Science.gov

Sample records for bed retorting process

  1. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid-bed retorting process. Final report, September 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Stehn, J.L.; Vego, A.; Robl, T.L.

    1995-02-01

    This summarizes the development of the KENTORT II retorting process, which includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. Purpose was to design and test the process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The program included bench- scale studies of coking and cracking reactions of shale oil vapors over processed shale particles to address issues of scaleup associated with solid-recycle retorting. The bench-scale studies showed that higher amounts of carbon coverage reduce the rate of subsequent carbon deposition by shale oil vapors onto processed shale particles; however carbon-covered materials were also active in terms of cracking and coking. Main focus was the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II PDU. Cold-flow modeling and shakedown were done before the PDU was made ready for operation. Seven mass-balanced, steady-state runs were completed within the window of design operating conditions. Goals were achieved: shale feedrate, run duration (10 hr), shale recirculation rates (4:1 to pyrolyzer and 10:1 to combustor), bed temperatures (pyrolyzer 530{degree}C, gasifier 750{degree}C, combustor 830{degree}C), and general operating stability. Highest oil yields (up to 109% of Fischer assay) were achieved for runs lasting {ge} 10 hours. High C content of the solids used for heat transfer to the pyrolysis zone contributed to the enhanced oil yield achieved.

  2. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid bed retorting process. Technical report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Taulbee, D.; Fei, Y.; Carter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. Along with the major activity of assembling the components of the 50-lb/hr retort, work was also completed in other areas this quarter. Basic studies of the cracking and coking kinetics of model compounds in a fixed bed reactor were continued. Additionally, as part of the effort to investigate niche market applications for KENTORT II-derived products, a study of the synthesis of carbon fibers from the heavy fraction of KENTORT II shale oil was initiated.

  3. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  4. Identification of data gaps found during the development of a zero-order model for a fluidized-bed retort/combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ammer, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This technical note (TN) reports on the development of a zero-order ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) model for the fluidized-bed retort/combustion of an eastern oil shale. The objective of the work described was to identify data needs and to create a structure for future, more definitive models. New Albany shale was the initial reference eastern shale at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). A literature search on this shale was conducted to find the physical property data required for the ASPEN model. This TN discusses the types of missing or incomplete data, the process being modeled, and how process variables are affected by varying input parameters. The TN also presents recommendations for increasing the reliability of the simulation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  6. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods. PMID:26396305

  7. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  8. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water- gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  9. Application of a cold flow model in testing the feasiblity of an oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Tatterson, D.F.; Vasalos, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    An oil shale fluid bed process successfully tested in 1.5 ton/day pilot plant in Amoco Research Center is discussed. Emphasis is given on information showing the application of cold flow unit results in the interpretation of retort product yields.

  10. Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1993-11-12

    The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

  11. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  12. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  13. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  14. Application of a cold flow model in testing the feasibility of an oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Vasalos, I.A.; Tatterson, D.F.; Furlong, M.W.; Kowalski, T.L.; So, B.Y.C. )

    1992-06-01

    An oil shale fluid bed process was successfully tested in a 1.5 tons/day retort. A pilot plant previously used for catalytic cracking studies was modified for this purpose. The successful conversion of the existing pilot plant to a retort and the remarkably smooth startup and operation were attributed to the concurrent construction and operation of a full-scale cold flow model to test the design of solid feeders and a unique injector/mixer. Operation of the cold flow model over the range of anticipated pilot plant operating conditions provided pressure drop and solids hold data for the mixer. The process was based on rapid heating of small oil shale particles with a hot heat carrier. key to the process was the design of a mixer, of proprietary geometry, which effects rapid interparticle heat transfer, substantial retorting of oil shale, and rapid removal of the hydrocarbon vapors. Several tests were carried out showing that shale oil yields up to 110% of Fisher assay are feasible by using this unique process scheme. In this paper, data are presented showing the application of cold flow results in the interpretation of pilot plant data such as gas and liquid yields.

  15. Process for the retorting of hydrocarbon-containing solids

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, J.C.; Gaiao, U.; Novicki, R.E.

    1987-11-17

    This patent describes a process for the retorting of hydrocarbon-containing solids, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: (a) contacting the solid particles with superheated steam; (b) transporting, in an upward direction, the mixture obtained in the previous step, at a gas velocity close to the critical impact velocity, through a vertical multi-tube reactor, immersed in a vertical furnace, held at a temperature in the range from 800/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C; (c) heating the obtained mixture to the solids' pyrolysis temperature, by means of the heat generated by the burning of fuel inside the vertical furnace and supplied to the mixture through the walls of the reactor; (d) removing the products from the reactor, separating the solid phase from the retorting products, by forcing the products to pass through primary and secondary separators; (e) removing the gaseous phase from the retorting products exiting the secondary separator thus effecting a second separation stage, for the obtaining of fuel gas and oil the process further characterized in that spaced static devices are provided within the multi-tube reactor tube, so as to cause the solid particles to come close to the walls of the reactor, as a consequence of the superheated steam flow redistribution in order to increase heat transfer between the vertical furnace and the reactor walls.

  16. Preparation and storage stability of retort processed Chettinad chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Kulkarni, V V; Chandirasekaran, V

    2014-01-01

    Chettinad chicken was prepared using boneless meat derived from spent hen and boiler breeder packed in retort pouches (250 g) and processed in retort at the product temperature of 121.1 °C and the corresponding F0 value of 5.2. The product was stored at ambient temperature (35 ± 2 °C) up to 180 days. The sensory scores for texture of the Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat decreased significantly however the scores were rated very acceptable even on 180th day. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine values and acid value increased gradually during storage but E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp, yeast and mould could not be detected during the entire storage period. The cost of production of Chettinad chicken (250 g) prepared from spent hen meat and broiler breeder meat was Rs.37 and Rs.50, respectively. It was concluded that the retort processed Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat can be safely stored up to 180 days at ambient temperature. PMID:24426066

  17. Estimation of retorted phosphor powder from spent fluorescent lamps by thermal process.

    PubMed

    Park, Hun-Su; Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2016-04-01

    The degree of thermal stabilization of phosphor powder from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs) manufactured by three companies (A, B, C) was estimated by examining mercury content in phosphor powder with retorting time, retorting temperature and rotational speed of drum. Mercury content of phosphor powders from spent fluorescent lamps manufactured by A, B and C companies as samples in thermal experiments was 4031mg/kg, 3522mg/kg and 3172mg/kg, respectively. In the thermal experiments, the optimal conditions for retorting time, retorting temperature, and rotational speed were determined at 6h, 400°C, and 2.0rpm, respectively. With thermal processing at the optimal conditions, mercury content of all samples for retorted phosphor powder was less than 3.0mg/kg, while efficiency of thermal process to control mercury content was higher than 99.9%. Leaching tests such as Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korea Extraction Test (KET) were subsequently carried out to verify if retorted phosphor powder is hazardous waste. Leaching concentrations of mercury for all samples of retorted phosphor powder were satisfied with regulatory levels in both leaching tests. Hence, retorted phosphor powders at the optimal conditions are considered to be non-hazardous wastes. PMID:26882866

  18. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited using a new procedure and 47 days of operation were completed in the quarter. For retort No. 28 air injection and off gas piping and manifolding was completed along with the installation of electrical and instrumentation wiring. The off gas processing plant for the two retorts was completed and an initial shakedown run made.

  19. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  20. Apparatus for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  1. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  2. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    The Retort No. 18 burn was terminated on May 11, 1980. A total of 5547 barrels of shale oil or 46 percent of in-place resource was recovered from the retort. The EPA-DOE/LETC post-burn core sampling program is underway on Retort No. 16. Eleven core holes (of 18 planned) have been completed to date. Preliminary results indicate excellent core recovery has been achieved. Recovery of 702 ft of core was accomplished. The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit application was submitted to the EPA regional office in Denver for review by EPA and Utah air quality officials. The application for an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit to authorize GKI to inject retort wastewater into the Mesa Verde Formation is being processed by the State of Utah. A hearing before the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining is scheduled in Salt Lake City, Utah, for July 22, 1980. Re-entry drilling on Retort No. 24 is progressing and placement of surface equipment is underway. Retort No. 25 blasthole drilling was completed and blast preparations are ongoing. Retort No. 25 will be blasted on July 18, 1980. The retort will be similar to Retort No. 24, with improvements in blasthole loading and detonation. US Patent No. 4,205,610 was assigned to GKI for a shale oil recovery process. Rocky Mountain Energy Company (RME) is evaluating oil shale holdings in Wyoming for application of the GKI process there.

  3. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-03-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited on August 11, 1983 and by December 31 had completed 139 days of operation and produced 11,420 barrels of oil. Retort No. 28 was ignited on October 18, 1983 and on December 31 had completed 74 days of operation and produced 5,285 barrels of oil. The off-gas processing plants for the two retorts was completed and put through a shakedown run. Concentration levels of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the retort off gas did not warrant plant operation in the fourth quarter. Environmental studies are reported.

  4. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil-shale-retorting process. Fourth annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Geokinetics in situ shale oil project is a cooperative venture between Geokinetics Inc. and the US Department of Energy. The objective is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is being conducted at a field site, Kamp Kerogen, located 70 miles south of Vernal, Utah. This Fourth Annual Report covers work completed during the calendar year 1980. During 1980 one full-size retort was blasted. Two retorts, blasted the previous year, were burned. A total of 4891 barrels of oil was produced during the year.

  5. PROCESSING IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT OFFGAS WITH A STRETFORD PLANT AT GEOKINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's transportable Stretford process pilot plant on a 700-acfm slipstream of in-situ shale oil retort offgas to investigate H2S removal efficiency and process compatibility. This was the fourth application of the pilot plant which had demonstrated ...

  6. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected. PMID:19019110

  7. LOGAN WASH FIELD TREATABILITY STUDIES OF WASTEWATERS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatability studies were conducted on retort water and gas condensate wastewater from modified in-situ oil shale retorts to evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment technologies for removing organic and inorganic contaminants. At retorts operated by Occidental Oil Shale,...

  8. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Elkington, W. Brice

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  9. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  10. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  11. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, A.A.; Mast, E.L.; Greaves, M.J.

    1990-08-14

    A retorting apparatus is described including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or rock chimneys'', through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln. 29 figs.

  12. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches. PMID:26344980

  13. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  14. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  15. Eastern oil shale research involving the generation of retorted and combusted oil shale solid waste, shale oil collection, and process stream sampling and characterization: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    Approximately 518 tons of New Albany oil shale were obtained from the McRae quarry in Clark County, Indiana and shipped to Golden, CO. A portion of the material was processed through a TOSCO II pilot plant retort. About 273 tons of crushed raw shale, 136 tons of retorted shale, 1500 gallons of shale oil, and 10 drums of retort water were shipped to US Department of Energy, Laramie, WY. Process conditions were documented, process streams were sampled and subjected to chemical analysis, and material balance calculations were made. 6 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The burn of Retort 17 was terminated December 10. Retort 18 was ignited November 12. Retort 17 produced 510 bbl during the quarter for the total of 3,775 bbl, while Retort 18 produced 1,187 bbl. The shale oil was analyzed. Environmental studies were done.

  17. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by the process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistent mutants (1-2 times background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delcate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  18. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by thd process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistant mutants. (1-2 time background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delicate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  19. Effects of MIS retorting on groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, N.E.

    1983-04-01

    Occidental Petroleum Corporation has conducted field tests on the modified-in-situ (MIS) oil shale retorting technology for a number of years at its Logan Wash site near De Beque, Colorado. A total of 8 major retorts have been burned, the last three of which were commercial sized. Concurrent with process development research, a significant program was undertaken to study the effects of the MIS technology on the environment. Groundwater was examined before, during and after the major retorting experiments by means of an extensive monitoring network. This network was comprised of monitoring wells at various distances from the retorting operation. Both alluvial wells and deep bedrock wells were examined. Water quality in local seeps and springs was also monitored. Almost eighty chemical and physical parameters of the water samples have been examined. Analyses of these data have shown no contamination of the groundwaters by the MIS retorts. The quality of water exiting MIS retorts during and after the retorting period has also been followed. Data from Retorts 1 through 6 show that the species mobilized by retorting are rapidly removed, and concentrations of chemicals in ''leachate'' from the retorts quickly approach the same range of values as seen in natural groundwaters. Statistical analyses have been made of both the retort waters and the groundwaters. Based on the results of these analyses a list of key variables has been identified whose measurement is most likely to identify contamination problems.

  20. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  1. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E.; Jewett, Kenneth L.

    1981-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.

  2. Oil shale retorting in the first commercial plants

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Three commercial projects based on oil shale mining and surface retorting are reviewed. In Colorado, Exxon and Tosco are partners in the construction of a plant which will utilize TOSCO II retorts. Nearby, Union Oil Company is constructing the first module of a large complex using its own process. Each project is described briefly, the several retorting processes are discussed, and the rationale for the retort selection in each case is considered. 8 refs.

  3. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Retort No. 18 produced 3479 barrels of oil during the quarter for a total of 4528 barrels to date. Chromatographic analyses of Retort No. 18 shale oil by the GKI analytical laboratory indicated variation in the oil from the wells near the air-in end and from the air-out end of the retort. Shale oil has been blended with Altamont crude (the Roosevelt refinery's normal feedstock); the distillation, API gravity, pour point, flash point, Naptha and Cat Gas were not affected by the shale oil. The diesel off the crude unit changed from water white to yellow, however, and a fine grayish-brown precipitate formed. Re-entry drilling was performed on Retorts No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23 during the quarter; tracer tests were run by Sandia Laboratories on Retorts No. 19, No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 25.

  4. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  5. Hydrogeologic consequences of the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Mehran, M.; Narasimhan, T.N.; Fox, J.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study is aimed at studying the possible alteration of the groundwater regime in and around the C-a and the C-b tracts due to the proposed MIS strategies. Results suggest that mine-inflow rates will gradually increase with time and that the phreatic surface will be drawn down significantly over several square kilometers around the C-a and C-b tracts. These drawdowns could have profound effects on the shallow groundwater and surface water supplies. The expected inflow rates may vary from 0.15 to 1.4 m/sup 3//s at the C-a tract and from 0.5 to 0.9 m/sup 3//s at the C-b tract. The computations suggest that over a 30-y period of activity at the C-a tract, the water table in the vicinity of a tributary to the Yellow Creek may be drawn down by as much as 31 m. Similarly, 60 years of MIS retorting at the C-b tract may draw down the water table in the vicnity of the Piceance Creek by 100 m or more. The studies indicate that in an expanding mine, the inflows are likely to be concentrated in the neighborhood of newly excavated regions where hydraulic gradients will be highest. It has been estimated that inflow into individual retorts may vary from 0.15 x 10/sup -3/ to 0.95 x 10/sup -3/ m/sup 3//s. These infow rates may or may not have significant effects on combustion efficiency, depending upon such factors as shale richness, uniformity of flow, and steam-air ratio. Higher porosities, lower residual saturations, and higher permeabilities will tend to increase mine inflows. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Developing the Geokinetics/Department of Energy horizontal in situ retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekas, M.A.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed under a cooperative agreement between Geokinetics Inc., and the US Department of Energy, spanning on eight year period. A large body of experimental data was generated which has been previously reported in a series of published and unpublished reports, as indicated in Chapter VII. The report summarizes research work performed from April of 1975 to August 15, 1985, but emphasizes data generated during the final three years of the project, when five large retorts were tested. The report draws conclusions based upon the total program, including work performed by Geokinetics prior to entering into the Cooperative Agreement, and presents the initial parameters useful for scaleup and design of a commercial scale operation, including data useful for assessing the environmental impacts and criteria for mitigation of such impacts. Specific details concerning the various aspects of the program may be obtained from the many previous reports that have been generated from the date of project initiation. A list of these reports is presented in Chapter VII. 28 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Integrated Use of Fluidized Bed Technology for Oil Production from Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirde, Andres; Martins, Ants

    The plant unit which consists of a fluidized bed retort and CFB furnace for burning the by-products of retorting (semicoke and semicoke gas) is presented in this paper. The oil shale retort consists of a fast fluidized bed shaft, coarse semicoke bit, semicoke separation chamber and cyclone for the separation of fine semicoke particles. The crashed oil shale and hot ash from the CFB ash separator are fed concurrently into the fast fluidized bed shaft. For fluidizing the mixture of oil shale and hot ash particles, the recycle semicoke gas is used. The pyrolysis of oil shale begins in fluidized bed and is completed in the semicoke separation chamber. The coarse semicoke particles are separated from fluidized bed directly while the medium size particles are separated from the gases in the semicoke separation chamber and the finest semicoke particles in the cyclone. All the fractions of semicoke from the fluidized bed retort and semicoke gas from the oil fractionator are burnt in the CFB furnace. The semicoke ash is separated from flue gases in the CFB ash separator. A part of separated hot ash is fed into the fluidized bed retort as a solid heat carrier material and the rest into the furnace through the ash cooler or separated from the process. The retention of sulphur dioxide formed during the semicoke and semicoke gas combustion, is guaranteed for about 99 % due to the high CaO content in the semicoke ash and convenient temperature (about 850°C) in the CFB furnace. The described plant unit is useful for retorting oil shale and other solid hydrocarbon-containing fuels. The advantages of the present retorting process and system are: improved oil yield, greater throughput, lower retorting time, avoidance of moving parts in the retorting zones, reduced downtime, etc. A new plant unit for oil shale oil production has been elaborated and defended by the Estonian Utility Model EE 200700671 UI.

  8. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  9. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  10. Organic constituents in process water from the in-situ retorting of oil from oil-shale kerogen

    SciTech Connect

    Raphaelian, L A; Harrison, W

    1981-02-01

    Capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) was performed on the acid, base, and neutral fractions of liquid- and particulate-phase methylene chloride extracts of a composite sample of raw process water collected from separator Tank 6 by the Laramie Energy Technology Center. Of the 160 extractable and chromatographable organic compounds tentatively identified, the following compound classes were found (listed in decreasing order of abundance): quinolines and lower fatty acids, aminoindoles, neutral oxygenated heterocyclics, pyridines, pyrroles, pyrazoles, phenols, and alkanes. Noticeably absent or in low concentration were alkyl benzenes and alkenes. Assuming 100% extraction efficiency, these organics constitute approximately 0.035% of the retort water; approximately 50% of this amount is represented by the quinolines, fatty acids, aminoindoles, and oxygenated heterocyclics. The following differences were noted in the composition of the particulate and liquid extracts of the neutral and base fractions, respectively: (1) alkanes are a major portion of the particulates, whereas oxygenated hereocyclics are most prominent in the liquid; and (2) aminoindoles are only a minor portion of the particulates, but are prominent in the liquid phase. The concentration of a compound occurring in both the liquid and particulate extracts is approximately 40 to 100 times higher in the liquid than in the particulate extract.

  11. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  12. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  13. Modeling of fluidized bed silicon deposition process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K.; Hsu, G.; Lutwack, R.; PRATURI A. K.

    1977-01-01

    The model is intended for use as a means of improving fluidized bed reactor design and for the formulation of the research program in support of the contracts of Silicon Material Task for the development of the fluidized bed silicon deposition process. A computer program derived from the simple modeling is also described. Results of some sample calculations using the computer program are shown.

  14. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  15. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 5: an investigation of dewatering for the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The C-a and the C-b tracts in the Piceance Creek Basin are potential sites for the development of oil shale by the modified in-situ retorting (MIS) process. Proposed development plans for these tracts require the disturbance of over three billion m/sup 3/ of oil shale to a depth of about 400 m (1312 ft) or more below ground level. The study investigates the nature and impacts of dewatering and reinvasion that are likely to accompany the MIS process. The purpose is to extend earlier investigations through more refined mathematical analysis. Physical phenomena not adequately covered in previous studies, particularly the desaturation process, are investigated. The present study also seeks to identify, through a parametric approach, the key variables that are required to characterize systems such as those at the C-a and C-b tracts.

  16. Fluid bed technology in materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, C.K.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.

    1999-01-01

    The author explores the various aspects of fluidization engineering and examines its applications in a multitude of materials processing techniques. Topics include process metallurgy, fluidization in nuclear engineering, and the pros and cons of various fluidization equipment. Gupta emphasizes fluidization engineering in high temperature processing, and high temperature fluidized bed furnaces.

  17. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  18. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  19. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of <40 min and a middle particle size was recommended for both keeping nitrogenous organic matters and aromatic hydrocarbons in shale char and improving the yield and quality of shale oil. In addition, shale char obtained under such retorting condition can also be treated efficiently using a circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion. PMID:19896769

  20. Process analysis of fluidized bed granulation.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, J; Jørgensen, A; Räsänen, E; Luukkonen, P; Airaksinen, S; Raiman, J; Hänninen, K; Antikainen, O; Yliruusi, J

    2001-01-01

    This study assesses the fluidized bed granulation process for the optimization of a model formulation using in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for moisture determination. The granulation process was analyzed using an automated granulator and optimization of the verapamil hydrochloride formulation was performed using a mixture design. The NIR setup with a fixed wavelength detector was applied for moisture measurement. Information from other process measurements, temperature difference between process inlet air and granules (T(diff)), and water content of process air (AH), was also analyzed. The application of in-line NIR provided information related to the amount of water throughout the whole granulation process. This information combined with trend charts of T(diff) and AH enabled the analysis of the different process phases. By this means, we can obtain in-line documentation from all the steps of the processing. The choice of the excipient affected the nature of the solid-water interactions; this resulted in varying process times. NIR moisture measurement combined with temperature and humidity measurements provides a tool for the control of water during fluid bed granulation. PMID:14727858

  1. Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Mallon, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

  2. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L. )

    1989-01-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed of Greenriver oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust form raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rates for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation; fracture and wear.

  3. Investigation of tracer and steam tests on the Western Research Institute 150-ton retort

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.; Merriam, N.W.; Covell, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    Gas tracer and steam front velocities in addition to flow model calculations are used to characterize rubble bed structure in an oil shale retort. The gas tracer method is shown to have superior resolution to the steam front method in detecting rubble bed variations. The tracer method is potentially less expensive. Recommendations for further research are made.

  4. Fluidized bed heating process and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McHale, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Capacitive electrical heating of a fluidized bed enables the individual solid particles within the bed to constitute the hottest portion thereof. This effect is achieved by applying an A. C. voltage potential between dielectric coated electrodes, one of which is advantageously the wall of the fluidized bed rejection zone, sufficient to create electrical currents in said particles so as to dissipate heat therein. In the decomposition of silane or halosilanes in a fluidized bed reaction zone, such heating enhances the desired deposition of silicon product on the surface of the seed particles within the fluidized bed and minimizes undesired coating of silicon on the wall of the reaction zone and the homogeneous formation of fine silicon powder within said zone.

  5. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  6. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L.

    1989-03-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory scale fluidized bed of Green River oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust from raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes, and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rate for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes, and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation: fracture and wear. Fracture of large particles sometimes produced fragments which were small enough to be blown out of the bed. These fragments were much larger than the individual mineral grains in the shale. The fracture mechanism was dominant in the case of raw shale. Dust in the smaller particle-size range was generated by wear. Wear was the dominant mechanisms in the case of burned shale, whereas, for retorted shale, nearly equal amounts of dust were generated by each mechanism. 13 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Heat transfer simulation and retort program adjustment for thermal processing of wheat based Haleem in semi-rigid aluminum containers.

    PubMed

    Vatankhah, Hamed; Zamindar, Nafiseh; Shahedi Baghekhandan, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    A mixed computational strategy was used to simulate and optimize the thermal processing of Haleem, an ancient eastern food, in semi-rigid aluminum containers. Average temperature values of the experiments showed no significant difference (α = 0.05) in contrast to the predicted temperatures at the same positions. According to the model, the slowest heating zone was located in geometrical center of the container. The container geometrical center F0 was estimated to be 23.8 min. A 19 min processing time interval decrease in holding time of the treatment was estimated to optimize the heating operation since the preferred F0 of some starch or meat based fluid foods is about 4.8-7.5 min. PMID:26396432

  8. Determination of polar organic solutes in oil-shale retort water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Stuber, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of analytical methods were used to quantitatively determine polar organic solutes in process retort water and a gas-condensate retort water produced in a modified in situ oil-shale retort. Specific compounds accounting for 50% of the dissolved organic carbon were identified in both retort waters. In the process water, 42% of the dissolved organic carbon consisted of a homologous series of fatty acids from C2 to C10. Dissolved organic carbon percentages for other identified compound classes were as follows: aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, 1.4%; phenols, 2.2%; hydroxypyridines, 1.1%; aliphatic amides, 1.2%. In the gas-condensate retort water, aromatic amines were most abundant at 19.3% of the dissolved organic carbon, followed by phenols (17.8%), nitriles (4.3%), aliphatic alcohols (3.5%), aliphatic ketones (2.4%), and lactones (1.3%). Steam-volatile organic solutes were enriched in the gas-condensate retort water, whereas nonvolatile acids and polyfunctional neutral compounds were predominant organic constituents of the process retort water.

  9. 4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. VIEW SOUTH FROM RETORT. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  10. Comparison of naturally occurring shale bitumen asphaltene and retorted shale oil asphaltene

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, F.F.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    Asphaltene is ubiquitously present in both the natural occurring bitumen and the retorted shale oil. Very few cases for the comparison of asphaltene properties are available in the literature. In this research, a comparison of the shale bitumen asphaltene and the retorted shale oil asphaltene was undertaken to investigate structural changes during thermal cracking. This was accomplished by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared spectra, proton nmr spectra, and carbon-13 spectra of the bitumen asphaltenes and asphaltenes derived from shale oil retorted at 425 and 500/sup 0/C. Elemental analysis indicated that asphaltenes derived from retorted shale oils have smaller H/C ratio and smaller oxygen and sulfur contents, but greater nitrogen content than that derived from shale bitumen. Infrared spectra revealed that the retorted shale oil asphaltenes have greater pyrrolic N-H and hydrogen bonded O-H or N-H absorption than the shale bitumen asphaltene. Retorted shale oil asphaltenes have relatively higher aromaticity, lower degree of substitution of the aromatic sheet, and shorter alkyl substituents, which indicated that the main reactions in the retorting process are carbon-carbon bond fission and intramolecular aromatization.

  11. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Hélène; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Zee, Els; Kangeri, Arno; van Belzen, Jim; Holthuijsen, Sander; van den Berg, Aniek; Herman, Peter; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on experimental restoration of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea and the processes that might limit successful restoration of this foundation species (i.e. substrate, predation, hydrodynamics). The importance of substrate, predation, hydrodynamic conditions and location on mussel restoration success was studied using artificially created mussel beds. Experimental beds established on a stable substrate (coir net) were compared with control beds established on sand, at three locations in the Wadden Sea. Their persistence was followed over time. The results revealed a near disappearance of all experimental beds in just over 7 months. Providing a stable substrate did not improve mussel survival. Predation could not explain the disappearance of the beds, as the maximal predation rate by birds was found to be insufficient to have a significant effect on mussel cover. Differences in wave conditions alone could also not explain the variation in decline of mussel cover between the locations. However, the gradual disappearance of mussels from the seaward side of the bed strongly suggested that hydrodynamic conditions (i.e. combined effects of waves and current) played an important role in the poor persistence of the artificial beds. Our results highlight the fact that restoration of mussel beds in dynamic areas cannot simply be implemented by mussel transplantation, particularly if additional measures to prevent wave losses are not taken, even when artificial substrate is provided to facilitate mussel adhesion.

  12. Stream processes with heterogeneous bed sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, Karen L.

    The AGU Erosion and Sedimentation Committee sponsored a daylong session on sediment transport in channels with mixtures of sediment sizes on December 13, 1985, at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. The morning session contained an interesting set of related theoretical and empirical research on particle motion. Ned Andrews (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Denver, Colo.) began the session by presenting empirical evidence for critical shear stresses required to move bed particles in simple natural channels. He presented work that he has been working on for the past several years (along with Gary Parker of St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory, Minneapolis, Minn., and other colleagues) that suggests that coarse and fine bed particles have essentially equal mobility because of the hiding of fine particles by larger particles. Pat Wiberg and Jim Smith (both of University of Washington, Seattle) presented a theoretical analysis of the movement of different-sized particles that supported the work presented by Andrews.

  13. Postburn lithology and mineralogy at Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Tract C-a retort 1, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. [Core samples from near the in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.; Mason, G.M.; Fahy, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide basic data on some of the characteristics of a modified in situ (MIS) oil shale retort after processing. Samples of retort contents and overburden were obtained from three core holes drilled into Rio Blanco's Tract C-a retort 1 in the western part of the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. The retort operation had been completed nearly four years before the coring, and the cavity and mine workings had been flooded by groundwater for almost one year. Cores were characterized by lithologic description, x-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Drilling and logging records indicate as much as 35 to 40 feet of roof rock has collapsed into the retort since the burn was terminated. A water-filled attic cavity 46 to 62 feet high exists at the top of the retort. One core hole penetrated 377 feet of rubble in the retort and floor rock with numerous fractures below the retort. Most of the material recovered from the retort consisted of highly altered, fused and vesicular rock. Lesser amounts of carbonized, oxidized and moderately heated-altered oil shale were recovered from the upper and lower parts. Raw shale roof fall at the top and unretorted oil shale rubble at the bottom are also present. Thermal alteration has produced high-temperature silicate minerals from the original mixtures of carbonate and silicate minerals in the raw oil shale. Adequate material was recovered from the retort contents to provide valuable data on the lithologic, mineralogic, and physical characteristics of the MIS retort. 19 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Suggested methods for determining residual tritium in process beds

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelder, J.S.

    1992-10-29

    This memorandum has been written as a response to an H-Area EH Issue No. 3 milestone (SRTC FY93 Controlled Milestone 15C70) which requires WSRC to {open_quotes}develop methodology for determining residual tritium in process equipment.{close_quotes} An estimate of the tritium residing in process equipment sent for disposal must be reported on a Waste Stream Characterization Form. Currently, these estimates are crude and their technical bases are not well documented. The process equipment addressed in this report may be divided into two categories, routine and non-routine, based on their generation frequency. Magnesium Beds, Uranium Beds, and Gold Traps are regularly sent for disposal depending on the process load; Zeolite Beds and Catalyst Beds are rarely removed from the Tritium Facilities, as they may be regenerated. In general, there are two main sources of residual tritium that which resides in hydroxyl groups on internal surfaces and deposits, and that which has permeated the stainless steel walls and components. The tritiated hydroxyl groups may be exchangeable with gas phase deuterium, and minimized by oxidation at elevated temperatures. The tritium which has diffused into stainless steel is difficult to remove and amounts to a minor portion of the total tritium heel; this value may be calculated by a proven computer program and is on the order of 1--5 Ci per bed. Zeolite Beds are a unique case, as the packing material contains a substantial portion of crystalline hydrate (2% by weight), even after bake out at 500{degrees}C The solid state hydrate will assimilate tritium from adsorbed waters, and calculations show a typical Z-bed may contain 50,000 Ci of residual tritium. It is proposed that a calorimeter be designed and constructed to measure the tritium in Z-beds directly, and that steps be taken to reduce the residual tritium by extraction with deuterated water.

  15. The Study of Heat Penetration of Kimchi Soup on Stationary and Rotary Retorts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R2=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%. PMID:25866751

  16. Compaction processes in granular beds composed of different particle sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, C. A.; Greenaway, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    A piston impacting a granular bed will cause the material to compact; the strength of a granular bed is significant during weak impact relating to piston speeds of 100m/s. The strength associated with the granular structure is described as the intergranular stress; this is the resistance of a granular bed to compaction which can be measured by carefully constructing experiments. The compaction process may then be modeled by solving a hyperbolic system of equations that utilizes these data to close the system. The compaction behavior of a porous material is particle-size dependent; to accurately describe the response of two granular beds that may be of different particle sizes and distributions, it is essential that the intergranular stress is derived for each particle bed. This work uses recent compaction experiments to derive intergranular stress curves for prepressed conventional HMX material that is of nonuniform distribution with a mean diameter of 40μm and a microfine HMX of more uniform distribution of mean diameter <5μm. Steady-state compaction waves in the solid material are analyzed: initially the solid is assumed to behave as an incompressible medium. The speed and extent of compaction can be simply determined through the solution of a quadratic equation. Following this, the assumption is relaxed allowing changes in solid-phase density; a complicated equation of state makes the use of numerical methods mandatory. The speed of steady-state waves in HMX due to low impact compaction can be determined within 2% accuracy using the simple closed solution based on solid incompressibility, which is a function of the initial material porosity and density, piston speed, and the intergranular stress of the granular bed. This analysis reveals the difference between the weak impact response of a coarse nonuniform bed and a fine almost uniform granular bed that are initially loaded to 75% of the theoretical maximum density. The fine particle beds have increased

  17. Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part I. Eight plant species and their response to Omega 9 oil-shale retort water. [Wildrye; wheatgrass; alkali sacaton; sandreed; pointvetch

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Q.D.

    1981-11-01

    Growth response to water collected from an in situ oil shale retort experiment was studied. The purposes were to: (1) evaluate effect of retort water on plants; (2) document effective parameters for detecting differences in plant growth by species. A self feeding hydroponic system was utilized to subject different dilutions of oil shale retort water to plants grown in horticulture grade perlite under greenhouse conditions for 10 weeks. Parameters measured included: (1) leaf area, (2) total dry weight, (3) shoot weight, (4) root weight, (5) root/shoot ratio, and (6) shoot/leaf area ratio. Seven grass and one forb species were utilized as test plants. Results showed growth to be impaired, species to respond differently to retort water, and parameters measured to vary as to their ability to detect change in growth response.

  18. TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS BY THE FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2-year, large-scale pilot investigation was conducted at the City of Newburgh Water Pollution Control Plant, Newburgh, NY, to demonstrate the application of the fluidized bed bioreactor process to the treatment of municipal wastewaters. The experimental effort investigated the ...

  19. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: MODIFIED 'IN SITU' OIL SHALE RETORTING COMBINED WITH LURGI SURFACE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using L...

  20. Trace element mineral transformations associated with hydration and recarbonation of retorted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solidphase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated with deionized—distilled water under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO3-extractable (easily exchangeable), H2O-extractable (easily adsorbed), NaOh-extractable (organic), EDTA-extractable (carbonate), HNO3-extractable (sulfide), and residual (nonextractable silicate) phases. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale were compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. Trace elements examined in this study were found to reside predominantly in the HNO3-extractable and residual fractions. Hydration of retorted oil shale resulted in a shift in the majority of trace elements from residual to extractable forms. Cobalt, nickel, and zinc extractabilities were not significantly influenced by hydration, whereas antimony increased in the residual fraction. Subjecting retorted oil shale to atmospheric (0.033%) and 10% CO2(g) levels over a nine-month equilibration period resulted in partial and full recarbonation, respectively. As the influence of recarbonation increased, trace elements reverted to residual forms. Vanadium, choromium, copper, zinc, antimony, and molybdenum in the 10% CO2(g) recarbonated material were more resistant to sequential extraction than in retorted oil shale, whereas strontium, barium, and manganese were less resistant to sequential extraction. The extractabilities of cobalt, nickel, and lead were not affected by recarbonation. Recarbonation did not result in a predicted increase in EDTA-extractable trace elements. In general, the amounts of trace elements extracted by EDTA (and

  1. Factorial tests on process operating conditions and bed fines on the circulating fluid bed performance

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J.; Spenik, James; Sarra, Angela; Ontko, J.S.

    2004-07-21

    A cold-flow circulating fluid bed (CFB) was operated using coke breeze with a packed-bed standpipe over a range of riser and standpipe air flows. The bed materials were selected to simulate solids flow in a CFB gasifier (carbonizer) but are generally relevant to most CFB processes. CFB tests were conducted primarily in the transport mode with sufficient gas velocity to achieve a uniform axial riser pressure profiles over most of the riser height. The independent variables tested included the riser gas velocity, aeration at the base of the standpipe, and concentration of fines (average particle size). The solids inventory and riser outlet pressure were maintained constant. Factorial tests were conducted in randomized order and in duplicate to provide and an unbiased estimate of the error. Fines were tested as a blocked variable. The gas velocity, standpipe aeration, and relative amount of fine particles were all found to be significant factors affecting both the riser solids holdup and solids flux. The riser pressure drop and mass circulation increased at the higher level of fines contrary to some earlier reports in the literature. The riser pressure drop was fitted using the general linear model (GLM), which explained more than 98% of the variation within the data, while a GLM for the mass circulation rate explained over 90%. The uncertainty of process operating variables was characterized independently through a series of duplicated flow proving experiments.

  2. Plasma spouted/fluidized bed for materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiyamoorthy, D.

    2010-02-01

    Plasma when coupled with spout/fluidized bed reactor for gas-solid reaction brings in several advantages such as high rate of heat and mass transfer, generation of high bulk temperature using a thin jet of plasma itself as a heat source. The science and technology of plasma and fluidization or spouted bed are well established except of these two put together for high temperature application. Plasma heating of fluid/ spouted bed can bring down the size of the equipment and increase the productivity. However the theory and practice of the hybrid technology has not been tested in a variety of applications that involves high temperature synthesis of materials, TRISO particle coating for nuclear fuel particle, thermal decomposition of refractory type ore, halogenations of minerals, particulate processes and synthesis of advanced materials. This paper gives an account of the use and exploitation of plasma coupled with spouted/ fluidized bed especially for material processing and also addresses the issues for adapting the same in the era of developing advanced high temperature materials.

  3. Selective dissolution and characterization of trace elements in hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.; Sorini, S.S.

    1986-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solid phase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated in the laboratory under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO/sub 3/-extractable, H/sub 2/O-extractable, NaOH-extractable, EDTA-extractable, HNO/sub 3/-extractable, and residual (nonextractable) phases. This procedure is purported to identify trace elements that reside in the soluble, easily exchangeable, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, sulfide, and silicate phases, respectively. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale are compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. The trace elements examined in this study included barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, strontium, vanadium, and zinc. The extractabilities of the major elements - aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, and silicon - were also examined to provide evidence of solid phase elemental associations with trace elements. A significant result of this study is that the mineralogical residencies of trace elements in retorted oil shale were altered in response to hydration and recarbonation. Thus, the behavior of trace elements in retorted oil shale disposal environments may not be adequately predicted through the application of extraction procedures that assess potential trace element leachability. The results of this study also justify the further characterization of trace element selective extractabilities using procedures that partition trace elements residing in the HNO/sub 3/-extractable and residual fractions. 21 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. 3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR EXTRACTING MERCURY VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  5. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  6. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

  7. Parallel-Processing Test Bed For Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard; Cole, Gary; Townsend, Scott

    1996-01-01

    Second-generation Hypercluster computing system is multiprocessor test bed for research on parallel algorithms for simulation in fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, chemistry, and other fields with large computational requirements but relatively low input/output requirements. Built from standard, off-shelf hardware readily upgraded as improved technology becomes available. System used for experiments with such parallel-processing concepts as message-passing algorithms, debugging software tools, and computational steering. First-generation Hypercluster system described in "Hypercluster Parallel Processor" (LEW-15283).

  8. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Mansour, Momtaz N.

    1992-01-01

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g. organic and medical waste, drying, calcining and the like.

  9. A plan for hydrologic investigations of in situ, oil-shale retorting near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Larson, L.R.; Wallace, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The recovery of shale oil by the in-situ retort process may cause hydrologic impacts, the most significant being ground-water contamination and possible transport of contaminants into surrounding areas. Although these impacts are site-specific, many of the techniques used to investigate each retort operation commonly will be the same. The U.S. Geological Survey has begun a study of hydrologic impacts in the area of an in-situ retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, as a means of refining and demonstrating these techniques. Geological investigations include determining the areal extent and thickness of aquifers. Emphasis will be placed on determining lithologic variations from geophysical logging. Hydrologic investigations include mapping of potentiometric surfaces, determining rates of ground-water discharge, and estimating aquifer properties by analytical techniques. Water-quality investigations include monitoring solute migration from the retort site and evaluating sampling techniques by standard statistical procedures. A ground-water-flow and solute-transport model will be developed to predict future movement of the water plume away from the retort. (USGS)

  10. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1979-12-07

    A process is described for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  11. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  12. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume III. Emission source identification and source-specific pollution control applications. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The present volume is the third major deliverable of the title study. The document accomplished two objectives: (1) It identifies all major emission sources within an integrated flowsheet of oil shale operations encompassing mining, preparation, retorting, and upgrading; and (2) It delineates the logic process for selecting and instigating source-specific pollution controls, selected among all currently commercially available options. Specific pollutants dealt with in the present Volume III are sulfur species, (H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ primarily), particulates, fugitive dust, and arsenic species. The present Volume III is divided into two separate Parts. Part 1 covers: (1) Sulfur species (H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/); (2) Particulates and fugitive dust; and (3) Arsenic. Retort off-gas control processes considered include: MDEA; Benfield Process; Physical absorption systems; Sulfinol Process; and The Holmes-Stretford Process. Processes considered for the control of SO/sub 2/ in flue gas are: Wellman-Lord Process; Limestone Slurry Process; Lime Slurry Process; Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121; Lime Slurry Spray Dryer/Fabric Filter Process; Resox Process; Magnesia Slurry Process; Double Alkali Process; Citrate/Phosphate Absorption Process; Ammonia-Ammonium Bisulfite Process; IFP Process; Activated Carbon Process; Catalytic Oxidation processes; Shell/UOP Copper Oxide Process; and Davy S-H Process. For removal of dusts and particulates, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, afterburners, scrubbers, mist eliminators, fabric filters and sonic agglomeration are evaluated. Wastewater, off-gas, and product oil controls for arsenic removal are also presented. (DMC)

  13. Attrition and abrasion models for oil shale process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Aldis, D.F.

    1991-10-25

    As oil shale is processed, fine particles, much smaller than the original shale are created. This process is called attrition or more accurately abrasion. In this paper, models of abrasion are presented for oil shale being processed in several unit operations. Two of these unit operations, a fluidized bed and a lift pipe are used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycle-Solid (HRS) process being developed for the above ground processing of oil shale. In two reports, studies were conducted on the attrition of oil shale in unit operations which are used in the HRS process. Carley reported results for attrition in a lift pipe for oil shale which had been pre-processed either by retorting or by retorting then burning. The second paper, by Taylor and Beavers, reported results for a fluidized bed processing of oil shale. Taylor and Beavers studied raw, retorted, and shale which had been retorted and then burned. In this paper, empirical models are derived, from the experimental studies conducted on oil shale for the process occurring in the HRS process. The derived models are presented along with comparisons with experimental results.

  14. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O'Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  15. Task 38 - commercial mercury remediation demonstrations: Thermal retorting and physical separation/chemical leaching. Topical report, December 1, 1994--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, D.S.; Fraley, R.H.; Stepan, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    Results are presented on the demonstration of two commercial technologies for the removal of mercury from soils found at natural gas metering sites. Technologies include a thermal retorting process and a combination of separation, leaching, and electrokinetic separation process.

  16. Hydrocarbon conversion-regeneration process using dilute and dense beds

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholic, D.B.; Barger, D.F.

    1989-07-25

    This patent describes an improvement in a hydrocarbon conversion process wherein a hydrocarbon feed is converted to lower boiling products in a reactor by contacting the same at elevated temperatures with fluid solid material to form the lower boiling products wherein spent solid material containing coke from the reactor is separated from reaction products and stripped of volatile hydrocarbons in a stripping zone, stripped material is regenerated with an oxygen-containing gas in a regeneration zone and hot freshly regenerated fluid solid material returned to the reactor. The improvement comprises carrying out both conversion and regeneration at gas velocities greater than 3 1/2 ft. per second sufficient to achieve a dilute phase entrained solids zone, passing the solid material and gases from both the reactor and regeneration zone through cyclone preseparators for rapid disengagement and removal of greater than 80% solids from gases and returning the solid material without vapors to a dense bed contained in a vessel other than the regenerator or reactor. The pressure at the inlet to the preseparators being substantially the same as the pressure in the vessel containing the dense bed of solid material.

  17. Application of ultrasonic backscattering for level measurement and process monitoring of expanded-bed adsorption columns.

    PubMed

    Thelen, T V; Mairal, A P; Thorsen, C S; Ramirez, W F

    1997-01-01

    Expanded-bed adsorption is a newly commercialized technique for the purification of proteins from cellular debris in downstream processing. An expanded bed presents the possibility of protein recovery in a single step, eliminating the often costly clarification processing steps such as ultrafiltration, centrifugation, and precipitation. A major obstacle to the successful commercialization of this technology is the inability to accurately monitor and control the bed height in these systems. Fluctuations in the feedstock viscosity are common during normal operation and tend to make the operation and control of expanded beds for biological applications complex and difficult. We develop a level measurement technique based upon ultrasonics. It is shown that this technique has great promise for bed-height measurement in expanded-bed adsorption systems. Furthermore, the bed-height measurement can be used in feedback control strategies for bed-height regulation. The proposed ultrasonic sensor is also capable of monitoring for plugging and bubbling in the column. PMID:9336988

  18. Innovations in wastewater treatment: the moving bed biofilm process.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, Hallvard

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and presents applications of wastewater treatment processes in which this reactor is used. The MBBR processes have been extensively used for BOD/COD-removal, as well as for nitrification and denitrification in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. This paper focuses on the municipal applications. The most frequent process combinations are presented and discussed. Basic design data obtained through research, as well as data from practical operation of various plants, are presented. It is demonstrated that the MBBR may be used in an extremely compact high-rate process (<1 h total HRT) for secondary treatment. Most European plants require P-removal and performance data from plants combining MBBR and chemical precipitation is presented. Likewise, data from plants in Italy and Switzerland that are implementing nitrification in addition to secondary treatment are presented. The results from three Norwegian plants that are using the so-called combined denitrification MBBR process are discussed. Nitrification rates as high as 1.2 g NH4-N/m2 d at complete nitrification were demonstrated in practical operation at low temperatures (11 degrees C), while denitrification rates were as high as 3.5g NO3-Nequiv./m2.d. Depending on the extent of pretreatment, the total HRT of the MBBR for N-removal will be in the range of 3 to 5 h. PMID:16841724

  19. Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

  20. Mercury retorting of calcine waste, contaminated soils and railroad ballast at the Idaho National Egineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Rothermel, J.S.; Sherwood, J.; Heath, S.A.; Lo, T.Y.R.

    1996-02-28

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been involved in nuclear reactor research and development for over 40 years. One of the earliest major projects involved the development of a nuclear powered aircraft engine, a long-term venture which used mercury as a shielding medium. Over the course of several years, a significant amount of mercury was spilled along the railroad tracks where the test engines were transported and stored. In addition, experiments with volume reduction of waste through a calcine process employing mercury as a catalyst resulted in mercury contaminated calcine waste. Both the calcine and Test Area North wastes have been identified in Department of Energy Action Memorandums to be retorted, thereby separating the mercury from the various contaminated media. Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company awarded the Mercury Retort contract to ETAS Corporation and assigned Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. to manage the treatment field activities. The mercury retort process entails a mobile unit which consists of four trailer-mounted subsystems requiring electricity, propane, and a water supply. This mobile system demonstrates an effective strategy for retorting waste and generating minimal secondary waste.

  1. Occupational-health study at the Geokinetics true in-situ oil-shale retorting facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Rom, W.N.; Grier, R.S.; Tillery, M.I.; Voelz, G.L.; Ettinger, H.J.; Wheat, L.D.

    1983-07-01

    An occupational health study was conducted during the burn of the first commercial-size retort employing the Geokinetics, Inc., horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. The study consisted of field industrial hygiene surveys and sampling, and medical evaluation of workers and spouses living at the facility. Industrial hygiene surveys and sampling were conducted during early, middle, and late phases of the 9-month burn of the retort. An attempt was made to sample areas of expected maximum concentrations in order to characterize air contaminants near process units or areas, rather than to sample actual employee exposures. Samples were collected for analysis of dust and a number of selected gases and vapors in air, and limited monitoring was conducted for noise. Limited dust monitoring was also conducted during the drilling of blastholes for another retort. Medical evaluations consisted of medical history, physical examination, pulmonary ventilation function tests, chest x ray, and blood and urine tests (including chromosome evaluations and Ames testing of urine). 30 references.

  2. Moving bed biofilm reactor technology: process applications, design, and performance.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, James P; Boltz, Joshua P

    2011-06-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) can operate as a 2- (anoxic) or 3-(aerobic) phase system with buoyant free-moving plastic biofilm carriers. These systems can be used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, aquaculture, potable water denitrification, and, in roughing, secondary, tertiary, and sidestream applications. The system includes a submerged biofilm reactor and liquid-solids separation unit. The MBBR process benefits include the following: (1) capacity to meet treatment objectives similar to activated sludge systems with respect to carbon-oxidation and nitrogen removal, but requires a smaller tank volume than a clarifier-coupled activated sludge system; (2) biomass retention is clarifier-independent and solids loading to the liquid-solids separation unit is reduced significantly when compared with activated sludge systems; (3) the MBBR is a continuous-flow process that does not require a special operational cycle for biofilm thickness, L(F), control (e.g., biologically active filter backwashing); and (4) liquid-solids separation can be achieved with a variety of processes, including conventional and compact high-rate processes. Information related to system design is fragmented and poorly documented. This paper seeks to address this issue by summarizing state-of-the art MBBR design procedures and providing the reader with an overview of some commercially available systems and their components. PMID:21751715

  3. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  4. Use of soft hydrothermal processing to improve and recycle bedding for laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Li, Z; Kibushi, T; Yamasaki, N; Kasai, N

    2008-10-01

    Cage bedding for laboratory rodents can influence animal wellbeing and thus the experimental data. In addition, a large amount of used bedding containing excrement is discharged as medical waste from life science institutes and breeding companies. We developed a ground-breaking system to improve fresh bedding and recycle used bedding by applying a soft hydrothermal process with high-temperature and high-pressure dry steam. The system removes both harmful organic components and aromatic hydrocarbons that can affect animals' metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the improved fresh bedding and the recycled used bedding treated by the system. The results showed that 68-99% of the predominant aromatic hydrocarbons were removed from fresh bedding treated at 0.35 MPa and 140 degrees C for 120 min ('improved bedding'). In addition, 59.4-99.0% of predominant harmful organic compounds derived from excrement were removed from used bedding treated at 0.45 MPa and 150 degrees C for 60 min ('recycled bedding'). The soft hydrothermal treatment increased the number of acidic functional groups on the bedding surface and gave it the high adsorptive efficiency of ammonia gas. Harmful substances such as microorganisms, heavy metals and pesticides decreased below the detection limit. The results clearly showed that the improved and recycled bedding is safer for laboratory rodents and has the potential to ameliorate conditions in primary and secondary enclosures (e.g. cages and animal rooms) used for maintaining laboratory animals. This process may be one of the most advanced techniques in providing an alternative to softwood and other bedding, economizing through the recycling of used bedding and reducing bedding waste from animal facilities. PMID:18782819

  5. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, July-September 1981. [Field experiments; computer models; retort stability

    SciTech Connect

    1982-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to create a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. This report outlines our first field experiments at the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado. These experiments are part of a research program, sponsored by the Laboratory through the Department of Energy and by a Consortium of oil companies. Also included are some typical numerical calculations made in support of proposed field experiments. Two papers detail our progress in computer modeling and theory. The first presents a method for eliminating hourglassing in two-dimensional finite-difference calculations of rock fracture without altering the physical results. The second discusses the significant effect of buoyancy on tracer gas flow through the retort. A paper on retort stability details a computer application of the Schmidt graphical method for calculating fine-scale temperature gradients in a retort wall. The final paper, which describes our approach to field experiments, presents the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used in rock fragmentation experiments at Anvil Points Mine.

  6. Hydraulic calculations for a modified in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.G.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains brief descriptions of a numerical model and the aquifer-retort system used to investigate hydraulics in the vicinity of a modified in-situ retort. The model is used to analyze several cases involving different physical and geohydrological parameters, and possible applications of the model to in-situ oil shale recovery are discussed.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Physical and Chemical Processes in Fluidized Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, D. A.; Gil, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents a numerical simulation of the furnace with a circulating fluidized bed. Numerical study carried out for the bottom of the combustion chamber with the varying heights of volume filling. The results contours of particulate matter concentration and of velocities, as well as a graphical representation of changes in the concentration of particles on the bed height are shown. Simulation performed in Eulerian - Eulerian representation on a 2D model.

  8. Perform research in process development for hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales: Volume 2, Expansion of the Moving-Bed Hydroretorting Data Base for Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    An extensive data base was developed for six Eastern oil shales: Alabama Chattanooga, Indiana New Albany, Kentucky Sunbury, Michigan Antrim, Ohio Cleveland, and Tennessee Chattanooga shales. The data base included the hydroretorting characteristics of the six shales, as well as the retorting characteristics in the presence of synthesis gas and ionized gas. Shale gasification was also successfully demonstrated. Shale fines (20%) can produce enough hydrogen for the hydroretorting of the remaining 80% of the shale. The amount of fines tolerable in a moving bed was also determined. 16 refs., 59 figs., 43 tabs.

  9. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  10. Fluid-bed fluoride volatility process recovers uranium from spent uranium alloy fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghusen, J. J.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gunderson, G. E.; Holmes, J. T.; Jonke, A. A.; Kincinas, J. E.; Levitz, N. M.; Potts, G. L.; Ramaswami, D.; Stethers, H.; Turner, K. S.

    1967-01-01

    Fluid-bed fluoride volatility process recovers uranium from uranium fuels containing either zirconium or aluminum. The uranium is recovered as uranium hexafluoride. The process requires few operations in simple, compact equipment, and eliminates aqueous radioactive wastes.

  11. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED FOR SOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. PROCESS EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes selected process evaluation studies supporting the development of an atmospheric-pressure, fluidized-bed, chemically active gasification process, using a regenerative limestone sulfur sorbent to produce low- to intermediate-Btu fuel gas. Limestone sorbent sel...

  12. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  13. Leachate migration from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated through models of ground-water flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed ? mile downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-foot sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Ground-water flow in the study area is complexly three dimensional and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute-transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where ground water discharges to the land surface. Leachate with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 milligrams per liter or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--was estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. This report describes many of th3 advantages, as well as the problems, of site-specific studies. Data such as the distribution of thin, permeable beds or fractures might introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily into site-specific models. Solute migration in the study area occurs primarily in thin, permeable beds rather than in oil-shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site-specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site-specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and ground-water velocity will be poorly estimated.

  14. Leachate migration from an in situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    Geohydrologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in situ oil shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated by developing models of groundwater flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed 1/2 mi downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-ft sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Groundwater flow in the study area is complexly 3-D and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where groundwater discharges to the land surface. Leachates with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 mg/L or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--were estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. Advantages as well as the problems of site specific studies are described. Data such as the distribution of thin permeable beds or fractures may introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily in site specific models. Solute migration in the study area primarily occurs in thin permeable beds rather than in oil shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater velocity will be estimated poorly. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Characterization of in situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Thomas F.; Moore, Dennis F.

    1984-01-01

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

  16. Fluid outlet at the bottom of an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Hutchins, Ned M.

    1984-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within the boundaries of a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming at least one retort level void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. A production level drift is excavated below the retort level void, leaving a lower zone of unfragmented formation between the retort level void and the production level drift. A plurality of raises are formed between the production level drift and the retort level void for providing product withdrawal passages distributed generally uniformly across the horizontal cross section of the retort level void. The product withdrawal passages are backfilled with a permeable mass of particles. Explosive placed within the remaining zone of unfragmented formation above the retort level void is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward at least the retort level void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the boundaries of the retort site. During retorting operations products of retorting are conducted from the fragmented mass in the retort through the product withdrawal passages to the production level void. The products are withdrawn from the production level void.

  17. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF CARBONACEOUS FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers the final 3 years of a 9-year program to evaluate the Chemically Active Fluid Bed (CAFB) process for gasification and desulfurization of liquid and solid fuels in a fluidized bed of hot lime. A range of alternative fuels, including three coals and a lignite, wer...

  18. Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this program is to determine how retorting process parameters affect the partitioning of Hg, As, Se, and Cd from raw oil shale to spent shale, shale oil, retort water, and offgas. For each of the elements, the objective of this study is to (1) determine the distribution coefficients for each product stream; (2) identify the chemical forms in water, gas, and oil streams, with particular emphasis on inorganic or organometallic species known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic, toxic, or otherwise harmful; (3) investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for mobilization into each product stream for toxic or labile chemical forms identified in item 2 are mobilized into each product stream; and (4) the effect of retorting rate, maximum retorting temperature, and retorting atmosphere on items 1 and 3. A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were heated at 1 to 2/sup 0/C/min and at 10/sup 0/C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750/sup 0/C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate that the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 11 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL OVERVIEW REPORTS FOR EIGHT SHALE OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the document is to supply background information for evaluation of environmental impacts and pollution control technologies in connection with oil shale development. Six surface retorting processes selected for characterization were: (1) Union Oil Retort B, (2) Par...

  20. Adsorbent and adsorbent bed for materials capture and separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei

    2011-01-25

    A method device and material for performing adsorption wherein a fluid mixture is passed through a channel in a structured adsorbent bed having a solid adsorbent comprised of adsorbent particles having a general diameter less than 100 um, loaded in a porous support matrix defining at least one straight flow channel. The adsorbent bed is configured to allow passage of a fluid through said channel and diffusion of a target material into said adsorbent under a pressure gradient driving force. The targeted molecular species in the fluid mixture diffuses across the porous support retaining layer, contacts the adsorbent, and adsorbs on the adsorbent, while the remaining species in the fluid mixture flows out of the channel.

  1. A fluidized bed process for electron sterilization of powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nablo, Sam V.; Wood, James C.; Desrosiers, Marc F.; Nagy, Vitaly Yu.

    1998-06-01

    A small capacity (100 g.s -1) pilot system is described for presentation of powders and fine aggregates at high velocity, to an electron beam. Electron beam dose rate is continuously monitored in real time, while the thickness of the fluidized bed used to pneumatically transport the product can be monitored and controlled using beta-gauge techniques. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques, alanine power mixed with the product is used for precise determination of dose delivered to the powder stream. Thin film dosimeters transported in the bed are also used for dose determination. Results with a variety of products are presented using both dose rate and velocity as the independent variables. Lethality data for the bioburdens present in several powdered foodstuffs are discussed.

  2. Modeling study of carbonate decomposition in LLNL`s 4TU pilot oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1994-10-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) 4 tonne-per-day oil shale Pilot Retort (4TU-Pilot) has been modeled to study the degree of carbonate decomposition occurring in the process. The modeling uses a simplified version of the processes occurring in the retort to allow parametric studies to be performed. The primary focus of the work is on the sensitivity of computed carbonate decomposition to the assumed manner in which solid material leaves the retort. It was found that for a variety of assumptions about solid passage and evolution within the process the computed carbonate decomposition varied by only a few percent. It was also determined that using available kinetic expressions based on literature data led to a consistent underestimate of the carbonate decomposition, from 12--17% low on an absolute basis and on a relative basis as much as a factor of seven times too low. A simplified kinetic expression based on limited data from laboratory experiments on the same shale as used in the 4TU-Pilot run was also employed and found to match the pilot results fairly well.

  3. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOEpatents

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  4. Effect of ash content on the combustion process of simulated MSW in the fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M

    2016-02-01

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigates the effects of ash content on the combustion process of simulated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). A fixed-bed experimental reactor was utilized to reveal the combustion characteristics. Temperature distributions, ignition front velocity, and the characteristics of gas species' release were measured and simulated during the combustion process. In the present work, the two-dimensional unsteady mathematical heterogeneous model was developed to simulate the combustion process in the bed, including the process rate model as well as NOx production model. The simulation results in the bed are accordant with the experimental results. The results show that as ash content increases, the lower burning rate of fuel results in char particles leaving the grate without being fully burned, causing a loss of combustible material in the MSW in a fixed bed and therefore reducing the combustion efficiency and increasing the burning time of the MSW. PMID:26476592

  5. 2. AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. THE RETORT HOUSE IS LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. THE RETORT HOUSE IS LOCATED DIRECTLY BEHIND THE GABLED PORTION OF OF THE 1859 FACADE ADDITION. THE COAL STORAGE FACILITY/BOILER HOUSE IS TO THE RIGHT OF THE RETORT HOUSE. THE OFFICES ARE IN THE THE THREE STORY BUILDING ON THE CORNER, TO THE RIGHT OF THE 1859 FACADE. - Buffalo Gas Light Company, 249 West Genesee Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. Microbial colonization of retorted shale in field and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; McNair, V.M.; Li, S.W.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial colony forming units (cfu), as measured by a selective plating medium in surface horizons of retorted shale and adjacent soils, were similar (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ and 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ bacterial cfu/g dry weight) two months after disposal. However, unlike the soil that exhibited a diverse community, the retorted shale was dominated by a single Micrococcus species that composed 30% of the total bacterial community. After one and two years, the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the retorted shale and soil were again similar; however, no bacterium dominated either community. A core sample from the field lysimeter indicated microbial colonization to a depth of 150 cm after one year. An increased ratio of anaerobic to aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the deepest sample (120 to 150 cm) implied the development of anaerobic conditions. In the laboratory, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were shown capable of using, as the sole source of carbon, retorted shale in liquid cultures. Of the added nutritional amendments, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/, only phosphate markedly altered the colonization of retorted shale in liquid culture; shortening the lag phase of colonization from less than three to seven weeks to less than one week and leading to a greater aerobic heterotrophic population over the incubation interval. The addition of phosphate also led to a aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community composed entirely of Micrococcus species.

  7. Modeling electrowinning process in an expanded bed electrode.

    PubMed

    Thilakavathi, R; Balasubramanian, N; Ahmed Basha, C

    2009-02-15

    A theoretical model has been developed to describe the flow behavior of conducting particles in a fluidized bed electrode for electro winning of metal ions present in the dilute solution. Model equations have been developed for potential and current distributions and mass transfer rates. The influence of operating parameters on particle growth has been critically examined. It has been observed from the present investigation that the particle size increased with electrolysis time. The present model simulations have been compared with the experimental data reported in the literature and observed that the model predictions satisfactorily match with the reported experimental findings. PMID:18562092

  8. Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

  9. True in situ oil shale retorting experiment at Rock Springs site 12

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A. Jr.; Merriam, N.W.; Virgona, J.E.; Parrish, R.L.

    1980-05-01

    A true in situ oil shale fracturing and retorting experiment was conducted near Rock Springs, Wyoming in 1977, 1978, and 1979. A 20-foot (6.1 m) thick zone of oil shale located 200 feet (61 m) below surface was hydraulically and explosively fractured. The fractured oil shale was extensively evaluated using flow tests, TV logging, caliper logging, downhole flow logging, core samples, and tracer tests. Attempts to conduct true in situ retorting tests in portions of the pattern with less than 5 percent void space as measured by caliper logs and less than 1 percent active void space measured by tracer test were curtailed when air could not be injected at desired rates. It is thought the fractures plugged as a result of thermal swelling of the oil shale. Air was injected at programmed rates in an area with 10 percent void measured by caliper log and 1.4 pecent active void measured by tracer test. A burn front was propagated in a narrow path moving away from the location of the production well. The vertical sweep of the burn front was measured at less than 4 feet (1.3 m). The burn front could not be sustained beyond 10 days without use of supplemental fuel. The authors recommend a minimum of 5 percent well-distributed void for attempts to retort 20 gpt (81 L/m ton) oil shale in confined beds. A void space of 5 percent may be roughly equivalent to 5 to 10 percent measured by caliper log and 1.4 percent or more by tracer test.

  10. Fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Podolski, W.F.; Henry, R.F.; Hanway, J.E.; Griggs, K.E.; Carls, E.L.; Jonke, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is undertaking several tasks primarily in support of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) project management team at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The Experimental Program Director of the International Energy Agency pressurized fluidized-bed combustion project was selected. Work is under way to provide fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support to METC, including development of a planning methodology for PFBC technology development, determination of the state of the art of instrumentation for FBC applications, and evaluation of the performance capability of cyclones for hot-gas cleaning in PFBC systems.

  11. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Hines, Alex E.

    1984-01-01

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  12. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  13. [Structure and fluidization of an internally circulating fluidized bed for FGD process].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liuchun; Yang, Wenqi; Tong, Zhiquan

    2003-09-01

    A new internally circulating fluidized bed for FGD process was developed, and different types of top and bottom structures were employed in the experiment to find out the best fluidized bed structure. Fluidizing status, the axial distribution of solid hold-up and the fluid mechanics under cold conditions were investigated. The results indicate that the unit can realize internally circulating of a large number of solid particles which presents an core-annulus structure when the velocity of fluidizing gas was at the range of 2.5 to 5 m/s, and that the solid density in the bed is higher than that in traditional equal diameter fluidized bed, which provide the equipment with potential for application in FGD process. PMID:14719258

  14. Fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Podolski, W.F.; Swift, W.M.; Henry, R.F.; Hanway, J.E.; Griggs, K.E.; Herzenberg, C.; Helt, J.E.; Carls, E.L.

    1980-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is undertaking several tasks primarily in support of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion project management team at Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Work is under way to provide fluidized-bed combustion process evaluation and program support to METC, determination of the state of the art of instrumentation for FBC applications, evaluation of the performance capability of cyclones for hot-gas cleaning in PFBC systems, and an initial assessment of methods for the measurement of sodium sulfate dew point.

  15. Storm Bed Imprinting on the Northern California Shelf: Interaction of Fluvial and Marine Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, D. J.; Fan, S.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Reed, C.; Borgeld, J. C.; Crockett, J. S.

    2001-05-01

    Seismic records and cores from ONR's STRATAFORM program indicate that the Holocene deposits on the northern California shelf consist of a succession of back-stepping, storm-generated event beds, deposited as sediment undergoes cross-shelf dispersal from intermittently flooding river mouths. The beds are modified to varying degrees by secondary processes (gravity transport, bioturbation). Box core observations show that there is "mud line" on the shelf surface at approximately the 45 m isobath. Long cores show that within the 3-dimensional sediment body, nearshore sand beds intertongue with offshore mud beds beneath this line. However, numerical simulations suggest a more complex relationship. Instead of intertonguing, most event beds begin as sand beds in the nearshore sand deposit, pass through an interbedded zone, and enter the offshore mud deposit as mud beds. Event stratification is difficult to discern both seaward and landward of the transitional zone, mainly because the Cutoff Percentage has been exceeded in these areas (percent thickness of an upward-fining bed which must be preserved to observe grain size contrast). There are thus three facies bodies present, an Amalgamated Sand Facies on the inner shelf (sand beds on sand beds), an Interbedded Sand and Mud Facies on the central shelf, and an offshore Laminated or Bioturbated Mud Facies. Several other parameters are useful for defining these facies. The degree of condensation (extent to which each bed has cannibalized its predecessor) can be measured by the Reworking Ratio (ratio of mean annual resuspension depth to deposition per event). This value decreases seaward across the shelf to a minimum in the Interbedded Facies in response to decreasing wave energy flux into the sea floor. It then increases seaward across the outer shelf, as the decrease in available sediment becomes more important. The standard deviation of bed thickness is (in part) a measure of variation in storm intensity, and is a

  16. MERCURY MASS DISTRIBUTION DURING LABORATORY AND SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury mass in oil shale retort offgas was quantified in a series of laboratory retorting experiments and in a simulated modified in-situ (MIS) retorting experiment. Accurate quantitative determinations of offgas Hg mass were made possible by the use of a continuous on-lin...

  17. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  18. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John

    2014-02-18

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  19. Development of the fluidized bed thermal treatment process for treating mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Semones, G.B.; Williams, P.M.; Stiefvater, S.P.; Mitchell, D.L.; Roecker, B.D.

    1993-05-01

    A fluidized bed system is being developed at Rocky Flats for the treatment of mixed waste (a mixture of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste). The current program builds on experience gained in the 1970`s and 1980`s in tests with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and demonstration-scale fluidized bed systems. The system operates at low temperatures ({approx} 525--600{degree}C) which eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with high temperature thermal treatment processes. The process has shown the ability to destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB`s) with 99.9999% (``six-nines``) destruction efficiency in tests monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bed makes use of in situ neutralization of acidic off-gases by incorporating sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in the bed media. This eliminates using wet scrubbers to treat the off-gas; these produce a high volume of secondary waste. Once in operation, it is expected that the fluidized bed process will yield up to a 40:1 reduction in the volume of the waste.

  20. Processing of electronic waste in a counter current teeter-bed separator.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sujit Kumar; Ari, Vidyadhar; Das, Avimanyu

    2012-09-30

    Advanced gravity separation of ground electronic waste (e-waste) in a teeter-bed separator was investigated. It was established that the Floatex Density Seprator (FDS) is a promising device for wet processing of e-waste to recover metal values physically. It was possible to enrich the metal content from 23% in the feed to 37% in the product in a single stage operation using the FDS with over 95% recovery of the metals. A two-stage processing scheme was developed that enriched the metal content further to 48.2%. The influence of the operating variables, namely, teeter water flow rate, bed pressure and feed rate were quantified. Low bed pressures and low teeter water rates produced higher mass yields with poorer product grades. On the contrary, a high bed pressure and high teeter water rate combination led to a lower mass yield but better product quality. A high feed rate introduced en-masse settling leading to higher yield but at a poorer product grade. For an FDS with 230 mm × 230 mm cross section and a height of 530 mm, the process condition with 6.6l pm teeter water rate, 5.27 kPa bed pressure and 82 kg/hr feed rate maximized the yield for a target product grade of 37% metal in a single pass. PMID:22579831

  1. The dual-bed hydrogen production process as being developed by the Florida Solar Energy Center. Process study

    SciTech Connect

    DiPietro, J.P.; Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-06-01

    Clovis Linkous of the Florida Solar Energy Center is developing a dual-bed hydrogen production process. The idea is to break the water splitting process into two separate chemical reactions, each with roughly {1/2} the electrochemical potential of direct water dissociation. This enables the dual-bed process to utilize a much broader range of sunlight photons than conventional photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems. However, it requires twice as many photons per unit of hydrogen produced. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate and quantify the trade-offs presented by the dual bed process and determine if it holds economic potential as a hydrogen production technology. The capital cost of a /solar-based water dissociation system is roughly proportional to the solar collection surface area. Thus, the economics rely on how much hydrogen can be produced per unit of solar insolation.

  2. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil-shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above-ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume III. Emission-source identification and source-specific pollution-control applications. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-18

    This volume is the third major deliverable of the title study. The document accomplishes two objectives: (1) It identifies all major emission sources within an integrated flow-sheet of oil shale operations encompassing mining, preparation, retorting, and upgrading; and (2) It delineates the logic process for selecting and instigating source-specific pollution controls, selected among all currently commercially available options. Volume III is divided into two separate parts. Part II covers mercury; trace metals; carbon monoxide; NO/sub x/; and hydrocarbons. Mercury waste water control technologies discussed include ion exchange, starch complexing, ferrite coprecipitation, evaporation ponds, sulfide precipitation, activated carbon, and specific control processes. Trace metal control processes in waste water discussed include reverse osmosis, starch complexing, sodium borohydride, hydroxide precipitation, ferrite coprecipitation, ion exchange, activated carbon, sulfide precipitation, evaporation ponds, and combined physical-chemical metal removal. Offgas system removal of beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium are also covered. Carbon monoxide control technologies in utility and industrial boilers and in petroleum refineries are covered. Flue gas denitrification processes discussed included noncatalytic and catalytic reduction, adsorption, oxidation, alkalized alumina, electron beam radiation, activated carbon process for NO/sub x/ removal. Hydrocarbon control technologies in waste water and gases are described. (DMC)

  3. In-situ laser retorting of oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Oil shale formations are retorted in situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products are recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation underneath the surface of the ground. A high energy laser beam is directed into the well and fractures the region of the shale formation. A compressed gas is forced into the well that supports combustion in the flame front ignited by the laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale. Gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured region are recovered from one of the wells that were not exposed to the laser system.

  4. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d) Steam/air retorts. (1)...

  5. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d) Steam/air retorts. (1)...

  6. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d) Steam/air retorts. (1)...

  7. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d) Steam/air retorts. (1)...

  8. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...) Retort reel speed. (c) Hydrostatic retorts. (1) Chain or conveyor speed. (d) Steam/air retorts. (1)...

  9. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-01-03

    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  10. Powder Bed Layer Characteristics: The Overseen First-Order Process Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindt, H. W.; Megahed, M.; Lavery, N. P.; Holmes, M. A.; Brown, S. G. R.

    2016-04-01

    Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing offers unique advantages in terms of manufacturing cost, lot size, and product complexity compared to traditional processes such as casting, where a minimum lot size is mandatory to achieve economic competitiveness. Many studies—both experimental and numerical—are dedicated to the analysis of how process parameters such as heat source power, scan speed, and scan strategy affect the final material properties. Apart from the general urge to increase the build rate using thicker powder layers, the coating process and how the powder is distributed on the processing table has received very little attention to date. This paper focuses on the first step of every powder bed build process: Coating the process table. A numerical study is performed to investigate how powder is transferred from the source to the processing table. A solid coating blade is modeled to spread commercial Ti-6Al-4V powder. The resulting powder layer is analyzed statistically to determine the packing density and its variation across the processing table. The results are compared with literature reports using the so-called "rain" models. A parameter study is performed to identify the influence of process table displacement and wiper velocity on the powder distribution. The achieved packing density and how that affects subsequent heat source interaction with the powder bed is also investigated numerically.

  11. Powder Bed Layer Characteristics: The Overseen First-Order Process Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindt, H. W.; Megahed, M.; Lavery, N. P.; Holmes, M. A.; Brown, S. G. R.

    2016-08-01

    Powder Bed Additive Manufacturing offers unique advantages in terms of manufacturing cost, lot size, and product complexity compared to traditional processes such as casting, where a minimum lot size is mandatory to achieve economic competitiveness. Many studies—both experimental and numerical—are dedicated to the analysis of how process parameters such as heat source power, scan speed, and scan strategy affect the final material properties. Apart from the general urge to increase the build rate using thicker powder layers, the coating process and how the powder is distributed on the processing table has received very little attention to date. This paper focuses on the first step of every powder bed build process: Coating the process table. A numerical study is performed to investigate how powder is transferred from the source to the processing table. A solid coating blade is modeled to spread commercial Ti-6Al-4V powder. The resulting powder layer is analyzed statistically to determine the packing density and its variation across the processing table. The results are compared with literature reports using the so-called "rain" models. A parameter study is performed to identify the influence of process table displacement and wiper velocity on the powder distribution. The achieved packing density and how that affects subsequent heat source interaction with the powder bed is also investigated numerically.

  12. Study of instrumentation needs for process control and safety in coal fluidized-bed combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Griggs, K.E.; Henry, R.F.; Podolski, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the current state of the art of instrumentation for planned and operating fluidized-bed combustion systems. This study is intended to identify instrumentation needs and serve as a data base for projects to develop this instrumentation. A considerable number of needs for measurements for which presently available instrumentation is not suitable were reported by respondents. The identified deficiencies are presented with the associated physical parameter ranges for FBC processes. New techniques and instrumentation under development, as well as some available alternative instruments, are discussed briefly. Also, newly instituted mechanisms for technical information exchange on instrumentation for fossil energy applications are identified. Development of instruments to meet the identified measurement deficiencies is recommended in order to ensure the feasibility of automatic control of large-scale fluidized-bed combustion systems, and to advance the state of the art of fluidized-bed combustion technology.

  13. 1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort rings in foreground were once located in Engine Room Building. See photo WA-131-A-2. Building on left is Machine Shop. Boiler Building is in front of stack. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Engine Room Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR FLASHING MERCURY OFF OF GOLD TO CREATE SOFT INGOTS CALLED "SPONGES." AT RIGHT ARE SAFES FOR STORING 22-POUND SPONGES WORTH OVER $60,000 EACH, CA. 1985. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  15. 4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CASTIRON RETORTS AT TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CAST-IRON RETORTS AT TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING PORTION OF HOT BLAST STOVE AND TURNED HEAD. - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

  16. Evaluation of process errors in bed load sampling using a dune model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, B.; Troutman, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the streamwide bed load discharge obtained using sampling devices are dependent upon good at-a-point knowledge across the full width of the channel. Using field data and information derived from a model that describes the geometric features of a dune train in terms of a spatial process observed at a fixed point in time, we show that sampling errors decrease as the number of samples collected increases, and the number of traverses of the channel over which the samples are collected increases. It also is preferable that bed load sampling be conducted at a pace which allows a number of bed forms to pass through the sampling cross section. The situations we analyze and simulate pertain to moderate transport conditions in small rivers. In such circumstances, bed load sampling schemes typically should involve four or five traverses of a river, and the collection of 20-40 samples at a rate of five or six samples per hour. By ensuring that spatial and temporal variability in the transport process is accounted for, such a sampling design reduces both random and systematic errors and hence minimizes the total error involved in the sampling process.

  17. Development of an inclined liquid fluidized bed for tar sand processing

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.A. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    An inclined liquid fluidized-bed reactor (ILFBR) system has been developed and successfully operated for 24 hours. Modifications to the previously tested ILFBR systems include incorporation of a oil fluidizing zone in the front of the fluid bed, an increase in the angle of the fluid bed to {minus}12{degree} (the minus sign shows that the discharges is below the horizontal level of the inlet), and reduction of the fluidizing gas velocities equal to or below the minimum fluidization velocity. These changes produced a functional bubbling slurry bed for the processing of tar sand. The produced oils and spent sand resemble the products from screw pyrolysis reactor (SPR) tests suggesting that the ILFBR system functioned similar to the SPR systems with the recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE{copyright}) process. With slight modifications in the heater control and placement, the system will be ready for development of operational parameters for the surface processing of tar sand. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Alexandria fluidized-bed process development unit: cold-mode testing

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    The objectives of the current test program include: validation of predictions from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Coal Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor System Model; experimental studies supporting AFBC process developments; and the collection of transient data for process control design. This topical report summarizes results from cold mode testing, i.e., experiments performed without combustion for MIT Model verification. During these tests, sulfated limestone (generated from normal AFBC operations) was fluidized with air at temperatures ranging from 80 to 500/sup 0/F in the 3' x 3' (nominal) size PDU at Alexandria, VA. The MIT Model predictions tested include: slumped bed height, minimum fluidization velocity, and expanded bed height. In all cases, there were large discrepancies between the Model predictions and corresponding experimental results. Other results obtained included solids size distribution and particle size profiles in the bed. Size distribution was adequately modeled by the Rosin-Rammler equation. No transient process data was collected due to hardware problems with the Data Acquisition System. Tests were also performed to determine the effect of maldistribution of air, caused by leaks in the air distributor, on experimental results. The data indicated that effects of these leaks seemed to be undetectable.

  19. Mechanistic modelling of fluidized bed drying processes of wet porous granules: a review.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; De Beer, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist V; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar

    2011-10-01

    Fluidized bed dryers are frequently used in industrial applications and also in the pharmaceutical industry. The general incentives to develop mechanistic models for pharmaceutical processes are listed, and our vision on how this can particularly be done for fluidized bed drying processes of wet granules is given. This review provides a basis for future mechanistic model development for the drying process of wet granules in pharmaceutical processes. It is intended for a broad audience with a varying level of knowledge on pharmaceutical processes and mathematical modelling. Mathematical models are powerful tools to gain process insight and eventually develop well-controlled processes. The level of detail embedded in such a model depends on the goal of the model. Several models have therefore been proposed in the literature and are reviewed here. The drying behaviour of one single granule, a porous particle, can be described using the continuum approach, the pore network modelling method and the shrinkage of the diameter of the wet core approach. As several granules dry at a drying rate dependent on the gas temperature, gas velocity, porosity, etc., the moisture content of a batch of granules will reside in a certain interval. Population Balance Model (ling) (PBM) offers a tool to describe the distribution of particle properties which can be of interest for the application. PBM formulation and solution methods are therefore reviewed. In a fluidized bed, the granules show a fluidization pattern depending on the geometry of the gas inlet, the gas velocity, characteristics of the particles, the dryer design, etc. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allows to model this behaviour. Moreover, turbulence can be modelled using several approaches: Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Another important aspect of CFD is the choice between the Eulerian-Lagrangian and the Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Finally, the PBM and CFD frameworks

  20. Characterization of Li2TiO3 pebbles by graphite bed process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ming; Zhang, Yingchun; Mi, Yingying; Fu, Baojian

    2013-10-01

    Lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) is an important tritium breeder for fusion blanket concepts. In the present study, Li2TiO3 ceramic pebbles were successfully fabricated by a graphite bed process. In this process, graphite bed which had been engraved with spherical pits acted as a casting mould. Droplets of Li2TiO3 suspensions were dispersed into the spherical pits to form pebbles due to the hydrophobic nature of the graphite powder. After drying, green pebbles were sieved and sintered to produce Li2TiO3 pebbles. The fabrication process and properties of the pebbles have been investigated. The experimental results showed that the sphericity of Li2TiO3 pebbles was influenced by solid/liquid ratio and diameter. XRD results demonstrated that Li2TiO3 pebbles with high purity have been prepared by the graphite bed process. SEM revealed that the pebbles have uniform microstructure and adequate open porosity. The Li2TiO3 pebbles sintered at 1150 °C have optimal properties, such as high density (about 90% TD) and high crush load (about 40 N).

  1. The development of a fluidized bed process for the heat treatment of aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keist, Jay

    2005-04-01

    Heat treating of aluminum alloys is often necessary to achieve the mechanical properties required for a part. With conventional furnaces, though, the heat-treating process requires several hours and manufacturers have traditionally utilized off-line, batch heat-treating operations. The long cycle times required for heat treating with conventional systems go contrary to lean manufacturing where the goal is to reduce the time a part spends in the factory. The fluidized bed technology offers rapid heating rates and excellent temperature control that allows one to significantly reduce the time required for heat treating by an order of magnitude. Technomics developed a fluidized bed conveying system that allows the manufacturer to bring the heat-treating system in-line with the casting or forging operation, obtaining a true lean manufacturing process.

  2. Equilibrium theory-based design of simulated moving bed processes under reduced purity requirements linear isotherms.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Arvind

    2008-03-28

    The design of simulated moving bed processes under reduced purity requirements for systems whose isotherm is linear is considered. Based on the equilibrium theory of chromatography, explicit equations to uniquely identify the separation region that will ensure specified extract and raffinate purities are derived. The identification of the region requires only the knowledge of Henry constants of the solutes, the concentration of the solutes in the feed and the purity specifications. These results are validated using numerical simulations. PMID:18281052

  3. Array Processing for Radar Clutter Reduction and Imaging of Ice-Bed Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogineni, P.; Leuschen, C.; Li, J.; Hoch, A.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Ledford, J.; Jezek, K.

    2007-12-01

    A major challenge in sounding of fast-flowing glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica is surface clutter, which masks weak returns from the ice-bed interface. The surface clutter is also a major problem in sounding and imaging sub-surface interfaces on Mars and other planets. We successfully applied array-processing techniques to reduce clutter and image ice-bed interfaces of polar ice sheets. These techniques and tools have potential applications to planetary observations. We developed a radar with array-processing capability to measure thickness of fast-flowing outlet glaciers and image the ice-bed interface. The radar operates over the frequency range from 140 to 160 MHz with about an 800- Watt peak transmit power with transmit and receive antenna arrays. The radar is designed such that pulse width and duration are programmable. The transmit-antenna array is fed with a beamshaping network to obtain low sidelobes. We designed the receiver such that it can process and digitize signals for each element of an eight- channel array. We collected data over several fast-flowing glaciers using a five-element antenna array, limited by available hardpoints to mount antennas, on a Twin Otter aircraft during the 2006 field season and a four-element array on a NASA P-3 aircraft during the 2007 field season. We used both adaptive and non-adaptive signal-processing algorithms to reduce clutter. We collected data over the Jacobshavn Isbrae and other fast-flowing outlet glaciers, and successfully measured the ice thickness and imaged the ice-bed interface. In this paper, we will provide a brief description of the radar, discuss clutter-reduction algorithms, present sample results, and discuss the application of these techniques to planetary observations.

  4. Process wastewater treatability study for Westinghouse fluidized-bed coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Winton, S.L.; Buvinger, B.J.; Evans, J.M.; French, W.E.; Page, G.C.; Rhodes, W.J.

    1983-11-01

    In the development of a synthetic fuels facility, water usage and wastewater treatment are major areas of concern. Coal gasification processes generally produce relatively large volumes of gas condensates. These wastewaters are typically composed of a variety of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids and dissolved gaseous contaminants. Fluidized-bed coal gasification (FBG) processes are no exception to this rule. The Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA/IERLRTP) recognized the need for a FBG treatment program to provide process design data for FBG wastewaters during the environmental, health, and safety characterization of the Westinghouse Process Development Unit (PDU). In response to this need, METC developed conceptual designs and a program plan to obtain process design and performance data for treating wastewater from commercial-scale Westinghouse-based synfuels plants. As a result of this plan, METC, GRI, and EPA entered into a joint program to develop performance data, design parameters, conceptual designs, and cost estimates for treating wastewaters from a FBG plant. Wastewater from the Westinghouse PDU consists of process quench and gas cooling condensates which are similar to those produced by other FBG processes such as U-Gas, and entrained-bed gasification processes such as Texaco. Therefore, wastewater from this facility was selected as the basis for this study. This paper outlines the current program for developing process design and cost data for the treatment of these wastewaters.

  5. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  6. Analysis of fluidized bed granulation process using conventional and novel modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jelena; Chansanroj, Krisanin; Meier, Brigitte; Ibrić, Svetlana; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-10-01

    Various modeling techniques have been applied to analyze fluidized-bed granulation process. Influence of various input parameters (product, inlet and outlet air temperature, consumption of liquid-binder, granulation liquid-binder spray rate, spray pressure, drying time) on granulation output properties (granule flow rate, granule size determined using light scattering method and sieve analysis, granules Hausner ratio, porosity and residual moisture) has been assessed. Both conventional and novel modeling techniques were used, such as screening test, multiple regression analysis, self-organizing maps, artificial neural networks, decision trees and rule induction. Diverse testing of developed models (internal and external validation) has been discussed. Good correlation has been obtained between the predicted and the experimental data. It has been shown that nonlinear methods based on artificial intelligence, such as neural networks, are far better in generalization and prediction in comparison to conventional methods. Possibility of usage of SOMs, decision trees and rule induction technique to monitor and optimize fluidized-bed granulation process has also been demonstrated. Obtained findings can serve as guidance to implementation of modeling techniques in fluidized-bed granulation process understanding and control. PMID:21839830

  7. A Spouted Bed Reactor Monitoring System for Particulate Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Wendt; R. L. Bewley; W. E. Windes

    2007-06-01

    Conversion and coating of particle nuclear fuel is performed in spouted (fluidized) bed reactors. The reactor must be capable of operating at temperatures up to 2000°C in inert, flammable, and coating gas environments. The spouted bed reactor geometry is defined by a graphite retort with a 2.5 inch inside diameter, conical section with a 60° included angle, and a 4 mm gas inlet orifice diameter through which particles are removed from the reactor at the completion of each run. The particles may range from 200 µm to 2 mm in diameter. Maintaining optimal gas flow rates slightly above the minimum spouting velocity throughout the duration of each run is complicated by the variation of particle size and density as conversion and/or coating reactions proceed in addition to gas composition and temperature variations. In order to achieve uniform particle coating, prevent agglomeration of the particle bed, and monitor the reaction progress, a spouted bed monitoring system was developed. The monitoring system includes a high-sensitivity, low-response time differential pressure transducer paired with a signal processing, data acquisition, and process control unit which allows for real-time monitoring and control of the spouted bed reactor. The pressure transducer is mounted upstream of the spouted bed reactor gas inlet. The gas flow into the reactor induces motion of the particles in the bed and prevents the particles from draining from the reactor due to gravitational forces. Pressure fluctuations in the gas inlet stream are generated as the particles in the bed interact with the entering gas stream. The pressure fluctuations are produced by bulk movement of the bed, generation and movement of gas bubbles through the bed, and the individual motion of particles and particle subsets in the bed. The pressure fluctuations propagate upstream to the pressure transducer where they can be monitored. Pressure fluctuation, mean differential pressure, gas flow rate, reactor

  8. Soft-hydrothermal processing of red cedar bedding reduces its induction of cytochrome P450 in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Okano, S; Yoshinari, K; Miyamoto, T; Yamazoe, Y; Shinya, K; Ioku, K; Kasai, N

    2009-04-01

    Red cedar-derived bedding materials cause changes in cytochrome P450-dependent microsomal enzyme systems in laboratory animals. We examined the effect of essential oil of red cedar (EORC), as well as the effect of bedding from which it had been removed, on the hepatic expression cytochrome P450s in mice. EORC was obtained from liquid extracts of red cedar bedding by a soft-hydrothermal process and was administered orally to mice. Between days 1 and 2 after administration, hepatic P450s were significantly induced as follows: CYP3As, 7.1x; CYP1As, 1.6x; CYP2E1, 1.5x; CYP2Cs, 1.6x. A housing study of mice indicated that red cedar bedding increased the levels of these P450s in mouse liver, whereas mice housed in cedar bedding from which EORC had been removed (ST-cedar bedding) showed significantly lower levels of P450s, especially CYP3As, CYP1As and CYP2E1. Soft-hydrothermal processing partially removed many components of EORC. In particular, several volatile sesquiterpenes, naphthalene-derived aromatics and 4,4-dimethyl-13alpha-androst-5-ene were decreased in the ST-cedar bedding, suggesting that these may be responsible for P450 induction. This study demonstrated that the removal of these volatile compounds by soft-hydrothermal processing can decrease the hepatic P450-inducing effect of red cedar bedding. PMID:19116287

  9. Fluid bed drying of guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK) extract: effect of process factors on caffeine content.

    PubMed

    Pagliarussi, Renata S; Bastos, Jairo K; Freitas, Luis A P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the convective drying of the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from powdered guarana seeds in a spouted bed dryer. The influence of process variables, such as the convective airflow rate, extract feed rate, and air inlet temperature, on the quality of the dry extract was determined using the caffeine and moisture content for the process evaluation. The caffeine content in the alcoholic and dried extracts was determined by capillary gas chromatography. The experiments were performed following a 3(3) factorial design and the data analyzed by response surface. The analysis of dry extract showed that the air and extract feed rates did not significantly affect (25% level) the caffeine content, but that drying temperature is a major factor to consider when the extract is submitted to fluid bed drying. Caffeine losses were significant (1% level) for drying temperatures above 120 degrees C, while moisture content was lower than 3% for temperatures above 120 degrees C. The data showed that there is an optimum temperature for the drying of guarana extracts in spouted beds, and under the conditions used in this study it was 120 degrees C. PMID:16796371

  10. Industrial demonstration plant for the gasification of herb residue by fluidized bed two-stage process.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xi; Shao, Ruyi; Wang, Fang; Dong, Pengwei; Yu, Jian; Xu, Guangwen

    2016-04-01

    A fluidized bed two-stage gasification process, consisting of a fluidized-bed (FB) pyrolyzer and a transport fluidized bed (TFB) gasifier, has been proposed to gasify biomass for fuel gas production with low tar content. On the basis of our previous fundamental study, an autothermal two-stage gasifier has been designed and built for gasify a kind of Chinese herb residue with a treating capacity of 600 kg/h. The testing data in the operational stable stage of the industrial demonstration plant showed that when keeping the reaction temperatures of pyrolyzer and gasifier respectively at about 700 °C and 850 °C, the heating value of fuel gas can reach 1200 kcal/Nm(3), and the tar content in the produced fuel gas was about 0.4 g/Nm(3). The results from this pilot industrial demonstration plant fully verified the feasibility and technical features of the proposed FB two-stage gasification process. PMID:26849201

  11. Anaerobic biological treatment of in-situ retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Ossio, E.; Fox, P.

    1980-03-01

    Anaerobic fermentation was successfully used in a laboratory-scale batch digester to remove soluble organics from retort water. Required pretreatment includes reduction of ammonia levels to 360 mg-N/l, pH adjustment to 7.0, sulfide control, and the addition of the nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phoshorus. If the prescribed pretreatment is used, BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiencies of 89 to 90% and 65 to 70% are achieved, respectively.

  12. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL FIRED PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon Glicksman; Hesham Younis; Richard Hing-Fung Tan; Michel Louge; Elizabeth Griffith; Vincent Bricout

    1998-04-30

    Pressurized fluidization is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal combustor at high inlet gas velocity to increase the flow of reactants, at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, commercialization of large pressurized fluidized beds is inhibited by uncertainties in scaling up units from the current pilot plant levels. In this context, our objective is to conduct a study of the fluid dynamics and solid capture of a large pressurized coal-fired unit. The idea is to employ dimensional similitude to simulate in a cold laboratory model the flow in a Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed ''Pyrolyzer,'' which is part of a High Performance Power System (HIPPS) developed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) under the DOE's Combustion 2000 program.

  13. Initial evaluation of fracturing oil shale with propellants for in situ retorting, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lekas, M.A.; Lekas, J.M.; Strickland, F.G.

    1991-05-01

    A series of field experiments was carried out to gather preliminary information on the use of propellant charges to create horizontal fractures in oil shale beds for in situ retorting. Development of a propellant tool specifically designed to create horizontal fractures, and testing of various sizes and designs of the tool to create fractures in oil shale beds were carried out simultaneously. Ten prototype tools with energy yields from 2 pounds to 60 pounds were fired at depths ranging from 10 feet to 60 feet. Ten preshot observation holes and 13 postshot core holes were used to gather information and to serve as injection wells to inject air into the formation for permeability tests. Most shots vented large volumes of gas or water from observation holes 13 to 20 feet distant, indicating that a horizontal fracture communicating from the shot point to the observation hole had been created. Shot-related horizontal fracturing was noted in most core holes at the same depth as the shot point. Air injection tests on all holes showed a significant increase in permeability after the shots.

  14. Method of removing sulfur emissions from a fluidized-bed combustion process

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Gerhard John; Jonke, Albert A.; Snyder, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxides are impregnated within refractory support material such as alumina and introduced into a fluidized-bed process for the combustion of coal. Sulfur dioxide produced during combustion reacts with the metal oxide to form metal sulfates within the porous support material. The support material is removed from the process and the metal sulfate regenerated to metal oxide by chemical reduction. Suitable pore sizes are originally developed within the support material by heat-treating to accommodate both the sulfation and regeneration while still maintaining good particle strength.

  15. Four stage, fluidized bed gasification process minimizes NO{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, F.M.; Haug, R.T.

    1999-07-01

    In 1981, after a long and thorough study of alternative methods of sewage sludge (biosolids) disposal, the City of Los Angeles (CLA) embarked on a pilot test program to incinerate dried sewage sludge from its Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant. This dried sludge is typically 47% ash, 53% combustible, and has an average higher heating value (HHV), moisture, ash-free (MAF) of 10,675 Btu/Lbm. The dried sludge is called sludge derived fuel (SDF). Approximately 8% of the MAF fraction of SDF is fuel-bound nitrogen. When SDF, with its extremely high fuel-bound nitrogen, was combusted in conventional multiple hearth and fluidized bed pilot plant furnaces, NO{sub x} emissions were extremely high ({gt}1,000 ppm). Faced with this dilemma, the CLA initiated an R and D program to reduce NO{sub x}. The pilot tests with a sub-stoichiometric fluid bed and an excess air afterburner (two-stages) reduced NO{sub x} to 400--600 ppm. With one intermediate stage added (three-stage), NO{sub x} was reduced to 130--150 ppm. However, when the following four-stage process was developed and tested, NO{sub x} was reduced to 50--75 ppm. Stage 1: Sub-stoichiometric fluidized bed operating at a nominal 30% stoichiometric air (SA). Stage 2:Sub-stoichiometric zone operating at a nominal 80% SA. Stage 3: Stoichiometric zone operating at a nominal 100% SA. Stage 4: Excess air zone (Afterburner) operating at a nominal 135% SA (35% excess air). After pilot testing was complete and design parameters established, three full-size, fluid bed gasifiers (two operational--one standby) were designed, constructed and operated until 1996. This paper describes the design, operation, and emission testing of these four-stage fluid bed gasifiers with special emphasis on the problems of (a) pneumatic feeding of SDF powder into the pressurized bed and (b) baghouse fabrics (expanded PTEE membrane on PTFE scrim). Final emission test results for NO{sub x} and other criteria pollutants are also presented.

  16. Rhythmic bedding in prodeltaic deposits of the ancient Colorado River: Exploring genetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waresak, Sandra; Nalin, Ronald; Lucarelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Prodeltaic deposits represent a valuable archive for the characterization of deltaic depositional systems, offering a distal, minimally reworked record of dominant processes active at the fluvial-marine interface. The Fish Creek Basin (CA, US) preserves a ~ 3-km thick, lower Pliocene, progradational deltaic succession formed when the ancestral Colorado River infiltrated a marine rift basin (the early Gulf of California). The unit in this succession interpreted as prodeltaic, corresponding to the upper Mud Hills Member of the Deguynos Formation, consists of ~ 300 m of muddy siltstones. A striking attribute of parts of this unit is the presence of rhythmic bedding, with consistently alternating silt- to fine sand-dominated and clay-dominated beds forming couplets with an average thickness of 12 cm. By performing a detailed sedimentological analysis of the rhythmites and investigating periodicities in bed thickness, our study aimed at reconstructing the mode of deposition of this enigmatic prodeltaic succession. We measured at high stratigraphic resolution 265 consecutive couplets, for a total thickness of 33 m. Individual beds have good lateral persistence of at least tens of meters and gradational to sharp, flat contacts. Observed sedimentary structures are concentrated on the coarser portion of the couplets and mostly consist of parallel and wavy lamination, with subordinate ripple cross-lamination and localized internal scours. Bioturbation appears low in intensity or absent. Most notably, grain size analysis performed with laser diffraction techniques on several couplets shows a consistent pattern of inverse grading transitioning to normal grading. The cumulative evidence of these sedimentological features indicates that deposition of the rhythmites was accomplished via hyperpycnal flows, each couplet most likely representing an individual event in a setting characterized by high overall depositional rates. We performed time series analysis on bed thickness of

  17. Flue gas cleanup using the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2013-10-01

    The use of copper oxide on a support had been envisioned as a gas cleanup technique to remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation. In general, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup techniques that use a sorbent can have various advantages, such as simultaneous removal of pollutants, production of a salable by-product, and low costs when compared to commercially available wet scrubbing technology. Due to the temperature of reaction, the placement of the process into an advanced power system could actually increase the thermal efficiency of the plant. The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is capable of simultaneously removing sulfur oxides and nitric oxides within the reactor system. In this regenerable sorbent technique, the use of the copper oxide sorbent was originally in a fluidized bed, but the more recent effort developed the use of the sorbent in a moving-bed reactor design. A pilot facility or life-cycle test system was constructed so that an integrated testing of the sorbent over absorption/regeneration cycles could be conducted. A parametric study of the total process was then performed where all process steps, including absorption and regeneration, were continuously operated and experimentally evaluated. The parametric effects, including absorption temperature, sorbent and gas residence times, inlet SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} concentration, and flyash loadings, on removal efficiencies and overall operational performance were determined. Although some of the research results have not been previously published because of previous collaborative restrictions, a summary of these past findings is presented in this communication. Additionally, the potential use of the process for criteria pollutant removal in oxy-firing of fossil fuel for carbon sequestration purposes is discussed.

  18. Vistula River bed erosion processes and their influence on Warsaw's flood safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnuszewski, A.; Moran, S.

    2015-03-01

    Large cities have historically been well protected against floods as a function of their importance to society. In Warsaw, Poland, located on a narrow passage of the Vistula River valley, urban flood disasters were not unusual. Beginning at the end of the 19th century, the construction of river embankment and training works caused the narrowing of the flood passage path in the downtown reach of the river. The process of bed erosion lowered the elevation of the river bed by 205 cm over the 20th century, and the consequences of bed lowering are reflected by the rating curve change. Conditions of the flood passage have been analysed by the CCHE2D hydrodynamic model both in retro-modelling and scenario simulation modelling. The high water mark of the 1844 flood and iterative calculations in retro-modelling made possible estimation of the discharge, Q = 8250 m3 s-1. This highest observed historical flood in a natural river has been compared to recent conditions of the Vistula River in Warsaw by scenario modelling. The result shows dramatic changes in water surface elevation, velocities, and shear stress. The vertical velocity in the proximity of Port Praski gauge at km 513 can reach 3.5 m s-1, a very high value for a lowland river. The average flow conveyance is improving due to channel erosion but also declining in the case of extreme floods due to high resistance from vegetation on the flood plains.

  19. Influence of in line monitored fluid bed granulation process parameters on the stability of Ethinylestradiol.

    PubMed

    Roßteuscher-Carl, Katrin; Fricke, Sabine; Hacker, Michael C; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2015-12-30

    Ethinylestradiol (EE) as a highly active and low dosed compound is prone to oxidative degradation. The stability of the drug substance is therefore a critical parameter that has to be considered during drug formulation. Beside the stability of the drug substance, granule particle size and moisture are critical quality attributes (CQA) of the fluid bed granulation process which influence the tableting ability of the resulting granules. Both CQA should therefore be monitored during the production process by process analytic technology (PAT) according to ICH Q8. This work focusses on the effects of drying conditions on the stability of EE in a fluid-bed granulation process. We quantified EE degradation products 6-alpha-hydroxy-EE, 6-beta-hydroxy-EE, 9(11)-dehydro-EE and 6-oxo-EE during long time storage and accelerated conditions. PAT-tools that monitor granule particle size (Spatial filtering technology) and granule moisture (Microwave resonance technology) were applied and compared with off-line methods. We found a relevant influence of residual granule moisture and thermic stress applied during granulation on the storage stability of EE, whereas no degradation was found immediately after processing. Hence we conclude that drying parameters have a relevant influence on long term EE stability. PMID:26541302

  20. Applicability of fluidized bed reactor in recalcitrant compound degradation through advanced oxidation processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Tisa, Farhana; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2014-12-15

    Treatment of industrial waste water (e.g. textile waste water, phenol waste water, pharmaceutical etc) faces limitation in conventional treatment procedures. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) do not suffer from the limits of conventional treatment processes and consequently degrade toxic pollutants more efficiently. Complexity is faced in eradicating the restrictions of AOPs such as sludge formation, toxic intermediates formation and high requirement for oxidants. Increased mass-transfer in AOPs is an alternate solution to this problem. AOPs combined with Fluidized bed reactor (FBR) can be a potential choice compared to fixed bed or moving bed reactor, as AOP catalysts life-span last for only maximum of 5-10 cycles. Hence, FBR-AOPs require lesser operational and maintenance cost by reducing material resources. The time required for AOP can be minimized using FBR and also treatable working volume can be increased. FBR-AOP can process from 1 to 10 L of volume which is 10 times more than simple batch reaction. The mass transfer is higher thus the reaction time is lesser. For having increased mass transfer sludge production can be successfully avoided. The review study suggests that, optimum particle size, catalyst to reactor volume ratio, catalyst diameter and liquid or gas velocity is required for efficient FBR-AOP systems. However, FBR-AOPs are still under lab-scale investigation and for industrial application cost study is needed. Cost of FBR-AOPs highly depends on energy density needed and the mechanism of degradation of the pollutant. The cost of waste water treatment containing azo dyes was found to be US$ 50 to US$ 500 per 1000 gallons where, the cost for treating phenol water was US$ 50 to US$ 800 per 1000 gallons. The analysis for FBR-AOP costs has been found to depend on the targeted pollutant, degradation mechanism (zero order, 1st order and 2nd order) and energy consumptions by the AOPs. PMID:25190594

  1. The use of fixed bed absorbents for flexible operation on the SAGE gas processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carnell, P.J.H.; Joslin, K.W.; Woodham, P.R.

    1995-11-01

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. operates the SAGE Gas Terminal at St. Fergus, Scotland on behalf of the SAGE partners. This terminal is capable of processing 1,150 MMscfd of sour gas with the sales gas being delivered into the British Gas distribution network and NGL`s exported by pipelines to Shell`s NGL fractionation plant at Mossmorran and BP`s fractionation plant at Kinneil. In order to meet the specifications for the sales gas and NGL produced while processing different mixtures of three separate feed gases produced by three independently operated production platforms the SAGE Gas Terminal has utilized ICI Katalco`s PURASPEC{trademark} processes to provide flexibility and reduce cost. This paper discusses how and where these fixed bed processes are utilized.

  2. Processing of uranium oxide powders in a fluidized-bed reactor. I. Experimental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, W. D.; Han, Man-Hee; Bronson, Mark C.; Zundelevich, Yury

    2002-10-01

    The oxidation of UN powders was carried out in a spout-type fluidized-bed reactor in gas mixtures of oxygen and argon, and over the temperature range of 200-500 °C. The rate of the conversion from UN to U 3O 8 powders was measured using gas chromatography and found to be dependent on temperature, partial pressure of oxygen and gas flowrate. The solid reactants and products were analyzed using SEM and XRD. Based on the experimental results, the conversion process was explained by the crackling core model.

  3. Process development and modeling of fluidized-bed reactor with coimmobilized biocatalyst for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, May Yongmei

    This research focuses on two steps of commercial fuel ethanol production processes: the hydrolysis starch process and the fermentation process. The goal of this research is to evaluate the performance of co-immobilized biocatalysts in a fluidized bed reactor with emphasis on economic and engineering aspects and to develop a predictive mathematical model for this system. The productivity of an FBR is higher than productivity of a traditional batch reactor or CSTR. Fluidized beds offer great advantages over packed beds for immobilized cells when small particles are used or when the reactant feed contains suspended solids. Plugging problems, excessive pressure drops (and thus attrition), or crushing risks may be avoided. No mechanical stirring is required as mixing occurs due to the natural turbulence in the fluidized process. Both enzyme and microorganism are immobilized in one catalyst bead which is called co-immobilization. Inside this biocatalyst matrix, starch is hydrolyzed by the enzyme glucoamylase to form glucose and then converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Two biocatalysts were evaluated: (1) co-immobilized yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase. (2) co-immobilized Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase. A co-immobilized biocatalyst accomplishes the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process). When compared to a two-step process involving separate saccharification and fermentation stages, the SSF process has productivity values twice that given by the pre-saccharified process when the time required for pre-saccharification (15--25 h) was taken into account. The SSF process should also save capital cost. The information about productivity, fermentation yield, concentration profiles along the bed, ethanol inhibition, et al., was obtained from the experimental data. For the yeast system, experimental results showed that: no apparent decrease of productivity occurred after two and half months, the productivity

  4. Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.

  5. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts §...

  6. Characterization and treatment of by-product waters from selected oil shale retorting tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, J.S.; Poulson, R.; Niss, N.; Laya, C.

    1987-12-01

    Oil shale retorting by-product waters from four surface retorting pilot tests and three simulated modified in situ retorting pilot tests were characterized for inorganic and organic chemical constituents. Eastern and western US shales were retorted for the tests. Ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium thiosulfate, various pyridines, and phenolic species were among the principal contaminants in the retort by-product water. The water also contains total dissolved solids up to 7000 ppM. When steam was used as a source of heat for oil shale retorting, the condensate that formed diluted the concentrations of contaminants, especially mineral dissolved solids, in the by-product water. The combined water treatment steps of hot-gas stripping followed by wet air oxidation at 600/degree/F (315/degree/C) and 2000 psi for 30 minutes removed 99% of the total organic carbon in the retort by-product water, producing a colorless and almost odor-free water. In one treatment test, the total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced from 3400 mg/L to less than 20 mg/L, with the 20 mg/L TOC remaining consisting of low molecular weight carboxylic acids. Only a partial TOC reduction occurred, with various alkylpyridines remaining as residuals when the retort waters were subjected to wet air oxidation as the only treatment step. Electrocoagulation as an initial water treatment step removed less than 30% of the TOC. 10 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. OXIDES OF NITROGEN/AMMONIA CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The retorting of oil shale yields several undesirable pollutants. The nitrogen in the shale and the reducing conditions under which the retorting is carried out results in the formation of sizeable amounts of ammonia in the gas stream. If not removed, the ammonia will make a sign...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOKINETICS' IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING TECHNOLOGY: FIELD AND ANALYTICAL DATA APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air emissions and water effluents from true in-situ oil shale retorting were physically, chemically and biologically characterized by sampling of Geokinetics Retort No. 17, a pilot-scale unit which produced 30 barrels of crude shale oil per day during testing from July 16 to July...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOKINETICS' IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air emissions and water effluents from true in-situ oil shale retorting were physically, chemically and biologically characterized by sampling of Geokinetics Retort No. 17, a pilot-scale unit which produced 30 barrels of crude shale oil per day during testing from July 16 to July...

  10. Performance analysis of RDF gasification in a two stage fluidized bed-plasma process.

    PubMed

    Materazzi, M; Lettieri, P; Taylor, R; Chapman, C

    2016-01-01

    The major technical problems faced by stand-alone fluidized bed gasifiers (FBG) for waste-to gas applications are intrinsically related to the composition and physical properties of waste materials, such as RDF. The high quantity of ash and volatile material in RDF can provide a decrease in thermal output, create high ash clinkering, and increase emission of tars and CO2, thus affecting the operability for clean syngas generation at industrial scale. By contrast, a two-stage process which separates primary gasification and selective tar and ash conversion would be inherently more forgiving and stable. This can be achieved with the use of a separate plasma converter, which has been successfully used in conjunction with conventional thermal treatment units, for the ability to 'polish' the producer gas by organic contaminants and collect the inorganic fraction in a molten (and inert) state. This research focused on the performance analysis of a two-stage fluid bed gasification-plasma process to transform solid waste into clean syngas. Thermodynamic assessment using the two-stage equilibrium method was carried out to determine optimum conditions for the gasification of RDF and to understand the limitations and influence of the second stage on the process performance (gas heating value, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency), along with other parameters. Comparison with a different thermal refining stage, i.e. thermal cracking (via partial oxidation) was also performed. The analysis is supported by experimental data from a pilot plant. PMID:26184896

  11. Process Analysis of Lignite Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Coupled with Pyrolysis Topping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoqun; Dong, Li; Wang, Yin; Matsuzawa, Y.; Xu, Guangwen

    We developed a comprehensive process model in ASPEN Plus to simulate the energy and mass balances of a lignite-fueled atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler integrated with coal predrying and pyrolysis topping. In this model, it is assumed that the heat from exhausted flue gas was employed for coal predrying, and the sensible heat derived from circulated bed material was used for the pyrolysis topping (endothermic process). The simulation was conducted with respectto the Yunnan Kaiyuan CFB boiler, and two representative lignite coals from Xiao Long Tan (XLT) and Xin Shao (XS) were considered. The result shows that the predrying of coal with the sensible heat of above 363 K from flue gas, the amount of coal consumed in the boiler can be reduced by 3.5% and 5.3% for XLT lignite and XS lignite, respectively. It was also found that integration of pyrolysis topping with the boiler increased the coal consumption of the boiler, and the extent of consumption-increase varies with the yields of tar and gas in the pyrolysis topping process. For agas yield of 5.2% and a tar yield of 5-6%, the consumption of XS lignite increased by about 20% comparing to that in the case without topping.

  12. Comparative study of oil-slurry process to fixed-bed process in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, T.; Kunugi, T.

    1982-01-01

    Differences between the oil-slurry process and the fixed-bed process on catalyst activity and C/sub 1/-C/sub 4/ product selectivity in the Fischer-Tropsch systhesis are described for a precipitated iron catalyst at reaction temperatures of 200 to 250/sup 0/C. Other reaction conditions used were those usually used for the two processes but were not the same for both processes. The data indicated that the catalyst activity is due to the presence of metallic iron suppresses the formation of CH/sub 4/ and favors the C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon formation, and the experimental data preclude the formation of iron carbide for the oil-slurry process. An activation energy of 79.1kJ/mole was obtained at temperatures of 230 to 242/sup 0/C. (BLM)

  13. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERING ON A 50-YEAR OLD RETORTED OIL-SHALE WASTE PILE, RULISON EXPERIMENTAL RETORT, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Dean, Walter E.; Ackerman, Daniel J.

    1985-01-01

    An oil-shale mine and experimental retort were operated near Rulison, Colorado by the U. S. Bureau of Mines from 1926 to 1929. Samples from seven drill cores from a retorted oil-shale waste pile were analyzed to determine 1) the chemical and mineral composition of the retorted oil shale and 2) variations in the composition that could be attributed to weathering. Unweathered, freshly-mined samples of oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation and slope wash collected away from the waste pile were also analyzed for comparison. The waste pile is composed of oil shale retorted under either low-temperature (400-500 degree C) or high-temperature (750 degree C) conditions. The results of the analyses show that the spent shale within the waste pile contains higher concentrations of most elements relative to unretorted oil shale.

  15. Modified graphical autocatalytic set model of combustion process in circulating fluidized bed boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Nurul Syazwani; Bakar, Sumarni Abu; Ismail, Razidah

    2014-07-01

    Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler (CFB) is a device for generating steam by burning fossil fuels in a furnace operating under a special hydrodynamic condition. Autocatalytic Set has provided a graphical model of chemical reactions that occurred during combustion process in CFB. Eight important chemical substances known as species were represented as nodes and catalytic relationships between nodes are represented by the edges in the graph. In this paper, the model is extended and modified by considering other relevant chemical reactions that also exist during the process. Catalytic relationship among the species in the model is discussed. The result reveals that the modified model is able to gives more explanation of the relationship among the species during the process at initial time t.

  16. Combining High Resolution Measurements and Simulations of Near-Bed Sediment Transport Processes Under Large-Scale Breaking Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, J. R.; Hurther, D.; van der Zanden, J.; van der A, D. A.; Ribberink, J.; O'Donoghue, T.; Li, M.

    2015-12-01

    Physical processes involved in near-bed sediment transport under regular, breaking waves are investigated using a combined framework of high resolution measurement and numerical simulation. Experiments are carried out at full scale (0.85 m wave height, 4 s period) in the CIEM wave flume above a mobile sand bed (d10, d50, d90 = 0.15 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.37 mm). Vertical profiles of co-located, two component (u, w) velocity and particle concentration are measured in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) using a multi-frequency acoustic concentration velocity profiler (ACVP) at several locations along the beach. The intra-wave free stream velocity measurements are provided as input to three dimensional Euler-Lagrange point-particle simulations of the BBL. Using a series of feedback controllers, the simulation forcing is adjusted to match the measured orbital velocity and turbulent intensities at an elevation of z~8 cm above the bed. The simulations treat sand grains both in the bed and in suspension as Lagrangian particles that respond to hydrodynamic and inter-particle forces. Particles are coupled to the near-bed hydrodynamics through the volume filtered Navier Stokes equations, which are solved in a finite volume LES framework at near particle scale. Several wave cycles are simulated in order to make direct comparisons of the mean and turbulent statistics with the measurements and to explore the near-bed particle response to wave breaking. Statistics of the space-time dependent grain-size distribution, a natural output of the particle-based simulations, are fed back into the acoustic calibration of the ACVP, improving the instrument's response to grain size sorting induced by the near bed flow. This cross validation and calibration of measurement and simulation allows for detailed interrogation of near-bed transport processes with minimal empirical assumptions relating to bed shear, particle pickup, or surface wave breaking.

  17. Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part III. Three grass species and their response to Omega 9 and to five produced retort waters: oil shale, tar sands and underground coal gasification. [Basin wildrye; western wheatgrass; alkali sacaton

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Q.D.

    1981-12-01

    In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Three native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area, root/shoot ratio and shoot/leaf area ratio were parameters measured. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and commercial grade perlite as support systems. Measurements were collected after a 10-week growth period. The hypothesis tested was, there is a difference between produced waters diluted by ground water and those where dilution is non-existent and their effect on plant growth. Results indicated that retort water diluted by ground water has a less toxic effect on plant species tested.

  18. Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part II. Five grass plant species and their response to five produced retort waters: oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. [Wildrye; wheatgrass; alkali sacaton; alkaligrass

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Q.D.

    1981-11-01

    In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Five native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area, root/shoot ratio and shoot/leaf area ratio were parameters measured. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and commercial grade perlite as support systems. Measurements were collected after a 10 week growth period. Hypotheses tested were: (a) there is a difference between in situ produced waters, and (b) plant species respond differently to various retort waters. Results indicated that the stated hypotheses were true.

  19. Theory of describing processes with phase transformations in spouted bed apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafarov, V. V.; Dorokhov, I. N.; Kol'Tsova, É. M.; Men'shutina, N. V.

    1983-08-01

    The article presents the averaged equations of mass, momentum, and energy transfer for the zones of the ring and the core of spouted beds. An analytical relation for determining the diameter of the bed diameter is given.

  20. Treatment of amoxicillin by O3/Fenton process in a rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Zeng, Zequan; Li, Yingwen; Arowo, Moses; Chen, Jianfeng; Meng, Hong; Shao, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this study, simulated amoxicillin wastewater was treated by the O3/Fenton process in a rotating packed bed (RPB) and the results were compared with the Fenton process and the O3 followed by Fenton (O3 + Fenton) process. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate and the ratio of 5-day biological oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) in the O3/Fenton process were approximately 17% and 26%, respectively, higher than those in the O3 + Fenton process with an initial pH of 3. The COD removal rate of the amoxicillin solution reached maximum at the Fe(II) concentration of 0.6 mM, temperature of 25 °C, rotation speed of 800 rpm and initial pH of 3. The BOD5/COD of the amoxicillin solution increased from 0 to 0.38 after the solution was treated by the O3/Fenton process. Analysis of the intermediates indicated that the pathway of amoxicillin degradation in the O3/Fenton process was similar to that in the O3 + Fenton process. Contrast experiment results showed that amoxicillin degradation was significantly intensified in the RPB. PMID:25560654

  1. Optimal operation of simulated moving bed chromatographic processes by means of simple feedback control.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Henning; Grüner, Stefan; Kienle, Achim

    2003-07-18

    In this contribution, simple methods are presented for controlling a simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatographic process with standard PI (proportional integral) controllers. The first method represents a simple and model-free inferential control scheme which was motivated from common distillation column control. The SMB unit is equipped with UV detectors. The UV signals in the four separation zones of the unit are fixed by four corresponding PI controllers calculating the ratio of liquid and solid flow in the respective separation zone. In order to be able to adjust the product purity a second, model-based control scheme is proposed. It makes use of the nonlinear wave propagation phenomena in the apparatus. The controlled chromatographic unit is automatically working with minimum solvent consumption and maximum feed throughput--without any numerical optimization calculations. This control algorithm can therefore also be applied for fast optimization of SMB processes. PMID:12938872

  2. Numerical simulation of film coating process in a novel rotating fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideya; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Watano, Satoru

    2006-06-01

    In this study, numerical simulation of film coating process in a novel rotating fluidized bed (RFB) was conducted by using a Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling model. Particle movements and fluid motions in a centrifugal force field were simulated at three-dimensional cylindrical coordinate, and this model was applied to film coating process. Film coating process in a RFB was numerically analyzed by using a simplified assumption that a particle was coated only when a particle existed within a spray zone. The experiments were also conducted and uniformity of sprayed material was evaluated by investigating color difference of the coated particles. As a result of the numerical simulation, three-dimensional bubble movements and particle circulation could be well simulated. In addition, mass of the sprayed material on a single particle in a RFB could be visualized by using our proposed model. The relationship between distribution of the sprayed material and the coating time was also analyzed. Calculated mass distributions of the sprayed material could be expressed by a normal distribution function, showing qualitative good agreement with the previous studies. Effect of the operating parameters, such as gas velocity and centrifugal acceleration, on the uniformity of the sprayed material was also investigated by both numerical and experimental approaches. Comparison of the coating process in a RFB with that in a conventional fluidized bed was also conducted by the numerical simulation. The result showed that uniformity of the sprayed material was greatly improved in a RFB due to the much smaller circulation time. PMID:16755055

  3. Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shakar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2010-08-01

    Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, producing a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. An important aspect of research is to establish a degree of torrefaction where gains in heating value offset the loss of mass. There is a lack of literature on torrefaction reactor designs and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed for different capacities, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and developing an interactive excel sheet where the user can define design specifications. In this report, 25-1000 kg/hr are used in equations for the design of the torrefier, examples of calculations, and specifications for the torrefier.

  4. Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shakar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-08-01

    Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300°C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200–230ºC and 270–280ºC. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, producing a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. An important aspect of research is to establish a degree of torrefaction where gains in heating value offset the loss of mass. There is a lack of literature on torrefaction reactor designs and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed for different capacities, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and developing an interactive excel sheet where the user can define design specifications. In this report, 25–1000 kg/hr are used in equations for the design of the torrefier, examples of calculations, and specifications for the torrefier.

  5. Processing and treatment of corncob bedding affects cage-change frequency for C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Domer, Daniel A; Erickson, Rebecca L; Petty, Joann M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Hickman-Davis, Judy M

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new proprietary processed corncob bedding material (PCC)compared with standard corncob in ventilated and static mouse housing systems. Intracage ammonia levels, bacterial growth, and absorptive capacity of bedding were measured for cages of C57BL/6 mice under nonautoclaved and autoclaved conditions on static and ventilated racks in a barrier facility. Ammonia concentration was measured daily, and cages were removed from the study when measurements reached or exceeded 25 ppm. Bacterial growth in bedding was quantified and speciated before exposure to mice and at the time of cage removal. The absorptive capacity of all bedding material was determined under autoclaved and nonautoclaved conditions. Ventilated cages with PCC or autoclaved corncob took longer to reach ammonia concentrations of 25 ppm than did those with corncob or autoclaved PCC; PCC-filled cages remained below 25 ppm NH3 for at least 3 wk. The type of bedding material did not affect the number of days required to reach 25 ppm in static cages. Compared with other bedding types in the absence of mice, 1/4-in. PCC had a lower and 1/8-in. corncob a higher bacterial load. Autoclaving altered the absorptive capacity of 1/4-in. bedding materials, and for 1/8-in. bedding, corncob was more absorptive than PCC regardless of autoclaving. The results of this study indicate that PCC is comparable to autoclaved corncob in controlling intracage ammonia levels, and a cage-change interval of 3 wk is possible when ventilated cages are used with this bedding. PMID:22776115

  6. Processing and Treatment of Corncob Bedding Affects Cage-Change Frequency for C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Domer, Daniel A; Erickson, Rebecca L; Petty, Joann M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Hickman-Davis, Judy M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new proprietary processed corncob bedding material (PCC) compared with standard corncob in ventilated and static mouse housing systems. Intracage ammonia levels, bacterial growth, and absorptive capacity of bedding were measured for cages of C57BL/6 mice under nonautoclaved and autoclaved conditions on static and ventilated racks in a barrier facility. Ammonia concentration was measured daily, and cages were removed from the study when measurements reached or exceeded 25 ppm. Bacterial growth in bedding was quantified and speciated before exposure to mice and at the time of cage removal. The absorptive capacity of all bedding material was determined under autoclaved and nonautoclaved conditions. Ventilated cages with PCC or autoclaved corncob took longer to reach ammonia concentrations of 25 ppm than did those with corncob or autoclaved PCC; PCC-filled cages remained below 25 ppm NH3 for at least 3 wk. The type of bedding material did not affect the number of days required to reach 25 ppm in static cages. Compared with other bedding types in the absence of mice, 1/4-in. PCC had a lower and 1/8-in. corncob a higher bacterial load. Autoclaving altered the absorptive capacity of 1/4-in. bedding materials, and for 1/8-in. bedding, corncob was more absorptive than PCC regardless of autoclaving. The results of this study indicate that PCC is comparable to autoclaved corncob in controlling intracage ammonia levels, and a cage-change interval of 3 wk is possible when ventilated cages are used with this bedding. PMID:22776115

  7. Tensiomygraphic Measurement of Atrophy Related Processes During Bed Rest and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simunic, B. ostjan; Degens, Hans; Rittweger, Jorn; Narici, Marcco; Pisot, Venceslav; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Pisot, Rado

    2013-02-01

    Tensiomyographic (TMG) parameters were recently proposed for a non-invasive estimation of MHC distribution in human vastus lateralis muscle. However, TMG potential is even higher, offers additional insight into the skeletal muscle physiology, especially in the field of atrophy and hypertrophy. The purpose of this study is in developing time dynamics of TMG-measured contraction time (Tc) and maximal response amplitude (Dm), together with muscle belly thickness, measure thoroughly during 35-day bed rest and followed in 30-day recovery (N = 10 males; age 24.3 ± 2.6 years). Measurements were performed in two postural muscles (vastus medialis and lateralis) and one non-postural muscle (biceps femoris). During bed rest period we found different dynamics of muscle thickness decrease and Dm increase. Tc was unchanged in postural muscles, but in non-postural muscle increased significantly and stayed as such even at the end of recovery. We could conclude that TMG related parameters are more sensitive in measuring muscle atrophic and hypertrophic processes than biomedical imaging technique. However, a mechanism that regulates Dm still needs to be identified.

  8. System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R.

    1983-01-01

    A method and a cutter for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head (72) has a hollow body (76) with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft (74) extends from the hollow body (76). Cutter teeth (78) are mounted on the upper surface of the body (76) and relatively small holes (77) are formed in the body (76) between the cutter teeth (78). Relatively large peripheral flutes (80) around the body (76) allow material to drop below the drill head (72). A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale.

  9. System for producing a uniform rubble bed for in situ processes

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1983-07-05

    A method and a cutter are disclosed for producing a large cavity filled with a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale or other material, for in situ processing. A raise drill head has a hollow body with a generally circular base and sloping upper surface. A hollow shaft extends from the hollow body. Cutter teeth are mounted on the upper surface of the body and relatively small holes are formed in the body between the cutter teeth. Relatively large peripheral flutes around the body allow material to drop below the drill head. A pilot hole is drilled into the oil shale deposit. The pilot hole is reamed into a large diameter hole by means of a large diameter raise drill head or cutter to produce a cavity filled with rubble. A flushing fluid, such as air, is circulated through the pilot hole during the reaming operation to remove fines through the raise drill, thereby removing sufficient material to create sufficient void space, and allowing the larger particles to fill the cavity and provide a uniform bed of rubblized oil shale. 4 figs.

  10. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

    1991-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

  11. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

  12. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. II. Comparison of mutagenic effects at five genetic markers induced by retort process water plus near ultraviolet light in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Strniste, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line heterozygous at the adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) locus was used for selection of induced mutants resistant to 8-azaadenine (8AA), 6-thioguanine (6TG), ouabain (OUA), emetine (EMT) and diphtheria toxin (DIP). The expression times necessary for optimizing the number of mutants recovered at the different loci have been determined using the known direct acting mutagen, far ultraviolet light (FUV), and a complex aqueous organic mixture (shale oil process water) activated with near ultraviolet light (NUV). The results indicate that optimal expression times following treatment with either mutagen was between 2 and 8 days. For CHO cells treated with shale oil process water and subsequently exposed to NUV a linear dose response for mutant induction was observed for all five genetic loci. At 10% surviving fraction of cells, between 35- and 130-fold increases above backgound mutation frequencies were observed for the various markers examined.

  13. Aeolian processes over gravel beds: Field wind tunnel simulation and its application atop the Mogao Grottoes, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weimin; Tan, Lihai; Zhang, Guobin; Qiu, Fei; Zhan, Hongtao

    2014-12-01

    The aeolian processes of erosion, transport and deposition are threatening the Mogao Grottoes, a world culture heritage site. A field wind tunnel experiment was conducted atop the Mogao Grottoes using weighing sensors to quantify aeolian processes over protective gravel beds. Results reveal that aeolian erosion and deposition over gravel beds are basically influenced by gravel coverage and wind speed. Erosion is a main aeolian process over gravel beds and its strength level is mainly determined by gravel coverage: strong (<30%), medium (30-50%) and slight (>50%). Aeolian deposition only occurs when gravel coverage is equal to or greater than 30% and wind speeds are between 8 and 12 m s-1, and this process continues until the occurrence of the equilibrium coverage. In addition, the change in conditions of external sand supply affects the transition between aeolian deposition and erosion over gravel beds, and the quantity of sand transport at the height of 0-24 mm is an important indicator of aeolian deposition and erosion over gravel beds. Our results also demonstrate that making the best use of wind regime atop the Mogao Grottoes and constructing an artificial gobi surface in staggered arrays, with 30% coverage and 30-mm-high gravels and in 40 mm spacing can trap westerly invading sand flow and enable the stronger easterly wind to return the deposited sand on the gravel surface back to the Mingsha Mountain so as to minimize the damage of the blown sand flux to the Mogao Grottoes.

  14. Optimization and scale-up of a fluid bed tangential spray rotogranulation process.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, J; Dumont, H; Bertrand, F; Legros, R

    2007-04-20

    The production of pellets in the pharmaceutical industry generally involves multi-step processing: (1) mixing, (2) wet granulation, (3) spheronization and (4) drying. While extrusion-spheronization processes have been popular because of their simplicity, fluid-bed rotogranulation (FBRG) is now being considered as an alternative, since it offers the advantages of combining the different steps into one processing unit, thus reducing processing time and material handling. This work aimed at the development of a FBRG process for the production of pellets in a 4.5-l Glatt GCPG1 tangential spray rotoprocessor and its optimization using factorial design. The factors considered were: (1) rotor disc velocity, (2) gap air pressure, (3) air flow rate, (4) binder spray rate and (5) atomization pressure. The pellets were characterized for their physical properties by measuring size distribution, roundness and flow properties. The results indicated that: pellet mean particle size is negatively affected by air flow rate and rotor plate speed, while binder spray rate has a positive effect on size; pellet flow properties are enhanced by operating with increased air flow rate and worsened with increased binder spray rate. Multiple regression analysis enabled the identification of an optimal operating window for production of acceptable pellets. Scale-up of these operating conditions was tested in a 30-l Glatt GPCG15 FBRG. PMID:17166677

  15. A new process control strategy for aqueous film coating of pellets in fluidised bed.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Crilles C; Sonnergaard, Jørn M; Bertelsen, Poul; Holm, Per

    2003-11-01

    The parameters with effect on maximum spray rate and maximum relative outlet air humidity when coating pellets in a fluidised bed were investigated. The tested variables include type of water based modified release film coating (Eudragit NE 30D, Eudragit RS 30D, Aquacoat ECD) coating principle (top spray, bottom spray), inlet air humidity and type of pellets (sugar spheres, microcrystalline cellulose pellets). The maximum spray rate was not influenced by the coating principles. The highest spray rate was obtained for the film polymer with the lowest tackiness which is assumed to be the controlling factor. The type of pellets affected the maximum spray rate. A thermodynamic model for the coating process is employed throughout the process and not just during steady state. The thermodynamic model is incorporated into a new process control strategy. The process control strategy is based on in-process calculation of degree of utilisation of the potential evaporation energy (DUE) of the outlet air and the relative outlet air humidity (RH). The spray rate is maximised using set points of DUE and RH as control parameters. The product temperature is controlled simultaneously by regulating the inlet air temperature. PMID:14592693

  16. Process for generating electricity in a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system

    DOEpatents

    Kasper, Stanley

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating electricity using a gas turbine as part of a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor system wherein coal is fed as a fuel in a slurry in which other constituents, including a sulfur sorbent such as limestone, are added. The coal is combusted with air in a pressurized combustion chamber wherein most of the residual sulfur in the coal is captured by the sulfur sorbent. After particulates are removed from the flue gas, the gas expands in a turbine, thereby generating electric power. The spent flue gas is cooled by heat exchange with system combustion air and/or system liquid streams, and the condensate is returned to the feed slurry.

  17. Scale-up research in a dual fluidized bed gasification process.

    PubMed

    Narobe, Miha; Golob, Janvit; Mele, Jernej; Sekavčnik, Mihael; Senegačnik, Andrej; Klinar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    A successful co-gasification of plastics and biomass was achieved on the 100 kW dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification pilot plant. The results of a pilot plant experiment were used as a sound basis for scale-up prediction to 750 kW semi-industrial DFB plant. By an eightfold increase of mass and heat flows a rather simplified co-gasification process was predicted. Namely, the losses occurring in gasification plants are expected to be relatively smaller in larger plants. The effect of decreased losses was studied with an equilibrium model. Three different situations were simulated with the following fixed values of losses: 70 kW, 115 kW and 160 kW. The model showed an increase in fuel conversion when losses were reduced. PMID:26085423

  18. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - THIRD PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the third phase of studies on the CAFB process for desulfurization/gasification of heavy fuel oil in a bed of hot lime. Major conclusions relating to process performance and operability are: (1) water, either in the fuel or in the fluidizing air, has a strong...

  19. Evaluation of Selected Chemical Processes for Production of Low-cost Silicon, Phase 3. [using a fluidized bed reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blocher, J. M., Jr.; Browning, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    The construction and operation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) for the production of granular semiconductor grade silicon by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride in a fluidized bed of seed particles is presented. The construction of the process development unit (PDU) is reported. The PDU consists of four critical units of the EPSDU: the fluidized bed reactor, the reactor by product condenser, the zinc vaporizer, and the electrolytic cell. An experimental wetted wall condenser and its operation are described. Procedures are established for safe handling of SiCl4 leaks and spills from the EPSDU and PDU.

  20. Development of improved sorbents for the moving-bed copper oxide process

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B.; Carty, R.H.; Cengiz, P.A.; Khalili, N.R.

    1999-07-01

    In the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, legislation was introduced requiring electric utilities to adopt available technology for removal of pollutant gases (mainly SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and particulates from coal combustion flue gases so that the increased use of coal is done in an environmentally acceptable manner. The threat from the damaging effects of gaseous pollutants is more of a concern in the state of Illinois where over 90% of the high-sulfur coal mined is consumed by electric utilities that are based on pulverized coal combustion, but only a very small fraction is currently equipped with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) processes. The copper oxide process has been selected as one of the most promising emerging technologies for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal from flue gases in the Combustion 2000 program of the US Department of Energy. In particular, the development of the Copper Oxide Bed Regenerable Absorber (COBRA) process, which is based on moving-bed cross-flow reactor design for the combined removal of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and particulates, has been pursued in conjunction with the use of Illinois coal. Given the strict limits on SO{sub 2} emissions (1.2 lbs of SO{sub 2} per million Btu by the year 2000), the high sulfur content of Illinois coal, and the growing concern with the disposal of solid residues from conventional FGD processes, the pursuit of the COBRA technology to meet CAAA emission standards represents a strategic choice for the Illinois coal research and development program. This Study has been directed towards the evaluation of the commodity copper oxide sorbent currently being utilized in the demonstration of the COBRA process, to identify areas of improvement, and to develop and implement a strategy for preparing improved sorbents. In this paper, the results obtained to-date from tests carried out for the evaluation of the commercial sorbent for SO{sub 2} removal, its regenerability, and its effectiveness with repeated use

  1. Nitrogen cycling processes and microbial community composition in bed sediments in the Yukon River at Pilot Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repert, Deborah A.; Underwood, Jennifer C.; Smith, Richard L.; Song, Bongkeun

    2014-12-01

    Information on the contribution of nitrogen (N)-cycling processes in bed sediments to river nutrient fluxes in large northern latitude river systems is limited. This study examined the relationship between N-cycling processes in bed sediments and N speciation and loading in the Yukon River near its mouth at the Bering Sea. We conducted laboratory bioassays to measure N-cycling processes in sediment samples collected over distinct water cycle seasons. In conjunction, the microbial community composition in the bed sediments using genes involved in N-cycling (narG, napA, nosZ, and amoA) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences was examined. Temporal variation was observed in net N mineralization, nitrate uptake, and denitrification rate potentials and correlated strongly with sediment carbon (C) and extractable N content and microbial community composition rather than with river water nutrient concentrations. The C content of the bed sediment was notably impacted by the spring flood, ranging from 1.1% in the midst of an ice-jam to 0.1% immediately after ice-out, suggesting a buildup of organic material (OM) prior to scouring of the bed sediments during ice break up. The dominant members of the microbial community that explained differences in N-processing rates belonged to the genera Crenothrix, Flavobacterium, and the family of Comamonadaceae. Our results suggest that biogeochemical processing rates in the bed sediments appear to be more coupled to hydrology, nutrient availability in the sediments, and microbial community composition rather than river nutrient concentrations at Pilot Station.

  2. Nitrogen cycling processes and microbial community composition in bed sediments in the Yukon River at Pilot Station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repert, Deborah A.; Underwood, Jennifer C.; Smith, Richard L.; Song, Bongkeun

    2014-01-01

    Information on the contribution of nitrogen (N)-cycling processes in bed sediments to river nutrient fluxes in large northern latitude river systems is limited. This study examined the relationship between N-cycling processes in bed sediments and N speciation and loading in the Yukon River near its mouth at the Bering Sea. We conducted laboratory bioassays to measure N-cycling processes in sediment samples collected over distinct water cycle seasons. In conjunction, the microbial community composition in the bed sediments using genes involved in N-cycling (narG, napA, nosZ, and amoA) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences was examined. Temporal variation was observed in net N mineralization, nitrate uptake, and denitrification rate potentials and correlated strongly with sediment carbon (C) and extractable N content and microbial community composition rather than with river water nutrient concentrations. The C content of the bed sediment was notably impacted by the spring flood, ranging from 1.1% in the midst of an ice-jam to 0.1% immediately after ice-out, suggesting a buildup of organic material (OM) prior to scouring of the bed sediments during ice break up. The dominant members of the microbial community that explained differences in N-processing rates belonged to the genera Crenothrix,Flavobacterium, and the family of Comamonadaceae. Our results suggest that biogeochemical processing rates in the bed sediments appear to be more coupled to hydrology, nutrient availability in the sediments, and microbial community composition rather than river nutrient concentrations at Pilot Station.

  3. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O'Neil, D.J. . Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  4. Combined production and purification of hydrogen from methanol using steam iron process in fixed bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, R.; Durán, P.; Plou, J.; Herguido, J.; Peña, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    A research work is being conducted to study the combined production and purification of hydrogen by means of redox processes departing from biomass fast pyrolysis oils (bio-oils). To achieve that goal, methanol has been used as featured material because it is the most representative compound of the alcoholic fraction of bio-oils. The study has been carried out in a fixed bed reactor where methanol decomposes in H2 and CO when gets in contact with a reactive solid based in an iron oxide at temperatures above 600 °C. During the first stage of the “steam-iron” process, reactive gases reduce the iron oxide to metallic iron. Afterward, in a following step, the previously reduced iron is reoxidized by steam producing a high purity hydrogen stream. Although coke deposition does exist during the reducing stage, this behaves as inert during the reoxidation process. Coke inert role has been corroborated by GC, SEM and TEM techniques, showing that carbon deposits were constituted by ordered structures (carbon nanotubes). The determination of the hydrogen production along successive cycles allowed the evaluation of the effect of temperature and alternating reactive atmospheres on the stability of the solid, as well as the optimum conditions for such purpose.

  5. Initial operating capability for the hypercluster parallel-processing test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is investigating the benefits of parallel processing to applications in computational fluid and structural mechanics. To aid this investigation, NASA Lewis is developing the Hypercluster, a multi-architecture, parallel-processing test bed. The initial operating capability (IOC) being developed for the Hypercluster is described. The IOC will provide a user with a programming/operating environment that is interactive, responsive, and easy to use. The IOC effort includes the development of the Hypercluster Operating System (HYCLOPS). HYCLOPS runs in conjunction with a vendor-supplied disk operating system on a Front-End Processor (FEP) to provide interactive, run-time operations such as program loading, execution, memory editing, and data retrieval. Run-time libraries, that augment the FEP FORTRAN libraries, are being developed to support parallel and vector processing on the Hypercluster. Special utilities are being provided to enable passage of information about application programs and their mapping to the operating system. Communications between the FEP and the Hypercluster are being handled by dedicated processors, each running a Message-Passing Kernel, (MPK). A shared-memory interface allows rapid data exchange between HYCLOPS and the communications processors. Input/output handlers are built into the HYCLOPS-MPK interface, eliminating the need for the user to supply separate I/O support programs on the FEP.

  6. In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

  7. 77 FR 25206 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Underground Retorts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Underground Retorts AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent...

  8. Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

    1982-08-01

    A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

  9. Application of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration technology using retort reactors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiping; Liu, Biao; Chen, Yingquan; Chen, Wei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Hanping

    2016-01-01

    To introduce application status and illustrate the good utilisation potential of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration using retort reactors, the properties of major products and the economic viability of commercial factories were investigated. The capacity of one factory was about 3000t of biomass per year, which was converted into 1000t of charcoal, 950,000Nm(3) of biogas, 270t of woody tar, and 950t of woody vinegar. Charcoal and fuel gas had LHV of 31MJ/kg and 12MJ/m(3), respectively, indicating their potential for use as commercial fuels. The woody tar was rich in phenols, while woody vinegar contained large quantities of water and acetic acid. The economic analysis showed that the factory using this technology could be profitable, and the initial investment could be recouped over the factory lifetime. This technology offered a promising means of converting abundant agricultural biomass into high-value products. PMID:26476166

  10. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect

    Morrin, Shane; Lettieri, Paola; Chapman, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  11. Evaluation of the tablet coating by the conventional spouted-bed process.

    PubMed

    Silva, G D; Publio, M C; Oliveira, W P

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present an analysis of the tablet coating by the conventional spouted-bed process. To analyze the equipment performance, the rate of increase of the tablets mass, K1, and the adhesion coefficient eta were determined as a function of the feed flow rate of coating suspension Ws; of the Reynolds number Rep; of the flow rate of atomizing gas Wat, and of the cone base angle gamma. To analyze the product quality, the uniformity of coating mass deposition onto the tablet's surface was used. Three different procedures for description of kinetics growth, weighing method, image analysis, and measurements with a micrometer were used to verify the validity of the commonly used weighing method. Comparison between experimental results of kinetics growth with estimates obtained by a literature model was also performed. A tendency toward an increase in K1 and in eta with the feeding flow rate of coating suspension Ws was detected. The weighing method can be used for the process analysis. The kinetics of growth can be described by the growth model used. The variable that produce more pronounced effect on K1 and eta was the feed flow rate of coating suspension, the weighing method describes very well the increase of particle diameter with coating time, the growth model can be used for the describe the kinetics of growth during the coating operation, and the coating does not deposit uniformly onto the tablet's surface. PMID:11291201

  12. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - FOURTH PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of Phase 4 of a study on the CAFB process for gasification/desulfurization of liquid and solid fuels in a bed of hot lime. A new pilot unit was designed and constructed, incorporating such novel features as: a new fluidizing air distributor, high-flow/low...

  13. CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID-BED PROCESS FOR SULPHUR REMOVAL DURING GASIFICATION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL - SECOND PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the second phase of studies on the CAFB process for desulfurizing gasification of heavy fuel oil in a bed of hot lime. The first continuous pilot plant test with U.S. limestone BCR 1691 experienced local stone sintering and severe production of sticky dust du...

  14. [The development of the multifunctional automatic rotating bed with process-monitoring].

    PubMed

    Geng, Hongzhu; Hu, Monong; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Kejiang; Zhang, Jiaxia; Sun, Juefei

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a new rotating bed for the old and the paralised people. This rotating bed is composed of two bed heads at front and at end, bed boards, guardrails, an electric motor, a reducer, an induction locator and a set of electronic controls. With the preestablished program, the angle between the left/right bed board and the middle board is changed by rotating the left/right board around the rotation axis, and the gravity direction between the human body and the ground is changed by the rotation of the middle board as a whole, so that the middle bed board and the left and right ones will act respectively as supporters of weight of the person who is lying on his back or on his side. In this way, a person can turn over automatically, comfortably and naturally when he/she is asleep. This rotating bed meets the physiological needs of a sleeping person, and people with turning over problems can turn over in a comfortable and natural way by means of biotechnology. It can also improve the quality of sleep and help avoid decubitus. In addition, it can be used to promote the rehabilitation of those who are paralysed by reason of its passive exercising function. PMID:23858752

  15. Multiple sensor detection of process phenomena in laser powder bed fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Brandon; Whitenton, Eric; Moylan, Shawn

    2016-05-01

    Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process in which a high power laser melts metal powder layers into complex, three-dimensional shapes. LPBF parts are known to exhibit relatively high residual stresses, anisotropic microstructure, and a variety of defects. To mitigate these issues, in-situ measurements of the melt-pool phenomena may illustrate relationships between part quality and process signatures. However, phenomena such as spatter, plume formation, laser modulation, and melt-pool oscillations may require data acquisition rates exceeding 10 kHz. This hinders use of relatively data-intensive, streaming imaging sensors in a real-time monitoring and feedback control system. Single-point sensors such as photodiodes provide the temporal bandwidth to capture process signatures, while providing little spatial information. This paper presents results from experiments conducted on a commercial LPBF machine which incorporated synchronized, in-situ acquisition of a thermal camera, high-speed visible camera, photodiode, and laser modulation signal during fabrication of a nickel alloy 625 AM part with an overhang geometry. Data from the thermal camera provides temperature information, the visible camera provides observation of spatter, and the photodiode signal provides high temporal bandwidth relative brightness stemming from the melt pool region. In addition, joint-time frequency analysis (JTFA) was performed on the photodiode signal. JTFA results indicate what digital filtering and signal processing are required to highlight particular signatures. Image fusion of the synchronized data obtained over multiple build layers allows visual comparison between the photodiode signal and relating phenomena observed in the imaging detectors.

  16. Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Studebaker, Irving G.; Hefelfinger, Richard

    1980-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

  17. Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

    1981-09-14

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  18. A process-based model for erosion of Macoma balthica-affected mud beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Prooijen, Bram C.; Montserrat, Francesc; Herman, Peter M. J.

    2011-04-01

    Modeling the effect of biota on sediment dynamics is a difficult task. In this paper we re-analyze experimental results of Willows et al. (1998) on the effects of Macoma balthica on sediment erosion. A process-based framework is proposed, fully compatible with a physical description of erosion processes in case of no biogenic influences. The bed is represented by a fluff layer on top of a substrate. A characteristic feature of the framework is that the sediment is represented by a probability density distribution for the critical shear stress, allowing for Type I and Type II erosion. M. balthica increases the sediment mass in the fluff layer. This increase is determined by considering the action radius, the overlap of feeding areas, and the feeding rate per animal. The calibrated action radius and feeding rate were in the range as found in the literature. The distribution of sediment over the erodibility classes and the erosion rate parameter are hardly influenced at all. Due to overlapping feeding areas, the effect is non-linear with density of the animals. The model results are in close agreement with the measured results, suggesting that no further formulations of biological effects are needed to simulate the experiments of Willows et al. (1998). In nature, other effects like disrupting the biofilm by grazing can be of importance and should be included in a later stage. This study emphasizes the crucial role of sediment availability and the effect of biota on it. This aspect needs more attention in future experiments. The proposed model turned out to work well for the effects of M. balthica and offers opportunities to include other biogenic effects in a process-based way as well.

  19. Reverse osmosis concentrate treatment by chemical oxidation and moving bed biofilm processes.

    PubMed

    Vendramel, S M R; Justo, A; González, O; Sans, C; Esplugas, S

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, four oxidation techniques were investigated (O3, O3/UV, H2O2/O3, O3/H2O2/UV) to pre-treat reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate before treatment in a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system. Without previous oxidation, the MBBR was able to remove a small fraction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (5-20%) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (2-15%). When the concentrate was previously submitted to oxidation, DOC removal efficiencies in the MBBR increased to 40-55%. All the tested oxidation techniques improved concentrate biodegradability. The concentrate treated by the combined process (oxidation and MBBR) presented residual DOC and COD in the ranges of 6-12 and 25-41 mg L(-1), respectively. Nitrification of the RO concentrate, pre-treated by oxidation, was observed in the MBBR. Ammonium removal was comprised between 54 and 79%. The results indicate that the MBBR was effective for the treatment of the RO concentrate, previously submitted to oxidation, generating water with an improved quality. PMID:24334891

  20. Mechanisms of flow through compressible porous beds in sedimentation, filtration, centrifugation, deliquoring, and ceramic processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, F.M.

    1992-06-01

    The University of Houston research program is aimed at the specific area of solid/liquid separation including sedimentation, thickening, cake filtration, centrifugation, expression, washing, deep-bed filtration, screening, and membrane separation. Unification of the theoretical approaches to the various solid/liquid separation operations is the principle objective of the research. Exploring new aspects of basic separation mechanisms, verification of theory with experiment, development of laboratory procedures for obtaining data for design, optimizing operational methods, and transferring the results to industry are a part of the Houston program. New methodology developed in our program now permits an engineer or scientist to handle thickening, cake filtration, centrigual filtration, and expression in a unified manner. The same fundamental equations are simply adapted to the differing parameters and conditions related to the various modes of separation. As the system is flexible and adaptable to computational software, new developments can continually be added. Discussions of the various research projects in this report have been kept to a minimum and are principally qualitative. The length of the report would be excessive if each topic were covered in depth. Although the number of research topics may appear larger than one would expect, many are closely interconnected and reflect our philosophy of working in apparently diverse fields such as ceramics, mining, wastewater, food, chemical processing, and oil well operations.

  1. A novel semidry flue gas desulfurization process with the magnetically fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting

    2009-09-15

    The magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) was used as the reactor in a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency. Experiments in a laboratory-scale apparatus were conducted to reveal the effects of approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, Ca/S molar ratio and applied magnetic field intensity on SO(2) removal. Results showed that SO(2) removal efficiency can be obviously enhanced by decreasing approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, increasing Ca/S molar ratio, or increasing applied magnetic field intensity. At a magnetic field intensity of 300Oe and a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.0, the desulfurization efficiency (excluding desulfurization efficiency in the fabric filter) was over 80%, while spent sorbent appeared in the form of dry powder. With the SEM, XRD and EDX research, it can be found that the increase of DC magnetic field intensity can make the surface morphology on the surface of the ferromagnetic particles loose and enhance the oxidation of S(IV), hence reducing the liquid phase mass transfer resistance of the slurry droplets and increasing desulfurization reaction rate, respectively. Therefore, the desulfurization efficiency increased obviously with the increase of DC field intensity. PMID:19369002

  2. Removal of hexavalent chromium by biosorption process in rotating packed bed.

    PubMed

    Panda, M; Bhowal, A; Datta, S

    2011-10-01

    Removal of hexavalent chromium ions from an aqueous solution by crude tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell was examined in a rotating packed bed contactor by continuously recirculating a given volume of solution through the bed. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) within the biosorbent appeared to be the removal mechanism. Depletion rate of Cr(VI) from, and release of reduced Cr(III) ions into the aqueous phase, was influenced by mass transfer resistance besides pH and packing depth. A mathematical model considering the reduction reaction to be irreversible and incorporating intraparticle and external phase mass transfer resistances represented the experimental data adequately. The study indicated that the limitations of fixed bed contactor operating under terrestrial gravity in intensifying mass transfer rates for this system can be overcome with rotating packed bed due to liquid flow under centrifugal acceleration. PMID:21819035

  3. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  4. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    PubMed Central

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  5. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  6. A novel energy-efficient pyrolysis process: self-pyrolysis of oil shale triggered by topochemical heat in a horizontal fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  7. Sorption processes affecting arsenic solubility in oxidized surface sediments from Tulare Lake Bed, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gao, S.; Goldberg, S.; Herbel, M.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Fujii, R.; Tanji, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in shallow groundwater in Tulare Basin pose an environmental risk because of the carcinogenic properties of As and the potential for its migration to deep aquifers that could serve as a future drinking water source. Adsorption and desorption are hypothesized to be the major processes controlling As solubility in oxidized surface sediments where arsenate [As(V)] is dominant. This study examined the relationship between sorption processes and arsenic solubility in shallow sediments from the dry Tulare Lake bed by determining sorption isotherms, pH effect on solubility, and desorption-readsorption behavior (hysteresis), and by using a surface complexation model to describe sorption. The sediments showed a high capacity to adsorb As(V). Estimates of the maximum adsorption capacity were 92 mg As kg- 1 at pH 7.5 and 70 mg As kg- 1 at pH 8.5 obtained using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Soluble arsenic [> 97% As(V)] did not increase dramatically until above pH 10. In the native pH range (7.5-8.5), soluble As concentrations were close to the lowest, indicating that As was strongly retained on the sediment. A surface complexation model, the constant capacitance model, was able to provide a simultaneous fit to both adsorption isotherms (pH 7.5 and 8.5) and the adsorption envelope (pH effect on soluble As), although the data ranges are one order of magnitude different. A hysteresis phenomenon between As adsorbed on the sediment and As in solution phase was observed in the desorption-readsorption processes and differs from conventional hysteresis observed in adsorption-desorption processes. The cause is most likely due to modification of adsorbent surfaces in sediment samples upon extensive extractions (or desorption). The significance of the hysteresis phenomenon in affecting As solubility and mobility may be better understood by further microscopic studies of As interaction mechanisms with sediments subjected to extensive leaching

  8. Development of a trickle bed reactor of electro-Fenton process for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yangming; Liu, Hong; Shen, Zhemin; Wang, Wenhua

    2013-10-15

    To avoid electrolyte leakage and gas bubbles in the electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) reactors using a gas diffusion cathode, we developed a trickle bed cathode by coating a layer composed of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (C-PTFE) onto graphite chips instead of carbon cloth. The trickle bed cathode was optimized by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, in which carbon black, PTFE, and a surfactant were considered as the determinant of the performance of graphite chips. In the reactor assembled by the trickle bed cathode, H2O2 was generated with a current of 0.3A and a current efficiency of 60%. This performance was attributed to the fine distribution of electrolyte and air, as well as the effective oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the electrolyte-cathode interface. In terms of H2O2 generation and current efficiency, the developed trickle bed reactor had a performance comparable to that of the conventional E-Fenton reactor using a gas diffusion cathode. Further, 123 mg L(-1) of reactive brilliant red X-3B in aqueous solution was decomposed in the optimized trickle bed reactor as E-Fenton reactor. The decolorization ratio reached 97% within 20 min, and the mineralization reached 87% within 3h. PMID:23994655

  9. 9 CFR 318.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing and production records. 318.306 Section 318.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... retort operation. Container conveyor speed, and for agitating hydrostatic retorts, the rotative...

  10. 9 CFR 318.306 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing and production records. 318.306 Section 318.306 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... retort operation. Container conveyor speed, and for agitating hydrostatic retorts, the rotative...