamber. The beam chamber pressure was evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation software for vacuum system and compared with measurements. The details of the vacuum system, measurements, and estimation of pressure of the beam chamber are described in this paper.

  1. Characteristics of steady vibration in a rotating hub-beam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Caishan; Ma, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A rotating beam features a puzzling character in which its frequencies and modal shapes may vary with the hub's inertia and its rotating speed. To highlight the essential nature behind the vibration phenomena, we analyze the steady vibration of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam with a quasi-steady-state stretch. Newton's law is used to derive the equations governing the beam's elastic motion and the hub's rotation. A combination of these equations results in a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) that fully reflects the mutual interaction between the two kinds of motion. Via the Fourier series expansion within a finite interval of time, we reduce the PDE into an infinite system of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) in spatial domain. We further nondimensionalize the ODE and discretize it via a difference method. The frequencies and modal shapes of a general rotating beam are then determined numerically. For a low-speed beam where the ignorance of geometric stiffening is feasible, the beam's vibration characteristics are solved analytically. We validate our numerical method and the analytical solutions by comparing with either the past experiments or the past numerical findings reported in existing literature. Finally, systematic simulations are performed to demonstrate how the beam's eigenfrequencies vary with the hub's inertia and rotating speed.

  2. An optical system design that converts a Gaussian to a flattop annular beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaochen; Wu, Tengfei; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flattop annular beam has been predicted with good character over an increasing application, but the generating of flattop annular beam is rarely mentioned by academic article. In our paper, an optical refractive system, which is designed to achieve flattop annular beam, are proposed. The cone prism is commonly used to get an annular beam, however, the beam intensity distribution is non-uniform. In our design, an additional aspheric lens is placed in front of the cone prism along the optical axis. The lens parameters are theoretically analyzed and well optimized to homogenize the optical field. Furthermore, to lower the requirement of machining accuracy, a pair of aspheric lenses is also designed, which can be used independently to generate flattop annular beam. It combines the function of cone prism and aspheric lens, so as to replace them both. The performance of the implementations has been demonstrated in detail. Simulation result shows that the proposed design is effective and feasible. It is hope that our work would be helpful in related fields. Flattop annular beam, Aspheric lens, Cone prism

  3. Motion of a Micro/Nanomanipulator using a Laser Beam Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amari, Nabil; Folio, David; Ferreira, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the control problem of a laser beam illuminating and focusing a micro-object subjected to dynamic disturbances using light intensity for feedback only. The main idea is to guide and track the beam with a hybrid micro/nanomanipulator, which is driven by a control signal generated by processing the beam intensity sensed by a four-quadrant photodiode sensitive detector (PSD). Since the pointing location of the beam depends on real-time control issues related to temperature variation, vibrations, output intensity control, and collimation of the light output, the 2-D beam location to the PSD measurement output must be estimated in real-time. To this aim, a Kalman filter (KF) algorithm is designed to predict the beam location to perform efficient tracking and following control approach. Hence, a robust master/slave control strategy of the dual-stage micro and nanomanipulator system is presented based on sensitivity function decoupling design methodology. The decoupled feedback controller is synthesized and implemented in a 6-DoF micro/nanomanipulator allowing few centimeters displacement range with a nanometer resolution. A relevant case study, related to laser-beam tracking for imaging purposes, validates experimentally the proposed framework.

  4. System for obtaining smooth laser beams where intensity variations are reduced by spectral dispersion of the laser light (SSD)

    DOEpatents

    Skupsky, Stanley; Kessler, Terrance J.; Short, Robert W.; Craxton, Stephen; Letzring, Samuel A.; Soures, John

    1991-01-01

    In an SSD (smoothing by spectral dispersion) system which reduces the time-averaged spatial variations in intensity of the laser light to provide uniform illumination of a laser fusion target, an electro-optic phase modulator through which a laser beam passes produces a broadband output beam by imposing a frequency modulated bandwidth on the laser beam. A grating provides spatial and angular spectral dispersion of the beam. Due to the phase modulation, the frequencies ("colors") cycle across the beam. The dispersed beam may be amplified and frequency converted (e.g., tripled) in a plurality of beam lines. A distributed phase plate (DPP) in each line is irradiated by the spectrally dispersed beam and the beam is focused on the target where a smooth (uniform intensity) pattern is produced. The color cycling enhances smoothing and the use of a frequency modulated laser pulse prevents the formation of high intensity spikes which could damage the laser medium in the power amplifiers.

  5. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work. PMID:26932095

  6. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, V.; Küchler, D.

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  7. Design and optimization of a highly efficient optical multipass system for γ-ray beam production from electron laser beam Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupraz, K.; Cassou, K.; Delerue, N.; Fichot, P.; Martens, A.; Stocchi, A.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Courjaud, A.; Mottay, E.; Druon, F.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Hovsepian, T.; Riou, J. Y.; Wang, F.; Mueller, A. C.; Palumbo, L.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.

    2014-03-01

    A new kind of nonresonant optical recirculator, dedicated to the production of γ rays by means of Compton backscattering, is described. This novel instrument, inspired by optical multipass systems, has its design focused on high flux and very small spectral bandwidth of the γ-ray beam. It has been developed to fulfill the project specifications of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure "Nuclear Pillar," i.e., the Gamma Beam System. Our system allows a single high power laser pulse to recirculate 32 times synchronized on the radio frequency driving accelerating cavities for the electron beam. Namely, the polarization of the laser beam and crossing angle between laser and electrons are preserved all along the 32 passes. Moreover, optical aberrations are kept at a negligible level. The general tools developed for designing, optimizing, and aligning the system are described. A detailed simulation demonstrates the high efficiency of the device.

  8. Commissioning the new high power rf system for the AGS with high intensity beam

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Deng, D.P; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Otis, A.; Sanders, R.T.; Zaltsman, A.

    1994-08-01

    A new high power rf system has been installed in the AGS in order to raise the beam loading limit to beyond 6 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per pulse. The old system was limited to 2.2 {times} 10{sup l3} ppp by: available real power, multi-loop instability, and transient beam loading during batch filling from the Booster. The key components of the new system are: new power amplifiers in the tunnel using the Thomson-CSF TH573 300kW tetrode, rf feedback around the power stage, and reduction of the 10 cavities` R/Q by 1.8 by additional gap capacitors. Commissioning of the new rf system with high intensity beam is described. The intensity goal for the 1994 running period is 4 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp. To date, 3.7 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp has been achieved.

  9. A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Idir, Mourad; Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken; Conley, Ray; Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard; Zhou, Lin

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  10. A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Idir, Mourad Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken; Conley, Ray; Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard; Zhou, Lin

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results.

  11. A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication.

    PubMed

    Idir, Mourad; Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken; Conley, Ray; Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard; Zhou, Lin

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results. PMID:26520997

  12. A complete analysis of the laser beam deflection systems used in cantilever-based systems.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, L Y; Godin, Michel; Laroche, Olivier; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent; Grütter, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A working model has been developed which can be used to significantly increase the accuracy of cantilever deflection measurements using optical beam techniques (used in cantilever-based sensors and atomic force microscopes), while simultaneously simplifying their use. By using elementary geometric optics and standard vector analysis it is possible, without any fitted or adjustable parameters, to completely and accurately describe the relationship between the cantilever deflection and the signal measured by a position sensitive photo-detector. By arranging the geometry of the cantilever/optical beam, it is possible to tailor the detection system to make it more sensitive at different stages of the cantilever deflection or to simply linearize the relationship between the cantilever deflection and the measured detector signal. Supporting material and software has been made available for download at http://www.physics.mun.ca/beauliu_lab/papers/cantilever_analysis.htm so that the reader may take full advantage of the model presented herein with minimal effort. PMID:17174033

  13. Application of a passive/active autoparametric cantilever beam absorber with PZT actuator for Duffing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Navarro, G.; Abundis-Fong, H. F.; Vazquez-Gonzalez, B.

    2013-04-01

    An experimental investigation is carried out on a cantilever-type passive/active autoparametric vibration absorber, with a PZT patch actuator, to be used in a primary damped Duffing system. The primary system consists of a mass, viscous damping and a cubic stiffness provided by a soft helical spring, over which is mounted a cantilever beam with a PZT patch actuator actively controlled to attenuate harmonic and resonant excitation forces. With the PZT actuator on the cantilever beam absorber, cemented to the base of the beam, the auto-parametric vibration absorber is made active, thus enabling the possibility to control the effective stiffness and damping associated to the passive absorber and, as a consequence, the implementation of an active vibration control scheme able to preserve, as possible, the autoparametric interaction as well as to compensate varying excitation frequencies and parametric uncertainty. This active vibration absorber employs feedback information from a high resolution optical encoder on the primary Duffing system and an accelerometer on the tip beam absorber, a strain gage on the base of the beam, feedforward information from the excitation force and on-line computations from the nonlinear approximate frequency response, parameterized in terms of a proportional gain provided by a voltage input to the PZT actuator, thus modifying the closed-loop dynamic stiffness and providing a mechanism to asymptotically track an optimal, robust and stable attenuation solution on the primary Duffing system. Experimental results are included to describe the dynamic and robust performance of the overall closed-loop system.

  14. Feedback control and beam diagnostic algorithms for a multiprocessor DSP system

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Drago, A.; Stover, G.

    1996-09-01

    The multibunch longitudinal feedback system developed for use by PEP-II, ALS and DA{Phi}NE uses a parallel array of digital signal processors to calculate the feedback signals from measurements of beam motion. The system is designed with general-purpose programmable elements which allow many feedback operating modes as well as system diagnostics, calibrations and accelerator measurements. The overall signal processing architecture of the system is illustrated. The real-time DSP algorithms and off-line postprocessing tools are presented. The problems in managing 320 K samples of data collected in one beam transient measurement are discussed and the solutions are presented. Example software structures are presented showing the beam feedback process, techniques for modal analysis of beam motion(used to quantify growth and damping rates of instabilities) and diagnostic functions (such as timing adjustment of beam pick-up and kicker components). These operating techniques are illustrated with example results obtained from the system installed at the Advanced Light Source at LBL.

  15. Feedback control and beam diagnostic algorithms for a multiprocessor DSP system

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, D.; Claus, R.; Fox, J.; Hindi, H.; Linscott, I.; Prabhakar, S.; Drago, A.; Stover, G.

    1997-01-01

    The multibunch longitudinal feedback system developed for use by PEP-II, ALS, and DA{Phi}NE uses a parallel array of digital signal processors (DSPs) to calculate the feedback signals from measurements of beam motion. The system is designed with general-purpose programmable elements which allow many feedback operating modes as well as system diagnostics, calibrations, and accelerator measurements. The overall signal processing architecture of the system is illustrated. The real-time DSP algorithms and off-line postprocessing tools are presented. The problems in managing 320k samples of data collected in one beam transient measurement are discussed and our solutions are presented. Example software structures are presented showing the beam feedback process, techniques for modal analysis of beam motion (used to quantify growth and damping rates of instabilities), and diagnostic functions (such as timing adjustment of beam pick-up and kicker components). These operating techniques are illustrated with example results obtained from the system installed at the Advanced Light Source at LBL. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Calibrating laser beam deflection systems for use in atomic force microscopes and cantilever sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Beaulieu, L.Y.; Godin, Michel; Laroche, Olivier; Tabard-Cossa, Vincent; Gruetter, Peter

    2006-02-20

    Most atomic force microscopes and cantilever-based sensors use an optical laser beam detection system to monitor cantilever deflections. We have developed a working model that accurately describes the way in which a position sensitive photodetector interprets the deflection of a cantilever in these instruments. This model exactly predicts the numerical relationship between the measured photodetector signal and the actual cantilever deflection. In addition, the model is used to optimize the geometry of such laser deflection systems, which greatly simplifies the use of any cantilever-based instrument that uses a laser beam detection system.

  17. Simulation of a 36 h solar particle event at LLUMC using a proton beam scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G. B.; Benton, E. R.; Gridley, D. S.; Hickey, T.; Hubbard, J.; Koss, P.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Pecaut, M. J.; Sanders, E.; Shahnazi, K.

    2007-08-01

    A radiation biology experiment was performed in the research room of the proton therapy facility at Loma Linda University Medical Center to simulate the proton exposure produced by a solar particle event. The experiment used two scanning magnets for X and Y deflection of the proton beam and covered a usable target area of nearly 1 m2. The magnet scanning control system consisted of Lab View 6.0 software running on a PC. The goal of this experiment was to study the immune system response of 48 mice simultaneously exposed to 2 Gy of protons that simulated the dose rate and energy spectrum of the September 1989 solar particle event. The 2 Gy dose was delivered to the entrance of the mice cages over 36 h. Both ion chamber and TLD measurements indicated that the dose delivered was within 9% of the intended value. A spot scanning technique using one spot per accelerator cycle (2.2 s) was used to deliver doses as low as 1 μGy per beam spot. Rapid beam termination (less than 5 ms) on each spot was obtained by energizing a quadrupole in the proton synchrotron once the dose limit was reached for each spot. A parallel plate ion chamber placed adjacent to the mice cages provided fluence (or dose) measurements for each beam energy during each hour of the experiment. An intensity modulated spot scanning technique can be used in a variety of ways for radiation biology and a second experiment is being designed with this proton beam scanning system to simultaneously irradiate four groups of mice with different dose rates within the 1 m2 area. Also, large electronic devices being tested for radiation damage have been exposed in this beam without the use of patch fields. The same scanning system has potential application for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) as well. This paper discusses the beam delivery system and dosimetry of the irradiation.

  18. Design and development of a new micro-beam treatment planning system: effectiveness of algorithms of optimization and dose calculations and potential of micro-beam treatment.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Noritaka; Miyajima, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akihisa; Yamashita, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    A new treatment planning system (TPS) was designed and developed for a new treatment system, which consisted of a micro-beam-enabled linac with robotics and a real-time tracking system. We also evaluated the effectiveness of the implemented algorithms of optimization and dose calculations in the TPS for the new treatment system. In the TPS, the optimization procedure consisted of the pseudo Beam's-Eye-View method for finding the optimized beam directions and the steepest-descent method for determination of beam intensities. We used the superposition-/convolution-based (SC-based) algorithm and Monte Carlo-based (MC-based) algorithm to calculate dose distributions using CT image data sets. In the SC-based algorithm, dose density scaling was applied for the calculation of inhomogeneous corrections. The MC-based algorithm was implemented with Geant4 toolkit and a phase-based approach using a network-parallel computing. From the evaluation of the TPS, the system can optimize the direction and intensity of individual beams. The accuracy of the dose calculated by the SC-based algorithm was less than 1% on average with the calculation time of 15 s for one beam. However, the MC-based algorithm needed 72 min for one beam using the phase-based approach, even though the MC-based algorithm with the parallel computing could decrease multiple beam calculations and had 18.4 times faster calculation speed using the parallel computing. The SC-based algorithm could be practically acceptable for the dose calculation in terms of the accuracy and computation time. Additionally, we have found a dosimetric advantage of proton Bragg peak-like dose distribution in micro-beam treatment. PMID:22544809

  19. Accurate technique for complete geometric calibration of cone-beam computed tomography systems.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngbin; Moseley, Douglas J; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Jaffray, David A

    2005-04-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography systems have been developed to provide in situ imaging for the purpose of guiding radiation therapy. Clinical systems have been constructed using this approach, a clinical linear accelerator (Elekta Synergy RP) and an iso-centric C-arm. Geometric calibration involves the estimation of a set of parameters that describes the geometry of such systems, and is essential for accurate image reconstruction. We have developed a general analytic algorithm and corresponding calibration phantom for estimating these geometric parameters in cone-beam computed tomography (CT) systems. The performance of the calibration algorithm is evaluated and its application is discussed. The algorithm makes use of a calibration phantom to estimate the geometric parameters of the system. The phantom consists of 24 steel ball bearings (BBs) in a known geometry. Twelve BBs are spaced evenly at 30 deg in two plane-parallel circles separated by a given distance along the tube axis. The detector (e.g., a flat panel detector) is assumed to have no spatial distortion. The method estimates geometric parameters including the position of the x-ray source, position, and rotation of the detector, and gantry angle, and can describe complex source-detector trajectories. The accuracy and sensitivity of the calibration algorithm was analyzed. The calibration algorithm estimates geometric parameters in a high level of accuracy such that the quality of CT reconstruction is not degraded by the error of estimation. Sensitivity analysis shows uncertainty of 0.01 degrees (around beam direction) to 0.3 degrees (normal to the beam direction) in rotation, and 0.2 mm (orthogonal to the beam direction) to 4.9 mm (beam direction) in position for the medical linear accelerator geometry. Experimental measurements using a laboratory bench Cone-beam CT system of known geometry demonstrate the sensitivity of the method in detecting small changes in the imaging geometry with an uncertainty of 0

  20. Image quality improvement in megavoltage cone beam CT using an imaging beam line and a sintered pixelated array system

    SciTech Connect

    Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Maltz, Jonathan S.; Gangadharan, Bijumon; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Anderson, Carryn M.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Stiles, Jared; Edwards, Drake S.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To quantify the improvement in megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) image quality enabled by the combination of a 4.2 MV imaging beam line (IBL) with a carbon electron target and a detector system equipped with a novel sintered pixelated array (SPA) of translucent Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S ceramic scintillator. Clinical MVCBCT images are traditionally acquired with the same 6 MV treatment beam line (TBL) that is used for cancer treatment, a standard amorphous Si (a-Si) flat panel imager, and the Kodak Lanex Fast-B (LFB) scintillator. The IBL produces a greater fluence of keV-range photons than the TBL, to which the detector response is more optimal, and the SPA is a more efficient scintillator than the LFB. Methods: A prototype IBL + SPA system was installed on a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator equipped with the MVision{sup TM} image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. A SPA strip consisting of four neighboring tiles and measuring 40 cm by 10.96 cm in the crossplane and inplane directions, respectively, was installed in the flat panel imager. Head- and pelvis-sized phantom images were acquired at doses ranging from 3 to 60 cGy with three MVCBCT configurations: TBL + LFB, IBL + LFB, and IBL + SPA. Phantom image quality at each dose was quantified using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) metrics. Head and neck, thoracic, and pelvic (prostate) cancer patients were imaged with the three imaging system configurations at multiple doses ranging from 3 to 15 cGy. The systems were assessed qualitatively from the patient image data. Results: For head and neck and pelvis-sized phantom images, imaging doses of 3 cGy or greater, and relative electron densities of 1.09 and 1.48, the CNR average improvement factors for imaging system change of TBL + LFB to IBL + LFB, IBL + LFB to IBL + SPA, and TBL + LFB to IBL + SPA were 1.63 (p < 10{sup -8}), 1.64 (p < 10{sup -13}), 2.66 (p < 10{sup -9}), respectively. For all imaging

  1. Geometrical representation of Gaussian beams propagating through complex paraxial optical systems.

    PubMed

    Andrews, L C; Miller, W B; Ricklin, J C

    1993-10-20

    Geometric relations are used to study the propagation environment of a Gaussian beam wave propagating through a complex paraxial optical system characterized by an ABCD ray matrix in two naturally linked complex planes. In the plane defined by beam transmitter parameters Ω(o) and Ω, the propagation path is described by a ray line similar to the ray line in the y? diagram method, whereas the path in the plane of beam receiver parameters θ and Λ is described by a circular arc. In either plane the amplitude, phase, spot size, and radius of curvature of the Gaussian beam are directly related to the modulus and argument of the complex number designating a particular transverse plane along the propagation path. These beam parameters also lead to simple geometric relations for locating the beam waist, Rayleigh range, focal plane, and sister planes, which share the same radius of curvature but have opposite signs. Combined with the paraxial wave propagation technique based on a Huygens-Fresnel integral and complex ABCD ay matrices, this geometric approach provides a new and powerful method for the analysis and design of laser systems. PMID:20856413

  2. Broad beam gas ion source with hollow cathode discharge and four-grid accelerator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Deli; Pu, Shihao; Huang, Qi; Tong, Honghui; Cui, Xirong; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-04-01

    A broad beam gas ion source based on low-pressure hollow cathode glow discharge is described. An axial magnetic filed produced by AlNiCo permanent magnets enhances the glow discharge in the ion source as a result of the magnetizing electrons between the hollow cathode and rod anode. The gas plasma is produced by magnetron hollow cathode glow discharge in the hollow cathode and a collimated broad ion beam is extracted by a four-grid accelerator system. A weak magnetic field of several millitesla is enough to ignite the magnetron glow discharge at pressure lower than 0.1 Pa, thereby enabling stable and continuous high-current discharge to form the homogeneous plasma. A four-grid accelerator, which separates the extraction and acceleration of the ion beam, is used in this design to generate the high-energy ion beam from 10 keV to 60 keV at a working pressure of 10-4 Torr. Although a higher gas pressure is necessary to maintain the low-pressure glow discharge when compared to hot filament discharge, the hollow cathode ion source is operational with reactive gases such as oxygen in the high-voltage continuous mode. A laterally uniform ion beam can be achieved by using the four-grid accelerator system. The effects of the rod anode length on the characteristics of the plasma discharge as well as ion beam extraction from the ion source are discussed.

  3. Low-impedance plasma systems for generation of high-current low-energy electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    The results of experimental investigation and numerical modeling of the generation of low-energy (tens of keV) high-current (up to tens of kA) electron beams in a low-impedance system consisting of a plasma-filled diode with a long plasma anode, an auxiliary hot cathode, and an explosive emission cathode. The low-current low-voltage beam from the auxiliary cathode in an external longitudinal magnetic field is used to produce a long plasma anode, which is simultaneously the channel of beam transportation by residual gas ionization. The high-current electron beam is formed from the explosive emission cathode placed in the preliminarily formed plasma. Numerical modeling is performed using the KARAT PIC code.

  4. An optimal target-filter system for electron beam generated x-ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Vasilik, D.G.; Chen, J.

    1994-04-01

    An electron beam generated x-ray spectrum consists of characteristic x rays of the target and continuous bremsstrahlung. The percentage of characteristic x rays over the entire energy spectrum depends on the beam energy and the filter thickness. To determine the optimal electron beam energy and filter thickness, one can either conduct many experimental measurements, or perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations. Monte Carlo simulations are shown to be an efficient tool for determining the optimal target-filter system for electron beam generated x-ray spectra. Three of the most commonly used low-energy x-ray metal targets (Cu, Zn and Mo) are chosen for this study to illustrate the power of Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Super-intense femtosecond multichannel laser system with coherent beam combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Trunov, V. I.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Frolov, S. A.; Leshchenko, V. E.; Kokh, A. E.; Vasiliev, V. A.

    2014-07-01

    The conceptual design of ultra-high intensity multichannel laser system with coherent beam combining is presented. Design of 1 PW and 10 PW laser channels with pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz based on optical parametric amplification in LBO crystals is considered. Requirements of the most critical pulse parameters for high efficiency coherent beam combining and their dependence on the number of channels is analyzed. Experimentally coherent beam combining of parametrically amplified compressed femtosecond pulses is demonstrated for the first time. Original two-loop relative timing jitter active stabilization scheme is proposed and experimentally investigated. 97% coherent beam combining efficiency is achieved with 110 as relative timing jitter.

  6. Guiding ultraslow weak-light bullets with Airy beams in a coherent atomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of guiding stable ultraslow weak-light bullets by using Airy beams in a cold, lifetime-broadened four-level atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that under EIT condition the light bullet with ultraslow propagating velocity and extremely low generation power formed by the balance between diffraction and nonlinearity in the probe field can be not only stabilized but also steered by the assisted field. In particular, when the assisted field is taken to be an Airy beam, the light bullet can be trapped into the main lobe of the Airy beam, propagate ultraslowly in longitudinal direction, accelerate in transverse directions, and move along a parabolic trajectory. We further show that the light bullet can bypass an obstacle when guided by two sequential Airy beams. A technique for generating ultraslow helical weak-light bullets is also proposed.

  7. System for beaming power from earth to a high altitude platform

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Herbert W.; Porter, Terry J.

    2002-01-01

    Power is transmitted to a high altitude platform by an array of diode pumped solid state lasers each operated at a single range of laser wavelengths outside of infrared and without using adaptive optics. Each laser produces a beam with a desired arrival spot size. An aircraft avoidance system uses a radar system for automatic control of the shutters of the lasers.

  8. Design of a gradient-index beam shaping system via a genetic algorithm optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Neal C.; Shealy, David L.

    2000-10-01

    Geometrical optics - the laws of reflection and refraction, ray tracing, conservation of energy within a bundle of rays, and the condition of constant optical path length - provides a foundation for design of laser beam shaping systems. This paper explores the use of machine learning techniques, concentrating on genetic algorithms, to design laser beam shaping systems using geometrical optics. Specifically, a three-element GRIN laser beam shaping system has been designed to expand and transform a Gaussian input beam profile into one with a uniform irradiance profile. Solution to this problem involves the constrained optimization of a merit function involving a mix of discrete and continuous parameters. The merit function involves terms that measure the deviation of the output beam diameter, divergence, and irradiance from target values. The continuous parameters include the distances between the lens elements, the thickness, and radii of the lens elements. The discrete parameters include the GRIN glass types from a manufacturer's database, the gradient direction of the GRIN elements (positive or negative), and the actual number of lens elements in the system (one to four).

  9. Beam-based alignment and tuning procedures for e sup + e sup minus collider final focus systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Odian, A.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-05-01

    For future linear colliders, with very small emittances and beam sizes and demanding tolerances on final focus system alignment and magnet errors, it becomes increasingly important to use the beam as a diagnostic tool. We report here procedures we have identified and will be implemented in the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC incorporating (1) quadrupole strength changes, (2) central orbit modifications, (3) spot size measurements, and (4) beam stability monitoring. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. A compact neutron beam generator system designed for prompt gamma nuclear activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghassoun, J; Mostacci, D

    2011-08-01

    In this work a compact system was designed for bulk sample analysis using the technique of PGNAA. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source, a moderator/reflector/filter assembly, and a suitable enclosure to delimit the resulting neutron beam. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimised to maximise the thermal neutron component useful for samples analysis with a suitably low level of beam contamination. The neutron beam delivered by this compact system is used to irradiate the sample and the prompt gamma rays produced by neutron reactions within the sample elements are detected by appropriate gamma rays detector. Neutron and gamma rays transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP5). PMID:21129990

  11. Far-field detection system for laser beam and crystal alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiachen; Liu, Daizhong; Zhu, Baoqiang; Tang, Shunxing; Gao, Yanqi

    2016-03-01

    Laser beam far-field alignment as well as frequency-doubling and frequency-tripling crystal adjustment is very important for high-power laser facility. Separate systems for beam and crystal alignment are generally used while the proposed approach by off-axial grating sampling share common optics for these two functions, reducing both space and cost requirements. This detection system has been demonstrated on the National Laser Facility of Israel. The experimental results indicate that the average far-field alignment error is <5% of the spatial filter pinhole diameter, average autocollimation angle error of crystals is <10 μrad, and average frequency-tripling conversion efficiency is 69.3%, which meet the alignment system requirements on the beam direction and crystals.

  12. An improved 8 GeV beam transport system for the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1987-06-01

    A new 8 GeV beam transport system between the Booster and Main Ring synchrotrons at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is presented. The system was developed in an effort to improve the transverse phase space area occupied by the proton beam upon injection into the Main Ring accelerator. Problems with the original system are described and general methods of beamline design are formulated. Errors in the transverse properties of a beamline at the injection point of the second synchrotron and their effects on the region in transverse phase space occupied by a beam of particles are discussed. Results from the commissioning phase of the project are presented as well as measurements of the degree of phase space dilution generated by the transfer of 8 GeV protons from the Booster synchrotron to the Main Ring synchrotron.

  13. Decentralized adaptive sliding mode control for beam synchronization of tethered InSAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinxiu; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Baolin

    2016-10-01

    Beam synchronization problem of tethered interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is addressed in this paper. Two antennas of the system are carried by separate satellites connected through a tether to obtain a preferable baseline. A Total Zero Doppler Steering (TZDS) is implemented to mother-satellite to cancel the residual Doppler. Subsequently attitude reference trajectories for the two satellites are generated to achieve the beam synchronization and TZDS. Thereafter, a decentralized adaptive sliding mode control law is proposed to track these reference trajectories in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances. Finally, the stability of closed-loop system is proved by the corollary of Barbalat's Lemma. Simulation results show the proposed control law is effective to achieve beam synchronization of the system.

  14. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF THE BEAM LOSS MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE SNS.

    SciTech Connect

    WITKOVER,R.; GASSNER,D.

    2002-05-06

    The SNS to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will provide a high average intensity 1 GeV beam to produce spallation neutrons. Loss of a even small percentage of this intense beam would result in high radiation. The Beam Loss Monitor (ELM) system must detect such small, long term losses yet be capable of measuring infrequent short high losses. The large dynamic range presents special problems for the system design. Ion chambers will be used as the detectors. A detector originally designed for the FNAL Tevatron, was considered but concerns about ion collection times and low collection efficiency at high loss rates favor a new design. The requirements and design concepts of the proposed approach will be presented. Discussion of the design and testing of the ion chambers and the analog j-Point end electronics will be presented. The overall system design will be described.

  15. Paul Trap Simulator Experiment to Model Intense Beam Propagation in Alternating-gradient Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erik P. Gilson; Ronald C. Davidson; Philip C. Efthimion; Richard Majeski

    2004-01-29

    The results presented here demonstrate that the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) simulates the propagation of intense charged particle beams over distances of many kilometers through magnetic alternating-gradient (AG) transport systems by making use of the similarity between the transverse dynamics of particles in the two systems. Plasmas have been trapped that correspond to normalized intensity parameters s = wp2 (0)/2wq2 * 0.8, where wp(r) is the plasmas frequency and wq is the average transverse focusing frequency in the smooth-focusing approximation. The measured root-mean-squared (RMS) radius of the beam is consistent with a model, equally applicable to both PTSX and AG systems that balances the average inward confining force against the outward pressure-gradient and space-charge forces. The PTSX device confines one-component cesium ion plasmas for hundreds of milliseconds, which is equivalent to over 10 km of beam propagation.

  16. An intracavitary cone system for electron beam therapy using a Therac 20 linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D L; Sharma, S C; Jose, B

    1986-06-01

    The Therac 20 is an AECL medical linear accelerator that produces electron and photon beams. Electron fields are produced by a scanned beam; collimation is provided by two sets of primary collimators and further collimated by external electron trimmers located 11 cm above the plane of isocenter (100 cm). These collimators are not suitable for intracavitary treatment. To overcome this limitation, we have designed an intracavitary cone system that attaches to the electron trimmers. Since the trimmers do not have to be removed while this system is in use, there is no need to bypass the associated interlock system. The apparatus consists of a platform which slides onto the lower set of trimmers, onto which a lead insert is attached. Dosimetry measurements for 9, 13, and 17 MeV electron beams are reported for three different treatment cones. PMID:3721928

  17. Accelerator systems and instrumentation for the NuMI neutrino beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwaska, Robert Miles

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) neutrino beam facility began operating at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in 2005. NuMI produces an intense, muon-neutrino beam to a number of experiments. Fore most of these experiments is MINOS---the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search---that uses two neutrino detectors in the beam, one at Fermilab and one in northern Minnesota, to investigate the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations. NuMI is a conventional, horn-focused neutrino beam. It is designed to accept a 400 kW, 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector accelerator. The proton beam is steered onto a target, producing a secondary beam of mesons which are focused into a long evacuated volume where they decay to muons and neutrinos. Pulsed toroidal magnets (horns) focus an adjustable meson momentum range. Design of the beamline and its components is challenged by the 400 kW average proton beam power. To achieve such high proton power, the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) must store and accelerate ˜ 4x1013 protons per acceleration cycle. This requires the MI to be loaded with 6 or more batches of protons from the 8 GeV Booster accelerator. Such multiple-batch injection involves a synchronization of the two machines not previously required by the Fermilab accelerators. In this dissertation, we investigate timing errors that can arise between the two accelerators, and a feedback system which enables multiple Booster transfers into the Main Injector without significant loss of beam. Using this method of synchronous transfer, the Main Injector has delivered as many as 3x1013 protons per pulse to the NuMI beam. The instrumentation to assess the quality of the neutrino beam includes arrays of radiation-tolerant ionization chambers downstream of the decay volume. These arrays detect the remnant hadrons and tertiary muons produced with the neutrinos. This thesis discusses measurements using the arrays, including diagnostics of potential beam errors and

  18. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitors System for the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Guaglio, G.; Dehning, B.; Santoni, C.

    2004-11-10

    The employment of superconducting magnets in high energy colliders opens challenging failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole system protection. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particle losses, while at medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standard databases. All the data have been processed by reliability software (Isograph). The analysis ranges from the components data to the system configuration.

  19. Instrumentation and control of the Doublet III Neutral Beam Injector System

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, J.C.; Moore, C.D.; Drobnis, D.D.; Elischer, V.P.; Kilgore, R.; Uber, D.

    1980-03-01

    The hardware and software required for the operation of the Doublet III Neutral Beam Injector System (NBIS) are described. Development and implementation of this Instrumentation and Control System was divided between the major participants - General Atomic Company and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The subdivision of responsibilities and the coordination of the participants' activities are described with reference to hardware and software requirements in support of the entire system. Included are a description of the operators' consoles, the interlock system and the CAMAC system. One feature of the control software is source modeling. This feature includes feedback on a shot to shot basis and adaptive control. Adaptive control permits the computer system to automatically adjust parameters after a shot, and to control the system to automatically compensate for time varying NBIS components. The Neutral Beam Power Supply features power supply modeling, fiber optic transmission of analog signals and digital control of power supply power-up/interlocks.

  20. High Performance Image Processing And Laser Beam Recording System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Anthony R.

    1980-09-01

    The article is meant to provide the digital image recording community with an overview of digital image processing, and recording. The Digital Interactive Image Processing System (DIIPS) was assembled by ESL for Air Force Systems Command under ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER's guidance. The system provides the capability of mensuration and exploitation of digital imagery with both mono and stereo digital images as inputs. This development provided for system design, basic hardware, software and operational procedures to enable the Air Force's System Command photo analyst to perform digital mensuration and exploitation of stereo digital images as inputs. The engineering model was based on state-of-the-art technology and to the extent possible off-the-shelf hardware and software. A LASER RECORDER was also developed for the DIIPS Systems and is known as the Ultra High Resolution Image Recorder (UHRIR). The UHRIR is a prototype model that will enable the Air Force Systems Command to record computer enhanced digital image data on photographic film at high resolution with geometric and radiometric distortion minimized.

  1. Tests of the FONT3 Linear Collider Intra-Train Beam Feedback System at the ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Christian, G.; Clarke, C.; Hartin, A.; Dabiri Khah, H.; Molloy, S.; White, G.R.; Frisch, J.C.; Markiewicz, T.W.; McCormick, D.J.; Ross, M.C.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.J.; Kalinin, A.; Perry, C.; /Oxford Instruments

    2006-03-14

    We report preliminary results of beam tests of the FONT3 Linear Collider intra-train position feedback system prototype at the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK. The feedback system incorporates a novel beam position monitor (BPM) processor with a latency below 5 nanoseconds, and a kicker driver amplifier with similar low latency. The 56 nanosecond-long bunchtrain in the ATF extraction line was used to test the prototype BPM processor. The achieved latency will allow a demonstration of intra-train feedback on timescales relevant even for the CLIC Linear Collider design.

  2. Operational characteristics of a translation screen grid beam deflection system for a 5-cm Kaufman thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathem, W. C.; Hudson, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of beam deflection angle with respect to spring positioning power and accelerator impingement current as a function of deflection angle were made on a 5-cm diameter system. Response time measurements on the translational grid beam deflection system showed that the time for the maximum deflection angle analyzed (+16.4 deg to -16.4 deg) could be reduced by a factor of nine by increasing the heating power applied to the positioning spring from 4 to 16 watts. At 14 watts the response time for maximum deflection was about 1 minute.

  3. Excitation of flute waves by an ion beam in an open confinement system

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.V.

    1988-04-01

    This paper analyzes the electrostatic instability driven by a fast ion beam in a low-..beta.. plasma in a mirror system as the result of a resonance between the wave and the longitudinal bounces of ions between the mirrors. The frequency of this instability is close to the ion bounce frequency, and its growth rate is several times low than that of the flute instability. This electrostatic instability is characteristic of beams with a small angular spread and is sensitive to the magnetic field profile in the mirror system.

  4. Beam-guidance optics for high-power fiber laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Bernd; Tassini, Leonardo; Protz, Rudolf; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    The realization of a high-energy laser weapon system by coupling a large number of industrial high-power fiber lasers is investigated. To perform the combination of the individual beams of the different fiber lasers within the optical path of the laser weapon, a special optical set-up is used. Each optical component is realized either as reflective component oras refractive optics. Both possibilities were investigated by simulations and experiments. From the results, the general aspects for the layout of the beam-guidance optics for a high-power fiber laser system are derived.

  5. Off-Line Programming System of Multi-Axis Platform for Dual Beam Laser Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Ji-Hong; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Liu, Yi

    The multi-axis platform of dual beam laser welding (DBLW) can guarantee a good synchronism on double sides, adaptation and precision, thus it can be widely applied. On this platform, this paper studies critical technology of off-line programming of DBLW. It presents a U-oriented on double sides trajectory planning method based on the traditional method derived from single beam laser welding. Then a calibration strategy of structural parameters is rendered and G codes are produced by a postprocessor. At last the researchers develops the off-line programming system on CAM platforms and a simulation conducted proves the system satisfying the need.

  6. Neutral beam system for the C-2-Upgrade Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Clary, Ryan; Dunaevsky, Alexandr; Isakov, Ivan; Magee, Richard; Matvienko, Vasily; van Drie, Alan; Deichuli, Petr; Ivanov, Alexandr; Pirogov, Konstantin; Sorokin, Aleksey; Stupishin, Nickolay; Vakhrushev, Roman; TAE Team; Budker Team

    2015-11-01

    In the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment, tangential neutral beam injection (NBI), coupled with electrically-biased plasma guns at the plasma ends and advanced surface conditioning, led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable, hot FRCs with a significant fast-ion population, total plasma temperature of ~ 1 keV and record lifetimes were achieved. To further improve the FRC sustainment and provide a better coupling with beams, the C-2 device has been upgraded with a new NBI system, which can deliver up to a total of 10 MW of hydrogen beam power (15 keV, 8 ms pulse), by far the largest ever used in compact toroid plasma experiments. The NBI system consists of six positive-ion based injectors featuring flexible, modular design. This presentation will provide an overview of the C-2U NBI system, including: 1) NBI test facility, beam characterization, and acceptance tests, 2) integration with the machine and operating experience, 3) improvements in plasma performance with increased beam power.

  7. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source. PMID:26932105

  8. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  9. Integrating new technologies into split-beam riverine sonar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, James

    2005-04-01

    While development has continued on both acoustic hardware and data processing software, parallel development has involved integration of other technologies. Users may now access and control acoustic systems over the Internet or phone lines. Smart system software can perform self-diagnostics, alert remote users of system status, and automatically adjust operational and physical parameters (such as transducer orientation) during autonomous operation. In addition, advanced remote and autonomous systems are capable of real-time analysis and decision-making functions enabling near real-time decisions and automated interactions with a variety of devices, such as modems, Ethernet adapters, motor controls, and on-site electro-mechanical devices. Details and benefits of these advances are presented in a variety of case studies.

  10. Source and Extraction for Simultaneous Four-hall Beam Delivery System at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Kazimi, Reza; Wang, Haipeng; Spata, Mike F.; Hansknecht, John C.

    2013-06-01

    A new design for simultaneous delivery of the electron beam to all four 12 GeV CEBAF experimental halls* requires a new 750 MHz RF separator system in the 5th pass extraction region, a 250 MHz repetition rate for its beams, and addition of a fourth laser at the photo-cathode gun. The proposed system works in tandem with the existing 500 MHz RF separators and beam repetition rate on the lower passes. The new 5th pass RF separators will have the same basic design but modified to run at 750 MHz. The change to the beam repetition rate will be at the photo-cathode gun through an innovative upgrade of the seed laser driver system using electro-optic modulators. The new laser system also allows addition of the fourth laser. The new RF separators, the new laser system and other hardware changes required to implement the Four-Hall operation delivery system will be discussed in this paper.

  11. Aberration analysis and calculation in system of Gaussian beam illuminates lenslet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhu; Hui, Mei; Zhou, Ping; Su, Tianquan; Feng, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin

    2014-09-01

    Low order aberration was founded when focused Gaussian beam imaging at Kodak KAI -16000 image detector, which is integrated with lenslet array. Effect of focused Gaussian beam and numerical simulation calculation of the aberration were presented in this paper. First, we set up a model of optical imaging system based on previous experiment. Focused Gaussian beam passed through a pinhole and was received by Kodak KAI -16000 image detector whose microlenses of lenslet array were exactly focused on sensor surface. Then, we illustrated the characteristics of focused Gaussian beam and the effect of relative space position relations between waist of Gaussian beam and front spherical surface of microlenses to the aberration. Finally, we analyzed the main element of low order aberration and calculated the spherical aberration caused by lenslet array according to the results of above two steps. Our theoretical calculations shown that , the numerical simulation had a good agreement with the experimental result. Our research results proved that spherical aberration was the main element and made up about 93.44% of the 48 nm error, which was demonstrated in previous experiment. The spherical aberration is inversely proportional to the value of divergence distance between microlens and waist, and directly proportional to the value of the Gaussian beam waist radius.

  12. CERBEROS: A tracking system for secondary pion beams at the HADES spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, J.; Fabbietti, L.; Lalik, R.; Maier, L.; Scordo, A.

    2016-07-01

    In 2014 the HADES collaboration performed two successful physics production runs with secondary pion beams. Since secondary pion beams are strongly defocussed in position and momentum, two fast tracking stations were installed along the pion beam chicane following the pion production target providing the momentum measurement of each individual pion. The momentum is reconstructed using the position information of every hit detected by the tracking stations and the beam optics transport calculation with a resolution below 0.5% playing an important role in terms of the exclusive analysis of investigated reactions. Both tracking stations consist of a double-sided silicon strip sensor with a large active area (10 × 10cm2). To guarantee fast tracking, the sensors are read out with the n-XYTER ASIC chip. Due to its self-triggering architecture and local storage capability, the chip enables on-line tracking at high rates (dN / dt >106 part / s). The TRB3 read out board on which the trigger logic is implemented integrates the system into the HADES DAQ. In this report we are showing the results obtained during the calibration experiment with a monochromatic proton beam set at seven different momenta centred around 2.68 GeV/c. Also the excellent performance achieved during the production campaign with a pion beam are presented.

  13. Ultrarelativistic laser systems based on coherent beam combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Trunov, V. I.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Frolov, S. A.; Leschenko, V. E.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Kokh, A. E.; Petrov, V. V.; Vasiliev, V. A.

    2012-07-01

    Conceptual design for femtosecond laser system of exawatt class, based on multi-channel amplifier and coherent field combining of petawatt amplifier channels with phase-frequency controlled radiation by optical clock are discussed. The scheme of start petawatt level few-cycle laser system with stable phase-frequency parameters determinated by the accuracy of the optical standard based on parametric amplification in big-size LBO crystals pumped by picosecond pulses is analyzed.

  14. Scripting in Radiation Therapy: An Automatic 3D Beam-Naming System

    SciTech Connect

    Holdsworth, Clay; Hummel-Kramer, Sharon M.; Phillips, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Scripts can be executed within the radiation treatment planning software framework to reduce human error, increase treatment planning efficiency, reduce confusion, and promote consistency within an institution or even among institutions. Scripting is versatile, and one application is an automatic 3D beam-naming system that describes the position of the beam relative to the patient in 3D space. The naming system meets the need for nomenclature that is conducive for clear and accurate communication of beam entry relative to patient anatomy. In radiation oncology in particular, where miscommunication can cause significant harm to patients, a system that minimizes error is essential. Frequent sharing of radiation treatment information occurs not only among members within a department but also between different treatment centers. Descriptions of treatment beams are perhaps the most commonly shared information about a patient's course of treatment in radiation oncology. Automating the naming system by the use of a script reduces the potential for human error, improves efficiency, enforces consistency, and would allow an institution to convert to a new naming system with greater ease. This script has been implemented in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Washington Medical Center since December 2009. It is currently part of the dosimetry protocol and is accessible by medical dosimetrists, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists. This paper highlights the advantages of using an automatic 3D beam-naming script to flawlessly and quickly identify treatment beams with unique names. Scripting in radiation treatment planning software has many uses and great potential for improving clinical care.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of a collimation system for low-energy beamline of ELI-NP Gamma Beam System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, P.; Gambaccini, M.; Marziani, M.; Bagli, E.; Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Drebot, I.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2015-07-01

    ELI-nuclear physics (NP) Gamma Beam System (GBS) is an intense and monochromatic gamma beam source based on inverse Compton interaction, currently being built in Bucharest, Romania. The gamma beam produced, with energy ranging from 0.2 to 20 MeV, energy bandwidth 0.5% and flux of about 108photons/s, will be devoted to investigate a broad range of applications such as nuclear physics, astrophysics, material science and life sciences. The radiation produced by an inverse Compton interaction is not intrinsically monochromatic. In fact, the energy of the photons produced is related to the emission angle, therefore the energy bandwidth can be modified adjusting the collimation of the gamma beam. In order to define the optimal layout and evaluate the performance of a collimation system for the ELI-NP-GBS low-energy beamline (0.2-3.5 MeV), a detailed Monte Carlo simulation activity has been carried out. The simulation, using Geant4 and MCNPX codes, included the transport of the gamma beam from the interaction point to the experimental area passing through vacuum pipes, vacuum chambers, collimation system and relative shielding. The effectiveness of the collimation system, in obtaining the required energy distribution and avoiding the contamination due to secondary radiation production, was evaluated. Also, the background radiation generated by collimation and the shielding layout have been studied.

  16. Galvanometer beam-scanning system for laser fiber drawing.

    PubMed

    Oehrle, R C

    1979-02-15

    A major difficulty in using a laser to draw optical fibers from a glass preform has been uniformally distributing the laser's energy around the melt zone. Several systems have evolved in recent years, but to date the most successful technique has been the off-axis rotating lens system (RLS). The inability of this device to structure efficiently and dynamically the heat zone longitudinally along the preform has restricted its use to preform of less than 8-mm diameter. A new technique reported here employs two orthogonal mounted mirrors, driven by galvanometers to distribute the laser energy around the preform. This system can be retrofitted into the RLS to replace the rotating lens element. The new system, the galvanometer scanning system (GSS), operates at ten times the rotational speed of the RLS and can instantaneously modify the melt zone. The ability of the GSS to enlarge the melt zone reduces the vaporization rate at the surface of the preform permitting efficient use of higher laser power. Experiments i dicate that fibers can be drawn from significantly larger preforms by using the expanded heat zone provided by the GSS. PMID:20208750

  17. A Four Channel Beam Current Monitor Data Acquisition System Using Embedded Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Jr., Robert Mitchell; Dalmas, Dale A.; Dale, Gregory E.

    2015-08-11

    Data acquisition from multiple beam current monitors is required for electron accelerator production of Mo-99. A two channel system capable of recording data from two beam current monitors has been developed, is currently in use, and is discussed below. The development of a cost-effective method of extending this system to more than two channels and integrating of these measurements into an accelerator control system is the main focus of this report. Data from these current monitors is digitized, processed, and stored by a digital data acquisition system. Limitations and drawbacks with the currently deployed digital data acquisition system have been identified as have been potential solutions, or at least improvements, to these problems. This report will discuss and document the efforts we've made in improving the flexibility and lowering the cost of the data acquisition system while maintaining the minimum requirements.

  18. Two-beam combined 3.36  J, 100  Hz diode-pumped high beam quality Nd:YAG laser system.

    PubMed

    Qiu, J S; Tang, X X; Fan, Z W; Wang, H C; Liu, H

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, we develop a diode-pumped all-solid-state high-energy and high beam quality Nd:YAG laser system. A master oscillator power amplifier structure is used to provide a high pulse energy laser output with a high repetition rate. In order to decrease the amplifier working current so as to reduce the impact of the thermal effect on the beam quality, a beam splitting-amplifying-combining scheme is adopted. The energy extraction efficiency of the laser system is 50.68%. We achieve 3.36 J pulse energy at a 100 Hz repetition rate with a pulse duration of 7.1 ns, a far-field beam spot 1.71 times the diffraction limit, and 1.07% energy stability (RMS). PMID:27463917

  19. Thermomagnetic recording and magneto-optic playback system having constant intensity laser beam control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Guisinger, J. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is developed for maintaining the intensity of a laser beam at a constant level in a thermomagnetic recording and magneto-optic playback system in which an isotropic film is heated along a continuous path by the laser beam for recording. As each successive area of the path is heated locally to the vicinity of its Curie point in the presence of a controlled magnetic field, a magneto-optic density is produced proportional to the amplitude of the controlled magnetic field. To play back the recorded signal, the intensity of the laser beam is reduced and a Faraday or Kerr effect analyzer is used, with a photodetector, as a transducer for producing an output signal.

  20. The performance of heterodyne detection system for partially coherent beams in turbulent atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chengqiang, Li; Tingfeng, Wang; Heyong, Zhang; Jingjiang, Xie; Lisheng, Liu; Shuai, Zhao; Jin, Guo

    2015-12-01

    The performance of heterodyne system is discussed for partially coherent beams in turbulent atmosphere by introducing turbulence spectrum of refractive-index fluctuations. Several analytic formulae for the heterodyne detection system using the partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beam are presented. Based on Tatarskii spectrum model, some numerical results are given for the variation in the heterodyne efficiency with the misalignment angle, detector diameter, turbulence conditions, and parameters of the overlapping beams. According to the numerical results, we find that the turbulent atmosphere degrades the heterodyne efficiency significantly, and the variation in heterodyne efficiency is even slower against the misalignment angle in turbulence. For the deterministic received signal and the detector, the performance of the heterodyne detection can be adjusted by controlling the local oscillator signal parameters.

  1. Ion-acoustic compressive and rarefactive solitons in an electron-beam plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, L.L.; Tiwari, R.S.; Sharma, S.R. )

    1994-03-01

    Using the general formulation of reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation is derived for an electron-beam plasma with hot isothermal beam and plasma electrons and warm ions. The soliton solution of the KdV equation is discussed in detail. It is found that above a critical velocity of electron-beam two additional ion-acoustic soliton branches appear. It is found that corresponding to two linear modes, the system supports the existence of compressive as well as rarefactive solitons depending upon the plasma parameters, while corresponding to other two wave modes, the system supports only rarefactive solitons. The effect of different parameters on the characteristics of solitons have been investigated in detail.

  2. Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yangjian; Korotkova, Olga; Eyyuboğlu, Halil T; Baykal, Yahya

    2008-09-29

    Propagation of stochastic electromagnetic beams through paraxial ABCD optical systems operating through turbulent atmosphere is investigated with the help of the ABCD matrices and the generalized Huygens-Fresnel integral. In particular, the analytic formula is derived for the cross-spectral density matrix of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam. We applied our analysis for the ABCD system with a single lens located on the propagation path, representing, in a particular case, the unfolded double-pass propagation scenario of active laser radar. Through a number of numerical examples we investigated the effect of local turbulence strength and lens' parameters on spectral, coherence and polarization properties of the EGSM beam. PMID:18825220

  3. Status of the SNS H- ion source and low-energy beam transport system

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.; Thomae, R.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2002-04-01

    The ion source and Low-Energy Transport (LEBT) system that will provide H{sup -} ion beams to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Front End and the accelerator chain have been developed into a mature unit that will satisfy the operational needs through the commissioning and early operating phases of SNS. The ion source was derived from the SSC ion source, and many of its original features have been improved to achieve reliable operation at 6% duty factor, producing beam currents in the 35-mA range and above. The LEBT utilizes purely electrostatic focusing and includes static beam-steering elements and a pre-chopper. This paper will discuss the latest design features of the ion source and LEBT, give performance data for the integrated system, and report on relevant commissioning results obtained with the SNS RFQ accelerator. Perspectives for further improvements will be outlined in concluding remarks.

  4. Matching bunched beams to alternating gradient focusing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1981-01-01

    A numerical procedure for generating phase-space distributions matched to alternating gradient focusing systems has been tested. For a smooth-focusing system a matched distribution can be calculated. With a particle tracing simulation code such a distribution can be followed while adiabatically deforming the focusing forces until an alternating gradient configuration is reached. The distribution remains matched; the final distribution is periodic with the structure period. External nonlinearities, including nonlinear couplings, were included in our examples but space charge was not. This procedure is expected to work with space charge but will require a 3-D space-charge calculation in the simulation code.

  5. Adaptive optimisation of a generalised phase contrast beam shaping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, F.; Choi, F. S.; Glückstad, J.; Booth, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    The generalised phase contrast (GPC) method provides versatile and efficient light shaping for a range of applications. We have implemented a generalised phase contrast system that used two passes on a single spatial light modulator (SLM). Both the pupil phase distribution and the phase contrast filter were generated by the SLM. This provided extra flexibility and control over the parameters of the system including the phase step magnitude, shape, radius and position of the filter. A feedback method for the on-line optimisation of these properties was also developed. Using feedback from images of the generated light field, it was possible to dynamically adjust the phase filter parameters to provide optimum contrast.

  6. High Power Laser Beam Delivery Systems in Surgery: The Technical Aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonborn, K. H.; Kobayashi, N.; Kersten, R. T.

    1986-09-01

    Today many applications of high power lasers for medical purposes are known. In some applications it is advantageous, in others necessary to use laser-beam transmission via light guides. An assembly which transports laser light from the source to a target via a fiber is called a fiber optic beam delivery system or BDS. Most of these systems consist of the following parts (Fig. 1): - laser, - coupling optics, - fiber, and - focussing optics. Some systems contain even more components e.g. in ophtalmology for reflecting the beam into a microscope. Any practical system uses connectors to separate the individual parts. The fiber will be confectionated into a cable with connectors with or without optical systems integrated. Because the systematic development of BDS is only at the beginning, we will give some brief considerations how to achieve an optimized BDS. We will only consider continuous wave multimode laser beams. For a given problem one will have to - define the desired performance, - choose the appropriate components, and finally - adapt these components to each other.

  7. Beam Based Measurements for Stochastic Cooling Systems at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.A.; Pasquinelli, R.J.; Werkema, S.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-13

    Improvement of antiproton stacking rates has been pursued for the last twenty years at Fermilab. The last twelve months have been dedicated to improving the computer model of the Stacktail system. The production of antiprotons encompasses the use of the entire accelerator chain with the exception of the Tevatron. In the Antiproton Source two storage rings, the Debuncher and Accumulator are responsible for the accumulation of antiprotons in quantities that can exceed 2 x 10{sup 12}, but more routinely, stacks of 5 x 10{sup 11} antiprotons are accumulated before being transferred to the Recycler ring. Since the beginning of this recent enterprise, peak accumulation rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup 11} to greater than 2.3 x 10{sup 11} antiprotons per hour. A goal of 3 x 10{sup 11} per hour has been established. Improvements to the stochastic cooling systems are but a part of this current effort. This paper will discuss Stacktail system measurements and experienced system limitations.

  8. TMX-Upgrade neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, B.; Kane, R.J.; Wong, R.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Moore, T.L.

    1981-10-05

    The TMX experiment proved that axial confinement of central-cell ions is improved ninefold by the electrostatic potential of end-cell plasmas. The TMX Upgrade task is to improve this confinement further. This paper discusses the injector system aspects of the TMX Upgrade.

  9. Preliminary results, obtained by using a proton beam, for an active scanning system to installed on the KHIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Hyeuk; Lee, Hwa-Ryun; Jang, Sea Duk; Kim, Hyunyong; Hahn, Garam; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Jang, Hong Suk; Park, Dong Wook; Hwang, Won Taek; Yang, Tae-Keun

    2015-08-01

    The active scanning technique is a pencil beam delivery method in particle therapy. The active scanning beam delivery system consists of a beam scanner, beam monitor, energy modulator, and related programs, such as the irradiation control and planning programs. A proposed prototype active scanning system was designed and installed on MC-50 at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS) with a 45-MeV proton beam. The laminated magnetic yoke of the scanning magnet supported fast ramping. The beam intensity and the beam profile monitors were designed for measuring the beam's properties. Both the range shifter and the ridge filter modulate the incoming beam energy. The LabVIEW®-based beam-irradiation-control program operates the system in a sequential operation manner for use with the MC-50 cyclotron. In addition, an in-housecoded irradiation-planning program generates an optimal irradiation path. A scanning experiment was successfully completed to print the logo of the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) on GaF film. Moreover, the beam's position accuracy was measured as 0.62 mm in the x-direction and as 0.83 mm in the y-direction.

  10. Comparison of two detector systems for cone beam CT small animal imaging - a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Shaw, Chris C.; Liu, Xinming; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Wang, Tianpeng; Chen, Lingyun; Tu, Shu-Ju; Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Lai, Chao-Jen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To compare two detector systems - one based on the charge-coupled device (CCD) and image amplifier, the other based on a-Si/CsI flat panel, for cone beam computed-tomography (CT) imaging of small animals. A high resolution, high framing rate detector system for the cone beam CT imaging of small animals was developed. The system consists of a 2048×3072×12 bit CCD optically coupled to an image amplifier and an x-ray phosphor screen. The CCD has an intrinsic pixel size of 12 μm but the effective pixel size can be adjusted through the magnification adjustment of the optical coupling systems. The system is used in conjunction with an x-ray source and a rotating stage for holding and rotating the scanned object in the cone beam CT imaging experiments. The advantages of the system include but are not limited to the ability to adjust the effective pixel size and to achieve extremely high spatial resolution and temporal resolution. However, the need to use optical coupling compromises the detective quanta efficiency (DQE) of the system. In this paper, the imaging characteristics of the system were presented and compared with those of an a-Si/CsI flat-panel detector system. PMID:18160972

  11. Beam characteristics in two different proton uniform scanning systems: A side-by-side comparison

    PubMed Central

    Nichiporov, Dmitri; Hsi, Wen; Farr, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of proton therapy fields produced by two uniform scanning systems that have a number of similar hardware components but employ different techniques of beam spreading. Methods: This work compares two technologically distinct systems implementing a method of uniform scanning and layer stacking that has been developed independently at Indiana University (IU) and by Ion Beam Applications, S. A. (IBA). Clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of fields produced by these systems are studied, such as beam range control, peak-to-entrance ratio (PER), lateral penumbra, field flatness, effective source position, precision of dose delivery at different gantry angles, etc. Results: Under comparable conditions, both systems controlled beam range with an accuracy of 0.5 mm and a precision of 0.1 mm. Compared to IBA, the IU system produced pristine peaks with a slightly higher PER (3.23 and 3.45, respectively) and smaller, symmetrical, lateral in-air penumbra of 1 mm compared to about 1.9/2.4 mm in the inplane/crossplane (IP/CP) directions for IBA. Large field flatness results in the IP/CP directions were similar: 3.0/2.4% for IU and 2.9/2.4% for IBA. The IU system featured a longer virtual source-to-isocenter position, which was the same for the IP and CP directions (237 cm), as opposed to 212/192 cm (IP/CP) for IBA. Dose delivery precision at different gantry angles was higher in the IBA system (0.5%) than in the IU system (1%). Conclusions: Each of the two uniform scanning systems considered in this work shows some attractive performance characteristics while having other features that can be further improved. Overall, radiation field characteristics of both systems meet their clinical specifications and show comparable results. Most of the differences observed between the two systems are clinically insignificant. PMID:22559626

  12. Beam characteristics in two different proton uniform scanning systems: A side-by-side comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Nichiporov, Dmitri; Hsi Wen; Farr, Jonathan

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To compare clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of proton therapy fields produced by two uniform scanning systems that have a number of similar hardware components but employ different techniques of beam spreading. Methods: This work compares two technologically distinct systems implementing a method of uniform scanning and layer stacking that has been developed independently at Indiana University (IU) and by Ion Beam Applications, S. A. (IBA). Clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of fields produced by these systems are studied, such as beam range control, peak-to-entrance ratio (PER), lateral penumbra, field flatness, effective source position, precision of dose delivery at different gantry angles, etc. Results: Under comparable conditions, both systems controlled beam range with an accuracy of 0.5 mm and a precision of 0.1 mm. Compared to IBA, the IU system produced pristine peaks with a slightly higher PER (3.23 and 3.45, respectively) and smaller, symmetrical, lateral in-air penumbra of 1 mm compared to about 1.9/2.4 mm in the inplane/crossplane (IP/CP) directions for IBA. Large field flatness results in the IP/CP directions were similar: 3.0/2.4% for IU and 2.9/2.4% for IBA. The IU system featured a longer virtual source-to-isocenter position, which was the same for the IP and CP directions (237 cm), as opposed to 212/192 cm (IP/CP) for IBA. Dose delivery precision at different gantry angles was higher in the IBA system (0.5%) than in the IU system (1%). Conclusions: Each of the two uniform scanning systems considered in this work shows some attractive performance characteristics while having other features that can be further improved. Overall, radiation field characteristics of both systems meet their clinical specifications and show comparable results. Most of the differences observed between the two systems are clinically insignificant.

  13. A new stand-alone beam emittance measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, R.; Saadatmand, K.; Solensten, L.; Debiak, T.; Sredniawski, J.; Kuehne, F.

    1989-05-01

    A unique mechanical arrangement is employed which utilizes a single Allison type emittance scanner pod. This arrangement allows scans to be taken at any rotational angle, thereby eliminating any differences that can occur between gap settings when multiple pods are used. Flexibility is enhanced since the user is not restricted to orthogonal angles. A stand alone control and data acquisition system is utilized. The architecture includes an 80386 TM PC and CAMAC interfaces. Two Trek TM power supplies and a computer controlled signal generator provide maximum flexibility to the sweep voltages on the pod deflector plates. This paper describes the mechanical design of the scanner pod assembly, and the electrical and software design of the control system.

  14. Adaptive optimisation of a generalised phase contrast beam shaping system

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, F.; Choi, F.S.; Glückstad, J.; Booth, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The generalised phase contrast (GPC) method provides versatile and efficient light shaping for a range of applications. We have implemented a generalised phase contrast system that used two passes on a single spatial light modulator (SLM). Both the pupil phase distribution and the phase contrast filter were generated by the SLM. This provided extra flexibility and control over the parameters of the system including the phase step magnitude, shape, radius and position of the filter. A feedback method for the on-line optimisation of these properties was also developed. Using feedback from images of the generated light field, it was possible to dynamically adjust the phase filter parameters to provide optimum contrast. PMID:26089573

  15. New CAMAC based data acquisition and beam control system for Lund nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfman, Mikael; Kristiansson, Per; Malmqvist, Klas; Pallon, Jan; Sjöland, Anders; Utui, Rogerio; Yang, Changyi

    1997-07-01

    A new CAMAC based data acquisition system has been installed at the Lund Nuclear Microprobe facility. This paper reports on the development and present status of the data acquisition system. The system is a true multiparameter CAMAC based system with fast Fera bus readout and in crate memory buffer. The user interface is based on Sparrow Kmax software for a Power Macintosh platform. The system read out and tag the event data with position on-line, which make fast on-line monitoring of spectra or element maps possible.Simultaneously, all data can be saved event by event for off-line analysis. The beam scanning part is software controlled through a timed D/A converter, this allows fast scanning of the beam. With a CCD-camera and video card the area to be analysed could be defined directly from the image, and the sample position can be moved. Any kind of irregular scan patterns could be defined.

  16. Two-axis Beam Steering Mirror Control system for Precision Pointing and Tracking Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ulander, K

    2006-02-08

    Precision pointing and tracking of laser beams is critical in numerous military and industrial applications. This is particularly true for systems requiring atmospheric beam propagation. Such systems are plagued by environmental influences which cause the optical signal to break up and wander. Example applications include laser communications, precision targeting, active imaging, chemical remote sensing, and laser vibrometry. The goal of this project is to build a beam steering system using a two-axis mirror to maintain precise pointing control. Ultimately, position control to 0.08% accuracy (40 {micro}rad) with a bandwidth of 200 Hz is desired. The work described encompasses evaluation of the instrumentation system and the subsequent design and implementation of an analog electronic controller for a two-axis mirror used to steer the beam. The controller operates over a wide temperature range, through multiple mirror resonances, and is independent of specific mirrors. The design was built and successfully fielded in a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory free-space optics experiment. All measurements and performance parameters are derived from measurements made on actual hardware that was built and field tested. In some cases, specific design details have been omitted that involve proprietary information pertaining to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory patent positions and claims. These omissions in no way impact the general validity of the work or concepts presented in this thesis.

  17. Recent sea beam mapping of Ascension-Monterey Submarine Canyon System

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.G. )

    1990-06-01

    Extensive Sea Beam and Bathymetric Swatch Survey System (BS{sup 3}) data covering the Ascension-Monterey Submarine Canyon system and adjoining areas and canyons were collected offshore central California. Many discovered geomorphological features lead to significant new geologic conclusions about the formation and processes of submarine canyons in general and disclose unique sedimentary and tectonic features of the Ascension-Monterey Canyon system. The highly detailed bathymetric maps constructed from the Sea Beam data indicate that the seafloor topographic pattern is influenced by sedimentary and tectonic processes; both remain active along the central California margin. Interpretations of MOAA composite maps, final raw Sea Beam bathymetric maps, and three-dimensional physiographic renditions from bathymetric data indicate a diverse and complex geomorphology for the Ascension-Monterey Submarine Canyon system and adjoining region. Five distinct geomorphologic provinces and four well-defined geographic areas are mapped. Canyons cut by faults and canyon walls actively undergoing mass wasting are prominently displayed in the Sea Beam data. Sedimentary processes illustrating canyon channel capture and the formation of extensive mega-sedimentary wave fields where the canyons debouch onto the abyssal plain are spectacularly well defined. This new tool of seafloor mapping is contributing significant data for the geological interpretation of continental margins and seafloor in the world's oceans.

  18. Systems analysis on laser beamed power. Final Report, 5 May-30 October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiders, G.W. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    The NASA SELENE power beaming program is intended to supply cost-effective power to space assets via Earth-based lasers and active optics systems. Key elements of the program are analyzed, the overall effort is reviewed, and recommendations are presented.

  19. Advances in the operation of the DIII-D neutral beam computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.C.; Busath, J.L.; Penaflor, B.G.; Piglowski, D.; Kellman, D.H.; Chiu, H.K.; Hong, R.M.

    1998-02-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam system routinely provides up to 20 MW of deuterium neutral beam heating in support of experiments on the DIII-D tokamak, and is a critical part of the DIII-D physics experimental program. The four computer systems previously used to control neutral beam operation and data acquisition were designed and implemented in the late 1970`s and used on DIII and DIII-D from 1981--1996. By comparison to modern standards, they had become expensive to maintain, slow and cumbersome, making it difficult to implement improvements. Most critical of all, they were not networked computers. During the 1997 experimental campaign, these systems were replaced with new Unix compliant hardware and, for the most part, commercially available software. This paper describes operational experience with the new neutral beam computer systems, and new advances made possible by using features not previously available. These include retention and access to historical data, an asynchronously fired ``rules`` base, and a relatively straightforward programming interface. Methods and principles for extending the availability of data beyond the scope of the operator consoles will be discussed.

  20. Exposure uniformity analysis and optimization for scanning mirror system in Hefei lithography beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Congliang; Yin, Chuanshi; Liu, Tonghui; Zhong, Aijuan; Qian, Shinan

    2001-10-01

    It is a new technology to use synchrotron radiation lithography for making large scale integral circuit. Synchrotron radiation lithography System is composed of lithography beam line and exposure chamber. A scanning mirror system is making the largest linear exposure area for integrate circuit. By means of increasing control fineness and optimizing scanning frequency in on-line control system, the uniformity of exposure grating is improved quite well. It is opening good idea for every scientist and technician to continue study. It is shown that inspect and control system is still reliable, noise reduced and very convenient after several years operation. It shows operating status of each equipment and vacuum figures on beam line and station, mirror scanning linearity, exposure time, beam current, and so on. Some successful soft X-ray lithography sub-micrometer results are achieved by different users in this system, they are showing very good resolution, more clear leakage and enough depth for example. A convenient and smart optimum analysis system will be developed soon. It is easy to find very good oscillation frequency for mirror vibrating, and the strong interference from current monitor in synchrotron radiation storage ring is reduced very well. Convenient, compact, reliability and safety are the basic but important idea of system design, and what is higher level consideration for getting fine result of micro lithography. There will have enough database space for a different kind user to storage on- line test datum in system.

  1. Comparative study of a low-Z cone-beam computed tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Hansen, V. N.; Thompson, M. G.; Poludniowski, G.; Niven, A.; Seco, J.; Evans, P. M.

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography images have been acquired using an experimental (low atomic number (Z) insert) megavoltage cone-beam imaging system. These images have been compared with standard megavoltage and kilovoltage imaging systems. The experimental system requires a simple modification to the 4 MeV electron beam from an Elekta Precise linac. Low-energy photons are produced in the standard medium-Z electron window and a low-Z carbon electron absorber located after the window. The carbon electron absorber produces photons as well as ensuring that all remaining electrons from the source are removed. A detector sensitive to diagnostic x-ray energies is also employed. Quantitative assessment of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) contrast shows that the low-Z imaging system is an order of magnitude or more superior to a standard 6 MV imaging system. CBCT data with the same contrast-to-noise ratio as a kilovoltage imaging system (0.15 cGy) can be obtained in doses of 11 and 244 cGy for the experimental and standard 6 MV systems, respectively. Whilst these doses are high for everyday imaging, qualitative images indicate that kilovoltage like images suitable for patient positioning can be acquired in radiation doses of 1-8 cGy with the experimental low-Z system.

  2. Kinoform/lens system for injecting a high power laser beam into an optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, W.C.; Farn, M.W.

    1993-11-01

    A method for injecting a high peak power multimode YAG laser beam into an optical fiber has been developed. The design minimizes the peak irradiance on the fiber`s entrance face and reduces its dependence on the laser`s mode structure and the system alignment. A simple lens and a specially designed kinoform (or binary optics element) operate together to transform a 5 mm diameter laser beam into two concentric ring foci that fit on the 400 {mu}m diameter fiber face.

  3. System and method for sonic wave measurements using an acoustic beam source

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2015-08-11

    A method and system for investigating structure near a borehole are described herein. The method includes generating an acoustic beam by an acoustic source; directing at one or more azimuthal angles the acoustic beam towards a selected location in a vicinity of a borehole; receiving at one or more receivers an acoustic signal, the acoustic signal originating from a reflection or a refraction of the acoustic wave by a material at the selected location; and analyzing the received acoustic signal to characterize features of the material around the borehole.

  4. Fuzzy logic based feedback control system for laser beam pointing stabilization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjeet; Patel, Kiran; Govindarajan, J; Kumar, Ajai

    2010-09-20

    This paper reports a fuzzy logic based feedback control system for beam pointing stabilization of a high-power nanosecond Nd:YAG laser operating at 30 Hz. This is achieved by generating the correcting signal for each consequent pulse from the error in the pointing position of the previous laser pulse. We have successfully achieved a reduction of beam position fluctuation from ±60 to ±5.0 μrad without the focusing optics and ±0.9 μrad with focusing optics. PMID:20856289

  5. The DextroBeam: a stereoscopic presentation system for volumetric medical data.

    PubMed

    Serra, Luis; Kockro, Ralf; Goh, Lin Chia; Ng, Hem; Lee, Eugene Chee Keong

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an interaction system called the DextroBeam designed for manipulating objects in 3D space while looking at a 3D stereoscopic display located in front of the user. Three-dimensional interaction is two-handed and is achieved by means of a stylus with a single button or switch. We have been planning several neurosurgical cases with the DextroBeam, including the separation of Nepalese Siamese twins in April 2001, and have conducted a course on surgery of the Temporal Bone (as part of the 9th ASEAN ORL Head and Neck Congress in Singapore, March 2001). PMID:15458136

  6. CONTROL OF THE INJECTED RF BEAM IN THE DIII-D ECH SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    K. KAJIWARA; C.B. BAXI; J.L. DOANE; R.E. ELLIS; M.E. FRIEND; M. GREEN; Y.A. GORELOV; J. LOHR; C.P. MOELLER; R.I. PINSKER; D. PONCE; R. PRATER

    2002-08-01

    The DIII-D ECH system includes three launcher assemblies each of which can accommodate the rf beams from two gyrotrons. The launchers use four different designs for the mirrors which focus and direct the beams into the tokamak. The designs use molybdenum brazed to graphite, thin Glidcop or variable thickness Glidcop. A fourth design with laminated Glidcop/stainless steel construction has been operated, but no thermal data are available. All the mirrors operate without active cooling. This paper presents preliminary analyses and measurements of the thermal performance of the three designs for which data have been obtained.

  7. An ultra-compact, high-throughput molecular beam epitaxy growth system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A. A.; Hesjedal, T.; Braun, W. E-mail: fischer@createc.de; Rembold, S.; Fischer, A. E-mail: fischer@createc.de; Gassler, G.

    2015-04-15

    We present a miniaturized molecular beam epitaxy (miniMBE) system with an outer diameter of 206 mm, optimized for flexible and high-throughput operation. The three-chamber system, used here for oxide growth, consists of a sample loading chamber, a storage chamber, and a growth chamber. The growth chamber is equipped with eight identical effusion cell ports with linear shutters, one larger port for either a multi-pocket electron beam evaporator or an oxygen plasma source, an integrated cryoshroud, retractable beam-flux monitor or quartz-crystal microbalance, reflection high energy electron diffraction, substrate manipulator, main shutter, and quadrupole mass spectrometer. The system can be combined with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) end stations on synchrotron and neutron beamlines, or equivalently with other complex surface analysis systems, including low-temperature scanning probe microscopy systems. Substrate handling is compatible with most UHV surface characterization systems, as the miniMBE can accommodate standard surface science sample holders. We introduce the design of the system, and its specific capabilities and operational parameters, and we demonstrate the epitaxial thin film growth of magnetoelectric Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on c-plane sapphire and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} on MgO (001)

  8. Beam width and transmitter power adaptive to tracking system performance for free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Arnon, S; Rotman, S; Kopeika, N S

    1997-08-20

    The basic free-space optical communication system includes at least two satellites. To communicate between them, the transmitter satellite must track the beacon of the receiver satellite and point the information optical beam in its direction. Optical tracking and pointing systems for free space suffer during tracking from high-amplitude vibration because of background radiation from interstellar objects such as the Sun, Moon, Earth, and stars in the tracking field of view or the mechanical impact from satellite internal and external sources. The vibrations of beam pointing increase the bit error rate and jam communication between the two satellites. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the satellite receiver beacon power. However, this solution requires increased power consumption and weight, both of which are disadvantageous in satellite development. Considering these facts, we derive a mathematical model of a communication system that adapts optimally the transmitter beam width and the transmitted power to the tracking system performance. Based on this model, we investigate the performance of a communication system with discrete element optical phased array transmitter telescope gain. An example for a practical communication system between a Low Earth Orbit Satellite and a Geostationary Earth Orbit Satellite is presented. From the results of this research it can be seen that a four-element adaptive transmitter telescope is sufficient to compensate for vibration amplitude doubling. The benefits of the proposed model are less required transmitter power and improved communication system performance. PMID:18259455

  9. An ultra-compact, high-throughput molecular beam epitaxy growth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. A.; Braun, W.; Gassler, G.; Rembold, S.; Fischer, A.; Hesjedal, T.

    2015-04-01

    We present a miniaturized molecular beam epitaxy (miniMBE) system with an outer diameter of 206 mm, optimized for flexible and high-throughput operation. The three-chamber system, used here for oxide growth, consists of a sample loading chamber, a storage chamber, and a growth chamber. The growth chamber is equipped with eight identical effusion cell ports with linear shutters, one larger port for either a multi-pocket electron beam evaporator or an oxygen plasma source, an integrated cryoshroud, retractable beam-flux monitor or quartz-crystal microbalance, reflection high energy electron diffraction, substrate manipulator, main shutter, and quadrupole mass spectrometer. The system can be combined with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) end stations on synchrotron and neutron beamlines, or equivalently with other complex surface analysis systems, including low-temperature scanning probe microscopy systems. Substrate handling is compatible with most UHV surface characterization systems, as the miniMBE can accommodate standard surface science sample holders. We introduce the design of the system, and its specific capabilities and operational parameters, and we demonstrate the epitaxial thin film growth of magnetoelectric Cr2O3 on c-plane sapphire and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 on MgO (001).

  10. First-order approximation error analysis of Risley-prism-based beam directing system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Yuan, Yan

    2014-12-01

    To improve the performance of a Risley-prism system for optical detection and measuring applications, it is necessary to be able to determine the direction of the outgoing beam with high accuracy. In previous works, error sources and their impact on the performance of the Risley-prism system have been analyzed, but their numerical approximation accuracy was not high. Besides, pointing error analysis of the Risley-prism system has provided results for the case when the component errors, prism orientation errors, and assembly errors are certain. In this work, the prototype of a Risley-prism system was designed. The first-order approximations of the error analysis were derived and compared with the exact results. The directing errors of a Risley-prism system associated with wedge-angle errors, prism mounting errors, and bearing assembly errors were analyzed based on the exact formula and the first-order approximation. The comparisons indicated that our first-order approximation is accurate. In addition, the combined errors produced by the wedge-angle errors and mounting errors of the two prisms together were derived and in both cases were proved to be the sum of errors caused by the first and the second prism separately. Based on these results, the system error of our prototype was estimated. The derived formulas can be implemented to evaluate beam directing errors of any Risley-prism beam directing system with a similar configuration. PMID:25607958

  11. Performance of the beam position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Ronald G.; Smith, Stephen R.; Aiello, G. Roberto

    1998-12-10

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system for the SLAC PEP-II B Factory was designed to measure the positions of single-bunch single-turn to multibunch multi-turn beams in both rings of the facility. Each BPM is based on four button-style pickups. At most locations the buttons are connected to provide single-axis information (x only or y only). Operating at a harmonic (952 MHz) of the bunch spacing, the BPM system combines broadband and narrowband capabilities and provides data at a high rate. The active electronics system is multiplexed for signals from the high-energy ring (HER) and low-energy ring (LER). The system will be briefly described; however, the main purpose of the present paper is to present operational results. The BPM system operated successfully during commissioning of the HER (primarily) and the LER over the past year. Results to be presented include on-line calibration, single-bunch single-turn resolution (<100 {mu}m), and multibunch multi-turn resolution (<3 {mu}m), multiplexing, and absolute calibration. Thus far, the system has met or exceeded all the requirements that have been tested. The remaining requirements will be tested when both rings are completed and commissioned this summer. In addition, typical results of beam physics studies relying on the BPM system will be presented.

  12. Performance of the beam position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II {ital B} factory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.G.; Smith, S.R.; Aiello, G.R.

    1998-12-01

    The beam position monitor (BPM) system for the SLAC PEP-II {ital B} Factory was designed to measure the positions of single-bunch single-turn to multibunch multi-turn beams in both rings of the facility. Each BPM is based on four button-style pickups. At most locations the buttons are connected to provide single-axis information ({ital x} only or {ital y} only). Operating at a harmonic (952 MHz) of the bunch spacing, the BPM system combines broadband and narrowband capabilities and provides data at a high rate. The active electronics system is multiplexed for signals from the high-energy ring (HER) and low-energy ring (LER). The system will be briefly described; however, the main purpose of the present paper is to present operational results. The BPM system operated successfully during commissioning of the HER (primarily) and the LER over the past year. Results to be presented include on-line calibration, single-bunch single-turn resolution ({lt}100 {mu}m), and multibunch multi-turn resolution ({lt}3 {mu}m), multiplexing, and absolute calibration. Thus far, the system has met or exceeded all the requirements that have been tested. The remaining requirements will be tested when both rings are completed and commissioned this summer. In addition, typical results of beam physics studies relying on the BPM system will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Compact 36 kJ electron beam system for laser pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Schlitt, L.G.

    1981-05-31

    An electron beam machine consisting of six modules is being constructed for the 'B' amplifier of the RAPIER KrF laser system. Each module consists of a diode, a 5 ..cap omega.. positive charged water dielectric Blumlein pulse-forming line, and a five stage Marx generator. Separate 25 cm x 41 cm electron beams are formed in magnetically isolated diodes which when arranged in groups of three produce two nearly continuous 25 cm x 125 cm beams that enter the laser cell from opposite sides. The pulse-forming lines operate at 450 keV and produce 150 ns long pulses. The lines employ electrically triggered annular SF/sub 6/ output switches. The two concentric transmission lines of each pulse-forming line are charged in 1 ..mu..s through symmetric circuits to reduce diode prepulse voltage. The six modules together with the laser cell will occupy less than 15 m/sup 2/ of floor space.

  14. Beam shaping system based on a prism array for improving the throughput of a dispersive spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhendong; Fang, Liang; Fan, Bin; Zhou, Chongxi

    2015-04-01

    A beam shaping system (BSS) for improving the throughput of a dispersive spectrometer is presented by employing two anamorphic lenses and a prism array to segment the beam. The BSS was designed based on the inverse method of beam shaping for laser diode bars and the means of an optical slicer. In an experiment, a BSS was set up so that the incident light of a neon lamp with a circular spot from an input fiber was transformed into an elliptical spot coupled into a slit of a spectrometer without a change of divergence. Spectral measurement results demonstrate that the throughput of the dispersive spectrometer was doubled without loss of spectral resolution. The BSS can be combined with the existing dispersive spectrometer to improve the luminous flux and signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:25967181

  15. Self-generated magnetic dipoles in weakly magnetized beam-plasma system.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qing; Mima, Kunioki; Cai, Hong-bo; Taguchi, Toshihiro; Nagatomo, Hideo; He, X T

    2015-02-01

    A self-generation mechanism of magnetic dipoles and the anomalous energy dissipation of fast electrons in a magnetized beam-plasma system are presented. Based on two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, it is found that the magnetic dipoles are self-organized and play important roles in the beam electron energy dissipation. These dipoles drift slowly in the direction of the return flow with a quasisteady velocity, which depends upon the magnetic amplitude of the dipole and the imposed external magnetic field. This dipole formation provides a mechanism for the anomalous energy dissipation of a relativistic electron beam, which would play an important role in collisionless shock and ion shock acceleration. PMID:25768618

  16. Pierce-Wiggler electron beam system for 250 GHz GYRO-BWO: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkle, D.R.; Alford, C.W.; Anderson, M.H.; Garcia, R.F.; Legarra, J.R.; Nordquist, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    This final report summarizes the design and performance of the VUW-8028 Pierce-Wiggler electron beam systems, which can be used to power high frequency gyro-BWO's. The operator's manual for this gyro-BWO beamstick is included as appendix A. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing a gyro-BWO with a center frequency of 250 GHz, 6% bandwidth, and 10 kV peak output power. The gyro-BWO will be used to drive a free electron laser amplifier at LLNL. The electron beam requirements of the gyro-BWO application are: Small beam size, .100 inch at 2500 gauss axial magnetic field; a large fraction of the electron energy in rotational velocity; ability to vary the electrons' axial velocity easily, for electronic tuning; and low velocity spread i.e. little variation in the axial velocities of the electrons in the interaction region. 1 ref., 13 figs.

  17. Development of a fast scintillator based beam phase measurement system for compact superconducting cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, Tanushyam; Kanti Dey, Malay; Dhara, Partha; Roy, Suvodeep; Debnath, Jayanta; Balakrishna Bhole, Rajendra; Dutta, Atanu; Pradhan, Jedidiah; Pal, Sarbajit; Pal, Gautam; Roy, Amitava; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2013-05-15

    In an isochronous cyclotron, measurements of central phase of the ion beam with respect to rf and the phase width provide a way to tune the cyclotron for maximum energy gain per turn and efficient extraction. We report here the development of a phase measurement system and the measurements carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre's (VECC's) K= 500 superconducting cyclotron. The technique comprises detecting prompt {gamma}-rays resulting from the interaction of cyclotron ion beam with an aluminium target mounted on a radial probe in coincidence with cyclotron rf. An assembly comprising a fast scintillator and a liquid light-guide inserted inside the cyclotron was used to detect the {gamma}-rays and to transfer the light signal outside the cyclotron where a matching photo-multiplier tube was used for light to electrical signal conversion. The typical beam intensity for this measurement was a few times 10{sup 11} pps.

  18. Low energy nuclear reactions with RIBRAS, Radioactive Ion Beam in Brasil, system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, V.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; de Faria, P. N.; Barioni, A.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Mendes, D. R.; Zamora, J. C.; Morais, M. C.; Condori, R. P.; Benjamim, E. A.; Monteiro, D. S.; Crema, E.; Moro, A. M.; Lubian, J.

    2011-09-01

    RIBRAS, Radioactive Ion beam in Brasil, is a system based on superconducting solenoids which can produce low energy RNB (Radioactive Nuclear Beams) at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Secondary radioactive beams of light particles such as 6He, 7Be and 8Li have been produced and low energy elastic scattering and transfer reaction experiments have been performed. The recent scientific program using this facility includes elastic scattering and transfer reactions of 6He halo nucleus on 9Be, 27Al, 51V and 120Sn targets and 8Li on 9Be, 12C and 51V targets. The total reaction cross section as a function of energy has been extracted from the elastic scattering data and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed. Also spectroscopic factors have been obtained from the transfer reactions.

  19. An adaptive noise cancelling system used for beam control at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Himel, T.; Allison, S.; Grossberg, P.; Hendrickson, L.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1993-06-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider now has a total of twenty-four beam-steering feedback loops used to keep the electron and positron beams on their desired trajectories. Seven of these loops measure and control the same beam as it proceeds down the linac through the arcs to the final focus. Ideally by each loop should correct only for disturbances that occur between it and the immediate upstream loop. In fact, in the original system each loop corrected for all upstream disturbances. This resulted in undesirable over-correction and ringing. We added MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) adaptive noise cancellers to separate the signal we wish to correct from disturbances further upstream. This adaptive control improved performance in the 1992 run.

  20. Efficient time-slot assignment algorithms for SS/TDMA systems with variable-bandwidth beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalasani, Suresh; Varma, Anujan

    1994-02-01

    In this paper, we present efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for computation of time-slot assignments in SS/TDMA (satellite-switched /time-division multiple-access) systems with variable-bandwidth beams. These algorithms are based on modeling the time-slot assignment (TSA) problem as a network-flow problem. Our sequential algorithm, in general, has a better time-complexity than a previous algorithm due to Gopal, et al. and generates fewer switching matrices. If M (N) is the number of uplink (downlink) beams, L is the length of any optimal TSA, and alpha is the maximum bandwidth of an uplink or downlink beam, our sequential algorithm takes O ((M x N)(exp 3)) min(MN alpha, L) time to compute an optimal TSA when the traffic-handling capacity of the satellite is of the same order as the total bandwidth of the links.

  1. Fundamentals and applications of a plasma-processing system based on electron-beam ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S. G.; Fernsler, R. F.

    2007-05-15

    Plasmas generated from moderate energy (2-5 keV) electron beams (e-beam) have unique, attractive characteristics that are ideal for materials processing applications. These plasmas possess low electron temperatures (<0.5 eV), variable plasma densities (10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}) with an improved control of plasma species generation, and perhaps most importantly, a direct scalability to processing areas exceeding one square meter. These characteristics are due to the plasma ionization being driven by the e-beam instead of an external electromagnetic field as used in conventional processing plasma sources. Theoretical and experimental system details are discussed in terms of plasma operating conditions applied to three different surface modification approaches: metal nitriding, negative ion etching, and polymer surface energy tailoring.

  2. NA61/SHINE facility at the CERN SPS: beams and detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abgrall, N.; Andreeva, O.; Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Baatar, B.; Bay, F.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bogusz, M.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bunyatov, S. A.; Christakoglou, P.; Cirkovic, M.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Dembinski, H.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Ereditato, A.; Fabich, A.; Feofilov, G. A.; Fodor, Z.; Fulop, A.; Gaździcki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Jokovic, D.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kielczewska, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V. P.; Korzenev, A.; Koversarski, P.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V. V.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A. I.; Maletic, D.; Manglunki, D.; Manic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H.-J.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G. L.; Messina, M.; Mrówczyński, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Pistillo, C.; Płaneta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B. A.; Posiadala, M.; Puławski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Redij, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczyński, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Schmidt, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, R.; Skrzypczak, E.; Słodkowski, M.; Sosin, Z.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V. V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Wilczek, A.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarz, A.; Wyszyński, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.

    2014-06-01

    NA61/SHINE (SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) is a multi-purpose experimental facility to study hadron production in hadron-proton, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. It recorded the first physics data with hadron beams in 2009 and with ion beams (secondary 7Be beams) in 2011. NA61/SHINE has greatly profited from the long development of the CERN proton and ion sources and the accelerator chain as well as the H2 beamline of the CERN North Area. The latter has recently been modified to also serve as a fragment separator as needed to produce the Be beams for NA61/SHINE. Numerous components of the NA61/SHINE set-up were inherited from its predecessors, in particular, the last one, the NA49 experiment. Important new detectors and upgrades of the legacy equipment were introduced by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration. This paper describes the state of the NA61/SHINE facility — the beams and the detector system — before the CERN Long Shutdown I, which started in March 2013.

  3. Highly compact imaging using Bessel beams generated by ultraminiaturized multi-micro-axicon systems.

    PubMed

    Weber, Niklas; Spether, Dominik; Seifert, Andreas; Zappe, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Employing Bessel beams in imaging takes advantage of their self-reconstructing properties to achieve small focal points while maintaining a large depth of focus. Bessel beams are efficiently generated using axicons, and their utility in scanning imaging systems, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), has been demonstrated. As these systems are miniaturized to allow, for example, endoscopic implementations, micro-axicons are required to assure the maintenance of a large depth of focus. We demonstrate here the design, fabrication, and application of molded micro-axicons for use in silicon-based micro-optical benches. It is shown that arrangements of multiple convex and concave axicons may be implemented to optimize the depth of focus in a miniaturized OCT system, using a telescopic optical arrangement of considerably shorter optical system length than that achievable with classical micro-optics. PMID:22561940

  4. Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Jumpei; Matsuyama, Satoshi Sano, Yasuhisa; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2015-09-15

    We developed an ion beam figuring system that utilizes electrostatic deflection. The system can produce an arbitrary shape by deterministically scanning the ion beam. The scan of the ion beam, which can be precisely controlled using only an electrical signal, enables us to avoid degradation of the mirror shape caused by imperfect acceleration or deceleration of a mechanically scanning stage. Additionally, this surface figuring method can easily be combined with X-ray metrology because the workpiece remains fixed during the figuring. We evaluated the figuring accuracy of the system by fabricating a plano-elliptical mirror for X-ray focusing. A mirror with a shape error of 1.4 nm root mean square (RMS) with a maximum removal depth of 992 nm, which corresponds to figuring accuracy of 0.14% RMS, was achieved. After the second shape corrections, an elliptical shape with a shape error of approximately 1 nm peak-to-valley, 0.48 nm RMS could be fabricated. Then, the mirror surface was smoothed by a low-energy ion beam. Consequently, a micro-roughness of 0.117 nm RMS, measured by atomic force microscopy, was achieved over an area of 1 × 1 μm{sup 2}.

  5. Development of ion beam figuring system with electrostatic deflection for ultraprecise X-ray reflective optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Jumpei; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2015-09-01

    We developed an ion beam figuring system that utilizes electrostatic deflection. The system can produce an arbitrary shape by deterministically scanning the ion beam. The scan of the ion beam, which can be precisely controlled using only an electrical signal, enables us to avoid degradation of the mirror shape caused by imperfect acceleration or deceleration of a mechanically scanning stage. Additionally, this surface figuring method can easily be combined with X-ray metrology because the workpiece remains fixed during the figuring. We evaluated the figuring accuracy of the system by fabricating a plano-elliptical mirror for X-ray focusing. A mirror with a shape error of 1.4 nm root mean square (RMS) with a maximum removal depth of 992 nm, which corresponds to figuring accuracy of 0.14% RMS, was achieved. After the second shape corrections, an elliptical shape with a shape error of approximately 1 nm peak-to-valley, 0.48 nm RMS could be fabricated. Then, the mirror surface was smoothed by a low-energy ion beam. Consequently, a micro-roughness of 0.117 nm RMS, measured by atomic force microscopy, was achieved over an area of 1 × 1 μm2.

  6. Scintillator-CCD camera system light output response to dosimetry parameters for proton beam range measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daftari, Inder K.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Essert, Timothy; Phillips, Theodore L.; Mishra, Kavita K.

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the luminescence light output response in a plastic scintillator irradiated by a 67.5 MeV proton beam using various dosimetry parameters. The relationship of the visible scintillator light with the beam current or dose rate, aperture size and the thickness of water in the water-column was studied. The images captured on a CCD camera system were used to determine optimal dosimetry parameters for measuring the range of a clinical proton beam. The method was developed as a simple quality assurance tool to measure the range of the proton beam and compare it to (a) measurements using two segmented ionization chambers and water column between them, and (b) with an ionization chamber (IC-18) measurements in water. We used a block of plastic scintillator that measured 5×5×5 cm3 to record visible light generated by a 67.5 MeV proton beam. A high-definition digital video camera Moticam 2300 connected to a PC via USB 2.0 communication channel was used to record images of scintillation luminescence. The brightness of the visible light was measured while changing beam current and aperture size. The results were analyzed to obtain the range and were compared with the Bragg peak measurements with an ionization chamber. The luminescence light from the scintillator increased linearly with the increase of proton beam current. The light output also increased linearly with aperture size. The relationship between the proton range in the scintillator and the thickness of the water column showed good linearity with a precision of 0.33 mm (SD) in proton range measurement. For the 67.5 MeV proton beam utilized, the optimal parameters for scintillator light output response were found to be 15 nA (16 Gy/min) and an aperture size of 15 mm with image integration time of 100 ms. The Bragg peak depth brightness distribution was compared with the depth dose distribution from ionization chamber measurements and good agreement was observed. The peak

  7. AGS SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM FACILITY ACCELERATOR AND TARGET SYSTEM DESIGN (NEUTRINO WORKING GROUP REPORT-II).

    SciTech Connect

    DIWAN,M.; MARCIANO,W.; WENG,W.; RAPARIA,D.

    2003-04-21

    This document describes the design of the accelerator and target systems for the AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility. Under the direction of the Associate Laboratory Director Tom Kirk, BNL has established a Neutrino Working Group to explore the scientific case and facility requirements for a very long baseline neutrino experiment. Results of a study of the physics merit and detector performance was published in BNL-69395 in October 2002, where it was shown that a wide-band neutrino beam generated by a 1 MW proton beam from the AGS, coupled with a half megaton water Cerenkov detector located deep underground in the former Homestake mine in South Dakota would be able to measure the complete set of neutrino oscillation parameters: (1) precise determination of the oscillation parameters {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 32}; (2) detection of the oscillation of {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}{sub e} and measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13}; (3) measurement of {Delta}m{sub 21}{sup 2} sin 2{theta}{sub 12} in a {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} appearance mode, independent of the value of {theta}{sub 13}; (4) verification of matter enhancement and the sign of {Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}; and (5) determination of the CP-violation parameter {delta}{sub CP} in the neutrino sector. This report details the performance requirements and conceptual design of the accelerator and the target systems for the production of a neutrino beam by a 1.0 MW proton beam from the AGS. The major components of this facility include a new 1.2 GeV superconducting linac, ramping the AGS at 2.5 Hz, and the new target station for 1.0 MW beam. It also calls for moderate increase, about 30%, of the AGS intensity per pulse. Special care is taken to account for all sources of proton beam loss plus shielding and collimation of stray beam halo particles to ensure equipment reliability and personal safety. A preliminary cost estimate and schedule for the accelerator upgrade and target system are also

  8. HRMS sky survey wideband feed system design for DSS 24 beam waveguide antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P. H.; Lee, P. R.; Reilly, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    The High-Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Sky Survey project will be implemented on the DSS 24 beam waveguide (BWG) antenna over the frequency range of 2.86 to 10 GHz. Two wideband, ring-loaded, corrugated feed horns were designed to cover this range. The horns match the frequency-dependent gain requirements for the DSS 24 BWG system. The performance of the feed horns and the calculated system performance of DSS 24 are presented.

  9. A microwave tomography system using a tunable mirror for beam steering

    SciTech Connect

    Tayebi, A.; Tang, J.; Paladhi, P. Roy; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S.

    2014-02-18

    Microwave tomography is a fast-growing technique in the fields of NDE and medical industry. This paper presents a new microwave tomography system which reduces the complexities of conventional microwave imaging systems by utilizing a reconfigurable mirror, a tunable reflectarray antenna. In order to build a tunable reflectarray with beam steering capabilities, the unit cell characteristics should dynamically alter. Modelling and experimental results of a single unit cell are presented in this work.

  10. Characterization of the ELIMED Permanent Magnets Quadrupole system prototype with laser-driven proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Costa, M.; Giove, D.; Maggiore, M.; Russo, A. D.; Scuderi, V.; Malka, V.; Vauzour, B.; Flacco, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Laser-based accelerators are gaining interest in recent years as an alternative to conventional machines [1]. In the actual ion acceleration scheme, energy and angular spread of the laser-driven beams are the main limiting factors for beam applications and different solutions for dedicated beam-transport lines have been proposed [2,3]. In this context a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) has been realized [2] by INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) researchers, in collaboration with SIGMAPHI company in France, to be used as a collection and pre-selection system for laser driven proton beams. This system is meant to be a prototype to a more performing one [3] to be installed at ELI-Beamlines for the collection of ions. The final system is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u. In order to validate the design and the performances of this large bore, compact, high gradient magnetic system prototype an experimental campaign have been carried out, in collaboration with the group of the SAPHIR experimental facility at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. During this campaign a deep study of the quadrupole system optics has been performed, comparing the results with the simulation codes used to determine the setup of the PMQ system and to track protons with realistic TNSA-like divergence and spectrum. Experimental and simulation results are good agreement, demonstrating the possibility to have a good control on the magnet optics. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here.

  11. A Study of Laser System Requirements for Application in Beam Diagnostics And Polarimetry at the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S.; Delerue, N.; Foster, B.; Howell, D.F.; Peach, K.; Quelch, G.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; Hirst, G.; Ross, I.; Urakawa, J.; Soskov, V.; Variola, A.; Zomer, F.; Blair, G.A.; Boogert, S.T.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; Brachmann, A.; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    Advanced laser systems will be essential for a range of diagnostics devices and polarimetry at the ILC. High average power, high beam quality, excellent stability and reliability will be crucial in order to deliver the information required to attain the necessary ILC luminosity as well as for efficient polarimetry. The key parameters are listed together with the R & D required to achieve the necessary laser system performance.

  12. EB Stepper-A High Throughput Electron-Beam Projection Lithography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi

    2000-12-01

    The development program of an electron-beam (EB) stepper is under way based on the results of proof of the concept system. Very careful system consideration has been made, because some critical issues have not yet been proven. However, they could be well managed by implementing a new methodology that is introduced by examining each issue from the viewpoint of the basic electron optics principle. In this paper, the practicability and extendability of an EB stepper are discussed and overviewed.

  13. Design of Control Server Application Software for Neutral Beam Injection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qilin; Hu, Chundong; Sheng, Peng; Song, Shihua

    2012-04-01

    For the remote control of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system, a software NBIcsw is developed to work on the control server. It can meet the requirements of data transmission and operation-control between the NBI measurement and control layer (MCL) and the remote monitoring layer (RML). The NBIcsw runs on a Linux system, developed with client/server (C/S) mode and multithreading technology. It is shown through application that the software is with good efficiency.

  14. Virtual alignment of x-ray cone-beam tomography system using two calibration aperture measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronnikov, Andrei V.

    1999-02-01

    In cone-beam tomography, relatively small misalignment of the imaging system is geometrically magnified and may cause severe distortion of the reconstructed image. We describe a method for alignment of a cone-beam tomography system built on an x-ray microfocus tube, an image intensifier, and a high-resolution CCD camera. To obtain geometrical parameters of system misalignment, we suggest measuring two 180-deg- opposed cone-beam radiographs of a specially manufactured calibration aperture. An advantage of the aperture over other calibration objects is that we can easily restore its idealized picture by applying a certain threshold to the measured data. The method permits the lateral displacement vector and lateral tilt angle to be accurately found. Unlike other alignment methods, our approach enables virtual system alignment by using mathematical processing of the measured data, rather than moving the parts of the system. The virtually aligned system data are used for 3D image reconstruction by a standard filtered backprojection algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate considerable improvement of the image quality after applying the alignment method suggested.

  15. A configurable electronics system for the ESS-Bilbao beam position monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguira, L.; Belver, D.; Etxebarria, V.; Varnasseri, S.; Arredondo, I.; del Campo, M.; Echevarria, P.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J.; Jugo, J.; Portilla, J.

    2013-09-01

    A versatile and configurable system has been developed in order to monitorize the beam position and to meet all the requirements of the future ESS-Bilbao Linac. At the same time the design has been conceived to be open and configurable so that it could eventually be used in different kinds of accelerators, independent of the charged particle, with minimal change. The design of the Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) system includes a test bench both for button-type pick-ups (PU) and striplines (SL), the electronic units and the control system. The electronic units consist of two main parts. The first part is an Analog Front-End (AFE) unit where the RF signals are filtered, conditioned and converted to base-band. The second part is a Digital Front-End (DFE) unit which is based on an FPGA board where the base-band signals are sampled in order to calculate the beam position, the amplitude and the phase. To manage the system a Multipurpose Controller (MC) developed at ESSB has been used. It includes the FPGA management, the EPICS integration and Archiver Instances. A description of the system and a comparison between the performance of both PU and SL BPM designs measured with this electronics system are fully described and discussed.

  16. Beam transport experiment with a new kicker control system on the HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Yu; Zhou, De-Tai; Luo, Jin-Fu; Zhang, Jian-Chuan; Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Ni, Fa-Fu; Yin, Jun; Yin, Jia; Yuan, You-Jin; Shang-Guan, Jing-Bin

    2016-04-01

    A kicker control system is used for beam extraction and injection between two cooling storage rings (CSRs) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To meet the requirements of special physics experiments, the kicker controller has been upgraded, with a new controller designed based on ARM+DSP+FPGA technology and monolithic circuit architecture, which can achieve a precision time delay of 2.5 ns. In September 2014, the new kicker control system was installed in the kicker field, and the test experiment using the system was completed. In addition, a pre-trigger signal was provided by the controller, which was designed to synchronize the beam diagnostic system and physics experiments. Experimental results indicate that the phenomena of “missed kick” and “inefficient kick” were not observed, and the multichannel trigger signal delay could be adjusted individually for kick power supplies in digitization; thus, the beam transport efficiency was improved compared with that of the original system. The fast extraction and injection experiment was successfully completed based on the new kicker control systems for HIRFL. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232123)

  17. A System for Measuring Defect Induced Beam Modulation on Inertial Confinement Fusion-class Laser Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Runkel, M; Hawley-Fedder, R; Widmayer, C; Williams, W; Weinzapfel, C; Roberts, D

    2005-10-18

    A multi-wavelength laser based system has been constructed to measure defect induced beam modulation (diffraction) from ICF class laser optics. The Nd:YLF-based modulation measurement system (MMS) uses simple beam collimation and imaging to capture diffraction patterns from optical defects onto an 8-bit digital camera at 1053, 527 and 351 nm. The imaging system has a field of view of 4.5 x 2.8 mm{sup 2} and is capable of imaging any plane from 0 to 30 cm downstream from the defect. The system is calibrated using a 477 micron chromium dot on glass for which the downstream diffraction patterns were calculated numerically. Under nominal conditions the system can measure maximum peak modulations of approximately 7:1. An image division algorithm is used to calculate the peak modulation from the diffracted and empty field images after the baseline residual light background is subtracted from both. The peak modulation can then be plotted versus downstream position. The system includes a stage capable of holding optics up to 50 pounds with x and y translation of 40 cm and has been used to measure beam modulation due to solgel coating defects, surface digs on KDP crystals, lenslets in bulk fused silica and laser damage sites mitigated with CO{sub 2} lasers.

  18. A system for measuring defect induced beam modulation on inertial confinement fusion-class laser optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkel, Mike; Hawley-Fedder, Ruth; Widmayer, Clay; Williams, Wade; Weinzapfel, Carolyn; Roberts, Dave

    2005-12-01

    A multi-wavelength laser based system has been constructed to measure defect induced beam modulation (diffraction) from ICF class laser optics. The Nd:YLF-based modulation measurement system (MMS) uses simple beam collimation and imaging to capture diffraction patterns from optical defects onto an 8-bit digital camera at 1053, 527 and 351 nm. The imaging system has a field of view of 4.5 x 2.8 mm2 and is capable of imaging any plane from 0 to 30 cm downstream from the defect. The system is calibrated using a 477 micron chromium dot on glass for which the downstream diffraction patterns were calculated numerically. Under nominal conditions the system can measure maximum peak modulations of approximately 7:1. An image division algorithm is used to calculate the peak modulation from the diffracted and empty field images after the baseline residual light background is subtracted from both. The peak modulation can then be plotted versus downstream position. The system includes a stage capable of holding optics up to 50 pounds with x and y translation of 40 cm and has been used to measure beam modulation due to solgel coating defects, surface digs on KDP crystals, lenslets in bulk fused silica and laser damage sites mitigated with CO2 lasers.

  19. Advanced development of particle-beam-probe diagnostic systems. Technical progress report, 1 July 1980-30 April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Woo, J.T.; Connor, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    The heavy ion beam probe system on the RENTOR tokamak has been reinstalled with considerably improved performance. The heavy neutral beam probe system on the ALEX baseball facility has demonstrated the capability of measuring space potential in minimum-B geometry. A large amount of data were obtained from the highly successful TMX beam probe system and are presently being analyzed. Technological improvements were made on both the RENTOR and ALEX diagnostic systems, new ion sources and extraction configurations were investigated, and the superiority of off-line processing techniques for beam probe data has been demonstrated. The development of high energy probing beams for application to major confinement experiments has been initiated and cross-over sweep systems to improve spatial resolution, differential pumping, and reduce energy requirements have been designed.

  20. Telerobotic system concept for real-time soft-tissue imaging during radiotherapy beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dimitre

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: The curative potential of external beam radiation therapy is critically dependent on having the ability to accurately aim radiation beams at intended targets while avoiding surrounding healthy tissues. However, existing technologies are incapable of real-time, volumetric, soft-tissue imaging during radiation beam delivery, when accurate target tracking is most critical. The authors address this challenge in the development and evaluation of a novel, minimally interfering, telerobotic ultrasound (U.S.) imaging system that can be integrated with existing medical linear accelerators (LINACs) for therapy guidance. Methods: A customized human-safe robotic manipulator was designed and built to control the pressure and pitch of an abdominal U.S. transducer while avoiding LINAC gantry collisions. A haptic device was integrated to remotely control the robotic manipulator motion and U.S. image acquisition outside the LINAC room. The ability of the system to continuously maintain high quality prostate images was evaluated in volunteers over extended time periods. Treatment feasibility was assessed by comparing a clinically deployed prostate treatment plan to an alternative plan in which beam directions were restricted to sectors that did not interfere with the transabdominal U.S. transducer. To demonstrate imaging capability concurrent with delivery, robot performance and U.S. target tracking in a phantom were tested with a 15 MV radiation beam active. Results: Remote image acquisition and maintenance of image quality with the haptic interface was successfully demonstrated over 10 min periods in representative treatment setups of volunteers. Furthermore, the robot's ability to maintain a constant probe force and desired pitch angle was unaffected by the LINAC beam. For a representative prostate patient, the dose-volume histogram (DVH) for a plan with restricted sectors remained virtually identical to the DVH of a clinically deployed plan. With reduced margins, as