Science.gov

Sample records for beam transfer lines

  1. Beam instrumentation for the BNL Heavy Ion Transfer Line

    SciTech Connect

    Witkover, R.L.; Buxton, W.; Castillo, V.; Feigenbaum, I.; Lazos, A.; Li, Z.G.; Smith, G.; Stoehr, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Transfer Line (HITL) was constructed to transport beams from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff (TVDG) to be injected into the AGS. Because the beam line is approximately 2000 feet long and the particle rigidity is so low, 20 beam monitor boxes were placed along the line. The intensity ranges from 1 to 100 nanoAmps for the dc trace beam used for line set-up, to over 100 ..mu..A for the pulsed beam to be injected into the AGS. Profiles are measured using multiwire arrays (HARPS) while Faraday cups and beam transformers monitor the intensity. The electronics stations are operated through 3 Instrumentation Controllers networked to Apollo workstations in the TVDG and AGS control rooms. Details of the detectors and electronics designs and performance will be given.

  2. Optics Studies of the LHC Beam Transfer Line TI8

    SciTech Connect

    J. Wenninger; G. Arduini; B. Goddard; D. Jacquet; V. Kain; M. Lamont; V. Mertens; J.A. Uythoven; Y.-C. Chao

    2005-05-16

    The optics of the newly commissioned LHC beam transfer line TI 8 was studied with beam trajectories, dispersion and profile measurements. Steering magnet response measurements were used to analyze the quality of the steering magnets and of the beam position monitors. A simultaneous fit of the quadrupole strengths was used to search for setting or calibration errors. Residual coupling between the planes was evaluated using high statistics samples of trajectories. Initial conditions for the optics at the entrance of the transfer line were reconstructed from beam profile measurements with Optical Transition Radiation monitors. The paper presents the various analysis methods and their errors. The expected emittance growth arising from optical mismatch into the LHC is evaluated.

  3. DESIGN OF BEAM TRANSFER LINES FOR THE NSLS II

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; ROSE, J.; PINAYEV, I.; SHAFTAN, T.; STELMACH, C.

    2007-06-25

    The NSLS-II light source which is a proposed facility to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory utilizes two synchrotron accelerator rings: the booster and the Storage ring (SR). Designing the NSLS-11 injector we considered two options for the booster layout, where the rings either (a) share the same tunnel, but placed at different horizontal planes or (b) booster is located in a separate building. The booster which accepts beam from the linac, accelerates the electron beam to an energy of 3.0 GeV and the beam is extracted to the Booster to Storage Ring (BtS) transport line which transports the beam and injects it into the SR ring. The design procedure for each of the two options of the BtS line and other details about the optics and the magnetic elements of the line are presented in this paper.

  4. Changes to the Transfer Line Collimation System for the High-Luminosity LHC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, V.; Aberle, O.; Bracco, C.; Fraser, M.; Galleazzi, F.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Maciariello, F.; Meddahi, M.; Nuiry, F. X.; Steele, G.; Velotti, F.

    2015-06-01

    The current LHC transfer line collimation system will not be able to provide enough protection for the high brightness beams in the high-luminosity LHC era. The new collimation system will have to attenuate more and be more robust than its predecessor. The active jaw length of the new transfer line collimators will therefore be 2.1 m instead of currently 1.2 m. The transfer line optics will have to be adjusted for the new collimator locations and larger beta functions at the collimators for absorber robustness reasons. In this paper the new design of the transfer line collimation system will be presented with its implications on transfer line optics and powering, maintainability, protection of transfer line magnets in case of beam loss on a collimator and protection of the LHC aperture.

  5. Machine Studies During Beam Commissioning of the SPS-to-LHC Transfer Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Meddahi, M.; Agapov, I.; Fuchsberger, K.; Goddard, B.; Herr, W.; Kain, V.; Mertens, V.; Missiaen, D.; Risselada, T.; Uythoven, J.; Wenninger, J.; /CERN /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    Through May to September 2008, further beam commissioning of the SPS-to-LHC transfer lines was performed. For the first time, optics and dispersion measurements were also taken in the last part of the lines, and into the LHC. Extensive trajectory and optics studies were conducted, in parallel with hardware checks. In particular dispersion measurements and their comparison with the beam line model were analysed in detail and led to propose the addition of a dispersion-free steering algorithm in the existing trajectory correction program. Its effectiveness was simulated and is briefly discussed.

  6. Beam position monitoring in the AGS Linac to Booster transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Brodowski, J.; Witkover, R.

    1991-12-31

    A beam position monitor system has been developed and used in the commissioning of Brookhaven`s Linac to Booster transfer line. This line transports a chopped, RF modulated H- beam from the 200 MeV Linac to the AGS Booster. Over a 15dB dynamic range in beam current, the position monitor system provides a real-time, normalized position signal with an analog bandwidth of about 20 MHz. Seven directional coupler style pickups are installed in the line with each pickup sensing both horizontal and vertical position. Analog processing electronics are located in the tunnel and incorporate the amplitude modulation to phase modulation normalization technique. To avoid interference from the 200 MHz linac RF system, processing is performed at 400 MHz. This paper will provide a system overview and report results from the commissioning experience.

  7. Beam position monitoring in the AGS Linac to Booster transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Brodowski, J.; Witkover, R.

    1991-01-01

    A beam position monitor system has been developed and used in the commissioning of Brookhaven's Linac to Booster transfer line. This line transports a chopped, RF modulated H- beam from the 200 MeV Linac to the AGS Booster. Over a 15dB dynamic range in beam current, the position monitor system provides a real-time, normalized position signal with an analog bandwidth of about 20 MHz. Seven directional coupler style pickups are installed in the line with each pickup sensing both horizontal and vertical position. Analog processing electronics are located in the tunnel and incorporate the amplitude modulation to phase modulation normalization technique. To avoid interference from the 200 MHz linac RF system, processing is performed at 400 MHz. This paper will provide a system overview and report results from the commissioning experience.

  8. UNIFORM BEAM DISTRIBUTIONS AT THE TARGET OF THE NSRL BEAM TRANSFER LINE

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; AHRENS, L.; BROWN, K. CHIANG, I-HUNG, GARDNER, C.J.; MACKAY, W.W.; PILE, P.; RUSEK, A.

    2007-06-25

    Uniform irradiation of biological or material samples with charged particle beams is desired by experimenters because it reduces radiation dose errors. In this paper we present results of uniform beams produced in the NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY (NSRL) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by a method which was developed theoretically and was proven experimentally at BNL. A similar method which requires collimation of the beam, and also lacks the flexibility of the present method to produce beam various beam sizes at the target, was patented in the year 1988. The present method of producing uniform beam distributions on a plane transverse to the direction of the beam, is based on purely magnetic focusing of the beam and requires no collimation of the beam or any other type of beam interaction with materials. It can also generate uniform beam distributions of various sizes. The method is favorably compared with alternative methods of producing uniform beam distributions and can be applied to the whole energy spectrum of the charged particle beams that are delivered by the BNL Booster synchrotron.

  9. RESULTS FROM THE COMMISSIONING OF THE NSRL BEAM TRANSFER LINE AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    TSOUPAS,N.; BELLAVIA,S.; BONATI,R.; ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    The NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY (NSRL) has been constructed and started operations at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2003. The NSRL facility will be used by NASA to perform radiation effect studies on materials and biological samples for the space program. The facility utilizes proton and heavy-ion beams of energies from 50 to 3000 MeVln which are accelerated by the AGS Booster synchrotron accelerator. To date, {sup 1}H, {sup 12}C, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 48}Ti, and {sup 197}Au ion beams of various magnetic rigidities have been extracted from the Booster, and transported by the NSRL beam transport line to the sample location which is located 100 m from the extraction point. The NSRL beam transport line has been designed to employ octupole magnetic elements which transform the normal (Gaussian) beam distribution at the location of the sample into a beam with rectangular cross section, and uniformly distributed over the sample. When using the octupole magnetic elements to obtain the uniform beam distribution on the sample, no beam-collimation is applied at any location along the NSRL beam transport line and the beam focusing on the sample is purely magnetic. The main subject of this paper will be the performance of the octupoles (third order optics) in obtaining uniform beam distributions at the target of the NSRL beam transport line.

  10. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1994-11-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ``real`` beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS.

  11. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  12. Focusing and matching properties of the ATR transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Fischer, W.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-07-01

    The AGS to RHIC (AtR) beam transfer line has been constructed and will be used to transfer beam bunches from the AGS machine into the RHIC machine which is presently under construction at BNL. The original design of the AtR line has been modified. This article will present the optics of the various sections of the existing AtR beam line, as well as the matching capabilities of the AtR line to the RHIC machine.

  13. Standardization of beam line representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, David C.

    1999-05-01

    Standardization of beam line representations means that a single set of data can be used in many situations to represent a beam line. This set of data should be the same no matter what the program to be run or the calculation to be made. We have concerned ourselves with three types of standardization: (1) The same set of data should be usable by different programs. (2) The inclusion of other items in the data, such as calculations to be done, units to be used, or preliminary specifications, should be in a notation similar to the lattice specification. (3) A single set of data should be used to represent a given beam line, no matter what is being modified or calculated. The specifics of what is to be modified or calculated can be edited into the data as part of the calculation. These three requirements all have aspects not previously discussed in a public forum. Implementations into TRANSPORT [1] will be discussed.

  14. Linearization algorithms for line transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, H.A.

    1990-11-06

    Complete linearization is a very powerful technique for solving multi-line transfer problems that can be used efficiently with a variety of transfer formalisms. The linearization algorithm we describe is computationally very similar to ETLA, but allows an effective treatment of strongly-interacting lines. This algorithm has been implemented (in several codes) with two different transfer formalisms in all three one-dimensional geometries. We also describe a variation of the algorithm that handles saturable laser transport. Finally, we present a combination of linearization with a local approximate operator formalism, which has been implemented in two dimensions and is being developed in three dimensions. 11 refs.

  15. Auroral resonance line radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gladstone, G.R. )

    1992-02-01

    A model is developed for simulating the two-dimensional radiative transfer of resonance line emissions in auroras. The method of solution utilizes Fourier decomposition of the horizontal dependence in the intensity field so that the two-dimensional problem becomes a set of one-dimensional problems having different horizontal wavenumbers. The individual one-dimensional problems are solved for using a Feautrier-type solution of the differential-integral form of the radiative transfer equation. In the limit as the horizontal wavenumber becomes much larger than the local line-center extinction coefficient, the scattering integral becomes considerably simplified, and the final source function is evaluated in closed form. The two-dimensional aspects of the model are tested against results for nonresonance radiative transfer studies, and the resonance line part of the model is tested against results of existing plane-parallel resonance line radiative transfer codes. Finally, the model is used to simulate the intensity field of O{sub I} 1,304{angstrom} for hard and soft auroras of various Gaussian horizontal widths. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of two-dimensional radiative transfer when analyzing auroral resonance line data.

  16. The MICE Muon Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonio, Marco

    2011-10-06

    In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

  17. Physics of the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Satogata, T.; Ahrens, L.; Brennan, M.; Brown, K.; Clifford, T.; Connolly, R.; Dell, F.; Deng, D.P.; Hoff, L.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Maldonado, G.; Martin, B.; Olsen, R.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Robinson, T.; Sathe, S.; Shea, D.; Shea, T.J.; Tanaka, M.; Thompson, P.; Tepikian, S.; Trahern, C.G.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Wei, J.; Witkover, R.; Zhou, P.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents beam physics results from the fall 1995 AGS-to- RHIC (ATR) transfer line commissioning run with fully ionized gold nuclei. We first describe beam position monitors and transverse video profile monitors, instrumentation relevant to measurements performed during this commissioning. Measured and corrected beam trajectories demonstrate agreement with design optics to a few percent, including optical transfer functions and beamline dispersion. Digitized 2- dimensional video profile monitors were used to measure beam emittance, and beamline optics and AGS gold ion beam parameters are shown to be comparable to RHIC design requirements.

  18. Development of the PEFP's beam line BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jin-Yeong; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2013-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has 20-MeV and 100-MeV beam lines to supply proton beams to users. A stripline-type Beam Position Monitor (BPM) was designed and fabricated in order to measure the beam's position in the beam line. The RF properties of the BPM were measured and compared with the simulation. After the sensitivity of the BPM at a test stand had been obtained, we performed a beam test in a test beam line of the PEFP 20-MeV proton linac.

  19. The appearance of beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.C.

    1993-05-01

    The combination of an existing graphics package with a large program like TRANSPORT has often resulted in considerable modification to the large program. Use of other graphics package has resulted in essentially having to repeat the work. This difficulty has been avoided in a modification of TRANSPORT which produce layouts of beam lines. Drawings of the reference trajectory and three-dimensional images of all magnets are made by the graphics package TOP DRAWER. Nothing specific to TOP DRAWER or any other graphics has been incorporated into TRANSPORT. If a user is with a different graphics package he or she can then begin usage of this alternate package essentially immediately.

  20. BEAM TRANSPORT LINES FOR THE BSNS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    This paper presents the design of two beam transport lines at the BSNS: one is the injection line from the Linac to the RCS and the other is the target line from the RCS to the target station. In the injection beam line, space charge effects, transverse halo collimation, momentum tail collimation and debunching are the main concerned topics. A new method of using triplet cells and stripping foils is used to collimate transverse halo. A long straight section is reserved for the future upgrading linac and debuncher. In the target beam line, large halo emittance, beam stability at the target due to kicker failures and beam jitters, shielding of back-scattering neutrons from the target are main concerned topics. Special bi-gap magnets will be used to reduce beam losses in the collimators in front of the target.

  1. Vaccum and beam diagnostic controls for ORIC beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    Vacuum and beam diagnostic equipment on beam lines from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, is now controlled by a new dedicated system. The new system is based on an industrial programmable logic controller with an IBM AT personal computer providing control room operator interface. Expansion of this system requires minimal reconfiguration and programming, thus facilitating the construction of additional beam lines. Details of the implementation, operation, and performance of the system are discussed. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Beam transfer at E0: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-25

    The helical orbits in the Tevatron necessitated changes in the beam transfer operation between the Main Ring and the Tevatron. This document is intended to present an overview of the beam transfer with an emphasis on the recent changes. It will also serve as a bibliography for the other documents that exist on Tevatron injection.

  3. Low gravity transfer line chilldown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Collins, Frank G.; Kawaji, Masahiro

    1992-01-01

    The progress to date is presented in providing predictive capabilities for the transfer line chilldown problem in low gravity environment. A low gravity experimental set up was designed and flown onboard the NASA/KC-135 airplane. Some results of this experimental effort are presented. The cooling liquid for these experiments was liquid nitrogen. The boiling phenomenon was investigated in this case using flow visualization techniques as well as recording wall temperatures. The flow field was established by injecting cold liquid in a heated tube whose temperature was set above saturation values. The tubes were vertically supported with the liquid injected from the lower end of the tube. The results indicate substantial differences in the flow patterns established during boiling between the ground based, (1-g), experiments and the flight experiments, (low-g). These differences in the flow patterns will be discussed and some explanations will be offered.

  4. Single-knob beam line for transverse emittance partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, C.; Kester, O. K.; Groening, L.; Leibrock, H.; Maier, M.; Rottländer, P.

    2013-04-01

    Flat beams feature unequal emittances in the horizontal and vertical phase space. Such beams were created successfully in electron machines by applying effective stand-alone solenoid fringe fields in the electron gun. Extension of this method to ion beams was proposed conceptually. The present paper is on the decoupling capabilities of an ion beam emittance transfer line. The proposed beam line provides a single-knob tool to partition the horizontal and vertical rms emittances, while keeping the product of the two emittances constant as well as the transverse rms Twiss parameters (αx,y and βx,y) in both planes. It is shown that this single knob is the solenoid field strength.

  5. In-line beam current monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, C. A., Jr.; Frost, C. A.

    1984-11-01

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  6. In-line beam current monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl A.; Frost, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  7. In-line beam current monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Frost, C.A.

    1984-11-13

    An intense relativistic electron beam current monitor for a gas neutralized beam transport line includes a first foil for conducting plasma current to the wall where it is measured as it traverses an inductive loop formed by a cavity in the wall. An insulator foil separates the first foil from a second conducting foil which returns the current to the plasma environment.

  8. CONTINUOUS EXTRACTED BEAM IN THE AGS FAST EXTERNAL BEAM LINE.

    SciTech Connect

    GLENN,J.W.; TSOUPAS,N.; BROWN,K.A.; BIRYUKOV,V.M.

    2001-06-18

    A method to split off a few percent of the 6 x 10{sup 13} AGS beam delivered to the Slow External Beam (SEB) lines and send it down the Fast External Beam line (FEB) has been developed. The mission is to feed a counter experiment off the FEB that directly measures the neutrino mass using the muon storage ring. The use of normal thin septum splitters would have an excessive loss overhead and been optically difficult. The AGS Slow Extraction uses a third integer resonance with sextuple strength so the resonance width is a few percent of the beam width. This results in a low density tail which will be clipped by a bent crystal and deflected into the FEB channel. This clipping off of the tail should reduce losses in the SEB transport line. Details of modeled orbits, particle distribution and extraction trajectories into and out off the crystal will be given.

  9. Transfer map approach to the beam-beam interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragt, Alex J.

    1980-01-01

    A study is made of a model for the beam-beam interaction in ISABELLE using numerical methods and the recently developed method of Transfer Maps. It is found that analytical transfer map calculations account qualitatively for all the features of the model obtions account qualitatively for all the features of the model observed numerically, and show promise of giving quantitive agreement as well. They may also provide a kind of ''magnifying glass'' for examining numerical results in fine detail to ascertain the presence of small scale stochastic motion that might lead to eventual particle loss. Preliminary evidence is presented to the effect that within the model employed, the beam-beam interaction at its contemplated strengths should not lead to particle loss in ISABELLE.

  10. Applications of heat pipes for high thermal load beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Mortazavi, P.; Rarback, H.; Howells, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The high flux beam produced by insertion devices often requires special heat removal techniques. For the optical elements used in such high thermal load beam lines, the required precision demands a highly accurate design. Heat pipe cooling of critical elements of the X-1 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. This method reduces vibrations caused by water cooling systems and simplifies the design. In some of these designs, deposited heat must be transferred through unbonded contact interfaces. A pinhole assembly and a beam position monitor designed for the X-1 beam line both transfer heat through such interfaces in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The fundamental design objective is that of removing the heat with minimal interface thermal resistance. We present our test method and results for measuring the thermal resistance across metallic interfaces as a function of contact pressure. The design of some devices which utilize both heat pipes and thermal contact interfaces will also be described. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Doppler-shifted neutral beam line shape and beam transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kokatnur, N.; Lagin, L.J.; Newman, R.A.; O`Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.

    1994-04-01

    Analysis of Doppler-shifted Balmer-{alpha} line emission from the TFTR neutral beam injection systems has revealed that the line shape is well approximated by the sum of two Gaussians, or, alternatively, by a Lorentzian. For the sum of two Gaussians, the broad portion of the distribution contains 40% of the beam power and has a divergence five times that of the narrow part. Assuming a narrow 1/e- divergence of 1.3{degrees} (based on fits to the beam shape on the calorimeter), the broad part has a divergence of 6.9{degrees}. The entire line shape is also well approximated by a Lorentzian with a half-maximum divergence of 0.9{degrees}. Up to now, fusion neutral beam modelers have assumed a single Gaussian velocity distribution, at the extraction plane, in each direction perpendicular to beam propagation. This predicts a beam transmission efficiency from the ion source to the calorimeter of 97%. Waterflow calorimetry data, however, yield a transmission efficiency of {approximately}75%, a value in rough agreement with predictions of the Gaussian or Lorentzian models presented here. The broad wing of the two Gaussian distribution also accurately predicts the loss in the neutralizer. An average angle of incidence for beam loss at the exit of the neutralizer is 2.2{degrees}, rather than the 4.95{degrees} subtended by the center of the ion source. This average angle of incidence, which is used in computing power densities on collimators, is shown to be a function of beam divergence.

  12. New wiggler beam line for SSRL

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.

    1982-08-01

    A new high-intensity-beam line with a wiggler magnet source is described. This project, in final stages of design, is a joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), the Exxon Research and Engineering Company (EXXON), and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). Installation at SSRL will begin in the summer of 1982. The goal of this project is to provide extremely high-brightness synchrotron radiation beams over a broad spectral range from 50 eV to 40 keV. The radiation source is a 27 period (i.e., 55 pole) permanent magnet wiggler of a new design. The wiggler utilizes rare-earth cobalt (REC) material in the steel hybrid configuration to achieve high magnetic fields with short periods. An analysis has been made of the polarization, angular distribution and power density of the radiation produced by the wiggler. Details of the wiggler design are presented. The magnet is outside a thin walled (1mm) variable gap stainless steel vacuum chamber. The chamber gap will be opened to 1.8 cm for beam injection into SPEAR and then closed to 1.0 cm (or less) for operation. Five remotely controlled drives are provided; to change the wiggler gap, to change the vacuum chamber aperture and to position the wiggler. Details of the beam line optics and end stations are presented. Thermal loading on beam line components is severe. The peak power density at 7.5 m is 5 kW/cm/sup 2/ for the nominal wiggler field and present SPEAR beam currents and will approach 20 kW/cm/sup 2/ with the maximum wiggler field and projected SPEAR beam currents.

  13. Ion optics of the Linac--LEB transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, R.K.; Penner, S.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the ion optical properties of a proposed transfer line to inject a nominal 25 mA H{sup {minus}} beam at 600 MeV from the Linac into the Low Energy Booster (LEB) synchrotron. Ion optical investigations have been carried out in detail using the TRANSPORT, TURTLE and TRACE 3-D codes. The calculations take account of linear space charge effects of up to 50 mA average beam current. These effects have been found to be quite appreciable, especially on the longitudinal phase space. Procedure for their evaluation and optimization are described. Effects of some imperfections in the beam line magnets have been studied. 6 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Beam manipulation and acceleration with Dielectric-Lined Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, Francois

    2015-06-01

    The development of next-generation TeV+ electron accelerators will require either immense footprints based on conventional acceleraton techniques or the development of new higher{gradient acceleration methods. One possible alternative is beam-driven acceleration in a high-impedance medium such as a dielectric-lined-waveguide (DLW), where a highcharge bunch passes through a DLW and can excite gradients on the order of GV/m. An important characteristic of this acceleration class is the transformer ratio which characterizes the energy transfer of the scheme. This dissertation discusses alternative methods to improve the transformer ratio for beam-driven acceleration and also considers the use of DLWs for beam manipulation at low energy.

  15. High spin isomer beam line at RIKEN

    SciTech Connect

    Kishida, T.; Ideguchi, E.; Wu, H.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear high spin states have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical studies. For the production of high spin states, fusion reactions are usually used. The orbital angular momentum brought in the reaction is changed into the nuclear spin of the compound nucleus. However, the maximum induced angular momentum is limited in this mechanism by the maximum impact parameter of the fusion reaction and by the competition with fission reactions. It is, therefore, difficult to populate very high spin states, and as a result, large {gamma}-detector arrays have been developed in order to detect subtle signals from such very high spin states. The use of high spin isomers in the fusion reactions can break this limitation because the high spin isomers have their intrinsic angular momentum, which can bring the additional angular momentum without increasing the excitation energy. There are two methods to use the high spin isomers for secondary reactions: the use of the high spin isomers as a target and that as a beam. A high spin isomer target has already been developed and used for several experiments. But this method has an inevitable shortcoming that only {open_quotes}long-lived{close_quotes} isomers can be used for a target: {sup 178}Hf{sup m2} (16{sup +}) with a half-life of 31 years in the present case. By developing a high spin isomer beam, the authors can utilize various short-lived isomers with a short half-life around 1 {mu}s. The high spin isomer beam line of RIKEN Accelerator Facility is a unique apparatus in the world which provides a high spin isomer as a secondary beam. The combination of fusion-evaporation reaction and inverse kinematics are used to produce high spin isomer beams; in particular, the adoption of `inverse kinematics` is essential to use short-lived isomers as a beam.

  16. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  17. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented.

  18. 1 and 2-Dimensional Line Transfer Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1990-07-01

    LXF1D is a one dimensional steady-state line transfer package designed to handle: overlapping and or interacting lines, planar, cylindrical, spherical (and special) geometries, doppler shifts, complete redistribution (CRD), partial redistribution (PRD). PRD requires the use of REDIST or some other package to produce emission profiles. LXF2D is a two dimensional version of LXF1D for xy and rz geometries. Both LXF1D and LXF2D are designed to be added to existing non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) codes withmore » a minimum of effort.« less

  19. Beam Line: 100 years of elementary particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, A.; Weinberg, S.; Quigg, C.; Riordan, M.; Panofsky, W. K. H.

    1997-04-01

    This issue of Beam Line commemorates the 100th anniversary of the April 30, 1897 report of the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson and the ensuing discovery of other subatomic particles. In the first three articles, theorists Abraham Pais, Steven Weinberg, and Chris Quigg provide their perspectives on the discoveries of elementary particles as well as the implications and future directions resulting from these discoveries. In the following three articles, Michael Riordan, Wolfgang Panofsky, and Virginia Trimble apply our knowledge about elementary particles to high-energy research, electronics technology, and understanding the origin and evolution of our Universe.

  20. Shear representations of beam transfer matrices.

    PubMed

    Başkal, S; Kim, Y S

    2001-05-01

    The beam transfer matrix, often called the ABCD matrix, is one of the essential mathematical instruments in optics. It is a unimodular matrix whose determinant is 1. If all the elements are real with three independent parameters, this matrix is a 2 x 2 representation of the group Sp(2). It is shown that a real ABCD matrix can be generated by two shear transformations. It is then noted that, in para-axial lens optics, the lens and translation matrices constitute two shear transformations. It is shown that a system with an arbitrary number of lenses can be reduced to a system consisting of three lenses. PMID:11415030

  1. BPM SYSTEM FOR THE SNS RING AND TRANSFER LINES.

    SciTech Connect

    DAWSON,W.C.; CAMERON,P.; CERNIGLIA,P.; CUPOLO,J.; DEGEN,C.; DELLAPENNA,A.; HUHN,A.; KESSELMAN,M.; MEAD,J.; SIKORA,R.

    2002-05-06

    The Spallation Neutron Source Ring accumulates about 1060 pulses of 38mA peak current IGeV H-minus particles from the Linac thru the HEBT line, then delivers this accumulated beam in a single pulse to the mercury target via the RTBT line. Bunching frequency of beam in the HEBT line is 402.5MHz, and about 1MHz in the Ring and RTBT. Position monitor electrodes in HEBT are of the shorted stripline type, with apertures of 12cm except in the dispersive bend, where the aperture is 21cm. Ring and RTBT electrodes are open striplines, with apertures of 21, 26, 30, and 36cm. All pickups are dual plane. The electronics will be PC-based with the Analog/Digital Front End passing data and receiving control and timing thru a custom PC1 interface developed by LANL[l]. LabVIEW will be used to direct the acquisition, process the data, and transfer results via Ethernet to the EPICS control system. To handle the dynamic range required with well over 60dB variation in signal size, the Ring and RTBT electronics will employ a fast gain switching technique that will take advantage of the 300ns tail-to-head gap to provide position measurement during the entire accumulation cycle. Beam-based alignment will be utilized as part of the system calibration.

  2. BPM System for the SNS Ring and Transfer Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, W. C.; Cameron, P.; Cerniglia, P.; Cupolo, J.; Degen, C.; DellaPenna, A.; Huhn, A.; Kesselman, M.; Mead, J.; Sikora, R.

    2002-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source Ring accumulates about 1060 pulses of 38mA peak current 1GeV H-minus particles from the Linac thru the HEBT line, then delivers this accumulated beam in a single pulse to the mercury target via the RTBT line. Bunching frequency of beam in the HEBT line is 402.5MHz, and about 1MHz in the Ring and RTBT. Position monitor electrodes in HEBT are of the shorted stripline type, with apertures of 12cm except in the dispersive bend, where the aperture is 21cm. Ring and RTBT electrodes are open striplines, with apertures of 21, 26, 30, and 36cm. All pickups are dual plane. The electronics will be PC-based with the Analog/Digital Front End passing data and receiving control and timing thru a custom PCI interface developed by LANL[1]. LabVIEW will be used to direct the acquisition, process the data, and transfer results via Ethernet to the EPICS control system. To handle the dynamic range required with well over 60dB variation in signal size, the Ring and RTBT electronics will employ a fast gain switching technique that will take advantage of the 300ns tail-to-head gap to provide position measurement during the entire accumulation cycle. Beam-based alignment will be utilized as part of the system calibration.

  3. Energy transfer between laser beams crossing in ignition hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, P; Divol, L; Williams, E A; Thomas, C A; Callahan, D A; Weber, S; Haan, S W; Salmonson, J D; Dixit, S; Hinkel, D E; Edwards, M J; MacGowan, B J; Lindl, J D; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J

    2008-10-03

    The full scale modeling of power transfer between laser beams crossing in plasmas is presented. A new model was developed, allowing calculation of the propagation and coupling of pairs of laser beams with their associated plasma wave in three dimensions. The full laser beam smoothing techniques used in ignition experiments are modeled, and their effects on crossed-beam energy transfer is investigated. A shift in wavelength between the beams can move the instability off resonance and reduce the transfer, hence preserving the symmetry of the capsule implosion.

  4. Shielding Analyses for VISION Beam Line at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X

    2014-01-01

    Full-scale neutron and gamma transport analyses were performed to design shielding around the VISION beam line, instrument shielding enclosure, beam stop, secondary shutter including a temporary beam stop for the still closed neighboring beam line to meet requirement is to achieve dose rates below 0.25 mrem/h at 30 cm from the shielding surface. The beam stop and the temporary beam stop analyses were performed with the discrete ordinate code DORT additionally to Monte Carlo analyses with the MCNPX code. Comparison of the results is presented.

  5. Bunched Beam Stochastic Cooling and Coherent Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.

    2006-03-20

    Strong coherent signals complicate bunched beam stochastic cooling, and development of the longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC required dealing with coherence in heavy ion beams. Studies with proton beams revealed additional forms of coherence. This paper presents data and analysis for both sorts of beams.

  6. Beam line error analysis, position correction, and graphic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuhua; Mao, Naifeng

    1993-12-01

    A beam transport line error analysis and beam position correction code called ``EAC'' has been enveloped associated with a graphics and data post processing package for TRANSPORT. Based on the linear optics design using TRANSPORT or other general optics codes, EAC independently analyzes effects of magnet misalignments, systematic and statistical errors of magnetic fields as well as the effects of the initial beam positions, on the central trajectory and upon the transverse beam emittance dilution. EAC also provides an efficient way to develop beam line trajectory correcting schemes. The post processing package generates various types of graphics such as the beam line geometrical layout, plots of the Twiss parameters, beam envelopes, etc. It also generates an EAC input file, thus connecting EAC with general optics codes. EAC and the post processing package are small size codes, that are easy to access and use. They have become useful tools for the design of transport lines at SSCL.

  7. Comparison of beam-position-transfer functions using circular beam-position monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    A cylindrical beam-position monitor (BPM) used in many accelerator facilities has four electrodes on which beam-image currents induce bunched-beam signals. These probe-electrode signals are geometrically configured to provide beam-position information about two orthogonal axes. An electronic processor performs a mathematical transfer function (TF) on these BPM-electrode signals to produce output signals whose time-varying amplitude is proportional to the beam`s vertical and horizontal position. This paper will compare various beam-position TFs using both pencil beams and will further discuss how diffuse beams interact with some of these TFs.

  8. The New Transfer Line Collimation System for the LHC High Luminosity Era

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, Verena; Bracco, Chiara; Goddard, Brennan; Maciariello, Fausto; Meddahi, Malika; Mereghetti, Alessio; Steele, Genevieve; Velotti, Francesco; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    A set of passive absorbers is located at the end of each of the 3 km long injection lines to protect the LHC in case of failures during the extraction process from the LHC’s last pre-injector or the beam transfer itself. In case of an erroneous extraction, the absorbers have to attenuate the beam to a safe level and be robust enough themselves to survive the impact. These requirements are difficult to fulfil with the very bright and intense beams produced by the LHC injectors for the high luminosity era. This paper revisits the requirements for the SPS-to-LHC transfer line collimation system and the adapted strategy to fulfill these for the LHC high luminosity operation. A possible solution for the new transfer line collimation system is presented.

  9. Status of the proton and electron transfer lines for the AWAKE Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. S.; Bauche, J.; Biskup, B.; Bracco, C.; Doebert, S.; Goddard, B.; Gschwendtner, E.; Jensen, L. K.; Jones, O. R.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Velotti, F. M.; Vorozhtsov, A.

    2016-09-01

    The AWAKE project at CERN is planned to study proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration with an externally injected electron beam. Therefore two transfer lines are being designed in order to provide the proton beam from the SPS and the electron beam from an RF gun to the plasma cell. The commissioning of the proton line will take place in 2016 for the first phase of the experiment, which is focused on the self-modulation of a 12 cm long proton bunch in the plasma. The electron line will be added for the second phase of AWAKE in 2017, when the wakefield will be probed with an electron beam of 10-20 MeV/c. The challenge for these transfer lines lies in the parallel operation of the proton, electron and laser beam used to ionize the plasma and seed the self-modulation. These beams, of different characteristics, need to be synchronized and positioned for optimized injection conditions into the wakefield. This task requires great flexibility in the transfer line optics. The status of these designs will be presented in this paper.

  10. Radiation shielding of the beam absorber in the MI 8-GeV beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    Results of Monte Carlo radiation shielding calculations performed for the beam absorber of the MI 8 GeV beam line are presented and discussed. The possibility to reach the level of 10{sup 19} protons per year is investigated.

  11. Modeling of a multicharged ion beam line using SIMION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korwin-Pawlowski, Michael L.; Amiz, Karima; Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    2009-06-01

    Multicharged ion beams (MCI) are promising tools to probe or modify the surface of materials with applications in microelectronics and nanotechnology. Ion beam lines are parts of the MCI systems connecting the ion source with the processing chamber and they perform the function of extracting, accelerating, decelerating, focusing and scanning the ion beam on the surface of the target. In our work we present results of modeling of an MCI beam line using the SIMION code to simulate the flight of ions, with the purpose of optimizing the yield of the line and avoiding spurious effects due to interaction of the ions with the metallic elements of the line, such as heating, outgassing and excessive Xray emission. We show that a two stage ion extractor could significantly reduce ion beam losses.

  12. The new bern PET cyclotron, its research beam line, and the development of an innovative beam monitor detector

    SciTech Connect

    Braccini, Saverio

    2013-04-19

    The new Bern cyclotron laboratory aims at industrial radioisotope production for PET diagnostics and multidisciplinary research by means of a specifically conceived beam transfer line, terminated in a separate bunker. In this framework, an innovative beam monitor detector based on doped silica and optical fibres has been designed, constructed, and tested. Scintillation light produced by Ce and Sb doped silica fibres moving across the beam is measured, giving information on beam position, shape, and intensity. The doped fibres are coupled to commercial optical fibres, allowing the read-out of the signal far away from the radiation source. This general-purpose device can be easily adapted for any accelerator used in medical applications and is suitable either for low currents used in hadrontherapy or for currents up to a few {mu}A for radioisotope production, as well as for both pulsed and continuous beams.

  13. Beam coupling impedances of fast transmission-line kickers.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fast transmission-line kickers contain no ferrite and consist of two long metallic parallel plates supported by insulators inside a beam pipe. A beam is deflected by both the electric and magnetic fields of a TEM wave created by a pulse propagating along the strips in the direction opposite to the beam. Computations of the beam coupling impedances for such structures are difficult because of their length. In the paper, the beam coupling impedances of transmission-line kickers are calculated by combining analytical and numerical methods: the wake potentials computed in short models are extended analytically to obtain the wakes for the long kickers, and then the corresponding beam impedances are derived. At very low frequencies the results are compared with simple analytical expressions for the coupling impedances of striplines in beam position monitors.

  14. Diagnostic beam absorber in Mu2e beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Star density, hadron flux, and residual dose distributions are calculated around the {mu}2e diagnostic beam absorber. Corresponding surface and ground water activation, and air activation are presented as well.

  15. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  16. Generalized emittance measurements in a beam transport line

    SciTech Connect

    Skelly, J.; Gardner, C.; Luccio, A.; Kponou, A.; Reece, K.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the need to commission 3 beam transport lines for the new AGS Booster project, we have developed a generalized emittance-measurement program; beam line specifics are entirely resident in data tables, not in program code. For instrumentation, the program requires one or more multi-wire profile monitors; one or multiple profiles are acquired from each monitor, corresponding to one or multiple tunes of the transport line. Emittances and Twiss parameters are calculated using generalized algorithms. The required matix descriptions of the beam optics are constructed by an on-line general beam modeling program. Design of the program, its algorithms, and initial experience with it will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The booster to AGS transfer line: comparison between model and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown,K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bonati, R.; Gassner, D.; Glenn, W.; Huang, H.; Morris, J.; Nida, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Schoefer, V.; Zeno, K.

    2009-05-04

    The Booster to AGS (BtA) transfer line was to match both ions and protons into the AGS lattice. For proton beam operation the only constraint on the optics is to define a match to the AGS lattice. For ion operation there are additional constraints introduced by a stripping foil in the upstream part of the transfer line. For polarized proton operation there is the complication that the AGS lattice is distorted by the presence of two partial snake magnets. In the 2008 polarized proton run it was observed that there was a significant optical injection mismatch. Beam experiments were conducted that showed disagreement with the model of the BtA line. In addition, these studies revealed some minor problems with the instrumentation in the line. A new model and more reliable measurements of the transfer line magnet currents have been implemented. Another series of experiments was conducted to test these modifications and to collect a more complete set of data to allow better understanding of the beam dynamics during the transfer and better understanding of the instrumentation. In this paper we will present the results of these experiments and the comparison to the new model of the BtA.

  18. Hypervelocity Impact Initiation of Explosive Transfer Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, Michael D.; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    The Gemini, Apollo and Space Shuttle spacecraft utilized explosive transfer lines (ETL) in a number of applications. In each case the ETL was located behind substantial structure and the risk of impact initiation by micrometeoroids and orbital debris was negligible. A current NASA program is considering an ETL to synchronize the actuation of pyrobolts to release 12 capture latches in a contingency. The space constraints require placing the ETL 50 mm below the 1 mm thick 2024-T72 Whipple shield. The proximity of the ETL to the thin shield prompted analysts at NASA to perform a scoping analysis with a finite-difference hydrocode to calculate impact parameters that would initiate the ETL. The results suggest testing is required and a 12 shot test program with surplused Shuttle ETL is scheduled for February 2012 at the NASA White Sands Test Facility. Explosive initiation models are essential to the analysis and one exists in the CTH library for HNS I, but not the HNS II used in the Shuttle 2.5 gr/ft rigid shielded mild detonating cord (SMDC). HNS II is less sensitive than HNS I so it is anticipated that these results using the HNS I model are conservative. Until the hypervelocity impact test results are available, the only check on the analysis was comparison with the Shuttle qualification test result that a 22 long bullet would not initiate the SMDC. This result was reproduced by the hydrocode simulation. Simulations of the direct impact of a 7 km/s aluminum ball, impacting at 0 degree angle of incidence, onto the SMDC resulted in a 1.5 mm diameter ball initiating the SMDC and 1.0 mm ball failing to initiate it. Where one 1.0 mm ball could not initiate the SMDC, a cluster of six 1.0 mm diameter aluminum balls striking simultaneously could. Thus the impact parameters that will result in initiating SMDC located behind a Whipple shield will depend on how well the shield fragments the projectile and spreads the fragments. An end-to-end simulation of the impact of an

  19. The APS transfer line from linac to injector synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.; Crosbie, E.

    1991-03-01

    This note describes the low-energy-transfer-line designed for the APS. The low energy transfer line constitutes two transport lines. One of these lines runs from linac to the positron accumulator ring, also called ``PAR``, and is 23.7138 m long. The second part of the low energy transport line runs from the ``PAR`` to the injector synchrtoron and is about 30.919 m long. The above length includes two quadrupoles, a bend magnet and a septum magnet in the injector synchrotron.

  20. BECOLA Beam Line Construction and Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedicini, Eowyn; Minamisono, Kei; Barquest, Brad; Bollen, Georg; Klose, Andrew; Mantica, Paul; Morrissey, Dave; Ringle, Ryan; Schwarz, Stefan; Vinnikova, Sophia

    2010-11-01

    The BECOLA (BEam COoler and LAser spectroscopy) facility is being installed at NSCL for experiments on radioactive nuclides.ootnotetextK. Minamisono et al, Proc. Inst. Nucl. Theory 16, 180 (2009). Low energy ion beams will be cooled/bunched in an RFQ ion trap and then extracted to a max of 60 kV. The ion beam will be neutralized through a charge exchange cell (CEC), and remaining ions will be removed by a deflector and collected in a Faraday cup. Collinear laser spectroscopy will be used to measure the atomic hyperfine structure, and nuclear properties will be extracted. The assembly, vacuum testing, and optical alignment of the CEC have been completed and the ion deflector and Faraday cup were also assembled. Stabilization of the Ti:sapphire laser to be used for spectroscopy is achieved through a feedback loop using a precision wavelength meter that is calibrated by a stabilized He-Ne laser. Coupling the He-Ne laser into a single-mode optical fiber was optimized for stable operation of the feedback loop. Finally, a wall chart of nuclear moments was prepared to view trends in μ and Q for nuclear ground states for planning future measurements.

  1. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Liedl, G.L.

    1993-06-01

    MATRIX, a participating research team of Midwest x-ray scattering specialists, continues to operate beam line X-18A at NSLS. Operations of this line now provides state-of-the-art capabilities to a wide range of people in the Materials Science and Engineering research community. Improvements of the beam line continue to be a focus of MATRIX. Throughout this past year the emphasis has been shifting towards improvement in ``user friendly`` aspects. Simplified control operations and a shift to single-user personal computer has been a major part of the effort. Over the past year all 232 operational days were fully utilized. Beam line tests coupled with MATRIX members combined to use 284 days. General user demand for use of the beam line continues to be strong and four groups were provided 48 operating days. Research production has been growing as NSLS and the beam line become a more stable type of operation. For 1992 the MATRIX group published six articles. To date, for 1993 the same group has published, submitted, or has in preparation nine articles. Recent research milestones include: the first quantitative structural information on the as-quenched and early stages of decomposition of supersaturated Al-Li alloys; the first quantitative diffuse scattering measurements on a complex system (Co substitute for Cu YBCO superconductor); demonstration of capabilities of a new UHV surface diffraction chamber with in-situ characterization and temperature control (30-1300K); feasibility of phasing structure factors in a quasicrystal using multiple Bragg scattering.

  2. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Liedl, G.L.

    1991-10-01

    MATRIX, a participating research team of Midwest x-ray scattering specialists, continues to operate beam line X-18A at NSLS. Operations of this line now provides state-of-the-art capabilities to a wide range of people in the Materials Science and Engineering research community. Improvements of the beam line continue to be a focus of MATRIX. Throughout this past year the emphasis has been shifting towards improvement in user friendly'' aspects. Simplified control operations and a shift to single-user personal computer has been a major part of the effort. Over the past year the full 242 operational days were utilized. Beam line test and evaluation consumed 21 days with eight MATRIX groups combining to use 170 days. General user demand for use of the beam line continues to be strong and three groups were provided 51 operating days. Research production has been growing as NSLS and the beam line become a more stable type of operation. For 1990 the MATRIX group published nine articles. To data for 1991 the same group has published, submitted, or has in preparation twelve articles. Among the milestones achieved last year on MATRIX member obtained the first data from a new ultra high vacuum chamber with low temperature capability. This is a unique capability at NSLS. Another member demonstrated grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering capability for kinetic studies of film growth.

  3. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Liedl, G.L.

    1991-10-01

    MATRIX, a participating research team of Midwest x-ray scattering specialists, continues to operate beam line X-18A at NSLS. Operations of this line now provides state-of-the-art capabilities to a wide range of people in the Materials Science and Engineering research community. Improvements of the beam line continue to be a focus of MATRIX. Throughout this past year the emphasis has been shifting towards improvement in ``user friendly`` aspects. Simplified control operations and a shift to single-user personal computer has been a major part of the effort. Over the past year the full 242 operational days were utilized. Beam line test and evaluation consumed 21 days with eight MATRIX groups combining to use 170 days. General user demand for use of the beam line continues to be strong and three groups were provided 51 operating days. Research production has been growing as NSLS and the beam line become a more stable type of operation. For 1990 the MATRIX group published nine articles. To data for 1991 the same group has published, submitted, or has in preparation twelve articles. Among the milestones achieved last year on MATRIX member obtained the first data from a new ultra high vacuum chamber with low temperature capability. This is a unique capability at NSLS. Another member demonstrated grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering capability for kinetic studies of film growth.

  4. Soluble pig for radioactive waste transfer lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohl, P.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    Flushing transfer pipe after radioactive waste transfers generates thousands of gallons of additional radioactive waste each year at the Hanford site. The use of pneumatic pigging with waste soluble pigs as a means to clear transfer piping may be an effective alternative to raw water flushes. A feasibility study was performed by a group of senior mechanical engineering students for their senior design project as part of their curriculum at Washington State University. The students divided the feasibility study into three sub-projects involving: (1) materials research, (2) delivery system design, and (3) mockup fabrication and testing. The students screened through twenty-three candidate materials and selected a thermoplastic polymer combined 50:50 wt% with sucrose to meet the established material performance criteria. The students also prepared a conceptual design of a remote pneumatic delivery system and constructed a mockup section of transfer pipe for testing the prototype pigs.

  5. Radiative transfer simulations of magnetar flare beaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Putten, T.; Watts, A. L.; Baring, M. G.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetar giant flares show oscillatory modulations in the tails of their light curves, which can only be explained via some form of beaming. The fireball model for magnetar bursts has been used successfully to fit the phase-averaged light curves of the tails of giant flares, but so far no attempts have been made to fit the pulsations. We present a relatively simple numerical model to simulate beaming of magnetar flare emission. In our simulations, radiation escapes from the base of a fireball trapped in a dipolar magnetic field, and is scattered through the optically thick magnetosphere of the magnetar until it escapes. Beaming is provided by the presence of a relativistic outflow, as well as by the geometry of the system. We find that a simple picture for the relativistic outflow is enough to create the pulse fraction and sharp peaks observed in pulse profiles of magnetar flares, while without a relativistic outflow the beaming is insufficient to explain giant flare rotational modulations.

  6. Radiative transfer simulations of magnetar flare beaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Putten, T.; Watts, A. L.; Baring, M. G.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetar giant flares show oscillatory modulations in the tails of their light curves, which can only be explained via some form of beaming. The fireball model for magnetar bursts has been used successfully to fit the phase-averaged light curves of the tails of giant flares, but so far no attempts have been made to fit the pulsations. We present a relatively simple numerical model to simulate beaming of magnetar flare emission. In our simulations, radiation escapes from the base of a fireball trapped in a dipolar magnetic field, and is scattered through the optically thick magnetosphere of the magnetar until it escapes. Beaming is provided by the presence of a relativistic outflow, as well as by the geometry of the system. We find that a simple picture for the relativistic outflow is enough to create the pulse fraction and sharp peaks observed in pulse profiles of magnetar flares, while without a relativistic outflow the beaming is insufficient to explain giant flare rotational modulations.

  7. The beam diagnostic instruments in Beijing radioactive ion-beam facilities isotope separator on-line

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y. Cui, B.; Ma, R.; Tang, B.; Chen, L.; Huang, Q.; Jiang, W.

    2014-02-15

    The beam diagnostic instruments for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facilities Isotope Separator On-Line are introduced [B. Q. Cui, Z. H. Peng, Y. J. Ma, R. G. Ma, B. Tang, T. Zhang, and W. S. Jiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 266, 4113 (2008); T. J. Zhang, X. L. Guan, and B. Q. Cui, in Proceedings of APAC 2004, Gyeongju, Korea, 2004, http://www.jacow.org , p. 267]. For low intensity ion beam [30–300 keV/1 pA–10 μA], the beam profile monitor, the emittance measurement unit, and the analyzing slit will be installed. For the primary proton beam [100 MeV/200 μA], the beam profile scanner will be installed. For identification of the nuclide, a beam identification unit will be installed. The details of prototype of the beam diagnostic units and some experiment results will be described in this article.

  8. Beam transfer and extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Protons will be single-turn extracted from the LAMPF II synchrotron at 30 Hz. On alternate pulses they will be single-turn injected into a storage ring. Both processes utilize fast kickers and Lambertson septum magnets. Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow-extract the beam from the storage ring over a time spread of 1/15 s. The slow extraction occurs using electrostatic wire and iron septa.

  9. A beam optics study of the biomedical beam line at a proton therapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Chong Cheoul; Kim, Jong-Won

    2007-10-01

    A biomedical beam line has been designed for the experimental area of a proton therapy facility to deliver mm to sub-mm size beams in the energy range of 20-50 MeV using the TRANSPORT/TURTLE beam optics codes and a newly-written program. The proton therapy facility is equipped with a 230 MeV fixed-energy cyclotron and an energy selection system based on a degrader and slits, so that beam currents available for therapy decrease at lower energies in the therapeutic beam energy range of 70-230 MeV. The new beam line system is composed of an energy-degrader, two slits, and three quadrupole magnets. The minimum beam sizes achievable at the focal point are estimated for the two energies of 50 and 20 MeV. The focused FWHM beam size is approximately 0.3 mm with an expected beam current of 20 pA when the beam energy is reduced to 50 MeV from 100 MeV, and roughly 0.8 mm with a current of 10 pA for a 20 MeV beam.

  10. ASIMUT on line radiative transfer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Neary, L.; Robert, S.; Letocart, V.; Giuranna, M.; Kasaba, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The CROSS DRIVE project aims to develop an innovative collaborative workspace infrastructure for space missions that will allow distributed scientific and engineering teams to collectively analyse and interpret scientific data as well as execute operations of planetary spacecraft. ASIMUT will be one of the tools that will be made available to the users. Here we describe this radiative transfer code and how it will be integrated into the virtual environment developed within CROSS DRIVE.

  11. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang, Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Allen-Flowers, Jordan; Shiffler, Don

    2012-12-01

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  12. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver.

    PubMed

    French, David M; Hoff, Brad W; Tang, Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Allen-Flowers, Jordan; Shiffler, Don

    2012-12-01

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique. PMID:23277977

  13. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Shiffler, Don; Allen-Flowers, Jordan

    2012-12-15

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  14. Profile, Current, and Halo Monitors of the PROSCAN Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Doelling, Rudolf

    2004-11-10

    PROSCAN, an extended medical facility using proton beams for the treatment of deep-seated tumors and eye melanoma, is under construction at PSI. Ionization chambers and secondary emission monitors will be used as current monitors and in a multi-strip configuration as profile monitors at the PROSCAN beam lines. A thin and a thick version of these detectors are in preparation as well as a 4-segment ionization chamber to detect the beam halo. Electromagnetic and microphonic noise from the signal and high-voltage cables, saturation due to recombination, and the evaluation of the profiles are discussed, as well as measures to detect failures of the detectors during operation.

  15. Note: Characteristic beam parameter for the line electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M.; Islam, G. U.; Zhou, Z.; Chi, Y.

    2013-11-01

    We have optimized the beam parameters of line source electron gun using Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre electron beam trajectory program (EGUN), utilizing electrostatic focusing only. We measured minimum beam diameter as 0.5 mm that corresponds to power density of 68.9 kW/cm2 at 13.5 mm in the post-anode region which is more than two-fold (33 kW/cm2), of the previously reported results. The gun was operated for the validation of the theoretical results and found in good agreement. The gun is now without any magnetic and electrostatic focusing thus much simpler and more powerful.

  16. Note: Characteristic beam parameter for the line electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M.; Islam, G. U.; Zhou, Z.; Chi, Y.

    2013-11-15

    We have optimized the beam parameters of line source electron gun using Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre electron beam trajectory program (EGUN), utilizing electrostatic focusing only. We measured minimum beam diameter as 0.5 mm that corresponds to power density of 68.9 kW/cm{sup 2} at 13.5 mm in the post-anode region which is more than two-fold (33 kW/cm{sup 2}), of the previously reported results. The gun was operated for the validation of the theoretical results and found in good agreement. The gun is now without any magnetic and electrostatic focusing thus much simpler and more powerful.

  17. Design Methodology of Long Complex Helium Cryogenic Transfer Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fydrych, J.; Chorowski, M.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2010-04-01

    Big scientific facilities, like superconducting particle accelerators or fusion reactors require high cooling power, usually produced locally by large helium refrigerators and transferred, by means of liquid or supercritical helium, over the distances that may exceed several kilometres. Construction of cold helium transfer lines should take into consideration many different issues. The lines are exposed to thermal loads which can constitute an important part of the cryogenic system thermal budget. Pressure difference between the vacuum insulation and the inner content of the pipes causes significant mechanical stresses. The cyclic changes of temperature can lead to considerable fatigue stresses. Additionally, due to complex structure of the scientific facilities, the access to the cryogenic lines can be partly or totally limited. Therefore all these thermal and mechanical aspects have to be analyzed and compromised during the design phase of the complex helium transfer line. The paper presents a design methodology of long multi-channel helium cryogenic transfer lines. It describes some aspects of process line arrangement, thermo-mechanical calculation, supporting structure and contraction protection, taking as a case study cryogenic transfer line XATL1, dedicated for the Accelerator Module Test Facility (AMTF) of the European X-rays Free Electron Laser (XFEL).

  18. Service life evaluation of rigid explosive transfer lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a joint Army/NASA-sponsored research program on the service life evaluation of rigid explosive transfer lines. These transfer lines are used to initiate emergency crew escape functions on a wide variety of military and NASA aircraft. The purpose of this program was to determine quantitatively the effects of service, age, and degradation on rigid explosive transfer lines to allow responsible, conservative, service life determination. More than 800 transfer lines were removed from the U.S. Army AH-1G and AH-1S, the U.S. Air Force B-1 and F-111, and the U.S. Navy F-14 aircraft for testing. The results indicated that the lines were not adversely affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. Extension of the service life of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered, since considerable cost savings could be realized with no measurable decrease in system reliability.

  19. Numerical approach to Zeeman line radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi

    1991-10-01

    An accelerated lambda iteration (ALI) method, a version of the operator perturbation technique, is formulated for applications to Zeeman line formation problems in the presence of magnetic fields. This approach has proven to be quite an effective and flexible numerical device, being applicable to extensive problems (e.g., LTE one-way integration problem, noncoherent scattering etc.). In addition to its general formulation, a specialized practical version is also proposed which is limited to scattering (or multi-level) problems under the assumption of complete frequency redistribution (CRD), but requiring much less computing time. In order to examine the computational efficiency of this ALI method, numerical examples are presented concerning line formation in a magnetic field for several simple cases (LTE Milne-Eddington model, noncoherent CRD scattering, angle-dependent coherent scattering), showing a reasonably rapid convergence with notable numerical stability. Comparisons with other recent numerical techniques confirm the distinguished superiority of the present method.

  20. FAIL-SAFE TRANSFER LINE FOR HAZARDOUS FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design principles, development, laboratory testing, fabrication and field testing of a fail-safe transfer line for hazardous liquids are described. The system provides a 2-inch-ID flexible hose line for off-loading tank cars or trucks and detects leaks by monitoring flow inve...

  1. Beam Dump Design for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Fragmentation Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Reyes, S

    2006-05-02

    Beam dumps for the heavy ion beams of the fragmentation line of the Rare Isotope Accelerator have been designed. The most severe operational case involves a continuous U beam impacting the beam dump with a power of 295 kW and a nominal spot diameter size of 5 cm. The dump mechanically consists of two rotating barrels with a water cooled outer wall of 2 mm thick aluminum. The barrels are 70 cm in diameter and axially long enough to intercept a variety of other beams. The aluminum wall absorbs approximately 15% of the U beam power with the rest absorbed in the water downstream of the wall. The water acts as an absorber of the beam and as a coolant for the 2 mm aluminum wall. The barrel rotates at less than 400 RPM, maximum aluminum temperatures are less than 100 C and maximum thermal fatigue stresses are low at 3.5 x 10{sup 7} Pa (5 ksi). Rotation of the dump results in relatively low radiation damage levels with an operating lifetime of years for most beams.

  2. DEPENDENCE OF THE SNS TRANSFER LINES AND ACCUMULATOR RING ON LINAC ENERGY.

    SciTech Connect

    RAPARIA,D.; LEE,Y.Y.; WEI,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2001-06-18

    One of the options considered for the SNS linac, to reduce the cost, was to lower the energy to 840 MeV and leave space in the tunnel for a future upgrade to 1.3 GeV either by adding cryo-modules or increasing the gradient in the SC linac. A linac energy other than 1.0 GeV will have an impact on the transfer line and accumulator ring. The energy impacts the location of the corrector cavity in the HEBT, the injection magnet, beam power, dE/dx, multiple scattering and H stripping, neutron production at the target etc. These issues will be discussed, and changes required in the transfer lines and accumulator ring to accommodate lower energy beam are presented.

  3. Modeling crossed-beam energy transfer for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, D. J. Y.; Debayle, A.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.

    2016-05-01

    We developed a numerical code that describes both the energy transfer occurring when two or more laser beams overlap in a weakly non-homogeneous plasma, and the beam energy losses associated with the electron-ion collisions. The numerical solutions are validated with both the exact analytical solutions in homogeneous plasmas, and with new approximate analytical solutions in non-homogeneous plasmas that include the aforementioned inverse bremsstrahlung effect. Comparisons with kinetic particle-in-cell simulations are satisfactory, provided the acoustic wave-breaking limit and the self-focusing regime are not reached. An application of the Cross-Beam Energy Transfer model is shown for a typical case of indirect-drive implosion in a gold hohlraum.

  4. Preliminary design of electrostatic sensors for MITICA beam line components.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, S; Spolaore, M; Dalla Palma, M; Pasqualotto, R; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Veltri, P

    2016-02-01

    Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement, the full-scale prototype of ITER neutral beam injector, is under construction in Italy. The device will generate deuterium negative ions, then accelerated and neutralized. The emerging beam, after removal of residual ions, will be dumped onto a calorimeter. The presence of plasma and its parameters will be monitored in the components of the beam-line, by means of specific electrostatic probes. Double probes, with the possibility to be configured as Langmuir probes and provide local ion density and electron temperature measurements, will be employed in the neutralizer and in the residual ion dump. Biased electrodes collecting secondary emission electrons will be installed in the calorimeter with the aim to provide a horizontal profile of the beam. PMID:26932103

  5. Situ soil sampling probe system with heated transfer line

    DOEpatents

    Robbat, Jr., Albert

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed both to an improved in situ penetrometer probe and to a heated, flexible transfer line. The line and probe may be implemented together in a penetrometer system in which the transfer line is used to connect the probe to a collector/analyzer at the surface. The probe comprises a heater that controls a temperature of a geologic medium surrounding the probe. At least one carrier gas port and vapor collection port are located on an external side wall of the probe. The carrier gas port provides a carrier gas into the geologic medium, and the collection port captures vapors from the geologic medium for analysis. In the transfer line, a flexible collection line that conveys a collected fluid, i.e., vapor, sample to a collector/analyzer. A flexible carrier gas line conveys a carrier gas to facilitate the collection of the sample. A system heating the collection line is also provided. Preferably the collection line is electrically conductive so that an electrical power source can generate a current through it so that the internal resistance generates heat.

  6. G4beamline Particle Tracking in Matter Dominated Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Roberts, K.B. Beard, S. Ahmed, D. Huang, D.M. Kaplan

    2011-03-01

    The G4beamline program is a useful and steadily improving tool to quickly and easily model beam lines and experimental equipment without user programming. It has both graphical and command-line user interfaces. Unlike most accelerator physics codes, it easily handles a wide range of materials and fields, being particularly well suited for the study of muon and neutrino facilities. As it is based on the Geant4 toolkit, G4beamline includes most of what is known about the interactions of particles with matter. We are continuing the development of G4beamline to facilitate its use by a larger set of beam line and accelerator developers. A major new feature is the calculation of space-charge effects. G4beamline is open source and freely available at http://g4beamline.muonsinc.com

  7. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-09

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×10{sup 5} as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  8. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Mustapha, B.; Savard, G.

    2015-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×105 as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS.

  9. Error analysis in post linac to driver linac transport beam line of RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of magnet errors in the beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator in Korea (RAON). The P2DT beam line is bent by 180-degree to send the radioactive Isotope Separation On-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in Linac-3 to Linac-2. This beam line transports beams with multi-charge state 132Sn45,46,47. The P2DT beam line includes 42 quadrupole, 4 dipole and 10 sextupole magnets. We evaluate the effects of errors on the trajectory of the beam by using the TRACK code, which includes the translational and the rotational errors of the quadrupole, dipole and sextupole magnets in the beam line. The purpose of this error analysis is to reduce the rate of beam loss in the P2DT beam line. The distorted beam trajectories can be corrected by using six correctors and seven monitors.

  10. Crossed-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Seka, W; Edgell, D H; Michel, D T; Froula, D H; Goncharov, V N; Craxton, R S; Divol, L; Epstein, R; Follett, R; Kelly, J H; Kosc, T Z; Maximov, A V; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Michel, P; Myatt, J F; Sangster, T C; Shvydky, A; Skupsky, S; Stoeckl, C

    2012-05-22

    Direct-drive-implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have showed discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicate the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10%-20%. This appears to be due to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) that involves electromagnetic-seeded, low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  11. Micro-beam friction liner and method of transferring energy

    DOEpatents

    Mentesana, Charles

    2007-07-17

    A micro-beam friction liner adapted to increase performance and efficiency and reduce wear in a piezoelectric motor or actuator or other device using a traveling or standing wave to transfer energy in the form of torque and momentum. The micro-beam friction liner comprises a dense array of micro-beam projections having first ends fixed relative to a rotor and second ends projecting substantially toward a plurality of teeth of a stator, wherein the micro-beam projections are compressed and bent during piezoelectric movement of the stator teeth, thereby storing the energy, and then react against the stator teeth to convert the stored energy stored to rotational energy in the rotor.

  12. Neutronics Assessments for a RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dump Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J L; Reyes, S; Ahle, L E; Stein, W

    2005-05-13

    Heavy ion and radiation transport calculations are in progress for conceptual beam dump designs for the fragmentation line of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Using the computer code PHITS, a preliminary design of a motor-driven rotating wheel beam dump and adjacent downstream multipole has been modeled. Selected results of these calculations are given, including neutron and proton flux in the wheel, absorbed dose and displacements per atom in the hub materials, and heating from prompt radiation and from decay heat in the multipole.

  13. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, K. M.; Schell, S.; Wilkens, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    Laser-accelerated particles can provide a promising opportunity for radiation therapy of cancer. Potential advantages arise from combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages in dose delivery of charged particle beams. We consider different dose delivery schemes and the required devices to design a possible treatment unit. The secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements remains a challenge to be addressed.

  14. Laser-driven beam lines for delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy with particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, K. M.; Schell, S.; Wilkens, J. J.

    2013-07-26

    Laser-accelerated particles can provide a promising opportunity for radiation therapy of cancer. Potential advantages arise from combining a compact, cost-efficient treatment unit with the physical advantages in dose delivery of charged particle beams. We consider different dose delivery schemes and the required devices to design a possible treatment unit. The secondary radiation produced in several beam line elements remains a challenge to be addressed.

  15. Data transfer through beam steering using agile lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Muhammad Assad; Reza, Syed Azer; Muhammad, Ahsan

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a data transfer scheme using multi-focus tunable lenses. The design involves the use of a standard laser source and a variable focus agile lens to steer to the laser beam that passes through the lens. In our proposed system, the beam steer angle depends on an input electrical signal which drives the tunable lens. Therefore the beam steer angle is made to follow the variations in the input electrical drive signal. This is extremely interesting for data transfer applications as the data signal can be used as the input drive signal to the lens. The laser beam is steered according to the input data voltage levels and when the beam is incident on a photo-detector of a finite size, only a fraction of its total incident optical power is received by the photo-detector. This power contribution is proportional to the fraction of the total number of photons per unit area which are incident on the active area of the detector. The remaining photons which are not incident on the photo-detector do not contribute to the received power at the photo-detector. We present the theory of beam steering through a tunable lens and present a theoretical framework which governs data transfer through the proposed method. We also present the transfer function of the proposed system which helps us to calculate its essential theoretical performance parameters such as modulation depth and bit error rates. We also present experimental results to demonstrate efficient data transfer through the proposed method. As tunable lenses are primarily deployed in motion-free multi-focus cameras hence most of the modern portable devices such as cellphones and tablets use these lenses to operate the in-built variable focus cameras that are part of these devices. Because tunable lenses are commonly present in several different portable devices, the proposed method of data transfer between two devices is highly promising as it expands the use of the already deployed tunable lenses with

  16. Magnetic error analysis of recycler pbar injection transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Detailed study of Fermilab Recycler Ring anti-proton injection line became feasible with its BPM system upgrade, though the beamline has been in existence and operational since year 2000. Previous attempts were not fruitful due to limitations in the BPM system. Among the objectives are the assessment of beamline optics and the presence of error fields. In particular the field region of the permanent Lambertson magnets at both ends of R22 transfer line will be scrutinized.

  17. Intelligent mirror monitor and controller for synchrotron radiation beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.L.; Yang, J.

    1983-01-01

    A microprocessor-based, stand-alone mirror monitor and control system has been developed for synchrotron radiation beam lines. The operational requirements for mirror position and tilt angle, including the parameters for controlling the number of steps, direction, speed and acceleration of the driving motors, may be programmed into EPROMS. The instruction sequence to carry out critical motions will be stored in a program buffer. A manual control knob is also provided to fine tune the mirror position if desired. A synchronization scheme for the height and tilt motions maintains a fixed mirror angle during insertion. Absolute height and tilt angle are displayed. Electronic (or programmable) tilt angle limits are provided to protect against damage from misalignment of high power beams such as focussed wiggler beams. A description of mirror drives with a schematic diagram is presented. Although the controller is made for mirror movers, it can be used in other applications where multiple stepping motors perform complex synchronized motions.

  18. The Imaging and Medical Beam Line at the Australian Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausermann, Daniel; Hall, Chris; Maksimenko, Anton; Campbell, Colin

    2010-07-01

    As a result of the enthusiastic support from the Australian biomedical, medical and clinical communities, the Australian Synchrotron is constructing a world-class facility for medical research, the `Imaging and Medical Beamline'. The IMBL began phased commissioning in late 2008 and is scheduled to commence the first clinical research programs with patients in 2011. It will provide unrivalled x-ray facilities for imaging and radiotherapy for a wide range of research applications in diseases, treatments and understanding of physiological processes. The main clinical research drivers are currently high resolution and sensitivity cardiac and breast imaging, cell tracking applied to regenerative and stem cell medicine and cancer therapies. The beam line has a maximum source to sample distance of 136 m and will deliver a 60 cm by 4 cm x-ray beam1—monochromatic and white—to a three storey satellite building fully equipped for pre-clinical and clinical research. Currently operating with a 1.4 Tesla multi-pole wiggler, it will upgrade to a 4.2 Tesla device which requires the ability to handle up to 21 kW of x-ray power at any point along the beam line. The applications envisaged for this facility include imaging thick objects encompassing materials, humans and animals. Imaging can be performed in the range 15-150 keV. Radiotherapy research typically requires energies between 30 and 120 keV, for both monochromatic and broad beam.

  19. The Imaging and Medical Beam Line at the Australian Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Hausermann, Daniel; Hall, Chris; Maksimenko, Anton; Campbell, Colin

    2010-07-23

    As a result of the enthusiastic support from the Australian biomedical, medical and clinical communities, the Australian Synchrotron is constructing a world-class facility for medical research, the 'Imaging and Medical Beamline'. The IMBL began phased commissioning in late 2008 and is scheduled to commence the first clinical research programs with patients in 2011. It will provide unrivalled x-ray facilities for imaging and radiotherapy for a wide range of research applications in diseases, treatments and understanding of physiological processes. The main clinical research drivers are currently high resolution and sensitivity cardiac and breast imaging, cell tracking applied to regenerative and stem cell medicine and cancer therapies. The beam line has a maximum source to sample distance of 136 m and will deliver a 60 cm by 4 cm x-ray beam1 - monochromatic and white - to a three storey satellite building fully equipped for pre-clinical and clinical research. Currently operating with a 1.4 Tesla multi-pole wiggler, it will upgrade to a 4.2 Tesla device which requires the ability to handle up to 21 kW of x-ray power at any point along the beam line. The applications envisaged for this facility include imaging thick objects encompassing materials, humans and animals. Imaging can be performed in the range 15-150 keV. Radiotherapy research typically requires energies between 30 and 120 keV, for both monochromatic and broad beam.

  20. Application of the spectrally integrated Voigt function to line-by-line radiative transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quine, B. M.; Abrarov, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    We show that a new approach based on the spectrally integrated Voigt function (SIVF) enables the computation of line-by-line (LBL) radiative transfer at reduced spectral resolution without loss of accuracy. The algorithm provides rapid and accurate computation of area under the Voigt function in a way that preserves spectral radiance and, consequently, radiant intensity. The error analysis we provide shows the high-accuracy of the proposed SIVF approximations. A comparison of the performance of the method with that of the traditional LBL approach is presented. Motivations for the use and advantage of the SIVF as a replacement for conventional line function computations in radiative transfer are discussed.

  1. Transport of intense ion beams and space charge compensation issues in low energy beam lines (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Duperrier, R.; Gobin, R.; Nghiem, P. A. P.; Uriot, D.

    2012-02-15

    Over the last few years, the interest of the international scientific community for high power accelerators in the megawatt range has been increasing. For such machines, the ion source has to deliver a beam intensity that ranges from several tens up to a hundred of mA. One of the major challenges is to extract and transport the beam while minimizing the emittance growth and optimizing its injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. Consequently, it is crucial to perform precise simulations and cautious design of the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. In particular, the beam dynamics calculations have to take into account not only the space charge effects but also the space charge compensation of the beam induced by ionization of the residual gas. The physical phenomena occurring in a high intensity LEBT and their possible effects on the beam are presented, with a particular emphasis on space charge compensation. Then, beam transport issues in different kind of LEBTs are briefly reviewed. The SOLMAXP particle-in-cell code dedicated to the modeling of the transport of charge particles under a space charge compensation regime is described. Finally, beam dynamics simulations results obtained with SOLMAXP are presented in the case of international fusion materials irradiation facility injector.

  2. Chemical investigations of isotope separation on line target units for carbon and nitrogen beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fraanberg, H.; Ammann, M.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Koester, U.

    2006-03-15

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) are of significant interest in a number of applications. Isotope separation on line (ISOL) facilities provide RIB with high beam intensities and good beam quality. An atom that is produced within the ISOL target will first diffuse out from the target material. During the effusion towards the transfer line and into the ion source the many contacts with the surrounding surfaces may cause unacceptable delays in the transport and, hence, losses of the shorter-lived isotopes. We performed systematic chemical investigations of adsorption in a temperature and concentration regime relevant for ISOL targets and ion source units, with regard to CO{sub x} and NO{sub x} on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. These materials are potential construction materials for the above-mentioned areas. Off-line and on-line tests have been performed using a gas thermochromatography setup with radioactive tracers. The experiments were performed at the production of tracers for atmospheric chemistry (PROTRAC) facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland.

  3. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  4. Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Driven by Incoherent Laser Beams with Frequency Detuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximov, A.; Myatt, J. F.; Short, R. W.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Seka, W.

    2015-11-01

    In the direct-drive method of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the coupling of laser energy to target plasmas is strongly influenced by the effect of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) between multiple driving laser beams. The laser -plasma interaction (LPI) model of CBET is based on the nonparaxial laser light propagation coupled with the low-frequency ion-acoustic-domain plasma response. Common ion waves driven by multiple laser beams play a very important role in CBET. The effect of the frequency detuning (colors) in the driving laser beams is studied and it is shown to significantly reduce the level of common ion waves and therefore the level of CBET. The differences between the LPI-based CBET model and the ray-based CBET model used in hydrocodes are discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  5. Cyclotron line resonant transfer through neutron star atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John C. L.; Wasserman, Ira M.; Salpeter, Edwin E.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are used to study in detail the resonant radiative transfer of cyclotron line photons with recoil through a purely scattering neutron star atmosphere for both the polarized and unpolarized cases. For each case, the number of scatters, the path length traveled, the escape frequency shift, the escape direction cosine, the emergent frequency spectra, and the angular distribution of escaping photons are investigated. In the polarized case, transfer is calculated using both the cold plasma e- and o-modes and the magnetic vacuum perpendicular and parallel modes.

  6. Design of post linac to driver linac transport beam line in rare isotope accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the design of a beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RAON). P2DT beam line is designed by 180° bending scheme to send the radioactive isotope separation on-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in the Linac-3 to Linac-2. The beam line is designed as a 180° bend for the transport of a multi-charge state 132Sn+45,+46,+47 beam. We used the TRACE 3-D, TRACK, and ORBIT codes to design the optics system, which also includes two bunchers and ten sextupole magnets for chromaticity compensation. The transverse emittance growth is minimized by adopting mirror symmetric optics and by correcting second-order aberrations using sextupoles. We report on the multi-charge state beam transport performance of the designed beam line. The main characteristics of the P2DT line are to minimize beam loss and the growth of emittance, and for charge stripping. Beam optics for P2DT is optimized for reducing beam loss and charge stripping. As Linac-3 may accelerate the stable beam and radioactive beam simultaneously, P2DT line also transports the stable beam and radioactive beam simultaneously. Thus, we need a RF switchyard to send the stable beam to the ISOL target and the radioactive beam to the high-energy experimental area in Linac-2 end.

  7. Issues for Bringing Electron Beam Irradiators On-Line

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.

    1999-04-20

    Irradiation of red meat and poultry has been approved by the U.S. FDA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's rule for processing red meat is out for comment. Looking beyond the current issues of packaging materials, labeling, and consumer acceptance, this paper reviews the next step of implementation and how to remove, or at least reduce, the barriers to utilization. Polls of the user community identified their requirements for electron beam or x-ray processing of meat or poultry and their concerns about implementation for on-line processing. These needs and issues are compared to the capabilities of the accelerator industry. The critical issues of beam utilization and dose uniformity, factors affecting floor space requirements, and treatment costs are examined.

  8. Beam Line VI REC-steel hybrid wiggler for SSRL

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.; Chan, T.; Chin, J.W.G.; Halbach, K.; Kim, K.J.; Winick, H.; Yang, J.

    1983-03-01

    A wiggler magnet with 27 periods, each 7 cm long which reaches 1.21 T at a 1.2 cm gap and 1.64 T at 0.8 cm gap has been designed and is in fabrication. Installation in SPEAR is scheduled for mid 1983. This new wiggler will be the radiation source for a new high intensity synchrotron radiation beam line at SSRL. The magnet utilizes rare-earth cobalt (REC) material and steel in a hybrid configuration to achieve simultaneously a high magnetic field with a short period. The magnet is external to a thin walled variable gap stainless steel vacuum chamber which is opened to provide beam aperture of 1.8 cm gap at injection and then closed to a smaller aperture (< 1.0 cm). Five independent drive systems are provided to adjust the magnet and chamber gaps and alignment. Magnetic design, construction details and magnetic measurements are presented.

  9. Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Driven by Incoherent Laser Beams with Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximov, A. V.; Myatt, J. F.; Short, R. W.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Seka, W.

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the effect of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has become one of the most important challenges for the effective coupling of laser energy to the target in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) (see, e.g., Ref. 1). CBET is based on the process of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) driven by multiple crossing laser beams in the regime of moderate SBS amplification gains, and is consequently sensitive to the frequency characteristics of the laser beams driving the ICF targets: smoothing by spectral dispersion or frequency shifts between the beams (colors). Different from reduced ray-type models used in large-scale hydrodynamic simulations with CBET, we have developed a laser-plasma interaction (LPI)-type model of CBET that is capable of capturing the effects of laser speckles and the non-paraxial propagation of multiple laser beams. The LPI-type CBET model has been applied to the interaction between incoherent laser beams with different colors and the differences from the ray-type CBET model have been shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  10. Requirements and guidelines for NSLS experimental beam line vacuum systems: Revision A

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, C.; Halama, H.; Thomlinson, W.

    1986-10-01

    Requirements are provided for NSLS beam line front ends and vacuum interlocks. Guidelines are provided for UHV beam line vacuum systems, including materials, vacuum hardware (pumps, valves, and flanges), acoustic delay lines and beam line fast valves, instrumentation, fabrication and testing, and the NSLS cleaning facility. Also discussed are the design review for experimenters' equipment that would be connected to the NSLS and acceptance tests for any beam line to be connected with the ring vacuum. Also appended are a description of the acoustic delay line as well as the NSLS vacuum standards and NSLS procedures. (LEW)

  11. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design.

  12. Noninterceptive beam energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Carter, H.; Plum, M.; Power, J.F.; Rose, C.R.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-05-05

    Several members of the Accelerator and Operations Technology (AOT) division beam-diagnostics team performed time-of-flight (TOF) beam-energy measurements in line D of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using developmental beam time. These measurements provided information for a final design of an on-line beam energy measurement. The following paper discusses these measurements and how they apply to the final beam energy measurement design. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. The High Resolution Powder Diffraction Beam Line at ESRF

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    The optical design and performance of the high-resolution powder diffraction beam line BM16 at ESRF are discussed and illustrated. Some recent studies carried out on BM16 are described, including crystal structure solution and refinement, anomalous scattering, in situ measurements, residual strain in engineering components, investigation of microstructure, and grazing-incidence diffraction from surface layers. The beam line is built on a bending magnet, and operates in the energy range from 5 keV to 40 keV. After the move to an undulator source in 2002, it will benefit from an extented energy range up to 60 keV and increased flux and resolution. It is anticipated that enhancements to the data quality will be achieved, leading to the solution of larger crystal structures, and improvements in the accuracy of refined structures. The systematic exploitation of anisotropic thermal expansion will help reduce the effects of peak overlap in the analysis of powder diffraction data. PMID:27366602

  14. Three-dimensional particle trajectories and waste beam losses in injection dump beam line of SNS accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The SNS ring injection dump beam line has been suffering high beam losses since its commissioning. In order to understand the mechanisms of the beam losses, we have performed 3D simulation studies of the beam line. The 3D models consist of three injection chicane dipoles and one injection dump septum magnet. 3D particle trajectories in the models are computed. We then extend particle optics calculations to the injection dump. Our studies have clearly shown some design and operation problems, that cause beam losses in the injection dump beam line. These include incorrect chicane dipole settings, incorrect position of a chicane dipole, too small aperture of injection dump septum, and inadequate focusing downstream. This paper reports our findings and the remedies to the injection beam loss problems.

  15. An Energy-Stabilized Varied-Line-Space-Monochromator UndulatorBeam Line for PEEM Illumination and Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; McKinney, Wayne; Domning, Ed; Doran, Andrew; Padmore, Howard

    2006-06-01

    A new undulator beam line has been built and commissioned at the Advanced Light Source for illumination of the PEEM3 microscope. The beam line delivers high flux beams over an energy range from C1s through the transition metals to include the M edges of the magnetic rare earth elements. We present details of the optical design, and data on the performance of the zero-order tracking of the photon energy.

  16. Construction of Superconducting Magnet System for the J-PARC Neutrino Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, T.; Wanderer, P.; Sasaki, K.; Ajima, Y.; Araoka, O.; Fujii, Y.; Hastings, N.; Higashi, N.; Iida, M.; Ishii, T.; Kimura, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Makida, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Ohhata, H.; Okamura, T.; Sakashita, K.; Sugawara, S.; Suzuki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tomaru, T.; Terashima, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Ichikawa, A.; Kakuno, H.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ganetis, G.; gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Muratore, J.; Parker, B.; Boussuge, T.; Charrier, J.-P.; Arakawa, M.; Ichihara, T.; Minato, T.; Okada, Y.; Itou, A.; Kumaki, T.; Nagami, M.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-10-18

    Following success of a prototype R&D, construction of a superconducting magnet system for J-PARC neutrino beam line has been carried out since 2005. A new conceptual beam line with the superconducting combined function magnets demonstrated the successful beam transport to the neutrino production target.

  17. Determination of the sequence of intersecting lines using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiye; Kim, MinJung; An, JinWook; Kim, Yunje

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify that the combination of focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) could be applied to determine the sequence of line crossings. The samples were transferred into FIB/SEM for FIB milling and an imaging operation. EDX was able to explore the chemical components and the corresponding elemental distribution in the intersection. The technique was successful in determining the sequence of heterogeneous line intersections produced using gel pens and red sealing ink with highest success rate (100% correctness). These observations show that the FIB/SEM was the appropriate instrument for an overall examination of document. PMID:27122423

  18. Working group session report: Neutron beam line shielding.

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, G. J.; Ikedo, Y.

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the differences between a 2-D model and a 3-D model for designing the beam-line shield for the HIPPO instrument at the Lujan Center at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have calculated the total (neutron and gamma ray) dose equivalent rate coming out of the personal access ports from the HIPPO instrument experiment cave. In order to answer this question, we have investigated two possible worst-case scenarios: (a) failure of the T{sub 0}-chopper and no sample at the sample position; and (b) failure of the T{sub 0}-chopper with a thick sample (a piece of Inconel-718, 10 cm diam by 30 cm long) at the sample position.

  19. Dipole corrector magnets for the LBNE beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.; Velev, G.; Harding, D.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The conceptual design of a new dipole corrector magnet has been thoroughly studied. The planned Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) beam line will require correctors capable of greater range and linearity than existing correctors, so a new design is proposed based on the horizontal trim dipole correctors built for the Main Injector synchrotron at Fermilab. The gap, pole shape, length, and number of conductor turns remain the same. To allow operation over a wider range of excitations without overheating, the conductor size is increased, and to maintain better linearity, the back leg thickness is increased. The magnetic simulation was done using ANSYS to optimize the shape and the size of the yoke. The thermal performance was also modeled and analyzed.

  20. Design of general apochromatic drift-quadrupole beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrøm, C. A.; Adli, E.

    2016-07-01

    Chromatic errors are normally corrected using sextupoles in regions of large dispersion. In low emittance linear accelerators, use of sextupoles can be challenging. Apochromatic focusing is a lesser-known alternative approach, whereby chromatic errors of Twiss parameters are corrected without the use of sextupoles, and has consequently been subject to renewed interest in advanced linear accelerator research. Proof of principle designs were first established by Montague and Ruggiero and developed more recently by Balandin et al. We describe a general method for designing drift-quadrupole beam lines of arbitrary order in apochromatic correction, including analytic expressions for emittance growth and other merit functions. Worked examples are shown for plasma wakefield accelerator staging optics and for a simple final focus system.

  1. Tuning the implosion symmetry of ICF targets via controlled crossed-beam energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, P; Divol, L; Williams, E; Weber, S; Thomas, C A; Callahan, D A; Haan, S W; Salmonson, J D; Dixit, S; Hinkel, D E; Edwards, M J; MacGowan, B J; Lindl, J D; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L

    2008-07-29

    Radiative hydrodynamics simulations of ignition experiments show that energy transfer between crossing laser beams allows tuning of the implosion symmetry. A new full-scale, three dimensional quantitative model has been developed for crossed-beam energy transfer, allowing calculations of the propagation and coupling of multiple laser beams and their associated plasma waves in ignition hohlraums. This model has been implemented in a radiative-hydrodynamics code, demonstrating control of the implosion symmetry by a wavelength separation between cones of laser beams.

  2. Geant4 simulations of proton beam transport through a carbon or beryllium degrader and following a beam line.

    PubMed

    van Goethem, M J; van der Meer, R; Reist, H W; Schippers, J M

    2009-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit were performed for the carbon wedge degrader used in the beam line at the Center of Proton Therapy of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The simulations are part of the beam line studies for the development and understanding of the GANTRY2 and OPTIS2 treatment facilities at PSI, but can also be applied to other beam lines. The simulated stopping power, momentum distributions at the degrader exit and beam line transmission have been compared to accurate benchmark measurements. Because the beam transport through magnetic elements is not easily modeled using Geant4a connection to the TURTLE beam line simulation program was made. After adjusting the mean ionization potential of the carbon degrader material from 78 eV to 95 eV, we found an accurate match between simulations and benchmark measurements, so that the simulation model could be validated. We found that the degrader does not completely erase the initial beam phase space even at low degraded beam energies. Using the validation results, we present a study of the usability of beryllium as a degrader material (mean ionization potential 63.7 eV). We found an improvement in the transmission of 30-45%, depending on the degraded beam energy, the higher value for the lower energies. PMID:19741273

  3. Radiation safety aspects of the operation of first three synchrotron beam lines of Indus-2.

    PubMed

    Nayak, M K; Nair, Haridas G; Bakshi, A K; Sahani, P K; Singh, Sunil; Khan, Saleem; Verma, Dimple; Dev, Vipin; Sahu, T K; Khare, Mukesh; Kumar, Vijay; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R M; Sharma, D N

    2015-04-01

    Five synchrotron radiation beam lines are commissioned and now under regular operation at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Indus-2 at Raja Ramanna Centre For Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore, India. Nine beam lines are under trial operation, and six beam lines are in the installation stage. In the early phase of installation of beam lines on Indus-2, three bending magnet beam lines, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS, BL-8), Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD, BL-11) and Angle Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (ADXRD, BL-12), were installed and commissioned, after approval from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India. These beam lines are pink (BL-8), white (BL-11) and monochromatic (BL-12), which are housed in specially designed shielded hutches. In order to ensure safety of users and other working personnel from ionizing radiations present in these beam lines, several safety systems are incorporated and safety procedures are followed. The paper describes the radiological safety aspects of the three beam lines during its initial commissioning trials and also the measurements on radiation levels carried out in and around the beam line hutches. PMID:25209995

  4. Beam optics of the AmPS extraction line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, R.

    1991-01-01

    The beam optics of the AmPS (Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher) are described. Definitions are outlined, and the beam elements and parameters are given. Developments relating to the electrostatic septum, chicane, beam transformer and bending through 90 degrees are described. The performance of the AmPS and beam diagnostics are discussed.

  5. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O.

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  6. Automatic sample Dewar for MX beam-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charignon, T.; Tanchon, J.; Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.; Theveneau, P.

    2014-01-01

    It is very common for crystals of large biological macromolecules to show considerable variation in quality of their diffraction. In order to increase the number of samples that are tested for diffraction quality before any full data collections at the ESRF*, an automatic sample Dewar has been implemented. Conception and performances of the Dewar are reported in this paper. The automatic sample Dewar has 240 samples capability with automatic loading/unloading ports. The storing Dewar is capable to work with robots and it can be integrated in a full automatic MX** beam-line. The samples are positioned in the front of the loading/unloading ports with and automatic rotating plate. A view port has been implemented for data matrix camera reading on each sample loaded in the Dewar. At last, the Dewar is insulated with polyurethane foam that keeps the liquid nitrogen consumption below 1.6 L/h. At last, the static insulation also makes vacuum equipment and maintenance unnecessary. This Dewar will be useful for increasing the number of samples tested in synchrotrons.

  7. Automatic sample Dewar for MX beam-line

    SciTech Connect

    Charignon, T.; Tanchon, J.; Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.; Theveneau, P.

    2014-01-29

    It is very common for crystals of large biological macromolecules to show considerable variation in quality of their diffraction. In order to increase the number of samples that are tested for diffraction quality before any full data collections at the ESRF*, an automatic sample Dewar has been implemented. Conception and performances of the Dewar are reported in this paper. The automatic sample Dewar has 240 samples capability with automatic loading/unloading ports. The storing Dewar is capable to work with robots and it can be integrated in a full automatic MX** beam-line. The samples are positioned in the front of the loading/unloading ports with and automatic rotating plate. A view port has been implemented for data matrix camera reading on each sample loaded in the Dewar. At last, the Dewar is insulated with polyurethane foam that keeps the liquid nitrogen consumption below 1.6 L/h. At last, the static insulation also makes vacuum equipment and maintenance unnecessary. This Dewar will be useful for increasing the number of samples tested in synchrotrons.

  8. Design of the axial beam line for the injection of high intensity beams into the Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud superconducting cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.

    1996-03-01

    At Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance source SERSE will be used as injector for the K-800 Superconducting Cyclotron which in the future will provide the intense light ion beams to be used as primary beams for the radioactive beam project EXCYT. The goal is to inject and accelerate a few pμA of fully stripped carbon and oxygen into the cyclotron with an emittance as close as possible to the typical acceptance of the cyclotron, which should be in the order of 50π mm mrad. The study of the beam line has been carried out by taking into account both the phase space growth due to space charge and the aberrations inside the magnets. The design has been based on the results of different codes (TRANSPORT, GIOSP, PARMILA). A few details on the diagnostics will also be given. The assembly of the beam line is scheduled for the summer of 1996, just before the transfer of the source SERSE from Grenoble to Catania.

  9. Beam Dynamics Studies in the RACE Project: MH1 transport line --low power regime operation-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidana, Carlos; Hunt, Alan; Beller, Denis

    2007-05-01

    As part of the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) a set of preliminary studies were conducted to design a transport beam line that could bring a 25MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator to a neutron-producing target inside a subcritical nuclear system. Because of the relatively low energy beam, the beam size and a relatively long beam line (implicating a possible divergence problem) the MH1 transport line was designed. Beam dynamics studies followed the beam optics ones and we present in this paper the first results of such studies. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.8

  10. Design study on the beam line for radioisotope production at KOMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung

    2015-10-01

    A beam line for radioisotope (RI) production was designed for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator at Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The specifications of the beam line are such that the energy is 100 MeV and the average current is 0.6 mA for a target size of 100 mm in diameter. The system consists of a beam transport system including a magnet, a vacuum system, beam diagnostics, power supplies and a control system. The key components of the system are the high-field 45 bending magnet, the beam scanning system and beam window. In this paper, the design of the beam line and its key components are presented.

  11. New Pulsed Cold Neutron Beam Line for Fundamental Nuclear Physics at LANSCE.

    PubMed

    Seo, P-N; Bowman, J D; Gericke, M; Gillis, R C; Greene, G L; Leuschner, M B; Long, J; Mahurin, R; Mitchell, G S; Penttila, S I; Peralta, G; Sharapov, E I; Wilburn, W S

    2005-01-01

    The NPDGamma collaboration has completed the construction of a pulsed cold neutron beam line on flight path12 at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). We describe the new beam line and characteristics of the beam. We report results of the moderator brightness and the guide performance measurements. FP12 has the highest pulsed cold neutron intensity for nuclear physics in the world. PMID:27308111

  12. New Pulsed Cold Neutron Beam Line for Fundamental Nuclear Physics at LANSCE

    PubMed Central

    Seo, P.-N.; Bowman, J. D.; Gericke, M.; Gillis, R. C.; Greene, G. L.; Leuschner, M. B.; Long, J.; Mahurin, R.; Mitchell, G. S.; Penttila, S. I.; Peralta, G.; Sharapov, E. I.; Wilburn, W. S.

    2005-01-01

    The NPDGamma collaboration has completed the construction of a pulsed cold neutron beam line on flight path12 at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). We describe the new beam line and characteristics of the beam. We report results of the moderator brightness and the guide performance measurements. FP12 has the highest pulsed cold neutron intensity for nuclear physics in the world. PMID:27308111

  13. REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES FOR NSLS EXPERIMENTAL BEAM LINE VACUUM SYSTEMS-REVISION B.

    SciTech Connect

    FOERSTER,C.

    1999-05-01

    Typical beam lines are comprised of an assembly of vacuum valves and shutters referred to as a ''front end'', optical elements to monochromatize, focus and split the photon beam, and an experimental area where a target sample is placed into the photon beam and data from the interaction is detected and recorded. Windows are used to separate sections of beam lines that are not compatible with storage ring ultra high vacuum. Some experimental beam lines share a common vacuum with storage rings. Sections of beam lines are only allowed to vent up to atmospheric pressure using pure nitrogen gas after a vacuum barrier is established to protect ring vacuum. The front end may only be bled up when there is no current in the machine. This is especially true on the VUV storage ring where for most experiments, windows are not used. For the shorter wavelength, more energetic photons of the x-ray ring, beryllium windows are used at various beam line locations so that the monochromator, mirror box or sample chamber may be used in a helium atmosphere or rough vacuum. The window separates ring vacuum from the environment of the downstream beam line components. The stored beam lifetime in the storage rings and the maintenance of desirable reflection properties of optical surfaces depend upon hydrocarbon-free, ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage ring vacuum systems will operate at pressures of {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}10} Torr without beam and {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}9} Torr with beam. Systems are free of hydrocarbons in the sense that no pumps, valves, etc. containing organics are used. Components are all-metal, chemically cleaned and bakeable. To the extent that beam lines share a common vacuum with the storage ring, the same criteria will hold for beam line components. The design philosophy for NSLS beam lines is to use all-metal, hydrocarbon-free front end components and recommend that experimenters use this approach for common vacuum hardware downstream of front

  14. The effects of magnetic fringe fields on beam dynamics in a beam transport line of a terahertz FEL source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Han; Xiong, Yongqian; Pei, Yuanji

    2014-11-01

    The transport line used in a terahertz FEL device has to transport electron beam through the entire system efficiently and meet the requirements of the beam parameters at the undulator entrance. Due to space limitations, the size of the magnets (five quadrupoles and two bending magnets) employed in the transport line was limited, and some devices were densely packed. In this paper, analyses of the effect of fringe fields and magnetic interference of magnets are presented. 3D models of these magnets are built and their linear optical properties are compared with those obtained by hard edge models. The results indicated that the effects of these factors are significant and they would cause a mismatch of the beam at the exit of the transport line under the preliminary lattice design. To solve this problem, the beam was re-matched using the particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  15. Crater Flux Transfer Events: Highroad to the X Line?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Chen, Li-Jen; Torbert, R. B.; Southwood, D. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Vrublevskis, A.; Mouikis, C.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Decreau, P.; Vaith, H.; Owen, C. J.; Sibeck, D. J.; Lucek, E.; Smith, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    We examine Cluster observations of a so-called magnetosphere crater FTE, employing data from five instruments (FGM, CIS, EDI, EFW, and WHISPER), some at the highest resolution. The aim of doing this is to deepen our understanding of the reconnection nature of these events by applying recent advances in the theory of collisionless reconnection and in detailed observational work. Our data support the hypothesis of a stratified structure with regions which we show to be spatial structures. We support the bulge-like topology of the core region (R3) made up of plasma jetting transverse to reconnected field lines. We document encounters with a magnetic separatrix as a thin layer embedded in the region (R2) just outside the bulge, where the speed of the protons flowing approximately parallel to the field maximizes: (1) short (fraction of a sec) bursts of enhanced electric field strengths (up to approximately 30 mV/m) and (2) electrons flowing against the field toward the X line at approximately the same time as the bursts of intense electric fields. R2 also contains a density decrease concomitant with an enhanced magnetic field strength. At its interface with the core region, R3, electric field activity ceases abruptly. The accelerated plasma flow profile has a catenary shape consisting of beams parallel to the field in R2 close to the R2/R3 boundary and slower jets moving across the magnetic field within the bulge region. We detail commonalities our observations of crater FTEs have with reconnection structures in other scenarios. We suggest that in view of these properties and their frequency of occurrence, crater FTEs are ideal places to study processes at the separatrices, key regions in magnetic reconnection. This is a good preparation for the MMS mission.

  16. An after-market, five-port vertical beam line extension for the PETtrace

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Severin, G. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Gagnon, K.; Nickles, R. J.

    2012-12-19

    Most commercial cyclotrons intended for medical isotope production provide a limited number of beam ports crowded into a minimal vault space. Taking advantage of our new lab construction, we planned and installed a beam-line on port Music-Sharp-Sign 2 of our GEMS PETtrace to bring beam to an additional 5 target positions. These are oriented in the vertical plane, with the downward directed beam well suited for molten target substrates.

  17. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  18. EXTRACTION COMPRESSION AND ACCELERATION OF HIGH LINE CHARGE DENSITY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, Enrique; Henestroza, E.; Peters, C.; Yu, S.S.; Grote, D.P.; Briggs, R.J.

    2005-05-20

    High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) applications require high line charge density ion beams. An efficient method to obtain this type of beams is to extract a long pulse, high current beam from a gun at high energy, and let the beam pass through a decelerating field to compress it. The low energy beam-bunch is loaded into a solenoid and matched to a Brillouin flow. The Brillouin equilibrium is independent of the energy if the relationship between the beam size (a), solenoid magnetic field strength (B) and line charge density is such that (Ba){sup 2} is proportional to the line charge density. Thus it is possible to accelerate a matched beam at constant line charge density. An experiment, NDCX-1c is being designed to test the feasibility of this type of injectors, where we will extract a 1 microsecond, 100 mA, potassium beam at 160 keV, decelerate it to 55 keV (density {approx}0.2 {micro}C/m), and load it into a 2.5 T solenoid where it will be accelerated to 100-150 keV (head to tail) at constant line charge density. The head-to-tail velocity tilt can be used to increase bunch compression and to control longitudinal beam expansion. We will present the physics design and numerical simulations of the proposed experiment.

  19. Fiber Optic Picosecond Laser Pulse Transmission Line for Hydrogen Ion Beam Profile Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Huang, Chunning; Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We present a fiber optic laser pulse transmission line for non-intrusive longitudinal profile measurement of the hydrogen ion (H-) beam at the front-end of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator. The 80.5 MHz, 2.5 ps, multi-killowatt optical pulses are delivered to the accelerator beam line through a large mode area polarization maintaining optical fiber to ensure a high measurement stability. The transmission efficiency, output laser beam quality, pulse jitter and pulse width broadening over a 100-ft fiber line are experimentally investigated. A successful measurement of the H- beam microbunch (~130 ps) profile is obtained. Our experiment is the first demonstration of particle beam profile diagnostics using fiber optic laser pulse transmission line.

  20. Evaluation of Hose in Hose Transfer Line Service Life for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-24

    RPP-6153, Engineering Task Plan for Hose-in-Hose Transfer System for the Interim Stabilization Program, defines the programmatic goals, functional requirements, and technical criteria for the development and subsequent installation of transfer line equipment to support Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program. RPP-6028, Specification for Hose in Hose Transfer Lines for Hanford's Interim Stabilization Program, has been issued to define the specific requirements for the design, manufacture, and verification of transfer line assemblies for specific waste transfer applications. Included in RPP-6028 are tables defining the chemical constituents of concern to which transfer lines will be exposed. Current Interim Stabilization Program planning forecasts that the at-grade transfer lines will be required to convey pumpable waste for as much as three years after commissioning. Prudent engineering dictates that the equipment placed in service have a working life in excess of this forecasted time period, with some margin to allow for future adjustments to the planned schedule. This document evaluates the effective service life of the Hose-in-Hose Transfer Lines, based on information submitted by the manufacturer and published literature. The effective service life of transfer line assemblies is a function of several factors. Foremost among these are process fluid characteristics, ambient environmental conditions, and the manufacturer's stated shelf life. This evaluation examines the manufacturer's certification of shelf life, the manufacturer's certifications of chemical compatibility with waste, and published literature on the effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of elastomeric materials to evaluate transfer line service life.

  1. Modeling of Chill Down in Cryogenic Transfer Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Matthew F.; Majumdar, Alok K.; Bennett, John C., Jr.; Malla, Ramesh B.; Rodriquez, Pete (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model to predict chill down in cryogenic transfer lines has been developed. Three chill down cases using hydrogen as the working fluid are solved: 1) a simplified model amenable to analytical solution, 2) a realistic model of superheated vapor flow, and 3) a realistic model of initially subcooled liquid flow. The first case compares a numerical model with an analytical solution with very good agreement between the two. Additionally, the analytical solution provides a convenient way to look at parametric effects on the chill down. The second and third cases are numerical models which provide temperature histories of the fluid and solid tube wall during chill down as well as several other quantities of interest such as pressure and mass flow rate. Of great interest is the ability to predict accurate values of chill down time (the time required to achieve steady-state cryogenic flow). The models predict that a 26 in. long, 3/16 in. ID aluminum tube has a shorter chill down time (approx. equal to 100 sec) and uses less hydrogen with superheated vapor flow than with initially subcooled liquid flow (greater than 200 sec for chill down).

  2. Transfer Casting From Ion-Beam-Textured Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Sovey, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Textured surfaces created on metals, ceramics, and polymers. Electron-bombardment ion thrustor used as neutralized-ion-beam source. Beam of directed, energetic ions alter surface chemistry and/or morphology of many materials. By adjusting ion energy and ion-beam current density impinging upon target, precise surface modifications obtained without risk of targetmaterial melting or bulk decomposition. Technique developed to generate precise, controllable, surface microstructures on metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  3. Single step high-speed printing of continuous silver lines by laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerto, D.; Biver, E.; Alloncle, A.-P.; Delaporte, Ph.

    2016-06-01

    The development of high-speed ink printing process by Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is of great interest for the printing community. To address the problems and the limitations of this process that have been previously identified, we have performed an experimental study on laser micro-printing of silver nanoparticle inks by LIFT and demonstrated for the first time the printing of continuous conductive lines in a single pass at velocities of 17 m/s using a 1 MHz repetition rate laser. We investigated the printing process by means of a time-resolved imaging technique to visualize the ejection dynamics of single and adjacent jets. The control of the donor film properties is of prime importance to achieve single step printing of continuous lines at high velocities. We use a 30 ps pulse duration laser with a wavelength of 343 nm and a repetition rate from 0.2 to 1 MHz. A galvanometric mirror head controls the distance between two consecutives jets by scanning the focused beam along an ink-coated donor substrate at different velocities. Droplets and lines of silver inks are laser-printed on glass and PET flexible substrates and we characterized their morphological quality by atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical microscope.

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet beam lines at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, the Brazilian synchrotron source

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, P.d.T. Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin'' Pacheco, J.G. ); d'A Samogin, E. ); de Castro, A.R.B. Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin''/UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6165, 13081 Campinas-SP )

    1992-01-01

    A TGM beamline for the spectral range 12--310 eV is being built at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS). This beam line consists of safety devices, a condensing mirror, a toroidal grating monochromator, and a refocusing mirror. This beam line has been assembled up to the exit slits. A spherical grating monochromator beam line has been designed for the spectral range 200--1000 eV. The performance is limited by the surface slope error in the gratings. If the rms figure error is 2 {mu}rad, the expected resolving power is better than 3000.

  5. Compensation of Beam Line Polarizing Effects at UE112 of BESSY II

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrdt, J.; Follath, R.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M.

    2010-06-23

    Reflections in synchrotron radiation beam lines tend to change the state of polarization of the radiation. This effect is more pronounced for steep angle of incidence, i.e. at low photon energy (say below 100 eV) beam lines. The APPLE II undulator UE112 at BESSY has all four magnetic rows shiftable and thus generates any state of polarization. To provide any intended polarization state at the sample we perform polarization measurements based on simple and fast linear polarization analysis that together with calculations of the undulator radiation predicts undulator settings that cancel beam line polarization effects.

  6. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  7. LIFE ESTIMATION OF TRANSFER LINES FOR TANK FARM CLOSURE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K

    2007-10-01

    A performance assessment is being performed in support of closure of the F-Tank Farm. The performance assessment includes the life estimation of the transfer lines that are used to transport waste between tanks both within a facility (''intra-area'' transfer) and to other facilities (''inter-area'' transfers). The transfer line materials of construction will initially provide a barrier to contaminant escape. However, the materials will degrade over time, most likely due to corrosion, and will no longer provide a barrier to contaminant escape. The life estimation considered the corrosion of the core pipe under exposure to soil, estimated the thickness loss due to general corrosion, and the percentage of wall area breached due to localized corrosion mechanisms. There are three types of transfer lines that are to be addressed within the performance assessment: Type I, Type II/IIA and Type III. The life of the transfer lines were estimated as exposed to soil. Localized and general corrosion of the transfer lines exposed to soil was estimated to provide input to the fate and transport modeling of the performance assessment. Pitting corrosion was found to be the controlling mechanism for the degradation of the transfer lines and their consequent ability to maintain confinement of contaminants. It is assumed that 75% of the transfer line is needed intact to provide this confinement function, i.e. once 25% of the line wall is breached, the lines are considered incapable of confining contaminants. It is recommended that the percentage breached curves be utilized for each transfer line as shown in Figure 1 for the various stainless steel transfer lines.

  8. A finite element approach for the line-to-line contact interaction of thin beams with arbitrary orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work is the development of a novel finite element formulation describing the contact interaction of slender beams in complex 3D configurations involving arbitrary beam-to-beam orientations. It is shown in a mathematically concise manner that standard beam contact models based on a point-wise contact force fail to describe a considerable range of configurations, which are, however, likely to occur in practical applications. On the contrary, the formulation proposed here models beam-to-beam contact by means of distributed line forces, a procedure that is shown to be applicable for arbitrary geometrical configurations. The proposed formulation is based on a Gauss-point-to-segment type contact discretization and a penalty regularization of the contact constraint. By means of detailed theoretical and numerical investigations, it is shown that this approach is more suitable for beam contact than possible alternatives based on mortar type contact discretizations or constraint enforcement by means of Lagrange multipliers. The proposed formulation is enhanced by a consistently linearized integration interval segmentation avoiding numerical integration across strong discontinuities. In combination with a smoothed contact force law and the employed C1-continuous beam elements, this procedure drastically reduces the numerical integration error, an essential prerequisite for optimal spatial convergence rates. The resulting line-to-line contact algorithm is supplemented by contact contributions of the beam endpoints, which represent boundary minima of the underlying minimal distance problem. Finally, a series of numerical test cases is analyzed in order to investigate the accuracy and consistency of the proposed formulation regarding integration error, spatial convergence behavior and resulting contact force distributions.

  9. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.

    2003-06-30

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  10. The MICE Muon Beam on ISIS and the beam-line instrumentation of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; et al.

    2012-05-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In this paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz instantaneous muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.

  11. A line scanned light-sheet microscope with phase shaped self-reconstructing beams.

    PubMed

    Fahrbach, Florian O; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    We recently demonstrated that Microscopy with Self-Reconstructing Beams (MISERB) increases both image quality and penetration depth of illumination beams in strongly scattering media. Based on the concept of line scanned light-sheet microscopy, we present an add-on module to a standard inverted microscope using a scanned beam that is shaped in phase and amplitude by a spatial light modulator. We explain technical details of the setup as well as of the holograms for the creation, positioning and scaling of static light-sheets, Gaussian beams and Bessel beams. The comparison of images from identical sample areas illuminated by different beams allows a precise assessment of the interconnection between beam shape and image quality. The superior propagation ability of Bessel beams through inhomogeneous media is demonstrated by measurements on various scattering media. PMID:21164769

  12. The Mechanical Design for the DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westenskow, Glen

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-msec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The down-stream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several speciality magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

  13. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guimei

    2011-12-31

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam

  14. 47 CFR 54.902 - Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support for transferred exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for Rate-of-Return Carriers § 54.902 Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support for transferred exchanges. (a) In the event that a rate-of-return carrier acquires exchanges from an entity that is also a rate-of-return carrier, Interstate Common Line Support for the transferred exchanges shall...

  15. Water Structure Studied by Far Infrared Spectroscopy in FTIR Beam Line of MIRRORCLE 20

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Nobuhiro; Moon, Ahsa; Kitagawa, Toshimichi; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-03-30

    Far infrared vibrational Spectroscopy for distilled water was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the FTIR beam line of MIRRORCLE 20. Synchrotron radiation was utilized as a light source for the absorption Spectroscopy in the frequency range from 100cm-1 to 20cm-1. Off-line measurements by black body radiation of ceramic heater were also examined in the range from 400cm-1 to 50cm-1. Wide range spectrum was obtained after the SR data merged the off-line data. We report the recent development in the beam line and the examples of spectra related to the water structure.

  16. Water Structure Studied by Far Infrared Spectroscopy in FTIR Beam Line of MIRRORCLE 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Nobuhiro; Moon, Ahsa; Yamada, Hironari; Kitagawa, Toshimichi

    2007-03-01

    Far infrared vibrational Spectroscopy for distilled water was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the FTIR beam line of MIRRORCLE 20. Synchrotron radiation was utilized as a light source for the absorption Spectroscopy in the frequency range from 100cm-1 to 20cm-1. Off-line measurements by black body radiation of ceramic heater were also examined in the range from 400cm-1 to 50cm-1. Wide range spectrum was obtained after the SR data merged the off-line data. We report the recent development in the beam line and the examples of spectra related to the water structure.

  17. Beam Loss Studies for the 2-MW LBNE Proton Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Childress, S.R.; Mokhov, N.V.; Tropin, I.S.; Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Severe limits are put on allowable beam loss during extraction and transport of a 2.3 MW primary proton beam for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab. Detailed simulations with the STRUCT and MARS codes have evaluated the impact of beam loss of 1.6 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 120 GeV, ranging from a single pulse full loss to sustained small fractional loss. It is shown that loss of a single beam pulse at 2.3 MW will result in a catastrophic event: beam pipe destruction, damaged magnets and very high levels of residual radiation inside and outside the tunnel. Acceptable beam loss limits have been determined and robust solutions developed to enable efficient proton beam operation under these constraints.

  18. The Brookhaven ATF low-emittance beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics); Kirk, H.G. )

    1991-01-01

    One component of the experimental program at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) consists of a class of experiments which will study the acceleration of electrons through micron-size structures which are exposed in coincidence to a 100 GW CO{sub 2} laser beam. These experiments require the development and control of an electron beam with geometric emittances on the order of 10{sup {minus}10} m-rad and intensities on the order of 10{sup 6} electrons. In this paper, we describe the strategies for producing such beams and the effects of high-order aberrations. Particle tracking results are presented for the final-focus system. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Database Applications to Integrate Beam Line Optics Changes with the Engineering Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Bellomo, P.; Crane, G.R.; Emma, P.; Grunhaus, E.; Luchini, K.; MacGregor, I.A.; Marsh, D.S.; Pope, R.; Prickett, P.; Rago, C.; Ratcliffe, K.; Shab, T.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    The LCLS project databases provide key nomenclature information while integrating many engineering and physics processes in the building of an accelerator. Starting with the elements existing in the beam line optics files, the engineers add non-beam-line elements, and controls engineers assign ''Formal Device Names'' to these elements. Inventory, power supplies, racks, crates and cable plants are databases that are being integrated into the project database. This approach replaces individual spreadsheets and/or integrates standalone existing institutional databases.

  20. Status of the PXIE Low Energy Beam Transport Line

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, Lionel; Andrews, Richard; Chen, Alex; Hanna, Bruce; Scarpine, Victor; Shemyakin, Alexander; Steimel, Jim; D'Arcy, Richard

    2014-07-01

    A CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac (a.k.a. PIP-II) is envisaged as a possible path for upgrading Fermilab’s injection complex [1]. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator (a.k.a. PXIE) [2] is under construction. The warm part of this accelerator comprises a 10 mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2m-long LEBT, a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, and a MEBT that feeds the first cryomodule. In addition to operating in the nominal CW mode, the LEBT should be able to produce a pulsed beam for both PXIE commissioning and modelling of the front-end nominal operation in the pulsed mode. Concurrently, it needs to provide effective means of inhibiting beam as part of the overall machine protection system. A peculiar feature of the present LEBT design is the capability of using the ~1m-long section immediately preceding the RFQ in two regimes of beam transport dynamics: neutralized and space charge dominated. This paper introduces the PXIE LEBT, reports on the status of the ion source and LEBT installation, and presents the first beam measurements.

  1. Effects of carbon-ion beams on human pancreatic cancer cell lines that differ in genetic status.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshifumi; Asano, Takehide; Kenmochi, Takashi; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi; Ochiai, Takenori

    2004-02-01

    The relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of carbon-ion beams at 3 different linear energy transfer (LET) values (13, 50, and 80 keV/microm) accelerated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba on human pancreatic cancer cell lines differing in genetic status was determined. The RBE values were calculated as D10, the dose (Gy) required to reduce the surviving fraction to 10%, relative to X-rays. We also investigated apoptosis and the relationship between D10 and the cell cycle checkpoint using morphologic examination and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The RBE values calculated by the D10 values ranged from 1.16 to 1.77 for the 13-keV/microm beam and from 1.83 to 2.46 for the 80-keV/microm beam. A correlation between the D10 values of each cell line and intensity of G2/M arrest was observed. In contrast, LET values did not clearly correlate with induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that carbon-ion beam therapy is a promising modality. Elucidation of the mechanisms of G2/M arrest and apoptosis may provide clues to enhancing the effects of radiation on pancreatic cancer. PMID:14758129

  2. Characterisation and optimisation of flexible transfer lines for liquid helium. Part I: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, N.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Hesse, U.; Krzyzowski, M.

    2016-04-01

    The transfer of liquid helium (LHe) into mobile dewars or transport vessels is a common and unavoidable process at LHe decant stations. During this transfer reasonable amounts of LHe evaporate due to heat leak and pressure drop. Thus generated helium gas needs to be collected and reliquefied which requires a huge amount of electrical energy. Therefore, the design of transfer lines used at LHe decant stations has been optimised to establish a LHe transfer with minor evaporation losses which increases the overall efficiency and capacity of LHe decant stations. This paper presents the experimental results achieved during the thermohydraulic optimisation of a flexible LHe transfer line. An extensive measurement campaign with a set of dedicated transfer lines equipped with pressure and temperature sensors led to unique experimental data of this specific transfer process. The experimental results cover the heat leak, the pressure drop, the transfer rate, the outlet quality, and the cool-down and warm-up behaviour of the examined transfer lines. Based on the obtained results the design of the considered flexible transfer line has been optimised, featuring reduced heat leak and pressure drop.

  3. Image quality improvement in megavoltage cone beam CT using an imaging beam line and a sintered pixelated array system

    SciTech Connect

    Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Maltz, Jonathan S.; Gangadharan, Bijumon; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Anderson, Carryn M.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Stiles, Jared; Edwards, Drake S.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To quantify the improvement in megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) image quality enabled by the combination of a 4.2 MV imaging beam line (IBL) with a carbon electron target and a detector system equipped with a novel sintered pixelated array (SPA) of translucent Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S ceramic scintillator. Clinical MVCBCT images are traditionally acquired with the same 6 MV treatment beam line (TBL) that is used for cancer treatment, a standard amorphous Si (a-Si) flat panel imager, and the Kodak Lanex Fast-B (LFB) scintillator. The IBL produces a greater fluence of keV-range photons than the TBL, to which the detector response is more optimal, and the SPA is a more efficient scintillator than the LFB. Methods: A prototype IBL + SPA system was installed on a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator equipped with the MVision{sup TM} image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. A SPA strip consisting of four neighboring tiles and measuring 40 cm by 10.96 cm in the crossplane and inplane directions, respectively, was installed in the flat panel imager. Head- and pelvis-sized phantom images were acquired at doses ranging from 3 to 60 cGy with three MVCBCT configurations: TBL + LFB, IBL + LFB, and IBL + SPA. Phantom image quality at each dose was quantified using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) metrics. Head and neck, thoracic, and pelvic (prostate) cancer patients were imaged with the three imaging system configurations at multiple doses ranging from 3 to 15 cGy. The systems were assessed qualitatively from the patient image data. Results: For head and neck and pelvis-sized phantom images, imaging doses of 3 cGy or greater, and relative electron densities of 1.09 and 1.48, the CNR average improvement factors for imaging system change of TBL + LFB to IBL + LFB, IBL + LFB to IBL + SPA, and TBL + LFB to IBL + SPA were 1.63 (p < 10{sup -8}), 1.64 (p < 10{sup -13}), 2.66 (p < 10{sup -9}), respectively. For all imaging

  4. Transferring the Energy of Hadron Beams to Lepton Beams via Plasma Wakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, W. B.; Lu, W.; An, W.; Joshi, C.; Huang, C.; Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2010-11-01

    Hadron beams (p^- & p^+) exist at Fermilab and CERN could be used to drive high gradient plasma wakefields for accelerating trailing lepton (e^- & e^+) beams. We consider what would be possible if the existing hadron beams could be compressed and if existing beams excite wakes via self-modulation instabilities. A compressed p^- beam drives an identical wake as an electron beam [1] with the same current. However, for this case dephasing (not pump depletion) limits the acceleration length. Simulation results show that a witness electron bunch can gain more than 600 GeV in a 1 TeV p^- beam driven PWFA during 50 meters acceleration. For the p^+ beam, driving a similar wake by using a short p^+ beam for accelerating electrons has been proposed recently [2]. Although p^+ beam available at CERN is much longer, a train of short bunches may be generated through self-modulation as the long bunch propagates in the plasma [3]. Preliminary simulation results for such interactions will be presented. [1] I. Blumenfeld et al., Nature 445, 741 (2007) [2] A. Caldwell et al., Nature Phys. 5, 363 (2009) [3] N. Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 255003 (2010)

  5. Energy Amplification and Beam Bunching in a Pulse Line Ion Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P K; Waldron, W L; Yu, S S; Coleman, J E; Henestroza, E; Grote, D P; Baca, D; Bieniosek, F M; Briggs, R J; Davidson, R C; Eylon, S; Friedman, A; Greenway, W G; Leitner, M; Logan, G B; Reginato, L L; Seidl, P A

    2006-06-08

    In a first beam dynamics validation experiment for a new Pulse Line Ion Acceleration (PLIA) concept, the predicted energy amplification and beam bunching were experimentally observed. Beam energy modulation of -80 keV to +150 keV was measured using a PLIA input voltage waveform of -21 kV to +12 kV. Ion pulses accelerated by 150 keV, and bunching by a factor of four were simultaneously achieved. The measured longitudinal phase space and current waveform of the accelerated beam are in good agreement with 3-D particle-in-cell simulations.

  6. Dual exposure (e-beam and i-line) of OCG-895i resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojko, Richard J.; Pugh, Graham M.

    1993-06-01

    A process is described in which OCG-895i resist is exposed using both e-beam and i-line optical exposures. This dual exposure allows efficient writing of patterns requiring both fine geometries and large areas in a single lithographic layer. The unique aspect of this process is that the two exposure methods use completely independent developers. This allows the optical exposures to be aligned directly to the e-beam exposed resist, eliminating the need for 'zero- level' alignment marks. E-beam features as small as 200 nm lines and spaces, connected by large photo-exposed pads, have been fabricated. The process presented here results in e-beam contrast of 4.8, with insignificant unexposed film loss. The photo-exposure characteristics are unchanged by the e-beam exposure and develop process. The application of this process to the fabrication of surface acoustic wave devices is discussed.

  7. Generation of a cold pulsed beam of Rb atoms by transfer from a 3D magneto-optic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanu, Sapam Ranjita; Rathod, Ketan D.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a technique for producing a cold pulsed beam of atoms by transferring a cloud of atoms trapped in a three dimensional magneto-optic trap (MOT). The MOT is loaded by heating a getter source of Rb atoms. We show that it is advantageous to transfer with two beams (with a small angle between them) compared to a single beam, because the atoms stop interacting with the beams in the two-beam technique, which results in a Gaussian velocity distribution. The atoms are further cooled in optical molasses by turning off the MOT magnetic field before the transfer beams are turned on.

  8. Defocusing beam line design for an irradiation facility at the TAEA SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencer, A.; Demirköz, B.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Yiğitoğlu, M.

    2016-07-01

    Electronic components must be tested to ensure reliable performance in high radiation environments such as Hi-Limu LHC and space. We propose a defocusing beam line to perform proton irradiation tests in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority SANAEM Proton Accelerator Facility was inaugurated in May 2012 for radioisotope production. The facility has also an R&D room for research purposes. The accelerator produces protons with 30 MeV kinetic energy and the beam current is variable between 10 μA and 1.2 mA. The beam kinetic energy is suitable for irradiation tests, however the beam current is high and therefore the flux must be lowered. We plan to build a defocusing beam line (DBL) in order to enlarge the beam size, reduce the flux to match the required specifications for the irradiation tests. Current design includes the beam transport and the final focusing magnets to blow up the beam. Scattering foils and a collimator is placed for the reduction of the beam flux. The DBL is designed to provide fluxes between 107 p /cm2 / s and 109 p /cm2 / s for performing irradiation tests in an area of 15.4 cm × 21.5 cm. The facility will be the first irradiation facility of its kind in Turkey.

  9. Examination of the CLIC drive beam pipe design for thermal distortion caused by distributed beam line

    SciTech Connect

    C. Johnson; K. Kloeppel

    1997-01-01

    Beam transport programs are widely used to estimate the distribution of power deposited in accelerator structures by particle beams, either intentionally as for targets or beam dumps or accidentally owing the beam loss incidents. While this is usually adequate for considerations of radiation safety, it does not reveal the expected temperature rise and its effect on structural integrity. To find this, thermal diffusion must be taken into account, requiring another step in the analysis. The method that has been proposed is to use the output of a transport program, perhaps modified, as input for a finite element analysis program that can solve the thermal diffusion equation. At Cern, the design of the CLIC beam pipe has been treated in this fashion. The power distribution produced in the walls by a distributed beam loss was found according to the widely-used electron shower code EGS4. The distribution of power density was then used to form the input for the finite element analysis pro gram ANSYS, which was able to find the expected temperature rise and the resulting thermal distortion. As a result of these studies, the beam pipe design can be modified to include features that will counteract such distortion.

  10. A new antiproton beam transfer scheme without coalescing

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou et al.

    2003-06-04

    An effective way to increase the luminosity in the Fermilab Tevatron collider program Run2 is to improve the overall antiproton transfer efficiency. During antiproton coalescing in the Main Injector (MI), about 10-15% particles get lost. This loss could be avoided in a new antiproton transfer scheme that removes coalescing from the process. Moreover, this scheme would also eliminate emittance dilution due to coalescing. This scheme uses a 2.5 MHz RF system to transfer antiprotons from the Accumulator to the Main Injector. It is then followed by a bunch rotation in the MI to shorten the bunch length so that it can be captured by a 53 MHz RF bucket. Calculations and ESME simulations show that this scheme works. No new hardware is needed to implement this scheme.

  11. Py4CAtS - Python tools for line-by-line modelling of infrared atmospheric radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Franz; García, Sebastián Gimeno

    2013-05-01

    Py4CAtS — Python scripts for Computational ATmospheric Spectroscopy is a Python re-implementation of the Fortran infrared radiative transfer code GARLIC, where compute-intensive code sections utilize the Numeric/Scientific Python modules for highly optimized array-processing. The individual steps of an infrared or microwave radiative transfer computation are implemented in separate scripts to extract lines of relevant molecules in the spectral range of interest, to compute line-by-line cross sections for given pressure(s) and temperature(s), to combine cross sections to absorption coefficients and optical depths, and to integrate along the line-of-sight to transmission and radiance/intensity. The basic design of the package, numerical and computational aspects relevant for optimization, and a sketch of the typical workflow are presented.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Thermofluid Transients During Chilldown of Cryogenic Transfer Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Steadman, Todd

    2003-01-01

    The chilldown of fluid transfer lines is an important part of using cryogenic systems such as those found in both ground and space based applications. The chilldown process is a complex combination of both thermal and fluid transient phenomena. A cryogenic liquid flows through a transfer line that is initially at a much higher temperature than the cryogen. Transient heat transfer processes between the liquid and transfer line cause vaporization of the liquid, and this phase change can cause transient pressure and flow surges in the liquid. As the transfer line is cooled, these effects diminish until the liquid reaches a steady flow condition in the chilled transfer line. If these transient phenomena are not properly accounted for in the design process of a cryogenic system, it can lead to damage or failure of system components during operation. For such cases, analytical modeling is desirable for ensuring that a cryogenic system transfer line design is adequate for handling the effects of a chilldown process. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a numerical model developed using Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP)'s new fluid transient capability in combination with its previously developed thermal transient capability to predict pressure and flow surge in cryogenic transfer lines during a chilldown process. An experiment performed by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in 1966 has been chosen as the baseline comparison case for this work. NBS s experimental set-up consisted of a 10.59 cu ft supply dewar, an inlet valve, and a 200 ft long, - in Outside Diameter (OD) vacuum jacketed copper transfer line that exhausted to atmosphere. Three different inlet valves, a - in port ball valve, a 1 in port globe valve and a 1 in port gate valve, were used in NBS s experiments. Experiments were performed using both liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen as the fluids. The proposed paper will include detailed comparisons of GFSSP s predictions

  13. Mitigated subsurface transfer line leak resulting in a surface pool

    SciTech Connect

    SCOTT, D.L.

    1999-02-08

    This analysis evaluates the mitigated consequences of a potential waste transfer spill from an underground pipeline. The spill forms a surface pool. One waste composite, a 67% liquid, 33% solid, from a single shell tank is evaluated. Even drain back from a very long pipeline (50,000 ft), does not pose dose consequences to the onsite or offsite individual above guideline values.

  14. Production of drip-line nuclei at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Atsumi

    2014-09-01

    Production cross-sections and secondary-beam yields of very neutron rich nuclei near neutron drip-line at 200--250 MeV/u have been investigated at RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF). RIBF is the next generation RI beam facility, which can produce a variety of exotic nuclei with high intensity. The measurement of production yields of 19B, 22C, which are located on the neutron drip-line, and neighboring isotopes was made on the occasion of the Coulomb and nuclear breakup experiments of these halo nuclei at SAMURAI (Superconducting Analyzer for MUlti-particle from RAdioIsotope beams) facility at RIBF. We used 345 MeV/u 48Ca beam as primary beam, which impinged on 30 mm-thick Be target, to obtain secondary beams by projectile fragmentation. The projectile fragments were then separated through Superconducting RI beam separator BigRIPS, and were identified by measuring time of flight (TOF), energy loss (ΔE), and magnetic rigidity (Bρ) by the standard detectors at 2nd stage of BigRIPS. We thus obtained production cross-sections and yields of carbon and boron isotopes. The production cross-sections and yields extracted were compared with the simulation code LISE using EPAX. We discuss these results and comparisons in this poster presentation.

  15. Insertion device and beam line plans for the Advanced Photon Source: A report and recommendations by the Insertion Device and Beam Line Planning Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    In the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) Conceptual Design Report (CDR), fifteen complete experimental beam lines were specified in order to establish a representative technical and cost base for the components involved. In order to optimize the composition of the insertion devices and the beam line, these funds are considered a ''Trust Fund.'' The present report evaluates the optimization for the distribution of these funds so that the short- and long-term research programs will be most productive, making the facility more attractive from the user's point of view. It is recommended that part of the ''Trust Fund'' be used for the construction of the insertion devices, the front-end components, and the first-optics, minimizing the cost to potential users of completing a beam line. In addition, the possibility of cost savings resulting from replication and standardization of high multiplicity components (such as IDs, front ends, and first-optics instrumentation) is addressed. 2 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Automation of beam based alignment for the PAL-XFEL undulator line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parc, Yong Woon; Hwang, Ilmoon; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2015-05-01

    An automated method of quadrupole beam based alignment in an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) undulator line is proposed. To realize the automatic beam based alignment (BBA) independently of operator's skill and efforts, the procedure is simplified. Simulation results on the BBA technique using two alignment stages for the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory XFEL's (PAL-XFEL) undulator line is carried out. After a standard mechanical alignment the quadrupoles are expected to be aligned to 100 μm rms from our previous experience. A rough alignment method in this study is able to align the quadrupoles to about 40 μm rms without any pre-handling of electron beam orbit or quadrupoles position. At the second stage, the singular value decomposition (SVD) method is applied to perform a fine alignment in which the trajectory of an electron beam is controlled within 5 μm rms to the ideal orbit. All procedures are programmable to perform the BBA automatically.

  17. Light Nuclei Studied with Nucleon Transfer Reactions Using Exotic Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A. H.; Rehm, K. E.; Greene, J. P.; Henderson, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jiang, C. L.; Moore, E. F.; Pardo, R. C.; Peterson, D.; Pieper, S. C.; Savard, G.; Schiffer, J. P.; Sinha, S.; Tang, X.; Wiringa, R. B.; Jisonna, L.; Segel, R. E.; Paul, M.

    2006-04-26

    Single-neutron transfer with the (d,p) reaction in inverse kinematics has been used to study the properties of the light nuclei 9Li and 7He. The results for 9Li and 7He are compared to the predictions of ab-initio models of nuclear structure. Different possibilities for excited states in 7He are discussed in the context of other recent experimental studies of 7He.

  18. Pulse-by-pulse multi-beam-line operation for x-ray free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Toru; Fukami, Kenji; Inagaki, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Hideaki; Kinjo, Ryota; Kondo, Chikara; Otake, Yuji; Tajiri, Yasuyuki; Takebe, Hideki; Togawa, Kazuaki; Yoshino, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    The parallel operation of plural undulator beam lines is an important means of improving the efficiency and usability of x-ray free-electron laser facilities. After the installation of a second undulator beam line (BL2) at SPring-8 Angstrom compact free-electron laser (SACLA), pulse-by-pulse switching between two beam lines was tested using kicker and dc twin-septum magnets. To maintain a compact size, all undulator beam lines at SACLA are designed to be placed within the same undulator hall located downstream of the accelerator. In order to ensure broad tunability of the laser wavelength, the electron bunches are accelerated to different beam energies optimized for the wavelengths of each beam line. In the demonstration, the 30 Hz electron beam was alternately deflected to two beam lines and simultaneous lasing was achieved with 15 Hz at each beam line. Since the electron beam was deflected twice by 3° in a dogleg to BL2, the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects became non-negligible. Currently in a wavelength range of 4-10 keV, a laser pulse energy of 100 - 150 μ J can be obtained with a reduced peak current of around 1 kA by alleviating the CSR effects. This paper reports the results and operational issues related to the multi-beam-line operation of SACLA.

  19. Modulation transfer function determination using the edge technique for cone-beam micro-CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Junyan; Liu, Wenlei; Gao, Peng; Liao, Qimei; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Evaluating spatial resolution is an essential work for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) manufacturers, prototype designers or equipment users. To investigate the cross-sectional spatial resolution for different transaxial slices with CBCT, the slanted edge technique with a 3D slanted edge phantom are proposed and implemented on a prototype cone-beam micro-CT. Three transaxial slices with different cone angles are under investigation. An over-sampled edge response function (ERF) is firstly generated from the intensity of the slightly tiled air to plastic edge in each row of the transaxial reconstruction image. Then the oversampled ESF is binned and smoothed. The derivative of the binned and smoothed ERF gives the line spread function (LSF). At last the presampled modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated by taking the modulus of the Fourier transform of the LSF. The spatial resolution is quantified with the spatial frequencies at 10% MTF level and full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) value. The spatial frequencies at 10% of MTFs are 3.1+/-0.08mm-1, 3.0+/-0.05mm-1, and 3.2+/-0.04mm-1 for the three transaxial slices at cone angles of 3.8°, 0°, and -3.8° respectively. The corresponding FWHMs are 252.8μm, 261.7μm and 253.6μm. Results indicate that cross-sectional spatial resolution has no much differences when transaxial slices being 3.8° away from z=0 plane for the prototype conebeam micro-CT.

  20. Heat transfer characteristics of gas-insulated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Minaguchi, D.; Ginno, M.; Itaka, F.; Ninomiya, K.; Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the heat transfer characteristics of GILs under constant temperatures and under changing temperatures influenced by solar radiation and wind. It was verified that values calculated by our heat transfer furmulas coincided well with measured values both for current-induced temperature rise of the conductor and enclosure and for temperature changes caused by solar radiation and wind. In addition, the influence of installation angle on conductor and enclosure temperature rises was investigated, and it was confirmed that the highest local temperature rises of a conductor and an enclosure above ambient temperature generally do not exceed the temperature rises of horizontal installation, although heat spots existed in tests.

  1. 1 to 2 GeV/c beam line for hypernuclear and kaon research

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-02-15

    A kaon beam line operating in the range from 1.0 to 2.0 GeV/c is proposed. The line is meant for kaon and pion research in a region hitherto inaccessible to experimenters. Topics in hypernuclear and kaon physics of high current interest include the investigation of doubly strange nuclear systems with the K/sup -/,K/sup +/ reaction, searching for dibaryon resonances, hyperon-nucleon interactions, hypernuclear ..gamma.. rays, and associated production of excited hypernuclei. The beam line would provide separated beams of momentum analyzed kaons at intensities greater than 10/sup 6/ particles per spill with a momentum determined to one part in a thousand. This intensity is an order of magnitude greater than that currently available. 63 references.

  2. A telescope proton recoil spectrometer for fast neutron beam-lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Nocente, M.; Ansell, S.; Frost, C. D.; Gorini, G.

    2015-07-01

    Fast neutron measurements were performed on the VESUVIO beam-line at the ISIS spallation source using a new telescope proton recoil spectrometer. Neutrons interact on a plastic target. Proton production is mainly due to elastic scattering on hydrogen nuclei and secondly due to interaction with carbon nuclei. Recoil protons are measured by a proton spectrometer, which uses in coincidence a 2.54 cm thick YAP scintillator and a 500μm thick silicon detector, measuring the full proton recoil energy and the partial deposited energy in transmission, respectively. Recoil proton spectroscopy measurements (up to Ep = 60MeV) have been interpreted by using Monte Carlo simulations of the beam-line. This instrument is of particular interest for the characterization of the ChipIr beam-line at ISIS, which was designed to feature an atmospheric-like neutron spectrum for the irradiation of micro-electronics.

  3. Ionisation Chambers and Secondary Emission Monitors at the PROSCAN Beam Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Doelling, Rudolf

    2006-11-20

    PROSCAN, the dedicated new medical facility at PSI using proton beams for the treatment of deep seated tumours and eye melanoma, is now in the commissioning phase. Air filled ionisation chambers in several configurations are used as current monitors, profile monitors, halo, position and loss monitors at the PROSCAN beam lines. Similar monitors based on secondary emission are used for profile and current measurements in the regime where saturation deteriorates the accuracy of the ionisation chambers.

  4. Generating a uniform transverse distributed electron beam along a beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yi; Cui, Xiao-Hao

    2015-11-01

    It has been reported that transverse distribution shaping can help to further enhance the energy extraction efficiency in a terawatt, tapered X-ray free-electron laser. Thus, methods of creating and keeping an almost uniform transverse distributed (UTD) beam within undulators are required. This study shows that a UTD electron beam can be generated within evenly distributed drift sections where undulators can be placed, by means of octupoles and particular optics. A specific design is presented, and numerical simulations are performed to verify the proposed method. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475202, 11405187) and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (2015009)

  5. High power coatings for line beam laser optics of up to 2-meter in length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, Mathias; Kohlhaas, Jürgen; Ebert, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Laser material processing plays an important role in the fabrication of the crucial parts for state-of-the-art smartphones and tablets. With industrial line beam systems a line shaped beam with a length above one meter and an average power of several thousand watts can be realized. To ensure excellent long axis beam homogeneity, demanding specifications regarding the substrate surface form tolerances and the coating uniformity have to be achieved for each line beam optic. In addition, a high laser damage threshold and a low defect density are required for the coatings. In order to meet these requirements, the MAXIMA ion beam sputtering machine was developed and built by LASEROPTIK. This contribution describes the functional principle of MAXIMA deposition machine, which adapts the ion beam sputtering technology with its highest coating quality to the field of large area deposition. Furthermore, recent developments regarding the process control by optical broadband monitoring are discussed. Finally experimental results on different thin film characteristics as for example the coating uniformity, the microstructure and the laser damage resistance of multilayers are presented.

  6. The mechanical design for the second axis beam transport line for the DARHT facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, L R; Alford, O J; Paul, A C; Shang, C C; Westenkow, G A

    1999-03-23

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) facility. The DARHT II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL, and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-µsec pulse length linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The downstream beam transport line is an 18-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 17 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several specialty magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and beam dumps. There is a high power beam dump, which is designed to absorb the 80-kJ of beam energy during accelerator start-up and operation. The beamline vacuum chamber has an 8-cm diameter aperture and operates at an average pressure of 10-7 Torr.

  7. Beam Stabilization in the SLAC A-line Using a Skew Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Mark D

    2002-09-27

    The E158 experiment at SLAC is a precision measurement of the left-right asymmetry in Moeller scattering at low Q{sup 2} utilizing a high-current long-pulse polarized electron beam scattering off unpolarized electrons in a liquid hydrogen target [1]. Tolerances on beam size and position/angle stability for E158 are extremely tight, but the electron beam is subject to intensity jitter, dispersion, and wakefield effects in the linac which tend to make it unstable. Horizontal emittance growth due to synchrotron radiation in the transport line from the linac to the target (''A-line'') reduces the sensitivity of the horizontal beam parameters at the target to incoming changes, but instability in the vertical plane was observed during the E158 pilot run. A skew quadrupole recently installed in the A-line 90 m upstream of the target has been used to couple the projected transverse emittances, increasing the vertical emittance of the beam and thereby reducing its sensitivity to incoming changes. Simulations of the performance of this skew quadrupole, along with measured beam data with and without the skew quadrupole, will be presented.

  8. Space-to-Space Power Beaming Enabling High Performance Rapid Geocentric Orbit Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Vassallo, Corinne; Tadge, Megan

    2015-01-01

    The use of electric propulsion is more prevalent than ever, with industry pursuing all electric orbit transfers. Electric propulsion provides high mass utilization through efficient propellant transfer. However, the transfer times become detrimental as the delta V transitions from near-impulsive to low-thrust. Increasing power and therefore thrust has diminishing returns as the increasing mass of the power system limits the potential acceleration of the spacecraft. By using space-to-space power beaming, the power system can be decoupled from the spacecraft and allow significantly higher spacecraft alpha (W/kg) and therefore enable significantly higher accelerations while maintaining high performance. This project assesses the efficacy of space-to-space power beaming to enable rapid orbit transfer while maintaining high mass utilization. Concept assessment requires integrated techniques for low-thrust orbit transfer steering laws, efficient large-scale rectenna systems, and satellite constellation configuration optimization. This project includes the development of an integrated tool with implementation of IPOPT, Q-Law, and power-beaming models. The results highlight the viability of the concept, limits and paths to infusion, and comparison to state-of-the-art capabilities. The results indicate the viability of power beaming for what may be the only approach for achieving the desired transit times with high specific impulse.

  9. Modeling of energy transfer between two crossing smoothed laser beams in a plasma with flow profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaitis, A.; Hüller, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Pesme, D.; Duchateau, G.; Porzio, A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the crossed beam energy transfer (CBET) between laser fields generated by optical smoothing methods. The energy transfer, as well as the angular distribution of the outgoing light fields are investigated for two incident smoothed laser beams in a plasma with a flow gradient, allowing for resonant transfer close to the sonic point. Simulations with the code HARMONY based on time-dependent paraxial light propagation are compared to simulations using a new approach based on paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO). Both approaches show good agreement for the average energy transfer past a short transient period, which is a promising result for the use of the PCGO method as a module within a hydrodynamics code to efficiently compute CBET in mm-scale plasma configurations. Statistical aspects related to role of laser speckles in CBET are considered via an ensemble of different phase plate realizations.

  10. Lessons from shielding retrofits at the LAMPF/LANSCE/PSR accelerator, beam lines and target facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    The experience in the past 7 years to improve the shielding and radiation control systems at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) provides important lessons for the design of radiation control systems at future, high beam power proton accelerator facilities. Major issues confronted and insight gained in developing shielding criteria and in the use of radiation interlocks are discussed. For accelerators and beam lines requiring hands-on-maintenance, our experience suggests that shielding criteria based on accident scenarios will be more demanding than criteria based on routinely encountered beam losses. Specification and analysis of the appropriate design basis accident become all important. Mitigation by active protection systems of the consequences of potential, but severe, prompt radiation accidents has been advocated as an alternate choice to shielding retrofits for risk management at both facilities. Acceptance of active protection systems has proven elusive primarily because of the difficulty in providing convincing proof that failure of active systems (to mitigate the accident) is incredible. Results from extensive shielding assessment studies are presented including data from experimental beam spill tests, comparisons with model estimates, and evidence bearing on the limitations of line-of-sight attenuation models in complex geometries. The scope and significant characteristics of major shielding retrofit projects at the LAMPF site are illustrated by the project to improve the shielding beneath a road over a multiuse, high-intensity beam line (Line D).

  11. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, T.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Naas, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-02-15

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed.

  12. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, T; Cee, R; Haberer, T; Naas, B; Peters, A

    2012-02-01

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed. PMID:22380336

  13. Evaluation and Compensation of Detector Solenoid Effects on Disrupted Beam in the ILC 14 mrad Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Toprek, Dragan; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2008-12-18

    This paper presents calculations of detector solenoid effects on disrupted primary beam in the ILC 14 mrad extraction line. Particle tracking simulations are performed for evaluation of primary beam loss along the line as well as of beam distribution and polarization at Compton Interaction Point. The calculations are done both without and with solenoid compensation. The results are obtained for the baseline ILC energy of 500 GeV center-of-mass and three options of beam parameters.

  14. An On-line Monitor for Fluence Distributions and Imaging of Scanning Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautard, C.; Balanzat, E.; Ban, G.; Batin, E.; Carniol, B.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Etasse, D.; Fontbonne, J. M.; Labalme, M.; Laborie, P.

    2007-11-01

    Clinical applications of hadron beams have generated a wide development of radiobiology experiments, especially at GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds), an ion accelerator in Caen. Biological samples are irradiated with ions in order to observe the induced biological effects. As these observations have to be related to the fluence distribution, an on-line beam monitor has been developed in order to measure and image fluence maps of each biological sample irradiation with a 1% uncertainty. This beam monitor has been tested with different types of ions at several energies and for intensities from 104 to 109 ions per second.

  15. Planar Be-implanted GaAs junction formation using swept-line electron beam annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.K.; De Jule, R.Y.; Soda, K.J.

    1983-12-01

    Comparative studies of swept-line electron beam annealing and furnace annealing of Be implanted in n-GaAs doped with Si are presented. Electron beam annealing causes less Be redistribution and results in fewer traps than furnace annealing, but causes site mixing of amphoteric Si. Planar Be-implanted junctions result in a p(+)-nu-n structure for the electron beam annealed samples, similar to thermally quenched samples. It is believed that this is caused by the incorporation of amphoteric Si on Ga and As sites during transient annealing, which produces results similar to thermal quenching. 14 references.

  16. Characterization of a tagged γ-ray beam line at the DAΦNE Beam Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; Argan, A.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Buonomo, B.; Chen, A. W.; D'Ammando, F.; Foggetta, L.; Froysland, T.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Marisaldi, M.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pellizzoni, A.; Prest, M.; Pucella, G.; Quintieri, L.; Rappoldi, A.; Tavani, M.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Valente, P.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.; Zambra, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Cocco, V.; Costa, E.; De Paris, G.; Del Monte, E.; Di Cocco, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorini, M.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Mastropietro, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Pacciani, L.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Porrovecchio, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Sabatini, S.; Soffitta, P.; Striani, E.; Vittorini, V.; Zanello, D.; Colafrancesco, S.; Giommi, P.; Pittori, C.; Santolamazza, P.; Verrecchia, F.; Salotti, L.

    2012-05-01

    At the core of the AGILE scientific instrument, designed to operate on a satellite, there is the Gamma Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) consisting of a Silicon Tracker (ST), a Cesium Iodide Mini-Calorimeter and an Anti-Coincidence system of plastic scintillator bars. The ST needs an on-ground calibration with a γ-ray beam to validate the simulation used to calculate the energy response function and the effective area versus the energy and the direction of the γ rays. A tagged γ-ray beam line was designed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali of Frascati (LNF), based on an electron beam generating γ-rays through bremsstrahlung in a position-sensitive target. The γ-ray energy is deduced by difference with the post-bremsstrahlung electron energy [1,2]. The electron energy is measured by a spectrometer consisting of a dipole magnet and an array of position sensitive silicon strip detectors, the Photon Tagging System (PTS). The use of the combined BTF-PTS system as tagged photon beam requires understanding the efficiency of γ-ray tagging, the probability of fake tagging, the energy resolution and the relation of the PTS hit position versus the γ-ray energy. This paper describes this study comparing data taken during the AGILE calibration occurred in 2005 with simulation.

  17. Optical design and performance of the X25 hybrid wiggler beam line at the NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, L.E.; Hastings, J.B.; Oversluizen, T.; Woodle, M.

    1991-01-01

    The X25 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) began full-power commissioning in 1990. It extracts radiation from a 27 pole hybrid wiggler, which produces up to 1.8 kW of total power with a peak horizontal density of 450 W/mrad and critical energy of 4.6 keV. The design and performance of the beam line optics are described, in particular the cooling of the first monochromator crystal. 28 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Off-Line Programming System of Multi-Axis Platform for Dual Beam Laser Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Ji-Hong; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Liu, Yi

    The multi-axis platform of dual beam laser welding (DBLW) can guarantee a good synchronism on double sides, adaptation and precision, thus it can be widely applied. On this platform, this paper studies critical technology of off-line programming of DBLW. It presents a U-oriented on double sides trajectory planning method based on the traditional method derived from single beam laser welding. Then a calibration strategy of structural parameters is rendered and G codes are produced by a postprocessor. At last the researchers develops the off-line programming system on CAM platforms and a simulation conducted proves the system satisfying the need.

  19. Remote Electric Power Transfer Between Spacecrafts by Infrared Beamed Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, Boris E.; Evdokimov, Roman A.; Legostaev, Victor P.; Lopota, Vitaliy A.; Sokolov, Boris A.; Tugaenko, Vjacheslav Yu.

    2011-11-01

    High efficient wireless electric energy transmission (WET) technology between spacecrafts by laser channel is proposed. WET systems could be used for remote power supplying of different consumers in space. First of all, there are autonomous technology modules for microgravity experiments, micro and nano satellites, different equipment for explorations of planetary surfaces, space transport vehicles with electric rocket propulsion systems. The main components of the WET technology consist of radiation sources on the base of semiconductor IR laser diodes; systems for narrow laser beam creation; special photovoltaic receivers for conversion of monochromatic IR radiation with high energy density to electric power. The multistage space experiment for WET technology testing is described. During this experiment energy will be transmitted from International Space Station to another spacecrafts like cargo transport vehicles (Progress or/and ATV) and micro satellites.

  20. No Vent Tank Fill and Transfer Line Chilldown Analysis by Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the analytical capability developed to model no vent chill and fill of cryogenic tank to support CPST (Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer) program. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) was adapted to simulate charge-holdvent method of Tank Chilldown. GFSSP models were developed to simulate chilldown of LH2 tank in K-site Test Facility and numerical predictions were compared with test data. The report also describes the modeling technique of simulating the chilldown of a cryogenic transfer line and GFSSP models were developed to simulate the chilldown of a long transfer line and compared with test data.

  1. Development of an Energy Efficient Cryogenic Transfer Line with Magnetic Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Quan-Sheng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Susta, Joseph T.; Hull, John R.; Demko, Jonathan A.; Britcher, Colin P.; Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Werfel, Frank; Bonnema, Edward C.

    2006-04-01

    In a conventional vacuum-jacketed cryogen transfer line, the major heat transfer is dominated by two modes: i) radiation between the warm outer pipe and the cold inner pipe and ii) thermal conduction through support members and penetrations. Magnetic levitation makes it possible to eliminate the conduction portion by use of non-contact support, consisting of high temperature superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnet (PM). Several transfer line prototypes (including a 6-meter prototype) have been designed and constructed to optimized the levitation and thermal performance. This paper reviews the key design/fabrication issues, such as levitation configuration, levitation force measurement, warm-support design using smart materials, fabrication process, and technical milestones throughout a 3-year period. This novel transfer line offers the potential of significant savings of cryogens and hence reduces the cost of crygon use.

  2. Present Status And First Results of the Final Focus Beam Line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bambade, P.; Alabau Pons, M.; Amann, J.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Apsimon, R.; Araki, S.; Aryshev, A.; Bai, S.; Bellomo, P.; Bett, D.; Blair, G.; Bolzon, B.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; Burrows, P.N.; Christian, G.; Coe, P.; Constance, B.; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Deacon, L.; Elsen, E.; /DESY /Valencia U., IFIC /KEK, Tsukuba /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Savoie U. /Fermilab /Ecole Polytechnique /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyungpook Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Savoie U. /Daresbury /Tokyo U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Tokyo U. /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC /University Coll. London /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC /Royal Holloway, U. of London /KEK, Tsukuba /Tokyo U. /SLAC /Tohoku U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Tokyo U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Brookhaven /SLAC /Oxford U., JAI /SLAC /Orsay /KEK, Tsukuba /Oxford U., JAI /Orsay /Fermilab /Tohoku U. /Manchester U. /CERN /SLAC /Tokyo U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Oxford U., JAI /Hiroshima U. /KEK, Tsukuba /CERN /KEK, Tsukuba /Oxford U., JAI /Ecole Polytechnique /SLAC /Oxford U., JAI /Fermilab /SLAC /Liverpool U. /SLAC /Tokyo U. /SLAC /Tokyo U. /KEK, Tsukuba /SLAC /CERN

    2011-11-11

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  3. Present status and first results of the final focus beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambade, P.; Alabau Pons, M.; Amann, J.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Apsimon, R.; Araki, S.; Aryshev, A.; Bai, S.; Bellomo, P.; Bett, D.; Blair, G.; Bolzon, B.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; Burrows, P. N.; Christian, G.; Coe, P.; Constance, B.; Delahaye, J.-P.; Deacon, L.; Elsen, E.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fukuda, M.; Gao, J.; Geffroy, N.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Guler, H.; Hayano, H.; Heo, A.-Y.; Honda, Y.; Huang, J. Y.; Hwang, W. H.; Iwashita, Y.; Jeremie, A.; Jones, J.; Kamiya, Y.; Karataev, P.; Kim, E.-S.; Kim, H.-S.; Kim, S. H.; Komamiya, S.; Kubo, K.; Kume, T.; Kuroda, S.; Lam, B.; Lyapin, A.; Masuzawa, M.; McCormick, D.; Molloy, S.; Naito, T.; Nakamura, T.; Nelson, J.; Okamoto, D.; Okugi, T.; Oroku, M.; Park, Y. J.; Parker, B.; Paterson, E.; Perry, C.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.; Renier, Y.; Resta-Lopez, J.; Rimbault, C.; Ross, M.; Sanuki, T.; Scarfe, A.; Schulte, D.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, C.; Suehara, T.; Sugahara, R.; Swinson, C.; Takahashi, T.; Tauchi, T.; Terunuma, N.; Tomas, R.; Urakawa, J.; Urner, D.; Verderi, M.; Wang, M.-H.; Warden, M.; Wendt, M.; White, G.; Wittmer, W.; Wolski, A.; Woodley, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamanaka, T.; Yan, Y.; Yoda, H.; Yokoya, K.; Zhou, F.; Zimmermann, F.

    2010-04-01

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line which aims to focus the low emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a vertical size of about 37 nm and to demonstrate nanometer level beam stability. Several advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools are used. In December 2008, construction and installation were completed and beam commissioning started, supported by an international team of Asian, European, and U.S. scientists. The present status and first results are described.

  4. Detecting damage in non-uniform beams using the dereverberated transfer function response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purekar, A. S.; Pines, D. J.; Purekar, A. S.

    2000-08-01

    Delamination damage in composite rotorcraft flexbeams caused by excessive vibratory and fatigue loads can lead to degradation in flapwise and lagwise performance of the rotor blade. In addition, delaminations can result in rapid fatigue failure of these tailored composite elements leading to catastrophic results. A novel damage detection strategy is evaluated in this work which attempts to exploit the dereverberated transfer function response of beams with tapered geometries. This approach avoids high fidelity finite element models of damaged one-dimensional beams with non-uniform geometries. To obtain the dereverberated transfer function response, a virtual control force is applied to the reverberated transfer function response to remove resonant and anti-resonant dynamics associated with the beam's boundary conditions. Magnitude and phase characteristics between each actuator and sensor can then be used to infer changing structural properties. Analytical and experimental results suggest that this approach can be used to quantitatively and qualitatively infer delamination damage in non-uniform beams. Experimental results are displayed for beams with varying thickness and width tapers.

  5. Application of an electron beam facility for heat transfer measurements in capillary tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunde, A. R.; Kramer, T.

    1977-01-01

    A unique method was developed for the determination of heat transfer coefficients for water flowing through capillary tubes using a rastered electron beam heater. Heat flux levels of 150 and 500 watts/sq cm were provided on the top surface of four square tubes. Temperature gradient along the tube length and mass flow rates versus pressure drop were measured.

  6. Toward neutron-rich nuclei via transfer reactions with stable and radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Myeong-Hwan; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Oh, Yongseok; Kim, Youngman

    2015-05-01

    The possibilities of production of yet-undiscovered neutron-rich isotopes of Ca, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Hf, W, Os, Hg, Pb, and Th are explored in various multinucleon transfer reactions with stable and radioactive beams. The probable projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies to produce these neutron-rich isotopes are suggested for future experiments.

  7. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L. D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-06-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  8. Evaluation of Wavelength Detuning to Mitigate Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Using the Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenty, P. W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Marozas, J. A.; Weaver, J.; Obenschain, S.; Schmitt, A.

    2014-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has become a serious threat to the overall success of polar-drive-ignition experiments. CBET redirects incident laser light before it can be absorbed into the target, thereby degrading overall target performance. CBET is particularly effective over the equator of the target, which is hydrodynamically very sensitive to such losses. A promising solution uses laser wavelength detuning between beams to break the resonance between them and reduce energy transfer. Testing this process for direct drive has been limited because of the lack of sufficient detuning capabilities. However, the Naval Research Laboratory's Nike laser has the capability of providing a wide range of detuning between its main drive and backlighter beams. This paper explores the design of an experimental platform on Nike to directly evaluate the benefit of frequency detuning in mitigating CBET. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  9. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.

    2011-11-01

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  10. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Collaboration: RITU-Gamma Gollaboration

    2011-11-30

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  11. Beam-line considerations for experiments with highly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    The APS offers exciting possibilities for a bright future in x-ray research. For example, measurements on the inner-shell photoionization of ions will be feasible using stored ions in ions traps or ion beams from an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source, or perhaps even a heavy-ion storage ring. Such experiments with ionic targets are the focus for the discussion given here on the optimization of photon flux on a generic beamline at the APS. The performance of beam lines X26C, X26A, and X17 on the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source will be discussed as specific examples of beam-line design considerations.

  12. Achieving Stability Requirements for Nanoprobe and Long Beam Lines at NSLS II. A Comprehensive Study

    SciTech Connect

    Simos,N.; Fallier, M.; Hill, J.; Berman, L.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Broadbent, A.

    2008-06-23

    Driven by beam stability requirements at the NSLS II synchrotron, such that the desired small beam sizes and high brightness are both realized and stable, a comprehensive study has been launched seeking to provide assurances that stability at the nanometer level at critical x-ray beam-lines, is achievable, given the natural and cultural vibration environment at the selected site. The study consists of (a) an extensive investigation of the site to evaluate the existing ground vibration, in terms of amplitude, frequency content and coherence, and (b) of a numerical study of wave propagation and interaction with the infrastructure of the sensitive lines. The paper presents results from both aspects of the study.

  13. ``Crater'' Flux Transfer Events: Highroad to the X-line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Southwood, D. J.; Cowley, S. W.; Vrublevskis, A.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Owen, C. J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Decreau, P.; Dorelli, J.; Lucek, E. A.; Mouikis, C.; Smith, C. W.

    2009-12-01

    A class of signatures of pulsed reconnection at the magnetopause called ``crater'' flux transfer events was discovered in the AMPTE data sets. Starting with the observation of an untypical temporal profile in the total field strength and the discovery of a magnetic boundary signature within FTEs, delineating an outer region where reconnection was still ongoing, a complex of signatures emerged, leading to the hypothesis of a layered structure in fields and plasmas. This led to a model of FTEs consisting of a bulge of reconnected fields and accelerated/heated plasma moving along the magnetopause past the spacecraft. We use the multi-spacecraft capability of Cluster to further support this model and to unravel the cause of the layering. To this end, we examine four-spacecraft Cluster observations of a ''crater'' FTE, one in a sequence observed in the magnetosphere on an outbound pass of the magnetopause. We employ data from the FGM, CIS, EDI, Whisper and EFW instruments, some at the highest resolution. We focus on the accelerated flows and their directional properties, and electric field fluctuations. By inter-comparing observations at the different spacecraft, spatial structures within the signatures are confirmed. Finally, we relate the observations to processes near the separatrices, electron and ion diffusion regions, and also show signatures of Hall physics.

  14. Intercomparison of three microwave/infrared high resolution line-by-line radiative transfer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, F.; Garcia, S. Gimeno; Milz, M.; Kottayil, A.; Höpfner, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.

    2013-05-01

    An intercomparison of three line-by-line (lbl) codes developed independently for atmospheric sounding - ARTS, GARLIC, and KOPRA - has been performed for a thermal infrared nadir sounding application assuming a HIRS-like (High resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder) setup. Radiances for the HIRS infrared channels and a set of 42 atmospheric profiles from the "Garand dataset" have been computed. Results of this intercomparison and a discussion of reasons of the observed differences are presented.

  15. GARLIC - A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code - GARLIC - is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus.

  16. Operating parameters of liquid helium transfer lines used with continuous flow cryostats at low sample temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, N.; Welker, D.; Haberstroh, Ch; Hesse, U.; Krzyzowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous flow cryostats are used to cool samples to a variable temperature level by evaporating a cryogen, e.g. liquid helium (LHe). For this purpose LHe is usually stored outside the cryostat in a mobile dewar and supplied through a transfer line. In general, the complete setup has to be characterised by the lowest possible consumption of LHe. Additionally, a minimum sample temperature can be favourable from an experimental point of view. The achievement of both requirements is determined by the respective cryostat design as well as by the transfer line. In the presented work operating data, e.g. the LHe consumption during cooldown and steady state, the minimum sample temperature, and the outlet quality are analysed to characterise the performance of a reference transfer line. In addition, an experimental transfer line with built-in pressure sensors has been commissioned to examine the pressure drop along the transfer line, too. During the tests LHe impurities occurred which restricted a steady operation.

  17. Portable reconfigurable line sensor (PRLS) and technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.P.; Buckle, T.H.; Blattman, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The Portable Reconfigurable Line Sensor (PRLS) is a bistatic, pulsed-Doppler, microwave intrusion detection system developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Air Force. The PRLS is rapidly and easily deployed, and can detect intruders ranging from a slow creeping intruder to a high speed vehicle. The system has a sharply defined detection zone and will not falsely alarm on nearby traffic. Unlike most microwave sensors, the PRLS requires no alignment or calibration. Its portability, battery operation, ease of setup, and RF alarm reporting capability make it an excellent choice for perimeter, portal, and gap-filler applications in the important new field of rapidly-deployable sensor systems. In October 1992, the US Air Force and Racon, Inc., entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to commercialize the PRLS, jointly sharing government and industry resources. The Air Force brings the user`s perspective and requirements to the cooperative effort. Sandia, serving as the technical arm of the Air Force, adds the actual PRLS technology to the joint effort, and provides security systems and radar development expertise. Racon puts the Air Force requirements and Sandia technology together into a commercial product, making the system meet important commercial manufacturing constraints. The result is a true ``win-win`` situation, with reduced government investment during the commercial development of the PRLS, and industry access to technology not otherwise available.

  18. An ion-beam injection line for the ELASR storage ring at KACST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Behery, S. A.; Almuqhim, A. A.; Almalki, M. H.; Alshammari, S. M.; Alrashdi, A. O.; Alamer, H. S.; Jabr, A. S.; Lanazi, A. Z.

    2016-01-01

    A versatile ion injector beam-line has been developed for the specific use in the multi-purpose low-energy, storage ring facility at the King Abdulaziz City for Sciences and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It incorporates a purpose-developed, high-resolution mass analyzing magnet and it is thereby dedicated to provide the ELASR storage ring with beams of ions of specific mass. It is also intended to operate independently as a single-pass experiment. This versatile ion-injection line was constructed in a staged approach, in which an axial injection version was built first, commissioned and is currently operating. The injection line in its final design is now being assembled and commissioned at KACST.

  19. Beam emittance measurements and simulations of injector line for radio frequency quadrupole.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Jose V; Rao, S V L S; Pande, Rajni; Singh, P

    2015-07-01

    A 400 keV deuteron (D(+)) radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, built, and commissioned at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. A beam line has been developed for injecting deuterons into the 400 keV RFQ. This comprises of a RF plasma ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system, consisting of two solenoid magnets and two steerer magnets. The ion source is characterized in terms of transverse beam emittance. A slit-wire scanner based emittance measurement setup has been developed for the transverse emittance measurements of H(+) and D(+) beams. The measured emittance values are found to be well within the acceptance value for the RFQ. These measured emittance parameters are used to optimize the solenoid fields in LEBT to match the beam from the ion source to RFQ. TRACEWIN simulation code is used for the beam transport simulations. The simulations show 99% transmission of D(+) beam through the RFQ, while 95% transmission has been measured experimentally. PMID:26233371

  20. Mechanical Design of a Heavy Ion Beam Dump for the RIA Fragmentation Line

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W; Ahle, L E; Conner, D L

    2005-04-28

    The RIA fragmentation line requires a beam stop for the primary beam downstream of the first dipole magnet. The beam may consist of U, Ca, Sn, Kr, or O ions. with a variety of power densities. The configuration with highest power density is for the U beam, with a spot size of 3 cm x 3 cm and a total power of up to 300 kW. The mechanical design of the dump that meets these criteria consists of a 70 cm diameter aluminum wheel with water coolant channels. A hollow drive shaft supplies the coolant water and connects the wheel to an electrical motor located in an adjacent air space. The beam strikes the wheel along the outer perimeter and passes through a thin window of aluminum where 15% of its power is absorbed and the remainder of the beam is absorbed in flowing water behind the window. Rotation of the wheel at 400 RPM results in maximum aluminum temperatures below 100 C and acceptably low thermal stresses of 3 ksi. Rotating the wheel also results in low radiation damage levels by spreading the damage out over the whole perimeter of the wheel. For some of the other beams, a stationary dump consisting of a thin aluminum window with water acting as a coolant and absorber appears to be feasible.

  1. Beam emittance measurements and simulations of injector line for radio frequency quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Jose V. Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, Rajni; Singh, P.

    2015-07-15

    A 400 keV deuteron (D{sup +}) radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, built, and commissioned at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. A beam line has been developed for injecting deuterons into the 400 keV RFQ. This comprises of a RF plasma ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system, consisting of two solenoid magnets and two steerer magnets. The ion source is characterized in terms of transverse beam emittance. A slit-wire scanner based emittance measurement setup has been developed for the transverse emittance measurements of H{sup +} and D{sup +} beams. The measured emittance values are found to be well within the acceptance value for the RFQ. These measured emittance parameters are used to optimize the solenoid fields in LEBT to match the beam from the ion source to RFQ. TRACEWIN simulation code is used for the beam transport simulations. The simulations show 99% transmission of D{sup +} beam through the RFQ, while 95% transmission has been measured experimentally.

  2. Powerloads on the front end components and the duct of the heating and diagnostic neutral beam lines at ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. J.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Urbani, M.; Dlougach, E.; Krylov, A.; Schunke, B.; Chareyre, J.

    2015-04-01

    The heating and current drive beam lines (HNB) at ITER are expected to deliver ˜16.7 MW power per beam line for H beams at 870 keV and D beams at 1 MeV during the H-He and the DD/DT phases of ITER operation respectively. On the other hand the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) line shall deliver ˜2 MW power for H beams at 100 keV during both the phases. The path lengths over which the beams from the HNB and DNB beam lines need to be transported are 25.6 m and 20.7 m respectively. The transport of the beams over these path lengths results in beam losses, mainly by the direct interception of the beam with the beam line components and reionisation. The lost power is deposited on the surfaces of the various components of the beam line. In order to ensure the survival of these components over the operational life time of ITER, it is important to determine to the best possible extent the operational power loads and power densities on the various surfaces which are impacted by the beam in one way or the other during its transport. The main factors contributing to these are the divergence of the beamlets and the halo fraction in the beam, the beam aiming, the horizontal and vertical misalignment of the beam, and the gas profile along the beam path, which determines the re-ionisation loss, and the re-ionisation cross sections. The estimations have been made using a combination of the modified version of the Monte Carlo Gas Flow code (MCGF) and the BTR code. The MCGF is used to determine the gas profile in the beam line and takes into account the active gas feed into the ion source and neutraliser, the HNB-DNB cross over, the gas entering the beamline from the ITER machine, the additional gas atoms generated in the beam line due to impacting ions and the pumping speed of the cryopumps. The BTR code has been used to obtain the power loads and the power densities on the various surfaces of the front end components and the duct modules for different scenarios of ITER operation

  3. Powerloads on the front end components and the duct of the heating and diagnostic neutral beam lines at ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Urbani, M.; Schunke, B.; Chareyre, J.; Dlougach, E.; Krylov, A.

    2015-04-08

    The heating and current drive beam lines (HNB) at ITER are expected to deliver ∼16.7 MW power per beam line for H beams at 870 keV and D beams at 1 MeV during the H-He and the DD/DT phases of ITER operation respectively. On the other hand the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) line shall deliver ∼2 MW power for H beams at 100 keV during both the phases. The path lengths over which the beams from the HNB and DNB beam lines need to be transported are 25.6 m and 20.7 m respectively. The transport of the beams over these path lengths results in beam losses, mainly by the direct interception of the beam with the beam line components and reionisation. The lost power is deposited on the surfaces of the various components of the beam line. In order to ensure the survival of these components over the operational life time of ITER, it is important to determine to the best possible extent the operational power loads and power densities on the various surfaces which are impacted by the beam in one way or the other during its transport. The main factors contributing to these are the divergence of the beamlets and the halo fraction in the beam, the beam aiming, the horizontal and vertical misalignment of the beam, and the gas profile along the beam path, which determines the re-ionisation loss, and the re-ionisation cross sections. The estimations have been made using a combination of the modified version of the Monte Carlo Gas Flow code (MCGF) and the BTR code. The MCGF is used to determine the gas profile in the beam line and takes into account the active gas feed into the ion source and neutraliser, the HNB-DNB cross over, the gas entering the beamline from the ITER machine, the additional gas atoms generated in the beam line due to impacting ions and the pumping speed of the cryopumps. The BTR code has been used to obtain the power loads and the power densities on the various surfaces of the front end components and the duct modules for different scenarios of ITER

  4. Dielectric wakefield acceleration of a relativistic electron beam in a slab-symmetric dielectric lined waveguide.

    PubMed

    Andonian, G; Stratakis, D; Babzien, M; Barber, S; Fedurin, M; Hemsing, E; Kusche, K; Muggli, P; O'Shea, B; Wei, X; Williams, O; Yakimenko, V; Rosenzweig, J B

    2012-06-15

    We report first evidence of wakefield acceleration of a relativistic electron beam in a dielectric-lined slab-symmetric structure. The high energy tail of a ∼60  MeV electron beam was accelerated by ∼150  keV in a 2 cm-long, slab-symmetric SiO2 waveguide, with the acceleration or deceleration clearly visible due to the use of a beam with a bifurcated longitudinal distribution that serves to approximate a driver-witness beam pair. This split-bunch distribution is verified by longitudinal reconstruction analysis of the emitted coherent transition radiation. The dielectric waveguide structure is further characterized by spectral analysis of the emitted coherent Cherenkov radiation at THz frequencies, from a single electron bunch, and from a relativistic bunch train with spacing selectively tuned to the second longitudinal mode (TM02). Start-to-end simulation results reproduce aspects of the electron beam bifurcation dynamics, emitted THz radiation properties, and the observation of acceleration in the dielectric-lined, slab-symmetric waveguide. PMID:23004279

  5. Line-by-line transport calculations for Jupiter entry probes. [of radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Cooper, D. M.; Park, C.; Prakash, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations of the radiative transport for a condition near peak heating for entry of the Galileo probe into the Jovian atmosphere are described. The discussion includes a thorough specification of the atomic and molecular input data used in the calculations that could be useful to others working in the field. The results show that the use of spectrally averaged cross sections for diatomic absorbers such as CO and C2 in the boundary layer can lead to an underestimation (by as much as 29%) of the spectral flux at the stagnation point. On the other hand, for the turbulent region near the cone frustum on the probe, the flow tends to be optically thin, and the spectrally averaged results commonly used in coupled radiative transport-flow field calculations are in good agreement with the present line-by-line results. It is recommended that these results be taken into account in sizing the final thickness of the Galileo's heat shield.

  6. Transmission line analysis of beam deflection in a BPM stripline kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu Ju; Poole, B.

    1997-05-01

    In the usual treatment of impedances of beamline structures the electromagnetic response is computed under the assumption that the source charge trajectory is parallel to the propagation axis and is unaffected by the wake of the structure. For high energy beams of relatively low current this is generally a valid assumption. Under certain conditions the assumption of a parallel source charge trajectory is no longer valid and the effects of the changing trajectory must be included in the analysis. Here the usual transmission line analysis that has been applied to BPM type transverse kickers is extended to include the self-consistent motion of the beam in the structure.

  7. SIMULATION OF NEUTRON BACKGROUNDS FROM THE ILC EXTRACTION LINE BEAM DUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Darbha, S; Keller, L.; Maruyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    The operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC) as a precision measurement machine is dependent upon the quality of the charge-coupled device (CCD) silicon vertex detector. An integrated fl ux of 1010 neutrons/cm2 incident upon the vertex detector will degrade its performance by causing displacement damage in the silicon. One source of the neutron background arises from the dumping of the spent electron and positron beams into the extraction line beam dumps. The Monte Carlo program FLUKA was used to simulate the collision of the electron beam with the dump and to determine the resulting neutron fl ux at the interaction point (IP). A collimator and tunnel were added and their effect on the fl ux was analyzed. A neutron source was then generated and directed along the extraction line towards a model of the vertex detector to determine the neutron fl ux in its silicon layers. Models of the beampipe and BeamCal, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter in the very forward region of the detector, were placed in the extraction line and their effects on scattering were studied. The IP fl uence was determined to be 3.7x1010 +/- 2.3x1010 neutrons/cm2/year when the tunnel and collimator were in place, with no appreciable increase in statistics when the tunnel was removed. The BeamCal was discovered to act as a collimator by signifi cantly impeding the fl ow of neutrons towards the detector. The majority of damage done to the fi rst layer of the detector was found to come from neutrons with a direct line of sight from the fi rst extraction line quadrupole QDEX1, with only a small fraction scattering off of the beampipe and into the detector. The 1 MeV equivalent neutron fl uence was determined to be 9.3x108 neutrons/cm2/year from the electron beam alone. The two beams collectively contribute double to this fl uence, which is 19% of the threshold value in one year. Future work will improve the detector model and other sources of neutron backgrounds will be

  8. Atom Interferometry with up to 24-Photon-Momentum-Transfer Beam Splitters

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Long, Quan; Herrmann, Sven; Chu, Steven

    2008-05-09

    We present up to 24-photon Bragg diffraction as a beam splitter in light-pulse atom interferometers to achieve the largest splitting in momentum space so far. Relative to the 2-photon processes used in the most sensitive present interferometers, these large momentum transfer beam splitters increase the phase shift 12-fold for Mach-Zehnder (MZ) and 144-fold for Ramsey-Borde (RB) geometries. We achieve a high visibility of the interference fringes (up to 52% for MZ or 36% for RB) and long pulse separation times that are possible only in atomic fountain setups. As the atom's internal state is not changed, important systematic effects can cancel.

  9. Exposure uniformity analysis and optimization for scanning mirror system in Hefei lithography beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Congliang; Yin, Chuanshi; Liu, Tonghui; Zhong, Aijuan; Qian, Shinan

    2001-10-01

    It is a new technology to use synchrotron radiation lithography for making large scale integral circuit. Synchrotron radiation lithography System is composed of lithography beam line and exposure chamber. A scanning mirror system is making the largest linear exposure area for integrate circuit. By means of increasing control fineness and optimizing scanning frequency in on-line control system, the uniformity of exposure grating is improved quite well. It is opening good idea for every scientist and technician to continue study. It is shown that inspect and control system is still reliable, noise reduced and very convenient after several years operation. It shows operating status of each equipment and vacuum figures on beam line and station, mirror scanning linearity, exposure time, beam current, and so on. Some successful soft X-ray lithography sub-micrometer results are achieved by different users in this system, they are showing very good resolution, more clear leakage and enough depth for example. A convenient and smart optimum analysis system will be developed soon. It is easy to find very good oscillation frequency for mirror vibrating, and the strong interference from current monitor in synchrotron radiation storage ring is reduced very well. Convenient, compact, reliability and safety are the basic but important idea of system design, and what is higher level consideration for getting fine result of micro lithography. There will have enough database space for a different kind user to storage on- line test datum in system.

  10. Line of Sight: A process for transferring science from the laboratory to the market place

    SciTech Connect

    LINTON,JONATHAN; WALSH,STEVEN; LOMBANA,CESAR A.; HUNTER,WILLARD B.; ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.

    2000-02-14

    Commercialization and transfer of technology from laboratories in academia, government, and industry has only met a fraction of its potential and is currently an art not a science. The line of sight approach developed and in use at Sandia National Laboratories, is used to better understand commercialization and transfer of technology. The line of sight process integrates technology description, the dual process model of innovation and the product introduction model. The model, that the line of sight is based OR is presented and the application of the model to both disruptive and sustaining technologies is illustrated. Work to date suggests that the differences between disruptive and sustaining technologies are critical to quantifying the level of risk and choosing the commercialization path. The applicability of the line of sight to both disruptive and sustaining technologies is key to the success of the model and approach.

  11. Cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams: A spectroscopic tool for neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottoni, S.; Leoni, S.; Fornal, B.; Raabe, R.; Rusek, K.; Benzoni, G.; Bracco, A.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Morales, A. I.; Bednarczyk, P.; Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Królas, W.; Maj, A.; Szpak, B.; Callens, M.; Bouma, J.; Elseviers, J.; De Witte, H.; Flavigny, F.; Orlandi, R.; Reiter, P.; Seidlitz, M.; Warr, N.; Siebeck, B.; Hellgartner, S.; Mücher, D.; Pakarinen, J.; Vermeulen, M.; Bauer, C.; Georgiev, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Balabanski, D.; Sferrazza, M.; Kowalska, M.; Rapisarda, E.; Voulot, D.; Lozano Benito, M.; Wenander, F.

    2015-08-01

    An exploratory experiment performed at REX-ISOLDE to investigate cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics is presented. The aim of the experiment was to test the potential of cluster-transfer reactions at the Coulomb barrier as a mechanism to explore the structure of exotic neutron-rich nuclei. The reactions 7Li(98Rb,α xn ) and 7Li(98Rb,t xn ) were studied through particle-γ coincidence measurements, and the results are presented in terms of the observed excitation energies and spins. Moreover, the reaction mechanism is qualitatively discussed as a transfer of a clusterlike particle within a distorted-wave Born approximation framework. The results indicate that cluster-transfer reactions can be described well as a direct process and that they can be an efficient method to investigate the structure of neutron-rich nuclei at medium-high excitation energies and spins.

  12. Beam-Based Alignment, Tuning and Beam Dynamics Studies for the ATF2 Extraction Line and Final Focus System

    SciTech Connect

    White, Glen R.; Molloy, S.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2008-07-25

    Using a new extraction line currently under construction, the ATF2 experiment plans to test the novel compact final focus optics design with local chromaticity correction intended for use in future linear colliders. With a 1.3 GeV design beam of 30nm normalized vertical emittance extracted from the ATF damping ring, the primary goal is to achieve a vertical spot-size at the IP waist of 37nm. We discuss our planned strategy for tuning the ATF2 beam to meet the primary goal. Simulation studies have been performed to asses the effectiveness of the strategy, including 'static' (installation) errors and dynamical effects (ground-motion, mechanical vibration, ring extraction jitter etc.). We have simulated all steps in the tuning procedure, from initial orbit establishment to final IP spot-size tuning. Through a Monte Carlo study of 100's of simulation seeds we find we can achieve a spot-size within {approx}10% of the design optics value in at least 75% of cases. We also ran a simulation to study the long-term performance with the use of beam-based feedbacks.

  13. Wireless power transfer and fault diagnosis of high-voltage power line via robotic bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunhua; Chau, K. T.; Zhang, Zhen; Qiu, Chun; Li, Wenlong; Ching, T. W.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new idea of wireless power transfer (WPT) and fault diagnosis (FD) of high-voltage power line via robotic bird. The key is to present the conceptual robotic bird with WPT coupling coil for detecting and capturing the energy from the high-voltage power line. If the power line works in normal condition, the robotic bird is able to stand on the power line and extract energy from it. If fault occurs on the power line, the corresponding magnetic field distribution will become different from that in the normal situation. By analyzing the magnetic field distribution of the power line, the WPT to the robotic bird and the FD by the robotic bird are performed and verified.

  14. W-320 waste retrieval sluicing system transfer line flushing volume and frequency calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.W.

    1997-11-05

    The calculations contained in this analysis document establish the technical basis for the volume, frequency, and flushing fluid to be utilized for routine Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) process line flushes. The WRSS was installed by Project W-320, Tank 24 I-C-106 Sluicing. The double contained pipelines being flushed have 4 inch stainless steel primary pipes. The flushes are intended to prevent hydrogen build up in the transfer lines and to provide ALARA conditions for maintenance personnel.

  15. Transferring Gus gene into intact rice cells by low energy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengliang, Yu; Jianbo, Yang; Yuejin, Wu; Beijiu, Cheng; Jianjun, He; Yuping, Huo

    1993-06-01

    A new technique of transferring genes by low energy ion beam has been reported in this paper. The Gus and CAT (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) genes, as "foreign" genetic materials, were introduced into the suspension cells and ripe embryos or rice by implantation of 20-30 keV Ar + at doses ranging from 1 × 10 15 to 4 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. The activities of CAT and Gus were detected in the cells and embryos after several weeks. The results indicate that the transfer was a success.

  16. Temporal evolution of the chemical structure during the pattern transfer by ion-beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, N.-B.; Jeong, S.; Yu, S.; Ihm, H.-I.; Kim, J.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Ru films patterned by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) serve as sacrificial masks for the transfer of the patterns to Si(1 0 0) and metallic glass substrates by continued IBS. Under the same sputter condition, however, both bare substrates remain featureless. Chemical analyses of the individual nano structures simultaneously with the investigation of their morphological evolution reveal that the pattern transfer, despite its apparent success, suffers from premature degradation before the mask is fully removed by IBS. Moreover, the residue of the mask or Ru atoms stubbornly remains near the surface, resulting in unintended doping or alloying of both patterned substrates.

  17. Beam Transport of 4 GeV Protons from AGS to the Proton Interrogation Target of the Neutrino Line (Z_line) and Effect of the Air on the Transported Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; Ahrens, L.; Pile, P.; Thieberger, P.; Murray, M.M.

    2008-10-01

    As part of the preparation for the Proton Interrogation Experiment, we have calculated the beam optics for the transport of 4 GeV protons, from the AGS extraction point, to the 'Cross-Section Target Wheel 1' and to the 'Proton Interrogation Target'. In this technical note we present three possible beam-transports each corresponding to a particular Fast Extracted Beam W B setup of the AGS. In addition we present results on the effect of the atmospheric air, (which fills the drift space of the last 100 [m] of the transport line), on the size of the beam, at two locations along the drift space, one location at the middle of the drift space and the other at the end where the 'Proton Interrogation Target' is placed. All the beam transports mentioned above require the removal of the WD1 dipole magnet, which is the first magnet of the W-line, because it acts as a limiting beam aperture, and the magnet is not used in the beam transport. An alternative solution of a beam transport, which does not require the removal of the WD1 magnet, is also presented. In this solution, which models the transport line using the TURTLE computer code[7], the vertical beam sizes at the location of the WD1 magnet is minimized to allow 'lossless' beam transport at the location of the WD1 magnet. A similar solution, but using a MAD model of the line, is also presented.

  18. Diagnosing Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Using Beamlets of Unabsorbed Light from Direct-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgell, D. H.; Follett, R. K.; Goncharov, V. N.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Seka, W.; Froula, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    A new diagnostic is now being fielded to record the unabsorbed laser light from implosions on OMEGA. Unabsorbed light from each OMEGA beam is imaged as a distinct ``spot'' in time-integrated images. Each spot is, in essence, the end point of a beamlet of light that originates from a specific region of a beam profile and follows a path determined by refraction. The intensity of light in the beamlet varies along that path because of absorption and cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) with other beamlets. This diagnostic allows for the detailed investigation of the effects of CBET on specific locations of the beam profile. A pinhole can be used to isolate specific spots, allowing the time-resolved spectrum of the beamlet to be measured. A fully 3-D CBET hydrodynamics code postprocessor is used to model the intensity and wavelength of each beamlet as it traverses the coronal plasma to the diagnostic. The model predicts that if a single beam in a symmetric implosion is turned off, the recorded intensity of nearby spots will decrease by ~ 15% as a result of loss of CBET from the dropped beam. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  19. Numerical Verification of the Power Transfer and Wakefield Coupling in the Clic Two-Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Candel, Arno; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Rawat, V.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; Syratchev, I.; Grudiev, A.; Wuensch, W.; /CERN

    2011-08-19

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) provides a path to a multi-TeV accelerator to explore the energy frontier of High Energy Physics. Its two-beam accelerator (TBA) concept envisions complex 3D structures, which must be modeled to high accuracy so that simulation results can be directly used to prepare CAD drawings for machining. The required simulations include not only the fundamental mode properties of the accelerating structures but also the Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS), as well as the coupling between the two systems. Time-domain simulations will be performed to understand pulse formation, wakefield damping, fundamental power transfer and wakefield coupling in these structures. Applying SLAC's parallel finite element code suite, these large-scale problems will be solved on some of the largest supercomputers available. The results will help to identify potential issues and provide new insights on the design, leading to further improvements on the novel two-beam accelerator scheme.

  20. EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    HAQ MA

    2009-05-12

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

  1. Theoretical evaluation of thermal imaging for detection of erosive wear of internally refractory-lined transfer lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, C. K.; Ellingson, W. A.; Su, K. C.

    1980-05-01

    Infrared scanning has potential use in detecting erosive wear (thickness change) of the refractory surface of large-diameter steel pipes internally lined with refractory concrete, which are typical of those used in coal-conversion processes. An analytical study was conducted to determine the viability of this method. Heat-transfer models were developed to predict surface-temperature distributions on the outer metal surface for various erosive-wear conditions on the inner surface, assuming uniform inner-surface temperature. Variables investigated included thermal conductivity of the refractory concrete, thermal contact resistance between the steel shell and the refractory, outer-surface convective coefficient, outer-surface radiative properties, and refractory-lining thickness and composition. The study used two- and three-dimensional heat-transfer models and various well-defined rectangular cavities on the inner surface. Temperature resolution, and thus calculation of cavity sizes from surface-temperature profiles, is better when the convective coefficient is small and the interfacial contact resistance is uniformly low. The presence of dual refractory-concrete liners using a layer of insulating concrete between the hot-face lining and the steel shell, together with thick steel (t > 25 mm), tends to smear temperature patterns and reduce the temperature gradient so that calculation of cavity shapes becomes impractical. 44 figures, 15 tables.

  2. Ambient beam motion and its excitation by ghost lines in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Transverse betatron motion of the Tevatron proton beam is measured and analyzed. It is shown that the motion is coherent and excited by external sources of unknown origins. Observations of the time-varying 'ghost lines' in the betatron spectrum are reported. The direct measurement of the rms betatron oscillations amplitude estimates it at about 110 nm at {beta}{sub y} {approx} 900 m. Correspondingly, at the amplitudes at the average beta function location with {beta}{sub y} {approx} 50 m is about 25 nm. Given that such direct measurements with clearly observable betatron peak were not repeatedly reproducible, one can conclude that well know 'ghost lines' are the reason for that - as they are come and go without any obvious regularity. Our analysis of these 'ghost lines' shows that (a) besides slow motion across frequencies, they also exhibit oscillatory movements with period varying from 15-20 min to few hours; (b) for the stores analysed, the lines add about factor of 2 to average - over colliding store duration - Schottky power in the betatron bands. The latter allows to estimate that they contribute about half to the previously determined the rms normalized emittance growth rate of some 0.06 {pi} mm mrad/hr. The Tevatron 'ghost lines' look very similar to infamous 'humps' recently observed in the LHC. Those 'humps' are unwanted oscillations seen repeatedly in the LHC beams (mostly in the vertical plane) and also believed to be caused by external excitations.

  3. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  4. A closed-form solution to a viscoelastically supported Timoshenko beam under harmonic line load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. L.; Xia, Y.; Zhou, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to formulate a closed-form solution to a viscoelastically supported Timoshenko beam under a harmonic line load. The differential governing equations of motion are converted into algebraic equations by assuming the deflection and rotation of the beam in harmonic forms with respect to time and space. The characteristic equation is biquadratic and thus contains 14 explicit roots. These roots are then substituted into Cauchy's residue theorem; consequently, five forms of the closed-form solution are generated. The present solution is consistent with that of an Euler-Bernoulli beam on a Winkler foundation, which is a special case of the present problem. The current solution is also verified through numerical examples.

  5. Cone-beam reconstruction for the two-circles-plus-one-line trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanbin; Yang, Jiansheng; Emerson, John W.; Mao, Heng; Zhou, Tie; Si, Yuanzheng; Jiang, Ming

    2012-05-01

    The Kodak Image Station In-Vivo FX has an x-ray module with cone-beam configuration for radiographic imaging but lacks the functionality of tomography. To introduce x-ray tomography into the system, we choose the two-circles-plus-one-line trajectory by mounting one translation motor and one rotation motor. We establish a reconstruction algorithm by applying the M-line reconstruction method. Numerical studies and preliminary physical phantom experiment demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design and reconstruction algorithm.

  6. Automated Sample Exchange Robots for the Structural Biology Beam Lines at the Photon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Gaponov, Yurii; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2007-01-19

    We are now developing automated sample exchange robots for high-throughput protein crystallographic experiments for onsite use at synchrotron beam lines. It is part of the fully automated robotics systems being developed at the Photon Factory, for the purposes of protein crystallization, monitoring crystal growth, harvesting and freezing crystals, mounting the crystals inside a hutch and for data collection. We have already installed the sample exchange robots based on the SSRL automated mounting system at our insertion device beam lines BL-5A and AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory. In order to reduce the time required for sample exchange further, a prototype of a double-tonged system was developed. As a result of preliminary experiments with double-tonged robots, the sample exchange time was successfully reduced from 70 seconds to 10 seconds with the exception of the time required for pre-cooling and warming up the tongs.

  7. The Advanced Light Source U8 beam line, 20--300 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.; Warwick, T.; Howells, M.; McKinney, W.; Digennaro, D.; Gee, B.; Yee, D.; Kincaid, B.

    1991-10-01

    The U8 is a beam line under construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The beam line will be described along with calculations of its performance and its current status. An 8 cm period undulator is followed by two spherical collecting mirrors, an entrance slit, spherical gratings having a 15{degree} deviation angle, a moveable exit slit, and refocusing and branching mirrors. Internal water cooling is provided to the metal M1 and M2 mirrors as well as to the gratings. Calculations have been made of both the flux output and the resolution over its photon energy range of 20--300 eV. The design goal was to achieve high intensity, 10{sup 12} photons/sec, at a high resolving power of 10,000. The U8 Participating Research Team (PRT) is planning experiments involving the photoelectron spectroscopy of gaseous atoms and molecules, the spectroscopy of ions and actinide spectroscopy.

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source users manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gmuer, N.F.; White-DePace, S.M.

    1987-08-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source in the years to come will be based, in large part, on the size of the users community and the diversity of the scientific disciplines represented by these users. In order to promote this philosophy, this National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Users Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beam Lines, has been published. This manual serves a number of purposes. In an effort to attract new research, it will present to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture and capabilities of the various VUV and x-ray beam lines and storage rings. We anticipate that this publication will be updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes at the NSLS.

  9. The Beam Line X NdFe-steel hybrid wiggler for SSRL

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.; Halbach, K.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1987-03-10

    A wiggler magnet with 15 periods, each 12.85 cm long, which achieves 1.40 T at a 2.1 cm gap (2.26T at 0.8 cm) has been designed and is now in fabrication at LBL. This wiggler will be the radiation source of the high intensity synchrotron radiation beam line for the Beam Line X PRT facility at SSRL. The magnet utilizes Neodymium-Iron (NdFe) material and Vanadium Permendur (steel) in the hybrid configuration to achieve simultaneously a high magnetic field and short period. Magnetic field adjustment is with a driven chain and ball screw drive system. The magnetic structure is external to an s.s. vacuum chamber which has thin walls, 0.76 mm thickness, at each pole tip for higher field operation. Magnetic design, construction details and magnetic measurements are presented.

  10. Transfer reactions using a low-energy {sup 11}Be beam

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, Jacob

    2011-10-28

    A series of experiments have been performed to investigate neutron rich beryllium isotopes. Scattering as well as one neutron transfer reactions have been studied using a {sup 11}Be beam on deuteron targets. Bound states of {sup 10,11,12}Be have been studied and reaction cross sections have been calculated. The elastic scattering cross section has shown remarkable structure due to the halo structure of {sup 11}Be.

  11. Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation in Cryogenic Implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, V. N.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Forrest, C. J.; Froula, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Radha, P. B.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2015-11-01

    The OMEGA Laser System is used to study the physics of cryogenic implosions that are hydrodynamically equivalent to the spherical ignition designs of the National Ignition Facility. Based on these experiments, cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been identified as the main mechanism reducing laser coupling and hydroefficiency. To mitigate CBET, target size Rt was increased with respect to the size of the beam focal spot Rb. This increases drive pressure, allowing for a thicker, more-stable target to reach ignition-relevant implosion velocities. The beam shape was optimized to minimize the nonuniformity produced when Rb/Rt <1. This talk will summarize the latest results in direct-drive implosions with different Rb/Rt. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Nonlinear targeted energy transfer of two coupled cantilever beams coupled to a bistable light attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, P.-O.; Ponçot, R.; Pachebat, M.; Côte, R.

    2016-07-01

    In order to control the sound radiation by a structure, one aims to control vibration of radiating modes of vibration using "Energy Pumping" also named "Targeted Energy Transfer". This principle is here applied to a simplified model of a double leaf panel. This model is made of two beams coupled by a spring. One of the beams is connected to a nonlinear absorber. This nonlinear absorber is made of a 3D-printed support on which is clamped a buckled thin small beam with a small mass fixed at its centre having two equilibrium positions. The experiments showed that, once attached onto a vibrating system to be controlled, under forced excitation of the primary system, the light bistable oscillator allows a reduction of structural vibration up to 10 dB for significant amplitude and frequency range around the first two vibration modes of the system.

  13. The HEB at flat top: Arranging for the HEB to collider beam transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    The flat top for the High Energy Booster (HEB) is planned to last for only 6.5 seconds, yet during this time the beam must be made to: (1) have the correct central momentum; (2) have the correct bunch-to-bunch spacing; (3) have the correct central phase; and (4) have the correct momentum spread and longitudinal length. All of these attributes must match what the Collider expects or unwanted emittance growth will occur. This paper outlines the techniques necessary to achieve a proper HEB-to-Collider beam transfer within the 6.5 s time constraint. A novel means for cogging is proposed and evaluated. The hardware necessary to implement the beam manipulation and to achieve the four goals is specified, and tolerances on the hardware are evaluated.

  14. Mechanical characterization and structural analysis of recycled fiber-reinforced-polymer resin-transfer-molded beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Eugene Wie Loon

    1999-09-01

    The present investigation was focussed on the mechanical characterization and structural analysis of resin-transfer-molded beams containing recycled fiber-reinforced polymers. The beams were structurally reinforced with continuous unidirectional glass fibers. The reinforcing filler materials consisted entirely of recycled fiber-reinforced polymer wastes (trim and overspray). The principal resin was a 100-percent dicyclo-pentadiene unsaturated polyester specially formulated with very low viscosity for resin transfer molding. Variations of the resin transfer molding technique were employed to produce specimens for material characterization. The basic materials that constituted the structural beams, continuous-glass-fiber-reinforced, recycled-trim-filled and recycled-overspray-filled unsaturated polyesters, were fully characterized in axial and transverse compression and tension, and inplane and interlaminar shear, to ascertain their strengths, ultimate strains, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios. Experimentally determined mechanical properties of the recycled-trim-filled and recycled-overspray-filled materials from the present investigation were superior to those of unsaturated polyester polymer concretes and Portland cement concretes. Mechanical testing and finite element analyses of flexure (1 x 1 x 20 in) and beam (2 x 4 x 40 in) specimens were conducted. These structurally-reinforced specimens were tested and analyzed in four-point, third-point flexure to determine their ultimate loads, maximum fiber stresses and mid-span deflections. The experimentally determined load capacities of these specimens were compared to those of equivalent steel-reinforced Portland cement concrete beams computed using reinforced concrete theory. Mechanics of materials beam theory was utilized to predict the ultimate loads and mid-span deflections of the flexure and beam specimens. However, these predictions proved to be severely inadequate. Finite element (fracture propagation

  15. Confirmation and Readjustment of Bending Magnet Beam-Line Optics Using SHADOW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Takahiro; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Kato, Yuri; Hisao, Shintarou; Shoji, Yoshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Optical alignment of the NewSUBARU beam-line 6 (BL6) is discussed by comparing the observed SR profiles with the calculated results of ray-tracing using SHADOW. A new screen monitor was mounted downstream of the first mirror to observe the synchrotron radiation profile. The distorted profile downstream of the second mirror was attributed to the rotation of the first mirror along the vertical axis. The distortion was successfully improved by a re-adjustment according to the calculations.

  16. Use of object-oriented techniques in a beam-line control system

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.; Rueden, W. von; Butler, H.; Yang, J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors describe the use of object-oriented programming in the control and data-acquisition system for the upgraded CERN neutrino beam-line. C++ in conjunction with Posix threads running under Lynx-OS have been used in several front-end PCs. These communicate using Remote Procedure Calls over ethernet with a workstation running the commercial supervisory package, FactoryLink.

  17. Mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer: Implication of two-state focal zooming on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D. H.; Kessler, T. J.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Huang, H.; Hu, S. X.; Hill, E.; Kelly, J. H.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Shvydky, A.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-08-15

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) during OMEGA low-adiabat cryogenic experiments reduces the hydrodynamic efficiency by ∼35%, which lowers the calculated one-dimensional (1-D) yield by a factor of 7. CBET can be mitigated by reducing the diameter of the laser beams relative to the target diameter. Reducing the diameter of the laser beams by 30%, after a sufficient conduction zone has been generated (two-state zooming), is predicted to maintain low-mode uniformity while recovering 90% of the kinetic energy lost to CBET. A radially varying phase plate is proposed to implement two-state zooming on OMEGA. A beam propagating through the central half-diameter of the phase plate will produce a large spot, while a beam propagating through the outer annular region of the phase plate will produce a narrower spot. To generate the required two-state near-field laser-beam profile, a picket driver with smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) would pass through an apodizer, forming a beam of half the standard diameter. A second main-pulse driver would co-propagate without SSD through its own apodizer, forming a full-diameter annular beam. Hydrodynamic simulations, using the designed laser spots produced by the proposed zooming scheme on OMEGA, show that implementing zooming will increase the implosion velocity by 25% resulting in a 4.5× increase in the 1-D neutron yield. Demonstrating zooming on OMEGA would validate a viable direct-drive CBET mitigation scheme and help establish a pathway to hydrodynamically equivalent direct-drive–ignition implosions by increasing the ablation pressure (1.6×), which will allow for more stable implosions at ignition-relevant velocities.

  18. The new vertical neutron beam line at the CERN n_TOF facility design and outlook on the performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, C.; Chiaveri, E.; Girod, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Aberle, O.; Barros, S.; Bergström, I.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviani, M.; Guerrero, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Tsinganis, A.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Beinrucker, C.; Belloni, F.; Bečvář, F.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cerutti, F.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L.; Deo, K.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Dressler, R.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frost, R.; Furman, V.; Ganesan, S.; Gheorghe, A.; Glodariu, T.; Göbel, K.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui, J.; Licata, M.; Lo Meo, S.; López, D.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Palomo Pinto, R.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M. S.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Steinegger, P.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2015-11-01

    At the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN a new vertical beam line was constructed in 2014, in order to extend the experimental possibilities at this facility to an even wider range of challenging cross-section measurements of interest in astrophysics, nuclear technology and medical physics. The design of the beam line and the experimental hall was based on FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, aiming at maximizing the neutron flux, reducing the beam halo and minimizing the background from neutrons interacting with the collimator or back-scattered in the beam dump. The present paper gives an overview on the design of the beam line and the relevant elements and provides an outlook on the expected performance regarding the neutron beam intensity, shape and energy resolution, as well as the neutron and photon backgrounds.

  19. An operator perturbation method for polarized line transfer. II. Resonance polarization with partial frequency redistribution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletou, Frederic; Faurobert-Scholl, Marianne

    1997-12-01

    The effects of partial frequency redistribution are implemented in the Polarized Accelerated Lambda Iteration (PALI) method of Faurobert-Scholl et al. (1997). The numerical scheme is an extension of the core-wing technique of Paletou & Auer (1995) originally developed for non-polarized line transfer problems. Using a new code, we validate theoretical results against those given by a Feautrier type code.

  20. An automated system to mount cryo-cooled protein crystals on a synchrotron beam line, using compact sample cassettes and a small-scale robot

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aina E.; Ellis, Paul J.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Phizackerley, R. Paul

    2014-01-01

    An automated system for mounting and dismounting pre-frozen crystals has been implemented at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). It is based on a small industrial robot and compact cylindrical cassettes, each holding up to 96 crystals mounted on Hampton Research sample pins. For easy shipping and storage, the cassette fits inside several popular dry-shippers and long-term storage Dewars. A dispensing Dewar holds up to three cassettes in liquid nitrogen adjacent to the beam line goniometer. The robot uses a permanent magnet tool to extract samples from, and insert samples into a cassette, and a cryo-tong tool to transfer them to and from the beam line goniometer. The system is simple, with few moving parts, reliable in operation and convenient to use. PMID:24899734

  1. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  2. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  3. Emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.-W.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Anderson, J. K.; O'Mullane, M. G.

    2007-08-01

    The emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam is investigated in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell, S. C. Prager, and J. C. Sprott, Fusion Technol. 19, 131 1991]. Predicted He I line intensities and line ratios from a recently developed collisional-radiative model are compared with experiment. The intensity of singlet lines comes mostly (>95%) from the contribution of the ground state population and is very weakly dependent on the initial metastable fraction at the observation point in the plasma core. On the other hand, the intensity of triplet lines is strongly affected by the local metastable state (21S and 23S) populations and the initial metastable fraction plays an important role in determining line intensities. The fraction of local metastable states can only be estimated by making use of electron temperature (Te), electron density (ne), and effective ion charge (Zeff) profiles as inputs to the population balance equations. This leads triplet lines to be unusable for the investigation of their local plasma parameter dependence. The ratio of singlet lines at 667.8nm and 492.2nm (I667/I492) as well as the ratio of 667.8nm and 501.6nm lines (I667/I501) has been investigated for the dependence on Te and ne both theoretically and experimentally. I667/I492 shows strong dependence on ne with weak sensitivity to Te. Measurements and predictions agree quantitatively within a factor of 2. There has been no ratio of singlet lines identified to have strong enough Te dependence yet. The ratios are expected to be reasonably insensitive to the variation of Zeff.

  4. Emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J-W.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Anderson, J. K.; O'Mullane, M. G.

    2007-08-15

    The emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam is investigated in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell, S. C. Prager, and J. C. Sprott, Fusion Technol. 19, 131 1991]. Predicted He I line intensities and line ratios from a recently developed collisional-radiative model are compared with experiment. The intensity of singlet lines comes mostly (>95%) from the contribution of the ground state population and is very weakly dependent on the initial metastable fraction at the observation point in the plasma core. On the other hand, the intensity of triplet lines is strongly affected by the local metastable state (2{sup 1}S and 2{sup 3}S) populations and the initial metastable fraction plays an important role in determining line intensities. The fraction of local metastable states can only be estimated by making use of electron temperature (T{sub e}), electron density (n{sub e}), and effective ion charge (Z{sub eff}) profiles as inputs to the population balance equations. This leads triplet lines to be unusable for the investigation of their local plasma parameter dependence. The ratio of singlet lines at 667.8 nm and 492.2 nm (I{sub 667}/I{sub 492}) as well as the ratio of 667.8 nm and 501.6 nm lines (I{sub 667}/I{sub 501}) has been investigated for the dependence on T{sub e} and n{sub e} both theoretically and experimentally. I{sub 667}/I{sub 492} shows strong dependence on n{sub e} with weak sensitivity to T{sub e}. Measurements and predictions agree quantitatively within a factor of 2. There has been no ratio of singlet lines identified to have strong enough T{sub e} dependence yet. The ratios are expected to be reasonably insensitive to the variation of Z{sub eff}.

  5. Applications in quenching heat transfer: Liquid quenching of turbine disks and chill down in cryogenic fluid transfer lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Matthew Fitch

    Liquid quenching of turbine disks concerns multiphase heat transfer (HT) during heat treating in the manufacture of gas turbine disks. Chill down (CD) in cryogenic fluid transfer lines concerns rapid cooling of cryogenic propulsion systems during startup. Quenching experiments were conducted on gas turbine disk models to obtain internal and surface temperatures. Three different disk models were tested and analyzed. The three disk models represent steps in the evolution from a simple disk shape to a scale model of an actual gas turbine disk. Experimental temperature data were used in finite element models of the disks to calculate heat transfer coefficients (h). Analysis of h for all of the quench cases studied led to a better understanding of the mechanisms of quenching HT. Insight into the mechanisms of quenching HT and the effects of forced quenchant flow led to generalizations of h with respect to local disk geometry. Correlations for single-phase and boiling HT were developed for selected quench cases. Recommendations for further study of this interesting and challenging topic are given. A numerical model to predict CD in cryogenic transfer lines was developed. Three CD cases using hydrogen are solved: (1) a simplified model amenable to analytical solution, (2) a realistic model of superheated vapor flow, and (3) a realistic model of initially subcooled liquid flow. The first case enables a comparison of the numerical model results with an analytical solution. The other cases are numerical models which provide quantities of interest in CD applications. For example, of great interest in CD applications is the ability to predict accurate values of CD time (the time required to achieve steady-state cryogenic flow). Sample CD times and other results of interest are discussed in the thesis.

  6. The energy transfer in the TEMP-4M pulsed ion beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Isakova, Y. I.; Pushkarev, A. I.; Khaylov, I. P.

    2013-07-15

    The results of a study of the energy transfer in the TEMP-4M pulsed ion beam accelerator are presented. The energy transfer efficiency in the Blumlein and a self-magnetically insulated ion diode was analyzed. Optimization of the design of the accelerator allows for 85% of energy transferred from Blumlein to the diode (including after-pulses), which indicates that the energy loss in Blumlein and spark gaps is insignificant and not exceeds 10%–12%. Most losses occur in the diode. The efficiency of energy supplied to the diode to the energy of accelerated ions is 8%–9% for a planar strip self-magnetic MID, 12%–15% for focusing diode and 20% for a spiral self-magnetic MID.

  7. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-21

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip. PMID:26395208

  8. Simulation and optimization of beam losses during continuous transfer extraction at the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco García, Javier; Gilardoni, Simone

    2011-03-01

    The proton beams used for the fixed target physics at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) are extracted from the Proton Synchrotron (PS) by a multiturn technique called continuous transfer (CT). During the CT extraction, large losses are observed in locations where the machine aperture should be large enough to accommodate the circulating beam. This limits the maximum intensity deliverable due to the induced stray radiation outside the PS tunnel. Scattered particles from the interaction with the electrostatic septum are identified as the possible source of these losses. This article presents a detailed study aiming to understand the origin of losses and propose possible cures. The simulations could reproduce accurately the beam loss pattern measured in real machine operation and determine the beam shaving, intrinsic to the extraction process, as the cause for the unexpected losses. Since these losses are unavoidable, the proposed solution implies a new optics scheme displacing the losses to a region with better shielding. New simulations demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the new extraction optics and its suitability to be implemented in the machine. Finally, beam loss measurements in these new operation conditions confirmed the previous simulation results.

  9. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-01

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ˜50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A 22Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (<1%) after each beam, due mainly to the neutron exposure of SSPM that increased the dark-count noise. This minor effect was corrected offline with a shifting 350-650 keV energy window for each dataset. The results show a fast converging of activity-ranges measured by the prototype PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy.

  10. R_transport_matrices of the Fast Extraction Beam (FEB) of the AGS, and Beam Parameters at the Starting point of the AtR Line

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas,N.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Glenn, W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the task to improve and further automate the 'AtR BPM Application' we provide the theoretically calculated R-transport-matrices for the following beam line sections, which are shown schematically in Figure 1: (a) the Fast Extraction Beam section (FEB) of the AGS synchrotron. The FEB section starts at the middle of the GlO-kicker and ends at the middle of the H1 0{_}septum. (b) the Drift Extraction Channel (DEC) section of the AGS synchrotron. The DEC section starts at the middle of the H10{_}septum, continues along the fringe field region of the H11,H12, and H13 AGS main magnets, and ends at the starting point of the AtR line. The knowledge of these R-transport-matrices are needed in order to calculate the beam parameters at the beginning of the AtR line, which in turn, are required to calculate the magnet settings of the U{_}line, that match the U{_}line into the W{_}line. Also by incorporating these R{_}matrices into the model of the AtR line, the G10 kicker and the H10 septum are included in the AtR model therefore one can investigate any 'jitter' of either the GlO{_}kicker or HlO{_}septum by looking at the trajectory of the beam in the AtR line.

  11. On-line neutron beam monitoring of the Finnish BNCT facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Vesa; Auterinen, Iiro; Helin, Jori; Kosunen, Antti; Savolainen, Sauli

    1999-02-01

    A Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) facility has been built at the FiR 1 research reactor of VTT Chemical Technology in Espoo, Finland. The facility is currently undergoing dosimetry characterisation and neutron beam operation research for clinical trials. The healthy tissue tolerance study, which was carried out in the new facility during spring 1998, demonstrated the reliability and user-friendliness of the new on-line beam monitoring system designed and constructed for BNCT by VTT Chemical Technology. The epithermal neutron beam is monitored at a bismuth gamma shield after an aluminiumfluoride-aluminium moderator. The detectors are three pulse mode U 235-fission chambers for epithermal neutron fluence rate and one current mode ionisation chamber for gamma dose rate. By using different detector sensitivities the beam intensity can be measured over a wide range of reactor power levels (0.001-250 kW). The detector signals are monitored on-line with a virtual instrumentation (LabView) based PC-program, which records and displays the actual count rates and total counts of the detectors in the beam. Also reactor in-core power instrumentation and control rod positions can be monitored via another LabView application. The main purpose of the monitoring system is to provide a dosimetric link to the dose in a patient during the treatment, as the fission chamber count rates have been calibrated to the induced thermal neutron fluence rate and to the absorbed dose rate at reference conditions in a tissue substitute phantom.

  12. Efficient line-connected voltage-conditioner with minimum disturbance transfer to stand-alone mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronijan, Armen

    1998-12-01

    This thesis deals with a novel efficient line-connected voltage-conditioning system (VCS) with minimum disturbance transfer to stand-alone mode. The proposed VCS is used for conditioning a terminal voltage of the critical load on the equipment level. It offers advantages over a conventional rectifier-inverter system in terms of efficiency/harmonic generation and over existing line-connected systems in terms of transfer time/dynamic response. To the author's best knowledge, the concept of a solid-state breaker realized with the controlled turn-on/turn-off switch has been introduced for the first time in this thesis. By using the proposed power converter topology, controller structure independent of the load parameters and line-disturbance detection method, the system conforms to the different susceptibility requirements of the critical equipment. A detailed power circuit and controller description of the proposed current-source-inverter voltage-conditioning system (CSI-VCS) are given. A steady-state analysis of the proposed system is performed including the higher order harmonics. A system controller is designed in order to achieve the two objectives that follow. The first objective is to provide the fast transfer from the line-connected mode to the stand-alone mode in the case of line disturbance. The second objective is to obtain the fast transient response under load disturbance and to provide, in the steady-state, the output voltage of low total harmonic distortion. Proposed is one algorithm for synchronization to the line voltage fully implemented in software. A novel line-voltage. disturbance detection scheme is developed and implemented in software. A 1kVA DSP-controlled laboratory prototype is built to verify the theoretically obtained results. A systematic design procedure and design example are presented and validated using a computer simulation.

  13. Expanded beam spectro-ellipsometry for big area on-line monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, M.; Major, C.; Juhasz, G.; Petrik, P.; Horvath, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Non-destructive analysing tools are needed at all stages of thin film process-development, especially photovoltaic (PV) development, and on production lines. In the case of thin films, layer thicknesses, micro-structure, composition, layer optical properties, and their uniformity are important parameters. An important focus is to express the dielectric functions of each component material in terms of a handful of wavelength independent parameters whose variation can cover all process variants of that material. With the resulting database, spectroscopic ellipsometry coupled with multilayer analysis can be developed for on-line point-by-point mapping and on-line line-by-line imaging. Off-line point-by-point mapping can be effective for characterization of non-uniformities in full scale PV panels or big area (even 450 mm diameter) Si-wafers in developing labs but it is slow in the on-line mode when only 15 points can be obtained (within 1 min) as a 120 cm long panel moves by the mapping station. Last years [M. Fried et al, Thin Solid Films 519, 2730 (2011)], a new instrumentation was developed that provides a line image of spectroscopic ellipsometry (wl=350- 1000 nm) data. Earlier a single 30 point line image could be collected in 10 s over a 15 cm width of PV material. Recent years we have built a 30, a 45 and a 60 cm width expanded beam ellipsometer which speed is increased by 10x. Now, 1800 points can be mapped in a 1 min traverse of a 60*120 cm PV panel or flexible roll-to-roll substrate.

  14. Study of condensation heat transfer following a main steam line break inside containment

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.H.; Elia, F.A. Jr.; Lischer, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    An alternative model for calculating condensation heat transfer following a main stream line break (MSLB) accident is proposed. The proposed model predictions and the current regulatory model predictions are compared to the results of the Carolinas Virginia Tube Reactor (CVTR) test. The very conservative results predicted by the current regulatory model result from: (1) low estimate of the condensation heat transfer coefficient by the Uchida correlation and (2) neglecting the convective contribution to the overall heat transfer. Neglecting the convection overestimates the mass of steam being condensed and does not permit the calculation of additional convective heat transfer resulting from superheated conditions. In this study, the Uchida correlation is used, but correction factors for the effects of convection an superheat are derived. The proposed model uses heat and mass transfer analogy methods to estimate to convective fraction of the total heat transfer and bases the steam removal rate on the condensation heat transfer portion only. The results predicted by the proposed model are shown to be conservative and more accurate than those predicted by the current regulatory model when compared with the results of the CVTR test. Results for typical pressurized water reactors indicate that the proposed model provides a basis for lowering the equipment qualification temperature envelope, particularly at later times following the accident.

  15. Numerical Modeling of the Chilldown of Cryogenic Transfer Lines Using a Sinda/GFSSP Integrated Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeClair, Andre

    2011-01-01

    An important first step in cryogenic propellant loading is the chilldown of transfer lines. During the chilldown of the transfer line, the flow is two-phase and unsteady, with solid to fluid heat transfer and therefore a coupled thermo-fluid analysis is necessary to model the system. This paper describes a numerical model of pipe chilldown that utilizes the Sinda/GFSSP Conjugate Integrator (SGCI). SGCI is a new analysis tool developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). SGCI facilitates the solution of thermofluid problems in interconnected solid-fluid systems. The solid component of the system is modeled in MSC Patran and translated into an MSC Sinda thermal network model. The fluid component is modeled in GFSSP, the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program. GFSSP is a general network flow solver developed at NASA/MSFC. GFSSP uses a finite-volume approach to model fluid systems that can include phase change, multiple species, fluid transients, and heat transfer to simple solid networks. SGCI combines the GFSSP Fortran code with the Sinda input file and compiles the integrated model. Sinda solves for the temperatures of the solid network, while GFSSP simultaneously solves the fluid network for pressure, temperature, and flow rate. The two networks are coupled by convection heat transfer from the solid wall to the cryogenic fluid. The model presented here is based on a series of experiments conducted in 1966 by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). A vacuum-jacketed, 200 ft copper transfer line was chilled by liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen. The predictions of transient temperature profiles and chilldown time of the integrated Sinda/GFSSP model will be compared to the experimental measurements.

  16. Extensions to the integral line-beam method for gamma-ray skyshine analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Shultis, J.K.; Faw, R.E.

    1995-08-01

    A computationally simple method for estimating gamma-ray skyshine dose rates has been developed on the basis of the line-beam response function. Both Monte Carlo and pointkernel calculations that account for both annihilation and bremsstrahlung were used in the generation of line beam response functions (LBRF) for gamma-ray energies between 10 and 100 MeV. The LBRF is approximated by a three-parameter formula. By combining results with those obtained in an earlier study for gamma energies below 10 MeV, LBRF values are readily and accurately evaluated for source energies between 0.02 and 100 MeV, for source-to-detector distances between 1 and 3000 m, and beam angles as great as 180 degrees. Tables of the parameters for the approximate LBRF are presented. The new response functions are then applied to three simple skyshine geometries, an open silo geometry, an infinite wall, and a rectangular four-wall building. Results are compared to those of previous calculations and to benchmark measurements. A new approach is introduced to account for overhead shielding of the skyshine source and compared to the simplistic exponential-attenuation method used in earlier studies. The effect of the air-ground interface, usually neglected in gamma skyshine studies, is also examined and an empirical correction factor is introduced. Finally, a revised code based on the improved LBRF approximations and the treatment of the overhead shielding is presented, and results shown for several benchmark problems.

  17. Printing of silver conductive lines through laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian, C.; Caballero-Lucas, F.; Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Ogier, S.; Winchester, L.; Karnakis, D.; Geremia, R.; Artigas, R.; Serra, P.

    2016-06-01

    The generation of conductive lines from liquid inks through laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is achieved by printing a sequence of overlapping droplets. This procedure, however, is not free from drawbacks: the formation of continuous lines is often accompanied with undesired scalloping or bulging. In this work we present an innovative method consisting in the deposition of conductive ink through LIFT inside fluidic guides produced by laser ablation. The aim of the approach is that the guides confine the liquid within them so that the most common defects can be prevented. The production of guides through laser ablation followed by LIFT of ink inside them has proved that it is possible to find conditions in which the total confinement of liquid within the guides is achieved with good uniformity all along the line. This proves the feasibility of the proposed approach for printing continuous lines free from scalloping and bulging with excellent definition.

  18. Two-dimensional nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium transfer computations of resonance lines in quiescent prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, J. C.

    1982-03-01

    The two-dimensional transfer code of Mihalas, Auer and Mihalas (1978) is used to compute emergent profiles of resonance lines of H I, Mg II, and Ca II. The model (a uniform slab limited in two directions) and the radiative and thermodynamic quantities are described. The metallic line profiles are sensitive to the ionization degree, which is fixed at a certain value. Some modifications are implemented in the code, in particular, the true incident profiles of chromospheric lines. A comparison is made between two-dimensional and one-dimensional profiles. Good agreement between computed and observed profiles is found for Ly-alpha and Ca II but not for Mg II lines.

  19. Sub-14 nm HSQ line patterning by e-beam dose proximity effect correction assisted with designed line CD/pitch split

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Su; Yang, Chu-Ya; Lo, Chiung Yu; Wei, Hung-Wen; Chen, Frederick T.; Ku, Tzu-Kun

    2013-03-01

    New applications on memory and logic devices need to form line shape pattern below 20 nm. Most of the prior articles for studying HSQ line CD resolution applied hot or cold (non-room temperature (RT)) development, salty development, KOH-based development or high concentration TMAH developer (like 25%) to push CD resolution to below 10 nm but these methods are not standard IC process compatible with 2.38% TMAH development at RT. E-beam lithography processes are applied to investigate CD resolution on RRAM film stacking of TiN/Ti/HfOx with or without proximity effect correction (PEC). Both dose and shape (line CD and pitch) modulations are applied in this study to obtain finest line width resolution using IC process compatible 2.38% TMAH developer at RT. Experimental results are summarized below. Lowest base dose of HSQ for pattern to be resolvable is larger than 1,000 (μC/cm2). Smallest line CD of 13.1 nm for designed CD of 5 nm (G4) is resolved to 2 separate lines on R1st dense-line pattern with e-beam dose of 5,000 (μC/cm2) assisted by dose PEC. Two lines of R1st dense-pattern is merged to single line of 14.7 nm at 10,000 (μC/cm2). 2lines dense-line pattern is clearly resolved to 2 separate lines at 1,500 (μC/cm2) but merged to one line at 2,000 (μC/cm2). Iso-line on the right of two dense-lines of 2lines pattern contributes backscattered dose which increases the line width. 5lines dense-line pattern could only resolve to 18.3 nm. Iso-line R1st_1L is resolvable to 18.5 nm with uniform distribution of CD across the line and 13.6 nm is also resolved with more rough line edge. In summary, sub-14 nm line width of HSQ could be resolved by the combination of e-beam dose and shape modulations using standard 2.38% TAMH developer. This process is suitable for applications using metal oxide films.

  20. PERFORMING DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE VISION BEAM LINE TO ELIMINATE HIGH VIBRATION LEVELS AND PROVIDE A SUSTAINABLE OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoy, Blake W

    2014-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides variable energy neutrons for a variety of experiments. The neutrons proceed down beam lines to the experiment hall, which houses a variety of experiments and test articles. Each beam line has one or more neutron choppers which filter the neutron beam based on the neutron energy by using a rotating neutron absorbing material passing through the neutron beam. Excessive vibration of the Vision beam line, believed to be caused by the T0 chopper, prevented the Vision beam line from operating at full capacity. This problem had been addressed several times by rebalancing/reworking the T0 beam chopper but the problem stubbornly persisted. To determine the cause of the high vibration, dynamic testing was performed. Twenty-seven accelerometer and motor current channels of data were collected during drive up, drive down, coast down, and steady-state conditions; resonance testing and motor current signature analysis were also performed. The data was analyzed for traditional mechanical/machinery issues such as misalignment and imbalance using time series analysis, frequency domain analysis, and operating deflection shape analysis. The analysis showed that the chopper base plate was experiencing an amplified response to the excitation provided by the T0 beam chopper. The amplified response was diagnosed to be caused by higher than expected base plate flexibility, possibly due to improper grouting or loose floor anchors. Based on this diagnosis, a decision was made to dismantle the beam line chopper and remount the base plate. Neutron activation of the beam line components make modifications to the beam line especially expensive and time consuming due to the radiation handling requirements, so this decision had significant financial and schedule implications. It was found that the base plate was indeed loose because of improper grouting during its initial installation. The base plate was

  1. Rf transfer in the Coupled-Cavity Free-Electron Laser Two-Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A significant technical problem associated with the Coupled-Cavity Free-Electron Laser Two-Beam Accelerator is the transfer of RF energy from the drive accelerator to the high-gradient accelerator. Several concepts have been advanced to solve this problem. This paper examines one possible solution in which the drive and high-gradient cavities are directly coupled to one another by means of holes in the cavity walls or coupled indirectly through a third intermediate transfer cavity. Energy cascades through the cavities on a beat frequency time scale which must be made small compared to the cavity skin time but large compared to the FEL pulse length. The transfer is complicated by the fact that each of the cavities in the system can support many resonant modes near the chosen frequency of operation. A generalized set of coupled-cavity equations has been developed to model the energy transfer between the various modes in each of the cavities. For a two cavity case transfer efficiencies in excess of 95% can be achieved. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Beam optics of the 2 MeV proton injection line at the LLUMC proton accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Hubbard, J.; Sanders, E.

    2005-12-01

    Simulations of the beam optics of the LLUMC proton accelerator injection line have been modeled using the computer codes Parmila [Los Alamos Nat'l Lab, Internal Report LA-UR-98-4478, Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group, Los Alamos, NM] and Trace 3D [Distributed by AccelSoft Inc, P.O. Box 2813. Del Mar, CA 92014, United States]. These simulations give reasonable agreement with the known accelerator dispersion, beam energy spread and optimal debuncher setting. The purpose of this paper is to understand the beam losses and show where improvements can be made, if required, in the future. It has previously been found [G. Coutrakon et al., J. Med. Phys. 20 (11) (1994) 1691] that most intensity losses in the synchrotron can be ascribed to the narrow energy acceptance of the synchrotron. While the present intensity of the accelerator is quite adequate for patient treatments, future plans to treat larger fields will make higher intensity more desirable. A simulation has been performed which adds a second debuncher, or energy compactor, which shows a reduction in energy spread by a factor of two yielding a factor of two increase in the available intensity. The present intensity of 2.5 × 1010 protons per pulse with 34% of the injected intensity captured in the ring can possibly be improved to 5 × 1010 protons per pulse by capturing 68% of the injected beam intensity. These results are discussed in this paper.

  3. Dose-volume delivery guided proton therapy using beam on-line PET system

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, Teiji; Ogino, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2006-11-15

    Proton therapy is one form of radiotherapy in which the irradiation can be concentrated on a tumor using a scanned or modulated Bragg peak. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the proton-irradiated volume accurately. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed by detection of pair annihilation gamma rays from positron emitter nuclei generated by the target nuclear fragment reaction of irradiated proton nuclei and nuclei in the irradiation target using a positron emission tomography (PET) apparatus, and dose-volume delivery guided proton therapy (DGPT) can thereby be achieved using PET images. In the proton treatment room, a beam ON-LINE PET system (BOLPs) was constructed so that a PET apparatus of the planar-type with a high spatial resolution of about 2 mm was mounted with the field of view covering the isocenter of the beam irradiation system. The position and intensity of activity were measured using the BOLPs immediately after the proton irradiation of a gelatinous water target containing {sup 16}O nuclei at different proton irradiation energy levels. The change of the activity-distribution range against the change of the physical range was observed within 2 mm. The experiments of proton irradiation to a rabbit and the imaging of the activity were performed. In addition, the proton beam energy used to irradiate the rabbit was changed. When the beam condition was changed, the difference between the two images acquired from the measurement of the BOLPs was confirmed to clearly identify the proton-irradiated volume.

  4. Optimization of Extinction Efficiency in the 8-GeV Mu2e Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, I.L.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Johnstone, C.; Mokhov, N.V.; Prebys, E.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-11

    A muon-to-electron conversion experiment at Fermilab, Mu2e, is being designed to probe for new physics beyond the standard model at mass scales up to 10{sup 4} TeV. For this experiment, the advance in experimental sensitivity will be four orders of magnitude when compared to existing data on charged lepton flavor violation. The muon beam will be produced by delivering a proton beam contained in short 100-ns bunches onto a muon production target, with an inter-bunch separation of about 1700 ns. A critical requirement of the experiment is to ensure a low level of background at the muon detector consistent with the required sensitivity. To meet the sensitivity requirement, protons that reach the target between bunches must be suppressed by an enormous factor, so that an extinction factor, defined as a number of background protons between main bunches per proton in such a bunch, should not exceed 10{sup -9}. This paper describes the advanced beam optics and results of numerical modeling with STRUCT and MARS codes for a beam line with a collimation system that allows us to achieve the experimental extinction factor of one per billion.

  5. Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Enigmatic Scattering Polarization in the Solar Na I D1 Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belluzzi, Luca; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-12-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of Na i, with emphasis on the enigmatic D1 line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polarization observed in the core of the D1 line may be explained by the effect that one gets when the detailed spectral structure of the anisotropic radiation responsible for the optical pumping is taken into account. This physical ingredient is capable of introducing significant scattering polarization in the core of the Na i D1 line without the need for ground-level polarization.

  6. Numerical and theoretical analysis of beam vibration induced acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qun

    The purpose of this research is to numerically and analytically investigate the acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer, which are induced by a beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms. Analytical results show that the beam vibrating in standing waveforms scatters the acoustic waves into the free space, which have a larger attenuation coefficient and longer propagating traveling wavelength than those of the plane wave. In contrast to a constant Reynolds stress in the plane wave, the Reynolds stress generated by such acoustic wave is expected to drive the free space streaming away from the anti-nodes and towards nodes of the standing wave vibration. The sonic and ultrasonic streamings within the channel between the vibrating beam and a parallel stationary beam are also investigated. The acoustic streaming is utilized to cool the stationary beam, which has either a heat source attached to it or subjected to a uniform heat flux. The sonic streaming is found to be mainly the boundary layer streaming dominating the whole channel while the ultrasonic streaming is clearly composed of two boundary layer streamings near both beams and a core region streaming, which is driven by the streaming velocity at the edge of the boundary layer near the vibrating beam. The standing wave vibration of the beam induces acoustic streaming in a series of counterclockwise eddies, which is directed away from the anti-nodes and towards the nodes. The magnitude of the sonic streaming is proportional to o2A 2 while that of the ultrasonic streaming is proportional to o 3/2A2. Numerical results show that the acoustic streaming induced by the beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms has almost the same cooling efficiency for the heat source and the heat flux cases although the flow and temperature fields within the channel are different. The hysteresis of the ultrasonic streaming flow patterns associated with the change of the aspect ratio of the channel

  7. Line-ratio based ring artifact correction method using transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Daejoong; Hwang, Dosik; Kim, Younguk

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used for medical purposes. However there are many artifacts at CT images and that makes distorted image. Ring artifact is caused by non-uniform sensitivity of detectors and makes ring shape artifact. Line-ratio method was proposed to solve the problem however there are some problem at specific case. Therefore we propose advanced method to correct ring artifact using transfer function. As a result, ring artifacts can be removed at more global cases. Simulation data shows the proposed method outperforms the conventional line-ratio method.

  8. Scientific potential and design considerations for an undulator beam line on Aladdin storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Arko, A. J.; Bader, S. D.; Dehmer, Joseph L.; Kim, S. H.; Knapp, G. S.; Shenoy, G. K.; Veal, B. W.; Young, C. E.; Brown, F. C.; Weaver, J. W.

    1985-04-08

    The unique features of undulator radiation, i.e., high photon flux and brightness, partial coherence, small beam divergence, spectral tunability, etc., mandate that undulators be included in the future plans for Aladdin. This will make it possible to perform the next generation of experiments in photon-stimulated spectroscopies. A team of scientists (see Appendix) has now been assembled to build an insertion device (ID) and the associated beam line at Aladdin. In considering the specifications for the ID, it was assumed that the ID beamline will be an SRC user facility. Consequently, design parameters were chosen with the intent of maximizing experimental flexibility consistent with a conservative design approach. A tunable ''clamshell'' undulator device was Chosen with a first harmonic tunable from 35 to 110 eV to operate on a 1 GeV storage ring. Higher harmonics will be utilized for experiments needing higher photon energies.

  9. Target and orbit feedback simulations of a muSR beam line at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    MacKay, W.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Pile, P.

    2015-07-28

    Well-polarized positive surface muons are a tool to measure the magnetic properties of materials since the precession rate of the spin can be determined from the observation of the positron directions when the muons decay. For a dc beam an ideal µSR flux for surface µ+ should be about 40 kHz/mm2. In this report we show how this flux could be achieved in a beam line using the AGS complex at BNL for a source of protons. We also determined that an orbit feedback system with a pair of thin silicon position monitors and kickers would miss the desired flux by at least an order of magnitude, even with perfect time resolution and no multiple scattering.

  10. High power microwave beam steering based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchenko, I. V.; Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate electronically controlled beam steering by high power RF pulses produced by two gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) connected to a one high voltage driver. Each NLTL is capable of producing several ns RF pulses with peak power from 50 to 700 MW (6% standard deviation) at frequencies from 0.5 to 1.7 GHz (1% standard deviation) with 100 Hz repetition rate. Using a helix antenna allows irradiating of RF pulses with almost circular polarization and 350 MW maximum peak power, which corresponds to 350 kV effective potential of radiation. At the installation of two identical channels, we demonstrate the possibility of beam steering within ±15° in the horizontal plane by coherent RF pulses with circular polarization at 1.0 GHz center frequency. Fourfold increase in the power flux density for in-phase irradiation of RF pulses is confirmed by comparison with one-channel operation.

  11. Beam-wave interaction analysis of a magnetically insulated line oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Smrity; Jain, P. K.

    2012-08-15

    Magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) using a metal disc-loaded coaxial cylindrical waveguide as its RF interaction structure is field analyzed for the beam-wave interaction using the linearized Vlasov equation. The beam present dispersion relation of the device is obtained applying the modal matching technique which is further used to estimate the oscillation frequency, temporal growth rate, output energy, and other device parameters. Further, MILO is simulated using commercial pic code 'magic,' and the electron momentum and energy plots are found to be in agreement with those obtained through the present analysis within 5%. Furthermore, the device temporal growth rate reported in the literature for the experimental MILO device is also compared with the present analytical theory and found in agreement {approx}5%.

  12. Simulating Time-Dependent Energy Transfer Between Crossed Laser Beams in an Expanding Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hittinger, J F; Dorr, M R; Berger, R L; Williams, E A

    2004-10-11

    A coupled mode system is derived to investigate a three-wave parametric instability leading to energy transfer between co-propagating laser beams crossing in a plasma flow. The model includes beams of finite width refracting in a prescribed transverse plasma flow with spatial and temporal gradients in velocity and density. The resulting paraxial light equations are discretized spatially with a Crank-Nicholson-type scheme, and these algebraic constraints are nonlinearly coupled with ordinary differential equations in time that describe the ion acoustic response. The entire nonlinear differential-algebraic system is solved using an adaptive, backward-differencing method coupled with Newton's method. A numerical study is conducted in two dimensions that compares the intensity gain of the fully time-dependent coupled mode system with the gain computed under the further assumption of a strongly-damped ion acoustic response. The results demonstrate a time-dependent gain suppression when the beam diameter is commensurate with the velocity gradient scale length. The gain suppression is shown to depend on time-dependent beam refraction and is interpreted as a time-dependent frequency shift.

  13. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Area-A beam window heat transfer alalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, D.

    1997-07-01

    Several analyses that investigate heat transfer in the Area-A beam window were conducted. It was found that the Area-A window should be able to withstand the 1-mA, 3-cm beam of the accelerator production of tritium materials test, but that the margins to failure are small. It was also determined that when the window is subjected to the 1-mA, 3-cm beam, the inner window thermocouples should read higher than the current temperature limit of 900{degrees}C, although it is possible that the thermocouples may fail before they reach these temperatures. Another finding of this study was that the actual beam width before April 1997 was 20 to 25% greater than the harp-wire printout indicated. Finally, the effect of a copper-oxide layer on the window coolant passage was studied. The results did not indicate the presence of a large copper-oxide layer; however, the results were not conclusive.

  14. An effusive molecular beam technique for studies of polyatomic gas-surface reactivity and energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, G. W.; Navin, J. K.; Valadez, L.; Johánek, V.; Harrison, I.

    2011-04-01

    An effusive molecular beam technique is described to measure alkane dissociative sticking coefficients, S(Tg, Ts; ϑ), on metal surfaces for which the impinging gas temperature, Tg, and surface temperature, Ts, can be independently varied, along with the angle of incidence, ϑ, of the impinging gas. Effusive beam experiments with Tg = Ts = T allow for determination of angle-resolved dissociative sticking coefficients, S(T; ϑ), which when averaged over the cos (ϑ)/π angular distribution appropriate to the impinging flux from a thermal ambient gas yield the thermal dissociative sticking coefficient, S(T). Nonequilibrium S(Tg, Ts; ϑ) measurements for which Tg ≠ Ts provide additional opportunities to characterize the transition state and gas-surface energy transfer at reactive energies. A resistively heated effusive molecular beam doser controls the Tg of the impinging gas striking the surface. The flux of molecules striking the surface from the effusive beam is determined from knowledge of the dosing geometry, chamber pressure, and pumping speed. Separate experiments with a calibrated leak serve to fix the chamber pumping speed. Postdosing Auger electron spectroscopy is used to measure the carbon of the alkyl radical reaction product that is deposited on the surface as a result of alkane dissociative sticking. As implemented in a typical ultrahigh vacuum chamber for surface analysis, the technique has provided access to a dynamic range of roughly 6 orders of magnitude in the initial dissociative sticking coefficient for small alkanes on Pt(111).

  15. The Local Helium Compound Transfer Lines for the Large Hadron Collider Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, C.; Allen, W.; Munday, A.; Wiggins, P.

    2006-04-01

    The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will include twelve new local helium transfer lines distributed among five LHC points in underground caverns. These lines, being manufactured and installed by industry, will connect the cold boxes of the 4.5-K refrigerators and the 1.8-K refrigeration units to the cryogenic interconnection boxes. The lines have a maximum of 30-m length and may possess either small or large re-distribution units to allow connection to the interface ports. Due to space restrictions the lines may have complex routings and require several elbowed sections. The lines consist of a vacuum jacket, a thermal shield and either three or four helium process pipes. Specific internal and external supporting and compensation systems were designed for each line to allow for thermal contraction of the process pipes (or vacuum jacket, in case of a break in the insulation vacuum) and to minimise the forces applied to the interface equipment. Whenever possible, flexible hoses were used instead of bellows to allow for thermal compensation of the process pipes. If necessary, compensation units were integrated in the vacuum jacket. The thermal design was performed to fulfil the specified heat-load budget. This paper presents the main technical design choices for the lines together with their expected performance.

  16. Generation of cloned mice and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines from urine-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Eiji; Torikai, Kohei; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides the opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, there are risks associated with the collection of donor cells from the body such as accidental injury to or death of the animal. Here, we report the production of cloned mice from urine-derived cells collected noninvasively. Most of the urine-derived cells survived and were available as donors for nuclear transfer without any pretreatment. After nuclear transfer, 38-77% of the reconstructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, in which the cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were similar to those of controls. Male and female cloned mice were delivered from cloned embryos transferred to recipient females, and these cloned animals grew to adulthood and delivered pups naturally when mated with each other. The results suggest that these cloned mice had normal fertility. In additional experiments, 26 nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines were established from 108 cloned blastocysts derived from four mouse strains including inbreds and F1 hybrids with relatively high success rates. Thus, cells derived from urine, which can be collected noninvasively, may be used in the rescue of endangered mammalian species by using nuclear transfer without causing injury to the animal. PMID:27033801

  17. Generation of cloned mice and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines from urine-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Eiji; Torikai, Kohei; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides the opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, there are risks associated with the collection of donor cells from the body such as accidental injury to or death of the animal. Here, we report the production of cloned mice from urine-derived cells collected noninvasively. Most of the urine-derived cells survived and were available as donors for nuclear transfer without any pretreatment. After nuclear transfer, 38–77% of the reconstructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, in which the cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were similar to those of controls. Male and female cloned mice were delivered from cloned embryos transferred to recipient females, and these cloned animals grew to adulthood and delivered pups naturally when mated with each other. The results suggest that these cloned mice had normal fertility. In additional experiments, 26 nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines were established from 108 cloned blastocysts derived from four mouse strains including inbreds and F1 hybrids with relatively high success rates. Thus, cells derived from urine, which can be collected noninvasively, may be used in the rescue of endangered mammalian species by using nuclear transfer without causing injury to the animal. PMID:27033801

  18. Absolute x-ray dosimetry on a synchrotron medical beam line with a graphite calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, P. D. Ramanathan, G.; Butler, D. J.; Johnston, P. N.; Lye, J. E.; Hall, C. J.; Stevenson, A. W.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The absolute dose rate of the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter. The calorimetry results were compared to measurements from the existing free-air chamber, to provide a robust determination of the absolute dose in the synchrotron beam and provide confidence in the first implementation of a graphite calorimeter on a synchrotron medical beam line. Methods: The graphite calorimeter has a core which rises in temperature when irradiated by the beam. A collimated x-ray beam from the synchrotron with well-defined edges was used to partially irradiate the core. Two filtration sets were used, one corresponding to an average beam energy of about 80 keV, with dose rate about 50 Gy/s, and the second filtration set corresponding to average beam energy of 90 keV, with dose rate about 20 Gy/s. The temperature rise from this beam was measured by a calibrated thermistor embedded in the core which was then converted to absorbed dose to graphite by multiplying the rise in temperature by the specific heat capacity for graphite and the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the core and beam. Conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water was achieved using Monte Carlo calculations with the EGSnrc code. The air kerma measurements from the free-air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. Results: Absolute measurements of the IMBL dose rate were made using the graphite calorimeter and compared to measurements with the free-air chamber. The measurements were at three different depths in graphite and two different filtrations. The calorimetry measurements at depths in graphite show agreement within 1% with free-air chamber measurements, when converted to absorbed dose to water. The calorimetry at the surface and free-air chamber results show agreement of order 3% when converted to absorbed dose to water. The combined standard uncertainty is 3

  19. Atom interferometry with up to 24-photon-momentum-transfer beam splitters.

    PubMed

    Müller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Long, Quan; Herrmann, Sven; Chu, Steven

    2008-05-01

    We present up to 24-photon Bragg diffraction as a beam splitter in light-pulse atom interferometers to achieve the largest splitting in momentum space so far. Relative to the 2-photon processes used in the most sensitive present interferometers, these large momentum transfer beam splitters increase the phase shift 12-fold for Mach-Zehnder (MZ) and 144-fold for Ramsey-Bordé (RB) geometries. We achieve a high visibility of the interference fringes (up to 52% for MZ or 36% for RB) and long pulse separation times that are possible only in atomic fountain setups. As the atom's internal state is not changed, important systematic effects can cancel. PMID:18518355

  20. Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofei; Geisler, Peter; Krauss, Enno; Kullock, René; Hecht, Bert

    2015-10-01

    The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip.The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex

  1. Magnet power supply control of the NSLS VUV and x-ray storage rings transfer lines

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Singh, O.; Smith, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer lines for NSLS VUV and x-ray storage rings have been split. New power supplies have been incorporated with existing ones. The existing microprocessor system has been upgraded in order to control the additional functions. This system expands the input/output port of the microprocessor to an addressable serial/parallel link to each magnet power supply. The implementation of this system will be discussed.

  2. Analytical solution of beam spread function for ocean light radiative transfer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zao; Yue, Dick K P

    2015-07-13

    We develop a new method to analytically obtain the beam spread function (BSF) for light radiative transfer in oceanic environments. The BSF, which is defined as the lateral distribution of the (scalar) irradiance with increasing depth in response to a uni-directional beam emanating from a point source in an infinite ocean, must in general be obtained by solving the three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer equation (RTE). By taking advantage of the highly forward-peaked scattering property of the ocean particles, we assume, for a narrow beam source, the dependence of radiance on polar angle and azimuthal angle is deliberately separated; only single scattering takes place in the azimuthal direction while multiple scattering still occurs in the polar direction. This assumption enables us to reduce the five-variable 3D RTE to a three-variable two-dimensional (2D) RTE. With this simplification, we apply Fourier spectral method to both spatial and angular variables so that we are able to analytically solve the 2D RTE and obtain the 2D BSF accordingly. Using the relations between 2D and 3D solutions acquired during the process of simplification, we are able to obtain the 3D BSF in explicit form. The 2D and 3D analytical solutions are validated by comparing with Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations. The 2D analytical BSF agrees excellently with the Monte Carlo result. Despite assumptions of axial symmetry and spike-like azimuthal profile of the radiance in deriving the 3D BSF, the comparisons to numerical simulations are very satisfactory especially for limited optical depths (< O(5)) for single scattering albedo values typical in the ocean. The explicit form of the analytical BSF and the significant gain in computational efficiency (several orders higher) relative to RTE simulations make many forward and inverse problems in ocean optics practical for routine applications. PMID:26191856

  3. 100 years of Elementary Particles [Beam Line, vol. 27, issue 1, Spring 1997

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Pais, Abraham; Weinberg, Steven; Quigg, Chris; Riordan, Michael; Panofsky, Wolfgang K. H.; Trimble, Virginia

    1997-04-01

    This issue of Beam Line commemorates the 100th anniversary of the April 30, 1897 report of the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson and the ensuing discovery of other subatomic particles. In the first three articles, theorists Abraham Pais, Steven Weinberg, and Chris Quigg provide their perspectives on the discoveries of elementary particles as well as the implications and future directions resulting from these discoveries. In the following three articles, Michael Riordan, Wolfgang Panofsky, and Virginia Trimble apply our knowledge about elementary particles to high-energy research, electronics technology, and understanding the origin and evolution of our Universe.

  4. Coulomb field strength measurement by electro-optic spectral decoding system at the CALIFES beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R.; Jamison, S. P.; Lefevre, T.; Gillespie, W. A.

    2016-06-01

    Electro-optic (EO) techniques are increasingly used for longitudinal bunch profile measurements. A bunch profile monitor, based on electro-optic spectral decoding (EOSD), has been developed and demonstrated on the CALIFES beam line at CERN. The EO response is analysed using a frequency domain description, and two methods for extraction of absolute Coulomb field strengths from the electron bunch are demonstrated. Measurements at field strengths up to 1.3 MV/m agree with the expectation based on independent charge measurements.

  5. 100 years of elementary particles [Beam Line, vol. 27, issue 1, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Pais, Abraham; Weinberg, Steven; Quigg, Chris; Riordan, Michael; Panofsky, Wolfgang K.H.; Trimble, Virginia

    1997-04-01

    This issue of Beam Line commemorates the 100th anniversary of the April 30, 1897 report of the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson and the ensuing discovery of other subatomic particles. In the first three articles, theorists Abraham Pais, Steven Weinberg, and Chris Quigg provide their perspectives on the discoveries of elementary particles as well as the implications and future directions resulting from these discoveries. In the following three articles, Michael Riordan, Wolfgang Panofsky, and Virginia Trimble apply our knowledge about elementary particles to high-energy research, electronics technology, and understanding the origin and evolution of our Universe.

  6. Projection phase contrast microscopy with a hard x-ray nanofocused beam: Defocus and contrast transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Salditt, T.; Giewekemeyer, K.; Fuhse, C.; Krueger, S. P.; Tucoulou, R.; Cloetens, P.

    2009-05-01

    We report a projection phase contrast microscopy experiment using hard x-ray pink beam undulator radiation focused by an adaptive mirror system to 100-200 nm spot size. This source is used to illuminate a lithographic test pattern with a well-controlled range of spatial frequencies. The oscillatory nature of the contrast transfer function with source-to-sample distance in this holographic imaging scheme is quantified and the validity of the weak phase object approximation is confirmed for the experimental conditions.

  7. Microcontact patterning of conductive silver lines by contact inking and its layer-transfer mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Fukuda, Nobuko; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2015-05-01

    We developed a contact inking technique for microcontact printing aiming at the fabrication of conductive silver-nanoparticle (Ag NP) lines with rectangular cross section and constant layer thickness, irrespective of pattern size and shape. In the proposed process, Ag NP ink was first coated on a blanket and then inking was carried out by a contact with a microcontact stamp. The ink transferred onto the top of the stamp was finally settled on a workpiece by pressing to complete the printing process. To achieve robust inking to the stamp, the peel strengths between the Ag NP layer and the blankets and between the Ag NP layer and the stamp were investigated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) materials with different surface energies. Interestingly, it was revealed that the transferability of Ag NP from the blanket toward the stamp was not solely determined by the surface energy difference but also by the extent of solvent uptake by the PDMS blanket during inking. The solvent-containing PDMS significantly lowered its adhesion strength against adjacent ink layers and, as a consequence, the ink transfer was successfully achieved even if the ink passed from a higher to a lower energy surface. Furthermore, by the solvent-vapour annealing of contact-inked semi-dried patterns, arbitrarily iterated transfers between PDMS surfaces became possible. With the contact-inking process developed here, we demonstrate a finely defined printed structure of Ag NP conductive lines with widths of up to 1 μm.

  8. Directionality effects in the transfer of X-rays from a magnetized atmosphere: Beam pulse shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.; Bonazzola, S.

    1981-01-01

    A formalism is presented for radiation transfer in two normal polarization modes in finite and semiinfinite plane parallel uniform atmospheres with a magnetic field perpendicular to the surface and arbitrary propagation angles. This method is based on the coupled integral equations of transfer, including emission, absorption, and scattering. Calculations are performed for atmosphere parameters typical of X-ray pulsars. The directionality of the escaping radiation is investigated for several cases, varying the input distributions. Theoretical pencil beam profiles and X-ray pulse shapes are obtained assuming the radiation is emitted from the polar caps of spinning neutron stars. Implications for realistic models of accreting magnetized X-ray sources are briefly discussed.

  9. Resonance line transfer with partial redistribution. IV - A generalized formulation for lines with common upper states. V - The solar Ca II lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milkey, R. W.; Shine, R. A.; Mihalas, D.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized formulation is given for treating partial redistribution effects in transfer problems in resonance lines with common upper states. The formulation allows explicitly for the possibility that several spectral lines may arise in transitions from a given upper level to several sharp lower levels, including, for example, the ground state and metastable states. Line profiles for the Ca II H and K lines have been calculated, accounting for the partial frequency coherence of scattered photons. These profiles are compared with calculations made with identical atomic and atmospheric models but assuming complete redistribution. Very significant differences between the profiles obtained using these two different physical descriptions of the scattering process are found, and it is now apparent that the assumption of complete redistribution is a serious oversimplification of the actual physical situation. The results question the validity of equating brightness temperatures observed at K(sub 1) in stellar spectra with minimum temperatures in stellar chromospheres; it appears likely that such a procedure will systematically underestimate the value of T-min.

  10. Mechanics of energy transfer and failure of ductile microscale beams subjected to dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimberley, J.; Lambros, J.; Chasiotis, I.; Pulskamp, J.; Polcawich, R.; Dubey, M.

    2010-08-01

    The mechanical response of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) under impulse loading conditions has not been thoroughly studied to date, partially because of the lack of means to provide such extreme loading rates to miniature devices. However, the increasing use of MEMS-based sensors and actuators in adverse environments, which include extreme strain rate loading, has motivated the investigation of the response of MEMS components under these conditions. In this work, basic and mostly commonly employed Au MEMS components were subjected to impulse loads of 40 ns in duration, which were generated by a high power pulsed laser in order to achieve acceleration levels on the order of 10 9g. This allowed for the microdevice mechanical/structural response to be investigated at time scales that were of the order of wave transit times in the substrate and the devices. Basic microscale structures, such as cantilevers and fixed-fixed beams of uniform cross-section, were employed to facilitate comparisons with companion finite element simulations in order to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for impulsive deformation at the microscale. The simulations investigated the effect of loading rate, boundary conditions, beam length, material constitutive response, and damping on the final deformed shapes of the beams. It was found that contact and momentum transfer mechanisms were responsible for the large permanent beam deflections which were measured postmortem. Additionally, the effects of both damping and material property rate dependence were found to be dominant in determining the final deformed shape of the beams. In fact, our observations suggest that the contributions of material rate dependence and damping are not simply additive, but rather involve a coupling between them that affects the final structure response.

  11. DESIGN AND SHIELDING OF A BEAM LINE FROM ELENA TO ATRAP USING ELECTROSTATIC QUADRUPOLE LENSES AND BENDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuri, Yosuke; Lee, Edward P.

    2010-09-01

    The construction of the Extra Low ENergy Antiprotons (ELENA) upgrade to the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) ring has been proposed at CERN to produce a greatly increased current of low-energy antiprotons for various experiments including anti-hydrogen studies. This upgrade involves the addition of a small storage ring and electrostatic beam lines. The 5.3-MeV antiproton beams from AD are decelerated down to 100 keV in the compact ring and transported to each experimental apparatus. In this paper, we describe an electrostatic beam line from the ELENA ring to the ATRAP experimental apparatus and magnetic shielding of the low-energy beam line against the ATRAP superconducting solenoid magnet. A possible rough conceptual design of this system is displayed.

  12. Modeling of the cross-beam energy transfer with realistic inertial-confinement-fusion beams in a large-scale hydrocode.

    PubMed

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Ribeyre, X; Tikhonchuk, V

    2015-01-01

    A method for modeling realistic laser beams smoothed by kinoform phase plates is presented. The ray-based paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) model with Gaussian thick rays allows one to create intensity variations, or pseudospeckles, that reproduce the beam envelope, contrast, and high-intensity statistics predicted by paraxial laser propagation codes. A steady-state cross-beam energy-transfer (CBET) model is implemented in a large-scale radiative hydrocode based on the PCGO model. It is used in conjunction with the realistic beam modeling technique to study the effects of CBET between coplanar laser beams on the target implosion. The pseudospeckle pattern imposed by PCGO produces modulations in the irradiation field and the shell implosion pressure. Cross-beam energy transfer between beams at 20(∘) and 40(∘) significantly degrades the irradiation symmetry by amplifying low-frequency modes and reducing the laser-capsule coupling efficiency, ultimately leading to large modulations of the shell areal density and lower convergence ratios. These results highlight the role of laser-plasma interaction and its influence on the implosion dynamics. PMID:25679718

  13. The charge breeder beam line for the selective production of exotic species project at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, A.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project with the aim at producing and post-accelerating exotic beams to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. To allow post-acceleration of the radioactive ions, an ECR-based Charge Breeder (CB) developed on the basis of the Phoenix booster was chosen. The design of the complete beam line for the SPES-CB will be described: a system for stable 1+ beams production was included; special attention was paid to the medium resolution mass spectrometer after the CB to limit possible superposition of the exotic beams with the impurities present in the ECR plasma.

  14. Effect of Magnetic Fringe Field and Interference on Beam Matching in a Medium Energy Beam Transport Line of the Spallation Neutron Source Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Zhang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    A Medium-Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is employed in the SNS linac to match the beam from an RFQ to a DTL and to perform other functions. The MEBT lattice consists of fourteen electromagnetic quadrupoles and other devices. The quads have very small aspect ratios (steel length over aperture diameter), and they are densely packed in the lattice. Significant fringe fields and magnetic interference cause difficulties in beam matching. We have performed 3D simulations of the magnets, computed their optical properties, and compared their performance with what predicted by simple hard edge models. This paper reports our findings and a general solution to the problem.

  15. Dual Laser Beam Attenuation Processing: A Method for Line-averaging of Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsharnaderi, H. R.; Pishvaei, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    In local scale there is a demand to measure horizontal air temperature averaged over farming and horticulture plots for frost point monitoring and evapotranspiration calculations. Using several dry bulb thermometers is problematic. This work then attends to laser instrumentation of air thermometry. The attenuation of laser beams from Rayleigh scattering has been applied for this purpose. The ratio of attenuation quantity for two isosceles parallel laser beams (850nm and 1064nm with 5W output) led to independent line-averaging of air temperature from transmission path-lengths. Typical measurements have been executed over 400x200 m2 garden. Digital resolution is 0.1°C but spatial resolution is quite fine. One of the advantages of dual signal processing is the filtration of ambiguities caused by beam scintillations. Usage of this instrument is recommended over plane area or in green-houses and limited by topography. Applicability may be extended to other studies such as micrometeorology and propagation experiments.

  16. Multiple Scattering in Beam-line Detectors of the MUSE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Heather; Robinette, Clay; Strauch, Steffen; MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The charge radius of the proton has been obtained precisely from elastic electron-scattering data and spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. However, a recent experiment using muonic hydrogen, designed for high-precision, presented a charge radius significantly smaller than the accepted value. This discrepancy certainly prompts a discussion of topics ranging from experimental methods to physics beyond the Standard Model. The MUon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) collaboration at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, is planning an experiment to measure the charge radius of the proton in elastic scattering of electrons and muons of positive and negative charge off protons. In the layout for the proposed experiment, detectors will be placed in the beam line upstream of a hydrogen target. Using Geant4 simulations, we studied the effect of multiple scattering due to these detectors and determined the fraction of primary particles that hit the target for a muon beam at each beam momentum. Of the studied detectors, a quartz Cherenkov detector caused the largest multiple scattering. Our results will guide further optimization of the detector setup. Supported in parts by the U.S. National Science Foundation: NSF PHY-1205782.

  17. Characterization of the in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging beam line developed at ALLS and based on laser driven betatron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmaux, S.; Otani, K.; Saraf, A.; MacLean, S.; Wesolowski, M. J.; Babyn, P. S.; Hallin, E.; Krol, A.; Kieffer, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    The 200TW ALLS laser system (30 fs, 5J) is used to accelerate electrons through laser wakefield and generate betatron emission in the 10keV range. Single shot phase contrast images of a series of nylon fibers with diameter ranging from 10μm to 400μm have been obtained in different geometries and are interpreted with a comprehensive model of x-ray propagation integrating the properties and geometries of the imaging beam line. A simple figure of merit, which can give indication on the interface sharpness of a phase object, is used to assess the quality of the imaging beam line.

  18. Calculating the Loss factor of the LCLS Beam Line Elements for Ultra-Shrot Bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

    2009-10-17

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE 1.5-15 {angstrom} x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility. Since an ultra-short intense bunch is used in the LCLS operation one might suggest that wake fields, generated in the vacuum chamber, may have an effect on the x-ray production because these fields can change the beam particle energies thereby increasing the energy spread in a bunch. At LCLS a feedback system precisely controls the bunch energy before it enters a beam transport line after the linac. However, in the transport line and later in the undulator section the bunch energy and energy spread are not under feedback control and may change due to wake field radiation, which depends upon the bunch current or on a bunch length. The linear part of the energy spread can be compensated in the upstream linac; the energy loss in the undulator section can be compensated by varying the K-parameter of the undulators, however we need a precise knowledge of the wake fields in this part of the machine. Resistive wake fields are known and well calculated. We discuss an additional part of the wake fields, which comes from the different vacuum elements like bellows, BPMs, transitions, vacuum ports, vacuum valves and others. We use the code 'NOVO' together with analytical estimations for the wake potential calculations.

  19. Modeling of energy transfer from the photon beam at an optical media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isarie, Claudiu; Oprean, Constantin; Petrescu, Valentin; Herman, Richard

    2004-06-01

    Laser beam could be applied to act in optical media, to build different spatial images. The operation could be made direct by copying an image or through a C.D. The successive points could be realized with relatively high speed, like 103-105 points per second. Each point represents practically a machining operation done by the laser beam. In most cases, energy transfer is made not in a plane, but in a volume, and this requires moving the focal point in positions required by the image we want to create. This is a sequentially operation, made point by point following a definite order, but in the same time, because the image is spatially, we have to adapt also other parameters of the optical system, for each considered point. The energy required for each point of the image must be the same, because all the micro spheres representing a "point" of the image must have the same volume. In this way we could realize a coherent spatial image. From the experimental research we made, we have learnt that is important to build a model for the energy transfer to optical media, in order to have a good quality for the work we have to do.

  20. The GEANT4 toolkit capability in the hadron therapy field: simulation of a transport beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.; Raffaele, L.; Russo, G.; Guatelli, S.; Pia, M. G.

    2006-01-01

    At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Catania (Sicily, Italy), the first Italian hadron therapy facility named CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) has been realized. Inside CATANA 62 MeV proton beams, accelerated by a superconducting cyclotron, are used for the radiotherapeutic treatments of some types of ocular tumours. Therapy with hadron beams still represents a pioneer technique, and only a few centers worldwide can provide this advanced specialized cancer treatment. On the basis of the experience so far gained, and considering the future hadron-therapy facilities to be developed (Rinecker, Munich Germany, Heidelberg/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, PSI Villigen, Switzerland, CNAO, Pavia, Italy, Centro di Adroterapia, Catania, Italy) we decided to develop a Monte Carlo application based on the GEANT4 toolkit, for the design, the realization and the optimization of a proton-therapy beam line. Another feature of our project is to provide a general tool able to study the interactions of hadrons with the human tissue and to test the analytical-based treatment planning systems actually used in the routine practice. All the typical elements of a hadron-therapy line, such as diffusers, range shifters, collimators and detectors were modelled. In particular, we simulated the Markus type ionization chamber and a Gaf Chromic film as dosimeters to reconstruct the depth (Bragg peak and Spread Out Bragg Peak) and lateral dose distributions, respectively. We validated our simulated detectors comparing the results with the experimental data available in our facility.

  1. Comparison of linear energy transfer scoring techniques in Monte Carlo simulations of proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granville, Dal A.; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.

    2015-07-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are commonly used to study linear energy transfer (LET) distributions in therapeutic proton beams. Various techniques have been used to score LET in MC simulations. The goal of this work was to compare LET distributions obtained using different LET scoring techniques and examine the sensitivity of these distributions to changes in commonly adjusted simulation parameters. We used three different techniques to score average proton LET in TOPAS, which is a MC platform based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit. We determined the sensitivity of each scoring technique to variations in the range production thresholds for secondary electrons and protons. We also compared the depth-LET distributions that we acquired using each technique in a simple monoenergetic proton beam and in a more clinically relevant modulated proton therapy beam. Distributions of both fluence-averaged LET (LETΦ) and dose-averaged LET (LETD) were studied. We found that LETD values varied more between different scoring techniques than the LETΦ values did, and different LET scoring techniques showed different sensitivities to changes in simulation parameters.

  2. Comparison of linear energy transfer scoring techniques in Monte Carlo simulations of proton beams.

    PubMed

    Granville, Dal A; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O

    2015-07-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are commonly used to study linear energy transfer (LET) distributions in therapeutic proton beams. Various techniques have been used to score LET in MC simulations. The goal of this work was to compare LET distributions obtained using different LET scoring techniques and examine the sensitivity of these distributions to changes in commonly adjusted simulation parameters. We used three different techniques to score average proton LET in TOPAS, which is a MC platform based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit. We determined the sensitivity of each scoring technique to variations in the range production thresholds for secondary electrons and protons. We also compared the depth-LET distributions that we acquired using each technique in a simple monoenergetic proton beam and in a more clinically relevant modulated proton therapy beam. Distributions of both fluence-averaged LET (LETΦ) and dose-averaged LET (LETD) were studied. We found that LETD values varied more between different scoring techniques than the LETΦ values did, and different LET scoring techniques showed different sensitivities to changes in simulation parameters. PMID:26147442

  3. Simultaneous measurements of absorbed dose and linear energy transfer in therapeutic proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granville, Dal A.; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.

    2016-02-01

    The biological response resulting from proton therapy depends on both the absorbed dose in the irradiated tissue and the linear energy transfer (LET) of the beam. Currently, optimization of proton therapy treatment plans is based only on absorbed dose. However, recent advances in proton therapy delivery have made it possible to vary the LET distribution for potential therapeutic gain, leading to investigations of using LET as an additional parameter in plan optimization. Having a method to measure and verify both absorbed dose and LET as part of a quality assurance program would be ideal for the safe delivery of such plans. Here we demonstrated the potential of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and LET. We calibrated the ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to blue emission intensities from Al2O3:C OSL detectors as a function of LET to facilitate LET measurements. We also calibrated the intensity of the blue OSL emission for absorbed dose measurements and introduced a technique to correct for the LET-dependent dose response of OSL detectors exposed to therapeutic proton beams. We demonstrated the potential of our OSL technique by using it to measure LET and absorbed dose under new irradiation conditions, including patient-specific proton therapy treatment plans. In the beams investigated, we found the OSL technique to measure dose-weighted LET within 7.9% of Monte Carlo-simulated values and absorbed dose within 2.5% of ionization chamber measurements.

  4. Inline Modeling of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer and Backscatter in Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozzi, D. J.; Sepke, S. M.; Kerbel, G. D.; Michel, P.; Marinak, M. M.; Jones, O. S.

    2014-10-01

    NIF Ignition experiments with gas-filled hohlraums use significant cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) to control implosion symmetry. They also display substantial stimulated Raman backscatter (SRS) from inner laser beams, and associated ``hot'' electrons. The radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA has been extended to include inline models for CBET and SRS. Coupled-mode equations in the strong damping limit (with linear, kinetic gain rates) are solved along the entire path of incident laser rays. Driven ion-acoustic and Langmuir waves, and inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption, are treated. The inline model includes heating by CBET-driven ion waves, which reduces subsequent CBET. SRS developing inside the target leads to more heating of the underdense fill - and more depletion of the inner beams reaching the hohlraum wall - than removing the escaping SRS light from the incident laser. Thus, SRS also modifies the plasma conditions so as to limit CBET. We compare inline results with post-processing CBET calculations on plasma conditions from simulations that do not include CBET or SRS. Prepared by LLNSL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Simultaneous measurements of absorbed dose and linear energy transfer in therapeutic proton beams.

    PubMed

    Granville, Dal A; Sahoo, Narayan; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O

    2016-02-21

    The biological response resulting from proton therapy depends on both the absorbed dose in the irradiated tissue and the linear energy transfer (LET) of the beam. Currently, optimization of proton therapy treatment plans is based only on absorbed dose. However, recent advances in proton therapy delivery have made it possible to vary the LET distribution for potential therapeutic gain, leading to investigations of using LET as an additional parameter in plan optimization. Having a method to measure and verify both absorbed dose and LET as part of a quality assurance program would be ideal for the safe delivery of such plans. Here we demonstrated the potential of an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and LET. We calibrated the ratio of ultraviolet (UV) to blue emission intensities from Al2O3:C OSL detectors as a function of LET to facilitate LET measurements. We also calibrated the intensity of the blue OSL emission for absorbed dose measurements and introduced a technique to correct for the LET-dependent dose response of OSL detectors exposed to therapeutic proton beams. We demonstrated the potential of our OSL technique by using it to measure LET and absorbed dose under new irradiation conditions, including patient-specific proton therapy treatment plans. In the beams investigated, we found the OSL technique to measure dose-weighted LET within 7.9% of Monte Carlo-simulated values and absorbed dose within 2.5% of ionization chamber measurements. PMID:26859539

  6. Design of an ultrahigh vacuum transfer mechanism to interconnect an oxide molecular beam epitaxy growth chamber and an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, M. M.; Zeng Zhaoquan; McNicholas, K. M.; Brillson, L. J.

    2013-06-15

    We designed a mechanism and the accompanying sample holders to transfer between a VEECO 930 oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and a PHI Versa Probe X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) chamber within a multiple station growth, processing, and analysis system through ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The mechanism consists of four parts: (1) a platen compatible with the MBE growth stage, (2) a platen compatible with the XPS analysis stage, (3) a sample coupon that is transferred between the two platens, and (4) the accompanying UHV transfer line. The mechanism offers a robust design that enables transfer back and forth between the growth chamber and the analysis chamber, and yet is flexible enough to allow transfer between standard sample holders for thin film growth and masked sample holders for making electrical contacts and Schottky junctions, all without breaking vacuum. We used this mechanism to transfer a barium strontium titanate thin film into the XPS analysis chamber and performed XPS measurements before and after exposing the sample to the air. After air exposure, a thin overlayer of carbon was found to form and a significant shift ({approx}1 eV) in the core level binding energies was observed.

  7. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Transfer Line Branch Considerations for Solenoid & VLPC

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-06-16

    The transfer line for the solenoid currently has a dead branch on it. Issues regarding the solenoid transfer line also apply to the VLPC transfer line. Issues that need to be addressed are: (1) What is the heat load on the branch? (2) Would it be a good idea to run the LN2 radiation shield on the branch? (3) What are the thermal acoustic oscillation parameters of a dead headed branch? A simple remedy, although not analyzed was to install a jumper with a flow restriction at the end of the helium piping to allow a small flow to pass from supply to return. Thus eliminating a stagnant gas volume in which pressure pulses would develop. (4) Do we need to have a vapor trap to keep liquid from sloshing back and forth from the cold end to the warm end? (5) Comment: The tee that passes the 2-phase return into the nested LHe supply/return pipe should be pointed up so that the volume of transfer line acts sort of like a phase separator full of liquid. It is very difficult to predict the behavior of the dead ended branch. Therefore the conservative thing to do is to keep the Branch cold as in option A. Use a valve inside the bayonet box for the LHe. Due to space constraints, use a valve and u-tube arrangement for the LN2. The additional heat leak from keeping the section cold is very reasonable. The heat load to LHe is 0.8 W or 2.3 W and to LN2 is 13 W or 71 W when the detector is run in the collision hall or assembly hall respectively. To prevent thermal acoustic oscillation from occurring in the dead ended female bayonets, we can install male bayonet vacuum plugs. The heat load to the system and behavior of such an arrangement will not provide any surprises, unlike a dead ended branch. It also allows flexibility's such as running the helium refrigeration plant without the detector for tests or for precooling the return lines during cooldown, just to name a few. The LHe control valves should have actuators and be able to be remotely controlled. The LN2 valves can be simple

  8. Numerical Modeling of the Transient Chilldown Process of a Cryogenic Propellant Transfer Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Vera, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Before cryogenic fuel depots can be fully realized, efficient methods with which to chill down the spacecraft transfer line and receiver tank are required. This paper presents numerical modeling of the chilldown of a liquid hydrogen tank-to-tank propellant transfer line using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). To compare with data from recently concluded turbulent LH2 chill down experiments, seven different cases were run across a range of inlet liquid temperatures and mass flow rates. Both trickle and pulse chill down methods were simulated. The GFSSP model qualitatively matches external skin mounted temperature readings, but large differences are shown between measured and predicted internal stream temperatures. Discrepancies are attributed to the simplified model correlation used to compute two-phase flow boiling heat transfer. Flow visualization from testing shows that the initial bottoming out of skin mounted sensors corresponds to annular flow, but that considerable time is required for the stream sensor to achieve steady state as the system moves through annular, churn, and bubbly flow. The GFSSP model does adequately well in tracking trends in the data but further work is needed to refine the two-phase flow modeling to better match observed test data.

  9. Application of Direct Assessment Approaches and Methodologies to Cathodically Protected Nuclear Waste Transfer Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, Megan M.; Pikas, Joseph; Edgemon, Glenn L.; Philo, Sarah

    2013-01-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 54 million gallons (204 million liters) of radioactive waste generated since the site's inception in 1943. Today, the major structures involved in waste management at Hanford include 149 carbon steel single-shell tanks, 28 carbon-steel double-shell tanks, plus a network of buried metallic transfer lines and ancillary systems (pits, vaults, catch tanks, etc.) required to store, retrieve, and transfer waste within the tank farm system. Many of the waste management systems at Hanford are still in use today. In response to uncertainties regarding the structural integrity of these systems,' an independent, comprehensive integrity assessment of the Hanford Site piping system was performed. It was found that regulators do not require the cathodically protected pipelines located within the Hanford Site to be assessed by External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) or any other method used to ensure integrity. However, a case study is presented discussing the application of the direct assessment process on pipelines in such a nuclear environment. Assessment methodology and assessment results are contained herein. An approach is described for the monitoring, integration of outside data, and analysis of this information in order to identify whether coating deterioration accompanied by external corrosion is a threat for these waste transfer lines.

  10. Resonance-line transfer with partial redistribution. VII Angle-dependent redistribution. [in solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milkey, R. W.; Shine, R. A.; Mihalas, D.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for treating radiative transfer in resonance lines, allowing for the full angle and frequency dependence of redistribution in the scattering process, as seen in the laboratory frame. The case of an equivalent-two-level-atom source function is considered; the problem to be treated is then linear in the radiation field. We apply this method to the Ca II lines in the solar atmosphere, using a redistribution function which takes into account a mixture of coherence in the atom's frame, with Doppler redistribution in the laboratory frame (for atoms which have not suffered an elastic collision), and of complete redistribution in the laboratory frame (for atoms that are collisionally perturbed during the emission process). Both the angle-averaged approximation and the full angle-dependent solution were obtained, and were compared to assess, differentially, the effects of angular redistribution upon the computed line profile and its center-to-limb behavior. For the Ca II line in a homogeneous solar chromosphere the angle-dependent effects are found to be negligible, indicating that one may use angle-averaged redistribution functions when studying partial redistribution effects in line profiles.

  11. Radiative transfer in CO2-rich atmospheres: 1. Collisional line mixing implies a colder early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozak, N.; Aharonson, O.; Halevy, I.

    2016-06-01

    Fast and accurate radiative transfer methods are essential for modeling CO2-rich atmospheres, relevant to the climate of early Earth and Mars, present-day Venus, and some exoplanets. Although such models already exist, their accuracy may be improved as better theoretical and experimental constraints become available. Here we develop a unidimensional radiative transfer code for CO2-rich atmospheres, using the correlated k approach and with a focus on modeling early Mars. Our model differs from existing models in that it includes the effects of CO2 collisional line mixing in the calculation of the line-by-line absorption coefficients. Inclusion of these effects results in model atmospheres that are more transparent to infrared radiation and, therefore, in colder surface temperatures at radiative-convective equilibrium, compared with results of previous studies. Inclusion of water vapor in the model atmosphere results in negligible warming due to the low atmospheric temperatures under a weaker early Sun, which translate into climatically unimportant concentrations of water vapor. Overall, the results imply that sustained warmth on early Mars would not have been possible with an atmosphere containing only CO2 and water vapor, suggesting that other components of the early Martian climate system are missing from current models or that warm conditions were not long lived.

  12. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal`s photo multiplier tube (PMT).

  13. Design and fabrication of soft x-ray photolithography experimental beam line at Beijing National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changxin

    1991-08-01

    The synchrotron radiation (SR) soft x-ray photolithography experimental beam line (3B1 beam line) at Beijing National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, was completed and tested in June 1990. A soft x-ray photolithography experiment was successfully completed, and the width of linear etch on a silicon chip by the device with a 3B1 beam line is up to 0.5 micrometers . This SR soft x-ray photolithography experiment was done successfully for the first time in China. This paper describes the design of the beam line and the fabrication of the most important optical element--the cylindrical scanning mirror in the beam line. The 3B1 beam line consists of the shielding light plate with water-cooling, laser simulation light source system, 3-D adjustable scanning mirror, high pass-band filer (beryllium window), acoustic sensor, helium gas chamber, and vacuum system. The main specifications of the 3B1 beam line are as follows: spectral range 0.4-2 nm; horizontal acceptance angle 7.5 mrad; vertical acceptance angle 0.4 mrad; grazing incidence angle 1.5 deg; light spot size 35 nm X 12 nm; vacuum degree of the mirror box 5 X 10-10 torr (static). The cylindrical scanning mirror in grazing incidence is used in the beam line for photolithography to obtain uniform distributed intensity of illumination of the SR source in the vertical direction (Gaussian distribution) and sufficiently concentrated energy. It is made of aluminum alloy LD2 with a supersmooth optical surface. The curvature radius of the cylindrical surface is 527.5 mm; surface figure error is less than (lambda) /10; surface roughness is better than 1 nm RMS, and fold coating on the surface of the mirror under UHV of 109 torr. The laser simulation light source system is used for adjusting the optical system in the beam line instead of the SR source. The cylindrical mirror was polished supersmoothly using Al2O3 ultra micropower grinding material made in TOMAS in Japan on modified traditional machine tools, and surface

  14. Energy transfer between injection-locked single-mode diode lasers by two-beam coupling in BaTiO/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, W.R.; Beckwith, P.H.; McMichael, I.

    1989-01-01

    Two-beam coupling in photorefractive BaTiO/sub 3/ is used to combine beams coherently from two injection-locked single-mode diode lasers operating at 830 nm. We are able to transfer more than 70% of the power in one beam to the other beam with this method.

  15. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D. Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  16. Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: on-line trace gas analysis at the ppb level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansel, A.; Jordan, A.; Holzinger, R.; Prazeller, P.; Vogel, W.; Lindinger, W.

    1995-11-01

    A system for trace gas analysis using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been developed which allows for on-line measurements of components with concentrations as low as 1 ppb. The method is based on reactions of H3O+ ions, which perform non-dissociative proton transfer to most of the common organic trace constituents but do not react with any of the components present in clean air. Examples of analysis of breath taken from smokers and non-smokers as well as from patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, and of air in buildings as well as of ambient air taken at a road crossing demonstrate the wide range of applicability of this method. An enhanced level of acetonitrile in the breath is a most suitable indicator that a person is a smoker. Enhanced levels of propanol strongly indicate that a person has a severe liver deficiency.

  17. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  18. Line-Mixing Relaxation Matrix model for spectroscopic and radiative transfer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendaza, Teresa; Martin-Torres, Javier

    2016-04-01

    We present a generic model to compute the Relaxation Matrix easily adaptable to any molecule and type of spectroscopic lines or bands in non-reactive molecule collisions regimes. It also provides the dipole moment of every transition and level population of the selected molecule. The model is based on the Energy-Corrected Sudden (ECS) approximation/theory introduced by DePristo (1980), and on previous Relaxation Matrix studies for the interaction between molecular ro-vibrational levels (Ben-Rueven, 1966), atoms (Rosenkranz, 1975), linear molecules (Strow and Reuter, 1994; Niro, Boulet and Hartmann, 2004), and symmetric but not linear molecules (Tran et al., 2006). The model is open source, and it is user-friendly. To the point that the user only has to select the wished molecule and vibrational band to perform the calculations. It reads the needed spectroscopic data from the HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption (HITRAN) (Rothman et al., 2013) and ExoMol (Tennyson and Yurchenko, 2012). In this work we present an example of the calculations with our model for the case of the 2ν3 band of methane (CH4), and a comparison with a previous work (Tran et al., 2010). The data produced by our model can be used to characterise the line-mixing effects on ro-vibrational lines of the infrared emitters of any atmosphere, to calculate accurate absorption spectra, that are needed in the interpretation of atmospheric spectra, radiative transfer modelling and General Circulation Models (GCM). References [1] A.E. DePristo, Collisional influence on vibration-rotation spectral line shapes: A scaling theoretical analysis and simplification, J. Chem. Phys. 73(5), 1980. [2] A. Ben-Reuven, Impact broadening of microwave spectra, Phys. Rev. 145(1), 7-22, 1966. [3] P.W. Rosenkranz, Shape of the 5 mm Oxygen Band in the Atmosphere, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. AP-23, no. 4, pp. 498-506, 1975. [4] Strow, L.L., D.D. Tobin, and S.E. Hannon, A compilation of

  19. Three-dimensional molecular line transfer: a simulated star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, David; Harries, Tim J.; Acreman, David M.; Bate, Matthew R.

    2010-09-01

    We present the first non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), comoving frame molecular line calculations of a star-forming cluster simulated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), from which we derive high-resolution synthetic observations. We have resampled a particle representation on to an adaptive mesh and self-consistently solved the equations of statistical equilibrium in the comoving frame, using TORUS, a three-dimensional adaptive mesh refined radiative transfer code. We verified the applicability of the code to the conditions of the SPH simulation by testing its output against other codes. We find that the level populations obtained for optically thick and thin scenarios closely match the ensemble average of the other codes. We have used the code to obtain non-LTE level populations of multiple molecular species throughout the cluster and have created three-dimensional velocity-resolved spatial maps of the emergent intensity. Line profiles of cores traced by N2H+ (1-0) are compared to probes of low-density gas, 13CO (1-0) and C18O (1-0), surrounding the cores along the line of sight. The relative differences of the line centre velocities are shown to be small compared to the velocity dispersion, matching recent observations. We conclude that one cannot reject competitive accretion as a viable theory of star formation based on observed velocity profiles.

  20. RAPD and SSR Polymorphisms in Mutant Lines of Transgenic Wheat Mediated by Low Energy Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiegu; Huang, Qunce; Feng, Weisen

    2007-10-01

    Two types of markers-random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat DNA (SSR)-have been used to characterize the genetic diversity among nine mutant lines of transgenic wheat intermediated by low energy ion beam and their four receptor cultivars. The objectives of this study were to analyze RAPD-based and SSR-based genetic variance among transgenic wheat lines and with their receptors, and to find specific genetic markers of special traits of transgenic wheat lines. 170 RAPD primers were amplified to 733 fragments in all the experimental materials. There were 121 polymorphic fragments out of the 733 fragments with a ratio of polymorphic fragments of 16.5%. 29 SSR primer pairs were amplified to 83 fragments in all the experiment materials. There were 57 polymorphic fragments out of the 83 fragments with a ratio of polymorphic fragments of 68.7%. The dendrograms were prepared based on a genetic distance matrix using the UPGMA (Unweighted Pair-group Method with Arithmetic averaging) algorithm, which corresponded well to the results of the wheat pedigree analysis and separated the 13 genotypes into four groups. Association analysis between RAPD and SSR markers with the special traits of transgenic wheat mutant lines discovered that three RAPD markers, s1, opt-16, and f14, were significantly associated with the muticate trait, while three SSR markers, Rht8 (Xgwm261), Rht-B1b, and Rht-D1b, highly associated with the dwarf trait. These markers will be useful for marker-assistant breeding and can be used as candidate markers for further gene mapping and cloning.

  1. Explanation of Turbulent Suppression of Electron Heat Transfer in GOL-3 Facility at the Stage of Relativistic Electron Beam Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Burdakov, A.V.; Kotelnikov, I.A.; Erofeev, V.I

    2005-01-15

    The effect of the electron heat transfer suppression during the stage of relativistic electron beam injection into a plasma was discovered experimentally more than a decade ago. It is now widely adopted that the suppression is a side sequel of Langmuir turbulence excited by the beam, however neither quantitative theory nor even rough estimates of the phenomena were available so far. We argue that the coefficient of turbulent thermal conductivity can be evaluated from a robust judgement based on the energy balance consideration.

  2. On line Release Simulator of Radioactive Beams produced by ISOL technique

    SciTech Connect

    Turrion, Manuela; Tengblad, Olof; Borge, Maria J. G.; Reillo, Eva; Morrissey, Edward R.; Santana, Mario

    2007-02-12

    Target and ion source constitute the heart for the production of radioactive ion beams, RIBs. The goal of this work is to help in the development of reliable and efficient target and ion source systems for production of short-lived isotopes of a wide range of elements by the ISOL method. With this aim an oracle database of diffusion and desorption parameters with more than 10.000 entries has been built. The database is accessible on line and a web application has been developed allowing the retrieval of information from the database in order to assist in the configuration of the input parameters for a Monte Carlo code, RIBO, for the simulation of target-ion source systems.

  3. Aberrations of varied line-space grazing incidence gratings in converging light beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hettrick, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses of the imaging properties of several designs for varied-line space gratings in converging beams of light in grazing-incidence spectrometers are presented. An explicit model is defined for the case of a plane-reflection grating intercepting light that converges and is reflected to a stigmatic point associated with the zero-order image of the grating. Smooth spatial variation of the grating constant then permits aberration correction. The aberrations are expressed as polynomials in the grating lens coordinates using power series expansions. Application of the model is illustrated in terms of aberrations experienced with the short wavelength spectrometer on the EUVE satellite. Attention is given to straight and parallel in-plane grooves, curved groove in-plane designs and off-plane grooves. Aberrations due to dispersions and misalignment are also considered.

  4. Neutron capture cross section measurements at the beam line 04 of J-PARC/MLF

    SciTech Connect

    Igashira, Masayuki; Harada, Hideo; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2012-11-12

    An Accurate Neutron-Nucleus Reaction measurement Instrument (ANNRI) at the beam line 04 of MLF (Material and Life Sciences Experimental Facilities) of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) was installed to measure neutron capture cross sections related to the research and development of innovative nuclear systems, the study on nuclear astrophysics, etc. ANNRI has two gamma-ray spectrometers: one is a Ge detector array placed at 22 m from the coupled type moderator of the spallation neutron source of J-PARC/MLF and the other is a pair of NaI(Tl) detectors at 28 m. Until the 11th of March, 2011, when we had big earthquakes, we measured capture cross sections of Zr-93, Tc-99, Pd-107, I-129, Cm-244, Cm-246, etc. After checking and repairing ANNRI, we restarted measurements, and ANNRI has been open to worldwide users at present.

  5. An x-ray microprobe beam line for trace element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Schidlovsky, G.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The application of synchrotron radiation to an x-ray microprobe for trace element analysis is a complementary and natural extension of existing microprobe techniques using electrons, protons, and heavier ions as excitation sources for x-ray fluorescence. The ability to focus charged particles leads to electron microprobes with spatial resolutions in the sub-micrometer range and down to 100 ppM detection limits and proton microprobes with micrometer resolution and ppM detection limits. The characteristics of synchrotron radiation that prove useful for microprobe analysis include a broad and continuous energy spectrum, a relatively small amount of radiation damage compared to that deposited by charged particles, a highly polarized source which reduces background scattered radiation in an appropriate counting geometry, and a small vertical divergence angle of approx.0.2 mrad which allows for focussing of the light beam into a small spot with high flux. The features of a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) are described. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  6. High power microwave beam steering based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Romanchenko, I. V. Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu.

    2015-06-07

    We demonstrate electronically controlled beam steering by high power RF pulses produced by two gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) connected to a one high voltage driver. Each NLTL is capable of producing several ns RF pulses with peak power from 50 to 700 MW (6% standard deviation) at frequencies from 0.5 to 1.7 GHz (1% standard deviation) with 100 Hz repetition rate. Using a helix antenna allows irradiating of RF pulses with almost circular polarization and 350 MW maximum peak power, which corresponds to 350 kV effective potential of radiation. At the installation of two identical channels, we demonstrate the possibility of beam steering within ±15° in the horizontal plane by coherent RF pulses with circular polarization at 1.0 GHz center frequency. Fourfold increase in the power flux density for in-phase irradiation of RF pulses is confirmed by comparison with one-channel operation.

  7. Artificial intelligence research in particle accelerator control systems for beam line tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Pieck, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Tuning particle accelerators is time consuming and expensive, with a number of inherently non-linear interactions between system components. Conventional control methods have not been successful in this domain and the result is constant and expensive monitoring of the systems by human operators. This is particularly true for the start-up and conditioning phase after a maintenance period or an unexpected fault. In turn, this often requires a step-by-step restart of the accelerator. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to apply intelligent accelerator control techniques to help with beam tuning, fault detection, and fault recovery problems. The reason for that might be that accelerator facilities are rare and difficult to understand systems that require detailed expert knowledge about the underlying physics as well as months if not years of experience to understand the relationship between individual components, particularly if they are geographically disjoint. This paper will give an overview about the research effort in the accelerator community that has been dedicated to the use of artificial intelligence methods for accelerator beam line tuning.

  8. Improved retroviral suicide gene transfer in colon cancer cell lines after cell synchronization with methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer gene therapy by retroviral vectors is mainly limited by the level of transduction. Retroviral gene transfer requires target cell division. Cell synchronization, obtained by drugs inducing a reversible inhibition of DNA synthesis, could therefore be proposed to precondition target cells to retroviral gene transfer. We tested whether drug-mediated cell synchronization could enhance the transfer efficiency of a retroviral-mediated gene encoding herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) in two colon cancer cell lines, DHDK12 and HT29. Methods Synchronization was induced by methotrexate (MTX), aracytin (ara-C) or aphidicolin. Gene transfer efficiency was assessed by the level of HSV-TK expression. Transduced cells were driven by ganciclovir (GCV) towards apoptosis that was assessed using annexin V labeling by quantitative flow cytometry. Results DHDK12 and HT29 cells were synchronized in S phase with MTX but not ara-C or aphidicolin. In synchronized DHDK12 and HT29 cells, the HSV-TK transduction rates were 2 and 1.5-fold higher than those obtained in control cells, respectively. Furthermore, the rate of apoptosis was increased two-fold in MTX-treated DHDK12 cells after treatment with GCV. Conclusions Our findings indicate that MTX-mediated synchronization of target cells allowed a significant improvement of retroviral HSV-tk gene transfer, resulting in an increased cell apoptosis in response to GCV. Pharmacological control of cell cycle may thus be a useful strategy to optimize the efficiency of retroviral-mediated cancer gene therapy. PMID:21970612

  9. Targeting a newly established spontaneous feline fibrosarcoma cell line by gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Nande, Rounak; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Aimola, Pierpaolo; De Carlo, Flavia; Carper, Miranda; Claudio, Charlene D; Denvir, Jim; Valluri, Jagan; Duncan, Gary C; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosarcoma is a deadly disease in cats and is significantly more often located at classical vaccine injections sites. More rare forms of spontaneous non-vaccination site (NSV) fibrosarcomas have been described and have been found associated to genetic alterations. Purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of adenoviral gene transfer in NVS fibrosarcoma. We isolated and characterized a NVS fibrosarcoma cell line (Cocca-6A) from a spontaneous fibrosarcoma that occurred in a domestic calico cat. The feline cells were karyotyped and their chromosome number was counted using a Giemsa staining. Adenoviral gene transfer was verified by western blot analysis. Flow cytometry assay and Annexin-V were used to study cell-cycle changes and cell death of transduced cells. Cocca-6A fibrosarcoma cells were morphologically and cytogenetically characterized. Giemsa block staining of metaphase spreads of the Cocca-6A cells showed deletion of one of the E1 chromosomes, where feline p53 maps. Semi-quantitative PCR demonstrated reduction of p53 genomic DNA in the Cocca-6A cells. Adenoviral gene transfer determined a remarkable effect on the viability and growth of the Cocca-6A cells following single transduction with adenoviruses carrying Mda-7/IL-24 or IFN-γ or various combination of RB/p105, Ras-DN, IFN-γ, and Mda-7 gene transfer. Therapy for feline fibrosarcomas is often insufficient for long lasting tumor eradication. More gene transfer studies should be conducted in order to understand if these viral vectors could be applicable regardless the origin (spontaneous vs. vaccine induced) of feline fibrosarcomas. PMID:22666387

  10. Targeting a Newly Established Spontaneous Feline Fibrosarcoma Cell Line by Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Nande, Rounak; De Carlo, Flavia; Carper, Miranda; Claudio, Charlene D.; Denvir, Jim; Valluri, Jagan; Duncan, Gary C.; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosarcoma is a deadly disease in cats and is significantly more often located at classical vaccine injections sites. More rare forms of spontaneous non-vaccination site (NSV) fibrosarcomas have been described and have been found associated to genetic alterations. Purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of adenoviral gene transfer in NVS fibrosarcoma. We isolated and characterized a NVS fibrosarcoma cell line (Cocca-6A) from a spontaneous fibrosarcoma that occurred in a domestic calico cat. The feline cells were karyotyped and their chromosome number was counted using a Giemsa staining. Adenoviral gene transfer was verified by western blot analysis. Flow cytometry assay and Annexin-V were used to study cell-cycle changes and cell death of transduced cells. Cocca-6A fibrosarcoma cells were morphologically and cytogenetically characterized. Giemsa block staining of metaphase spreads of the Cocca-6A cells showed deletion of one of the E1 chromosomes, where feline p53 maps. Semi-quantitative PCR demonstrated reduction of p53 genomic DNA in the Cocca-6A cells. Adenoviral gene transfer determined a remarkable effect on the viability and growth of the Cocca-6A cells following single transduction with adenoviruses carrying Mda-7/IL-24 or IFN-γ or various combination of RB/p105, Ras-DN, IFN-γ, and Mda-7 gene transfer. Therapy for feline fibrosarcomas is often insufficient for long lasting tumor eradication. More gene transfer studies should be conducted in order to understand if these viral vectors could be applicable regardless the origin (spontaneous vs. vaccine induced) of feline fibrosarcomas. PMID:22666387

  11. Small-angle approximation to the transfer of narrow laser beams in anisotropic scattering media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.

    1981-01-01

    The broadening and the signal power detected of a laser beam traversing an anisotropic scattering medium were examined using the small-angle approximation to the radiative transfer equation in which photons suffering large-angle deflections are neglected. To obtain tractable answers, simple Gaussian and non-Gaussian functions for the scattering phase functions are assumed. Two other approximate approaches employed in the field to further simplify the small-angle approximation solutions are described, and the results obtained by one of them are compared with those obtained using small-angle approximation. An exact method for obtaining the contribution of each higher order scattering to the radiance field is examined but no results are presented.

  12. Radiative transfer and spectroscopic databases: A line-sampling Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtier, Mathieu; Blanco, Stéphane; Dauchet, Jérémi; El Hafi, Mouna; Eymet, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Roger, Maxime; Spiesser, Christophe; Terrée, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    Dealing with molecular-state transitions for radiative transfer purposes involves two successive steps that both reach the complexity level at which physicists start thinking about statistical approaches: (1) constructing line-shaped absorption spectra as the result of very numerous state-transitions, (2) integrating over optical-path domains. For the first time, we show here how these steps can be addressed simultaneously using the null-collision concept. This opens the door to the design of Monte Carlo codes directly estimating radiative transfer observables from spectroscopic databases. The intermediate step of producing accurate high-resolution absorption spectra is no longer required. A Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed and applied to six one-dimensional test cases. It allows the computation of spectrally integrated intensities (over 25 cm-1 bands or the full IR range) in a few seconds, regardless of the retained database and line model. But free parameters need to be selected and they impact the convergence. A first possible selection is provided in full detail. We observe that this selection is highly satisfactory for quite distinct atmospheric and combustion configurations, but a more systematic exploration is still in progress.

  13. Evaluation of Wavelength Detuning to Mitigate Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Using the Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenty, P. W.; Marozas, J. A.; Weaver, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has become a serious threat to the overall success of direct-drive experiments, and especially for polar-direct-drive (PDD) ignition experiments. CBET redirects incident laser light before it can be absorbed into the target, thereby degrading overall target performance. CBET is particularly detrimental over the equator of the target, which is hydrodynamically very sensitive to such losses in the PDD configuration. A promising solution uses laser wavelength detuning between beams to shift the resonance, thereby reducing the interaction cross section between them. Testing this process for direct drive is now underway at the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. Calculations evaluating the effect CBET has on the scattered-light signals indicate such an experiment will demonstrate the benefits of wavelength detuning for direct-drive implosions. Two-dimensional simulation results will be presented, predicting the effect for both spherical and cylindrical experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. Inline Modeling of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer and Raman Scattering in NIF Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strozzi, David; Bailey, D. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Sepke, S. M.; Kerbel, G. D.; Michel, P.; Divol, L.; Jones, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    Inline models of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) and stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) have been added to the radiation-hydrodynamics codes Hydra and Lasnex. Both processes are important in hohlraums with high gas fill density, particularly for implosion symmetry. Coupled-mode equations are solved along laser ray paths for both models. The inline model shows the SRS gain rate exceeds that of SRS light absorption along most of the laser ray path, and most SRS light escapes the target. Most SRS-driven Langmuir wave power is deposited slightly inside the laser entrance hole (LEH), which reduces how much inner-beam power reaches the equator. This also makes the LEH hotter, which affects CBET. Compared to removing SRS power from the incident laser, the inline SRS model does not change total x-ray drive but makes the drive stronger from the poles than the equatorial waist. This reduces the need to artificially clamp CBET in order to match implosion shape data, which has historically been needed for high gas fill hohlraums. We are applying the models to a set of NIF shots with varying gas fill densities. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Progress in Development of a Transfer Function for Angle Beam Ultrasonic Inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heebl, J.; Lindgren, E.; Melson, R.

    2010-02-01

    A significant concern for the US Air Force (USAF) is the aging of its aircraft fleet and, subsequently, the resultant increase in the number of inspections required to ensure the flight-readiness and safety of these aircraft. In particular, the inspection of bolt holes at locations of high stress is a recurring requirement. Frequently, when not removing fasteners, a 45 degree angle beam shear wave ultrasonic (UT) inspection is used to detect fatigue cracks at these sites. The implementation of new inspections usually requires a capability demonstration. This is typically performed using representative damage in representative structures. It is very common to use electric discharge machined (EDM) notches to represent fatigue cracks in capability studies to decrease the time and cost of such studies. A limitation of this approach is that sensitivity will vary as a function of damage type. Therefore, a mathematical relationship needs to be developed that establishes the relationship between the responses from EDM notches and grown fatigue cracks. This will enable EDM notched samples to be used to validate new inspections. An immersion ultrasonic tank was used to perform inspections on both EDM notched samples and multiple fatigue cracked coupons using the 45 degree angle beam ultrasonic technique. Both sample sets had a range of flaw dimensions. The empirical data was analyzed to develop a mathematical transfer function that correlates the amplitude response from the EDM notches with those from grown fatigue cracks.

  16. A Positional X-ray Instrumentation Test Stand For Beam-Line Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoleyczik, Jonathan; Prieskorn, Z.; Burrows, D. N.; Falcone, A.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-axis, motion controlled test stand has been built in the PSU 47 m X-ray beam-line for the purpose of testing X-ray instrumentation and mirrors using parallel rays. The test stand is capable of translation along two axes and rotation about two axes with motorized fine position control. The translation stages have a range of motion of 200 mm with a movement accuracy of ± 2.5 microns. Rotation is accomplished with a two-axis gimbal which can rotate 360° about one axis and 240° about another; movement with ± 35 arcsecond accuracy are achieved in both axes. The position and status are monitored using a LabView program. An XCalibr source with multiple target materials is used as an X-ray source and can produce multiple lines between 0.8 and 8 keV. Some sample spectra are shown from a Si-PIN diode detector. This system is well suited for testing X-ray mirror segments which are currently being developed.

  17. Monochromatic calculations of atmospheric radiative transfer due to molecular line absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M.-D.; Kouvaris, L.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivity studies related to the effects of line cutoff, spectral resolution, and temperature and pressure interpolations in radiative transfer have been performed so that a data set of absorption coefficients for water vapor, CO2, and O3 may be created efficiently. Results show that computations of absorption coefficients are affected only slightly by cutting a line off at a wave number 190 times the Lorentz half width from the center, or equivalently, cutting off 0.33 percent of the line intensity from the wings. To achieve a relative cooling rate error smaller than 2 percent, it is sufficient to precompute the absorption coefficient at three temperatures (210, 250, and 290 K) and 19 pressures with Delta (log 10 p) = 0.2. The absorption coefficient at other conditions can be interpolated linearly with pressure and exponentially with a quadratic in temperature. For the spectral resolution the absorption coefficients can be adequately computed at 0.01, 0.002, 0.005, and 0.025/cm intervals in the thermal water vapor, the CO2 and O3 bands, and the solar water vapor bands, respectively, which limits the error to only a few percent in the cooling and heating rates. Using the precomputed absorption coefficients, repeated monochromatic calculations of atmospheric heating/cooling rates for radiation model developments and for comparison with less detailed calculations are no longer difficult.

  18. A heat transfer study for beamline components in high-power wiggler and undulator beamlines. Part I. Beam stops

    SciTech Connect

    Bedzyk, M. J.; Keeffe, M. J.; Schildkamp, W.; Shen, Q.

    1989-07-01

    The heat transfer capabilities of beam stops in CHESS wiggler and undulator beamlines is described. The thermal analysis for the design of these crucial in-vacuum beamline components is based on the use of a finite element analysis computer calculation and experimental heat loading tests.

  19. Upgrade of the thirty-meter x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takayuki; Sato, Toshiki; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Sato, Takuro; Iizuka, Ryo; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu

    2014-07-01

    The thirty-meter X-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) was utilized for ground-based calibrations of X-ray telescopes (XRTs) onboard the ASTRO-D, the ASTRO-E and the ASTRO- E2 satellites. Recent upsizing or downsizing of XRT required upgrade of the ISAS beam line. We replaced a vacuum chamber in which the stages had been installed by a new cylindrical chamber whose diameter and length are 1.8 m and 11.3 m, respectively. Stages on which a telescope and detectors had been mounted were also replaced. At same time, a new CCD consists of 1240×1152 pixels whose size are 22.5×22.5 μm was introduced. The detector stage can be moved along the X-ray beam in the vacuum chamber, which allows us to change the distance between the sample and the detectors from 0.7 m to 9 m. The two stages can move in at least 500×500 mm2 of square in the plane normal to the X-ray beam. The pitching of some moving axes are measured at 60 arcsec at most. The others are no more than about 30 arcsec. From April 2013, the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray telescopes (SXTs) have been calibrated at the new ISAS beam line.

  20. Ellipse-line-ellipse source trajectory and its R-line coverage for long-object cone-beam imaging with a C-arm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Noo, F.; Lauritsch, G.; Dennerlein, F.; Hornegger, J.

    2012-03-01

    Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in terms of treatment of diseases using minimallyinvasive procedures. This progress was facilitated through multiple refinements of the imaging capabilities of C-arm systems in the interventional room, and more sophisticated procedures may become feasible by further refining the performance of these systems. Our primary focus is to eliminate two strong limitations of the current circular cone-beam imaging approach: cone-beam artifacts and limited extent of the volume covered in the direction of the patient bed. To solve this problem, we seek a source trajectory that (i) is complete in terms of Tuy's condition, (ii) can be periodically-repeated without discontinuities to allow long-object imaging, (iii) is practical, and (iv) offers full R-line coverage (an R-line is a line that connects any two source positions). A trajectory that satisfies all of our constraint is the Arc-Extended-Line-Arc(AELA) trajectory. Unfortunately, this trajectory does not allow smooth, continuous scanning at reasonable dose. In this work, we propose a new data acquisition geometry: the Ellipse-Line-Ellipse (ELE) trajectory. This geometry satisfies all of our constraints along with the attractive feature that smooth, continuous scanning at reasonable dose is enabled.

  1. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10Â MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Blažević, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Roth, M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 109 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90 deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  2. Line-focus solar central power system, phase I. Subsystem experiment: receiver heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    Wind-tunnel tests confirmed that heat losses due to natural convection are negligible in the line-focus, solar-powered receiver. Anomalies in the forced-convection tests prevented definitive conclusions regarding the more important forced convection. Flow-visualization tests using a water table show much lower velocities inside the receiver cavity than outside, supporting the supposition that the forced-heat transfer should be less than that from a standard exposed cylinder. Furthermore, the water-table tests showed ways to decrease the low velocities in the cavity should this be desired. Further wind-tunnel testing should be done to confirm estimates and to support advanced design. This testing can be done in standard wind tunnels since only the forced convection is of concern.

  3. Variations in propagation delay times for line ten (TV) based time transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, M. C.; Shaw, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    Variation in the propagation delay for a 30 km TV (Line Ten) radio link was evaluated for a series of 30 independent measurements. Time marks from TV Channel 5 WTTG in Washington, D.C. were simultaneously measured at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and at the United States Naval Observatory against each stations' local cesium standard clocks. Differences in the stations' cesium clocks were determined by portable cesium clock transfers. Thirty independent timing determinations were made. The root mean square deviation in the propagation delay calculated from the timing determinations was 11 ns. The variations seen in the propagation delays are believed to be caused by environmental factors and by errors in the portable clock timing measurements. In correlating the propagation delay variations with local weather conditions, only a moderate dependence on air temperature and absolute humidity was found.

  4. Concepts of static VAR system control for enhancing power transfer in long transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Padiyar, K.R. . Dept. of Electrical Communication Engineering); Varma, R.K. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper is conserved with the influence of different levels of complexity in modelling various constituent subsystems on the dynamic stability of power systems compensated by static var systems (SVS) operating on pure voltage control. The system components investigated include thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) transients, SVS delays, network transients, the synchronous generator and automatic voltage regulator (AVR). An overall model is proposed which adequately describes the system performance for small signal perturbations. The SVS performance is validated through detailed nonlinear simulation on a physical simulator. Static VAR systems are finding increased application in present day power systems due to their fast controllability for enhancement of dynamic and transient stability limits, control of dynamic overvoltages, damping of torsional oscillations, improvement in HVDC converter terminal performance, etc. In long transmission lines, a significant improvement in power transfer can be achieved by connecting an SVS at the midpoint, which is actuated by a control signal derived from local bus voltage.

  5. Evaluation of Available Transfer Capability Using Transient Stability Constrained Line Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzoechi, Lazarus Okechukwu; Mahajan, Satish M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to evaluate transient stability constrained available transfer capability (ATC). A linear and fast line flow-based (LFB) method was adopted to optimize the ATC values. This enabled the direct determination of the system source-sink locations. This paper formulated different market transactions considering bilateral and multilateral impacts in the stability constrained ATC. The proposed method was demonstrated on the WECC 9-bus and IEEE 39-bus systems. The critical energy performance index (CEPI) enabled the direct identification of candidates for contingency screening based on ranking. This index helped to reduce the list of credible contingencies for ATC evaluation and, therefore, the computation time. The results of the proposed ATC method are consistent with the literature and can be deployed for fast assessment of the impact of transactions in an electric power system.

  6. A conjugate gradient method for solving the non-LTE line radiation transfer problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletou, F.; Anterrieu, E.

    2009-12-01

    This study concerns the fast and accurate solution of the line radiation transfer problem, under non-LTE conditions. We propose and evaluate an alternative iterative scheme to the classical ALI-Jacobi method, and to the more recently proposed Gauss-Seidel and successive over-relaxation (GS/SOR) schemes. Our study is indeed based on applying a preconditioned bi-conjugate gradient method (BiCG-P). Standard tests, in 1D plane parallel geometry and in the frame of the two-level atom model with monochromatic scattering are discussed. Rates of convergence between the previously mentioned iterative schemes are compared, as are their respective timing properties. The smoothing capability of the BiCG-P method is also demonstrated.

  7. Electrical Properties of Nanometer-Width Refractory Metal Lines Fabricated by Focused Ion Beam and Oxide Resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshida, Nobuyoshi; Watanuki, Shinichi; Yoshida, Kazuyoshi; Endo, Kinju; Komuro, Masanori; Atoda, Nobufumi

    1992-12-01

    Nanometer-width refractory metal lines are generated on Si substrates with high resolution by focused ion beam (FIB) exposure to MoO3 and WO3 inorganic resists, development and subsequent reduction in dry H2 gas. On the basis of some experiments for optimizing the process parameters, the electrical properties of fabricated fine Mo and W lines are evaluated in terms of the sheet resistance and its temperature dependence. A 40-nm-wide line did not show any signs of electromigration after the electrical measurements at current densities of 105 A/cm2 for several tens of minutes.

  8. Electron stripping processes of H⁻ ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE.

    PubMed

    Draganic, I N

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H(-) Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H(-) ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H(-) beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H(-) ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H(-) ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line. PMID:26931993

  9. Electron stripping processes of H- ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H- Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H- ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H- beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H- ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H- ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  10. Upgrade of the 30-m x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takayuki; Sato, Toshiki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Kurashima, Sho; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Sato, Takuro; Iizuka, Ryo; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu

    2015-10-01

    The 30-m x-ray pencil beam line at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science has been upgraded. The vacuum chamber has been replaced by a new cylindrical chamber of diameter 1.8μm and length 11.3μm. Stages on which a telescope and detectors had been mounted were also replaced. At the same time, a new charge-coupled device consisting of 1240×1152 pixels of size 22.5×22.5 μm2 was introduced. The detector stage can be moved along the x-ray beam in the vacuum chamber, which enables us to vary the distance between the sample and the detectors from 0.7 to 9μm. The two stages can be moved in a square region 500×500 mm2 in the plane normal to the x-ray beam. The pitching of moving axes of Y direction (horizontal and normal to the beam) of the sample and the detector stages is somewhat large, but does not exceed 60 arc sec. The pitching of the other axes and the yawing of all the axes are less than 30 arc sec. As for rolling, we could obtain only the upper limits because of the difficulty in measuring them. The upper limit of the Z direction (vertical and normal to the beam) of the detector stage moving axis is somewhat large and is about 60 arc sec, and those of the other axes are less than 30 arc sec. A summary of the beam line performance is presented. Soon after the upgrade, the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray telescopes were calibrated in this beam line.

  11. Three-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer effects in Fe i lines. III. Line formation in magneto-hydrodynamic atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzreuter, R.; Solanki, S. K.

    2015-10-01

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects in diagnostically important solar Fe i lines are important because of the strong sensitivity of Fe i to ionizing UV radiation, which may lead to a considerable underpopulation of the Fe i levels in the solar atmosphere and, therefore, to a sizeable weakening of Fe i lines. These NLTE effects may be intensified or weakened by horizontal radiative transfer (RT) in a three-dimensionally (3D) structured atmosphere. We analyze the influence of horizontal RT on commonly used Fe i lines in a snapshot of a 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of a plage region. NLTE and horizontal RT effects occur with considerable strength (up to 50% in line depth or equivalent width) in the analyzed snapshot. Because they may have either sign, and both signs occur with approximately the same frequency and strength, the net effects are small when considering spatially averaged quantities. The situation in the plage atmosphere turns out to be rather complex. Horizontal transfer leads to line weakening relative to 1D NLTE transfer near the boundaries of kG magnetic elements. Around the centers of these elements, however, we find line strengthening, which is often significant. This behavior contrasts with what is expected from previous 3D RT computations in idealized flux-tube models, which only display line weakening. The origin of this unexpected behavior lies in the fact that magnetic elements are surrounded by dense and relatively cool downflowing gas, which forms the walls of the magnetic elements. The continuum in these dense walls is often formed in colder gas than in the central part of the magnetic elements. Consequently, the central parts of the magnetic element experience a subaverage UV-irradiation leading to the observed 3D NLTE line strengthening.

  12. Analysis of the eigenvalue equation of the FEL amplifier with axisymmetric electron beam and diaphragm focusing line

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents analysis of the eigenvalue problem of the FEL amplifier with axisymmetric electron beam and diaphragm focusing line. An FEL model is discussed wherein diffraction effects, space charge fields and energy spread of electrons in the beam are taken into account. To take into account diffraction effects at the diaphragms we apply the rigorous impedance boundary conditions proposed by Veinstein. The rigorous solutions of the eigenvalue problem leave been found for the stepped and bounded parabolic electron beam profiles. Analytical expressions for eigenfunctions of active open waveguide and formulae of their expansion in eigenfunctions of passive open waveguide, are derived, too. Asymptotic behaviour of the obtained solutions is studied in details. The multilayer approximation method has been used to solve the eigenvalue problem for the beams with an arbitrary gradient profile of current density. This novel type of an FEL amplifier has perspective to be used for applications where high average and peak radiation power is required.

  13. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z. . E-mail: hzsheng2003@yahoo.com

    2006-11-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines.

  14. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the 'Chinese Spring' common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence 'Chinese Spring' genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the 'Chinese Spring' bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  15. Laser-induced forward transfer for improving fine-line metallization in photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Aniorte, M. I.; Mouhamadou, B.; Alloncle, A. P.; Sarnet, T.; Delaporte, P.

    2016-06-01

    Grand challenges to create new front metallization techniques in photovoltaic focus considerable attention on laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) approach. This alternative method aims to overcome the limitations of the well-established and mature screen-printing (SP) technique. Such limitations are for instance restrictions in the grid pattern design, high-temperature steps, and limited aspect ratio of the line contact (Poulain et al. in Appl Surf Sci 257:5241-5244, 2011). Although different new front contact metallization concepts have been studied, most of them require a second print step to increase the volume of the contact (Gao et al. in Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC conference, 2010; Beaucarne and Schubert in Energy Proc 67:2-12, 2015; Lossen and Matusovsky in Energy Proc 67:156-162, 2015; Green in Phys E 14:65-70, 2002; Lennon et al. in Prog Photovolt Res Appl V21:1454-1468, 2012). As a result, it is desirable to find innovative metallization techniques to improve the cell efficiency without significantly increasing the cost. Although many challenges remain before to obtain high-quality, robust, and high-performance LIFT contact formation, it required a fully theoretical and experimental assessment. This paper presents the results of a study of the LIFT technique in picosecond regime and thick silver pastes to create high-quality conductive lines for photovoltaic applications.

  16. Deformable motion reconstruction for scanned proton beam therapy using on-line x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Knopf, A.; Tanner, C.; Boye, D.; Lomax, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Organ motion is a major problem for any dynamic radiotherapy delivery technique, and is particularly so for spot scanned proton therapy. On the other hand, the use of narrow, magnetically deflected proton pencil beams is potentially an ideal delivery technique for tracking tumour motion on-line. At PSI, our new Gantry is equipped with a Beams Eye View (BEV) imaging system which will be able to acquire 2D x-ray images in fluoroscopy mode during treatment delivery. However, besides precisely tracking motion from BEVs, it is also essential to obtain information on the 3D motion vector throughout the whole region of interest, and any sparsely acquired surrogate motion is generally not sufficient to describe the deformable behaviour of the whole volume in three dimensions. In this study, we propose a method by which 3D deformable motions can be estimated from surrogate motions obtained using this monoscopic imaging system. The method assumes that example motions over a number of breathing cycles can be acquired before treatment for each patient using 4DMRI. In this study, for each of 11 different subjects, 100 continuous breathing cycles have been extracted from extended 4DMRI studies in the liver and then subject specific motion models have been built using principle component analysis (PCA). To simulate treatment conditions, a different set of 30 continuous breathing cycles from the same subjects have then been used to generate a set of simulated 4DCT data sets (so-called 4DCT(MRI) data sets), from which time-resolved digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were calculated using the BEV geometry for three treatment fields respectively. From these DRRs, surrogate motions from fiducial markers or the diaphragm have been used as a predictor to estimate 3D motions in the liver region for each subject. The prediction results have been directly compared to the ‘ground truth’ motions extracted from the same 30 breath cycles of the originating 4DMRI data set. Averaged

  17. Deformable motion reconstruction for scanned proton beam therapy using on-line x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Knopf, A; Tanner, C; Boye, D; Lomax, A J

    2013-12-21

    Organ motion is a major problem for any dynamic radiotherapy delivery technique, and is particularly so for spot scanned proton therapy. On the other hand, the use of narrow, magnetically deflected proton pencil beams is potentially an ideal delivery technique for tracking tumour motion on-line. At PSI, our new Gantry is equipped with a Beams Eye View (BEV) imaging system which will be able to acquire 2D x-ray images in fluoroscopy mode during treatment delivery. However, besides precisely tracking motion from BEVs, it is also essential to obtain information on the 3D motion vector throughout the whole region of interest, and any sparsely acquired surrogate motion is generally not sufficient to describe the deformable behaviour of the whole volume in three dimensions. In this study, we propose a method by which 3D deformable motions can be estimated from surrogate motions obtained using this monoscopic imaging system. The method assumes that example motions over a number of breathing cycles can be acquired before treatment for each patient using 4DMRI. In this study, for each of 11 different subjects, 100 continuous breathing cycles have been extracted from extended 4DMRI studies in the liver and then subject specific motion models have been built using principle component analysis (PCA). To simulate treatment conditions, a different set of 30 continuous breathing cycles from the same subjects have then been used to generate a set of simulated 4DCT data sets (so-called 4DCT(MRI) data sets), from which time-resolved digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were calculated using the BEV geometry for three treatment fields respectively. From these DRRs, surrogate motions from fiducial markers or the diaphragm have been used as a predictor to estimate 3D motions in the liver region for each subject. The prediction results have been directly compared to the 'ground truth' motions extracted from the same 30 breath cycles of the originating 4DMRI data set. Averaged over

  18. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Thermal Contraction Analysis of the Solenoid and VLPC Cryogenic Transfer Lines for the D0 Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Leicht, Todd M.; /Fermilab

    1995-06-06

    The stresses developed in the solenoid and VLPC transfer lines have been investigated with the PipePlus v4.5 software package from Algor. 4 cases were considered for each transfer line and the following results were obtained. Pipe deflections have also been kept to a minimum by carefully considering the location of spider guides. Their placement should be as close as possible to the locations shown in Figures 4-7. With regard to chosen pipe sizes, the 2.5-inch OD Cu radiation shield in the solenoid transfer line should be replaced with a 3.5-inch OD tube. The vacuum jackets should also be replaced with 5-inch or larger pipe. These changes should safely accommodate the maximum displacements caused by thermal loading. This engineering note investigates the ability of the solenoid and VLPC cryogenic transfer lines to accommodate thermal stresses. The solenoid and VLPC transfer lines are similar in their construction in that they consist of an outer vacuum jacket, liquid nitrogen supply and return lines, a copper thermal radiation shield, and liquid helium supply and return lines. See Figure 1 for details on their specific construction. Line drawings for the solenoid and VLPC transfer lines are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively. The transfer line system, as a whole, does not lend itself to simple analysis such as the 'Simplified Method for Flexibility Analysis' or the chart method. These methods demand that the piping system be rigidly anchored at two ends with no intermediate branches. Therefore, a major part of the analysis was performed on the PipePlus v4.5 software package by Algor. Considerations have been given to dead weight, pressure, and thermal loads, boundary conditions such as end displacements, and restraints caused by intermediate supports. The Appendices contain selected information from the PipePlus analysis. Only the pipe geometry, boundary conditions, loading, node displacements and stresses have been reported. The electronic version of the Pipe

  19. Determination of wafer center position during the transfer process by using the beam-breaking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Gen; Huang, Bo-Kai

    2014-09-01

    A wafer on a robot blade may slip due to inertia sliding during the acceleration or deceleration process. This study presents the implementation and experimental verification of a novel real-time wafer positioning system to be used during the transfer process. A system-integration computer program involving a human-machine interface (HMI) was also developed, exhibiting the following functions: (a) moving direction judgment; (b) notch-passing judgment; (c) indicating the sensor by which the notch passes; and (d) computing the wafer center in real time. The position of the wafer center is calculated based on the time-sequence of the beam-breaking signals from two optical sensors, and the geometric relations among the sensing points of the robot blade and wafer. When using eight-inch wafers, the experimental results indicated the capabilities of the proposed positioning system under various conditions, including distinct parameters regarding the moving direction, wafer displacement and notch-passing sensors. The accuracy and precision (repeatability) of the measurement in various conditions were calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the experimental results demonstrate that, after combining the novel wafer positioning system and HMI program, the proposed method can be used to compute the position of the wafer center in real time in various conditions.

  20. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished. PMID:25161320

  1. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J

    2014-08-01

    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished. PMID:25161320

  2. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J.

    2014-08-04

    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished.

  3. An accelerated lambda iteration method for multilevel radiative transfer. I - Non-overlapping lines with background continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, G. B.; Hummer, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A method is presented for solving multilevel transfer problems when nonoverlapping lines and background continuum are present and active continuum transfer is absent. An approximate lambda operator is employed to derive linear, 'preconditioned', statistical-equilibrium equations. A method is described for finding the diagonal elements of the 'true' numerical lambda operator, and therefore for obtaining the coefficients of the equations. Iterations of the preconditioned equations, in conjunction with the transfer equation's formal solution, are used to solve linear equations. Some multilevel problems are considered, including an eleven-level neutral helium atom. Diagonal and tridiagonal approximate lambda operators are utilized in the problems to examine the convergence properties of the method, and it is found to be effective for the line transfer problems.

  4. Leaky wave antenna with amplitude controlled beam steering based on composite right/left-handed transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberspächer, M. A.; Eibert, T. F.

    2010-09-01

    An antenna comprising two different composite right/left-handed transmission line structures is proposed which enables easy beam steering at an operation frequency of 10 GHz. The composite right/left-handed transmission lines are based on planar, periodically arranged via free unit cells, implemented in microstrip technology. Both transmission lines exhibit the infinite wavelength phenomenon which occurs at 9.72 GHz and 9.89 GHz, respectively. Thus, operating the different leaky wave structures at 10 GHz, radiation with azimuth angles of ±8° and ±17° can be achieved depending on the selected input port. In order to obtain a tunable main beam direction, the radiation patterns of both structures are superimposed by feeding them simultaneously. The influence of each guiding structure, and hence the direction of the main beam, can be controlled via the feeding amplitude. As a result of this, the beam can be steered between ±17° with a gain of up to 10 dBi. The guiding structures are arranged in parallel with a clearance of a=12.2 mm which is less than half of the wavelength in free space. This allows in a further step the attachment of additional guiding structures in order to increase the tunable angle range or creating an antenna array with a small beamwidth in the elevation plane without the occurrence of grating lobes. An antenna prototype was fabricated and validated by measurements.

  5. Coupled bending-torsion steady-state response of pretwisted, nonuniform rotating beams using a transfer-matrix method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Carl E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Using the Newtonian method, the equations of motion are developed for the coupled bending-torsion steady-state response of beams rotating at constant angular velocity in a fixed plane. The resulting equations are valid to first order strain-displacement relationships for a long beam with all other nonlinear terms retained. In addition, the equations are valid for beams with the mass centroidal axis offset (eccentric) from the elastic axis, nonuniform mass and section properties, and variable twist. The solution of these coupled, nonlinear, nonhomogeneous, differential equations is obtained by modifying a Hunter linear second-order transfer-matrix solution procedure to solve the nonlinear differential equations and programming the solution for a desk-top personal computer. The modified transfer-matrix method was verified by comparing the solution for a rotating beam with a geometric, nonlinear, finite-element computer code solution; and for a simple rotating beam problem, the modified method demonstrated a significant advantage over the finite-element solution in accuracy, ease of solution, and actual computer processing time required to effect a solution.

  6. Use of transfer maps for modeling beam dynamics in a nonscaling fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giboudot, Y.; Wolski, A.

    2012-04-01

    Transfer maps for magnetic components are fundamental to studies of beam dynamics in accelerators. In the work presented here, transfer maps are computed in Taylor form for a particle moving through any specified magnetostatic field by applying an explicit symplectic integrator in a differential algebra code. The techniques developed are illustrated by their application to study the beam dynamics in the electron model for many applications (EMMA), the first nonscaling fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerator ever built. The EMMA lattice has 4 degrees of freedom (strength and transverse position of each of the two quadrupoles in each periodic cell). Transfer maps may be used to predict efficiently the dynamics in any lattice configuration. The transfer map is represented by a mixed variable generating function, obtained by interpolation between the maps for a set of reference configurations: use of mixed variable generating functions ensures the symplecticity of the map. An optimization routine uses the interpolation technique to look for a lattice defined by four constraints on the time of flight at different beam energies. This provides a way to determine the lattice configuration required to produce the desired dynamical characteristics. These tools are benchmarked against data from the recent EMMA commissioning.

  7. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, Øystein

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  8. “Crater” flux transfer events: Highroad to the X line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Chen, Li-Jen; Torbert, R. B.; Southwood, D. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Vrublevskis, A.; Mouikis, C.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Décréau, P.; Vaith, H.; Owen, C. J.; Sibeck, D. J.; Lucek, E.; Smith, C. W.

    2011-02-01

    We examine Cluster observations of a so-called magnetosphere “crater FTE,” employing data from five instruments (FGM, CIS, EDI, EFW, and WHISPER), some at the highest resolution. The aim of doing this is to deepen our understanding of the reconnection nature of these events by applying recent advances in the theory of collisionless reconnection and in detailed observational work. Our data support the hypothesis of a stratified structure with regions which we show to be spatial structures. We support the bulge-like topology of the core region (R3) made up of plasma jetting transverse to reconnected field lines. We document encounters with a magnetic separatrix as a thin layer embedded in the region (R2) just outside the bulge, where the speed of the protons flowing approximately parallel to the field maximizes: (1) short (fraction of a sec) bursts of enhanced electric field strengths (up to ˜30 mV/m) and (2) electrons flowing against the field toward the X line at approximately the same time as the bursts of intense electric fields. R2 also contains a density decrease concomitant with an enhanced magnetic field strength. At its interface with the core region, R3, electric field activity ceases abruptly. The accelerated plasma flow profile has a catenary shape consisting of beams parallel to the field in R2 close to the R2/R3 boundary and slower jets moving across the magnetic field within the bulge region. We detail commonalities our observations of crater FTEs have with reconnection structures in other scenarios. We suggest that in view of these properties and their frequency of occurrence, crater FTEs are ideal places to study processes at the separatrices, key regions in magnetic reconnection. This is a good preparation for the MMS mission.

  9. System for measuring temporal profiles of scintillation at high and different linear energy transfers by using pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Koshimizu, Masanori Asai, Keisuke; Kurashima, Satoshi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kimura, Atsushi; Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-15

    We have developed a system for measuring the temporal profiles of scintillation at high linear energy transfer (LET) by using pulsed ion beams from a cyclotron. The half width at half maximum time resolution was estimated to be 1.5–2.2 ns, which we attributed mainly to the duration of the pulsed ion beam and timing jitter between the trigger signal and the arrival of the ion pulse. The temporal profiles of scintillation of BaF{sub 2} at different LETs were successfully observed. These results indicate that the proposed system is a powerful tool for analyzing the LET effects in temporal profiles of scintillation.

  10. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER TO ANALYZE HANLE EFFECT IN Ca II K LINE AT 3933 A

    SciTech Connect

    Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in

    2013-04-20

    Radiative transfer (RT) studies of the linearly polarized spectrum of the Sun (the second solar spectrum) have generally focused on line formation, with an aim to understand the vertical structure of the solar atmosphere using one-dimensional (1D) model atmospheres. Modeling spatial structuring in the observations of the linearly polarized line profiles requires the solution of multi-dimensional (multi-D) polarized RT equation and a model solar atmosphere obtained by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of the solar atmosphere. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the chromospheric resonance line Ca II K at 3933 A using multi-D polarized RT with the Hanle effect and partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in line scattering. We use an atmosphere that is constructed by a two-dimensional snapshot of the three-dimensional MHD simulations of the solar photosphere, combined with columns of a 1D atmosphere in the chromosphere. This paper represents the first application of polarized multi-D RT to explore the chromospheric lines using multi-D MHD atmospheres, with PRD as the line scattering mechanism. We find that the horizontal inhomogeneities caused by MHD in the lower layers of the atmosphere are responsible for strong spatial inhomogeneities in the wings of the linear polarization profiles, while the use of horizontally homogeneous chromosphere (FALC) produces spatially homogeneous linear polarization in the line core. The introduction of different magnetic field configurations modifies the line core polarization through the Hanle effect and can cause spatial inhomogeneities in the line core. A comparison of our theoretical profiles with the observations of this line shows that the MHD structuring in the photosphere is sufficient to reproduce the line wings and in the line core, but only line center polarization can be reproduced using the Hanle effect. For a simultaneous modeling of the line wings and the line core (including the line center), MHD atmospheres with

  11. Design of Main Control Console Software in EAST Neutral Beam Injector's Control System for the First Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, De-Yun; Hu, Chun-Dong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuan-Zhe; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Cui, Qing-Long

    2013-10-01

    Neutral beam injector is one of the main plasma heating and plasma current driving methods for experimental advanced superconducting tokomaks (EAST). In order to realize visual operation of EAST neutral beam injector's control system (NBICS), main control console (MCC) is developed to work as the human-machine interface between the NBICS and physical operator. It can meet the requirements of visual control of NBICS by providing a user graphic interface. With the specific algorithms, the setup of power supply sequence is relatively independent and simple. Displaying the real-time feedback of the subsystems provides a reference for operators to monitor the status of the system. The MCC software runs on a Windows system and uses C++ language code while using client/server (C/S) mode, multithreading and cyclic redundancy check technology. The experimental results have proved that MCC provides a stability and reliability operation of NBICS and works as an effective man-machine interface at the same time.

  12. Status of the SPES-charge breeder (SPES-CB) and its beam line at INFN-LNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatá, Àlessio; Comunian, M.; Bellan, L.; Maggiore, M.; Patti, G.; Roncolato, C.; Bisoffi, G.; Russo, A. D.; Calabretta, L.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2016-06-01

    The Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) facility is under construction at INFN-LNL: aim of this project is the production, ionization and post-acceleration of radioactive ions to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. Radioactive species will be produced by fissions induced by a proton beam impinging on an UCx target: the proton beam will be delivered by a room temperature cyclotron (built by the Best Company) with a maximum energy of 40 MeV and 0.25 mA of maximum current. The radioactive species produced in the Target-Ion-Source system, extracted as a 1+ beam, cooled in a RFQ-cooler and purified from the isobars contaminants through a High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS). In order to allow post acceleration with the superconducting linac ALPI at INFN-LNL (up to 10 MeV/A for A/q = 7), an ECR-based charge breeding technique (ECR-CB) was chosen: in particular the SPES-CB was developed by the LPSC Grenoble on the basis of the Phoenix booster. The SPES-CB will be equipped with a complete test bench, totally integrated with the SPES beam line: in particular, in order to avoid beam contaminations induced by the impurities present inside the SPES-CB, and to have high transmission for a beam of very low intensity, special attention was paid not only to the transport efficiency but also to the resolution of the spectrometer downstream the charge breeder, with the design of a Medium Resolution Mass Spectrometer (MRMS). In the following paper the technical aspects connected with SPES-CB, its beam line and the transport of highly charged radioactive ions will be described.

  13. High-Brightness Beam Generation and Characterization at the Advanced Photon Source Low-Energy Undulator Test Line Linac*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewellen, John; Biedron, Sandra; Borland, Michael; Hahne, Michael; Harkay, Katherine; Lumpkin, Alex; Milton, Stephen; Sereno, Nicholas; Travish, Gil

    2000-04-01

    Improvements to the Advanced Photon Source injector linac have been made to allow for the production and characterization of high-brightness beams in support of fourth-generation light source research. In particular, effort has been directed at generating beams suitable for use in the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) free-electron laser (FEL). We describe the enhancements to the linac operational and diagnostic capabilities that enabled self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) operation of the FEL at 530 nm. Electron beam measurement techniques and recent results will be discussed. Beam properties are measured under the same operational conditions as those used for FEL studies. The nominal FEL beam parameters are as follows: 217 MeV beam energy; less than 0.15 mm-mrad normalized emittance; 100 A peak current from a 0.7-nC charge at a 7-psec bunch. * Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38

  14. A case of horizontal gene transfer from Wolbachia to Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qing; He, Ji; Yu, Jing; Ye, Yuting; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Donghui; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer plays an essential role in evolution and ecological adaptation, yet this phenomenon has remained controversial, particularly where it occurs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. There are a handful of reported examples of horizontal gene transfer occurring between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in the literature, with most of these documented cases pertaining to invertebrates and endosymbionts. However, the vast majority of these horizontally transferred genes were either eventually excluded or rapidly became nonfunctional in the recipient genome. In this study, we report the discovery of a horizontal gene transfer from the endosymbiont Wolbachia in the C6/36 cell line derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Moreover, we report that this horizontally transferred gene displayed high transcription level. This finding and the results of further experimentation strongly suggest this gene is functional and has been expressed and translated into a protein in the mosquito host cells. PMID:24812591

  15. Developments in on-line, electron-beam emittance measurements using optical transition radiation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, R.B.; Lumpkin, A.H. ); Rule, D.W.; Fiorito, R.B. )

    1989-01-01

    We have developed image analysis software to facilitate the analysis of optical transition radiation (OTR) patterns generated by the electron beam from the Los Alamos free-electron laser facility. The software can be used for beam alignment, beam profile and angular divergence measurements, and the programs run on an IBM AT microcomputer. The programs and their use are described and some results shown. 2 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Theoretical examination of transfer cavities in a standing-wave free- electron laser Two-Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Govil, R.; Sessler, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent analysis of the Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) by Wurtele, Whittum and Sessler has shown that the transfer cavities, both in the relativistic klystron version (RK/TBA) and the standing-wave free-electron laser version (SWFEL/TBA), can be characterized by a simple coupling impedance. In the two cases the radiation process is very similar: Only the modes that couple to the electron beam are different. As a result, computer programs that are able to handle realistic cavities (with beam ports and coupling ports, etc.) can be employed to evaluate the performance of either version of the TBA. We have employed the code URMEL to study the proper coupling impedance for a number of realistic cavities for a SWFEL.

  17. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam.

    PubMed

    Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Pouzoulet, F; Mazal, A

    2016-01-21

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens' model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec, for Wilkens' model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec. The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens' model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm(-1). These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. PMID:26732530

  18. Analytical linear energy transfer model including secondary particles: calculations along the central axis of the proton pencil beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsolat, F.; De Marzi, L.; Pouzoulet, F.; Mazal, A.

    2016-01-01

    In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec, for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec. The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm-1. These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis.

  19. TEMP: A finite line heat transfer code for geologic repositories for nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wurm, K.J.; Bloom, S.G.; Atterbury, W.G.; Hetteberg, J.R.

    1987-10-01

    TEMP is a FORTRAN computer code for calculating temperatures in a geologic repository for nuclear waste. It will calculate the incremental temperature contributed by a single heat source, by an infinite array of heat sources, or by heat sources geometrically arranged in a finite array. In the finite array geometry, different types of heat sources can be placed in different regions at different times to more closely approximate the emplacement of waste in a repository. TEMP uses a semi-analytical technique for solving the equation for a heat producing finite length line source in an infinite and isotropic medium. Temperature contributions from individual heat sources are superimposed to determine the temperature at a specific location and time in a repository of multiple heat sources. Thermal conductivity of the geologic medium can be a function of temperature, and, when it is, an approximation is made for the temperature dependence of thermal diffusivity. This report derives the equations solved by TEMP and documents its accuracy by comparing its results to known analytical solutions and to the finite-difference and finite-element heat transfer codes HEATING5, HEATING6, THAC-SIP-3D, SPECTROM-41, and STEALTH-2D. The temperature results from TEMP are shown to be very accurate when compared to the analytical solutions and to the results from the finite-difference and finite-element codes. 8 refs., 97 figs., 39 tabs.

  20. Solution of mixed convection heat transfer from isothermal in-line fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalilollahi, Amir

    1993-01-01

    Transient and steady state combined natural and forced convective flows over two in-line finite thickness fins (louvers) in a vertical channel are numerically solved using two methods. The first method of solution is based on the 'Simple Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian' (SALE) technique which incorporates mainly two computational phases: (1) a Lagrangian phase in which the velocity field is updated by the effects of all forces, and (2) an Eulerian phase that executes all advective fluxes of mass, momentum and energy. The second method of solution uses the finite element code entitled FIDAP. In the first part, comparison of the results by FIDAP, SALE, and available experimental work were done and discussed for steady state forced convection over louvered fins. Good agreements were deduced between the three sets of results especially for the flow over a single fin. In the second part and in the absence of experimental literature, the numerical predictions were extended to the transient transports and to the opposing flow where pressure drop is reversed. Results are presented and discussed for heat transfer and pressure drop in assisting and opposing mixed convection flows.

  1. Spectrum and density of neutron flux in the irradiation beam line no. 3 of the IBR-2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabalin, E. P.; Verkhoglyadov, A. E.; Bulavin, M. V.; Rogov, A. D.; Kulagin, E. N.; Kulikov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    Methodology and results of measuring the differential density of the neutron flux in irradiation beam line no. 3 of the IBR-2 reactor using neutron activation analysis (NAA) are presented in the paper. The results are compared to the calculation performed on the basis of the 3D MCNP model. The data that are obtained are required to determine the integrated radiation dose of the studied samples at various distances from the reactor.

  2. Interaction of a laser beam with the rotational lines of nitrogen in the wavelength region of 5700 Å

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohain Barua, Anurup; Jois, Sankara S.; Bhuyan, Surajit

    2007-08-01

    Propagation of a dye laser beam of wavelength 5700 Å through nitrogen is considered. Values of transmittance, averaged over intervals of 0.5 cm-1, are obtained for absorber thicknesses of 0.1, 1, and 10 atm-cm, using the quasi-random model of molecular band absorption. From these values, intensities of the absorption lines in the first positive system of N2 are simulated in the frequency interval of 17,540-17,548 cm-1.

  3. Performance of a superconducting magnet system operated in the Super Omega Muon beam line at J-PARC

    SciTech Connect

    Makida, Yasuhiro; Ikedo, Yutaka; Ogitsu, Toru; Shimomura, Koichiro; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Adachi, Taihei; Kadono, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Naritoshi; Strasser, Patric; Koda, Akihiro; Fujimori, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kusuo; Ohhata, Hirokatsu; Okamura, Takahiro; Okada, Ryutaro; Orikasa, Tomofumi

    2014-01-29

    A superconducting magnet system, which is composed of an 8 m long solenoid for transportation and 12 short solenoids for focusing, has been developed for Muon Science Establishment facility of J-PARC. The transport solenoid is composed of a 6 m straight section connected to a 45 degree curved section at each end. Muons of various momenta and of both electric charges are transported through the solenoid inner bore with an effective diameter of 0.3 m, where 2 T magnetic field is induced. There are 12 focusing solenoids with an effective bore diameter of 0.6 m and a length of 0.35 m arranged on a straight line at suitable intervals. The maximum central field of each focusing solenoid is 0.66 T. All solenoid coils are cooled by GM cryocoolers through their own conductions. The magnet system has been installed into the beam line in the summer of 2012, and its performance has been checked. Beam commissioning has been carried out since October 2012. During beam operation, temperature rise over 6 K in the transport solenoid due to a nuclear heating from the muon production target is observed at beam intensity of about 300 kW.

  4. Design study of the ESS-Bilbao 50 MeV proton beam line for radiobiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Parajon, M.; Martinez-Ballarin, R.; Abad, E.

    2015-02-01

    The ESS-Bilbao proton accelerator facility has been designed fulfilling the European Spallation Source (ESS) specifications to serve as the Spanish contribution to the ESS construction. Furthermore, several applications of the ESS-Bilbao proton beam are being considered in order to contribute to the knowledge in the field of radiobiology, materials and aerospace components. Understanding of the interaction of radiation with biological systems is of vital importance as it affects important applications such as cancer treatment with ion beam therapy among others. ESS-Bilbao plans to house a facility exclusively dedicated to radiobiological experiments with protons up to 50 MeV. Beam line design, optimisation and initial calculations of flux densities and absorbed doses were undertaken using the Monte Carlo simulation package FLUKA. A proton beam with a flux density of about 106 protons/cm2 s reaches the water sample with a flat lateral distribution of the dose. The absorbed dose at the pristine Bragg peak calculated with FLUKA is 2.4 ± 0.1 Gy in 1 min of irradiation time. This value agrees with the clinically meaningful dose rates, i.e. around 2 Gy/min, used in hadrontherapy. Optimisation and validation studies in the ESS-Bilbao line for radiobiological experiments are detailed in this article.

  5. Scattering in infrared radiative transfer: A comparison between the spectrally averaging model JURASSIC and the line-by-line model KOPRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griessbach, Sabine; Hoffmann, Lars; Höpfner, Michael; Riese, Martin; Spang, Reinhold

    2013-09-01

    The viability of a spectrally averaging model to perform radiative transfer calculations in the infrared including scattering by atmospheric particles is examined for the application of infrared limb remote sensing measurements. Here we focus on the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) aboard the European Space Agency's Envisat. Various spectra for clear air and cloudy conditions were simulated with a spectrally averaging radiative transfer model and a line-by-line radiative transfer model for three atmospheric window regions (825-830, 946-951, 1224-1228 cm-1) and compared to each other. The results are rated in terms of the MIPAS noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR). The clear air simulations generally agree within one NESR. The cloud simulations neglecting the scattering source term agree within two NESR. The differences between the cloud simulations including the scattering source term are generally below three and always below four NESR. We conclude that the spectrally averaging approach is well suited for fast and accurate infrared radiative transfer simulations including scattering by clouds. We found that the main source for the differences between the cloud simulations of both models is the cloud edge sampling. Furthermore we reasoned that this model comparison for clouds is also valid for atmospheric aerosol in general.

  6. BNL development of H/sup -//D/sup -/ sources for fusion reactor neutral beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Prelec, K

    1980-01-01

    The long range program of the BNL Neutral Beam Development Group is to design a neutral beam system based on neutralization of negative ions, with an energy of 200 keV or higher, a D/sup -/ beam current of 10 A and operating in pulses of 5 s duration or longer; the beam system would be used on fusion devices for plasma heating. Presently, work is concentrated on the development of an H/sup -/ or D/sup -/ ion source, to deliver about 1 A of beam current, at an energy of at least 10 keV and operating in pulses longer than 5 s. A source of the magnetron type was designed and fabricated and is to be tested soon; the paper describes the background experiments that were necessary for the source design, the source parameters and design features, as well as a method under consideration that would improve the gas efficiency by an order of magnitude.

  7. Radiation-hard beam position detector for use in the accelerator dump lines

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Degtiarenko; Danny Dotson; Arne Freyberger; Vladimir Popov

    2005-06-01

    A new method of beam position measurement suitable for monitoring high energy and high power charged particle beams in the vicinity of high power beam dumps is presented. We have found that a plate made of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Silicon Carbide (SiC) has physical properties that make it suitable for such an application. CVD SiC material is a chemically inert, extremely radiation-hard, thermo-resistive semiconductor capable of withstanding working temperatures over 1500 C. It has good thermal conductivity comparable to that of Aluminum, which makes it possible to use it in high-current particle beams. High electrical resistivity of the material, and its semiconductor properties allow characterization of the position of a particle beam crossing such a plate by measuring the balance of electrical currents at the plate ends. The design of a test device, and first results are presented in the report.

  8. Physical conditions for conducting radiobiological experiments in beams of accelerated particles with high linear energy transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, Y. I.; Marennyy, A. M.; Popov, V. I.; Aykhorn, K.; Ertsgreber, G.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an accelerator to conduct radiobiological experiments is reported that uses aluminum filters to control the accelerated ion beam while preserving its stability, and a vacuum chamber to conduct the ion beam with the help of a collector through a lavsan exit port to the target. Depth distribution of the absorbed dose from a monodirectional ion beam is practically completely represented by the change in the energy spectrum of the biological object.

  9. Line-edge roughness transfer function and its application to determining mask effects in EUV resist characterization.

    PubMed

    Naulleau, Patrick P; Gallatin, Gregg M

    2003-06-10

    The control of line-edge roughness (LER) of features printed in photoresist poses significant challenges to next-generation lithography techniques such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Achieving adequately low LER levels will require accurate resist characterization as well as the ability to separate resist effects from other potential contributors to LER. One significant potential contributor is LER on the mask. Here we explicitly study the mask to resist LER coupling using both analytical and computer-simulation methods. We present what is to our knowledge a new imaging transfer function referred to as the LER transfer function (LTF), which fundamentally differs from both the conventional modulation transfer function and the optical transfer function. Moreover, we present experimental results demonstrating the impact of current EUV masks on projection-lithography-based LER experiments. PMID:12816326

  10. Erratum: ``The Pure Rotational Line Emission of Ortho-Water Vapor in Comets. I. Radiative Transfer Model'' (ApJ, 615, 531 [2004])

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensch, F.; Bergin, E. A.

    2007-04-01

    The comet model presented in the paper is based on the radiation transfer code ratran (M. R. Hogerheijde & F. F. S. van der Tak, ApJ, 615, 531 [2004]), an accelerated Monte Carlo code to calculate the line excitation and the emerging line intensities. For a given density profile, ratran determines the level population and, in a second step, calculates the spectral line emission for a given telescope beam, source distance, and velocity resolution. The numerical simulations for water-line emission in cometary coma show that the line excitation varies considerably on radii smaller than the projected telescope beam at the source distance for the models and telescope parameter considered in the paper. Thus, in our calculation, the water excitation in the second step was incorrectly sampled and the emission predictions were inexact, particularly for weak, optically thin lines.4 This problem also resulted from a limitation of the ratran version with respect to the spatial sampling of the intensity distribution for a convolution with a telescope beam. The relevant part of the ratran code was corrected by the authors with the May 2003 release of their software (F. F. S. van der Tak 2006, private communication). To correct this issue, we redid the numerical models presented in the original paper using the May 2003 release of the ratran software and made tests to ensure that the spatial intensity distribution used to calculate the emission detected by a given telescope beam is sampled with a sufficient spatial resolution. The corrected version of the radiation transfer model does not affect the first step, where the level population is calculated; however, the beam-averaged line intensities calculated from the level populations are generally lower than quoted in the original paper. The impact is moderate for the ground-state transitions and for the models with a water production rate of Q29=1 (M1, M6, M7), but can be substantial for the emission in weak comets and the H218O

  11. Training young children on sequential relations among numbers and spatial decomposition: Differential transfer to number line and mental transformation tasks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2016-06-01

    Are there differential benefits of training sequential number knowledge versus spatial skills for children's numerical and spatial performance? Three- to five-year-old children (N = 84) participated in 1 session of either sequential training (e.g., what comes before and after the number 5?) or non-numerical spatial training (i.e., decomposition of shapes). Children who received sequential training showed near transfer to a number ordering task and far transfer to a number line task. Furthermore, these children showed more improvement on the version of the number line task where a midpoint reference was presented (i.e., at 5) than on the version without a midpoint. Before the training, the midpoint reference did not enhance performance. In contrast, although children who received non-numerical spatial training showed near transfer to a 2-D mental transformation task, they did not show transfer to number ordering or number line tasks, even though spatial skills were correlated with performance on these tasks. These results support the view that knowledge of sequential relations among successive numbers is an important aspect of children's early numeracy knowledge in tasks that require ordinal understanding of numbers from 1 to 10 and support the educational importance of developing numerical activities that enhance children's understanding of these relations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228449

  12. Commissioning of BL 7.2, the new diagnostic beam line at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Baum, Dennis; Biocca, Alan; Kelez, Nicholas; Nishimura, Toshiro; Scarvie, Tom; Williams, Eric; Holldack, Karsten

    2004-06-29

    BL 7.2 is a new beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) dedicated to electron beam diagnostics. The system, which is basically a hard x-ray pinhole camera, was installed in the storage ring in August 2003 and commissioning with the ALS electron beam followed immediately after. In this paper the commissioning results are presented together with the description of the relevant measurements performed for the beamline characterization.

  13. Status of the "ARC", a Quad of High-Intensity Beam Lines at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, J K; Arnold, P; Beach, R J; Betts, S; Boley, C; Chang, M; Chrisp, M; Clark, W; Dawson, J W; Erlandson, A; Henesian, M; Hernandez, J E; Jovanovic, I; Kanz, V; Key, M; Lucianetti, A; Messerly, M J; Page, R; Rushford, M; Semenov, V; Seppala, L; Siders, C; Stolz, C; Trummer, D J; Williams, W; Wong, J N; Tiebohl, G; Barty, C J

    2006-06-21

    We present the status of plans to commission a short-pulse, quad of beams on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), capable of generating > 10 kJ of energy in 10 ps. These beams will initially provide an advanced radiographic capability (ARC) to generate brilliant, x-ray back-lighters for diagnosing fuel density and symmetry during ignition experiments. A fiber, mode-locked oscillator generates the seed pulse for the ARC beam line in the NIF master oscillator room (MOR). The 200 fs, 1053 nm oscillator pulse is amplified and stretched in time using a chirped-fiber-Bragg grating. The stretched pulse is split to follow two separate beam paths through the chain. Each pulse goes to separate pulse tweakers where the dispersion can be adjusted to generate a range of pulse widths and delays at the compressor output. After further fiber amplification the two pulses are transported to the NIF preamplifier area and spatially combined using shaping masks to form a split-spatial-beam profile that fits in a single NIF aperture. This split beam propagates through a typical NIF chain where the energy is amplified to several kilojoules. A series of mirrors directs the amplified, split beam to a folded grating compressor that is located near the equator of the NIF target chamber. Figure 1 shows a layout of the beam transport and folded compressor, showing the split beam spatial profile. The folder compressor contains four pairs of large, multi-layer-dielectric gratings; each grating in a pair accepts half of the split beam. The compressed output pulse can be 0.7-50 ps in duration, depending on the setting of the pulse tweaker in the MOR. The compressor output is directed to target chamber center using four additional mirrors that include a 9 meter, off-axis parabola. The final optic, immediately following the parabola, is a pair of independently adjustable mirrors that can direct the pair of ARC beams to individual x-ray backlighter targets. The first mirror after the compressor

  14. Overview of the Conceptual Design of the Future VENUS Neutron Imaging Beam Line at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilheux, Hassina; Herwig, Ken; Keener, Scott; Davis, Larry

    VENUS (Versatile Neutron Imaging Beam line at the Spallation Neutron Source) will be a world-class neutron-imaging instrument that will uniquely utilize the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) time-of-flight (TOF) capabilities to measure and characterize objects across several length scales (mm to μm). When completed, VENUS will provide academia, industry and government laboratories with the opportunity to advance scientific research in areas such as energy, materials, additive manufacturing, geosciences, transportation, engineering, plant physiology, biology, etc. It is anticipated that a good portion of the VENUS user community will have a strong engineering/industrial research focus. Installed at Beam line 10 (BL10), VENUS will be a 25-m neutron imaging facility with the capability to fully illuminate (i.e., umbra illumination) a 20 cm x 20 cm detector area. The design allows for a 28 cm x 28 cm field of view when using the penumbra to 80% of the full illumination flux. A sample position at 20 m will be implemented for magnification measurements. The optical components are comprised of a series of selected apertures, T0 and bandwidth choppers, beam scrapers, a fast shutter to limit sample activation, and flight tubes filled with Helium. Techniques such as energy selective, Bragg edge and epithermal imaging will be available at VENUS.

  15. On-line measurements of proton beam current from a PET cyclotron using a thin aluminum foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghithan, S.; do Carmo, S. J. C.; Ferreira Marques, R.; Fraga, F. A. F.; Simões, H.; Alves, F.; Crespo, P.

    2013-07-01

    The number of cyclotrons capable of accelerating protons to about 20 MeV is increasing throughout the world. Originally aiming at the production of positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclides, some of these facilities are equipped with several beam lines suitable for scientific research. Radiobiology, radiophysiology, and other dosimetric studies can be performed using these beam lines. In this work, we measured the Bragg peak of the protons from a PET cyclotron using a stacked target consisting of several aluminum foils interleaved with polyethylene sheets, readout by in-house made transimpedance electronics. The measured Bragg peak is consistent with simulations performed using the SRIM/TRIM simulation toolkit. Furthermore, we report on experimental results aiming at measuring proton beam currents down to 10 pA using a thin aluminum foil (20-μm-thick). The aluminum was chosen for this task because it is radiation hard, it has low density and low radiation activity, and finally because it is easily available at negligible cost. This method allows for calculating the dose delivered to a target during an irradiation with high efficiency, and with minimal proton energy loss and scattering.

  16. DQE characterization of a high-energy in-line phase contrast prototype under different kVp and beam filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Wong, Molly D.; Li, Yuhua; Chen, Wei R.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research is to characterize the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a high-energy in-line phase contrast prototype operated under different x-ray exposure conditions. First of all, an imaging prototype was demonstrated based on a high-energy in-line phase contrast system prototype. The DQE of this system is calculated through modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and input signal to noise ratio under a fixed radiation dose. The radiation dose was estimated by employing a 4-cm-thick BR12 phantom. In this research, the x-ray exposure conditions were modified by not only using different tube voltage but also different prime beam filtration. Aluminum, Molybdenum, Rhodium, and a combined filter were selected to acquire a variety of x-ray energy compositions with 100, 110 and 120 kVp exposures. The resultant curves are compared through the modes of different kVp/same filter and different filter/same kVp. As a result, the curves obtained under a fixed radiation dose, indicate that the MTF performs similar behavior under different experimental mode; the NPS is majorly affected by the composition of x-ray photon energies; and the overall DQE decreases with the increasing portion of high-energy x-ray photons in the exposure.

  17. Dose assurance on production-line of thyristor irradiated by electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yihua, Bai; Limin, Zhang; Peiling, Xu; Lingzen, Wang; Li, Zhu; Qiurong, Yu

    In order to control the quality of thyristor irradiated by electron beam, it is needed urgently to measure absorbed dose in flake of silicon and determine the optimum condition during irradiation technological testing. According to actual situation of accelerator, the measurement system of electron beam has been built up. Liquid chemical dosimeters (Fricke and ceric sulphate dosimeter) have been taken as secondary standard dosimeters. Blue cellophane thin film dosimeter was applied to measure the dose distribution on irradiation platform so as to decide the extent of irradiation. The dose rate on certain point is measured with transmission chamber. It can also monitor the stability of accelerator. It has been proved that this measurement system can be used for dose measurement of electron beam radiation processing with satisfied precision.

  18. A new bend magnet beam line for scanning transmission x-ray microscopy at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, Tony; Ade, Harald; Kilcoyne, A.L. David; Kritscher, Michael; Tylisczcak, Tolek; Fakra, Sirine; Hitchcock, Adam P.; Hitchcock, Peter; Padmore, Howard A.

    2001-12-12

    The high brightness of the bend magnets at the Advanced Light Source has been exploited to illuminate a Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM). This is the first diffraction-limited scanning x-ray microscope to operate with useful count rate on a synchrotron bend magnet source. A simple, dedicated beam line has been built covering the range of photon energy from 250 eV to 600 eV. Ease of use and operational availability are radically improved compared to previous installations using undulator beams. This facility provides radiation for C 1s, N 1s and O 1s near edge x-ray absorption spectro-microscopy with a spectral resolution up to about 1:5000 and with STXM count rates in excess of 1 MHz.

  19. {gamma}-ray Spectroscopy of Proton Drip-Line Nuclei in the A{approx}130 Region using SPIRAL beams

    SciTech Connect

    Stezowski, O.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N.; Rosse, B.; Schmitt, Ch.; De France, G.; Bhattachasyya, S.; Mukherjee, G.

    2008-11-11

    A fusion-evaporation experiment has been performed with a SPIRAL {sup 76}Kr radioactive beam in order to study the deformation of rare-earth nuclei near the proton drip-line. The experimental setup consisted in the EXOGAM {gamma}-array, coupled to the light-charged particles (LCP) DIAMANT detector and to the VAMOS heavy-ion spectrometer. The difficulties inherent to such measurements are enlightened. The coupling between EXOGAM and DIAMANT has been used to decrease the huge background caused by the radioactivity of the beam. It further permits assigning new {gamma}-ray transitions to specific residual nuclei. A {gamma}-ray belonging to the {sup 130}Pm level scheme has thus been observed for the first time.

  20. Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions. Technical directive 12: Beamed power systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eder, D.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models were constructed for Earth-based laser powered electric orbit transfer from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. These models were used to carry out performance, cost/benefit, and sensitivity analyses of laser-powered transfer systems including end-to-end life cycle cost analyses for complete systems. Comparisons with conventional orbit transfer systems were made indicating large potential cost savings for laser-powered transfer. Approximate optimization was done to determine best parameter values for the systems. Orbit transfer flights simulations were conducted to explore effects of parameters not practical to model with a spreadsheet. The simulations considered view factors that determine when power can be transferred from ground stations to an orbit transfer vehicle and conducted sensitivity analyses for numbers of ground stations, Isp including dual-Isp transfers, and plane change profiles. Optimal steering laws were used for simultaneous altitude and plane change. Viewing geometry and low-thrust orbit raising were simultaneously simulated. A very preliminary investigation of relay mirrors was made.

  1. An integrated web environment for fast access and easy management of a synchrotron beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kun; Stojanoff, Vivian

    2007-11-01

    Tired of all the time spent on the phone or sending emails to schedule beam time? Why not make your own schedule when it is convenient to you? The integrated web environment at the NIGMS East Coast Structural Biology Research Facility allows users to schedule their own beam time as if they were making travel arrangements and provides staff with a set of toolkits for management of routine tasks. These unique features are accessible through the MediaWiki-powered home pages. Here we describe the main features of this web environment that have shown to allow for an efficient and effective interaction between the users and the facility.

  2. Progress in computer-assisted diagnosis and control of neutral beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Theil, E.; Elischer, V.; Fiddler, J.; Jacobs, N.J.D.; Jacobson, V.; Lawhorn, R.; Uber, D.; Wilner, D.

    1980-09-01

    This paper discusses the principles that have guided the development of a computerized diagnostic and control system for both the Neutral Beam Systems Test Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Doublet III neutral beams at the General Atomic Company. The emphasis is not on the particular details of the implementation, but on general considerations which have influenced the design criteria for the system. Foremost among these are the requirements of an appropriate human interface to the system, and effective use of a relational data base. Examples are used to illustrate how these principles are carried out in practice. A systems view of diagnostic programs is suggested in the light of our experience.

  3. BEAM INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    SciTech Connect

    WITKOVER,R.L.; CAMERON,P.R.; SHEA,T.J.; CONNOLLY,R.C.; KESSELMAN,M.

    1999-03-29

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be constructed by a multi-laboratory collaboration with BNL responsible for the transfer lines and ring. [1] The 1 MW beam power necessitates careful monitoring to minimize un-controlled loss. This high beam power will influence the design of the monitors in the high energy beam transport line (HEBT) from linac to ring, in the ring, and in the ring-to-target transfer line (RTBT). The ring instrumentation must cover a 3-decade range of beam intensity during accumulation. Beam loss monitoring will be especially critical since un-controlled beam loss must be kept below 10{sup -4}. A Beam-In-Gap (BIG) monitor is being designed to assure out-of-bucket beam will not be lost in the ring.

  4. Fabrication of conductive metal lines by plate-to-roll pattern transfer utilizing edge dewetting and flexographic printing.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Moon Kyu; Shin, Kyu Ho; Yoon, Eung Yeoul; Suh, Kahp Y

    2010-03-01

    We present a simple flexographic printing method mediated by edge dewetting for potential applications to roll-to-roll or plate-to-roll pattern transfer. By controlling dewetting of a thin, conductive ink material under conformal contact with a patterned elastomeric mold (e.g., polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS), the liquid ink layer is broken and then selectively wets the protruding part of the mold with high fidelity. Subsequently, a thin photoresist layer that is coated on 300 mm-diameter aluminum cylinder is brought in contact with the ink-coated PDMS mold, resulting in a plate-to-roll pattern transfer without collapse or merging of neighboring features. Using this method, conductive silver lines are fabricated on the cylindrical surface with the resolution of approximately 20 microm and the sheet resistance less than approximately 4.3 ohms after 10 repeated transfer cycles. PMID:19959177

  5. Production of neutron-rich Ca, Sn, and Xe isotopes in transfer-type reactions with radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lacroix, D.

    2010-12-15

    The production cross sections of neutron-rich isotopes {sup 52,54,56,58,60}Ca, {sup 136,138,140,142}Sn, and {sup 146,148,150,152}Xe are predicted for future experiments in the diffusive multinucleon transfer reactions {sup 86,90,92,94}Kr, {sup 124,130,132,134}Sn, {sup 136,140,142,146}Xe, and {sup 138,144,146}Ba+{sup 48}Ca with stable and radioactive beams at incident energies close to the Coulomb barrier. Because of the small cross sections, the production of neutron-rich isotopes requires the optimal choice of projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies.

  6. Operation of the SKS Magnet at the K1.8 Beam Line in the J-PARC Hadron Hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Takahashi, T.; Makida, Y.; Okamura, T.; Suzuki, S.; Araoka, O.; Iida, M.; Ohhata, H.; Kawai, M.; Iwasaki, R.; Kondo, Y.; Kasami, K.; Kakiguchi, Y.; Shirakabe, Y.; Sekimoto, M.

    The Superconducting Kaon Spectrometer (SKS) magnet has been operated for 5 years in the hadron hall of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The SKS had two long-term suspensions. One was due to damage by the 2011 off Pacific coast Tohoku Earthquake and the other was caused by the radioactive material leak accident at the hadron hall that occurred on May 23, 2013. The SKS was planned to be moved to another beam line to repair the damage caused by the earthquake. The planned move was postponed for processing after the accident.

  7. Reprint of: Coulomb field strength measurement by electro-optic spectral decoding system at the CALIFES beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R.; Jamison, S. P.; Lefevre, T.; Gillespie, W. A.

    2016-09-01

    Electro-optic (EO) techniques are increasingly used for longitudinal bunch profile measurements. A bunch profile monitor, based on electro-optic spectral decoding (EOSD), has been developed and demonstrated on the CALIFES beam line at CERN. The EO response is analysed using a frequency domain description, and two methods for extraction of absolute Coulomb field strengths from the electron bunch are demonstrated. Measurements at field strengths up to 1.3 MV/m agree with the expectation based on independent charge measurements.

  8. The Relative Biological Effectiveness for Carbon and Oxygen Ion Beams Using the Raster-Scanning Technique in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Habermehl, Daniel; Ilicic, Katarina; Dehne, Sarah; Rieken, Stefan; Orschiedt, Lena; Brons, Stephan; Haberer, Thomas; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aim of this study was to evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon (12C) and oxygen ion (16O)-irradiation applied in the raster-scanning technique at the Heidelberg Ion beam Therapy center (HIT) based on clonogenic survival in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines compared to photon irradiation. Methods Four human HCC lines Hep3B, PLC, HepG2 and HUH7 were irradiated with photons, 12C and 16O using a customized experimental setting at HIT for in-vitro trials. Cells were irradiated with increasing physical photon single doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy and heavy ionsingle doses of 0, 0.125, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Gy (12C and 16O). SOBP-penetration depth and extension was 35 mm +/−4 mm and 36 mm +/−5 mm for carbon ions and oxygen ions respectively. Mean energy level and mean linear energy transfer (LET) were 130 MeV/u and 112 keV/um for 12C, and 154 MeV/u and 146 keV/um for 16O. Clonogenic survival was computated and realtive biological effectiveness (RBE) values were defined. Results For all cell lines and both particle modalities α- and β-values were determined. As expected, α-values were significantly higher for 12C and 16O than for photons, reflecting a steeper decline of the initial slope of the survival curves for high-LET beams. RBE-values were in the range of 2.1–3.3 and 1.9–3.1 for 12C and 16O, respectively. Conclusion Both irradiation with 12C and 16O using the rasterscanning technique leads to an enhanced RBE in HCC cell lines. No relevant differences between achieved RBE-values for 12C and 16O were found. Results of this work will further influence biological-adapted treatment planning for HCC patients that will undergo particle therapy with 12C or 16O. PMID:25460352

  9. Single and Multi-Nucleon Transfer Reactions for Nuclear Moment Studies Toward Radioactive-Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lozeva, R. L.; Georgiev, G. P.; Audi, G.; Cabaret, S.; Fiori, E.; Gaulard, C.; Hauschilda, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Risegari, L.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.; Moschner, K.; Zell, K.-O.; Daugas, J.-M.; Faul, T.; Morel, P.; Roig, O.; Ferraton, M.; Ibrahim, F.

    2010-04-30

    This study is a part of an experimental program to measure nuclear moments in transfer reactions. It aims to probe for a first time the nuclear -spin orientation in multi-nucleon transfer. Fist experiments were performed to measure the quadrupole moment of an isomeric state in {sup 66}Cu (I{sup p}i 6{sup -}, E{sub x} = 1154 keV, T{sub 1/2} = 595(20) ns) in single nucleon transfer and the population of mus isomers in {sup 66}Cu and {sup 63}Ni in multi-nucleon transfer. The experimentally tested methodology allows broad applications toward more exotic species and feasibility of these reactions to produce species away from stability.

  10. High-power, high-brightness pseudospark-produced electron beam driven by improved pulse line accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Junbino Zhu; Mingchang Wang; Zhijiang Wang

    1995-12-31

    A high power (200KV), intense current density, low emittance (71mmmrad), high brightness (8x10{sup 10}A/m rad) electron beam was generated in the 10cm long, high-voltage-resistive multi-gap hollow cathode pseudospark chamber filled with 15pa nitrogen and driven by an improved pulse line accelerator. The beam was ejected with the 1mm diameter, the 2.2KA beam current, and the 400ns pulse length, and could propagated 20cm in the drift tube. At a distance of 5cm from the anode it penetrated consecutively an acid-sensitive discoloring film and a 0.05mm-thick copper foil both stuck closely, left 0.6mm and 0.3mm holes on them, respectively. That 10 shots on an acid-sensitive film produced a hole of 1.6mm at 7cm downstream of anode showed its good repeatability. After 60 shots the pseudospark discharge chamber was disassembled and observed that almost no destructive damage traces left on the surfaces of its various electrodes and insulators. But on almost all the surfaces of changeable central hole parts installed on intermediate electrodes there are traces of electron emission from the sides facing the anode and of bombardment on the sides facing the cathode, in contrast with which on the front- and back-surfaces of hollow cathode no visible traces of electron emission from then was observed. In addition, there were different tints, strip-like regions on the side of anode facing the cathode. Another interesting phenomenon was that there were a set of concentric circular or elliptical ring pattern on the acid-sensitive discoloring film got at 5cm from the anode and observed tinder a metallograph. It seems that the pseudospark electron beam is Laminar beam i.e, being possessed of a multi-layer structure, at least in the case of multi-gap pseudospark discharge chamber. It was found experimentally that the quality of pseudospark electron beam is much better than that of the cold-cathode electron beam.

  11. Laser-plasma ion beams-experiments towards charge transfer x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Fill, E.E. ); Bruch, R. ); Schneider, D. )

    1993-06-05

    Laser plasmas produced at intensities of up to 10[sup 14] W/cm[sup 2] expand towards a secondary target a few millimeters away. The intense x-ray emission during the interaction plasma-target was recorded spectrally, spatially and time-resolved. A number of processes, like recombination and charge transfer may account for this strong radiation. The implications of these experiments to the design of a charge transfer x-ray laser are discussed.

  12. Line-driven disk winds in active galactic nuclei: The critical importance of ionization and radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbottom, Nick; Knigge, Christian; Matthews, James H.; Proga, Daniel; Long, Knox S.; Sim, Stuart A.

    2014-07-01

    Accretion disk winds are thought to produce many of the characteristic features seen in the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). These outflows also represent a natural form of feedback between the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy. The mechanism for driving this mass loss remains unknown, although radiation pressure mediated by spectral lines is a leading candidate. Here, we calculate the ionization state of, and emergent spectra for, the hydrodynamic simulation of a line-driven disk wind previously presented by Proga and Kallman. To achieve this, we carry out a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation of the radiative transfer through, and energy exchange within, the predicted outflow. We find that the wind is much more ionized than originally estimated. This is in part because it is much more difficult to shield any wind regions effectively when the outflow itself is allowed to reprocess and redirect ionizing photons. As a result, the calculated spectrum that would be observed from this particular outflow solution would not contain the ultraviolet spectral lines that are observed in many AGN/QSOs. Furthermore, the wind is so highly ionized that line driving would not actually be efficient. This does not necessarily mean that line-driven winds are not viable. However, our work does illustrate that in order to arrive at a self-consistent model of line-driven disk winds in AGN/QSO, it will be critical to include a more detailed treatment of radiative transfer and ionization in the next generation of hydrodynamic simulations.

  13. Mitigated Transfer Line Leaks that Result in Surface Pools and Spray Leaks into Pits

    SciTech Connect

    HEY, B.E.

    1999-12-07

    This analysis provides radiological and toxicological consequence calculations for postulated mitigated leaks during transfers of six waste compositions. Leaks in Cleanout Boxes equipped with supplemental covers and leaks in pits are analyzed.

  14. Design of large vacuum chamber for VEC superconducting cyclotron beam line switching magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sumantra; Nandi, Chinmoy; Gayen, Subhasis; Roy, Suvadeep; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Ramrao Bajirao, Sanjay; Pal, Gautam; Mallik, C.

    2012-11-01

    VEC K500 superconducting cyclotron will be used to accelerate heavy ion. The accelerated beam will be transported to different beam halls by using large switching magnets. The vacuum chamber for the switching magnet is around 1000 mm long. It has a height of 85 mm and width varying from 100 mm to 360 mm. The material for the chamber has been chosen as SS304.The material for the vacuum chamber for the switching magnet has been chosen as SS304. Design of the vessel was done as per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. It was observed that primary stress values exceed the allowable limit. Since, the magnet was already designed with a fixed pole gap; increase of the vacuum chamber plate thickness restricts the space for beam transport. Design was optimized using stress analysis software ANSYS. Analysis was started using plate thickness of 4 mm. The stress was found higher than the allowable level. The analysis was repeated by increasing plate thickness to 6 mm, resulting in the reduction of stress level below the allowable level. In order to reduce the stress concentration due to sharp bend, chamfering was done at the corner, where the stress level was higher. The thickness of the plate at the corner was increased from 6 mm to 10 mm. These measures resulted in reduction of localized stress.

  15. Design of a high-current low-energy beam transport line for an intense D-T/D-D neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Wang, Junrun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jianyi; Xia, Li; Zhang, Jie; Ding, Yanyan; Jiang, Bing; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Zhanwen; Wei, Zheng; Qian, Xiangping; Xu, Dapeng; Lan, Changlin; Yao, Zeen

    2016-03-01

    An intense D-T/D-D neutron generator is currently being developed at the Lanzhou University. The Cockcroft-Walton accelerator, as a part of the neutron generator, will be used to accelerate and transport the high-current low-energy beam from the duoplasmatron ion source to the rotating target. The design of a high-current low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line and the dynamics simulations of the mixed beam were carried out using the TRACK code. The results illustrate that the designed beam line facilitates smooth transportation of a deuteron beam of 40 mA, and the number of undesired ions can be reduced effectively using two apertures.

  16. Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Driven Light Scattering Measurements with 44 beam-lines of Nike KrF Laser^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D. M.; Phillips, L. S.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; McLean, E. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Manka, C. K.

    2009-11-01

    With short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (˜1 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser provides unique opportunities of LPI research for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Previous experiments at intensities (10^15˜10^16 W/cm^2) exceeded two-plasmon decay (TPD) instability threshold using 12 beam-lines of Nike laser.^a,b For further experiments to study LPI excitation in bigger plasma volumes, 44 Nike main beams have been used to produce plasmas with total laser energies up to 1 kJ of ˜350 psec FWHM pulses. This talk will present results of the recent LPI experiment focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and TPD instabilities. The primary diagnostics were time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array in (0.4˜0.8)φ0 and a streak camera near 0.5φ0. Blackbody temperature and expansion speed measurements of the plasmas were also made. The experiment was conducted at laser intensities of (1˜4)x10^15 W/cm^2 on solid planar CH targets. ^a J. L. Weaver, et al, NO4.14, APS DPP (2008) ^b J. Oh, et al, NO4.15, APS DPP (2008) * Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  17. The conceptual design of a new transfer line from booster to recycler for the Fermilab Proton plan phase 2 campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.; Xiao, M.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Upon the termination of the Fermilab Collider program, the current Recycler anti-proton storage ring (RR) will be converted to a proton pre-injector for the Main Injector (MI) synchrotron. This is scheduled to increase the beam power for the 120 GeV Neutrino program to upwards of 700KW. A transport line that can provide direct injection from the Booster to the Recycler while preserving direct injection from the Booster into the Main Injector and the 8 GeV Booster Neutrino program will be discussed, and its concept design will be presented.

  18. High flux photon beam monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Mortazavi, P.; Woodle, M.; Rarback, H.; Shu, D.; Howells, M.

    1985-01-01

    We have designed two photon beam position monitors for use on our x-ray storage ring beam lines. In both designs, a pair of tungsten blades, separated by a pre-determined gap, intercepts a small fraction of the incoming beam. Due to photoemission, an electrical signal is generated which is proportional to the amount of beam intercepted. The thermal load deposited in the blade is transferred by a heat pipe to a heat exchanger outside the vacuum chamber. A prototype monitor with gap adjustment capability was fabricated and tested at a uv beam line. The results show that the generated electrical signal is a good measurement of the photon beam position. In the following sections, design features and test results are discussed.

  19. The transfer of resonance-line radiation in static astrophysical media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.

    1990-01-01

    An analytic solution is derived for the mean intensity of resonance-line radiation within an absorbing medium of large scattering optical depth but low density. The line profile, the mean number of scatterings before absorption or escape, the mean path length traveled, and the fraction of the photons which escape the medium are derived. Approximate methods are also developed which permit the treatment of media of intermediate optical depth, where scattering takes place in the Doppler core. Astrophysical applications include the absorption of H Ly-alpha radiation by stellar dust, the pumping of H2 Lyman band lines by H Ly-alpha and the Bowen fluorescence.

  20. Use of a wire scanner for monitoring residual gas ionization in Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility 20 keV∕u proton∕deuteron low energy beam transport beam line.

    PubMed

    Vainas, B; Eliyahu, I; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D

    2012-02-01

    The ion source end of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility accelerator consists of a proton∕deuteron ECR ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) beam line. An observed reduction of the radio frequency quadrupole transmission with increase of the LEBT current prompted additional study of the LEBT beam properties. Numerous measurements have been made with the LEBT bream profiler wire biased by a variable voltage. Current-voltage characteristics in presence of the proton beam were measured even when the wire was far out of the beam. The current-voltage characteristic in this case strongly resembles an asymmetric diodelike characteristic, which is typical of Langmuir probes monitoring plasma. The measurement of biased wire currents, outside the beam, enables us to estimate the effective charge density in vacuum. PMID:22380317

  1. Directional transfer of a multiple-allele male sterile line in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiu Shi; Zhang, Xi; Li, Cheng Yu; Liu, Zhi Yong; Feng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    To produce hybrid seeds of Wutacai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. rosularis Tsen et Lee), a “directional transfer program” was designed to breed the multiple-allele male sterile line of Wutacai. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Naibaicai (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L., S01) was used as the male sterile resource, and an inbred line of Wutacai (WT01) was used as the target line. Recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer the male sterility and other botanical traits simultaneously, while the genotype was identified through test crossing. The male sterility was successfully transferred from S01 to WT01. A new male sterile line, GMS-3, with similar botanical traits to WT01, was bred. Four hybrid combinations were generated with GMS-3 as the female parent. One hybrid (C1) that contained the most desirable traits was developed from the new male sterile line. PMID:24987301

  2. UOK 268 Cell Line for Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute’s Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties to co-develop the UOK 262 immortalized cell line as research tool to study aggressive hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC)-associated recurring kidney cancer.

  3. Virus-Free Human Placental Cell Lines To Study Genetic Functions | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Section on Cellular Differentiation is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize immortalized virus-free human placental cell lines.The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Section on Cellular Differentiation is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize immortalized virus-free human placental cell lines.

  4. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  5. An isolated line-shape model to go beyond the Voigt profile in spectroscopic databases and radiative transfer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, N. H.; Lisak, D.; Tran, H.; Hartmann, J.-M.

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate that a previously proposed model opens the route for the inclusion of refined non-Voigt profiles in spectroscopic databases and atmospheric radiative transfer codes. Indeed, this model fulfills many essential requirements: (i) it takes both velocity changes and the speed dependences of the pressure-broadening and -shifting coefficients into account. (ii) It leads to accurate descriptions of the line shapes of very different molecular systems. Tests made for pure H2, CO2 and O2 and for H2O diluted in N2 show that residuals are down to ≃0.2% of the peak absorption, (except for the untypical system of H2 where a maximum residual of ±3% is reached), thus fulfilling the precision requirements of the most demanding remote sensing experiments. (iii) It is based on a limited set of parameters for each absorption line that have known dependences on pressure and can thus be stored in databases. (iv) Its calculation requires very reasonable computer costs, only a few times higher than that of a usual Voigt profile. Its inclusion in radiative transfer codes will thus induce bearable CPU time increases. (v) It can be extended in order to take line-mixing effects into account, at least within the so-called first-order approximation.

  6. Role of charge transfer in heavy-ion-beam-plasma interactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, A.; Frank, A.; Blažević, A.; Roth, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of the plasma properties on the charge state distribution of a swift heavy ion beam interacting with a plasma. The main finding is that the charge state in plasma can be lower than in cold matter. The charge state distribution is determined by the ionization and recombination rates which are balancing each other out. Both, ionization and recombination rates, as well as atomic excitation and decay rates, depend on the plasma parameters in different ways. These effects have been theoretically studied by Monte Carlo simulations on the example of an argon ion beam at an energy of 4 MeV /u in a carbon plasma. This study covers a plasma parameter space ranging from ion densities from 1018 to 1023 cm-3 and electron temperatures from 10 to 200 eV.

  7. Isolating and quantifying cross-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, A. K.; Cao, D.; Michel, D. T.; Hohenberger, M.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Marozas, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Myatt, J. F.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Froula, D. H.

    2016-05-01

    The angularly resolved mass ablation rates and ablation-front trajectories for Si-coated CH targets were measured in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments to quantify cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) while constraining the hydrodynamic coupling. A polar-direct-drive laser configuration, where the equatorial laser beams were dropped and the polar beams were repointed from a symmetric direct-drive configuration, was used to limit CBET at the pole while allowing it to persist at the equator. The combination of low- and high-CBET conditions observed in the same implosion allowed for the effects of CBET on the ablation rate and ablation pressure to be determined. Hydrodynamic simulations performed without CBET agreed with the measured ablation rate and ablation-front trajectory at the pole of the target, confirming that the CBET effects on the pole are small. The simulated mass ablation rates and ablation-front trajectories were in excellent agreement with the measurements at all angles when a CBET model based on Randall's equations [C. J. Randall et al., Phys. Fluids 24, 1474 (1981)] was included into the simulations with a multiplier on the CBET gain factor. These measurements were performed on OMEGA and at the National Ignition Facility to access a wide range of plasma conditions, laser intensities, and laser beam geometries. The presence of the CBET gain multiplier required to match the data in all of the configurations tested suggests that additional physics effects, such as intensity variations caused by diffraction, polarization effects, or shortcomings of extending the 1-D Randall model to 3-D, should be explored to explain the differences in observed and predicted drive.

  8. Linear Energy Transfer-Dependent Change in Rice Gene Expression Profile after Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kotaro; Kazama, Yusuke; Morita, Ryouhei; Hirano, Tomonari; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Usuda, Sachiko; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ohbu, Sumie; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Abe, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A heavy-ion beam has been recognized as an effective mutagen for plant breeding and applied to the many kinds of crops including rice. In contrast with X-ray or γ-ray, the heavy-ion beam is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET). LET is an important factor affecting several aspects of the irradiation effect, e.g. cell survival and mutation frequency, making the heavy-ion beam an effective mutagen. To study the mechanisms behind LET-dependent effects, expression profiling was performed after heavy-ion beam irradiation of imbibed rice seeds. Array-based experiments at three time points (0.5, 1, 2 h after the irradiation) revealed that the number of up- or down-regulated genes was highest 2 h after irradiation. Array-based experiments with four different LETs at 2 h after irradiation identified LET-independent regulated genes that were up/down-regulated regardless of the value of LET; LET-dependent regulated genes, whose expression level increased with the rise of LET value, were also identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of LET-independent up-regulated genes showed that some GO terms were commonly enriched, both 2 hours and 3 weeks after irradiation. GO terms enriched in LET-dependent regulated genes implied that some factor regulates genes that have kinase activity or DNA-binding activity in cooperation with the ATM gene. Of the LET-dependent up-regulated genes, OsPARP3 and OsPCNA were identified, which are involved in DNA repair pathways. This indicates that the Ku-independent alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway may contribute to repairing complex DNA legions induced by high-LET irradiation. These findings may clarify various LET-dependent responses in rice. PMID:27462908

  9. Linear Energy Transfer-Dependent Change in Rice Gene Expression Profile after Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kotaro; Kazama, Yusuke; Morita, Ryouhei; Hirano, Tomonari; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Usuda, Sachiko; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ohbu, Sumie; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Abe, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A heavy-ion beam has been recognized as an effective mutagen for plant breeding and applied to the many kinds of crops including rice. In contrast with X-ray or γ-ray, the heavy-ion beam is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET). LET is an important factor affecting several aspects of the irradiation effect, e.g. cell survival and mutation frequency, making the heavy-ion beam an effective mutagen. To study the mechanisms behind LET-dependent effects, expression profiling was performed after heavy-ion beam irradiation of imbibed rice seeds. Array-based experiments at three time points (0.5, 1, 2 h after the irradiation) revealed that the number of up- or down-regulated genes was highest 2 h after irradiation. Array-based experiments with four different LETs at 2 h after irradiation identified LET-independent regulated genes that were up/down-regulated regardless of the value of LET; LET–dependent regulated genes, whose expression level increased with the rise of LET value, were also identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of LET-independent up-regulated genes showed that some GO terms were commonly enriched, both 2 hours and 3 weeks after irradiation. GO terms enriched in LET-dependent regulated genes implied that some factor regulates genes that have kinase activity or DNA-binding activity in cooperation with the ATM gene. Of the LET-dependent up-regulated genes, OsPARP3 and OsPCNA were identified, which are involved in DNA repair pathways. This indicates that the Ku-independent alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway may contribute to repairing complex DNA legions induced by high-LET irradiation. These findings may clarify various LET-dependent responses in rice. PMID:27462908

  10. A study of diagnostic x-ray lines in heliumlike neon using an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Wargelin, B.J.

    1993-10-01

    Heliumlike ions play an extremely important role in X-ray astrophysics because of their emissivity and because the relative intensities of their emission lines can be used to infer physical characteristics of X-ray emitting plasmas, including temperature, electron density, and ionization balance. In order to properly apply these diagnostics, accurate atomic data are required, including cross sections for collisional excitation and ionization, radiative rates, and the wavelengths and strengths of satellite lines. Although theoretical atomic models have been created to estimate many of the rates and cross sections involved, very few experimental results are available for comparison with theoretical predictions. This thesis describes an experimental study of heliumlike neon using an electron beam ion trap, a device specifically designed to study X-ray emission from highly charged ions. Using a low-energy X-ray spectrometer designed and built for this experiment, electron impact excitation cross sections and dielectronic satellite strengths were measured for all significant n = 2{yields}1 emission lines in He-like and Li-like Ne over a range of energy extending from well below the direct excitation threshold of the lines to over fourteen times the threshold energy. The cross section for innershell ionization of Li-like Ne, which excites the He-like forbidden line, was also measured. In addition, the radiative and collisional depopulation rates of the metastable ls2s {sup 3}S{sub 1}, state, which form the basis of the He-like Ne density diagnostic, were determined. Experimental results were generally in agreement with theoretical predictions, although some significant differences were noted, particularly for the wavelengths and resonance strengths of dielectronic satellites.

  11. Phenotype and Hierarchy of Two Transgenic T Cell Lines Targeting the Respiratory Syncytial Virus KdM282-90 Epitope Is Transfer Dose-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Kaitlyn M; Erez, Noam; Graham, Barney S; Ruckwardt, Tracy J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared two lines of transgenic CD8+ T cells specific for the same KdM282-90 epitope of respiratory syncytial virus in the CB6F1 hybrid mouse model. Here we found that these two transgenic lines had similar in vivo abilities to control viral load after respiratory syncytial virus infection using adoptive transfer. Transfer of the TRBV13-2 line resulted in higher levels of IL-6 and MIP1-α in the lung than TRBV13-1 transfer. Interestingly, when large numbers of cells were co-transferred, the lines formed a hierarchy, with TRBV13-2 being immunodominant over TRBV13-1 in the mediastinal lymph node despite no identifiable difference in proliferation or apoptosis between the lines. This hierarchy was not established when lower cell numbers were transferred. The phenotype and frequency of proliferating cells were also cell transfer dose-dependent with higher percentages of CD127loCD62LloKLRG1lo and proliferating cells present when lower numbers of cells were transferred. These results illustrate the importance of cell number in adoptive transfer experiments and its influence on the phenotype and hierarchy of the subsequent T cell response. PMID:26752171

  12. Increasing beam power and energy with the SBS forward energy transfer instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, R. K.; London, R. A.; Dunlop, W. H.; Michel, P. A.; Williams, E. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.

    2012-10-01

    The understanding of the exchange of forward going power and energy between two crossing beams in a plasma [1] is now sufficiently developed that it can be used to enable access to new experimental configurations. The existing models of the process allow the design of beam combiners that will produce higher energy in individual beams for new applications in ignition and HED physics. For example the Energy Partitioning and Energy Coupling (EPEC) [2] program is simulating nuclear events in various environments by delivering energy to the center of a chamber through a narrow tube that allows minimal perturbation of the surrounding region. We will describe the design of gas filled targets that will allow a 2x to 5x increase in the energy in a single NIF quad to enable higher yield events to be simulated in EPEC. These designs as well as advanced ignition target designs will require models with improved precision to predict their performance accurately. We will also compare the predictions of existing and emerging models of wave saturation [3] with the existing experimental data to determine the uncertainty in the models.[4pt] [1] P. Michel Physics of Plasmas 2010.[0pt] [2] K. Fournier, these proceedings[0pt] [3] P. Michel, E. Williams, these proceedings.

  13. A study of LC-39 cryogenic systems. Part 1: A study of the vacuum insulated transfer lines at Kennedy Space Center. Part 2: Cooldown pressure surges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.; Voth, R. O.

    1971-01-01

    The vacuum liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen transfer lines at Kennedy Space Center were studied to evaluate the feasibility of using a condensing gas such as CO2 inside the vacuum spaces to achieve a condensing-vacuum. The study indicates that at ambient temperature, a maximum vacuum hyphen space pressure of 4000 microns is acceptable for the LH2 transfer lines. In addition, the cooldown procedures for the 14-inch cross-country liquid oxygen line was studied using a simplified mathematical model. Preliminary cooldown times are presented for various heat leak rates to the line and for two vent configurations.

  14. Engineering Task Plan for Hose In Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    RUNG, M.P.

    2000-06-20

    This document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of nine tanks in the 241-S/SX Tank Farms.

  15. Engineering Task Plan for Hose In Hose Transfer Lines for the Interim Stabilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    TORRES, T.D.

    2000-08-16

    The document is the Engineering Task Plan for the engineering, design services, planning, project integration and management support for the design, modification, installation and testing of an over ground transfer (OGT) system to support the interim stabilization of S/SX and U Tank Farms.

  16. Evaluation of thermal helium beam and line-ratio fast diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Agostini, M.; Scarin, P.; Stotler, D. P.; Unterberg, E. A.; Loch, S. D.; Schmitz, O.; Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.

    2016-05-01

    A 1-D kinetic collisional radiative model with state-of-the-art atomic data is developed and employed to simulate line emission to evaluate the Thermal Helium Beam (THB) diagnostic on NSTX-U. This diagnostic is currently in operation on RFX-mod, and it is proposed to be installed on NSTX-U. The THB system uses the intensity ratios of neutral helium lines 667.8, 706.5, and 728.1 nm to derive electron temperature (eV) and density (cm-3) profiles. The purpose of the present analysis is to evaluate the applications of this diagnostic for determining fast ( ∽ 4 μs ) electron temperature and density radial profiles on the scrape-off layer and edge regions of NSTX-U that are needed in turbulence studies. The diagnostic is limited by the level of detection of the 728.1 nm line, which is the weakest of the three. This study will also aid in future design of a similar 2-D diagnostic system on the divertor.

  17. Evaluation of thermal helium beam and line-ratio fast diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Munoz Burgos, Jorge M.; Agostini, Matteo; Scarin, Paolo; Stotler, Daren P.; Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Loch, Stuart D.; Schmitz, Oliver; Tritz, Kevin; Stutman, Dan

    2015-05-06

    A 1-D kinetic collisional radiative model (CRM) with state-of-the-art atomic data is developed and employed to simulate line emission to evaluate the Thermal Helium Beam (THB) diagnostic on NSTX-U. This diagnostic is currently in operation on RFX-mod, and it is proposed to be installed on NSTX-U. The THB system uses the intensity ratios of neutral helium lines 667.8, 706.5, and 728.1 nm to derive electron temperature (eV ) and density (cm–3) profiles. The purpose of the present analysis is to evaluate the applications of this diagnostic for determining fast (~4 μs) electron temperature and density radial profiles on the scrape-offmore » layer (SOL) and edge regions of NSTX-U that are needed in turbulence studies. The diagnostic is limited by the level of detection of the 728.1 nm line, which is the weakest of the three. In conclusion, this study will also aid in future design of a similar 2-D diagnostic systems on the divertor.« less

  18. Evaluation of thermal helium beam and line-ratio fast diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz Burgos, Jorge M.; Agostini, Matteo; Scarin, Paolo; Stotler, Daren P.; Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Loch, Stuart D.; Schmitz, Oliver; Tritz, Kevin; Stutman, Dan

    2015-05-06

    A 1-D kinetic collisional radiative model (CRM) with state-of-the-art atomic data is developed and employed to simulate line emission to evaluate the Thermal Helium Beam (THB) diagnostic on NSTX-U. This diagnostic is currently in operation on RFX-mod, and it is proposed to be installed on NSTX-U. The THB system uses the intensity ratios of neutral helium lines 667.8, 706.5, and 728.1 nm to derive electron temperature (eV ) and density (cm–3) profiles. The purpose of the present analysis is to evaluate the applications of this diagnostic for determining fast (~4 μs) electron temperature and density radial profiles on the scrape-off layer (SOL) and edge regions of NSTX-U that are needed in turbulence studies. The diagnostic is limited by the level of detection of the 728.1 nm line, which is the weakest of the three. In conclusion, this study will also aid in future design of a similar 2-D diagnostic systems on the divertor.

  19. Radiative Transfer Models of Tidal Disruption Events: What Sets their Emission Line Strengths and Total Optical Flux?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Given the recent influx of observational data and theoretical investigation into the nature of the tidal disruption of stars by super-massive black holes (TDEs), a full radiative transfer calculation applicable to an optically thick, electron scattering-dominated reprocessing region can provide valuable insight. Such a calculation can help address puzzles such as the lack of hydrogen emission lines in the optical spectra some TDEs, the origin of the optical and UV flux, and the simultaneous observation of x-rays along with the optical emission. In this talk I will discuss such a calculation performed with my collaborators as part of my dissertation. We track the reprocessing of accretion luminosity from a supermassive black hole as the light travels through an extended, spherical envelope composed of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen from the disrupted star. The steady-state radiative transfer equation is coupled to a solver for the atomic level populations and ionization states that does not assume local thermodynamic equilibrium. Our calculations show how the hydrogen optical emission lines can become more effectively optically thick than their helium counterparts, causing them to remain hidden even in the disruption of a hydrogen-rich star. More generally, variations in the structure of the reprocessing material can give rise to a variety of hydrogen-to-helium line ratios, as has been seen in recent observations. We also determine the amount of material necessary to transfer enough radiative energy from x-ray to optical wavelengths to match what is observed, and we demonstrate how the partial absorption of ionizing radiation can give rise to events simultaneously observed in x-rays and in the optical.

  20. Pattern transfer from the e-beam resist, over the nanoimprint resist and to the final silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jian; Howitz, S.; Richter, K.; Bartha, J. W.; Moench, J. I.

    2012-03-01

    We developed Fluor-based RIE processes to fabricate nanoimprint template in silicon and to transfer patterns from the imprint resist to the silicon substrate. The etched silicon patterns have slightly tapered and smooth sidewalls. The sidewall angle can be controlled between 85° and 90° by varying the ratio of the used gas. The dimension of the etched structures is identical with the patterns in the resist. We demonstrated line structures in silicon substrate down to 50 nm. The etching rate is over 100 nm per minute and the maximal achieved aspect ratio is more than 10.

  1. Low temperature fabrication of conductive silver lines and dots via transfer-printing and nanoimprinting lithography techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chun-Chang; Lien-Chung Hsu, Steve; Chiu, Ching-Wei; Wu, Jung-Tang

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we have developed novel methods to fabricate conductive silver tracks and dots directly from silver nitrate solution by transfer-printing and nanoimprinting lithography techniques, which are inexpensive and can be scaled down to the nanometer scale. The silver nitrate precursor can be reduced in ethylene glycol vapor to form silver at low temperatures. Energy dispersive spectrometric analysis results indicate that the silver nitrate has been converted to silver completely. In order to obtain smooth and continuous conductive patterned silver features with high resolution, the silver lines with widths of a few tens of micrometers to nanometers were patterned by using a spin-coating approach. Using a 14 M silver nitrate solution, continuous silver conductive lines with a resistivity of 8.45 × 10-5 Ω cm has been produced.

  2. Using the EGS4 computer code to determine radiation sources along beam lines at electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, S.; Liu, J.; Nelson, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The EGS computer code, developed for the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport of electrons and photons, has been used since 1970 in the design of accelerators and detectors for high-energy physics. In this paper we present three examples demonstrating how the current version, EGS4, is used to determine energy-loss patterns and source terms along beam pipes, (i.e., including flanges, collimators, etc.). This information is useful for further shielding and dosimetry studies. The calculated results from the analysis are in close agreement with the measured values. To facilitate this review, a new add-on package called SHOWGRAF, is used in order to display shower trajectories for the three examples.

  3. Mars Observer data production, transfer, and archival: The data production assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, David B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the data production, transfer, and archival process designed for the Mars Observer Flight Project. It addresses the developmental and operational aspects of the archive collection production process. The developmental aspects cover the design and packaging of data products for archival and distribution to the planetary community. Also discussed is the design and development of a data transfer and volume production process capable of handling the large throughput and complexity of the Mars Observer data products. The operational aspects cover the main functions of the process: creating data and engineering products, collecting the data products and ancillary products in a central repository, producing archive volumes, validating volumes, archiving, and distributing the data to the planetary community.

  4. Energy Spread of the Proton Beam in the Fermilab Booster at its Injection Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.; Chase, B. E.; Chaurize, S. J.; Garcia, F. G.; Seiya, K.; Pellico, W. A.; Sullivan, T. M.; Triplett, A. K.

    2015-04-27

    We have measured the energy spread of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods: (1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, (2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and (3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of rf systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line.

  5. Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

    2012-08-27

    There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

  6. Procurement history of the hybrid undulator for the U-5 Beam Line at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    James, D.C.; Bader, S.D.; Viccaro, P.J.

    1989-05-01

    As part of a national multi-institutional Materials Research Group (MRG), Argonne National Laboratory had the responsibility, under a prime contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, of obtaining a Permanent Magnet Hybrid undulator to be used on the U5 Beam Line on the VUV Ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The procurement involved determining the technical specifications of the device as well as developing an effective procedure for evaluation of the proposals. The conceptual design of the magnetic structure including all pertinent magnetic field properties was developed before the actual procurement process was initiated. In addition, complete calculations of the expected spectral properties of the undulator were performed which included the emittance properties of the VUV ring. The results from both analysis were essential in determining the expected performance of the device and the final choice of operating parameters.

  7. An operator perturbation method for polarized line transfer. I. Non-magnetic regime in 1D media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faurobert-Scholl, M.; Frisch, H.; Nagendra, K. N.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper we generalize an Approximate Lambda Iteration (ALI) technique developed for scalar transfer problems to a vectorial transfer problem for polarized radiation. Scalar ALI techniques are based on a suitable decomposition of the Lambda operator governing the integral form of the transfer equation. Lambda operators for scalar transfer equations are diagonally dominant, offering thus the possibility to use iterative methods of the Jacobi type where the iteration process is based on the diagonal of the Lambda operator (Olson et al., 1986, JQSRT 35, 431). Here we consider resonance polarization, created by the scattering of an anisotropic radiation field, for spectral lines formed with complete frequency redistribution in a 1D axisymmetric medium. The problem can be formulated as an integral equation for a 2-component vector (Rees, 1978PASJ...30..455R) or, as shown by Ivanov (1995A&A...303..621I), as an integral equation for a (2x2) matrix source function which involves the same generalized Lambda operator as the vector integral equation. We find that this equation holds also in the presence of a weak turbulent magnetic field. The generalized Lambda operator is a (2x2) matrix operator. The element {11} describes the propagation of the intensity and is identical to the Lambda operator of non-polarized problems. The element {22} describes the propagation of the polarization. The off-diagonal terms weakly couple the intensity and the polarization. We propose a block Jacobi iterative method and show that its convergence properties are controlled by the propagator for the intensity. We also show that convergence can be accelerated by an Ng acceleration method applied to each element of the source matrix. We extend to polarized transfer a convergence criterion introduced by Auer et al. (1994A&A...292..599A) based on the grid truncation error of the converged solution.

  8. Heat transfer issues in high-heat-load synchrotron x-ray beams

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.M.; Mills, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, a short description of the synchrotron radiation x-ray sources and the associated power loads is given, followed by a brief description of typical synchrotron components and their heat load. It is emphasized that the design goals for most of these components is to limit (a) temperature, (b) stresses, or (c) strains in the system. Each design calls for a different geometry, material selection, and cooling scheme. Cooling schemes that have been utilized so far are primarily single phase and include simple macrochannel cooling, microchannel cooling, contact cooling, pin-post cooling, porous-flow cooling, jet cooling, etc. Water, liquid metals, and various cryogenic coolants have been used. Because the trend in x-ray beam development is towards brighter (i.e., more powerful) beams and assuming that no radical changes in the design of x-ray generating machines occurs in the next few years, it is fair to state that the utilization of various effective cooling schemes and, in particular, two-phase flow (e.g., subcooled boiling) warrants further investigation. This, however, requires a thorough examination of stability and reliability of two-phase flows for high-heat-flux components operating in ultrahigh vacuum with stringent reliability requirements.

  9. 'OHANA-Iki: a test-bed for the 'OHANA beam combiner and delay line at CFHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baril, Marc; Lai, Olivier; Zahariade, George; Bouchacourt, Flora; Perrin, Guy; Fedou, Pierre; Woillez, Julien

    2010-07-01

    The possibility of interferometrically coupling large telescopes using single-mode (SM) fibers is a very attractive one, especially at topographically complex and culturally sensitive astronomical observing sites such as the Mauna-Kea summit in Hawaii. The 'OHANA project (Optical Hawaiian Array for Nanoradian Astronomy) aims to link up seven of the large telescopes on Mauna-Kea. The concept of using SM fiber links for interferometry has been demonstrated using the two W. M. Keck telescopes. A beam-combiner and optical delay line has been installed at the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) to link up Gemini North and CFHT. In order to test the CFHT beam-combiner without making use of CFHT and Gemini observing time, the idea of using two small, 20 cm aperture telescopes to inject starlight into the 'Ohana interferometer fibers was devised. This project, dubbed 'OHANA-Iki, is also exploring the concept of a "soft" optical interferometer, specifically one in which the telescopes are easily movable and would not require the heavy, fixed infrastructure found in conventional freespace interferometers such as the VLTI.

  10. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements and Groove Chambers Tests in the PEP-II Beam Line Straights Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, T; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2008-07-03

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders such as ILC and CLIC [1, 2]. In the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed vacuum chambers with rectangular grooves in a straight magnetic-free section to test this promising possible electron cloud mitigation technique. We have also installed a special chamber to monitor the secondary electron yield of TiN and TiZrV (NEG) coating, Copper, Stainless Steel and Aluminum under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R&D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the ILC damping ring, the latest results on in situ secondary electron yield conditioning and recent update on the groove tests in PEP-II.

  11. Measurements of the Downward Longwave Radiation Spectrum over the Antarctic Plateau and Comparisons with a Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model for Clear Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walden, Von P.; Warren, Stephen G.; Murcray, Frank J.

    1998-01-01

    A 1-year field program was conducted at South Pole Station in 1992 to measure the downward infrared radiance spectrum at a resolution of 1/ cm over the spectral range 550-1667 cm-'. The atmosphere over the Antarctic Plateau is the coldest and driest on Earth, where in winter, surface temperatures average about -60 C, the total column water vapor is as low as 300 pm of precipitable water, and the clear-sky downward longwave flux is usually less than 80 W/sq m. Three clear-sky test cases are selected, one each for summer, winter, and spring, for which high- quality radiance data are available.as well as ancillary data to construct model atmospheres from radiosondes, ozonesondes, and other measurements. The model atmospheres are used in conjunction with the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) to compare model calculations with the spectral radiance measurements. The high-resolution calculations of LBLRTM (approx. = 0.001/ cm) are matched to the lower-resolution measurements (1/ cm) by adjusting their spectral resolution and by applying a correction for the finite field of view of the interferometer. In summer the uncertainties in temperature and water vapor profiles dominate the radiance error in the LBLRTM calculations. In winter the uncertainty in viewing zenith angle becomes important as well as the choice of atmospheric levels in the strong near-surface temperature inversion. The spectral radiance calculated for each of the three test cases generally agrees with that measured, to within twice the total estimated radiance error, thus validating LBLRTM to this level of accuracy for Antarctic conditions. However, the discrepancy exceeds twice the estimated error in the gaps between spectral lines in the region 1250-1500/ cm, where emission is dominated by the foreign-broadened water vapor continuum.

  12. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  13. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  14. Somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cell lines in humans: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Langerova, Alena; Fulka, Helena; Fulka, Josef

    2013-12-01

    The recent paper, published by Mitalipov's group in Cell (Tachibana et al., 2013 ), reporting the production of human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs), opens again the debate if, in the era of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the production of these cells is indeed necessary and, if so, whether they are different from ESCs produced from spare embryos and iPSCs. It is our opinion that these questions are very difficult to answer because it is still unclear whether and how normal ESCs differ from iPSCs. PMID:24180743

  15. Multiplexed gene transfer to a human T-cell line by combining Sleeping Beauty transposon system with methotrexate selection.

    PubMed

    Kacherovsky, Nataly; Liu, Gary W; Jensen, Michael C; Pun, Suzie H

    2015-07-01

    Engineered human T-cells are a promising therapeutic modality for cancer immunotherapy. T-cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors combined with additional genes to enhance T-cell proliferation, survival, or tumor targeting may further improve efficacy but require multiple stable gene transfer events. Methods are therefore needed to increase production efficiency for multiplexed engineered cells. In this work, we demonstrate multiplexed, non-viral gene transfer to a human T-cell line with efficient selection (∼ 50%) of cells expressing up to three recombinant open reading frames. The efficient introduction of multiple genes to T-cells was achieved using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system delivered in minicircles by nucleofection. We demonstrate rapid selection for engineered cells using methotrexate (MTX) and a mutant human dihydrofolate reductase resistant to methotrexate-induced metabolic inhibition. Preferential amplification of cells expressing multiple transgenes was achieved by two successive rounds of increasing MTX concentration. This non-viral gene transfer method with MTX step selection can potentially be used in the generation of clinical-grade T-cells housing multiplexed genetic modifications. PMID:25808830

  16. Pulse compression below 40fs at 1μm: The first step towards a short-pulse, high-energy beam line at LULI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Zou, Jiping; Martin, Luc; Simon, Francois; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Audebert, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    We present the upgrading project ELFIE (Equipement Laser de Forte Intensité et Energie) based on the "100TW" mixed Nd:glass CPA laser system at 1μm at LULI, which includes an energy enhancement and the development of a short-pulse, high-energy, good temporal contrast beam line (50fs/5J). We report the first experimental step towards the short-pulse, high-energy beam line: spectral broadening above 60nm from 7nm and temporal pulse compression below 40fs from 300fs at 1μm through a Krypton-filled hollow fiber compressor.

  17. Population of isomeric states in fusion and transfer reactions in beams of loosely bound nuclei near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Skobelev, N. K.

    2015-07-15

    The influence of the mechanisms of nuclear reactions on the population of {sup 195m}Hg and {sup 197m}Hg(7/2{sup −}), {sup 198m}Tl and {sup 196m}Tl(7{sup +}), and {sup 196m}Au and {sub 198m}Au(12{sup −}) isomeric nuclear states obtained in reactions induced by beams of {sup 3}He, {sup 6}Li, and {sup 6}He weakly bound nuclei is studied. The behavior of excitation functions and high values of isomeric ratios (δ{sub m}/δ{sub g}) for products of nuclear reactions proceeding through a compound nucleus and involving neutron evaporation are explained within statistical models. Reactions in which the emission of charged particles occurs have various isomeric ratios depending on the reaction type. The isomeric ratio is lower in direct transfer reactions involving charged-particle emission than in reactions where the evaporation of charged particles occurs. Reactions accompanied by neutron transfer usually have a lower isomeric ratio, which behaves differently for different direct-reaction types (stripping versus pickup reactions)

  18. Study on a test of optical stochastic cooling scheme in a single pass beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Kim, C.; Massoletti, D.; Zholents, A.

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study of an experiment to test the principle of optical stochastic cooling is presented. We propose to build a new beamline in the extraction area of the ALS Booster synchrotron, where we will include a bypass lattice similar to the lattice that could be used in the cooling insertion in a storage ring. Of course, in the single pass beamline we cannot achieve cooling, but we can test all the functions of the bypass lattice that are required to achieve cooling in a storage ring. As it is stated in, there are stringent requirements on the time-of-flight properties of the bypass lattice employed in a cooling scheme. The pathlengths of particle trajectories in the bypass must be fairly insensitive to the standard set of errors that usually affect the performance of storage rings. Namely, it is necessary to preserve all fluctuations in the longitudinal particle density within the beam from the beginning to the end of the bypass lattice with the accuracy of {lambda}/2{pi}, where A is the carrying (optical) wavelength. According to, cooling will completely vanish if a combined effect of all kinds of errors will produce a spread of the pathlengths of particle trajectories larger than {lambda}/2 and the cooling time will almost double if the spread of the pathlengths is {lambda}/2{pi}. At a first glance, {lambda}/2{pi} {approx_equal} 0.1/{mu}m is such a small value that satisfying this accuracy looks nearly impossible. However, simulations show that a carefully designed bypass can meet all the requirements even with rather conservative tolerance to errors.

  19. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Dettori, M.D.; Grigely, L.J.; Murray, T.C.; Solomon, P.R.; Dine, C.P. Van; Wright, D.D.

    1996-01-23

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor. 15 figs.

  20. Flexture plate motion-transfer mechanism, beam-splitter assembly, and interferometer incorporating the same

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, Robert M.; Dettori, Mark D.; Grigely, Lawrence J.; Murray, Terence C.; Solomon, Peter R.; Van Dine, C. Peter; Wright, David D.

    1996-01-01

    A multiplicity of one-piece flexure plates are assembled in pairs to provide a support system on which a retroreflector may be mounted for reciprocal motion. Combined with balance bodies, the flexure plates provide a support system having portions that are dynamically and statically balanced with one another, irrespective of orientation, so as to thereby immunize the unit against extraneous forces. The motion transfer assembly is especially adapted for use to support a moving retroreflector in a two-arm interferometer that may further include a beamsplitter assembly constructed from a one-piece, integrally formed body, the body having convergent, optically flat planar surfaces of specular reflectance, and means for adjustably mounting a beamsplitter therein. The spectrometer is of modular construction, and employs an integrated clocking sub-assembly as well as a light-weight voice-coil motor.

  1. Soft X-Ray Beam line for Industry Application in Saga

    SciTech Connect

    Kamada, M.; Azuma, J.; Takahashi, K.; Kondo, Y.; Miyata, H.; Tsuji, J.; Hashimoto, H.; Yamashige, H.; Kurisaki, S.; Wakita, H.; Furuya, K.; Harata, A.; Tochihara, H.; Matsuo, S.; Watanabe, T.; Inaba, M.; Okajima, T.; Setoyama, H.; Yoshimura, D.; Fujimoto, H.

    2007-01-19

    The varied line spacing plane grating monochromator (VLS-PGM) has been constructed for an industry application beamline using soft x-rays from the 1.4 GeV storage ring in Saga, which is the first synchrotron in Kyushu Island. The design aim of the VLS-PGM is to cover the wide-energy range from 40-1,000 eV and also to have medium resolving power, high throughput, better reproducibility and suppression of higher-order light. In order to cover the wide energy range with suppressing higher-order light, a set of three focusing mirrors and one grating is installed. The resolving power expected from the ray-tracing calculation using SHADOW is more than 5,000 with 10 micron slits. The conventional photoelectron spectrometer is installed with an ion gun, a flood gun and a twin-anode x-ray source. The instrument for XAFS measurement is also attached to the main chamber.

  2. Iterative Methods for the Non-LTE Transfer of Polarized Radiation: Resonance Line Polarization in One-dimensional Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Manso Sainz, Rafael

    1999-05-01

    This paper shows how to generalize to non-LTE polarization transfer some operator splitting methods that were originally developed for solving unpolarized transfer problems. These are the Jacobi-based accelerated Λ-iteration (ALI) method of Olson, Auer, & Buchler and the iterative schemes based on Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation (SOR) iteration of Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho. The theoretical framework chosen for the formulation of polarization transfer problems is the quantum electrodynamics (QED) theory of Landi Degl'Innocenti, which specifies the excitation state of the atoms in terms of the irreducible tensor components of the atomic density matrix. This first paper establishes the grounds of our numerical approach to non-LTE polarization transfer by concentrating on the standard case of scattering line polarization in a gas of two-level atoms, including the Hanle effect due to a weak microturbulent and isotropic magnetic field. We begin demonstrating that the well-known Λ-iteration method leads to the self-consistent solution of this type of problem if one initializes using the ``exact'' solution corresponding to the unpolarized case. We show then how the above-mentioned splitting methods can be easily derived from this simple Λ-iteration scheme. We show that our SOR method is 10 times faster than the Jacobi-based ALI method, while our implementation of the Gauss-Seidel method is 4 times faster. These iterative schemes lead to the self-consistent solution independently of the chosen initialization. The convergence rate of these iterative methods is very high; they do not require either the construction or the inversion of any matrix, and the computing time per iteration is similar to that of the Λ-iteration method.

  3. Design and performance of a beam line with a 1 m focal length toroidal grating monochromator at the ACO storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudat, W.; Kisker, E.; Rothberg, G. M.; Depautex, C.

    We describe a new beam line at the ACO storage ring for solid state photoelectron spectorscopy incorporating a 1 m focal length toroidal grating monochromator for the photon energy range 6 eV to 120 eV custom-built by Jobin-Yvon Instruments S.A. Test results for the TGM with laboratory line light sources are reported as well as performance data with synchrotron radiation.

  4. Demonstration of pattern transfer into sub-100 nm polysilicon line/space features patterned with extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cardinale, G. F.; Henderson, C. C.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Mangat, P. J. S.; Cobb, J.; Hector, S. D.

    1999-11-01

    In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line/space (L/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist ({approx}90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using a 10x reduction EUV exposure system. The EUV reticle was fabricated at Motorola (Tempe, AZ) using a subtractive process with Ta-based absorbers on Mo/Si multilayer mask blanks. In the first set of experiments, following the EUV exposures, the L/S patterns were transferred first into a SiO{sub 2} hard mask (60 nm thick) using a reactive ion etch (RIE), and then into polysilicon (350 nm thick) using a triode-coupled plasma RIE etcher at the University of California, Berkeley, microfabrication facilities. The latter etch process, which produced steep (>85 degree sign ) sidewalls, employed a HBr/Cl chemistry with a large (>10:1) etch selectivity of polysilicon to silicon dioxide. In the second set of experiments, hard mask films of SiON (50 nm thick) and SiO{sub 2} (87 nm thick) were used. A RIE was performed at Motorola using a halogen gas chemistry that resulted in a hard mask-to-photoresist etch selectivity >3:1 and sidewall profile angles {>=}85 degree sign . Line edge roughness (LER) and linewidth critical dimension (CD) measurements were performed using Sandia's GORA(c) CD digital image analysis software. Low LER values (6-9 nm, 3{sigma}, one side) and good CD linearity (better than 10%) were demonstrated for the final pattern-transferred dense polysilicon L/S features from 80 to 175 nm. In addition, pattern transfer (into polysilicon) of loose-pitch (1:2) L/S features with CDs{>=}60 nm was demonstrated. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  5. Portable transfer digital dosemeter for beam output measurements with X and gamma rays, electrons and neutrons.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, A; Gokarn, R S; Gangadharan, P

    1981-04-01

    This instrument was developed in response to a requirement for an accurate, stable and portable transfer dosemeter for calibration, at therapy dose levels, of equipment used for generating X and gamma rays, electrons and neutrons. The detector is a 0.5 cm3 ionization chamber capable of fitting various wall materials reproducibly at the end of the chamber stem. The measuring system uniquely combines the features of a MOSFET electrometer and an automatic Townsend balance. When used for X, gamma and neutron radiations, the instrument measures the tissue kerma in free air on two ranges: 0.001 - 1.999 Gy (0.1 - 199.9 rad) and 0.01 - 19.99 Gy (1 - 1999 rad) or their exposure equivalents, with autoranging feature when the first range is exceeded. The polarizing voltage (180 V) can be reversed for electron and neutron dosimetry. The dosemeter has a measuring accuracy of +/- 0.2% FS +/- 1 digit and operates on four 1.5 V torchlight cells or on AC mains (200-250 V, 50 - 60 Hz). It utilizes solid state devices, CMOS integrated circuits and displays, and is not affected by RF fields. The instrument is enclosed in a brief-case for portability and is easy to operate and maintain in a hospital. PMID:7225720

  6. SU-E-J-92: On-Line Cone Beam CT Based Planning for Emergency and Palliative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Held, M; Morin, O; Pouliot, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and develop the feasibility of on-line cone beam CT based planning for emergency and palliative radiotherapy treatments. Methods: Subsequent to phantom studies, a case library of 28 clinical megavoltage cone beam CT (MVCBCT) was built to assess dose-planning accuracies on MVCBCT for all anatomical sites. A simple emergency treatment plan was created on the MVCBCT and copied to its reference CT. The agreement between the dose distributions of each image pair was evaluated by the mean dose difference of the dose volume and the gamma index of the central 2D axial plane. An array of popular urgent and palliative cases was also evaluated for imaging component clearance and field-of-view. Results: The treatment cases were categorized into four groups (head and neck, thorax/spine, pelvis and extremities). Dose distributions for head and neck treatments were predicted accurately in all cases with a gamma index of >95% for 2% and 2 mm criteria. Thoracic spine treatments had a gamma index as low as 60% indicating a need for better uniformity correction and tissue density calibration. Small anatomy changes between CT and MVCBCT could contribute to local errors. Pelvis and sacral spine treatment cases had a gamma index between 90% and 98% for 3%/3 mm criteria. The limited FOV became an issue for large pelvis patients. Imaging clearance was difficult for cases where the tumor was positioned far off midline. Conclusion: The MVCBCT based dose planning and delivery approach is feasible in many treatment cases. Dose distributions for head and neck patients are unrestrictedly predictable. Some FOV restrictions apply to other treatment sites. Lung tissue is most challenging for accurate dose calculations given the current imaging filters and corrections. Additional clinical cases for extremities need to be included in the study to assess the full range of site-specific planning accuracies. This work is supported by Siemens.

  7. Electron scattering at high momentum transfer from methane: Analysis of line shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Maarten

    2010-02-01

    The measurement of the energy distribution of keV electrons backscattered elastically from molecules reveals one or more peaks. These peaks are at nonzero energy loss and have an intrinsic width. The usual interpretation of these measurements is attractively simple and assumes billiard-ball-type collisions between the electron and a specific atom in the molecule, and the scattering atom is assumed to behave as a free particle. The peak position is then related to the mass of the scattering atom, and its width is a Compton profile of the momentum distribution of this atom in the molecule. Here we explore the limits of the validity of this picture for the case of electrons scattering from methane. The biggest discrepancy is found for electrons scattering from carbon. For electrons scattering from hydrogen the effects are substantial at relatively low incoming energies and appear to decrease with increasing momentum transfer. The discrepancy is analyzed in terms of the force the atom experiences near the equilibrium position.

  8. An immortalized goat mammary epithelial cell line induced with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene transfer.

    PubMed

    He, Y L; Wu, Y H; He, X N; Liu, F J; He, X Y; Zhang, Y

    2009-06-01

    Although mammary epithelial cell lines can provide a rapid and reliable indicator of gene expression efficiency of transgenic animals, their short lifespan greatly limits this application. To provide stable and long lifespan cells, goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) were transduced with pLNCX2-hTERT by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. Transduced GMECs were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), proliferation assays, karyotype analysis, telomerase activity assay, western blotting, soft agar assay, and injection into nude mice. Non-transduced GMECs were used as a control. The hTERT-GMECs had higher telomerase activity and extended proliferative lifespan compared to non-transfected GMECs; even after Passage 50, hTERT-GMECs had a near diploid complement of chromosomes. Furthermore, they did not gain the anchorage-independent growth property and were not associated with a malignant phenotype in vitro or in vivo. PMID:19303628

  9. Transfer of a CD4+ Th1 cell line to nude mice effects clearance of Rhodococcus equi from the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, S T; Hines, S A; Palmer, G H

    1996-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, and intracellular respiratory pathogen, causes sever e granulomatous pneumonia in humans with AIDS and in young horses. Pulmonary clearance of R. equi requires functional CD4+ T cells and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) expression from bronchial lymph node cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether R. equi-specific CD4+ Th1 cells could effect clearance of R. equi from the lung. Adoptive transfer of a clearance of R. equi from the lungs. In contrast, mice transfused with a R. equi-specific CD4+ Th2 cell line expressed interleukin-4 but not IFN-gamma mRNA, failed to clear pulmonary infection, and developed granulomas in the lung. Control mice, which did not receive cells, did not produce IFN-gamma or interleukin-4 and developed small pulmonary granulomas. These results clearly show that a Th1 response is sufficient to effect pulmonary clearance of R. equi. PMID:8606068

  10. Resonance-line transfer with partial redistribution. VIII - Solution in the comoving frame for moving atmospheres. [stellar chromosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalas, D.; Shine, R. A.; Kunasz, P. B.; Hummer, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of partial frequency redistribution in the scattering process for lines formed in moving atmospheres are analyzed using a general method that allows the transfer equation to be solved in the comoving frame of the gas. The same chromospheric and atomic model studied by Cannon and Vardavas (1974) is employed in the calculations, but a depth scale with logarithmically spaced points is adopted. It is found that in both static and moving atmospheres, the profiles obtained with complete and partial frequency redistribution are virtually identical. The large differences in profiles obtained by Cannon and Vardavas when they used complete and partial redistribution are shown to be spurious (and physically unreal) effects resulting from angle averaging in the observer's frame instead of the comoving frame.

  11. H2O heating in molecular clouds - Line transfer and thermal balance in a warm dusty medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, T.; Silk, J.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation is undertaken into the possibility of the heating of molecular gas through collisions with radiatively pumped H2O, in the context of the overall thermal balance of optically thick molecular clouds with embedded sources. In order to solve the line transfer equation, which includes warm dust grains, an extended method of escape probability approximation is developed in which the equilibrium gas temperature arises from the balance of heating by cosmic ray ionization of H2, and by collisions with warm dust grains and radiatively pumped H2O molecules against cooling by collisions with CO and C I. The equilibrium gas temperature for a given dust temperature strongly depends on the efficiency of the cooling species, and is therefore most sensitive to the cloud optical depth. It is less dependent, in decreasing order, on H2O abundance, gas density, and velocity dispersion.

  12. Supine Craniospinal Irradiation Using a Proton Pencil Beam Scanning Technique Without Match Line Changes for Field Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Haibo Ding, Xuanfeng; Kirk, Maura; Liu, Haoyang; Zhai, Huifang; Hill-Kayser, Christine E.; Lustig, Robert A.; Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan; McDonough, James

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To propose and validate a craniospinal irradiation approach using a proton pencil beam scanning technique that overcomes the complexity of the planning associated with feathering match lines. Methods and Materials: Ten craniospinal irradiation patients had treatment planned with gradient dose optimization using the proton pencil beam scanning technique. The robustness of the plans was evaluated by shifting the isocenter of each treatment field by ±3 mm in the longitudinal direction and was compared with the original nonshifted plan with metrics of conformity number, homogeneity index, and maximal cord doses. An anthropomorphic phantom study using film measurements was carried out on a plan with 5-cm junction length. To mimic setup errors in the phantom study, fields were recalculated with isocenter shifts of 1, 3, 5, and 10 mm longitudinally, and compared with the original plans and measurements. Results: Uniform dose coverage to the entire target volumes was achieved using the gradient optimization approach with averaged junction lengths of 6.7 ± 0.5 cm. The average conformity number and homogeneity index equaled 0.78 ± 0.03 and 1.09 ± 0.01, respectively. Setup errors of 3 mm per field (6 mm in worst-case scenario) caused on average 4.6% lower conformity number 2.5% higher homogeneity index and maximal cord dose of 4216.1 ± 98.2 cGy. When the junction length was 5 cm or longer, setup errors of 6 mm resulted in up to 12% dosimetric deviation. Consistent results were reached between film measurements and planned dose profiles in the junction area. Conclusions: Longitudinal setup errors directly reduce the dosimetric accuracy of the proton craniospinal irradiation treatment with matched proton pencil beam scanning fields. The reported technique creates a slow dose gradient in the junction area, which makes the treatment more robust to longitudinal setup errors compared to conventional feathering methods.

  13. Isolating and quantifying cross-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Davis, A. K.; Cao, D.; Michel, D. T.; Hohenberger, M.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Marozas, J. A.; et al

    2016-04-20

    The angularly-resolved mass ablation rates and ablation front trajectories for Si-coated CH targets were measured in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments to quantify crossbeam energy transfer (CBET) while constraining the hydrodynamic coupling. A polar-direct-drive laser configuration was used, where the equatorial laser beams were dropped from a symmetric direct-drive configuration to suppress CBET at the pole, while allowing it to persist at the equator. The combination of low- and high-CBET conditions in the same implosion allowed the effects of CBET on the ablation rate and ablation pressure to be decoupled from the other physics effects that influence laser-coupling. Hydrodynamic simulationsmore » performed without CBET reproduced the measured ablation rate and ablation front trajectory at the pole of the target, verifying that the other laser-coupling physics effects are well-modeled when CBET effects are negligible. The simulated mass ablation rates and ablation front trajectories were in excellent agreement with the measurements at all angles when a CBET model based on Randall’s equations [C. J. Randall et al., Phys. Fluids 24, 1474 (1981)] was included into the simulations with an optimized multiplier on the CBET gain factor. These measurements were performed on both OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility to access a wide range of plasma conditions, laser intensities, and laser beam geometries. Furthermore, the presence of the CBET gain multiplier required to match the data in all of the configurations tested suggests that additional physics effects, such as intensity variations due to diffraction, shortcomings of extending the 1-D Randall model to 3-D, or polarization effects, should be explored to explain the differences in observed and predicted drive.« less

  14. Performance of the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) for temperature, water vapor, and trace gas retrievals: recent updates evaluated with IASI case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, M. J.; Payne, V. H.; Mlawer, E. J.; Uymin, G.; Shephard, M. W.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Delamere, J. S.; Moncet, J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Modern data assimilation algorithms depend on accurate infrared spectroscopy in order to make use of the information related to temperature, water vapor (H2O), and other trace gases provided by satellite observations. Reducing the uncertainties in our knowledge of spectroscopic line parameters and continuum absorption is thus critical to improving the application of satellite data to weather forecasting. Here we present the results of a rigorous validation of spectroscopic updates to an advanced radiative transfer model, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), against a global dataset of 120 near-nadir, over-ocean, nighttime spectra from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI). We compare calculations from the latest version of LBLRTM (v12.1) to those from a previous version (v9.4+) to determine the impact of spectroscopic updates to the model on spectral residuals as well as retrieved temperature and H2O profiles. We show that the spectroscopy in the CO2 ν2 and ν3 bands is significantly improved in LBLRTM v12.1 relative to v9.4+, and that these spectroscopic updates lead to changes of ~0.5 K in the retrieved vertical temperature profiles below 10 hPa, with the sign of the change and the variability among cases depending on altitude. We also find that temperature retrievals using each of these two CO2 bands are remarkably consistent in LBLRTM v12.1, potentially allowing these bands to be used to retrieve atmospheric temperature simultaneously. The updated H2O spectroscopy in LBLRTM v12.1 substantially improves the residuals in the P-branch of the H2O ν2 band, while the improvements in the R-branch are more modest. The H2O amounts retrieved with LBLRTM v12.1 are on average 14% lower between 100 and 200 hPa, 42% higher near 562 hPa, and 31% higher near the surface compared to the amounts retrieved with v9.4+ due to a combination of the different retrieved temperature profiles and the updated H2O spectroscopy. We also find that the use of a

  15. Performance of the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) for temperature, water vapor, and trace gas retrievals: recent updates evaluated with IASI case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, M. J.; Payne, V. H.; Mlawer, E. J.; Uymin, G.; Shephard, M. W.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Delamere, J. S.; Moncet, J.-L.

    2013-07-01

    Modern data assimilation algorithms depend on accurate infrared spectroscopy in order to make use of the information related to temperature, water vapor (H2O), and other trace gases provided by satellite observations. Reducing the uncertainties in our knowledge of spectroscopic line parameters and continuum absorption is thus important to improve the application of satellite data to weather forecasting. Here we present the results of a rigorous validation of spectroscopic updates to an advanced radiative transfer model, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), against a global dataset of 120 near-nadir, over-ocean, nighttime spectra from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). We compare calculations from the latest version of LBLRTM (v12.1) to those from a previous version (v9.4+) to determine the impact of spectroscopic updates to the model on spectral residuals as well as retrieved temperature and H2O profiles. We show that the spectroscopy in the CO2 ν2 and ν3 bands is significantly improved in LBLRTM v12.1 relative to v9.4+, and that these spectroscopic updates lead to mean changes of ~0.5 K in the retrieved vertical temperature profiles between the surface and 10 hPa, with the sign of the change and the variability among cases depending on altitude. We also find that temperature retrievals using each of these two CO2 bands are remarkably consistent in LBLRTM v12.1, potentially allowing these bands to be used to retrieve atmospheric temperature simultaneously. The updated H2O spectroscopy in LBLRTM v12.1 substantially improves the a posteriori residuals in the P-branch of the H2O ν2 band, while the improvements in the R-branch are more modest. The H2O amounts retrieved with LBLRTM v12.1 are on average 14% lower between 100 and 200 hPa, 42% higher near 562 hPa, and 31% higher near the surface compared to the amounts retrieved with v9.4+ due to a combination of the different retrieved temperature profiles and the updated H2O

  16. EVALUATION OF THE FAILURE OF A RADIOACTIVE WASTE TRANSFER LINE JACKET

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B; Alan03 Plummer, A; Karthik Subramanian, K; Charles Jenkins, C; William Hinz, W; A Fellinger, A

    2007-04-06

    Radioactive wastes are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste is transported between tanks primarily via an underground transfer piping system. Due to the hazardous nature of the waste, the inner core stainless steel pipe is typically surrounded by a carbon steel pipe jacket, which provides secondary containment. Recently several through-wall penetrations were discovered on a segment of one of the jackets. An evaluation was performed to verify the failure mechanism and to estimate the degree of damage that occurred to the pipe segment. Failure analysis of a section of the jacket confirmed that pitting corrosion on the exterior of the pipe led to the through-wall penetration. Ultrasonic measurements on sections of the pipe were utilized to determine the remaining wall thickness in adjacent areas of the pipe. Based on these measurements, the degree of pitting and general corrosion was determined. Pit growth rate models were then developed to estimate the life expectancy of sections of the pipe that had not been excavated. The calculations estimated that the occurrence of through-wall failures in this jacket will begin to increase substantially in 12 years. Given that this pipe segment will be utilized beyond this time, short-term and long-term solutions to this failure were proposed. The short-term solutions focused on the repair or replace decisions that must be made to return the jacket to service as soon as practical. The long-term solutions focused on a broader strategy to address jacket integrity issues in the entire tank farm facility. These solutions included the evaluation of innovative remote inspection and repair techniques.

  17. Molecular cloning of L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase: gene transfer and analysis of mut cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Ledley, F D; Lumetta, M; Nguyen, P N; Kolhouse, J F; Allen, R H

    1988-01-01

    L-Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM, EC 5.4.99.2) is a mitochondrial adenosylcobalamin-requiring enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. This enzyme is deficient in methylmalonic acidemia, an often fatal disorder of organic acid metabolism. Antibody against human placental MCM was used to screen human placenta and liver cDNA expression libraries for MCM cDNA clones. One clone expressed epitopes that could affinity-purify antibodies against MCM. A cDNA corresponding in length to the mRNA was obtained and introduced into COS cells by DNA-mediated gene transfer. Cells transformed with this clone expressed increased levels of MCM enzymatic activity. RNA blot analysis of cells genetically deficient in MCM indicates that several deficient cell lines have a specific decrease in the amount of hybridizable mRNA. These data confirm the authenticity of the MCM cDNA clone, establish the feasibility of constituting MCM activity by gene transfer for biochemical analysis and gene therapy, and provide a preliminary picture of the genotypic spectrum underlying MCM deficiency. Images PMID:2453061

  18. Molecular cloning of L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase: Gene transfer and analysis of mut cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ledley, F.D.; Lumetta, M.; Nguyen, P.N.; Kolhouse, J.F.; Allen, R.H. )

    1988-05-01

    L-Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM, EC 5.4.99.2) is a mitochondrial adenosylcobalamin-requiring enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA. This enzyme is deficient in methylmalonic acidemia, an often fatal disorder of organic acid metabolism. Antibody against human placental MCM was used to screen human placenta and liver cDNA expression libraries for MCM cDNA clones. One clone expressed epitopes that could affinity-purify antibodies against MCM. A cDNA corresponding in length to the mRNA was obtained and introduced into COS cells by DNA-mediated gene transfer. Cells transformed with this clone expressed increased levels of MCM enzymatic activity. RNA blot analysis of cells genetically deficient in MCM indicates that several deficient cell lines have a specific decrease in the amount of hybridizable mRNA. These data confirm the authenticity of the MCM cDNA clone, establish the feasibility of constituting MCM activity by gene transfer for biochemical analysis and gene therapy, and provide a preliminary picture of the genotypic spectrum underlying MCM deficiency.

  19. Cyclotron line formation in the magnetized atmospheres of compact stars - I. The transfer equations for polarized radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasev, M. A.; Derishev, E. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl. V.; Kocharovsky, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    We find the forms of the transfer equations for polarized cyclotron radiation in the atmospheres of compact stars, which are simple enough to allow practical implementation and still preserve all important physical effects. We take into account a frequency redistribution of radiation within the cyclotron line as well as the relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic effects. Our analysis is valid for the magnetic fields up to 1013 G and for temperatures well below 500 keV. We present and compare two forms of the radiation transfer equations. The first form, for the intensities of ordinary and extraordinary modes, is applicable for the compact stars with a moderate magnetic field strength up to 1011 G for typical neutron star and up to 109 G for magnetic white dwarfs. The second form, for the Stokes parameters, is more complex, but applicable even if a linear mode coupling takes place somewhere in the scattering-dominated atmosphere. Analysing dispersion properties of a magnetized plasma in the latter case, we describe a range of parameters where the linear mode coupling is possible and essential.

  20. Irradiation With Carbon Ion Beams Induces Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Cellular Senescence in a Human Glioma-Derived Cell Line

    SciTech Connect

    Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Wada, Seiichi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shinagawa, Masahiko; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Mori, Takahisa; Saha, Manujendra N.; Hoque, Ariful S.; Islam, Salequl; Kogure, Kimitaka; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: We examined biological responses of human glioma cells to irradiation with carbon ion beams (C-ions). Methods and Materials: A human glioma-derived cell line, NP-2, was irradiated with C-ions. Apoptotic cell nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33342. Induction of autophagy was examined either by staining cells with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or by Western blotting to detect conversion of microtuble-associated protein light chain 3 (MAP-LC3) (LC3-I) to the membrane-bound form (LC3-II). Cellular senescence markers including induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal) were examined. The mean telomere length of irradiated cells was determined by Southern blot hybridization. Expression of tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} in the irradiated cells was analyzed by Western blotting. Results: When NP-2 cells were irradiated with C-ions at 6 Gy, the major population of the cells died of apoptosis and autophagy. The residual fraction of attached cells (<1% of initially irradiated cells) could not form a colony: however, they showed a morphological phenotype consistent with cellular senescence, that is, enlarged and flattened appearance. The senescent nature of these attached cells was further indicated by staining for SA-beta-gal. The mean telomere length was not changed after irradiation with C-ions. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 as well as the expression of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} was induced in NP-2 cells after irradiation. Furthermore, we found that irradiation with C-ions induced cellular senescence in a human glioma cell line lacking functional p53. Conclusions: Irradiation with C-ions induced apoptosis, autophagy, and cellular senescence in human glioma cells.