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Sample records for beef cattle administered

  1. Comparison of the time required to administer three different fluke and worm combination products to commercial beef cattle at housing.

    PubMed

    Webster, R; Knox, K; Berger, F; Delaveau, J; Forbes, A B

    2008-01-01

    Larger livestock units, a decline in the farm labor force, animal welfare concerns, and a trend toward more selective use of drugs have increased the focus on animal handling, time management, convenience, and compliance in administering veterinary therapeutics. This study was undertaken to quantify and compare the time needed to treat commercial beef cattle with three fluke and worm combination products with different administration profiles. Young beef cattle (n = 270) weighing approximately 400 kg were allocated to batches of five, which were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin + clorsulon injection, ivermectin + closantel injection, or levamisole + triclabendazole oral drench. The mean time needed to administer ivermectin + clorsulon (single injection) to five cattle was 31 seconds, which was significantly less than the 100 seconds needed for ivermectin + closantel (two injections) and the 126 seconds needed for levamisole + triclabendazole (P < .001). Such quantitative data can allow for better planning and selection of parasiticide treatment approaches at the farm level. PMID:18415946

  2. Consumption of beef from cattle administered estrogenic growth promotants does not result in premature puberty and obesity using the swine model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the effects of ground beef from cattle administered commercial growth promotants on puberty attainment and body composition in female swine. Twenty-four gilts were selected based on strict selection criteria to reduce piglet variation. Treatments were randomly assign...

  3. Seedstock beef cattle: SPA.

    PubMed

    McGrann, J M; Leachman, L

    1995-07-01

    The Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) for seedstock beef cattle (SPA-SB) is a recommended set of production and financial performance analysis guidelines developed specifically for the seedstock cow-calf, replacement heifer, and the sale bull enterprises. These guidelines were developed by members of the National Cattlemen's Association (NCA) and the National Integrated Resource Management Coordinating Committee to provide beef cattle producers with a comprehensive, standardized means of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the performance and profitability of an operation. This article describes and illustrates through an example the performance measures chosen. NCA certifies software and education materials conforming to the Seedstock SPA Guidelines. PMID:7584819

  4. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  5. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  6. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of atmospheric emissions of fugitive dusts and volatile products from beef cattle feedlots. Total particulate emissions are affected by feedlot area, cattle density in pens, wind speed, and the regional precipitation-evaporation index. The predominant...

  7. Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption. PMID:17987970

  8. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  9. Genomics of Disease in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases have a considerable effect in the productivity of the beef cattle industry. Given the low heritability of immunity, it is necessary to identify genes involved in this response. Initial efforts to identify genomic regions associated with these characteristics in beef cattle have been limited...

  10. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  11. Genetic relationships among breeds of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic distance among 16 populations of beef cattle from within the U.S. Thirty-three microsatellite markers representing 26 autosomes were used. MicroSatellite Analyzer 3.15 (MSA) program was used to quantify number of alleles per marker, and observed and expected het...

  12. The effect of administering long-acting oxytetracycline and tilmicosin either by dart gun or by hand on injection site lesions and drug residues in beef cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, J; VanderKop, M; Salisbury, C; Sears, L; Holowath, J

    1999-01-01

    Forty yearling cattle were injected intramuscularly with long-acting oxytetracycline and subcutaneously with tilmicosin by dart gun or by hand in a chute 28 days prior to slaughter. The drugs caused injection site lesions and antibiotic residues in the neck and thigh that varied by technique, dose, and site. PMID:12001341

  13. Diversity and Distribution of Commensal Fecal Escherichia coli Bacteria in Beef Cattle Administered Selected Subtherapeutic Antimicrobials in a Feedlot Setting▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ranjana; Munns, Krysty; Alexander, Trevor; Entz, Toby; Mirzaagha, Parasto; Yanke, L. Jay; Mulvey, Michael; Topp, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains isolated from fecal samples were screened to examine changes in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics including antimicrobial susceptibility, clonal type, and carriage of resistance determinants. The goal of this 197-day study was to investigate the influence of administration of chlortetracycline alone (T) or in combination with sulfamethazine (TS) on the development of resistance, dissemination of defined strain types, and prevalence of resistance determinants in feedlot cattle. Inherent tetracycline resistance was detected in cattle with no prior antimicrobial exposure. Antimicrobial administration was not found to be essential for the maintenance of inherently ampicillin-resistant and tetracycline-resistant (Tetr) E. coli in control animals; however, higher Tetr E. coli shedding was observed in animals subjected to the two treatments. At day 0, high tetracycline (26.7%), lower sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (19.2%), and several other resistances were detected, which by the finishing phase (day 197) were restricted to ampicillin-tetracycline (47.5%), tetracycline (31.7%), and ampicillin-tetracycline-sulfamethoxazole (20.8%) from both treated and untreated cattle. Among the determinants, blaTEM1, tet(A), and sul2 were prevalent at days 0 and 197. Further, E. coli from day 0 showed diverse antibiogram profiles and strain types, which by the finishing phase were limited to up to three, irrespective of the treatment. Some genetically identical strains expressed different phenotypes and harbored diverse determinants, indicating that mobile genetic elements contribute to resistance dissemination. This was supported by an increased linked inheritance of ampicillin and tetracycline resistance genes and prevalence of specific strains at day 197. Animals in the cohort shed increasingly similar genotypes by the finishing phase due to animal-to-animal strain transmission. Thus, characterizing inherent resistance and propagation of cohort

  14. Effect of antimicrobial growth promoter administration on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) are antimicrobial agents administered to livestock in feed for prolonged periods to enhance feed efficiency. Beef cattle are primarily finished in confined feeding operations in Canada and the USA, and the administration of AGPs such as chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (Aureo S-700 G) is the standard. The impacts of AGPs on the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are currently uncertain; it is documented that AGPs administered to beef cattle pass through the rumen and enter the intestine. To ascertain the impacts of Aureo S-700 G on the small and large intestinal microbiota of beef cattle (mucosa-associated and within digesta), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for total bacteria were applied. Beef cattle were maintained in an experimental feedlot (five replicate pens per treatment), and AGP treatment cattle were administered Aureo S-700 G in feed, whereas control cattle were administered no antimicrobials. As the intestinal microbiota of beef cattle has not been extensively examined, clone library analysis was applied to ascertain the primary bacterial constituents of the intestinal microbiota. Results Comparative T-RFLP and qPCR analysis (n = 122 samples) revealed that bacterial community fingerprints and bacterial load within digesta differed from those associated with mucosa. However, the administration of Aureo S-700 G did not affect bacterial community fingerprints or bacterial load within the small and large intestine relative to control cattle. Analysis of >1500 near full length 16S rDNA clones revealed considerably greater bacterial diversity in the large relative to the small intestine of beef cattle. Mucosa-associated bacterial communities in the jejunum were dominated by Proteobacteria, and differed conspicuously from those in the ileum and large intestine. Although the ileum contained bacterial clones that were common to the

  15. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: I-Using estrous response to determine the optimal time(s) at which to administer GnRH in beef heifers and postpartum cows.

    PubMed

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated timing of GnRH administration in beef heifers and cows on the basis of estrous status during split-time artificial insemination (AI) after controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocols. In experiment 1, estrus was synchronized for 816 pubertal and prepubertal or peripubertal heifers using the 14-day CIDR-PGF2α (PG) protocol, and in experiment 2, estrus was synchronized for 622 lactating cows using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. For both experiments, estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG, with estrus recorded at 66 and 90 hours after PG. Treatments were balanced across locations for heifers using reproductive tract score and weight; whereas for cows, treatments were assigned and balanced to treatment according to age, body condition score, and days postpartum. Timing of AI for heifers and cows was on the basis of estrus expression 66 hours after PG. Females in each treatment that exhibited estrus before 66 hours were inseminated at 66 hours, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for females failing to exhibit estrus before 66 hours. Females in treatment one received GnRH 66 hours after PG irrespective of estrus expression; however, in treatment 2, GnRH was administered coincident with delayed AI only to females not detected in estrus at 66 hours after PG. Among heifers, there was no effect of treatment on overall estrous response (P = 0.49) or AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.54). Pregnancy rate for heifers inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.65), and there were no differences between treatments in estrous response during the 24 hours delay period (P = 0.22). Cows in treatment 2 had a greater (P = 0.04) estrous response during the 24-hour delay period resulting in a greater overall estrous response (P = 0.04), but this did not affect AI pregnancy rate at 90 hours (P = 0.51) or total AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.89). Pregnancy rate resulting from AI for

  16. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplements and growth promotants containing steroid hormones are routinely administered to beef cattle to improve feeding efficiency, reduce behavioral problems, and enhance production. As a result, beef cattle manure will contain both synthetic steroids as well as a range of endogenous steroids i...

  17. Economic viability of beef cattle grazing systems under prolonged drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prolonged drought in the Southern Great Plains of the USA in recent years has raised concerns about vulnerability of beef cattle grazing systems under adverse climate change. To help address the economic viability of beef grazing operations in the Southern Great Plains, this paper provides an econom...

  18. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI) after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL) were rejected (20.7%) while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg). Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130). The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d) from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d). Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable. PMID:19948052

  19. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 ± 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 ± 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 ± 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 ± 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 ± 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 ± 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues. PMID:26662353

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus balance of beef cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large quantities of nutrients enter beef cattle feedyards in feed ingredients. These nutrients subsequently 'leave' the yard in finished cattle, manure, or through the atmosphere. A better understanding of the movement of these nutrients would be helpful in developing nutrient management plans and t...

  1. Methane emissions from a beef cattle feedyard: measurements and models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation by livestock account for about 2% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with beef and dairy cattle the most significant sources. Most current approaches to estimate the contribution of cattle to GHG emissions use emission factors based on productio...

  2. Technical note: validation of rumination collars for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Goldhawk, C; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate a wireless rumination monitoring system (Hi-Tag; SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) for recording rumination in beef cattle. The system operates based on acoustics of rumination and has been used previously for monitoring rumination in both young and adult dairy cattle. Study 1 consisted of beef cattle in tie-stall housing with 72 observations for 4 cattle fed a high forage backgrounding diet and 47 observations for 3 cattle fed a high grain finishing diet. Study 2 consisted of 44 observations for 6 beef cattle fed a high forage diet in a loose-housing feedlot pen. Each observation consisted of the rumination time during a 2-h period as estimated by visual observations made by trained observers (inter-observer correlation r = 0.97) and the Hi-Tag system. The mean difference between visual and Hi-Tag rumination times was 9.8 ± 18.7 min/2 h. The rumination times from the Hi-Tag system were only moderately correlated with visual observations (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). The difference between visual and Hi-Tag rumination times was not correlated with head posture during the 2 h period (r = -0.02, P = 0.89). Physical and dietary differences between dairy and beef cattle may have resulted in the inaccuracy of the Hi-Tag system when used in beef cattle fed typical backgrounding and finishing diets. More work is required to improve the accuracy of this automated system for rumination monitoring before it can be used reliably with beef cattle. PMID:23482572

  3. Performance of four stabilization bioprocesses of beef cattle feedlot manure.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Lorin, Higor E Francisconi; Costa, Luiz Antonio de Mendonça; Cestonaro, Taiana; Pereira, Dercio C; Bernardi, Francieli H

    2016-10-01

    The biological stabilization of beef cattle manure is crucial for promoting sanitation in feedlot pens. This study compared the performance of composting, vermicomposting, static windrows, and anaerobic digestion for stabilization of beef cattle feedlot manure based on the degradation of organic matter, nutrient retention, and stability of the final product in each process using uni- and multivariate analysis. The cluster analysis showed that composting and vermicomposting were the most similar processes. The principal component analysis showed that the more oxidative processes (composting and vermicomposting) degraded beef cattle feedlot manure more effectively (up to 45%) than static windrows and anaerobic digestion. Stabilization processes did not affect the amount of phosphorus, whereas potassium losses ranged from 3% (anaerobic digestion) to 30% (static windrow) and differed significantly across processes. Electrical conductivity decreased only in static windrow (30%). A decrease in the C/N ratio were observed in all processes, but the reduction was smaller in static windrow (5%). Larger reductions in C/N ratio were associated with greater increases in the humic to fulvic acid ratio. Composting and vermicomposting processes more effectively degraded beef cattle manure and produced stable organic fertilizers. Anaerobic digestion more effectively retained macronutrients (N and K) and converted organic N to ammonium. The use of static windrows is the least effective bioprocess for the stabilization of beef cattle feedlot manure. PMID:27415410

  4. Comparison of enzyme activities in plasma and leukocytes in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Arai, Toshiro; Inoue, Akira; Takeguchi, Akira; Mizutani, Hisashi; Shimoo, Megumi; Sako, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Itaru; Kimura, Nobuhiro

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and free fatty acid (FFA) and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern in plasma and leukocytes were investigated in lactating Holstein cows (dairy cattle) and fattening Japanese Black Wagyu x Holstein steers (beef cattle). IRI concentrations and LDH and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities in the plasma of beef cattle were significantly higher than those in dairy cattle. The cytosolic ratio of MDH/LDH activity in the leukocytes of beef cattle was significantly higher than that of dairy cattle. These findings might be associated with the different energy metabolism between dairy and beef cattle. PMID:14665755

  5. Nutritional and dietary interrelationships with diseases of grazing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wikse, S E; Craig, T M; Hutcheson, D P

    1991-03-01

    This article describes current methods of controlling acute bovine pulmonary emphysema (ABPEE) and edema, lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes, and bloat in grazing beef cattle. Success in handling outbreaks of these conditions and in their prevention depends on an understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis. Supplementation with ionophore antibiotics is effective in prevention of ABPEE and bloat and may also prevent other diseases of cattle that graze lush pastures. PMID:1828709

  6. Lake-dredged material for beef cattle pasture establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbonatic lake-dredged materials can be used as soil amendments (lime and fertilizer) for early establishment of bahiagrass in beef cattle pastures in Florida. Some of the indirect benefits of the liming effects of this material for pastures include enhancing nutrient availability, nitrification, n...

  7. Beef cattle metabiomes and their relationships with economically important phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The selection and optimization of economically important phenotypes, i.e. feed efficiency, in cattle has long been an effort devoted to host genetics, management, and diet. Feed costs remain the largest variable cost in beef production, and consequently, the improvement of feed efficiency is of sig...

  8. Accuracy of genomic predictions in Nellore beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was carried out to assess the quality of genomic predictions in a Nellore beef cattle population, for 14 growth, carcass composition and reproduction traits, evaluated either at weaning or as yearlings. A forward prediction scheme was applied, so that information on a set of older animals...

  9. Nitrogen sustainability and beef cattle feedyards: II. Ammonia emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable management of beef cattle feedyard nitrogen (N) helps avoid environmental degradation and loss of manure fertilizer value due to ammonia volatilization. In this review we report the state-of-the-science concerning feedyard ammonia and evaluate methods to mitigate N losses. Up to 90% of f...

  10. DRY NONHEATED ANAEROBIC BIOGAS FERMENTATION USING AGED BEEF CATTLE MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biogas production at beef cattle feedlots is hard to justify because of the large amounts of dilution water required and the high cost to design and operate conventional water-based digestion systems. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of producing biogas us...

  11. The U.S. beef cattle industry: The carbon footprint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This was an invited 20 minute oral presentation concerning the carbon footprint of the U.S. beef cattle industry. The audience at the workshop (about 30 people) included university professors and graduate students from agriculture and enviornmental sciences. The presentation included a brief revie...

  12. Modeling water movement in beef cattle bedded manure pack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedded manure is a valuable fertilizer source because it contains essential macronutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)) for crop production. Previous research with beef cattle bedded manure packs demonstrated that water-soluble macronutrients accumulated toward the bottom of the...

  13. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  14. Evaluation of methods of temperament scoring for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperament can negatively affect various production traits, including live weight, ADG, DMI, conception rates and carcass weight. The objective of this research study was to evaluate temperament scoring methods in beef cattle. Crossbred (n = 228) calves were evaluated for temperament at weaning by ...

  15. Nutritional practices to reduce environmental impact of grazing beef cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of beef cattle operations on water quality, climate change, wildlife, and the general environment is a growing concern. With increased concern about the environment, many "common" practices might need to be revised in order to balance production efficiency and income with real and percei...

  16. Fetal to maternal transplacental DNA transfer in female beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exchange of DNA between mother and fetus has been well documented in humans but only limited reports exist for beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if we could detect male fetal DNA in the maternal blood after parturition. Whole blood was collected within 48 h after parturition from multipa...

  17. BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOT RUNOFF AND CONTROL IN EASTERN NEBRASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was initiated to determine operational characteristics of runoff control facility components for beef cattle feedlots. A runoff control facility was designed and constructed for a 3,000 head capacity feedlot in eastern Nebraska. Components of the runoff control facilit...

  18. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  19. Soil nutrients, bacterial communities, and veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle backgrounding confinement on karst environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States hosts the world’s largest grain fed beef production. Commercial beef production in the US consists of three tiers that include: cow-calf enterprises, cattle backgrounding/stockering, and feedlot finishing. Beef cattle backgrounding/stockering represents an intermediate between the ...

  20. Alternative programs for synchronizing and resynchronizing ovulation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bó, Gabriel A; de la Mata, José Javier; Baruselli, Pietro S; Menchaca, Alejo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) has been regarded as the most useful method to increase the number of cows inseminated in a given herd. The main treatments for FTAI in beef cattle are based on the use of progesterone-releasing devices and GnRH or estradiol to synchronize follicle wave emergence, with a mean pregnancy per AI (P/AI) around 50%. However, more recent protocols based on GnRH (named 5-day Co-Synch) or estradiol (named J-Synch) that reduce the period of progesterone device insertion and extend the period from device removal to FTAI have been reported to improve P/AI in beef cattle. Furthermore, treatments to resynchronize ovulation for a second FTAI in nonpregnant cows have provided the opportunity to do sequential inseminations and achieve high P/AI in a breeding season, reducing or even eliminating the need for clean-up bulls. In summary, FTAI protocols have facilitated the widespread application of AI in beef cattle, primarily by eliminating the necessity of estrus detection in beef herds. PMID:27180326

  1. Influence of feedlot pen surface layers and distillers' grain diets on microbial community structure associated with beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle feedlots on the Southern High Plains annually produce approximately 7 million beef cattle accounting for 30% of the total U.S. fed beef cattle production. The high density of beef cattle results in concentration of nutrients (C, N, and P) in manure wastes and may create an environment favorab...

  2. Nitrification in Beef Cattle Feedlot Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The aim of this study is to characterize nitrifier activity, abundance, and diversity for a cattle production ...

  3. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  4. Genomics and the global beef cattle industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After two decades of developing DNA-based tools for selection, we are at an interesting juncture. Genomic technology has essentially eliminated the potentially large negative impact of spontaneous single mutation genetic defects as the management of recent examples of beef defects has demonstrated....

  5. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223

  6. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  7. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    PubMed

    Wahlquist, Åsa K

    2013-01-01

    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

  8. Simple least-cost ration formulation for small beef cattle operations in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed costs are a significant portion of total costs in production of beef cattle and affect profitability. Further, it is critical that nutrients in rations are adequate to meet the nutritional requirements of cattle in small beef operations without being in excess of requirements. There are sever...

  9. Measurement of particulate matter emission fluxes from a beef cattle feedlot using Flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely-used micrometeorological method for gaseous emissions from open sources. V...

  10. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  11. Ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyard: a summary of seven years of research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle feedyards in the U.S. annually emit about 400 Gg of ammonia-N to the atmosphere. We summarize seven years of field and laboratory research on ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyards on the Southern High Plains. Daily and annual ammonia emission patterns depended strongly on temperat...

  12. Opportunities and challenges from the use of genomic selection for beef cattle breeding in Latin America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beef cattle production in Latin America in very important on a worldwide scale and for several regional countries. The region accounts for 29% of the world cattle population and beef production. Genomic selection allows the estimation of breeding values in animals for young animals from DNA samp...

  13. Nitrous oxide fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide (N2O), from open beef cattle feedlots is becoming an environmental concern; however, research measuring emission rates of N2O from open beef cattle feedlots has been limited. This study was conducted to quantify N2O emission fluxes as affected by...

  14. Animal-to-Animal Variation in Fecal Microbial Diversity among Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are an essential component of animal health and productivity. Here we present a survey of fecal bacteria from six beef cattle generated by near full-length sequencing of 11,171 16S rDNA genes. Deep sequencing revealed considerable variation in the phylotype...

  15. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Claudia; Vidal, Lorena; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cattle feces and ground beef, to characterize these strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and to compare them to three listeria strains found in humans. Cattle from different origins (n = 250) and ground beef obtained from supermarkets (n = 40) were sampled. The results show low occurrence in cattle feces (0.4 %) but a higher presence in ground beef (37 %). An important part of the ground beef strains (80 %) had > 95 % similarity with a strain isolated from a human sporadic case and the ATCC 19115 used as control. The strain isolated from cattle feces had 93 % similarity to clone 009, previously associated with a listeriosis outbreak related to cheese. Cattle and ground beef can harbor virulent L. monocytogenes strains. Further studies in animals and animal products are needed to improve listeriosis control. PMID:23102469

  16. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals. PMID:26657049

  17. Macrominerals and Trace Element Requirements for Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Engle, Terry Eugene; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Silva, Flávia Adriane Sales; Martins, Edilane Costa; Tokunaga, Arnaldo Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Eighty-seven Nellore animals were utilized in this study to estimate net requirements for the maintenance and growth of beef cattle as well as the retention coefficients of 13 minerals: macrominerals (Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S) and trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Co, and Cr). The net requirements for maintenance and the true retention coefficient were estimated by using the regression between apparent retention and intake for each mineral. The net requirement for maintenance (μg/kg BW) and retention coefficients (%) were 163 and 85 for Cu, 2,097 and 53 for Fe, 32.3 and 24 for Mn, 3.72 and 48 for Se, 669 and 0.80 for Zn, 18.4 and 86 for Co, and 22.9 and 78 for Cr. The dietary requirements of macrominerals (g/kg DMI) were 5.12 for Ca, 2.38 for P, 0.96 for Mg, 2.40 for K, 0.79 for Na, and 1.47 for S. This is the first study using Nellore cattle to estimate mineral requirements; considering that Nellore cattle are the most common breed in Brazil and that Brazil is a major beef producer globally, this knowledge can help producers to improve animal performance by supplying the correct amount of minerals. PMID:26657049

  18. Characteristics of Fluid Composition of Left Displaced Abomasum in Beef Cattle Fed High-Starch Diets

    PubMed Central

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; KIKUCHI, Tomoko; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid. PMID:24813464

  19. Linkage disequilibrium in Angus, Charolais, and Crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Duc; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Kelly, Matthew; Li, Changxi; Vander Voort, Gordon; Wang, Zhiquan; Plastow, Graham; Moore, Stephen; Miller, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the persistence of its phase across populations are important for genomic selection as well as fine scale mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). However, knowledge of LD in beef cattle, as well as the persistence of LD phase between crossbreds (C) and purebreds, is limited. The objective of this study was to understand the patterns of LD in Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), and C beef cattle based on 31,073, 32,088, and 33,286 SNP in each population, respectively. Amount of LD decreased rapidly from 0.29 to 0.23 to 0.19 in AN, 0.22 to 0.16 to 0.12 in CH, 0.21 to 0.15 to 0.11 in C, when the distance range between markers changed from 0–30 kb to 30–70 kb and then to 70–100 kb, respectively. Breeds and chromosomes had significant effects (P < 0.001) on LD decay. There was significant interaction between breeds and chromosomes (P < 0.001). Correlations of LD phase were high between C and AN (0.84), C and CH (0.81), as well as between AN and CH (0.77) for distances less than or equal to 70 kb. These dropped when the distance increased. Estimated effective population sizes for AN and CH were 207 and 285, respectively, for 10 generations ago. Given a useful LD of at least 0.3 between pairs of SNPs, the LD phase between any pair of the three breed groups was highly persistent. The current SNP density would allow the capture of approximately 49% of useful LD between SNP and marker QTL in AN, and 38% in CH. A higher density SNP panel or redesign of the current panel is needed to achieve more of useful LD for the purpose of genomic selection beef cattle. PMID:22912646

  20. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. PMID:27140297

  1. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  2. Assessing impact of forage-based cattle operation on phosphorus and other crop nutrient loads in subtropical beef cattle pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle production contributes over $300 million to Florida’s economy and ranks sixth among agricultural commodities. Florida beef production is predominantly cow-calf production and occupies large areas of grazing lands, which have traditionally thought to be environmentally friendly. However i...

  3. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Heriberto; Hitschfeld, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated. PMID:24031386

  4. Survey of Job Skills in the Beef Cattle Industry in the Uintah Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kirk J.

    A study was conducted to identify the skills and training needs of Uintah Basin (Utah) beef cattle producers. A questionnaire form was mailed to a random sample of 210 beef producers. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 106 skills to be rated by the respondents. Two basic questions were asked about each skill: (1) How important is the skill…

  5. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  6. Association of microRNAs with antibody response to mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  7. Association of microRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  8. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  9. Association of selenocysteine transfer RNA fragments with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to identify transfer RNA fragments (tRFs) associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected...

  10. Use of a resistance meter to locate manure suitable for energy recovery in beef cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral constituents, i.e., salts, contained in beef feedlot manure alter inherent soil conductivity. Researchers at USMARC have adapted tools such as electromagnetic soil conductivity meters and mapping/modeling software to identify areas where by manure accumulates on beef cattle feedlots. These t...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in beef and dairy cattle production.

    PubMed

    Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Sawant, Ashish A

    2008-12-01

    Observational studies of cattle production systems usually find that cattle from conventional dairies harbor a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) enteric bacteria compared to organic dairies or beef-cow operations; given that dairies usually use more antimicrobials, this result is not unexpected. Experimental studies have usually verified that application of antimicrobials leads to at least a transient expansion of AMR bacterial populations in treated cattle. Nevertheless, on dairy farms the majority of antibiotics are used to treat mastitis and yet AMR remains relatively low in mastitis pathogens. Other studies have shown no correlation between antimicrobial use and prevalence of AMR bacteria including documented cases where the prevalence of AMR bacteria is non-responsive to antimicrobial applications or remains relatively high in the absence of antimicrobial use or any other obvious selective pressures. Thus, there are multi-factorial events and pressures that influence AMR bacterial populations in cattle production systems. We introduce a heuristic model that illustrates how repeated antimicrobial selection pressure can increase the probability of genetic linkage between AMR genes and niche- or growth-specific fitness traits. This linkage allows persistence of AMR bacteria at the herd level because subpopulations of AMR bacteria are able to reside long-term within the host animals even in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure. This model highlights the need for multiple approaches to manage herd health so that the total amount of antimicrobials is limited in a manner that meets animal welfare and public health needs while reducing costs for producers and consumers over the long-term. PMID:18983724

  12. Campylobacter jejuni abortions in two beef cattle herds in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Janzen, Eugene D.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Berry, Catherine; Clark, Edward G.; Haines, Deborah M.

    1990-01-01

    Abortions, accompanied by placental retention and weight loss, occurred during February and March in 19% of 120 and 10% of 108 beef cows and heifers on two neighboring ranches in southern Saskatchewan. A diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni abortion was made based on lesions of necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and fetal bronchopneumonia in association with the culture of large numbers of C. jejuni from placentas and fetal tissues. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated with variable frequency from fecal samples of aborting and healthy cows, and scouring and healthy calves. Campylobacter jejuni serotype 2 (Lior) was isolated from fetal tissues and feces of a scouring calf, whereas C. jejuni serotypes 1, 4, 5 and 99 were isolated from feces of in-contact cattle. We hypothesized that the source and mode of transmission of C. jejuni was fecal contamination of water supplies and feeding grounds by carrier cows or wildlife. PMID:17423586

  13. Temporal Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter spp. from Beef Cattle in Alberta Feedlots†

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. D.; Morck, D. W.; McAllister, T. A.; Entz, T.; Olson, M. E.; Yanke, L. J.; Read, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was temporally assessed in campylobacters isolated from beef cattle (7,738 fecal samples from 2,622 animals) in four commercial feedlots in Alberta. All calves were administered chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in feed, and a majority of the animals (93%) were injected with long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at the feedlot. Fecal samples from individual animals were collected upon arrival (i.e., entry sample), 69 days (standard deviation [SD] = 3 days) after arrival (i.e., interim sample), and 189 days (SD = 33 days) after arrival (i.e., exit sample) at the feedlot. In total, 1,586 Campylobacter isolates consisting of Campylobacter coli (n = 154), Campylobacter fetus (n = 994), Campylobacter jejuni (n = 431), Campylobacter hyointestinalis (n = 4), and Campylobacter lanienae (n = 3) were recovered and characterized. The administration of antimicrobials did not decrease carriage rates of campylobacters, and minimal resistance (≤4%) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and meropenem was observed. In contrast, substantive increases in the prevalence of isolates resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline (56 to 89%) for C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, as well as in the number of animals (7 to 42%) from which resistant isolates were recovered, were observed during the feedlot period. Increased resistance to erythromycin (total isolates and carriages rates) was also observed in isolates of C. coli over the three isolation times. The majority of C. fetus isolates recovered were resistant to nalidixic acid, but this was independent of when they were isolated. A relatively limited number of multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered and consisted primarily of C. coli resistant to tetracyclines and erythromycin (10% of isolates). Over the course of the feedlot period, considerable increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed in C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, but with the exception of erythromycin

  14. Historical Overview of the Effect of β-Adrenergic Agonists on Beef Cattle Production

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bradley J.; Smith, Stephen B.; Chung, Ki Yong

    2014-01-01

    Postnatal muscle hypertrophy of beef cattle is the result of enhanced myofibrillar protein synthesis and reduced protein turnover. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been studied in cattle fed β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA), which are receptor-mediated enhancers of protein synthesis and inhibitors of protein degradation. Feeding β-AA to beef cattle increases longissimus muscle cross-sectional area 6% to 40% compared to non-treated cattle. The β-AA have been reported to improve live animal performance, including average daily gain, feed efficiency, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage. Treatment with β-AA increased mRNA concentration of the β2 or β1-adrenergic receptor and myosin heavy chain IIX in bovine skeletal muscle tissue. This review will examine the effects of skeletal muscle and adipose development with β-AA, and will interpret how the use of β-AA affects performance, body composition, and growth in beef cattle. PMID:25050012

  15. Prognostic Judgment at Post-Surgery by Biochemical Parameters in Beef Cattle with Left Displaced Abomasum

    PubMed Central

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; TAGUCHI, Kiyoshi; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We examined whether the postoperative prognosis of beef cattle with left displaced abomasum (LDA) can be estimated from changes in laboratory parameters. Preoperatively, beef cattle with LDA showed increases in plasma glucose with decreased serum insulin in the glucose tolerance test compared to non-LDA cattle. Postoperatively, the cattle with LDA were retrospectively divided into two groups, good and bad prognoses. Although plasma glucose concentrations significantly increased either pre- or postoperatively, no difference was noted between the good and bad prognosis groups. Serum insulin concentrations in the bad prognosis group significantly decreased, compared to those in the good prognosis group. These findings suggest that beef cattle with LDA elicit disturbed glucose metabolite pre- and postoperatively, and serum insulin levels may predict their prognoses after surgery. PMID:24998331

  16. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W; McFadin, E L; MacNeil, M D; Grings, E E; Short, R E; Funston, R N; Keisler, D H

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict carcass composition and merit in feedlot finished cattle. Two different groups of crossbred Bos taurus steers and heifers were managed under feedlot conditions near Miles City, MT. The first group consisted of 88 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise composite gene combination steers (CGC) harvested at the ConAgra processing facility in Greeley, CO. The second group (Lean Beef Project; LB) consisted of 91 F2 steers and heifers born to Limousin, Hereford, or Piedmontese by CGC F1 cows crossed to F1 bulls of similar breed composition and harvested at a local processing facility in Miles City, MT. Blood samples were collected approximately 24 h before harvest (CGC) or approximately 3 d before and at harvest (LB). No differences in serum concentrations of leptin were detected (P > 0.10) between Hereford, Limousin, or Piedmontese F2 calves nor between LB steers and heifers. Positive correlations (P < 0.01) existed between serum leptin and marbling score (r = 0.35 and 0.50), fat depth measured between the 12th and 13th rib (r = 0.34 and 0.46), kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH) (r = 0.42 and 0.46), and quality grade (r = 0.36 and 0.49) in CGC and LB cattle, respectively. Serum leptin was also positively correlated with calculated yield grade for CGC steers (r = 0. 19; P = 0. 10) and LB cattle (r = 0.52; P < 0.01). Longissimus area was not correlated with serum leptin in CGC steers (r = 0.12; P > 0.10). However, a negative correlation existed between longissimus area and serum leptin in the LB cattle (r = -0.45; P < 0.01). Serum concentrations of leptin were significantly associated with carcass composition (marbling, back fat depth, and KPH fat) and quality grade in both groups of cattle studied and may provide an additional indicator of fat content in feedlot cattle. PMID:12597366

  17. Paramphistomum microbothrioides in American bison and domestic beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Herd, R P; Hull, B L

    1981-11-15

    Intestinal paramphistomiosis was diagnosed in a bull and cow with severe diarrhea and weight loss, and subsequent investigation suggested that the infection was transmitted from American bison (Bison bison). The rumen fluke, Paramphistomum microbothrioides, was recovered from the rumen of 3 bison on the farm or origin. Single operculate eggs of P microbothrioides measuring 130 x 69 micrometers were recovered from the feces of the bull, from 9 of 10 bison, and from 3 of 9 other beef cattle. Snails of the genera Physa and Helisoma were collected at the farm of origin. Ostertagiosis and paratuberculosis were considered in the differential diagnosis but were ruled out on the basis of fecal, plasma, and mucosal tests. In view of the lack of approved drugs for treatment of paramphistomes in the United States, treatment was attempted with an 8 times normal dose of thiabendazole (528 mg/kg). Advice was given on grazing management strategies designed to reduce exposure of susceptible cattle to metacercariae, and the owner was advised to drain a large snail habitat. PMID:7341559

  18. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    PubMed

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

  19. Bacterial community analysis of beef cattle feedlots reveals that pen surface is distinct from feces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of beef is an important food safety concern. Cattle are a natural reservoir of this pathogen, and the life-cycle of E. coli O157:H7 involves cycling between the warm, nutrient-rich cattle large intestine and the generally cool, nutrient-limiting f...

  20. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the pre...

  1. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-30

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some

  2. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    PubMed

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P < 0.05) adjusted fat thickness, and EXB had adjusted fat thickness that was lower (P < 0.05) than all other phenotypes except EXENB. Carcasses of EN and ENB had smaller (P < 0.05) longissimus muscle areas than phenotypes ENEX, EXB, and EXENB. Phenotype EN produced carcasses with the highest (P < 0.05) numerical yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P < 0.05) numerical yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef. PMID:15080342

  3. Dissipation of Three Veterinary Antimicrobials in Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure Stockpiled over Winter.

    PubMed

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-05-01

    Dissipation of veterinary antimicrobials is known to occur during aerated windrow composting of beef cattle manure. However, it is unclear if a similar dissipation occurs during stockpiling. Chlortetracycline, tylosin, and sulfamethazine are three of the most commonly used veterinary antimicrobials in beef cattle production in western Canada. Their dissipation in stockpiled manure was investigated over 140 d during winter in Alberta, Canada. Beef cattle housed in pens were administered 44 mg of chlortetracycline kg feed (dry weight), 44 mg of chlortetracycline + 44 mg sulfamethazine kg feed, 11 mg of tylosin kg feed, or feed without antimicrobials (control). Manure samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, and the extracts were analyzed for chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin by LC-MS-MS. Dissipation of all three antimicrobials in the manure was explained by exponential decay kinetics. Times for 50% dissipation (DT) were 1.8 ± 0.1 d for chlortetracycline alone or 6.0 ± 0.8 d when mixed with sulfamethazine, 20.8 ± 3.8 d for sulfamethazine, and 4.7 ± 1.2 d for tylosin. After 77 d, <1% of initial chlortetracycline and <2% of sulfamethazine remained. Tylosin residues were more variable, decreasing to approximately 12% of initial levels after 28 d, with 20% present after 77 d and 13% after 140 d. Temperatures within stockpiles reached maximum values within 6 d of establishment and varied with location (bottom, 62.5°C; middle, 63.8°C; and top, 42.9°C). Antimicrobials in the manure did not inhibit microbial activity, as indicated by temperature and mass losses of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The C/N ratio in the manure decreased over the stockpiling period, indicating decomposition of manure to a more stable state. Dissipation of excreted residues with DT values 1.8 to 20.8 d showed that stockpiling can be as effective as windrow composting in mitigating the transfer of these three veterinary antimicrobials into the environment during

  4. Small intestine histomorphometry of beef cattle with divergent feed efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of feed is a major cost in beef production. Therefore, the improvement of feed efficiency is warranted. The direct assessment of feed efficiency has limitations and alternatives are needed. Small intestine micro-architecture is associated with function and may be related to feed efficiency. The objective was to verify the potential histomorphological differences in the small intestine of animals with divergent feed efficiency. Methods From a population of 45 feedlot steers, 12 were selected with low-RFI (superior feed efficiency) and 12 with high-RFI (inferior feed efficiency) at the end of the finishing period. The animals were processed at 13.79 ± 1.21 months of age. Within 1.5 h of slaughter the gastrointestinal tract was collected and segments from duodenum and ileum were harvested. Tissue fragments were processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Photomicroscopy images were taken under 1000x magnification. For each animal 100 intestinal crypts were imaged, in a cross section view, from each of the two intestinal segments. Images were analyzed using the software ImageJ®. The measurements taken were: crypt area, crypt perimeter, crypt lumen area, nuclei number and the cell size was indirectly calculated. Data were analyzed using general linear model and correlation procedures of SAS®. Results Efficient beef steers (low-RFI) have a greater cellularity (indicated by nuclei number) in the small intestinal crypts, both in duodenum and ileum, than less efficient beef steers (high-RFI) (P < 0.05). The mean values for the nuclei number of the low-RFI and high-RFI groups were 33.16 and 30.30 in the duodenum and 37.21 and 33.65 in the ileum, respectively. The average size of the cells did not differ between feed efficiency groups in both segments (P ≥ 0.10). A trend was observed (P ≤ 0.10) for greater crypt area and crypt perimeter in the ileum for cattle with improved feed efficiency. Conclusion

  5. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  6. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  7. Methane emissions from a beef cattle feedyard during winter and summer on the southern High Plains of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation by livestock account for about 2.1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, with beef and dairy cattle the most significant sources. A better understanding of CH4 emissions from beef cattle feedyards can help build more accurate emission inventories, impro...

  8. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P < 0.01). Age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of AI were all non-significant (P > 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI. PMID:10090564

  9. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Council North Carolina Cattlemen's Association North Dakota Beef Commission Ohio Beef Council Oklahoma Beef Commission Oregon Beef Council Pennsylvania Beef Council, Inc. South Carolina Cattle and Beef Board South Dakota Beef Industry Council Tennessee Beef Industry Council Texas Beef Industry...

  10. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Council North Carolina Cattlemen's Association North Dakota Beef Commission Ohio Beef Council Oklahoma Beef Commission Oregon Beef Council Pennsylvania Beef Council, Inc. South Carolina Cattle and Beef Board South Dakota Beef Industry Council Tennessee Beef Industry Council Texas Beef Industry...

  11. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Council North Carolina Cattlemen's Association North Dakota Beef Commission Ohio Beef Council Oklahoma Beef Commission Oregon Beef Council Pennsylvania Beef Council, Inc. South Carolina Cattle and Beef Board South Dakota Beef Industry Council Tennessee Beef Industry Council Texas Beef Industry...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Council North Carolina Cattlemen's Association North Dakota Beef Commission Ohio Beef Council Oklahoma Beef Commission Oregon Beef Council Pennsylvania Beef Council, Inc. South Carolina Cattle and Beef Board South Dakota Beef Industry Council Tennessee Beef Industry Council Texas Beef Industry...

  13. Animal-to-animal variation in fecal microbial diversity among beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; Desantis, Todd Z; Harhay, Dayna M; Andersen, Gary L; Keen, James E; Laegreid, William W; Clawson, Michael L

    2010-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine taxa are identified. PMID:20472731

  14. Effect of subtherapeutic vs. therapeutic administration of macrolides on antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica and enterococci isolated from beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R; Klima, Cassidy L; Stanford, Kim; Alexander, Trevor; Topp, Edward; Read, Ron R; McAllister, Tim A

    2013-01-01

    Macrolides are the first-line treatment against bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and are also used to treat infections in humans. The macrolide, tylosin phosphate, is often included in the diet of cattle as a preventative for liver abscesses in many regions of the world outside of Europe. This study investigated the effects of administering macrolides to beef cattle either systemically through a single subcutaneous injection (therapeutic) or continuously in-feed (subtherapeutic), on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mannheimia haemolytica and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the nasopharynx and faeces, respectively. Nasopharyngeal and faecal samples were collected weekly over 28 days from untreated beef steers and from steers injected once with tilmicosin or tulathromycin or continuously fed tylosin phosphate at dosages recommended by manufacturers. Tilmicosin and tulathromycin were effective in lowering (P < 0.05) the prevalence of M. haemolytica, whereas subtherapeutic tylosin had no effect. M. haemolytica isolated from control- and macrolide-treated animals were susceptible to macrolides as well as to other antibiotics. Major bacteria co-isolated with M. haemolytica from the nasopharynx included Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus spp. With the exception of M. haemolytica and P. multocida, erythromycin resistance was frequently found in other isolated species. Both methods of macrolide administration increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of erythromycin resistant enterococci within the population, which was comprised almost exclusively of Enterococcus hirae. Injectable macrolides impacted both respiratory and enteric microbes, whereas orally administered macrolides only influenced enteric bacteria. PMID:23750157

  15. Effect of subtherapeutic vs. therapeutic administration of macrolides on antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica and enterococci isolated from beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Klima, Cassidy L.; Stanford, Kim; Alexander, Trevor; Topp, Edward; Read, Ron R.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrolides are the first-line treatment against bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and are also used to treat infections in humans. The macrolide, tylosin phosphate, is often included in the diet of cattle as a preventative for liver abscesses in many regions of the world outside of Europe. This study investigated the effects of administering macrolides to beef cattle either systemically through a single subcutaneous injection (therapeutic) or continuously in-feed (subtherapeutic), on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mannheimia haemolytica and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the nasopharynx and faeces, respectively. Nasopharyngeal and faecal samples were collected weekly over 28 days from untreated beef steers and from steers injected once with tilmicosin or tulathromycin or continuously fed tylosin phosphate at dosages recommended by manufacturers. Tilmicosin and tulathromycin were effective in lowering (P < 0.05) the prevalence of M. haemolytica, whereas subtherapeutic tylosin had no effect. M. haemolytica isolated from control- and macrolide-treated animals were susceptible to macrolides as well as to other antibiotics. Major bacteria co-isolated with M. haemolytica from the nasopharynx included Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Bacillus spp. With the exception of M. haemolytica and P. multocida, erythromycin resistance was frequently found in other isolated species. Both methods of macrolide administration increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of erythromycin resistant enterococci within the population, which was comprised almost exclusively of Enterococcus hirae. Injectable macrolides impacted both respiratory and enteric microbes, whereas orally administered macrolides only influenced enteric bacteria. PMID:23750157

  16. Transport of Three Antimicrobials in Runoff from Windrows of Composting Beef Cattle Manure.

    PubMed

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-03-01

    Rain runoff from windrowed or stockpiled manure may contain antimicrobials with the potential to contaminate surface and ground water. To quantify the concentration of antimicrobials transported in runoff from windrowed manure, antimicrobials were administered continuously in feed to beef cattle () as follows: 44 mg of chlortetracycline kg feed (dry weight), a 1:1 mixture of 44 mg of chlortetracycline and 44 mg sulfamethazine kg feed, and 11 mg of tylosin kg feed. Cattle in a fourth treatment group received no antimicrobials (control). Manure from the cattle was used to construct two windrows per treatment. On Days 2 and 21 of composting, a portable Guelph Rainfall Simulator II was used to apply deionized water at an intensity of 127 mm h to each windrow, and the runoff was collected. Manure samples were collected before rain simulations on Days 2 and 21 of composting for antimicrobial analysis. On Day 2, average concentrations of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin in manure were 2580, 450, and 120 μg kg, respectively, with maximum concentrations in runoff of 2740, 3600, and 4930 μg L, respectively. Concentrations of all three antimicrobials in runoff were higher ( < 0.05) on Day 2 than on Day 21, reflecting the higher concentrations in manure on Day 2. Maximum estimated masses of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could be transported in runoff from a windrow (3 m long, 2.5 m wide, 1.5 m high) were approximately 0.87 to 0.94, 1.57, and 1.23 g, respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of windrow composting in reducing antimicrobial concentrations in manure. The runoff from windrows can be a source of antimicrobials and demonstrates the need for containment of runoff from composting facilities to mitigate antimicrobial contamination of surface and groundwater resources. PMID:27065396

  17. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica

    2016-01-30

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the presence or impact of E. bieneusi on this important population. To fill this knowledge gap, fecal specimens were collected from 452 cattle from pre-weaned calves to adult cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Host factors including age, gender, dairy/beef, body composition, and fecal consistency were included in the study. Using molecular methods, E. bieneusi was found in 79/452 (17.5%) fecal specimens. This represents the first report of this parasite in Brazilian cattle. A significantly higher prevalence was found in calves less than 2 months of age (27.6%) and those 3-8 months of age (28.8%) versus heifers (14.1%) and adults (1.4%) (P<0.05). Dairy cattle (26.2%) had a higher prevalence than beef cattle (9.7%) (P<0.001). No correlation was found between infection and gender, body composition, and fecal consistency. Molecular characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed 12 genotypes; five previously reported in cattle (BEB4, BEB8, D, EbpA and I), and seven novel genotypes (BEB11-BEB17). A phylogenetic analysis showed that 6 genotypes (D, EbpA, BEB12, BEB13, BEB15, and BEB16) identified in 18 animals clustered within the designated zoonotic Group 1 while the other 6 genotypes (I, BEB4, BEB8, BEB11, BEB14, BEB17) identified in 61 animals clustered within Group 2. The identification of genotypes in Brazilian cattle that have previously been reported in humans highlights the potential risk of zoonotic transmission and suggests that the role of cattle in transmission of human infections requires further study. PMID:26801594

  18. Nanopurification of semen improves AI pregnancy rates in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive efficiency is several times more important than any other factor affecting economic efficiency in beef production. Multiple studies have been conducted to improve fertility of beef cows, but few studies have been conducted to improve fertility in sires. Also, with current improvements...

  19. Prediction of nitrogen excretion by beef cattle: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable estimates of nitrogen (N) excretion in the urine and feces of beef cattle are essential for developing cost-effective and environmentally sound nutrient management plans. A meta-analysis dataset was compiled that included data for starting live BW, DMI, N intake, dietary CP concentration, u...

  20. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn

    PubMed Central

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Vujanovic, Vladimir; Petrie, Lyall; Campbell, John R.; Bauer, Bianca S.; Allen, Andrew L.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2015-01-01

    A group of beef cattle in eastern Alberta was investigated due to sudden onset of blindness after grazing on standing corn in mid-winter. Fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. were isolated from the corn. Blindness was due to an optic nerve degeneration suspected to be secondary to fumonisin mycotoxin. PMID:25750444

  1. Using single nucleotide polymorphism to detect selection signature in Hereford beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate selection signature in 2 sources of purebred Hereford beef cattle. Data were available from 240 Line 1 Herefords (L1) born between 1953 to 2008, and 311 Industry Herefords (IH) born between 1970 and 2008. Line 1 Herefords were sampled from a closed line...

  2. Genomic selection in beef cattle: Training and validation in multibreed populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A challenge for applying genomic selection to beef cattle is accurate across-breed prediction. One approach is to train and validate prediction equations in multibreed populations, but the scarcity of large populations with known pedigrees, phenotypes, and dense genotypes has hindered the developmen...

  3. Utilization of wet distillers grains in high-energy beef cattle diets based on processed grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distiller's grains (DG) are used extensively by beef cattle feeding operations in the United States, including the Southern Great Plains. Our regional research consortium has been conducting research focused on utilization of wet DG in feedlot diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). Effects of DG on...

  4. Runoff, erosion, and size distribution of sediment from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The size distribution of sediment affects erosion rates, settling velocity, and the transport of chemical constituents. Little information is currently available concerning the size distribution of materials transported in runoff from beef cattle feedlots. The objectives of this study were to: a) me...

  5. Ammonia and greenhouse gas concentrations at surfaces of simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedding is used in livestock operations to facilitate manure management and provide comfort for the animal. The research objective was to determine differences in ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) concentrations from simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs ...

  6. Seasonal variation in vitamin D status of beef cattle reared in the central United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to measure seasonal sunshine associated variation in concentration 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in beef cattle. Vitamin D is a key modulator of calcium homeostasis, as well as innate and adaptive immunity. Concentrations of 25OHD reflects vitamin D production/intake and vitamin D s...

  7. Soil nutrient dynamics in small beef cattle backgrounding feedlot on karst environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle backgrounding feedlot systems that grow out weaned calves for feedlot finishing can become potential diffuse sources of manure derived soil nutrients. Better understanding of these nutrient concentrations and their distribution will aid in development of effective nutrient management gui...

  8. Factors affecting pregnancy rate to estrous synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of AI in extensive beef cattle production is limited by the necessity to monitor estrus and handle animals twice daily for several weeks. Protocols that effectively synchronize ovarian follicular development and ovulation to enable fixed-time AI (TAI) would facilitate the use of AI. Obje...

  9. Ammonia concentration and modeled emission rates from a beef cattle feedyard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambient NH3 concentrations were measured at a beef cattle feedyard during the spring and summer months of 2007. Concentrations were measured every five minutes, 24-hours per day at a sample intake height of 3.3 m using a chemiluminescence analyzer. On site weather data was collected concurrently....

  10. Continuously measured annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains beef cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyards varies with season during the year, but studies of continuous measurement of ammonia emissions throughout the year are rare. The quantification of annual ammonia emissions will improve emission factors, provide databases that can be used ...

  11. Utilization of Bos Indicus cattle in Florida beef enterprises: Carcass Traits and Merit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The F1 Brahman cow is the most productive cow type for the Southern United States, both in terms of reproduction (calving and weaning rate) and maternal ability. However, the substandard quality and tenderness of beef from Brahman and Brahman-cross cattle is an opportunity for improvement in the br...

  12. Gut bacterial communities and their association with production parameters in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the past decade, the development and use of novel nutritional, genomic, and genetic improvement technologies has promoted and lead to great increases in the genetic propensity of beef cattle for a variety of traits including growth, carcass composition, and specifically feed efficiency. Howe...

  13. Regionalized levels of soil phosphorus and phosphorus saturation in beef cattle pastures with and without grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Available soil phosphorus (P) in various agro-ecosystems is regulated by climate, soil type, vegetation, and management practices. Available soil P in bahiagrass beef cattle pastures were compared with rhizoma peanut pastures and bermudagrass pastures. For each location, the pain plot was represente...

  14. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIAVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN BOS INDICUS BEEF CATTLE (NELLORE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci of economic importance in purebred Bos indicus beef cattle breed (Nellore). Two half-sib families constituted of 187 (family 1) and 189 (family 2) female sisters, daughters from two distinct bulls, where used. Each parent (F0) was ...

  15. Temperament assessment provides insight into future health and growth performance of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the productive life of beef cattle many stressful events occur (e.g. branding, castration, vaccination, and tagging) coupled with weaning, social mixing, and transportation. These stressfull events have been reported to induce secretion of several of the prominant stress-related hormones:...

  16. Update of the National Research Council 1996/2000 nutrient requirements of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately every 20 years the National Research Council - under the National Academies of Science revises the publication "Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle." This presentation, by members of the revision team, gave an overview of the planned revisions to the publication, and let practicing n...

  17. Diet Effect on the Type and Spatial Distribution of Odorous Emissions from Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated odorous emissions from beef cattle waste resulting from being fed either a corn-based or a wet distiller’s grain with solubles (WDGS) diet. Analyses included using remote-sensing technologies to determine pen surface spatial distributions. Finishing steers, 45 head per pen, to...

  18. Laboratory evaluation of surface amendments for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pen surface amendments for mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2), from beef cattle feedlots, were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Amendments were organic residues (i.e., sorghum straw, prairie grass, wo...

  19. Experimental research on the effects of water application on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of water application (e.g., through rainfall or sprinkler system) on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2), from pen surfaces of open-lot beef cattle feedlots was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Soil/ma...

  20. Investigations into the beneficial uses of ash from the combustion of manure from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for beneficial uses or co-products from the combustion of beef cattle manure were investigated. Phosphate concentrations indicate some potential for use as an agronomic soil amendment, but the phosphate is not freely released. Greenhouse studies suggest that neither good nor harm occur...

  1. Genetic and environmental heterogeneity of residual variance of weight traits in Nellore beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have provided evidence of the existence of genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance, suggesting that it could be exploited to improve robustness and uniformity of livestock by selection. However, little is known about the perspectives of such a selection strategy in beef cattle. Methods A two-step approach was applied to study the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance of weight gain from birth to weaning and long-yearling weight in a Nellore beef cattle population. First, an animal model was fitted to the data and second, the influence of additive and environmental effects on the residual variance of these traits was investigated with different models, in which the log squared estimated residuals for each phenotypic record were analyzed using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to assess the reliability of variance component estimates from the second step and the accuracy of estimated breeding values for residual variation. Results The results suggest that both genetic and environmental factors have an effect on the residual variance of weight gain from birth to weaning and long-yearling in Nellore beef cattle and that uniformity of these traits could be improved by selecting for lower residual variance, when considering a large amount of information to predict genetic merit for this criterion. Simulations suggested that using the two-step approach would lead to biased estimates of variance components, such that more adequate methods are needed to study the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance in beef cattle. PMID:22672564

  2. Grazing behavioral responses of beef cattle to medusahead invasion in sagebrush steppe rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study are to determine: 1) seasonal forage quality of medusahead-invaded rangeland relative to adjacent rangeland supporting desirable vegetation; 2) relative grazing preference of beef cattle for medusahead-invaded rangeland and adjacent rangeland supporting desirable vegetat...

  3. Comparison of Bayesian models to estimate direct genomic values in multi-breed commercial beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Several studies have examined the accuracy of genomic selection both within and across purebred beef or dairy populations. However, the accuracy of direct genomic breeding values (DGVs) has been less well studied in crossbred or admixed cattle populations. We used a population of 3,240 cr...

  4. Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the southern great plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate variability and periodic drought is a defining characteristic of the Southern Great Plains. Beef cattle production, based on a variety of crop, pasture, and native rangeland forages, is the most important economic commodity in this region and dominates the agricultural landscape. Press cov...

  5. Segregation of polymorphisms at Calpain and Calpastatin in beef cattle grown in the tropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the CAPN1 gene (CAPN1-316 and CAPN1-530) and in Calpastatin (CAST) was determined in beef cattle grown in the tropics (n = 372). Genotypic and allelic frequencies were determined in Senepol (n=60), Charolais (n=62), Angus (n=39), Charb...

  6. Post-extraction algal residue in steam-flaked corn-based diets for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of post-extraction algal residue (PEAR) as N source 23 in steam-flaked corn-based (SFC) beef cattle finishing diets on intake, duodenal flow, digestion, ruminal microbial efficiency, ruminal parameters, and blood constituents were evaluated. Ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (BW...

  7. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply. PMID:26952213

  8. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, aged<1 yr old, largely fluctuated, presumably due to the rapid ruminal growth and dynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative. PMID:24045472

  9. The development in beef cattle manure of Petriedllidium boydii (Shear) Malloch, a potential pathogen for man and cattle.

    PubMed

    Bell, R G

    1976-04-01

    Petriellidium boydii (Allescheria boydii) dominated the mycoflora of manure samples form three beef cattle feedlots after incubation at room temperature for 4 months. The possible dangers associated with this pathogenic fungus, which causes mycotic abortion in livestock, pulmonary allescheriasis in man, and mycetomas in both man and animals, are discussed. This fungus could create a health hazard in feedlots where in situ manure decompostion is encouraged. PMID:944082

  10. Association of bta-miR-24-3p with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: summer of 2013, after calves were born; fall of the same year at weaning; and spring, 2014. All sera collec...

  11. Current status and its epidemiological consideration of Fasciola and Eurytrema infections in beef cattle of Japan.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Jungo; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Eiichi; Nagafuchi, Tsuneyuki; Okajima, Kazue; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate current status of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle of Japan, inspection data of Tokyo Metropolitan Shibaura Slaughterhouse where beef cattle were shipped from all over Japan were analyzed, and questionnaire to farmers was conducted to assess the relationship between recognition of the disease occurrence in one's own farm and attention to the diseases. The occurrence of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle gradually decreased from 18.6% to 0.06% and from 0.58% to 0.02% during the period of 1964 to 2010, respectively. When the current data from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed, the occurrence of fasciolosis was recognized in cattle produced and fattened all over Japan, indicating the disease was prevalent nationwide. While, 97.5% of Eurytrema infection were detected in cattle produced in Okinawa, Shimane and Kagoshima, indicating the disease was endemic in these regions. Higher occurrence (>0.7%) of fasciolosis was observed in minor breeds, such as Japanese Shorthorn. Japanese Black showed 0.09% and 0.05% of occurrence for fasciolosis and eurytremosis, respectively, but F1 crossbred with Japanese Black showed lower occurrence (0.007% and 0.002%, respectively). No tendency of occurrence in the age of cattle at slaughter was recognized, indicating the infections may have occurred at the growing and early fattening stage of cattle. The questionnaire survey revealed that farmers experiencing fasciolosis had more knowledge about the disease, however, factors, such as testing parasite infections and use of anti-Fasciola dewormers, were not affected by the recognition of occurrence. PMID:26822002

  12. Current status and its epidemiological consideration of Fasciola and Eurytrema infections in beef cattle of Japan

    PubMed Central

    OKAJIMA, Jungo; SHIBATA, Kazuhiko; TAKAHASHI, Eiichi; NAGAFUCHI, Tsuneyuki; OKAJIMA, Kazue; NONAKA, Nariaki

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate current status of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle of Japan, inspection data of Tokyo Metropolitan Shibaura Slaughterhouse where beef cattle were shipped from all over Japan were analyzed, and questionnaire to farmers was conducted to assess the relationship between recognition of the disease occurrence in one’s own farm and attention to the diseases. The occurrence of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle gradually decreased from 18.6% to 0.06% and from 0.58% to 0.02% during the period of 1964 to 2010, respectively. When the current data from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed, the occurrence of fasciolosis was recognized in cattle produced and fattened all over Japan, indicating the disease was prevalent nationwide. While, 97.5% of Eurytrema infection were detected in cattle produced in Okinawa, Shimane and Kagoshima, indicating the disease was endemic in these regions. Higher occurrence (>0.7%) of fasciolosis was observed in minor breeds, such as Japanese Shorthorn. Japanese Black showed 0.09% and 0.05% of occurrence for fasciolosis and eurytremosis, respectively, but F1 crossbred with Japanese Black showed lower occurrence (0.007% and 0.002%, respectively). No tendency of occurrence in the age of cattle at slaughter was recognized, indicating the infections may have occurred at the growing and early fattening stage of cattle. The questionnaire survey revealed that farmers experiencing fasciolosis had more knowledge about the disease, however, factors, such as testing parasite infections and use of anti-Fasciola dewormers, were not affected by the recognition of occurrence. PMID:26822002

  13. Seroepidemiological study of Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in La Pampa, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fort, Marcelo; Edelsten, Martyn; Maley, Stephen; Innes, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. The aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of Argentina (La Pampa, province). An average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. A total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- Neospora caninum IgG using an indirect-ELISA and 302 seropositive-ELISA sera were re-examined using an Avidity-ELISA procedure for N.caninum. The overall estimated seroprevalence for N.caninun was 9.6% (95%CI: 8.7%; 10.5%). Levels of seroprevalence were significantly different in beef 7.0% and dairy 20.3% cattle. Disease distribution seems to be associated with climatic conditions as well as the management system. Cows in the east and central regions were at a 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold higher risk, respectively, of being N. caninum seropositive compared with cows in west region. Levels of recent infection were evaluated through an avidity ELISA in seropositive animals, being registered a 0.56% and a 1.71% of recent infection in beef and dairy cattle respectively (p = 0.006). The results revealed that dairy cows had 3.1(95%CI: 1.4; 7.0) higher risk of contracting Neoporosis through horizontal transmission than beef cows. A relationship between Brucella abortus and N. caninum seroprevalence was also observed. The risk of being N. caninum seropositive was two times higher where Brucellosis seroprevalence was >3.5%. These results reveal the distribution of N. caninum infection in the cattle population in La Pampa, Argentina. PMID:26203996

  14. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elall, Amr M M; Mohamed, Mohamed E M; Awadallah, Maysa A I

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers) were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds) located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes). The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds): Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%), S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%), S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%), Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%), Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%), K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%), Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%), P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%), P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%), Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%), respectively). Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%), A. niger (20% vs 36.7%), A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%), Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%), P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%), P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%), Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%), Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%), Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%), Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%), Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%), Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%), Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%), Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%), Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4%) and yeast (13.3% vs 20%), respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and

  15. Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle from the northwest region of Spain, Galicia.

    PubMed

    Eiras, C; Arnaiz, I; Alvarez-García, G; Ortega-Mora, L M; Sanjuánl, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2011-02-01

    Herd and individual animal seroprevalence for Neospora caninum (N. caninum) in dairy, beef and mixed cattle were obtained in all populations within the Galician Farmer Sanitary Defence Associations (ADSG) in 2004. All animals ≥1 year of age were examined serologically by indirect ELISA. 1147 dairy herds (37,090 animals), 1464 beef herds (20,206 animals) and 141 mixed herds (2292 animals) were surveyed. True herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 80.6% (87.7% dairy, 76.7% beef and 78.4% mixed herds), true animal seroprevalence was estimated to be 23.2% (21.9% dairy, 25.1% beef and 24.9% animal to mixed herds), and within-herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 25.4% (23.6% dairy, 28.3% beef and 28.6% to mixed herds). Seropositivity was significantly associated with herd type (higher in dairies), herd size (increased when herd size increases), animal type (higher in beef) and age (lineal increase with the age). Results obtained in this study will be used for the development of a N. caninum control programme in the ADSG in Galicia. PMID:21145605

  16. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  17. Genetics of postweaning performance of beef cattle on forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in the costs of feed grains have revived interest in increasing the use of forages and grazing in order to either market as forage-finished beef or to produce heavy calves that will finish on less grain. However, little is known about the interactions of animal genetics and grazing enviro...

  18. Overview of genomic selection in small populations of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficiency and reproduction are important to beef production and are enhanced by using breeds adapted to specific management strategies and environments and by crossbreeding. Thus, dozens of breeds are currently used in the U.S. Genomic prediction of breeding value (MBV) needs large trait and geno...

  19. A genome scan for meat quality in Nelore beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat quality traits are economically important because they impact consumers’ acceptance which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear...

  20. Distribution of lameness lesions in beef cattle: A retrospective analysis of 745 cases.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Chamorro, Manuel F

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the relative prevalence of diagnoses and location of lameness lesions in beef cattle. Medical records from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed and 745 cases of beef cattle that had presented for lameness were identified. Information regarding signalment, lesion location, and cause of lameness was analyzed. The cause of lameness was localized to the foot in approximately 85% of cases; a hind limb was affected over 70% of the time. The lateral claw was most commonly affected in cases of both fore- and hind-limb lameness. The most common diagnoses of noninfectious etiology were screw claw, vertical fissure, and interdigital fibroma. Infectious foot disease accounted for only 20% of foot lameness. Routine foot trimming may be warranted in some herds to improve weight-bearing balance and alleviate lameness. PMID:27041758

  1. An Outcomes Model to Evaluate Risks and Benefits of Escherichia coli Vaccination in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Malladi, Sasidhar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We developed a stochastic simulation model to evaluate the impact of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) vaccination on key epidemiological outcomes. The model evaluated a reduction in the O157 prevalence in feedlot cattle as well as concentration in cattle feces due to vaccination. The impact of this reduction on outcomes at slaughter/harvest and consumption was evaluated by simulating the relationships between the O157 prevalence and concentration at various points in the ground beef supply chain. The uncertainty and variability associated with the O157 contamination was explicitly modeled in production, slaughter, and consumption modules. Our results show that vaccination can have a significant benefit with respect to relevant outcomes such as (1) the number of human O157 illnesses due to the consumption of ground beef, (2) the number of production lots with high O157 contamination levels, (3) the likelihood of detection by U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service testing, and (4) the probability of multiple illnesses due to ground beef servings from the same lot. These results show that these outcomes are strongly impacted by preharvest vaccination. For example, if the vaccine is used so as to reduce the prevalence of E. coli shedding cattle by 80% and if all U.S. steers and heifers were vaccinated, the expected number of human illnesses from ground beef-associated O157 would be reduced almost 60%. If the vaccine is 60% or 40% effective, the illness rate would be reduced approximately 45% or 40%, respectively. The number of production lots (10,000-lb lots) with high O157 contamination levels (>1000 servings) would be reduced by 96% if all steers and heifers received an 80% effective vaccine regimen. The analysis shows that resulting reduction in the number of shedding animals and the reduced concentration of E. coli on carcasses can combine to reduce human illnesses and cost to beef packers. PMID:22989170

  2. The accuracies of DNA-based estimates of genetic merit derived from Angus or multibreed beef cattle training populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several organizations have developed prediction models for molecular breeding values (MBV) for quantitative growth and carcass traits in beef cattle using BovineSNP50 genotypes and phenotypic or EBV data. MBV for Angus cattle have been developed by IGENITY, Pfizer Animal Genetics, and a collaboratio...

  3. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  4. Polymorphisms in POMC are not associated with dry matter intake and average daily gain phenotypes in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of feed for beef cattle is the largest expense incurred by cattle producers. The ability to genetically select for more efficient animals that require less feed while still achieving acceptable levels of production will result in a substantial cost savings. The purpose of this study was to ...

  5. Super Shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Cattle and the Impact on Beef Carcass Contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef carcass contamination is a direct result of pathogen transfer from cattle hides harboring organisms such as enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Hide contamination occurs from direct and indirect fecal contamination in cattle production and lairage environments. In each of these environments, individua...

  6. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  7. Reducing crude protein in beef cattle diet reduces ammonia emissions from artificial feedyard surfaces.

    PubMed

    Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy; Clark, R Nolan

    2006-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations are major sources of ammonia to the atmosphere. Control methods to reduce emissions include acidifying amendments, urease inhibitors, and absorbents. For beef cattle, decreasing crude protein (CP) in diets may be the most practical and cost-effective method to reduce ammonia emissions. Our objective was to quantify the effect of reducing CP in beef cattle diet on ammonia emissions. Two groups of steers were fed diets with either 11.5 or 13.0% CP and all urine and feces were collected. Manures from the two diet treatments were applied in a replicated laboratory chamber experiment, and ammonia emission was quantified using acid gas washing. In four seasonal field trials, manures from the two diet treatments were applied to two 10-m-diameter, circular, artificial feedyard surfaces, and ammonia emission was quantified using the integrated horizontal flux method. Manure from steers fed 11.5% CP diet had less urine, less urinary N, and a lesser fraction of total N in urine, compared with the 13.0% CP diet. Decreasing crude protein in beef cattle diets from 13 to 11.5% significantly decreased ammonia emission by 44% (p < 0.01) in the closed chamber laboratory experiment, and decreased mean daily ammonia flux by 30% (p = 0.10), 52% (p = 0.08), and 29% (p < 0.01) in summer, autumn, and spring field trials, respectively. No difference was observed in winter. On an annual basis, decreasing crude protein reduced daily ammonia flux by 28%. Reducing crude protein in beef cattle diets may provide the most practical and cost-effective way to reduce ammonia emissions from feedyards. PMID:16455840

  8. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Seiki; Sukegawa, Shin; Yoshioka, Sachiyo; Takahagi, Youichi; Morita, Mitsuo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Fujita, Tatsuo; Miyake, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN) gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus TTN was considered as a positional functional candidate for the gene responsible for marbling. In this study, we explored SNP in TTN and analyzed association of the SNP with marbling. Findings A SNP in the promoter region of TTN, referred to as g.231054C>T, was the only difference detected between high- and low-marbled steer groups. The SNP was associated with marbling in 3 experiments using 101 sires (P = 0.004), 848 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 5 sires heterozygous for the g.231054C>T (P = 0.046), and 820 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 3 sires homozygous for C allele at the g.231054C>T (P = 0.051), in Japanese Black beef cattle. The effect of genotypes of the SNP on subcutaneous fat thickness was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that in addition to the EDG1 SNPs, the TTN SNP polymorphism is associated with marbling and may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. Further replicate studies will be needed to confirm the allelic association observed here, and to expand the results to evaluate all possible genotypic combinations of alleles. PMID:19419586

  9. Digestion and performance responses to lasalocid and concentrate supplements by beef cattle fed bermudagrass hay.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, D S; Goetsch, A L; Galloway, D L; Forster, L A; Sun, W; Harrison, K F

    1992-01-01

    Beef cattle consuming bermudagrass hay were not supplemented or received a limited amount of ground corn alone or with a mix of protein meals to determine influences of concentrate supplementation on digestion and performance when the ionophore lasalocid (200 mg daily) was given. With limited feed intake, supplement treatment did not change the acetate to propionate shift in beef cows occurring with lasalocid (P < 0.06). Lasalocid did not affect sites of digestion of organic matter or nitrogen with any supplement treatment. However, lasalocid decreased (P < 0.10) ruminal digestion of neutral and acid detergent fibre. Live-weight gain by growing beef calves ingesting bermudagrass hay ad libitum was higher (P < 0.05) with than without supplementation and tended (P < 0.12) to be greater for corn plus protein meals than for corn alone. Lasalocid did not affect or interact with supplement treatment in feed intake or live-weight gain of heifers (236 kg; no growth stimulant) or steers (237 kg; treated with 200 mg progesterone and 20 mg estradiol benzoate). Lasalocid at 200 mg daily did not improve digestion characteristics or influence performance by beef cattle consuming a Basal diet of bermudagrass hay. Further, effects of lasalocid were not modulated by supplementation with concentrate, concentrate type or sex or growth stimulant usage. PMID:1295485

  10. A review of Neospora caninum in dairy and beef cattle — a Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of abortion in cows. The occurrence of N. caninum infection in beef and dairy cattle has been reported worldwide, and in most provinces in Canada. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of N. caninum in dairy and beef cattle for Canadian bovine practitioners. The review covers the life cycle of the agent, its mechanisms of transmission, clinical signs, and tests for diagnosing the infection. Data on the prevalence of the infection in Canadian dairy and beef cattle are reviewed and briefly compared with estimates from other parts of the world. Most importantly for Canadian bovine practitioners, the impacts of the infection, risk factors for its occurrence, and methods of control are also discussed. By reviewing the scientific literature on N. caninum from a Canadian perspective, culling decisions based on the interpretation of diagnostic tests are more effectively made in the control of N. caninum-associated disease. PMID:15884645

  11. Sorption, Leaching, and Surface Runoff of Beef Cattle Veterinary Pharmaceuticals under Simulated Irrigated Pasture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Inna E.; Bair, Daniel A.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle has led to concerns associated with the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Despite the potential negative consequences, data on the transport and mitigation of pharmaceuticals in grazed watersheds with irrigated pasture are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the transport of common beef cattle pharmaceuticals (i.e., oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, ivermectin) via surface runoff and leachate from manure amended to grass-vegetated soil boxes under irrigated pasture conditions. The transport of pharmaceuticals from animal manure in surface runoff and soil leachate was relatively low and appears to be limited by desorption and transport of pharmaceuticals entrained in the manure. In surface runoff, less than 4.2% of applied pharmaceuticals in manure (initial concentration: 0.2 mg kg−1 of manure) were detected after three weeks of irrigation. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface runoff and leachate never exceeded 0.5 µg L−1. The major portion of pharmaceuticals (up to 99%) was retained in the manure or in the soil directly beneath the manure application site. Based on the minimal transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin, the risk of significant transport for these targeted beef cattle pharmaceuticals to surface water and groundwater from manure on irrigated pasture appears to be relatively low. PMID:24216368

  12. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG<25°C = 10.66 + 0.28 × rh + 1.30 × BG - WS; and, HLI BG> 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI < 70) to extreme (HLI > 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P < 0.001) of pure bred Bos taurus and crosses of Bos taurus cattle had a panting score ≥ 2 compared to Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  14. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  15. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  16. Pharmacokinetics of ruminally-dosed sodium chlorate in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recently recognized potential of sodium chlorate as a possible pre-harvest food safety tool in meat animals has spurred interest in the pharmacokinetics of intraruminally-dosed chlorate. Six Loala cattle were assigned (one heifer and one steer per treatment) to one of three intraruminal doses of...

  17. Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective—To determine if the bark from western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) will induce late term abortions in cattle. Animals—6 two-year-old Angus heifers. Procedures—Bark from western juniper trees was collected, dried, and finely ground. Pregnant cows were dosed starting on day 250 of gesta...

  18. Management Strategies to Reduce Embryonic Loss in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms involved in pregnancy establishment and maintenance in cattle are complex. Approximately 95% of matings, regardless of whether they are by artificial insemination or natural service, result in fertilization. However, rarely do 70% of these matings result in a pregnancy that is maintaine...

  19. Genomic evolution in domestic cattle: ancestral haplotypes and healthy beef.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Joseph F; Steele, Edward J; Lester, Susan; Kalai, Oscar; Millman, John A; Wolrige, Lindsay; Bayard, Dominic; McLure, Craig; Dawkins, Roger L

    2011-05-01

    We have identified numerous Ancestral Haplotypes encoding a 14-Mb region of Bota C19. Three are frequent in Simmental, Angus and Wagyu and have been conserved since common progenitor populations. Others are more relevant to the differences between these 3 breeds including fat content and distribution in muscle. SREBF1 and Growth Hormone, which have been implicated in the production of healthy beef, are included within these haplotypes. However, we conclude that alleles at these 2 loci are less important than other sequences within the haplotypes. Identification of breeds and hybrids is improved by using haplotypes rather than individual alleles. PMID:21338665

  20. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40) was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1). RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group), was validated in the groups of

  1. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  2. The gastrointestinal tract as a potential infection reservoir of digital dermatitis-associated treponemes in beef cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Carter, S D; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Angell, J W; Evans, N J

    2015-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  3. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  4. Genome-wide association analyses for carcass quality in crossbred beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic improvement of beef quality will benefit both producers and consumers, and can be achieved by selecting animals that carry desired quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN), which result from intensive searches using genetic markers. This paper presents a genome-wide association approach utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to seek genomic regions that potentially harbor genes or QTN underlying variation in carcass quality of beef cattle. This study used 747 genotyped animals, mainly crossbred, with phenotypes on twelve carcass quality traits, including hot carcass weight (HCW), back fat thickness (BF), Longissimus dorsi muscle area or ribeye area (REA), marbling scores (MRB), lean yield grade by Beef Improvement Federation formulae (BIFYLD), steak tenderness by Warner-Bratzler shear force 7-day post-mortem (LM7D) as well as body composition as determined by partial rib (IMPS 103) dissection presented as a percentage of total rib weight including body cavity fat (BDFR), lean (LNR), bone (BNR), intermuscular fat (INFR), subcutaneous fat (SQFR), and total fat (TLFR). Results At the genome wide level false discovery rate (FDR < 10%), eight SNP were found significantly associated with HCW. Seven of these SNP were located on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6. At a less stringent significance level (P < 0.001), 520 SNP were found significantly associated with mostly individual traits (473 SNP), and multiple traits (47 SNP). Of these significant SNP, 48 were located on BTA6, and 22 of them were in association with hot carcass weight. There were 53 SNP associated with percentage of rib bone, and 12 of them were on BTA20. The rest of the significant SNP were scattered over other chromosomes. They accounted for 1.90 - 5.89% of the phenotypic variance of the traits. A region of approximately 4 Mbp long on BTA6 was found to be a potential area to harbor candidate genes influencing growth. One marker on BTA25

  5. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13195.001 PMID:26952213

  6. Lymphoreticular Lesions in Beef Cattle at an Ontario Abattoir

    PubMed Central

    Herenda, Drago; Dukes, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    During the period April 1983 to March 1986, lymphoreticular lesions in cattle were surveyed at an Ontario abattoir. Postmortem examination of 171,157 cattle revealed macroscopic lesions in 696 animals (0.4%). The most frequent finding was abscessation of a single lymph node, a finding that was observed in 353 cases (50.7% of animals with lesions/0.2% of total slaughter). Actinobacillary granulomas were present in 252 lymph nodes (36.2%/0.1%). Other specific lesions included mycobacteriosis and mycotic or parasitic lymphadenitis. Cases of nonspecific chronic lymphadenitis or granulomas in lymph nodes, pigmentations, malformations, hyperplasia, and neoplasia were also seen. Abscesses were the most common splenic lesions. One animal had localized lymphangiectasia of the epicardium. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6. PMID:17423120

  7. Analysis of modern technologies commonly used in beef cattle production: conventional beef production versus nonconventional production using meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wileman, B W; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D; Renter, D G

    2009-10-01

    Conventional feeding systems use pharmaceutical products not allowed in natural or organic systems for finishing cattle. This review of data compares the performance effects (ADG, G:F, DMI) of technologies used in conventional feeding programs that are prohibited in organic programs, natural programs, or both. The technologies evaluated were steroid implants, monensin, tylosin, endectocides, and metaphylaxis with any antimicrobial. For inclusion in this analysis, studies were conducted in North America, reported randomization to treatment group, used beef cattle, contained an untreated control group, and were sourced from peer-reviewed journals. Forest plots were used to examine the data visually for trends toward a uniform effect of the technology on the outcomes of interest (ADG, DMI, G:F). Technologies that displayed a uniform response on the forest plot compared with negative controls were then analyzed using mixed models. Examination of forest plots for endectocides, steroid implants, monensin, and metaphylaxis technologies appeared to show performance advantages for treated cattle relative to cattle in negative control groups. An insufficient number of studies met the inclusion criteria to conduct meta-analyses comparing endectocides, monensin, or tylosin with negative controls. Average daily gain in feeder cattle given metaphylaxis on arrival was 0.11 kg/d (P < 0.01) greater relative to cattle that did not receive metaphylaxis on arrival. Implanting heifers increased ADG by 0.08 kg/d compared with nonimplanted controls (P = 0.09). Implants had no effect on G:F (P = 0.14) in heifers or on DMI (P = 0.44) relative to nonimplanted control heifers. Implanting steers was associated with greater ADG, by 0.25 kg/d (P < 0.01), and DMI, by 0.53 kg/d (P < 0.01), relative to nonimplanted control steers. Implants also improved G:F in steers relative to nonimplanted steers, by 0.02 (0.17 vs. 0.15; implanted vs. controls, P < 0.01; n = 21 studies). When average estimated

  8. Prediction of methane production from dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Kebreab, E; Odongo, N E; McBride, B W; Okine, E K; France, J

    2007-07-01

    Methane (CH4) is one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction by the Kyoto protocol. The focus of recent research in animal science has thus been to develop or improve existing CH4 prediction models to evaluate mitigation strategies to reduce overall CH4 emissions. Eighty-three beef and 89 dairy data sets were collected and used to develop statistical models of CH4 production using dietary variables. Dry matter intake (DMI), metabolizable energy intake, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ether extract, lignin, and forage proportion were considered in the development of models to predict CH4 emissions. Extant models relevant to the study were also evaluated. For the beef database, the equation CH4 (MJ/d) = 2.94 (+/- 1.16) + 0.059 (+/- 0.0201) x metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d) + 1.44 (+/- 0.331) x acid detergent fiber (kg/d) - 4.16 (+/- 1.93) x lignin (kg/d) resulted in the lowest root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) value (14.4%), 88% of which was random error. For the dairy database, the equation CH4 (MJ/d) = 8.56 (+/- 2.63) + 0.14 (+/- 0.056) x forage (%) resulted in the lowest RMSPE value (20.6%) and 57% of error from random sources. An equation based on DMI also performed well for the dairy database: CH4 (MJ/d) = 3.23 (+/- 1.12) + 0.81 (+/- 0.086) x DMI (kg/d), with a RMSPE of 25.6% and 91% of error from random sources. When the dairy and beef databases were combined, the equation CH4 (MJ/d) = 3.27 (+/- 0.79) + 0.74 (+/- 0.074) x DMI (kg/d) resulted in the lowest RMSPE value (28.2%) and 83% of error from random sources. Two of the 9 extant equations evaluated predicted CH4 production adequately. However, the new models based on more commonly determined values showed an improvement in predictions over extant equations. PMID:17582129

  9. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified. PMID:18681794

  10. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y. F.; Sun, F. F.; Wan, F. C.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). Consumption per kg weight gain of concentrate, silage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  11. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Sun, F F; Wan, F C; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L

    2016-05-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). Consumption per kg weight gain of concentrate, silage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  12. Epidemiological characteristics of an invading parasite: Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sympatric wapiti and beef cattle in southern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Goater, Cameron P; Colwell, Douglas D

    2007-06-01

    Previous surveys of wild ungulates indicate that the liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, was rare in the Cypress Hills area of southeastern Alberta. However, 41 of 59 wapiti (Cervus elaphus) sampled during the 2003 and 2004 hunting seasons from this region were infected, with 7 hosts containing >1,000 worms. Prevalence and mean intensity were similarly high in sympatric beef cattle and mule deer. Worm abundance in wapiti was age related, with calves containing significantly higher numbers of worms (mean +/- SD abundance = 825 +/- 1098) than adults (107 +/- 259). This pattern with host age was not evident in beef cattle, although the smaller sample sizes may be a contributing factor. These results indicate that D. dendriticum is now well established in Cypress Hills Park, circulating between at least 3 species of sympatric ungulates, including beef cattle. PMID:17626339

  13. Influence of wet distillers grains diets on beef cattle fecal bacterial community structure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high demand for ethanol in the U.S. has generated large stocks of wet distillers grains (DG), a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Little is known, however, about the potential influence of dietary DG on fecal microbial community structure. A better understanding of the microbial population in beef cattle feces could be an important monitoring tool to facilitate goals of improving nutrient management, increasing animal growth performance and decreasing odors and/or shedding of pathogens. Five diets consisting of a traditional diet fed to finishing beef cattle in the Southern High Plains of Texas-CON (steam-flaked corn control with 0% DG), and four concentrations of DG in the dietary dry matter; 10 C (10% corn-based DG), 5S (5% sorghum-based DG), 10S (10% sorghum DG), and 15S (15% sorghum DG) were fed to steers at the Texas Tech University Burnett Animal Center. Diets were essentially isonitrogenous with a formulated crude protein value of 13.5%. Results Fecal grab samples were obtained from 20 steers (n = 4 per diet) and the barcoded DNA pyrosequencing method was used to generate 127,530 16S operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 24 phyla were observed, distributed amongst all beef cattle on all diets, revealing considerable animal to animal variation, however only six phyla (core set) were observed in all animals regardless of dietary treatment. The average abundance and range of abundance, respectively of the core phyla were as follows: Firmicutes (61%, 19 to 83%), Bacteroidetes (28%, 11 to 63%), Proteobacteria (3%, 0.34 to 17.5%), Tenericutes (0.15%, 0.0 to 0.35%), Nitrospirae (0.11%, 0.03 to 0.22%), and Fusobacteria (0.086%, 0.017 to 0.38%). Feeding DG-based diets resulted in significant shifts in the fecal microbial community structure compared with the traditional CON. Four low abundance phyla significantly responded to dietary treatments: Synergistetes (p = 0.01), WS3 (p = 0.054), Actinobacteria (p

  14. Performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle managed in a bedded hoop-barn system.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, M S; Busby, W D; Lonergan, S M; Johnson, A K; Maxwell, D L; Harmon, J D; Shouse, S C

    2010-08-01

    The use of bedded hoop barns in finishing systems for beef cattle has not been widely researched. In this management system, beef cattle are confined to hoop barns throughout finishing, and bedding is used to absorb animal waste, which results in minimal effluent. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers (n = 1,428) managed in a bedded hoop-barn management system vs. an open-feedlot system with shelter. Six feeding trials were conducted over a 3-yr period. Three trials were conducted during summer-fall and 3 trials were conducted during winter-spring. Crossbred steers were allotted to 3 pens in the hoop-barn system and to 3 pens in the open-lot system (approximately 40 steers per pen in both facility systems). Stocking densities for the steers were 4.65 m(2) per steer in the hoop-barn system and 14.7 m(2) per steer in the open-lot system. The steers were begun on trial weighing 410 and 411 kg (SD = 21), were fed for 102.3 and 103.0 d (SD = 3.8), and were weighed off test at 595 and 602 kg (SD = 21) for the hoop-barn and open-lot systems, respectively. Steer performance measures consisted of ADG, DMI, and G:F. Carcass characteristics were HCW, fat thickness, LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. No year, season, or pen (management system) main effects, or season x management system and year x management system interactions were observed for any of the items measured related to cattle performance or carcass characteristics (P > 0.05). Final mud scores (a subjective evaluation of the amount of soil and manure adhering to the hair coat of the animals) were greater for the steers from the open-lot system compared with those from the hoop-barn system (P < 0.02), suggesting steers in the hoop-barn system carried less mud than steers from the open-lot system. Average daily cornstalk bedding use in the hoop-barn system was 2.3 kg/steer during summer-fall and 2

  15. Bacterial community analysis of beef cattle feedlots reveals that pen surface is distinct from feces.

    PubMed

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Clawson, Michael L

    2011-05-01

    The surface of beef cattle feedlot pens is commonly conceptualized as being packed uncomposted manure. Despite the important role that the feedlot pen may play in the transmission of veterinary and zoonotic pathogens, the bacterial ecology of feedlot surface material is not well understood. Our present study characterized the bacterial communities of the beef cattle feedlot pen surface material using 3647 full-length 16S rDNA sequences, and we compared the community composition of feedlot pens to the fecal source material. The feedlot surface composite was represented by members of the phylum Actinobacteria (42%), followed by Firmicutes (24%), Bacteroidetes (24%), and Proteobacteria (9%). The feedlot pen surface material bacterial communities were clearly distinct from those of the feces from animals in the same pen. Comparisons with previously published results of feces from the animals in the same pen reveal that, of 139 genera identified, only 25 were present in both habitats. These results indicate that, microbiologically, the feedlot pen surface material is separate and distinct from the fecal source material, suggesting that bacteria that originate in cattle feces face different selection pressures and survival challenges during their tenure in the feedlot pen, as compared to their residence in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21214381

  16. Geodecision system for traceability and sustainable production of beef cattle in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victoria, D. D.; Andrade, R. G.; Bolfe, L.; Batistella, M.; Pires, P. P.; Vicente, L. E.; Visoli, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Beef cattle production sustainability depends on incorporating innovative tools and technologies which are easy to comprehend, economically viable, and spatially explicit into the registration of precise, reliable data about production practices. This research developed from the needs and demands of food safety and food quality in extensive beef cattle production within the scope of the policies of Southern Cone and European Union's countries. Initially, the OTAG project (Operational Management and Geodecisional Prototype to Track and Trace Agricultural Production) focused on the development of a prototype traceability of cattle. The aim for the project's next phase is to enhance the electronic devices used in the identification and positioning of the animals, and the incorporation of more management and sanitary information. Besides, we intend to structure a database that enables the inclusion of greater amount of geospatial information linked to environmental aspects, such as water deficit, vegetation vigour, degradation indices of pasture areas, among others. For the extraction of knowledge, and the presentation of the results, we propose the development of a friendly interface to facilitate the exploration of the textual, tabular and geospatial information useful for the user.

  17. A potential association between the BM 1500 microsatellite and fat deposition in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, C J; Schmutz, S M; Bergen, R D; McKinnon, J J

    1998-06-01

    The obese gene was hypothesized as a candidate gene for fat characteristics in beef cattle. The BM 1500 microsatellite, near the obese gene, was characterized in 158 purebred beef bulls for which carcass trait information was available. Four breeds were included in the analyses-Angus, Charolais, Hereford, and Simmental. Four alleles were found. Lengths were approximately 138, 147, 149, and 140 bp with genotypic frequencies of 0.47, 0.44, 0.09, and 0.003 respectively. The carcass traits %rib fat, %rib lean, average fat, and grade fat were found to be significantly associated with the different alleles. The presence of the 138-bp allele in the genotype of an animal is correlated with higher levels of fat, whereas the 147-bp allele has the opposite effect. The 149-bp allele was found in low numbers, and a homozygote was never identified. Hereford and Angus bulls had the greatest frequencies of 138-bp alleles (Hereford = 0.57, Angus = 0.59), while Charolais and Simmental had a greater proportion of 147-bp alleles (Charolais = 0.54, Simmental = 0.58). This information may aid cattle producers in selecting cattle for markets that differ in the amount of fat required. PMID:9585429

  18. Ammonia emissions from a beef cattle feedyard on the southern High Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Clark, R. Nolan; Flesch, Thomas K.; Harper, Lowry A.; Baek, Bok H.

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are major sources of ammonia emitted into the atmosphere. There is considerable literature on ammonia emissions from poultry and swine CAFO, but few comprehensive studies have investigated large, open lot beef cattle feedyards. Ammonia emission rates and emission factors for a 77-ha, 45 000-head commercial beef cattle feedyard on the southern High Plains were quantified using measured profiles of ammonia concentration, wind speed and air temperature, and an inverse dispersion model. Mean summer emission rate was 7420 kg NH 3 d -1, and winter emission rate was about half that, at 3330 kg NH 3 d -1. Annual NH 3-N emission rate was 4430 kg NH 3-N d -1, which was 53% of the N fed to cattle. Daily per capita NH 3-N losses increased by 10-64% after the daily per capita N in feed rations increased by 15-26%. Annual emission factors for the pen area of the feedyard were 19.3 kg NH 3 (head fed) -1, or 70.2 kg NH 3 Mg -1 biomass produced. Annual emission factors for the retention pond of the feedyard were estimated to be 0.9 kg NH 3 (head fed) -1, or 3.2 kg NH 3 Mg -1 biomass produced.

  19. Experiential learning in the animal sciences: effect of 13 years of a beef cattle management practicum.

    PubMed

    Marshall, T T; Hoover, T S; Reiling, B A; Downs, K M

    1998-11-01

    As the source of students shifts from rural to urban and suburban communities, students entering agricultural programs have less practical livestock experience. The career goals indicated by most of these students require knowledge of and experience with practical applications of their course work. The objective of this study was to examine the profile of students enrolled in an experiential beef cattle course 1) to describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of students enrolled and 2) to assess the perceived value of course activities to graduates completing the course as related to their skill attainment and career development. The questionnaire was sent to all 312 students who were enrolled in the course from 1983 to 1996. Over 61% of the respondents indicated they had enrolled in the course to gain experience working with beef cattle. Over 39% took the course to enhance their application to the College of Veterinary Medicine. When asked to rate the value of the course, as it related to skill development, they noted it was most helpful in teaching cattle handling skills, growth performance measurement, live animal evaluation, nutritional management, carcass and meat product value determination, and breed identification. PMID:9856406

  20. Beef cattle welfare in the USA: identification of priorities for future research.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Cassandra B; Coetzee, Johann F; Stookey, Joseph M; Thomson, Daniel U; Grandin, Temple; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S

    2015-12-01

    This review identifies priorities for beef cattle welfare research in the USA. Based on our professional expertise and synthesis of existing literature, we identify two themes in intensive aspects of beef production: areas where policy-based actions are needed and those where additional research is required. For some topics, considerable research informs best practice, yet gaps remain between scientific knowledge and implementation. For example, many of the risk factors and management strategies to prevent respiratory disease are understood, but only used by a relatively small portion of the industry. This is an animal health issue that will require leadership and discussion to gain widespread adoption of practices that benefit cattle welfare. There is evidence of success when such actions are taken, as illustrated by the recent improvements in handling at US slaughter facilities. Our highest priorities for additional empirical evidence are: the effect of technologies used to either promote growth or manage cattle in feedlots, identification of management risk factors for disease in feedlots, and management decisions about transport (rest stops, feed/water deprivation, climatic conditions, stocking density). Additional research is needed to inform science-based recommendations about environmental features such as dry lying areas (mounds), shade, water and feed, as well as trailer design. PMID:26459152

  1. Protein levels in beef cattle finishing diets: industry application, university research, and systems results.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L

    1996-11-01

    Consulting nutritionists were surveyed to determine current formulation and management practices for finishing beef cattle. Among the six consultants surveyed, percentage of CP in finishing diets ranged from 12.5 to 14.4%, with urea levels ranging from .5 to 1.5% of DM. Finishing diets were based primarily on highly processed, rapidly fermented grains (steam-flaked and high-moisture grain), with roughage levels ranging from 3 to 11% of DM. All six consultants considered feed bunk management to be a critical factor affecting feed intake and performance; five of the six consultants used aggressive implant programs based on estrogen + trenbolone acetate. Recent university research was reviewed with respect to CP level and source in finishing diets. Finishing cattle managed on aggressive implant programs seem to respond to higher levels of CP better than would be expected from the factorial calculation approach. Moreover, improvements in performance noted in recent research seemed to be more consistent when supplemental CP was derived from ruminally degraded vs undegraded sources. Calculation of protein requirements with a metabolizable protein (MP) system yielded estimates of protein needs by finishing cattle that agreed more closely with current industry practices than did calculation based on the factorial method. The difference between the MP system and the factorial method was primarily a result of accounting for microbial N needs in the MP system. Reasons for production responses to CP levels that are greater than those calculated by the factorial method include increased accretion of protein by rapidly growing, implanted cattle, particularly during the initial phase of the finishing period, alleviation of a microbial N deficiency, and ruminal and systemic effects of ruminally degraded N on acid-base balance of beef cattle fed rapidly fermented, high-grain diets. Reasons for production responses to supplemental CP need further research. PMID:8923202

  2. A molecular epidemiology of treponemes in beef cattle digital dermatitis lesions and comparative analyses with sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis and dairy cattle digital dermatitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D

    2015-07-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. PMID:25937315

  3. Determination of saleable product in finished cattle and beef carcasses utilizing bioelectrical impedance technology.

    PubMed

    Marchello, M J; McLennan, J E; Dhuyvetter, D V; Slanger, W D

    1999-11-01

    Two experiments were performed to develop prediction equations of saleable beef and to validate the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, 50 beef cattle were finished to typical slaughter weights, and multiple linear regression equations were developed to predict kilograms of trimmed boneless, retail product of live cattle, and hot and cold carcasses. A four-terminal bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA) was used to measure resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) on each animal and processed carcass. The IMPS cuts plus trim were weighed and recorded. Distance between detector terminals (Lg) and carcass temperature (Tp) at time of BIA readings were recorded. Other variables included live weight (BW), hot carcass weight (HCW), cold carcass weight (CCW), and volume (Lg2/Rs). Regression equations for predicting kilograms of saleable product were [11.87 + (.409 x BW) - (.335 x Lg) + (.0518 x volume)] for live (R2 = .80); [-58.83 + (.589 x HCW) - (.846 x Rs) + (1.152 x Xc) + (.142 x Lg) + (2.608 x Tp)] for hot carcass (R2 = .95); and [32.15 + (.633 x CCW) + (.33 x Xc) - (.83 x Lg) + (.677 x volume)] for cold carcass (R2 = .93). In Exp. 2, 27 beef cattle were finished in a manner similar to Exp. 1, and the prediction equations from Exp. 1 were used to predict the saleable product of these animals. The Pearson correlations between actual saleable product and the predictions based on live and cold carcass data were .91 and .95, respectively. The Spearman and Kendall rank correlations were .95 and .83, respectively, for the cold carcass data. These results provide a practical application of bioelectrical impedance for market-based pricing. They complement previous studies that assessed fat-free mass. PMID:10568465

  4. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS). For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A prebiotic, Celmanax

  5. A meta-analytic assessment of a Thyroglobulin marker for marbling in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ian A; Moser, Gerhard; Burrell, Daniel L; Mengersen, Kerrie L; Hetzel, D Jay S

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis was undertaken reporting on the association between a polymorphism in the Thyroglobulin gene (TG5) and marbling in beef cattle. A Bayesian hierarchical model was adopted, with alternative representations assessed through sensitivity analysis. Based on the overall posterior means and posterior probabilities, there is substantial support for an additive association between the TG5 marker and marbling. The marker effect was also assessed across various breed groups, with each group displaying a high probability of positive association between the T allele and marbling. The WinBUGS program code used to simulate the model is included as an Appendix available online at . PMID:16954041

  6. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals' growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher's exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and grain

  7. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A.; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals’ growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher’s exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and

  8. Effects of subcutaneous injections of a long acting moxidectin formulation in grazing beef cattle on parasite fecal egg reduction and animal weight gain.

    PubMed

    Cleale, R M; Hart, K B; Hutchens, D E; Johnson, E G; Paul, A J; Smith, L L; Tucker, C; Yazwinski, T A; Doscher, M E; Grubbs, S T; Wulster-Radcliffe, M; Amodie, D M

    2004-12-15

    moxidectin cattle LA injectable administered at a dosing rate of 1.0 mg moxidectin/kg b.w. to grazing beef cattle was effective and safe. PMID:15567595

  9. A retrospective study of non-suppurative encephalitis in beef cattle from western Canada

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Sergio; Clark, Edward G.; Wobeser, Gary A.; Janzen, Eugene D.; Philibert, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Non-suppurative encephalitis occurs sporadically in beef cattle in western Canada, leading to loss of animals. This retrospective study investigated the presence of viral, bacterial, and protozoal antigens or DNA in 37 western Canadian feedlot cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis for which a cause had not been identified. Cases were selected based on the age of the animal (> 7 months), and clinical history of recumbency and depression. The identification of rabies in 1 case stresses the importance of including this viral disease in the list of differential diagnoses. Because there was variation in the severity, distribution, and type of lesions, it is possible that there may be more than 1 cause, but failure to identify an infectious agent might also suggest that non-infectious agents could play a role. PMID:24293671

  10. Identification of genome-wide selection signatures in the Limousin beef cattle breed.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, A; Szmatoła, T; Ropka-Molik, K; Jasielczuk, I; Pawlina, K; Semik, E; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2016-08-01

    The study is aimed at identifying selection footprints within the genome of Limousin cattle. With the use of Extended Haplotype Homozygosity test, supplemented with correction for variation in recombination rates across the genome, we created map of selection footprints and detected 173 significant (p < 0.01) core haplotypes being potentially under positive selection. Within these regions, a number of candidate genes associated inter alia with skeletal muscle growth (GDF15, BMP7, BMP4 and TGFB3) or postmortem proteolysis and meat maturation (CAPN1 and CAPN5) were annotated. Noticeable clusters of selection footprints were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, 8 and 14, which are known to carry several quantitative trait loci for growth traits and meat quality. The study provides information about the genes and metabolic pathways potentially modified under the influence of directional selection, aimed at improving beef production characteristics in Limousin cattle. PMID:26611546

  11. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  12. Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli on Bavarian dairy and beef cattle farms.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Hörmansdorfer, S; Messelhäusser, U; Käsbohrer, A; Sauter-Louis, C; Mansfeld, R

    2013-05-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains are believed to be widely distributed among humans and animals; however, to date, there are only few studies that support this assumption on a regional or countrywide scale. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy cows and beef cattle in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. The study population included 30 mixed dairy and beef cattle farms and 15 beef cattle farms. Fecal samples, boot swabs, and dust samples were analyzed for ESBL-producing E. coli using selective media. PCR was performed to screen for CTX-M and ampC resistance genes. A total of 598 samples yielded 196 (32.8%) that contained ESBL-producing E. coli, originating from 39 (86.7%) of 45 farms. Samples obtained from mixed farms were significantly more likely to be ESBL-producing E. coli positive than samples from beef cattle farms (fecal samples, P < 0.001; boot swabs, P = 0.014; and dust samples, P = 0.041). A total of 183 isolates (93.4%) of 196 ESBL-producing E. coli-positive strains harbored CTX-M genes, CTX-M group 1 being the most frequently found group. Forty-six additional isolates contained ampC genes, and 5 of the 46 isolates expressed a blaCMY-2 gene. The study shows that ESBL-producing E. coli strains are commonly found on Bavarian dairy and beef cattle farms. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the occurrence of blaCMY-2 in cattle in Germany. PMID:23455336

  13. Particulate matter emission rates from beef cattle feedlots in Kansas-reverse dispersion modeling.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Auvermann, Brent W; Razote, Edna B; Murphy, James P; Harner, Joseph P

    2012-03-01

    Open beef cattle feedlots emit various air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm or less (PM10); however limited research has quantified PM10 emission rates from feedlots. This research was conducted to determine emission rates of PM10 from large cattle feedlots in Kansas. Concentrations of PM10 at the downwind and upwind edges of two large cattle feedlots (KS1 and KS2) in Kansas were measured with tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) PM10 monitors from January 2007 to December 2008. Weather conditions at the feedlots were also monitored. From measured PM10 concentrations and weather conditions, PM10 emission rates were determined using reverse modeling with the American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD). The two feedlots differed significantly in median PM10 emission flux (1.60 g/m2-day for KS1 vs. 1.10 g/m2-day for KS2) but not in PM10 emission factor (27 kg/1000 head-day for KS1 and 30 kg/1000 head-day KS2). These emission factors were smaller than published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission factor for cattle feedlots. PMID:22482292

  14. Evaluating dispersion modeling options to estimate methane emissions from grazing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Sean M; Flesch, Thomas K; Coates, Trevor W; Charmley, Ed; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Bishop-Hurley, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Enteric methane (CH) emission from cattle is a source of greenhouse gas and is an energy loss that contributes to production inefficiency for cattle. Direct measurements of enteric CH emissions are useful to quantify the magnitude and variation and to evaluate mitigation of this important greenhouse gas source. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of stocking density of cattle and source configuration (i.e., point source vs. area source and elevation of area source) on CH emissions from grazing beef cattle in Queensland, Australia. This was accomplished using nonintrusive atmospheric measurements and a gas dispersion model. The average measured CH emission for the point and area source was between 240 and 250 g animal d over the entire study. There was no difference ( > 0.05) in emission when using an elevated area source (0.5 m) or a ground area source (0 m). For the point-source configuration, there was a difference in CH emission due to stocking density; likewise, some differences existed for the area-source emissions. This study demonstrates the flexibility of the area-source configuration of the dispersion model to estimate CH emissions even at a low stocking density. PMID:25602324

  15. Functional proteomic and interactome analysis of proteins associated with beef tenderness in angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef is a source of high quality protein for the human population, and beef tenderness has significant influence on beef palatability, consumer expectation and industry profitability. To further elucidate the factors affecting beef tenderness, functional proteomics and bioinformatics interactome ana...

  16. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance profiles in beef cattle, slaughterhouse personnel and slaughterhouse environment in ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sibhat, B; Molla Zewde, B; Zerihun, A; Muckle, A; Cole, L; Boerlin, P; Wilkie, E; Perets, A; Mistry, K; Gebreyes, W A

    2011-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence, distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella serovars in slaughter beef cattle, slaughterhouse environment and personnel engaged in flaying and evisceration during slaughtering process. A total of 800 samples (each sample type, n = 100) consisting of swabs from hides, slaughterhouse personnel hands at flaying and evisceration, rumen and caecal contents, mesenteric lymph nodes, carcasses and holding pens were collected. Of the total 100 beef cattle examined, 14% were Salmonella positive in caecal content and/or mesenteric lymph nodes. Of the various samples analysed, Salmonella was detected in 31% of hides, 19% of rumen contents, 8% of mesenteric lymph nodes, 6% of caecal contents, 2% of carcass swabs, 9% of palm swabs taken from the hands of personnel in the slaughterhouse during flaying (7%) and evisceration (2%), and in 12% of holding pen swabs. The Salmonella isolates (n = 87) belonged to eight different serovars of which S. Anatum (n = 54) and S. Newport (19) were the major serovars and both serovars were detected in all sample sources except in carcass swabs. Eighteen of the 87 (20.7%) Salmonella serovars consisting of Newport (n = 14), Anatum (n = 3) and Eastbourne (n = 1) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Among the antimicrobial resistant Salmonella serovars, S. Newport was multidrug resistant (15.6%) and exhibited resistance to streptomycin, sulphisoxazole and tetracycline. PMID:20042064

  17. Linkage Disequilibrium Estimation of Chinese Beef Simmental Cattle Using High-density SNP Panels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, M.; Zhu, B.; Wang, Y. H.; Wu, Y.; Xu, L.; Guo, L. P.; Yuan, Z. R.; Zhang, L. P.; Gao, X.; Gao, H. J.; Xu, S. Z.; Li, J. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) plays an important role in genomic selection and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL). In this study, the pattern of LD and effective population size (Ne) were investigated in Chinese beef Simmental cattle. A total of 640 bulls were genotyped with IlluminaBovinSNP50BeadChip and IlluminaBovinHDBeadChip. We estimated LD for each autosomal chromosome at the distance between two random SNPs of <0 to 25 kb, 25 to 50 kb, 50 to 100 kb, 100 to 500 kb, 0.5 to 1 Mb, 1 to 5 Mb and 5 to 10 Mb. The mean values of r2 were 0.30, 0.16 and 0.08, when the separation between SNPs ranged from 0 to 25 kb to 50 to 100 kb and then to 0.5 to 1 Mb, respectively. The LD estimates decreased as the distance increased in SNP pairs, and increased with the increase of minor allelic frequency (MAF) and with the decrease of sample sizes. Estimates of effective population size for Chinese beef Simmental cattle decreased in the past generations and Ne was 73 at five generations ago. PMID:25049849

  18. Genome-wide association study for backfat thickness in Canchim beef cattle using Random Forest approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality involves many traits, such as marbling, tenderness, juiciness, and backfat thickness, all of which require attention from livestock producers. Backfat thickness improvement by means of traditional selection techniques in Canchim beef cattle has been challenging due to its low heritability, and it is measured late in an animal’s life. Therefore, the implementation of new methodologies for identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to backfat thickness are an important strategy for genetic improvement of carcass and meat quality. Results The set of SNPs identified by the random forest approach explained as much as 50% of the deregressed estimated breeding value (dEBV) variance associated with backfat thickness, and a small set of 5 SNPs were able to explain 34% of the dEBV for backfat thickness. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fat-related traits were found in the surrounding areas of the SNPs, as well as many genes with roles in lipid metabolism. Conclusions These results provided a better understanding of the backfat deposition and regulation pathways, and can be considered a starting point for future implementation of a genomic selection program for backfat thickness in Canchim beef cattle. PMID:23738659

  19. Feasibility of the grandprogeny design for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in purebred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moody, D E; Pomp, D; Buchanan, D S

    1997-04-01

    The grandprogeny design (GPD) was developed for dairy cattle to use existing pedigreed populations for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection. Marker genotypes of grandsires and sons are determined, and trait phenotypic data from grandprogeny are analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of GPD in purebred beef cattle populations. Pedigree structures of Angus (n = 123,319), Hereford (n = 107,778), Brangus (n = 14,449), and Gelbvieh (n = 8,114) sire evaluation reports were analyzed to identify potentially useful families. Power of QTL detection was calculated for a range of QTL effects (.1 to .5 SD) and two Type I error rates (.01 and .001). Reasonable power (> .75) could be achieved using GPD in Angus and Hereford for QTL having moderate effects (.3 SD) on weaning weight and large effects (.4 to .5 SD) on birth, yearling, and maternal weaning weights by genotyping 500 animals. Existing Gelbvieh and Brangus families useful for GPD were limited, and reasonable power could be expected only for QTL having large effects on weaning or birth weights. Although family structures suitable for GPD exist in purebred beef populations, large amounts of genotyping would be required to achieve reasonable power, and only QTL having moderate to large effects could be expected to be identified. PMID:9110205

  20. The nature, scope and impact of genomic prediction in beef cattle in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Artificial selection has proven to be effective at altering the performance of animal production systems. Nevertheless, selection based on assessment of the genetic superiority of candidates is suboptimal as a result of errors in the prediction of genetic merit. Conventional breeding programs may extend phenotypic measurements on selection candidates to include correlated indicator traits, or delay selection decisions well beyond puberty so that phenotypic performance can be observed on progeny or other relatives. Extending the generation interval to increase the accuracy of selection reduces annual rates of gain compared to accurate selection and use of parents of the next generation at the immediate time they reach breeding age. Genomic prediction aims at reducing prediction errors at breeding age by exploiting information on the transmission of chromosome fragments from parents to selection candidates, in conjunction with knowledge on the value of every chromosome fragment. For genomic prediction to influence beef cattle breeding programs and the rate or cost of genetic gains, training analyses must be undertaken, and genomic prediction tools made available for breeders and other industry stakeholders. This paper reviews the nature or kind of studies currently underway, the scope or extent of some of those studies, and comments on the likely predictive value of genomic information for beef cattle improvement. PMID:21569623

  1. Genetic variation of the weaning weight of beef cattle as a function of accumulated heat stress.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the genetic variation in the weaning weight (WW) of beef cattle as a function of heat stress. The WWs were recorded at approximately 205 days of age in three Brazilian beef cattle populations: Nelore (93,616), Brangus (18,906) and Tropical Composite (62,679). In view of the cumulative nature of WW, the effect of heat stress was considered as the accumulation of temperature and humidity index units (ACTHI) from the animal's birth to weaning. A reaction norm model was used to estimate the (co)variance components of WW across the ACTHI scale. The accumulation of THI units from birth to weaning negatively affected the WW. The definition of accumulated THI units as an environmental descriptor permitted to identify important genetic variation in the WW as a function of heat stress. As evidence of genotype by environment interaction, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the (co)variance components for WW across the environmental gradient. In this respect, the best animals in less stressful environments are not necessarily the best animals in more stressful environments. Furthermore, the response to selection for WW is expected to be lower in more stressful environments. PMID:26061790

  2. Risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, E; Zamir, L; Hamd, F; Even Tov, B; Klement, E

    2015-06-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. Recurrence of FMD outbreaks in Israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. Grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. Nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of FMD among these herds have never been investigated. In 2011, Israel faced a large scale outbreak of serotype O FMD virus, which strongly affected beef cattle. We conducted a case-control study of 44 beef cattle herds grazing in the Golan Heights in order to determine the risk factors for FMDV infection. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) with a logit link function. Multivariable analysis was conducted for factors with p-value lower than 0.1 in the univariable analysis. The presence of calves under 6 months of age was found as a significant risk factor for FMDV infection in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR)=5.95, confidence intervals of 95% (CI95%)=1.59-22.29, p=0.008). This was also the only variable that remained statistically significant in the multivariable analysis. Herds in which more than 6 months between vaccination of adults and exposure had elapsed were in higher risk, albeit not statistically significant, for the occurrence of FMDV infection (OR=3.29, CI95%=0.83-12.99, p=0.089). The higher probability of infection in herds, which included young calves may be a result of their higher susceptibility due to administration of only one or no vaccine prior to the outbreak. The results of the study thus support increasing the frequency of vaccination of both cows and calves in grazing beef herds. Intensifying surveillance where young calves are abundant may also prove efficient for early detection of infected herds and for mitigating outbreaks

  3. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  4. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  5. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    PubMed

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  6. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 pop...

  7. Advising Beef-Cattle Farmers: Problem-Finding Rather than Problem-Solving. Characterization of Advice Practices in Creuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magne, Marie-Angelina; Ingrand, Stephane

    2004-01-01

    French farms have to adapt quickly in an economic and social context that is in profound change. For this, advice procedures must themselves be reconsidered. The aim of this work was to characterize the advice practices in beef-cattle systems in Creuse and define farmers' and advisers' requirements according to future methods of providing advice.…

  8. Comparison of AERMOD and WindTrax dispersion models in determining PM10 emission rates from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reverse dispersion modeling has been used to determine air emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research compared AERMOD, a Gaussian-based and currently the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preferred regulatory dispersion model, and ...

  9. Effects of Supplemental Ground Flaxseed Fed to Beef Cattle Grazing Summer Native Range on the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted simultaneously to evaluate the effects of supplemental ground flaxseed on site and extent of digestion and growth performance in beef cattle grazing summer native range. Six Angus heifers (avg initial BW 367 ± 8.0 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were use...

  10. Seasonal variation in vitamin D status of beef cattle reared in the midwest and Fed to NRC recommendations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to measure seasonal variation in concentration of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in beef cattle reared in the Midwest and fed to NRC recommendations. The concentration of 25OHD reflects adequacy of vitamin D intake and indicates vitamin D status. Vitamin D is an important ...

  11. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  12. Site, environmental and airflow characteristics for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In conjunction with an emission monitoring study, long-term airflow and environmental data were collected from four regional producer-owned and -operated mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains. The barns were oriented east-west, with approximate dimensions of an 8-m south wal...

  13. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  14. CAPN1 and GDF8 genetic marker effects on heifer performance, reproduction, and first calf performance traits in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To increase the accuracy of effect estimation and assess potential unintended correlated effects for two marker systems used commercially for muscling and meat tenderness, a composite beef cattle population segregating the markers was selected for multiple years to increase minor allele frequency (M...

  15. Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam…

  16. Process-based modeling of ammonia emission from beef cattle feedyards with the integrated farm systems model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N), and potentially leads to over-fertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter that can impact human health. ...

  17. The risks and prevention of contamination of beef feedlot cattle: the perspective of the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Griffin, D D; Dargatz, D A

    1997-08-01

    There are currently no scientifically defined critical management points or critical control points to manage foodborne pathogens at the pre-harvest level. Research is ongoing: much of the pre-harvest research is funded by producer organisations. The beef industry has Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) programmes in place and these are dynamic. Groups of cattlemen have made a very strong commitment to reducing foodborne pathogens in beef. Fewer Escherichia coli O157:H7 organisms are shed by feedlot cattle near the end of the feeding period than by newly arrived cattle. Moreover, there is less shedding of the organisms in cattle of slaughter age than in younger cattle. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle is similar to that in range cattle. This suggests that concentrating cattle in feedlot dirt pens does not increase the risk of shedding E. coli organisms. Pen maintenance, considered a good management practice, appears to be an adequate means of keeping pathogen levels in pens low. It is not likely that pre-harvest food safety programmes will eliminate the threat of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella. The management of foodborne pathogens will become part of an integrated programme to enhance food safety which includes the producer, the packer, the distributors, retailers and the consumer. The feedlot industry initiated a residue avoidance programme several years ago. As a result, the risk of chemical residues in beef from feedlots in the United States of America is near zero. Hazard analysis and critical control point-type prevention programmes, using scientifically based critical management points, will help ensure that the risk remains negligible. PMID:9501349

  18. Eye white percentage as a predictor of temperament in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Core, S; Widowski, T; Mason, G; Miller, S

    2009-06-01

    Accurately evaluating and selecting for calm temperament in beef cattle is important for economic and animal welfare reasons. Previous studies have shown that eye white (EW) can be a predictor of a multitude of emotions across different situations, but there is little research on the relationship between EW and temperament. The objective of this experiment was to assess the accuracy and reliability of using the percentage of exposed EW as a predictor of temperament in beef cattle. Forty-eight heifers (group 1), 39 bulls (group 2), and 60 steers (group 3) were video-recorded while in a squeeze chute, and 2 still digital images from each animal were selected for EW determination. Chute temperament scores were assigned: 1 (calm) to 5 (agitated). Flight speeds were measured blindly and independently during a subsequent test in which the amount of time it took a solitary animal to pass a handler and travel a specified distance was recorded. The EW area in each image was measured using Sigmascan Pro 5 and was expressed as the percentage of exposed eye area. Each image was analyzed twice to determine tracing repeatability. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated among 2 images of the same animal, as well as among duplicate readings of the same image to determine animal and tracing repeatabilities. The mean percentages of EW were 30.14 +/- 14.37, 31.43 +/- 14.77, and 28.57 +/- 12.38, and the average percentage accuracy for duplicate image EW measures was 96, 96, and 93 (P < 0.0001) for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients for EW percentage and chute temperament scores were 0.674 (P < 0.0001), 0.95 (P < 0.0001), and 0.696 (P < 0.0001), whereas the correlations between EW and flight speeds were 0.415 (P < 0.0001), 0.333 (P < 0.05), and 0.294 (P < 0.01) for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Results from this study indicate that percentage EW in cattle could be used as a quantitative tool with minimal equipment to assess temperament

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  20. Improving rumen ecology and microbial population by dried rumen digesta in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha; Saenkamsorn, Anuthida; Supapong, Chanadol; Anantasook, Nirawan; Gunun, Pongsatorn

    2015-06-01

    Four Thai native beef cattle with initial body weight (BW) of 91.8 ± 4.75 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four concentrates replacement levels of soybean meal (SBM) by dried rumen digesta (DRD) at 0, 33, 67, and 100 % on dry matter (DM) basis. All cattle were fed rice straw ad libitum while additional concentrate was fed at 0.5 % BW daily. The experiment was conducted for four periods of 21 days. Rumen fluid was analyzed for predominant cellulolytic bacterial population by using real-time PCR technique. Increasing levels of DRD did not alter total feed intake, ruminal pH and temperature, and plasma urea nitrogen (P > 0.05). Protozoa and fungal population were not differed by DRD supplementation while population of bacteria at 4 h post feeding was increased when SBM was replaced with DRD at 66 and 100 % DM. Population of total bacteria and R. flavefaciens at 4 h post feeding were significantly highest with inclusion of 100 % of DRD in the ration. The experimental diets has no effect on excretion and absorption of purine derivatives (P > 0.05), while microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial N synthesis were significantly increased with DRD inclusion in the diet and highest with 100 % DRD replacement (P > 0.05). Replacement of SBM by DRD at 100 % DM improved the rumen ecology and microbial population in beef cattle fed on rice straw. PMID:25851930

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  2. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although

  3. Relationship between cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity carcass merit in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this trial was to use cattle temperament, as determined by exit velocity only, as a means to evaluate the impact of temperament on carcass merit and the possible utilization of exit velocity alone as a sorting tool within the feedlot. At the time of processing, exit velocity and bod...

  4. Quantifying the influence of ambient temperature on dairy and beef cattle mortality in France from a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane

    2015-07-01

    In the context of climate change, the frequency and severity of extreme weather events are expected to increase in temperate regions, and potentially have a severe impact on farmed cattle through production losses or deaths. In this study, we used distributed lag non-linear models to describe and quantify the relationship between a temperature-humidity index (THI) and cattle mortality in 12 areas in France. THI incorporates the effects of both temperature and relative humidity and was already used to quantify the degree of heat stress on dairy cattle because it does reflect physical stress deriving from extreme conditions better than air temperature alone. Relationships between daily THI and mortality were modeled separately for dairy and beef cattle during the 2003-2006 period. Our general approach was to first determine the shape of the THI-mortality relationship in each area by modeling THI with natural cubic splines. We then modeled each relationship assuming a three-piecewise linear function, to estimate the critical cold and heat THI thresholds, for each area, delimiting the thermoneutral zone (i.e. where the risk of death is at its minimum), and the cold and heat effects below and above these thresholds, respectively. Area-specific estimates of the cold or heat effects were then combined in a hierarchical Bayesian model to compute the pooled effects of THI increase or decrease on dairy and beef cattle mortality. A U-shaped relationship, indicating a mortality increase below the cold threshold and above the heat threshold was found in most of the study areas for dairy and beef cattle. The pooled estimate of the mortality risk associated with a 1°C decrease in THI below the cold threshold was 5.0% for dairy cattle [95% posterior interval: 4.4, 5.5] and 4.4% for beef cattle [2.0, 6.5]. The pooled mortality risk associated with a 1°C increase above the hot threshold was estimated to be 5.6% [5.0, 6.2] for dairy and 4.6% [0.9, 8.7] for beef cattle. Knowing the

  5. Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Brett R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Buser, Michael D; Johnson, Bradley J; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-07-21

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards. PMID:26098147

  6. Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in dairy and beef cattle: 11 cases (2001 to 2003)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The medical records of 11 cattle with jejunal hemorrhage syndrome were reviewed. Female and male, lactating and pregnant, dairy and beef cattle were affected. Decreased feed intake and milk production, reduced amounts of dark feces, and abdominal discomfort were common historical findings. Common clinical findings included depressed demeanor, a “ping” and fluid-splashing sounds over the right abdomen, melena, and distended loops of intestine on rectal palpation. Surgery was done on 7 cases, 10 cases were euthanized, and 1 died. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from the intestinal contents from 7 of 7 cases. At necropsy, the characteristic finding was a varying length of a dark purple-red distended jejunum with an intraluminal blood clot. Histologically, there was segmental necrosis, ulceration, and mucosal and transmural hemorrhage of the jejunum. This is a sporadic disease of adult cattle characterized by mechanical obstruction of the small intestines by a large blood clot with a case fatality of almost 100%. PMID:16187715

  7. Ammonia Emission from a Beef Cattle Feedlot and Its Local Dry Deposition and Re-Emission.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Janzen, H H; Coates, T W; Beauchemin, K A; Flesch, T K

    2016-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatized from livestock manure is affiliated with ecosystem and human health concerns and decreased fertilizer value of manure and can also be an indirect source of greenhouse gas. Beef cattle feedlots, where thousands of cattle are grouped together to enable greater control of feed management and production, are hot spots in the agricultural landscape for NH emissions. Quantifying the feedlot NH emissions is a difficult task, partly due to the reactive nature of NH within and surrounding the feedlot. Our study used a dispersion model coupled to field measurements to derive NH emissions from a feedlot in southern Alberta, Canada. The average feedlot NH emission was 50 μg m s (85 g animal d), which coincides with a low dietary crude protein content. At a location 165 m east of the feedlot, a flux gradient (FG) technique measured an average NH deposition of 12.0 μg m s (west wind) and 5.3 μg m s (east wind). Ammonia FG emission averaged 1 μg m s with east winds, whereas no NH emission was found for west wind. Using soil-captured NH, there was a decrease in deposition with distance from the feedlot (50% over 200 m). Collectively, the results of this study provide insight into the dynamics of NH in the agricultural landscape and illustrate the need for NH mitigation to improve the environmental and economic sustainability of cattle feedlots. PMID:27380065

  8. Effect of polymorphisms linked to LEP gene on its expression on adipose tissues in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Passos, D T; Hepp, D; Moraes, J C F; Weimer, T A

    2007-06-01

    In cattle, genetic markers at the leptin (LEP) gene and at those linked to the gene have been described as affecting calving interval (markers LEPSau3AI and IDVGA51), or daily weight gain (BMS1074 and BM1500). This work investigated the effect of these alleles on LEP mRNA levels in cattle subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues. A sample of 137 females of a Brangus-Ibage beef cattle herd was analysed to evaluate the distribution of the polymorphisms; then, animals having at least one of the IDVGA51*181 (allele 181 at marker IDVGA51; six animals), LEPSau3AI*2 (four), BMS1074*151 (13), BM1500*135 (six) alleles and a control group composed of animals without any of these alleles (four animals) were submitted to surgery to obtain omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Leptin mRNA expression was quantified by TaqMan RT-PCR, using 18S rRNA as internal control and adjusted for the effect of body condition score, through regression analysis. Omental fat had LEP gene expression 33% lower than the subcutaneous tissue. Carriers of IDVGA*181 and BMS1074*151 showed subcutaneous fat leptin mRNA levels higher than the controls. Leptin controls feed intake and coordinates reproduction; therefore, animals with higher LEP gene expression will probably have lower daily weight gain than others with similar forage offer and nutritional condition and probably will also have longer calving interval. PMID:17550358

  9. A new predilection site of Mycoplasma bovis: Postsurgical seromas in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gille, L; Pilo, P; Valgaeren, B R; Van Driessche, L; Van Loo, H; Bodmer, M; Bürki, S; Boyen, F; Haesebrouck, F; Deprez, P; Pardon, B

    2016-04-15

    Mycoplasma bovis is a highly contagious bacterium, which predominantly causes chronic pneumonia, otitis and arthritis in calves and mastitis in adult cattle. In humans, Mycoplasma species have been associated with post-surgical infections. The present study aimed to identify the bacteria associated with three outbreaks of infected seromas after caesarian section in Belgian Blue beef cattle. A total of 10 cases occurred in three herds which were in close proximity of each other and shared the same veterinary practice. M. bovis could be cultured from seroma fluid in five of the six referred animals, mostly in pure culture and was isolated from multiple chronic sites of infection (arthritis and mastitis) as well. DNA fingerprinting of the isolates targeting two insertion sequence elements suggested spread of M. bovis from chronic sites of infection (udder and joints) to the postsurgical seromas. Identical genetic profiles were demonstrated in two animals from two separate farms, suggesting spread between farms. Mortality rate in the referred animals positive for M. bovis in a seroma was 80% (4/5), despite intensive treatment. A massive increase in antimicrobial use was observed in every affected farm. These observations demonstrate involvement of mycoplasmas in outbreaks of postsurgical seromas in cattle. PMID:27016759

  10. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP

  11. Effect of temperature and retention time on methane production from beef cattle waste

    SciTech Connect

    Varel, V.H.; Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.

    1980-08-01

    The effect of temperature and retention time on the rate of methane production from waste of beef cattle fed a finishing diet was investigated by using continuously mixed 3-liter working volume anaerobic fermentors. The temperatures ranged from 30 to 65/sup 0/C with 5/sup 0/C increments between fermentors. The fermentors were fed once per day with 6% volatile solids (organic matter). Retention time for each temperature was varied from 18 to 2.5 days. After 3-volume turnovers, samples were obtained on 4 consecutive days. The highest methane production rate (liters/liter of fermentor per day) and methane yield at that rate (liters/gram of volatile solids) were 1.27 and 0.19 at 9 days and 30/sup 0/C, 1.60 and 0.16 at 6 days and 35/sup 0/C, 2.28 and 0.23 at 6 days and 40/sup 0/C, 2.42 and 0.24 at 6 days and 45/sup 0/C, 2.83 and 0.14 at 3 days and 50/sup 0/C, 2.75 and 0.14 at 3 days and 55/sup 0/C, 3.18 and 0.14 at 2.5 days and 60/sup 0/C, and 1.69 and 0.17 at 6 days and 65/sup 0/C. Volatile solids degradation at these retention times and temperatures was between 46 and 54%. The concentrations of volatile acids in the 30 to 55/sup 0/C fermentors were generally below 2000 mg/liter, with the exception of the 3-day retention time. The 60 and 65/sup 0/C fermentors were usually above this level for all retention times. These studies indicate potential rates of methane production from the fermentation of untreated waste of beef cattle fed high-grain finishing diets. This information should serve as preliminary guidelines for various kinetic analyses and aid in economic evaluations of the potential feasibility of fermenting beef cattle waste to methane.

  12. Genomic prediction in Japanese Black cattle: application of a single-step approach to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Onogi, A; Ogino, A; Komatsu, T; Shoji, N; Simizu, K; Kurogi, K; Yasumori, T; Togashi, K; Iwata, H

    2014-03-18

    The implementation of genomic selection for Japanese Black cattle known for rich marbling of their meat, is now being explored. Although multiple-step methods are often adopted for dairy cattle, they present shortcomings such as bias and loss of information in addition to operational complexity. These can be avoided using single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) based on the relationship matrix H, which is constructed from the numerator relationship matrix (A) augmented by the genomic relationship matrix (G). This study assessed the use of ssGBLUP for three economically important traits in Japanese Black cattle. Three aspects of ssGBLUP that are important for practical use were examined specifically: the mixing proportions of blending G with A, selection of subsets of genotyped animals used for constructing H, and prediction ability for ungenotyped animals. Different mixing proportions were tested to assess the influence of these proportions on variance component estimation and prediction accuracy. For all traits, the highest or nearly highest accuracy was obtained when the adopted mixing proportion provided heritability closest to that inferred based on A. However, the accuracy did not increase greatly under adjustment of the mixing proportion, thereby suggesting that the influence of the mixing proportion on the accuracy was limited. Genotype data of influential bulls showed a greater contribution to accuracy than that of bulls which were less influential. Genotyping animals with phenotypic records increased the accuracy. It can be prioritized over genotyping bulls that are not influential on the population. These results are expected to present good guides to the future expansion of genotyped populations. Even for animals without genotype data but with genotyped sires, ssGBLUP provided more accurate prediction than BLUP did. For both phenotype and breeding value prediction, ssGBLUP provides more accurate prediction than BLUP, suggesting its usefulness in genomic

  13. Genomic prediction in Japanese Black cattle: application of a single-step approach to beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Onogi, A; Ogino, A; Komatsu, T; Shoji, N; Simizu, K; Kurogi, K; Yasumori, T; Togashi, K; Iwata, H

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of genomic selection for Japanese Black cattle, known for rich marbling of their meat, is now being explored. Although multiple-step methods are often adopted for dairy cattle, they present shortcomings such as bias and loss of information in addition to operational complexity. These can be avoided using single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) based on the relationship matrix H, which is constructed from the numerator relationship matrix (A) augmented by the genomic relationship matrix (G). This study assessed the use of ssGBLUP for 3 economically important traits in Japanese Black cattle. Three aspects of ssGBLUP that are important for practical use were examined specifically: the mixing proportions of blending G with A, selection of subsets of genotyped animals used for constructing H, and prediction ability for ungenotyped animals. Different mixing proportions were tested to assess the influence of these proportions on variance component estimation and prediction accuracy. For all traits, the highest or nearly highest accuracy was obtained when the adopted mixing proportion provided heritability closest to that inferred based on A. However, the accuracy did not increase greatly under adjustment of the mixing proportion, thereby suggesting that the influence of the mixing proportion on the accuracy was limited. Genotype data of influential bulls showed a greater contribution to accuracy than that of bulls that were less influential. Genotyping animals with phenotypic records increased the accuracy. It can be prioritized over genotyping bulls that are not influential on the population. These results are expected to present good guides to the future expansion of genotyped populations. Even for animals without genotype data but with genotyped sires, ssGBLUP provided more accurate prediction than BLUP did. For both phenotype and breeding value prediction, ssGBLUP provides more accurate prediction than BLUP, suggesting its usefulness in genomic selection

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies loci and candidate genes for meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangwei; Qi, Xin; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2016-06-01

    Improving meat quality is the best way to enhance profitability and strengthen competitiveness in beef industry. Identification of genetic variants that control beef quality traits can help breeders design optimal breeding programs to achieve this goal. We carried out a genome-wide association study for meat quality traits in 1141 Simmental cattle using the Illumina Bovine HD 770K SNP array to identify the candidate genes and genomic regions associated with meat quality traits for beef cattle, including fat color, meat color, marbling score, longissimus muscle area, and shear force. In our study, we identified twenty significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p < 1.47 × 10(-6)) associated with these five meat quality traits. Notably, we observed several SNPs were in or near eleven genes which have been reported previously, including TMEM236, SORL1, TRDN, S100A10, AP2S1, KCTD16, LOC506594, DHX15, LAMA4, PREX1, and BRINP3. We identified a haplotype block on BTA13 containing five significant SNPs associated with fat color trait. We also found one of 19 SNPs was associated with multiple traits (shear force and longissimus muscle area) on BTA7. Our results offer valuable insights to further explore the potential mechanism of meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle. PMID:27126640

  15. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef. PMID

  16. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mir, Raies A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Elzo, Mauricio; Ahn, Soohyoun; Driver, J Danny; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260) from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans. PMID:26849041

  17. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Raies A.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Elzo, Mauricio; Ahn, Soohyoun; Driver, J. Danny; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260) from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans. PMID:26849041

  18. Evaluation in beef cattle of six deoxyribonucleic acid markers developed for dairy traits reveals an osteopontin polymorphism associated with postweaning growth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six DNA markers have been reported to be associated with variation in dairy production traits. The objectives of this study were to 1) estimate allele frequencies in U.S. beef cattle and 2) evaluate association of marker genotype with beef production traits. Several genetic markers have been assoc...

  19. Whole genome sequences of the USMARC beef cattle diversity panel v2.9 aligned to the bovine reference genome assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes from 96 beef sires from 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle was created. These sires with minimal pedigree relationships, represent >99% of the germplasm used in the US beef industry circa 2000. The group is estimated to contain more than 187 u...

  20. Evidence for pleiotropism and recent selection in the PLAG1 region in Australian Beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Fortes, M R S; Kemper, K; Sasazaki, S; Reverter, A; Pryce, J E; Barendse, W; Bunch, R; McCulloch, R; Harrison, B; Bolormaa, S; Zhang, Y D; Hawken, R J; Goddard, M E; Lehnert, S A

    2013-12-01

    A putative functional mutation (rs109231213) near PLAG1 (BTA14) associated with stature was studied in beef cattle. Data from 8199 Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Tropical Composite cattle were used to test the associations between rs109231213 and various phenotypes. Further, 23 496 SNPs located on BTA14 were tested for association with these phenotypes, both independently and fitted together with rs109231213. The C allele of rs109231213 significantly increased hip height, weight, net food intake, age at puberty in males and females and decreased IGF-I concentration in blood and fat depth. When rs109231213 was fitted as a fixed effect in the model, there was an overall reduction in associations between other SNPs and these traits but some SNPs remained associated (P < 10(-4) ). Frequency of the mutant C allele of rs109231213 differed among B. indicus (0.52), B. taurus (0.96) and Tropical Composite (0.68). Most chromosomes carrying the C allele had the same surrounding 10 SNP haplotype, probably because the C allele was introgressed into Brahman from B. taurus cattle. A region of reduced heterozygosity surrounds the C allele; this is small in B. taurus but 20 Mb long in Brahmans, indicating recent and strong selection for the mutant allele. Thus, the C allele appears to mark a mutation that has been selected almost to fixation in the B. taurus breeds studied here and introduced into Brahman cattle during grading up and selected to a frequency of 0.52 despite its negative effects on fertility. PMID:23909810

  1. [Endemic and epidemic bovine neosporosis: description of two events in beef cattle].

    PubMed

    Calandra, Patricio M; Di Matía, José M; Cano, Dora B; Odriozola, Ernesto R; García, Juan A; Späth, Ernesto J A; Odeón, Anselmo C; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Morrell, Eleonora L; Campero, Carlos M; Moore, Dadín P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe two events in which Neospora caninum was involved in bovine abortions in beef cattle. In the first event, 11 abortions in 57 heifers were recorded in 45 days. One aborted heifer was 5 times more likely to be seropositive than a non-aborted heifer (OR=4.9; IC 1.2-19.9) (p<0.05). In the second event, no association between serological results and abortions were observed (OR=0,69; 0,06-7,31) (p>0.05). Neither antibodies nor isolation of other pathogens were achieved in any case. On the contrary, antibodies and pathognomonic histopathological lesions were observed in the four fetuses from both cases. Interestingly, the findings in the first event suggest the epidemic behavior of the disease. In contrast, in the second event it appears that few abortions were due to N. caninum, suggesting the presence of endemic neosporosis. PMID:25576415

  2. Generation of exogenous germ cells in the ovaries of sterile NANOS3-null beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ideta, Atsushi; Yamashita, Shiro; Seki-Soma, Marie; Yamaguchi, Ryosaku; Chiba, Shiori; Komaki, Haruna; Ito, Tetsuya; Konishi, Masato; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Sendai, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Blastocyst complementation (BC) systems have enabled in vivo generation of organs from allogeneic pluripotent cells, compensating for an empty germ cell niche in gene knockout (KO) animals. Here, we succeeded in producing chimeric beef cattle (Wagyu) by transferring allogenic germ cells into ovaries using somatic cell nuclear transfer and BC technology. The KO of NANOS3 (NANOS3−/−) in Wagyu bovine ovaries produced a complete loss of germ cells. Holstein blastomeres (NANOS3+/+) were injected into NANOS3−/− Wagyu embryos. Subsequently, exogenous germ cells (NANOS3+/+) were identified in the NANOS3−/− ovary. These results clearly indicate that allogeneic germ cells can be generated in recipient germ cell-free gonads using cloning and BC technologies. PMID:27117862

  3. Generation of exogenous germ cells in the ovaries of sterile NANOS3-null beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ideta, Atsushi; Yamashita, Shiro; Seki-Soma, Marie; Yamaguchi, Ryosaku; Chiba, Shiori; Komaki, Haruna; Ito, Tetsuya; Konishi, Masato; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Sendai, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Blastocyst complementation (BC) systems have enabled in vivo generation of organs from allogeneic pluripotent cells, compensating for an empty germ cell niche in gene knockout (KO) animals. Here, we succeeded in producing chimeric beef cattle (Wagyu) by transferring allogenic germ cells into ovaries using somatic cell nuclear transfer and BC technology. The KO of NANOS3 (NANOS3(-/-)) in Wagyu bovine ovaries produced a complete loss of germ cells. Holstein blastomeres (NANOS3(+/+)) were injected into NANOS3(-/-) Wagyu embryos. Subsequently, exogenous germ cells (NANOS3(+/+)) were identified in the NANOS3(-/-) ovary. These results clearly indicate that allogeneic germ cells can be generated in recipient germ cell-free gonads using cloning and BC technologies. PMID:27117862

  4. Real-time PCR genotyping and frequency of the myostatin F94L mutation in beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Vankan, D M; Waine, D R; Fortes, M R S

    2010-04-01

    This research developed two real-time PCR assays, employing high-resolution melt and allele-specific analysis to accurately genotype the F94L mutation in cattle. This mutation (g.433C > A) in the growth differentiation factor 8 or myostatin gene has recently been shown to be functionally associated with increased muscle mass and carcass yield in cattle. The F94L mutation is not, like other myostatin mutations, associated with reduced fertility and dystocia. It is therefore a candidate for introgression into other breeds to improve retail beef yield and the development of a simple and accurate test to genotype this specific mutation is warranted. Variations in the efficiency of enzyme cleavage compromised the accuracy of genotyping by published methods, potentially resulting in an overestimation of the frequency of the mutant allele. The frequency of the F94L mutation was determined by real-time PCR in 1140 animals from 15 breeds of cattle in Australia. The mutation was present in Simmental (0.8%), Piedmontese (2%), Droughtmaster (4%) and Limousin (94.2%) but not found in Salers, Angus, Poll Hereford, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Charolais, Jersey, Brahman, Holstein, Shorthorn or Maine Anjou. The low prevalence of F94L in all beef breeds except Limousin indicates the significant potential for this mutation to improve retail yield in Australian beef cattle. PMID:22444040

  5. Inbreeding effects on postweaning production traits, conformation, and calving performance in Irish beef cattle.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Kearney, J F; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inbreeding on carcass quality, growth rate, live conformation measures, and calving performance in purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Hereford, and Angus beef cattle using data from Irish commercial and pedigree herds. Variables analyzed are reflective of commercial farming practices. Inbreeding was included in a linear mixed model as either a class variable or a linear continuous variable. Nonlinear effects were nonsignificant across all traits. Inbred animals had decreased carcass weight and less carcass fat. The effects of inbreeding were more pronounced in the British beef breeds. Effects for carcass weight ranged from -0.87 kg (Charolais) to -1.90 kg (Hereford) per 1% increase in inbreeding. Inbred Charolais and Hereford animals were younger at slaughter by 3 and 5 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding, whereas the effect of inbreeding on age at slaughter differed significantly with animal sex in the Limousin and Angus breeds. Inbred Limousin and Angus heifers were younger at slaughter by 5 and 7 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding. Continental animals were more affected by inbreeding for live muscling and skeletal conformational measurements than the British breeds; inbred animals were smaller and narrower with poorer developed muscle. Calf inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford animals. The effects were dependent upon dam parity and calf sex; however, where significant, the association was always unfavorable. Dam inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Limousin and Hereford animals. Effects differed by parity in Limousins. Inbred first-parity Angus dams had a greater incidence of dystocia. Although the effects of inbreeding were some-times significant, they were small and are unlikely to make a large financial effect on commercial beef production in Ireland. PMID

  6. Genomic prediction in French Charolais beef cattle using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Gunia, M; Saintilan, R; Venot, E; Hozé, C; Fouilloux, M N; Phocas, F

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a genomic evaluation for French beef cattle breeds and assess accuracy and bias of prediction for different genomic selection strategies. Based on a reference population of 2,682 Charolais bulls and cows, genotyped or imputed to a high-density SNP panel (777K SNP), we tested the influence of different statistical methods, marker densities (50K versus 777K), and training population sizes and structures on the quality of predictions. Four different training sets containing up to 1,979 animals and a unique validation set of 703 young bulls only known on their individual performances were formed. BayesC method had the largest average accuracy compared to genomic BLUP or pedigree-based BLUP. No gain of accuracy was observed when increasing the density of markers from 50K to 777K. For a BayesC model and 777K SNP panels, the accuracy calculated as the correlation between genomic predictions and deregressed EBV (DEBV) divided by the square root of heritability was 0.42 for birth weight, 0.34 for calving ease, 0.45 for weaning weight, 0.52 for muscular development, and 0.27 for skeletal development. Half of the training set constituted animals having only their own performance recorded, whose contribution only represented 5% of the accuracy. Using DEBV as a response brought greater accuracy than using EBV (+5% on average). Considering a residual polygenic component strongly reduced bias for most of the traits. The optimal percentage of polygenic variance varied across traits. Among the methodologies tested to implement genomic selection in the French Charolais beef cattle population, the most accurate and less biased methodology was to analyze DEBV under a BayesC strategy and a residual polygenic component approach. With this approach, a 50K SNP panel performed as well as a 777K panel. PMID:24948648

  7. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  8. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  9. The potential of 3-nitrooxypropanol to lower enteric methane emissions from beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated if 3-nitrooxypropanol reduces enteric methane (CH4) emissions when added to the diet of beef cattle. The effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on related variables including diet digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and ruminal microorganisms were also investigated. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (549 ± 64.3 kg [mean BW ± SD]) were fed a high forage diet (backgrounding diet) supplemented with 4 levels of 3-nitrooxypropanol (0, 0.75, 2.25 and 4.50 mg/kg BW). The experiment was designed as a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 2 groups of heifers and four 28-d periods. Methane emissions were measured during 3 consecutive days using metabolic chambers. Up to a 5.8% reduction in ad libitum DMI was observed when 2.5 mg/kg BW of 3-nitrooxypropanol was fed (P = 0.03). Increasing level of 3-nitrooxypropanol linearly (P < 0.001) reduced CH4, with 33% less CH4 (corrected for DMI) at the highest level of supplementation compared with the control. Feed energy lost as CH4 was also reduced when 3-nitrooxypropanol was supplemented (P < 0.001). Molar proportion of acetate was reduced (P < 0.001) and that for propionate increased (P < 0.001) with increasing dose of 3-nitrooxypropanol, which in turn led to a reduction in the acetate to propionate ratio (P < 0.001). Total copy numbers of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes for bacteria, methanogens, and 18S rRNA genes for protozoa in ruminal contents were not affected by 3-nitrooxypropanol supplementation (P ≥ 0.31). There was no effect of 3-nitrooxypropanol on DM (P = 0.1) digestibility in the total tract. The use of 4.5 mg/kg BW of 3-nitrooxypropanol in beef cattle consuming a backgrounding diet was effective in reducing enteric CH4 emissions without negatively affecting diet digestibility. PMID:25184838

  10. Seasonal variation in vitamin D status of beef cattle reared in the central United States.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Lippolis, J D; Kuehn, L A; Reinhardt, T A

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to retrospectively measure seasonal sunlight-associated variation in serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in beef cattle. The concentration of 25OHD was measured in crossbred animals born from March to May in 2011 and 2012. Vitamin D status 2 to 3 mo after birth (period 1) was only available for 2012 calves and was measured in June 2012. Period 1 animals had serum 25OHD concentrations of 26.3 ± 1.5 ng/mL. The 25OHD concentrations for late summer (period 2) were 46.6 ± 1.4 and 51.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL for 2011 and 2012, respectively. Serum concentration of 25OHD in early fall (period 3) were 63.8 ± 1.4 and 55.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL for calves in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Values observed for both late summer and early fall indicated vitamin D sufficiency (P < 0.001) compared with period 1. With diminishing exposure to ultraviolet B and consuming ∼800 IU or 1800 IU (2011 and 2012, respectively) of supplemental vitamin D, the calves' midwinter (period 4) 25OHD concentrations fell to 15.2 ± 1.6 and 16.7 ± 1.5 ng/mL for 2011 and 2012, respectively, after 4 to 5 mo on a finishing diet (P < 0.0001). This is considered vitamin D insufficiency in most species. Results indicate that calves are marginally sufficient to insufficient for vitamin D based on serum 25OHD concentrations soon after birth and during winter. Some individual animals would be classified vitamin D deficient. In the absence of sufficient UVB exposure, the dietary vitamin D requirements for rapidly growing beef cattle may need to be increased. PMID:25917139

  11. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; Souza, Marcela Maria de; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05) found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  12. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; de Souza, Marcela Maria

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05) found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  13. Synchronization of estrus and fertility in beef cattle with two injections of buserelin and prostaglandin.

    PubMed

    Twagiramungu, H; Guilbault, L A; Proulx, J; Dufour, J J

    1992-12-01

    Postpartum beef cows and heifers in Group 1 received 8 mug of buserelin on Day 0 (the beginning of the experiment) and 500 microg of cloprostenol (PGF) on Day 6 (GnRH I, n=54). In Group 2 (GnRH II, n=54), the females were injected with buserelin on Day 0 (8 microg) and Day 3 (4 microg), and PGF on Day 6 and Day 9 for females not detected in estrus previously. Animals were bred by AI 12 hours after the onset of estrus. Blood samples were collected on Day -11 and Day 0 to assess cyclicity and on Day 3 and Days 6 to 12 to examine luteal activity. Progesterone levels did not differ between the 2 groups between Days 0 to 9. In both groups, the proportion of spontaneous estruses from Days 0 to 6 was reduced. Precision of estrus was higher (P<0.005) in the GnRH II group than in the GnRH I group of cows that were detected in estrus between Days 6 and 9. The synchronization rate, interval to estrus, pregnancy and conception rates were similar in GnRH I and GnRH II groups. The conception rate and interval to estrus were similar in cyclic and acyclic cows. Increasing the number of buserelin injections enhanced the precision of estrus, but not the conception rate, without any detrimental effect on luteal activity and induced more estruses in postpartum acyclic beef cattle. PMID:16727210

  14. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  15. Prevalence of virulence determinants and antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli derived from dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Bok, Ewa; Mazurek, Justyna; Stosik, Michał; Wojciech, Magdalena; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs) and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates) and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates). The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics) and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat is related to

  16. Prenatal and pre-weaning growth and nutrition of cattle: long-term consequences for beef production.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M

    2007-10-01

    Severe, chronic growth retardation of cattle early in life reduces growth potential, resulting in smaller animals at any given age. Capacity for long-term compensatory growth diminishes as the age of onset of nutritional restriction resulting in prolonged growth retardation declines. Hence, more extreme intrauterine growth retardation can result in slower growth throughout postnatal life. However, within the limits of beef production systems, neither severely restricted growth in utero nor from birth to weaning influences efficiency of nutrient utilisation later in life. Retail yield from cattle severely restricted in growth during pregnancy or from birth to weaning is reduced compared with cattle well grown early in life, when compared at the same age later in life. However, retail yield and carcass composition of low- and high-birth-weight calves are similar at the same carcass weight. At equivalent carcass weights, cattle grown slowly from birth to weaning have carcasses of similar or leaner composition than those grown rapidly. However, if high energy, concentrate feed is provided following severe growth restriction from birth to weaning, then at equivalent weights post-weaning the slowly-grown, small weaners may be fatter than their well-grown counterparts. Restricted prenatal and pre-weaning nutrition and growth do not adversely affect measures of beef quality. Similarly, bovine myofibre characteristics are little affected in the long term by growth in utero or from birth to weaning. Interactions were not evident between prenatal and pre-weaning growth for subsequent growth, efficiency, carcass, yield and beef-quality characteristics, within our pasture-based production systems. Furthermore, interactions between genotype and nutrition early in life, studied using offspring of Piedmontese and Wagyu sired cattle, were not evident for any growth, efficiency, carcass, yield and beef-quality parameters. We propose that within pasture-based production systems for

  17. The effects of acute versus chronic health challenges on the behavior of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Szyszka, O; Tolkamp, B J; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-12-01

    The changes in behavior associated with a (subclinical) acute and a chronic health challenge were investigated to assess their potential value for the development of an early disease detection system in beef cattle. The hypothesis was that acute challenges would lead to acute but transient changes in behavior, whereas the converse would be the case during chronic challenges, with changes taking longer to develop, but being more persistent. For this purpose, Holstein-Friesian beef bulls were challenged either with a repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intravenous bolus given at 3 increasing doses over the course of 5 d, or with a single dose of the abomasal parasite Ostertagia ostertagi, acting as models of acute and chronic challenge respectively. A third unchallenged group acted as controls. Fecal and blood samples were taken regularly and analyzed for fecal egg counts (FEC), pepsinogen concentration and LPS antibodies. A sensor was fitted to the front leg of each bull to record activity and posture. Video recordings were taken to monitor drinking and feeding behavior. Antibodies to LPS were detected only after the third LPS challenge. Fecal egg counts were detected 3 wk post infection, and pepsinogen increased roughly at the same time in parasitized bulls. Body weight of parasitized animals was reduced relative to controls after 17 d post infection (P < 0.001), whereas there was no difference in performance between the LPS and control animals (P > 0.05). Effects of LPS on behavior lasted only for a few hours, presenting themselves as reduction in activity approximately 10 h after the first challenge (P = 0.057). The clearest behavioral changes due to parasitism were on posture. Parasitized animals had less frequent (P = 0.003), but longer lying episodes (P = 0.038) than controls. Once established, these changes persisted for 30 d post infection. However, there was no treatment effect on overall activity, measured by the number of steps taken or on total lying time

  18. Evaluation of Various Packaging Systems on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzyme, and Oxidation and Color Stabilities in Sliced Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef Loin during Chill Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sun Moon; Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Park, Beomyoung; Cho, Soohyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various packaging systems, vacuum packaging (VACP), medium oxygen-modified atmosphere packaging (50% O2/20% CO2/30% N2, MOMAP), MOMAP combined with vacuum skin packaging (VSP-MOMAP), high oxygen-MAP (80% O2/20% CO2/0% N2, HOMAP), and HOMAP combined with VSP (VSP-HOMAP), on the activity of antioxidant enzyme, and oxidation and color stabilities in sliced Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef loin were investigated at 4°C for 14 d. Higher (p<0.05) superoxide dismutase activity and total reducing ability were maintained in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) was significantly (p<0.05) retarded in MOMAP, VSP-MOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef compared with HOMAP beef. Production of nonheme iron content was lower (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef than in HOMAP beef. Red color (a*) was kept higher (p<0.05) in VSP-MOMAP beef compared with MOMAP, HOMAP, and VSP-HOMAP beef. However, VACP beef was found to have the most positive effects on the antioxidant activity, oxidation and red color stabilities among the various packaged beef. These findings suggested that VSP-MOMAP was second to VACP in improving oxidation and color stabilities in sliced beef loin during chill storage. PMID:25178378

  19. Polymorphisms in the GHRL gene and their associations with traits of economic interest in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Braz, C U; Camargo, G M F; Cardoso, D F; Gil, F M M; Fonseca, P D S; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z; Oliveira, H N; Tonhati, H

    2015-01-01

    The hormone ghrelin is produced in the stomach wall, has an orexigenic function, stimulates growth hormone secretion, and affects the energy balance of the animal. Therefore, the ghrelin gene (GHRL) is considered to be a good candidate marker for the identification of traits of great economic importance in cattle, such as those associated with feed intake, growth, and carcass quality. The use of molecular genetic markers associated with such traits permits the earlier and more accurate identification of superior animals, thus reducing the interval between generations, and increasing the genetic gain. Six SNPs were found in the GHRL gene, located in intron 3, intron 4, and exon 5. The positions of the SNPs on the gene and the substitutions were: g.2184A>G, g.2347T>C, g.4469T>C, g.4548A>G, g.4663T>C, and g.4729T>C (GenBank accession No. JX565585). After analysis of linkage disequilibrium, association tests were performed between four SNPs with the traits year weight for males, yearling weight for females, dry matter intake, loin eye area, and rump fat thickness (P ≤ 0.05). Therefore, GHRL is an important candidate gene that may be used to identify genetic variations that influence traits of economic importance in beef cattle. PMID:26782466

  20. Beef quality of young Angus×Nellore cattle supplemented with rumen-protected lipids during rearing and fatting periods.

    PubMed

    Andrade, E N; Polizel Neto, A; Roça, R O; Faria, M H; Resende, F D; Siqueira, G R; Pinheiro, R S B

    2014-12-01

    This work evaluated the beef quality parameters of 108 bulls randomly administered to three treatments during rearing in pastures and two treatments during fatting in feedlots, including mineral and rumen-protected lipids. Meat and fat color, cooking yield, shear force, sensorial traits and chemical and fatty acid compositions were evaluated. Generally, the beef quality parameters were not affected by the rumen protected lipids; however, supplementation with rumen-protected lipids during the rearing period yielded darker beef and brighter fat and increased beef tenderness in meat aged for 28days compared to the meat from animals that received only mineral supplementation. In addition, the percent of meat polyunsaturated fatty acids was negatively affected by the inclusion of protected lipids, yielding 5.58 and 3.72% in animals fed with and without rumen-protected lipids, respectively, during the fatting period. PMID:25089782

  1. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot.

    PubMed

    Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot. PMID:27066712

  2. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis. PMID:27537842

  3. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A.; Register, Karen B.; McDaneld, Tara G.; Neill, John D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis. PMID:27537842

  4. The extent of linkage disequilibrium in beef cattle breeds using high-density SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between molecular markers impacts genome-wide association studies and implementation of genomic selection. The availability of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms makes it possible to investigate LD at an unprecedented resolution. In this work, we characterised LD decay in breeds of beef cattle of taurine, indicine and composite origins and explored its variation across autosomes and the X chromosome. Findings In each breed, LD decayed rapidly and r2 was less than 0.2 for marker pairs separated by 50 kb. The LD decay curves clustered into three groups of similar LD decay that distinguished the three main cattle types. At short distances between markers (< 10 kb), taurine breeds showed higher LD (r2 = 0.45) than their indicine (r2 = 0.25) and composite (r2 = 0.32) counterparts. This higher LD in taurine breeds was attributed to a smaller effective population size and a stronger bottleneck during breed formation. Using all SNPs on only the X chromosome, the three cattle types could still be distinguished. However for taurine breeds, the LD decay on the X chromosome was much faster and the background level much lower than for indicine breeds and composite populations. When using only SNPs that were polymorphic in all breeds, the analysis of the X chromosome mimicked that of the autosomes. Conclusions The pattern of LD mirrored some aspects of the history of breed populations and showed a sharp decay with increasing physical distance between markers. We conclude that the availability of the HD chip can be used to detect association signals that remained hidden when using lower density genotyping platforms, since LD dropped below 0.2 at distances of 50 kb. PMID:24661366

  5. Thiamin supplementation and the ingestive behavior of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Lauriault, L M; Dougherty, C T; Bradley, N W; Cornelius, P L

    1990-05-01

    Livestock grazing endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams)-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) perform poorly due to tall fescue toxicosis, especially when animals are under heat stress. In order to determine whether thiamin promotes recovery from tall fescue toxicosis, 1 or 0 g of thiamin per day, as mononitrate, was fed orally to adult Angus (Bos taurus) cows (380 +/- 8 kg) grazing either tall fescue pasture with and without endophyte or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A tethered grazing system employing a split-plot design was used to estimate intake and components of ingestive behavior. No significant differences attributable to thiamin supplements were seen in rates of intake and biting, grazing time and intake per bite when cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue during the first 4 d of exposure. When cows grazed endophyte-infected (greater than 95%) tall fescue with 2,091 micrograms/g loline alkaloids after 4 d of exposure, the untreated animals ingested herbage dry matter (DM) at 1.19 kg/h, whereas the cows receiving thiamin ate 1.57 kg/h (P less than .05). Cattle achieved these rates of DM intake by forming bites of 1.0 and 1.2 g DM at 24 and 26 bites/min when treated with 0 and 1 g of thiamin per day, respectively. Thiamin supplements had no effect on ingestive behavior of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue or alfalfa after exposure to these forages for 4 d. Responses to thiamin generally were greater when cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue were exposed to heat stress. Oral thiamin supplementation may alleviate tall fescue toxicosis of beef cattle during warm weather. PMID:2365641

  6. The effects of hair density of beef cattle on Haematobia irritans horn fly populations.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; Brown, M A; Gbur, E E; Tolley, G

    1997-07-01

    We show the relationships that exist between the amount of hair and quantity of sebum on cattle skin and the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 2390 and 1587 hairs per cm2, respectively, significantly more than the mean number of hairs on Angus, Brahman x Angus Crossbred, Charolais, and Red Poll steers. The Chianina steers had > 30% more sebum present on their skin and hair (0.58g/929 cm2) than the Angus, Charolais, and Red Poll steers at the Beef Cattle Research Station Savoy, Arkansas. The Brahman steers had a significantly greater amount of sebum present on the skin (1.51 g/929 cm2) than the Crossbred and purebred Angus steers (0.55 and 0.25 g/929 cm2, respectively) at the South Central Family Farms Research Centre Booneville, Arkansas. The Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 61.9 and 17.0 horn flies per steer, respectively, during the fly season, whereas the Angus, Crossbred, Charolais and Red Poll steers had fly season means that ranged from 76.9 to 265.8 flies per steer. Regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 hairs per cm2, was associated with a reduction of 11 horn flies in the Angus II, 5 in Angus I, 20 in Charolais, 37 in Red Poll, and 0.4 in Chianina steers at the Savoy Station and a reduction of 6.6 horn flies for the Angus, Brahman, and Crossbred steers at the Booneville Centre. Regardless of cattle breed, an increase of 1.0 g of sebum per 929 cm2 output by the steer was associated with 478.5 additional hairs per cm2 on the animal. Each increase of 0.25 g of sebum per 929 cm2 resulted in a decrease of 9.2 horn flies per steer. We conclude that some of the factors responsible for fly-resistance in cattle are hair density and the corresponding amount of sebum present on cattle skin and hair. PMID:9330257

  7. Comparison of WindTrax and flux-gradient technique in determining PM10 emission rates from a beef cattle feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...

  8. Comparison of ELISA and LC-MS/MS for the measurement of flunixin plasma concentrations in beef cattle after intravenous and subcutaneous administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of using an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) with only simple preparation steps to determine flunixin plasma concentrations in healthy beef cattle was explored. Eight cattle (288 ± 22 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin free acid in a cross-over design by subcutaneo...

  9. Bacterial Communities Associated with Shiga-Toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) in Beef Cattle Feedlot Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The life cycle of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) in beef cattle feedlots involves two habitats: the warm, nutrient rich primary habitat of the lower gastrointestinal tract of cattle and the generally cool, nutrient limiting secondary habitat outside of the animal, including...

  10. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactamases. DNA sequencing showed that all isolates encoded genes for TEM-1-type β-lactamase. Moreover, 78.2% of the isolates transferred the TEM-1-type β-lactamase gene via conjugation. In plasmid replicon typing of all donors, IncFIB and IncFIA were identified in 71.4% and 41.0% of plasmids, respectively. In transconjugants, IncFIB and IncFIA were the most frequent types detected (61.5% and 41.0%, respectively). Overall, the present study indicates that selection pressures of antimicrobials on β-lactamases in beef cattle may be low relative to other livestock animals in Korea. Moreover, to reduce selection pressure and dissemination of β-lactamase, the long-term surveillance of antimicrobial use in domestic beef cattle should be established. PMID:26119172

  11. MLST Subtypes and Population Genetic Structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from Dairy Cattle and Beef Cattle in Northeastern China’s Heilongjiang Province

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Weizhe; Liu, Aiqin; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Yang, Fengkun; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-01

    Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12–14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather’s sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825) and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16). Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China. PMID:24999982

  12. Identifying consumer preferences for specific beef flavor characteristics in relation to cattle production and postmortem processing parameters.

    PubMed

    O'Quinn, T G; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D

    2016-02-01

    Sensory analysis of ground LL samples representing 12 beef product categories was conducted in 3 different regions of the U.S. to identify flavor preferences of beef consumers. Treatments characterized production-related flavor differences associated with USDA grade, cattle type, finishing diet, growth enhancement, and postmortem aging method. Consumers (N=307) rated cooked samples for 12 flavors and overall flavor desirability. Samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid content. Volatile compounds produced by cooking were extracted and quantified. Overall, consumers preferred beef that rated high for beefy/brothy, buttery/beef fat, and sweet flavors and disliked beef with fishy, livery, gamey, and sour flavors. Flavor attributes of samples higher in intramuscular fat with greater amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and lesser proportions of saturated, odd-chain, omega-3, and trans fatty acids were preferred by consumers. Of the volatiles identified, diacetyl and acetoin were most closely correlated with desirable ratings for overall flavor and dimethyl sulfide was associated with an undesirable sour flavor. PMID:26560806

  13. Prevalence and concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in beef cattle paddock soils and forage.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Douglas G; Kuczynska, Ewa

    2010-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is a parasitic protozoan of great interest because of its widespread occurrence in surface waters, high degree of infectivity, and difficulty of risk management associated with its presence and control. Information about environmental loading and seasonal prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts is important for development of watershed management plans to protect public health. Healthy adult beef cattle are known to shed oocysts into the environment, and Cryptosporidium oocysts are often present all year in streams and groundwater in livestock agriculture areas. Surface soil and forage samples from 12 Virginia, United States, paddocks were analyzed bimonthly over 3 years for the presence and concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Half of the paddocks were grazed by stocker beef from November to September. The other half were managed for hay, but were grazed for a few days by the same animals in late fall and early spring to clean up late fall forage regrowth. Annual mean oocyst prevalences in soil were 57.9% and 48.4% in pasture and hay paddocks, respectively. Mean annual oocyst prevalences on forage were 52.4% and 40.5% in pasture and hay paddocks, respectively. Prevalence and concentration of oocysts on hay forage was highest in summer. Oocyst concentrations increased with increasing prevalences in both management systems. Wild animals appeared to be efficient vectors for oocyst distribution among paddocks. Canopy management, short-cycle rotational grazing, and control of wildlife are potential strategies for reduction of Cryptosporidium oocysts in pasture and lessening risk of contamination of water supplies, but further studies are needed before recommendations can be made. PMID:20353289

  14. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management. PMID:26484575

  15. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: 1. Metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperamental cattle are behaviorally, physiologically, and immunologically different in comparison to calm cattle. Recently, the metabolic differences between temperamental and calm cattle have begun to be explored; temperamental cattle maintain greater circulating concentrations of non-esterified ...

  16. Methane emissions from beef and dairy cattle: quantifying the effect of physiological stage and diet characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ricci, P; Rooke, J A; Nevison, I; Waterhouse, A

    2013-11-01

    The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement for a beef farming system of using more specific mathematical models to predict CH4 from cattle at different physiological stages and fed different diet types. A meta-analysis was performed on 211 treatment means from 38 studies where CH4, intake, animal, and feed characteristics had been recorded. Additional information such as type of enterprise, diet type, physiological stage, CH4 measurement technique, intake restriction, and CH4 reduction treatment application from these studies were used as classificatory factors. A series of equations for different physiological stages and diet types based on DMI or GE intake explained 96% of the variation in observed CH4 outputs (P<0.001). Resulting models were validated with an independent dataset of 172 treatment means from 20 studies. To illustrate the scale of improvement on predicted CH4 outputs from the current whole-farm prediction approach (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]), equations developed in the present study (NewEqs) were compared with the IPCC equation {CH4 (g/d)=[(GEI×Ym)×1,000]/55.65}, in which GEI is GE intake and Ym is the CH4 emission factor, in calculating CH4 outputs from 4 diverse beef systems. Observed BW and BW change data from cows with calves at side grazing either hill or lowland grassland, cows and overwintering calves and finishing steers fed contrasting diets were used to predict energy requirements, intake, and CH4 outputs. Compared with using this IPCC equation, NewEqs predicted up to 26% lower CH4 on average from individual lactating grazing cows. At the herd level, differences between equation estimates from 10 to 17% were observed in total

  17. Technical note: Evaluation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, B; Mang, A V; Cook, N; Orsel, K; Timsit, E

    2015-08-01

    Behavioral observations are important to detect illness in beef cattle. However, traditional observation techniques are time and labor intensive and may be subjective. The objective was to validate a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and activity in beef cattle (Fedometer [FEDO]; ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel). Sixteen steers (initial BW ± SD = 326 ± 46 kg) were fitted with data loggers (FEDO) on their left front leg and housed in a pen with a feedbunk equipped with an antenna emitting an electromagnetic field that reached 30 ± 2 cm in front of the feedbunk. Feedbunk attendance (duration of visit and frequency of meals) measured by FEDO was compared with live observations (27 observational periods lasting between 72 and 240 min; mean 126 min). Lying time and frequency of lying bouts were compared with previously validated accelerometers fitted to the hind leg (10 steers equipped for 10 to 12 d; HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger [HOBO]; Onset Computer Corporation, Pocasset, MA). Step counts were compared with video recordings (15 observations for 6-min intervals in 6 steers). Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), accounting for repeated measures, and limits of agreement were computed. Comparison between FEDO and observed time at the feedbunk yielded a CCC of 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-0.99). All 68 meal events observed were recorded by FEDO. However, FEDO recorded 4 meal events during the 27 observational periods that were not observed. Lying time measured by HOBO and FEDO were highly correlated (CCC = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99). However, frequency of lying bouts measured by FEDO was only moderately correlated to HOBO (CCC = 0.71; 95% CI 0.63-0.77); FEDO underestimating the number of lying bouts (on average, 0.4 fewer bouts per 6 h). Step count by FEDO was moderately correlated to video observations (CCC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49-0.89); FEDO overestimating the number of steps (on average, 5 more steps per 6 min). In conclusion, the FEDO

  18. ASAS centennial paper: net energy systems for beef cattle--concepts, application, and future models.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, C L; Oltjen, J W

    2008-10-01

    Development of nutritional energetics can be traced to the 1400s. Lavoisier established relationships among O(2) use, CO(2) production and heat production in the late 1700s, and the laws of thermodynamics and law of Hess were discovered during the 1840s. Those discoveries established the fundamental bases for nutritional energetics and enabled the fundamental entity ME = retained energy + heat energy to be established. Objectives became: 1) to establish relationships between gas exchange and heat energy, 2) to devise bases for evaluation of foods that could be related to energy expenditures, and 3) to establish causes of energy expenditures. From these endeavors, the basic concepts of energy partitioning by animals were developed, ultimately resulting in the development of feeding systems based on NE concepts. The California Net Energy System, developed for finishing beef cattle, was the first to be based on retained energy as determined by comparative slaughter and the first to use 2 NE values (NE(m) and NE(g)) to describe feed and animal requirements. The system has been broadened conceptually to encompass life cycle energy requirements of beef cattle and modified by the inclusion of numerous adjustments to address factors known to affect energy requirements and value of feed to meet those needs. The current NE system remains useful but is empirical and static in nature and thus fails to capture the dynamics of energy utilization by diverse animals as they respond to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, efforts were initiated to develop dynamic simulation models that captured the underlying biology and thus were sensitive to variable genetic and environmental conditions. Development of a series of models has been described to show examples of the conceptual evolution of dynamic, mechanistic models and their applications. Generally with each new system, advances in prediction accuracy came about by adding new terms to conceptually validated models

  19. Accuracy of predicting genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in Angus and Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Schenkel, F; Vinsky, M; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-10-01

    In beef cattle, phenotypic data that are difficult and/or costly to measure, such as feed efficiency, and DNA marker genotypes are usually available on a small number of animals of different breeds or populations. To achieve a maximal accuracy of genomic prediction using the phenotype and genotype data, strategies for forming a training population to predict genomic breeding values (GEBV) of the selection candidates need to be evaluated. In this study, we examined the accuracy of predicting GEBV for residual feed intake (RFI) based on 522 Angus and 395 Charolais steers genotyped on SNP with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 Beadchip for 3 training population forming strategies: within breed, across breed, and by pooling data from the 2 breeds (i.e., combined). Two other scenarios with the training and validation data split by birth year and by sire family within a breed were also investigated to assess the impact of genetic relationships on the accuracy of genomic prediction. Three statistical methods including the best linear unbiased prediction with the relationship matrix defined based on the pedigree (PBLUP), based on the SNP genotypes (GBLUP), and a Bayesian method (BayesB) were used to predict the GEBV. The results showed that the accuracy of the GEBV prediction was the highest when the prediction was within breed and when the validation population had greater genetic relationships with the training population, with a maximum of 0.58 for Angus and 0.64 for Charolais. The within-breed prediction accuracies dropped to 0.29 and 0.38, respectively, when the validation populations had a minimal pedigree link with the training population. When the training population of a different breed was used to predict the GEBV of the validation population, that is, across-breed genomic prediction, the accuracies were further reduced to 0.10 to 0.22, depending on the prediction method used. Pooling data from the 2 breeds to form the training population resulted in accuracies increased

  20. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella enterica and Salmonella Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Feedlots in South Texas.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yicheng; Savell, Jeffrey W; Arnold, Ashley N; Gehring, Kerri B; Gill, Jason J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern, and the beef feedlot environment may function as a reservoir of this pathogen. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate Salmonella and Salmonella bacteriophages from beef cattle feedlot environments in order to better understand the microbial ecology of Salmonella and identify phages that might be useful as anti-Salmonella beef safety interventions. Three feedlots in south Texas were visited, and 27 distinct samples from each source were collected from dropped feces, feed from feed bunks, drinking water from troughs, and soil in cattle pens (n = 108 samples). Preenrichment, selective enrichment, and selective/differential isolation of Salmonella were performed on each sample. A representative subset of presumptive Salmonella isolates was prepared for biochemical identification and serotyping. Samples were pooled by feedlot and sample type to create 36 samples and enriched to recover phages. Recovered phages were tested for host range against two panels of Salmonella hosts. Salmonella bacteria were identified in 20 (18.5%) of 108 samples by biochemical and/or serological testing. The serovars recovered included Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum, Muenchen, Altona, Kralingen, Kentucky, and Montevideo; Salmonella Anatum was the most frequently recovered serotype. Phage-positive samples were distributed evenly over the three feedlots, suggesting that phage prevalence is not strongly correlated with the presence of culturable Salmonella. Phages were found more frequently in soil and feces than in feed and water samples. The recovery of bacteriophages in the Salmonella-free feedlot suggests that phages might play a role in suppressing the Salmonella population in a feedlot environment. PMID:27497120

  1. A single nucleotide polymorphism in NEUROD1 is associated with production traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, P S N; Tizioto, P C; Malago, W; do Nascimento, M L; Cesar, A S M; Diniz, W J S; de Souza, M M; Lanna, D P D; Tullio, R R; Mourão, G B; de A Mudadu, M; Coutinho, L L; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-01-01

    Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed. By sequencing 14 animals with extreme residual feed intake (RFI) values, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEUROD1 were identified. The investigation of marker effects on the target traits RFI, backfat thickness (BFT), ribeye area (REA), average body weight (ABW), and metabolic body weight (MBW) was performed with a mixed model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. SNP1062, which changes cytosine for guanine, had no significant association with RFI or REA. However, we found an additive effect on ABW (P ≤ 0.05) and MBW (P ≤ 0.05), with an estimated allele substitution effect of -1.59 and -0.93 kg0.75, respectively. A dominant effect of this SNP for BFT was also found (P ≤ 0.010). Our results are the first that identify NEUROD1 as a candidate that affects BFT, ABW, and MBW. Once confirmed, the inclusion of this SNP in dense panels may improve the accuracy of genomic selection for these traits in Nelore beef cattle as this SNP is not currently represented on SNP chips. PMID:27420997

  2. Chemical and physical changes following co-composting of beef cattle feedlot manure with phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Larney, Francis J; Nichol, Connie K; Olson, Andrew F; Miller, Jim J; Demaere, Paul R

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss during beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlot manure composting may contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and increase ammonia (NH(3)) in the atmosphere while decreasing the fertilizer value of the final compost. Phosphogypsum (PG) is an acidic by-product of phosphorus (P) fertilizer manufacture and large stockpiles currently exist in Alberta. This experiment examined co-composting of PG (at rates of 0, 40, 70, and 140 kg PG Mg(-1) manure plus PG dry weight) with manure from feedlot pens bedded with straw or wood chips. During the 99-d composting period, PG addition reduced total nitrogen (TN) loss by 0.11% for each 1 kg Mg(-1) increment in PG rate. Available N at the end of composting was significantly higher for wood chip-bedded (2180 mg kg(-1)) than straw-bedded manure treatments (1820 mg kg(-1)). Total sulfur (TS) concentration in the final compost increased by 0.19 g kg(-1) for each 1 kg Mg(-1) increment in PG rate from 5.2 g TS kg(-1) without PG addition. Phosphogypsum (1.6 g kg(-1) P) addition had no significant effect on total phosphorus (TP) concentration of the final composts. Results from this study demonstrate the potential of PG addition to reduce overall N losses during composting. The accompanying increase in TS content has implications for use of the end-product on sulfur-deficient soils. Co-composting feedlot manure with PG may provide an inexpensive and technologically straightforward solution for managing and improving the nutrient composition of composted cattle manure. PMID:16275733

  3. Methaphylactic effect of tulathromycin treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Enrico; Armato, Leonardo; Morgante, Massimo; Muraro, Michele; Boso, Matteo; Gianesella, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tulathromycin as a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) metaphylactic treatment on rumen fluid parameters in feedlot cattle in an intensive livestock production farm. One hundred beef cattle, immediately after housing, were divided in 2 equal groups: 50 animals with metaphylactic treatment against BRD (treated group; tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW) and 50 animals with placebo treatment (control group). Rumen fluid samples were collected from each animal by rumenocentesis in 3 periods: 1 d (T1), 8 d (T8), and 15 d (T15) after treatment. Rumen pH was determined by ruminal fluid using portable pH meter. Total volatile fatty acids (total VFA) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All animals were singularly weighed at T1 and T15. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine significant effects of treatment (treated group versus control group) and period (T1, T8, and T15) on rumen fluid parameters and body weight. No clinical signs of BRD or other related diseases were recorded during the periods of study from any animal. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between treated group and control group for mean values of ruminal pH (6.02 versus 5.89) and total VFA (5.84 versus 5.13) at 8 d after treatment. The weight gain (Δ) showed an average increase of 8.6 kg in treated group (P < 0.05). The trends of ruminal pH and VFA values suggest an effect of tulathromycin as BRD metaphylactic treatment on the modulation of rumen fermentation, particularly 8 d after administration. PMID:26733733

  4. Genome-wide association analyses for growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Miller, S; Sargolzaei, M; Kelly, M; Vander Voort, G; Caldwell, T; Wang, Z; Plastow, G; Moore, S

    2013-08-01

    A genome-wide association study using the Illumina 50K BeadChip included 38,745 SNP on 29 BTA analyzed on 751 animals, including 33 purebreds and 718 crossbred cattle. Genotypes and 6 production traits: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), ADG, DMI, midtest metabolic BW (MMWT), and residual feed intake (RFI), were used to estimate effects of individual SNP on the traits. At the genome-wide level false discovery rate (FDR < 10%), 41 and 5 SNP were found significantly associated with BWT and WWT, respectively. Thirty-three of them were located on BTA6. At a less stringent significance level (P < 0.001), 277 and 27 SNP were in association with single traits and multiple traits, respectively. Seventy-three SNP on BTA6 and were mostly associated with BW-related traits, and heavily located around 30 to 50Mb. Markers that significantly affected multiple traits appeared to impact them in same direction. In terms of the size of SNP effect, the significant SNP (P < 0.001) explained between 0.26 and 8.06% of the phenotypic variation in the traits. Pairs of traits with low genetic correlation, such as ADG vs. RFI or DMI vs. BWT, appeared to be controlled by 2 groups of SNP; 1 of them affected the traits in same direction, the other worked in opposite direction. This study provides useful information to further assist the identification of chromosome regions and subsequently genes affecting growth and feed efficiency traits in beef cattle. PMID:23851991

  5. Genome-wide association study for behavior, type traits, and muscular development in Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Vallée, A; Daures, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-06-01

    Behavior, type traits, and muscular development are of interest for beef cattle breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable the identification of candidate genes, which enables gene-based selection and provides insight in the genetic architecture of these traits. The objective of the current study was to perform a GWAS for 3 behavior traits, 12 type traits, and muscular development in Charolais cattle. Behavior traits, including aggressiveness at parturition, aggressiveness during gestation period, and maternal care, were scored by farmers. Type traits, including udder conformation, teat, feet and legs, and locomotion, were scored by trained classifiers. Data used in the GWAS consisted of 3,274 cows with phenotypic records and genotyping information for 44,930 SNP. When SNP had a false discovery rate (FDR) smaller than 0.05, they were referred to as significant. When SNP had a FDR between 0.05 and 0.20, they were referred to as suggestive. Four significant and 12 suggestive regions were detected for aggressiveness during gestation, maternal care, udder balance, teat thinness, teat length, foot angle, foot depth, and locomotion. These 4 significant and 12 suggestive regions were not supported by other significant SNP in close proximity. No SNP with major effects were detected for behavior and type traits, and SNP associations for these traits were spread across the genome, suggesting that behavior and type traits were influenced by many genes, each explaining a small part of genetic variance. The GWAS identified 1 region on chromosome 2 significantly associated with muscular development, which included the myostatin gene (), which is known to affect muscularity. No other regions associated with muscular development were found. Results showed that the myostatin region associated with muscular development had pleiotropic effects on udder volume, teat thinness, rear leg, and leg angle. PMID:27285908

  6. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P < 0.10) for an association with the previously described marker in GPE6. Closer examination of the GPE6 data revealed that the source of the tendency was an association (P < 0.02) with marbling in animals of Wagyu inheritance. Animals having Wagyu background and inheriting the TT genotype had a greater marbling score (599 +/- 20) than those inheriting the CC (540 +/- 10) or the CT (541 +/- 11) genotype. No association was detected with any other carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population. PMID:17686891

  7. Methane Emissions from a Beef Cattle Feedyard during Winter and Summer on the Southern High Plains of Texas.

    PubMed

    Todd, Richard W; Altman, Miriam B; Cole, N Andy; Waldrip, Heidi M

    2014-07-01

    Methane (CH) emissions from enteric fermentation by livestock account for about 2.1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, with beef and dairy cattle being the most significant sources. A better understanding of CH emissions from beef cattle feedyards can help build more accurate emission inventories, improve predictive models, and meet potential regulatory requirements. Our objective was to quantify CH emissions during winter and summer at a typical beef cattle feedyard on the southern High Plains in Texas. Methane emissions were quantified over 32 d in winter and 44 d in summer using open-path lasers and inverse dispersion analysis. Methane per capita emission rate (PCER) ranged from 71 to 118 g animal d in winter and from 70 to 130 g animal d in summer. Mean CH PCER was similar in January, February, and May (average, 85.0 ± 0.95 g animal d) and increased to 93.4 g animal d during the June-July period. This increase coincided with increased dietary fiber. Methane loss ranged from 9.2 to 11.4 g CH kg dry matter intake, with lower values during winter. Gross energy intake (GEI) ranged from 135.2 to 164.5 MJ animal d, and CH energy loss ranged from 4.5 to 4.9 MJ animal d. Fraction of GEI lost as CH (Y) averaged 2.8% in winter, 3.2% in summer, and 3.0% overall. These values confirm the Y value currently recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for Tier 2 estimates of enteric CH from feedlot fed cattle. PMID:25603061

  8. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH ₄ emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal's CH ₄ yield (g CH ₄ /kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH ₄ yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH ₄ (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD - 0.113 (±0.023) × EE - 2.47 (±0.29) × (feeding level - 1), with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC ) = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH ₄ yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information. PMID:27618107

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (p<0.01). Moreover, serotyping of 996 isolates identified 1/2b as the most prevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan. PMID:24180587

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961-2010.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH4 and N2O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH4 and N2O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China׳s beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961-2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH4 and N2O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18Mt to 5.86Mt and from 7.93kt-29.56kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09Mt and 0.12 to 7.90kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961-2010. Although the CO2-eq of CH4 and N2O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961-2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. PMID:25262083

  11. Characterization of Multi-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Beef Cattle in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shiori; Nakano, Motoki; Kitagawa, Wataru; Tanaka, Michiko; Sone, Teruo; Hirai, Katsuya; Asano, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple-antibiotic-resistance bacteria is increasing, which is a particular concern on livestock farms. We previously isolated 1,347 antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli strains from the feces of beef cattle on 14 Japanese farms. In the present study, the genetic backgrounds and phylogenetic relationships of 45 AMR isolates were characterized by the chromosome phylotype, AMR phenotype, AMR genotype, and plasmid type. These isolates were classified into five chromosome phylotypes, which were closely linked to the farms from which they were isolated, suggesting that each farm had its own E. coli phylotype. AMR phenotype and plasmid type analyses yielded 8 and 14 types, all of which were associated with the chromosomal phylotype and, thus, to the original farms. AMR genotype analysis revealed more variety, with 16 types, indicating both inter- and intra-farm diversity. Different phylotype isolates from the same farm shared highly similar plasmid types, which indicated that plasmids with AMR genes could be transferred between phylotypes, thereby generating multi-antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. This ecological study demonstrated that the chromosome phylotype was strongly correlated with the farm from which they were isolated, while the AMR phenotype, genotype, and plasmid type were generally correlated with the chromosome phylotype and farm source. PMID:24789986

  12. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) infections in transported commingled beef cattle and sole-source ranch calves.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Step, Douglas L; Wahrmund, Jackie; Burge, Lurinda J; Payton, Mark E; Cook, Billy J; Burken, Dirk; Richards, Chris J; Confer, Anthony W

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated bovine coronavirus (BCV) in both beef calves direct from the ranch and commingled, mixed-source calves obtained from an auction market. The level of BCV-neutralizing antibodies found in the calves varied among ranches in 2 different studies in a retained-ownership program (ROP), from the ranch to the feedlot. Calves with low levels of BCV-neutralizing antibodies (16 or less) were more likely to be treated for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) than those with higher titers. In 3 studies of commingled, mixed-source calves, BCV was recovered from calves at entry to the feedlot and the infections were cleared by day 8. The BCV was identified in lung samples [bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) collection] as well as in nasal swabs. Calves with low levels of BCV-neutralizing antibodies at entry were most likely to be shedding BCV. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from both healthy and sick calves, but not from sick calves after 4 d arrival at the feedlot. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) should be considered along with other bovine respiratory viruses in the diagnosis of etiologies in bovine respiratory disease, especially for animals that become sick shortly after arrival. If approved vaccines are developed, it would be best to carry out vaccination programs before calves are weaned, giving them sufficient time to gain active immunity before commingling with other cattle. PMID:22210995

  13. Understanding beef-cattle farming management strategies by identifying motivations behind farmers' priorities.

    PubMed

    Magne, M A; Cerf, M; Ingrand, S

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify and better understand management strategies that help livestock farmers adapt to changes in their production contexts, a fundamental challenge. A total of nine beef-cattle farmers were interviewed three times over 1 year to discuss 13 dimensions of livestock farming (e.g. reproduction, feeding, sales, etc.). Characterisation of management strategies rested on three main factors: (i) ranking of the dimensions according to the degree to which farmers desired to control them, (ii) reasons for the ranking and (iii) management guidelines. Although farmers agreed upon the rank of certain dimensions, such as herd management, they differed on that of others, such as sales and administration/regulations. Four motivation categories were identified: risk, pleasure, efficiency and ability to control the dimension. Three management guidelines were identified, which indicated that farmers managed for future survival of their farms at different scales (animal/herd v. whole-farm), involving different resources (biological v. financial) and based on different animal categories (reproductive cows v. animals sold). These results improve understanding of individual livestock farmers and their current management strategies by integrating the motivations behind their strategies. For this reason, they constitute methodological elements that agricultural advisors can use to provide relevant information to farmers while accommodating differences in farm management. PMID:22558968

  14. Effect of beef cattle manure application rate on CH4 and CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Parker, David; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Chang-Sang

    2012-12-01

    In a series of field experiments, emissions of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured using a closed chamber technique in summer 2010 to evaluate the effects of solid beef cattle manure land application techniques. The treatments included a control (C: no manure), two manure application rates (40 and 80 T ha-1), and two injection layers (surface vs. subsurface (5 cm)): (1) 40 T ha-1 on surface (S40), (2) 80 T ha-1 on surface (S80), (3) 40 T ha-1 at subsurface (D40), and (4) 80 T ha-1 at subsurface (D80)). The exchange patterns of CH4 and CO2 in the control were variable and showed both emission and deposition. However, only emissions were seen in the manure treatments. Emissions of CH4 were seen systematically on the ascending order of 5.35 (C), 59.3 (S40), 68.7 (D40), 188 (S80), and 208 μg m-2 h-1 (D80), while those of CO2 also showed a similar trend: 12.9 (C), 37.6 (S40), 55.8 (D40), 82.4 (S80), and 95.4 mg m-2 h-1 (D80). The overall results of our study suggest that the emissions of CH4 and CO2 are affected most noticeably by the differences in the amount of manure application.

  15. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L

    2013-12-01

    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle. PMID

  16. Yield and quality grade outcomes as affected by molecular breeding values for commercial beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N M; DeVuyst, E A; Brorsen, B W; Lusk, J L

    2015-05-01

    Although genetic tests for many economically important beef cattle traits are commercially available, additional information is needed to help the industry better understand how the results from these tests translate into phenotypic outcomes. This information has important implications for marker-assisted management. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between molecular breeding values (MBV) characterizing yield grade and marbling and distributions of phenotypic outcomes for yield grade and quality grade. Using data collected from commercially-fed cattle, mixed-model regression equations were estimated for yield grade and quality grade outcomes for both the full sample of commercial cattle (n= 8,995) and a subsample of black-hided steers (n = 4,790). Significant yield grade (P < 0.01) and marbling (P < 0.01) MBV effects were found. However, the yield grade MBV held up better at predicting phenotypic outcomes than the marbling MBV. Estimated conditional probability mass functions of yield and quality grade outcomes for the general population and black-hided steers were similar. Since distributions for black-hided steers were expected to be more applicable from a management perspective, we focused our analysis on these animals. For example, black-hided steers with "low" genetic potential for yield grade and marbling had about a 29% chance of achieving the base price or better on a price grid (yield grade 3 or lower and quality grade Low Choice or better). Increasing genetic potential for marbling increased the likelihood of achieving this same outcome. However, increasing genetic potential for yield grade was unlikely to increase overall carcass quality given its large deleterious effect on quality grade outcomes. Instead, simultaneous improvements in genetic potential for yield grade and marbling offered much more reliable improvements in overall carcass quality. For example, an animal with "moderate" genetic potential for both yield

  17. Cell Biology Symposium: genetics of feed efficiency in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; Crowley, J J

    2013-04-01

    Increasing food production for the growing human population off a constraining land base will require greater efficiency of production. Genetic improvement of feed efficiency in cattle, which is cumulative and permanent, is one likely vehicle to achieving efficiency gains. The objective of this review is to summarize genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits in dairy and beef cattle and also to address some of the misconceptions associated with feed efficiency in these sectors, as well as discuss the potential use of feed efficiency in breeding programs. A meta-analysis of up to 39 scientific publications in growing cattle clearly showed that genetic variation in feed efficiency exists with a pooled heritability for residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion efficiency of 0.33 ± 0.01 (range of 0.07 to 0.62) and 0.23 ± 0.01 (range of 0.06 to 0.46), respectively. Heritability estimates for feed efficiency in cows were lower; a meta-analysis of up to 11 estimates revealed heritability estimates for gross feed efficiency and RFI of 0.06 ± 0.010 and 0.04 ± 0.008, respectively. Meta-analysis of genetic correlations between feed intake, feed efficiency and other performance traits are presented, and selection index theory is used to calculate the proportion of genetic variation in feed intake that can be explained by easy to measure, and often already collected, data. A large proportion of the genetic variation in feed intake could be explained in both growing animals and lactating animals using up to 5 predictor traits, including BW, growth rate, milk yield, body composition, and linear type traits reflecting body size and muscularity. Knowledge of genetic merit for feed intake can be used, along with estimates of genetic merit for energy sinks, to calculate genetic merit for feed efficiency. Therefore, the marginal benefit of collecting actual feed intake data, using the genetic parameters used in this study, appears to be low. There is now sufficient

  18. Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify feed additives that reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. We measured methane emissions, total tract digestibility (using chromic oxide), and ruminal fermentation (4 h after feeding) in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods and was conducted using 16 Angus heifers (initial BW of 260 +/- 32 kg). Treatments were: control (no additive), fumaric acid (175 g/d) with sodium bicarbonate (75 g/d), essential oil and spice extract (1 g/d), or canola oil (4.6% of DMI). The basal diet consisted of 75% whole-crop barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber) were equipped to measure methane emissions for 3 d each period. Adding canola oil to the diet decreased (P = 0.009) total daily methane emissions by 32% and tended (P = 0.09) to decrease methane emissions as a percentage of gross energy intake by 21%. However, much of the reduction in methane emissions was due to decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake and lower (P < 0.05) total tract digestibility of DM and fiber. Digestibility of all nutrients was also lowered (P < 0.05) by feeding essential oil, but there were no effects on ruminal fermentation or methane emissions. In contrast, adding fumaric acid to the diet increased total VFA concentration (P = 0.03), increased propionate proportions (P = 0.01), and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.002), but there was no measurable effect on methane emissions. The study demonstrates that canola oil can be used to reduce methane losses from cattle, but animal performance may be compromised due to lower feed intake and decreased fiber digestibility. Essential oils had no effect on methane emissions, whereas fumaric acid caused potentially beneficial changes in ruminal fermentation but no measurable reductions in methane emissions. PMID

  19. Characteristics of beef cattle operations in the Northern Plains (Nebraska, South Dakota and North Dakota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the U.S. Beef Industry Sustainability Assessment launched by the Beef Checkoff Program in 2011, region-specific collection of beef production and associated feed and manure management data is on-going to provide the basis for a benchmark national life cycle assessment. This factsheet summa...

  20. Characteristics of beef cattle operations in the Midwest (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the launch of the Beef Checkoff’s U.S. Beef Industry Sustainability Assessment in 2011, region-specific collection of beef production information is underway to provide data for a benchmark national life cycle assessment. The aim of this factsheet is to summarize data gathered from online ...

  1. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by W...

  2. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  3. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  4. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Plasma Half-Life Determination and Long-Term Tissue Distribution in Beef Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Lupton, Sara J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J; Wagner, Sarah; Huwe, Janice K

    2015-12-30

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste, which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of biosolids to pastures and croplands used for feed, and as a result, animals such as beef cattle are exposed to PFOS. To determine plasma and tissue depletion kinetics in cattle, 2 steers and 4 heifers were dosed with PFOS at 0.098 mg/kg body weight and 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. Plasma depletion half-lives for steers and heifers were 120 ± 4.1 and 106 ± 23.1 days, respectively. Specific tissue depletion half-lives ranged from 36 to 385 days for intraperitoneal fat, back fat, muscle, liver, bone, and kidney. These data indicate that PFOS in beef cattle has a sufficiently long depletion half-life to permit accumulation in edible tissues. PMID:26684745

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid on nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chen; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Guangyong; Lin, Shixin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the trial was to study the effects of dietary supplementation of gallic acid (GA) on nitrogen (N) balance, N excretion pattern and urinary N constituents in beef cattle. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four male 30-month-old Simmental cattle (443 ± 22 kg live weight) received four levels of GA (purity ≥ 98.5%), i.e. 0, 5.3, 10.5, 21.1 g/kg DM, added to a basal ration. Each experimental period lasted 17 d, consisting of 12 d adaptation and 5 d sampling. The results showed that supplementation of GA at 5.3, 10.5 or 21.1 g/kg DM did not affect the N balance but regulated the N excretion pattern by increasing the ratio of faecal N/urinary N and decreasing the ratio of urinary urea N/total urinary N in beef cattle fed at maintenance level. PMID:27494638

  6. Substitution of Wheat for Corn in Beef Cattle Diets: Digestibility, Digestive Enzyme Activities, Serum Metabolite Contents and Ruminal Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Wan, F C; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L; Zhang, X L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different amounts of wheat, as a partial or whole substitute for corn, on digestibility, digestive enzyme activities, serum metabolite contents and ruminal fermentation in beef cattle. Four Limousin×LuXi crossbred cattle with a body weight (400±10 kg), fitted with permanent ruminal, proximal duodenal and terminal ileal cannulas, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four treatments: Control (100% corn), 33% wheat (33% substitution for corn), 67% wheat (67% substitution for corn), and 100% wheat (100% substitution for corn) on a dry matter basis. The results showed that replacing corn with increasing amounts of wheat increased the apparent digestibility values of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (p<0.05). While the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber were lower with increasing amounts of wheat. Digestive enzyme activities of lipase, protease and amylase in the duodenum were higher with increasing wheat amounts (p<0.05), and showed similar results to those for the enzymes in the ileum except for amylase. Increased substitution of wheat for corn increased the serum alanine aminotransferase concentration (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not different between those given only corn and those given 33% wheat. Increasing the substitution of wheat for corn increased the molar proportion of acetate and tended to increase the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Cattle fed 100% wheat tended to have the lowest ruminal NH3-N concentration compared with control (p<0.05), whereas no differences were observed among the cattle fed 33% and 67% wheat. These findings indicate that wheat can be effectively used to replace corn in moderate amounts to meet the energy and fiber requirements of beef cattle. PMID:26954111

  7. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  8. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Methods Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. Results With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Conclusions Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training

  9. Association of the expression levels in the skeletal muscle and a SNP in the CDC10 gene with growth-related traits in Japanese Black beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Tong, B; Li, G P; Sasaki, S; Muramatsu, Y; Ohta, T; Kose, H; Yamada, T

    2015-04-01

    Growth performance, as well as marbling, is the main breeding objective in Japanese Black (JB) cattle, the major beef breed in Japan. The septin 7 (CDC10) gene, involved in cellular proliferation, is located within a genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for growth-related traits. In this study, we first showed that the expression levels of the CDC10 gene in the skeletal muscle were higher in JB steers with extremely high growth performance than in JB steers with extremely low growth, using real-time PCR. Further, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), NC_007302.5:g.63264949G>C, was detected in the promoter region of the CDC10 gene and genotyped in three Japanese cattle breeds (known as 'Wagyu' in Japan) and the Brown Swiss dairy cattle breed. All four cattle populations showed a moderate genetic diversity at the SNP of the CDC10 gene. An association analysis indicated that the SNP was associated with growth-related traits in JB cattle. These findings suggest possible effects of the expression levels in the skeletal muscle and the SNP of the CDC10 gene on growth-related traits in JB cattle. The CDC10 SNP may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase beef productivity in JB beef cattle. PMID:25691006

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-11-15

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH{sub 4} EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} emissions dominated the CO{sub 2}-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH{sub 4} emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions but tended to grow.

  11. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in akirin 2 gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Seiki; Yamada, Takahisa; Sukegawa, Shin; Miyake, Takeshi; Fujita, Tatsuo; Morita, Mitsuo; Ohta, Takeshi; Takahagi, Youichi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The c17-25 expressed sequence tag (EST) has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus, the akirin 2 (AKIRIN2) gene containing the c17-25 EST sequence was considered as a positional functional candidate for the gene responsible for marbling. In this study, we explored single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the AKIRIN2 and analyzed association of the SNP with marbling. Findings A SNP in the 3' untranslated region of the AKIRIN2, referred to as c.*188G>A, was the only difference detected between high- and low-marbled steer groups. The SNP was associated with marbling in 3 experiments using 100 sires (P = 0.041), 753 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 4 sires heterozygous for the c.*188G>A (P = 0.005), and 730 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 3 sires homozygous for the A allele at the c.*188G>A (P = 0.047), in Japanese Black beef cattle. The effect of genotypes of the SNP on subcutaneous fat thickness was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that the AKIRIN2 SNP polymorphism is associated with marbling and may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. PMID:19594944

  12. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  13. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    PubMed

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  14. Accuracy of genomic predictions for feed efficiency traits of beef cattle using 50K and imputed HD genotypes.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Akanno, E C; Crowley, J J; Schenkel, F; Li, H; De Pauw, M; Moore, S S; Wang, Z; Li, C; Stothard, P; Plastow, G; Miller, S P; Basarab, J A

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of genomic predictions can be used to assess the utility of dense marker genotypes for genetic improvement of beef efficiency traits. This study was designed to test the impact of genomic distance between training and validation populations, training population size, statistical methods, and density of genetic markers on prediction accuracy for feed efficiency traits in multibreed and crossbred beef cattle. A total of 6,794 beef cattle data collated from various projects and research herds across Canada were used. Illumina BovineSNP50 (50K) and imputed Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array (HD) genotypes were available for all animals. The traits studied were DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI). Four validation groups of 150 animals each, including Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), Angus-Hereford crosses (ANHH), and a Charolais-based composite (TX) were created by considering the genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the validation groups. Each validation group had 7 corresponding training groups of increasing sizes ( = 1,000, 1,999, 2,999, 3,999, 4,999, 5,998, and 6,644), which also represent increasing average genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the training and validations groups. Prediction of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) was performed using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian method C (BayesC). The accuracy of genomic predictions was defined as the Pearson's correlation between adjusted phenotype and GEBV (), unless otherwise stated. Using 50K genotypes, the highest average achieved in purebreds (AN, CH) was 0.41 for DMI, 0.34 for ADG, and 0.35 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.21 for ADG, and 0.25 for RFI. Similarly, when imputed HD genotypes were applied in purebreds (AN, CH), the highest average was 0.14 for DMI, 0.15 for ADG, and 0.14 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.22 for ADG, and 0.24 for RFI. The of GBLUP predictions were

  15. Genetic analysis of carcass traits in beef cattle using random regression models.

    PubMed

    Englishby, T M; Banos, G; Moore, K L; Coffey, M P; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-04-01

    Livestock mature at different rates depending, in part, on their genetic merit; therefore, the optimal age at slaughter for progeny of certain sires may differ. The objective of the present study was to examine sire-level genetic profiles for carcass weight, carcass conformation, and carcass fat in cattle of multiple beef and dairy breeds, including crossbreeds. Slaughter records from 126,214 heifers and 124,641 steers aged between 360 and 1,200 d and from 86,089 young bulls aged between 360 and 720 d were used in the analysis; animals were from 15,127 sires. Variance components for each trait across age at slaughter were generated using sire random regression models that included quadratic polynomials for fixed and random effects; heterogeneous residual variances were assumed across ages. Heritability estimates across genders ranged from 0.08 (±0.02) to 0.34 (±0.02) for carcass weight, from 0.24 (±0.02) to 0.42 (±0.01) for conformation, and from 0.16 (±0.03) to 0.40 (±0.02) for fat score. Genetic correlations within each trait across ages weakened as the interval between ages compared lengthened but were all >0.64, suggesting a similar genetic background for each trait across different ages. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed genetic variability among animals in their growth profiles for carcass traits, although most of the genetic variability was associated with the height of the growth profile. At the same age, a positive genetic correlation (0.60 to 0.78; SE ranged from 0.01 to 0.04) existed between carcass weight and conformation, whereas negative genetic correlations existed between fatness and both conformation (-0.46 to 0.08; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.09) and carcass weight (-0.48 to -0.16; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.14) at the same age. The estimated genetic parameters in the present study indicate genetic variability in the growth trajectory in cattle, which can be exploited through breeding programs and

  16. Methane emissions from beef cattle: Effects of monensin, sunflower oil, enzymes, yeast, and fumaric acid.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Coates, T; Colombatto, D

    2004-11-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the effects of diet on enteric methane production can help refine GHG emission inventories and identify viable GHG reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane and carbon dioxide emissions, total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives or ingredients. Two experiments, each designed as a 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods, were conducted using 16 Holstein steers (initial BW 311.6 +/- 12.3 kg). In Exp. 1, treatments were control (no additive), monensin (Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN; 33 mg/kg DM), sunflower oil (400 g/d, approximately 5% of DMI), and proteolytic enzyme (Protex 6-L, Genencor Int., Inc., CA; 1 mL/kg DM). In Exp. 2, treatments were control (no additive), Procreatin-7 yeast (Prince Agri Products, Inc., Quincy, IL; 4 g/d), Levucell SC yeast (Lallemand, Inc., Rexdale, Ontario, Canada; 1 g/d), and fumaric acid (Bartek Ingredients Inc., Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada; 80 g/d). The basal diet consisted of 75% barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley grain, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (two animals per chamber) were equipped with lasers and infrared gas analyzers to measure methane and carbon dioxide, respectively, for 3 d each period. Total-tract digestibility was determined using chromic oxide. Approximately 6.5% of the GE consumed was lost in the form of methane emissions from animals fed the control diet. In Exp. 1, sunflower oil decreased methane emissions by 22% (P = 0.001) compared with the control, whereas monensin (P = 0.44) and enzyme had no effect (P = 0.82). However, oil decreased (P = 0.03) the total-tract digestibility of NDF by 20%. When CH(4) emissions were corrected for differences in energy intake, the loss of GE to methane was decreased by 21% (P = 0.002) using oil and by 9% (P = 0.09) using monensin. In Exp. 2

  17. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

    2014-05-01

    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as

  18. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd--1st case in 27 years: Case report.

    PubMed

    Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Elvander, Marianne; Westermark, Therese; Hartzell, Lisbeth Nisu; Norström, Agneta Karlsson; Ehrs, Sara; Knutsson, Rickard; Englund, Stina; Andersson, Ann-Christin; Granberg, Malin; Bäckman, Stina; Wikström, Per; Sandstedt, Karin

    2010-01-01

    After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The carcasses were reportedly normal in appearance, particularly as regards rigor mortis, bleeding and coagulation of the blood. Subsequently, three more animals died and anthrax was suspected at necropsy and confirmed by culture and PCR on blood samples. The isolated strain was susceptible to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Subtyping by MLVA showed the strain to cluster with isolates in the A lineage of Bacillus anthracis. Environmental samples from the holding were all negative except for two soil samples taken from a spot where infected carcasses had been kept until they were picked up for transport. The most likely source of the infection was concluded to be contaminated roughage, although this could not be substantiated by laboratory analysis. The suspected feed was mixed with soil and dust and originated from fields where flooding occurred the previous year, followed by a dry summer with a very low water level in the river allowing for the harvesting on soil usually not exposed. In the early 1900s, animal carcasses are said to have been dumped in this river during anthrax outbreaks and it is most likely that some anthrax spores could remain in the area. The case indicates that untypical cases in non-endemic areas may be missed to a larger extent than previously thought. Field tests allowing a preliminary risk assessment of animal carcasses would be helpful for increased sensitivity of detection and prevention of further exposure to the causative agent. PMID:20122147

  19. Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

    2013-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  20. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  1. Estimation of the environmental dam-offspring correlation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Munilla, S; Cantet, R J C

    2015-06-01

    A long standing controversy in animal breeding is related to the strong negative estimates of the direct-maternal genetic correlation obtained when fitting data on maternally influenced traits. In this article, we focused on a model that introduces a new correlation parameter among dam-offspring records. The extant theory allows estimation of the parameter when dams have at most a single offspring. Our goal was to develop an inferential procedure in a more general setting. To do so, we applied a Bayesian approach and we showed that the estimation could be accomplished by introducing a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) step embedded into a regular Gibbs sampler program. The procedure was implemented by means of an MCMC algorithm known as the Griddy-Gibbs sampler, and a Fortran 90 library was created to accomplish the task. The computer program is available from http://www.agro.uba.ar/catedras/mg_animal/software/RDBLK. With this tool at hand, we applied the inferential procedure to weaning weight records on beef cattle calves from an Argentinean Hereford herd, and we estimated the marginal distribution of the environmental dam-offspring correlation parameter. The distribution was unimodal and symmetric with a mean value of -0.14 (±0.03) and a 95% high posterior density interval between -0.20 and -0.07, indicating that the model placed a huge mass on negative values of the parameter. Noticeably, the magnitude of the direct-maternal genetic correlation diminished from -0.61 to -0.37 with respect to the standard maternal animal model. This result reinforces the idea that environmental covariances among dam-offspring records may bias the estimate of the direct-maternal genetic correlation. PMID:26115255

  2. Effects of timed artificial insemination following estrus synchronization in postpartum beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Malik, A.; Wahid, H.; Rosnina, Y.; Kasim, A.; Sabri, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate estrus response and pregnancy rates resulting from timed artificial insemination (AI) following estrus synchronization using CIDR in postpartum beef cattle. A total of 100 cows were randomly divided into three groups. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were artificially inseminated at 48-50 h (n=30), 53-55 h (n=30) and 58-60 h (n=40) after CIDR removal, respectively. Estrus synchronization was carried out using a CIDR containing 1.38 mg progesterone. All cows were given 2 mg estradiol benzoate, intramuscularly on the day of CIDR insertion (D 0). The CIDR was removed after 8 days and 125 μg of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was injected intramuscularly. One day after CIDR removal all cows were given 1 mg of estradiol benzoate intramuscularly (D 9). Cows were observed visually for estrus after removal of CIDR. Between 30 and 32 days after timed AI, pregnancy was determined using transrectal ultrasonography. The first estrus observation which is approximately 32 h after CIDR removal showed no significant difference (P>0.05) among the three groups. The onset response of estrus after 32 h removal of CIDR was less than 10% in all three groups 6.6% (G1), 6.8% (G2) and 7.3% (G3). Furthermore, percentages of estrus response (D 10) following CIDR removal were 76.6%, 75.0% and 77.5%. The difference between on D 9 and D 10 estrus response were statistically significant (P<0.05). The pregnancy rates were 23.3% (G1), 26.6% (G2) and 37.5% (G3), which were not significant (P>0.05). PMID:26623282

  3. The g.841G>C SNP of FASN gene is associated with fatty acid composition in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kiri; Sakamoto, Takayuki; Ishii, Atsushi; Yamaji, Keita; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Sasago, Nanae; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Maruyama, Shin; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Oyama, Kenji; Mannen, Hideyuki; Sasazaki, Shinji

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study is to evaluate the association between fatty acid composition and fatty acid synthase gene polymorphisms as responsible mutations. For this purpose, we selected seven previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FASN gene, including one within promoter region (g.841G>C) and six non-synonymous SNPs (g.8805C>T, g.13126C>T, g.15532A>C, g.16024A>G, g.16039C>T, g.17924A>G), and genotyped them in Japanese Black cattle. Genotyping results revealed that g.8805 C>T and g.17924 A>G were monomorphic loci. Genome-wide association analysis including the other five SNPs revealed that only g.841G>C showed significant associations with the percentages of C14:0, C14:1, C16:1 and C18:1 at 5% genome-wide significance level. In order to further evaluate the effect, we genotyped g.841G>C using additional three populations, including two Japanese Black populations and a Holstein cattle population. g.16024A>G was also genotyped and included in the analysis because it has been reported to be associated with fatty acid composition in Japanese Black cattle. In the result of analysis of variance, g.841G>C showed stronger effects on fatty acid percentage than those of g.16024A>G in all populations. These results suggested that g.841G>C would be a responsible mutation for fatty acid composition and contribute to production of high-grade beef as a selection marker in beef cattle. PMID:25597874

  4. Genetic Variants in SDC3 Gene are Significantly Associated with Growth Traits in Two Chinese Beef Cattle Breeds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Xing-Tang; Song, En-Liang; Chen, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Identification of the genes and polymorphisms underlying quantitative traits, and understanding these genes and polymorphisms affect economic growth traits, are important for successful marker-assisted selection and more efficient management strategies in commercial cattle (Bos taurus) population. Syndecan-3 (SDC3), a member of the syndecan family of type I transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans is a novel regulator of feeding behavior and body weight. The aim of this study is to examine the association of the SDC3 polymorphism with growth traits in Chinese Jiaxian and Qinchuan cattle breeds (). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-4) were detected in 555 cows from three Chinese native cattle breeds by means of sequencing pooled DNA samples and polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. We found one SNP (g.28362A > G) in intron and three SNPs (g.30742T > G, g.30821C > T and 33418 A > G) in exons. The statistical analyses indicated that these SNPs of SDC3 gene were associated with bovine body height, body length, chest circumference, and circumference of cannon bone (P < 0.05). The mutant-type variant was superior for growth traits; the heterozygote was associated with higher growth traits compared to wild-type homozygote. Our result confirms the polymorphisms in the SDC3 gene are associated with growth traits that may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding programs. PMID:27119984

  5. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding. PMID:27139254

  6. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010–2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  7. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  8. Changes in the Microbiological Characteristics of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) Beef Exposed to Ultraviolet (UV) Irradiation Prior to Refrigeration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-jae

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated with regards to the microbial growth inhibitory effect on the shelf life of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) beef prior to refrigerated storage. The Hanwoo samples were exposed to UV radiation (4.5 mW/cm2) for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min. The UV-irradiated beef that was exposed for 20 min showed significantly reduced mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial populations to the extent of approximately 3 log cycles, as compared to that of non-irradiated beef. About 2.5 Log CFU/g of mesophilic bacteria were different compared with UV-irradiated and nonirradiated meat. UV irradiation showed the most significant growth inhibition effects on mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. Coliform and Gram-negative bacteria were also reduced by 1 log cycle. The population of L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 decreased significantly to 53.33, 39.68, and 45.76% after 10 min of UV irradiation. They decreased significantly to 84.64, 80.76, and 84.12%, respectively, after 20 min of UV irradiation. The results show that UV irradiation time and the inhibitory effect were proportional. These results verified that UV radiation prior to refrigeration can effectively reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria on the surface of meat and improve the meat’s microbial safety. PMID:26761679

  9. Changes in the Microbiological Characteristics of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) Beef Exposed to Ultraviolet (UV) Irradiation Prior to Refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Yong-Jae; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated with regards to the microbial growth inhibitory effect on the shelf life of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) beef prior to refrigerated storage. The Hanwoo samples were exposed to UV radiation (4.5 mW/cm(2)) for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min. The UV-irradiated beef that was exposed for 20 min showed significantly reduced mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial populations to the extent of approximately 3 log cycles, as compared to that of non-irradiated beef. About 2.5 Log CFU/g of mesophilic bacteria were different compared with UV-irradiated and nonirradiated meat. UV irradiation showed the most significant growth inhibition effects on mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. Coliform and Gram-negative bacteria were also reduced by 1 log cycle. The population of L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 decreased significantly to 53.33, 39.68, and 45.76% after 10 min of UV irradiation. They decreased significantly to 84.64, 80.76, and 84.12%, respectively, after 20 min of UV irradiation. The results show that UV irradiation time and the inhibitory effect were proportional. These results verified that UV radiation prior to refrigeration can effectively reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria on the surface of meat and improve the meat's microbial safety. PMID:26761679

  10. Syndromic surveillance of abortions in beef cattle based on the prospective analysis of spatio-temporal variations of calvings

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, A.; Morignat, E.; Fournié, G.; Vergne, T.; Vinard, J-L; Gay, E.; Calavas, D.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to study the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to identify spatio-temporal clusters of drops in the number of calvings among beef cows during the Bluetongue epizootic of 2007 and 2008, based on calving seasons. France was partitioned into 300 iso-populated units, i.e. units with quite the same number of beef cattle. Only 1% of clusters were unlikely to be related to Bluetongue. Clusters were detected during the calving season of primary infection by Bluetongue in 28% (n = 23) of the units first infected in 2007, and in 87% (n = 184) of the units first infected in 2008. In units in which a first cluster was detected over their calving season of primary infection, Bluetongue was detected more rapidly after the start of the calving season and its prevalence was higher than in other units. We believe that this type of syndromic surveillance system could improve the surveillance of abortive events in French cattle. Besides, our approach should be used to develop syndromic surveillance systems for other diseases and purposes, and in other settings, to avoid “false” alarms due to isolated events and homogenize the ability to detect abnormal variations of indicator amongst iso-populated units. PMID:26687099

  11. The chemical composition of carcasses can be predicted from proxy traits in finishing male beef cattle: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Jammas, M; Agabriel, J; Vernet, J; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2016-09-01

    Management practices can contribute to improving carcass quality if carcass quality could be simply evaluated under a wide range of conditions. The objective of this study was to derive quantitative relationships between the most accurate (but laborious) measurements of carcass chemical composition and proxy traits easily obtainable at slaughter (yield grade, subcutaneous fat thickness, marbling, ribeye area and hot carcass weight) by meta-analysis. Data from 34 publications using male beef cattle were used to develop and validate the models. The breeds were characterized according to origin, rate of maturity, production purpose and frame size. The results indicated that the changes in carcass fat and protein can be predicted from the yield grade or subcutaneous fat thickness, and hot carcass weight, with prediction errors ranging between 9 and 12%. Including the breed characteristics in the models did not improve the fit. The relationships are applicable to group values of male beef cattle having light and fatty carcasses from early-maturing British breeds. PMID:27206053

  12. Accuracy of genomic selection for age at puberty in a multi-breed population of tropically adapted beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Farah, M M; Swan, A A; Fortes, M R S; Fonseca, R; Moore, S S; Kelly, M J

    2016-02-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a standard tool in livestock breeding programs, particularly for traits that are hard to measure. Accuracy of genomic selection can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of data and potentially by improving analytical methods. Adding genotypes and phenotypes from additional breeds or crosses often improves the accuracy of genomic predictions but requires specific methodology. A model was developed to incorporate breed composition estimated from genotypes into genomic selection models. This method was applied to age at puberty data in female beef cattle (as estimated from age at first observation of a corpus luteum) from a mix of Brahman and Tropical Composite beef cattle. In this dataset, the new model incorporating breed composition did not increase the accuracy of genomic selection. However, the breeding values exhibited slightly less bias (as assessed by deviation of regression of phenotype on genomic breeding values from the expected value of 1). Adding additional Brahman animals to the Tropical Composite analysis increased the accuracy of genomic predictions and did not affect the accuracy of the Brahman predictions. PMID:26490440

  13. Mapping of a quantitative trait locus for beef marbling on bovine chromosome 9 in purebred Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Imai, K; Matsughige, T; Watanabe, T; Sugimoto, Y; Ihara, N

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for carcass traits applicable for a DNA-based breeding system in a Japanese Black cattle population. A purebred paternal half-sib family from a commercial line composed of 65 steers was initially analyzed using 188 informative microsatellites giving a 16-cM average interval covering 29 autosomes. A significant QTL for marbling was detected in the centromeric portion of bovine chromosome (BTA) 9. After additional marker genotyping across a larger sample size composed of 169 individuals, this locus was refined to a 20-cM confidence interval between microsatellites BM1227 (24 cM) and DIK2741 (50 cM) at a 1% chromosome-wise threshold. The allele substitution effect between Q and q for a beef marbling standard score (1 to 12 range) on BTA9 was 1.0 (5.7% of total phenotypic variance in QTL contribution in this family). This result provides a primary platform for a marker-assisted selection system of the beef marbling trait within the Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle population. PMID:17453646

  14. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  15. Increased Mortality in Groups of Cattle Administered the β-Adrenergic Agonists Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Loneragan, Guy H.; Thomson, Daniel U.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2014-01-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two β-adrenergic agonists (βAA) for in-feed administration to cattle fed in confinement for human consumption. Anecdotal reports have generated concern that administration of βAA might be associated with an increased incidence of cattle deaths. Our objectives, therefore, were to a) quantify the association between βAA administration and mortality in feedlot cattle, and b) explore those variables that may confound or modify this association. Three datasets were acquired for analysis: one included information from randomized and controlled clinical trials of the βAA ractopamine hydrochloride, while the other two were observational data on zilpaterol hydrochloride administration to large numbers of cattle housed, fed, and cared for using routine commercial production practices in the U.S. Various population and time at-risk models were developed to explore potential βAA relationships with mortality, as well as the extent of confounding and effect modification. Measures of effect were relatively consistent across datasets and models in that the cumulative risk and incidence rate of death was 75 to 90% greater in animals administered the βAA compared to contemporaneous controls. During the exposure period, 40 to 50% of deaths among groups administered the βAA were attributed to administration of the drug. None of the available covariates meaningfully confounded the relationship between βAA and increased mortality. Only month of slaughter, presumably a proxy for climate, consistently modified the effect in that the biological association was generally greatest during the warmer months of the year. While death is a rare event in feedlot cattle, the data reported herein provide compelling evidence that mortality is nevertheless increased in response to administration of FDA-approved βAA and represents a heretofore unquantified adverse drug event. PMID:24621596

  16. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of seven regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, ...

  17. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield) and quality (degree of marbling) in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) has previously been associated with hot carcass weight (HCW) and shipping weight (Ship wt) in beef cattle. Results While developing a commercial real time PCR test for POMC c.288C>T a 12 bp deletion (POMC c.293_304delTTGGGGGCGCGG) was identified. The deletion results in the removal of four amino acids (a valine, two glycines, and an alanine). Both the POMC c.288C>T and the deletion were genotyped in 386 crossbred steers and evaluated for associations with carcass traits. The animals with one copy of the deletion had a significantly smaller carcass rib-eye area (7.91 cm2; P = 0.02) in comparison to homozygous normal animals. Significant associations were observed between POMC c.288C>T with start-of-finishing weight (SOF WT; P = 0.04), hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02), average fat and grade fat (both P = 0.05), carcass rib-eye area (REA; P = 0.03) and marbling (P = 0.02). Conclusions These results suggest that it could be beneficial for beef producers to know both the deletion and POMC c.288C>T genotypes when making marketing and culling decisions. PMID:21205304

  18. Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  19. Bruising in slaughter cattle and its relationship with creatine kinase levels and beef quality as affected by animal related factors.

    PubMed

    Mpakama, T; Chulayo, A Y; Muchenje, V

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  20. Current knowledge on the environmental fate, potential impact, and management of growth-promoting steroids used in the US beef cattle industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth promoting steroids and steroid-like compounds (GPSC) used by the US beef cattle industry are potential contaminants to water resources. Manure generated in concentrated animal feeding operations contains GPSCs that may enter the environment. Several studies have focused on off-site impacts of...

  1. Disinfectant and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from cattle carcasses, feces, and hides and ground beef from the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disinfectant and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of 344 Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from cattle feces, hide, carcass, and ground beef from different areas of the United States were determined. Overall, a low incidence of antibiotic resistance was observed (14%). The highest-incidence ...

  2. A genome-wide association study identified CYP2J2 as a major gene controlling serum vitamin D in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D is an important modulator of calcium homeostasis and has several eefects on the immune system. The objective of the study was to estimate its heritability, and to identify genomic regions associated with concentration of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in beef cattle. Status of vit...

  3. A genome-wide association study identified CYP2J2 as a major gene controlling serum Vitamin D status in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D is an important modulator of calcium homeostasis and has several efects on the immune system. The objective of the study was to estimate its heritability, and to identify genomic regions associated with concentration of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in beef cattle. Status of vita...

  4. Longitudinal Study of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a Beef Cattle Feedlot and the Role of High Shedders in Hide Contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is now well established that, at the time of harvest, hides are the major source of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination on beef carcasses. Thus, reducing the levels of foodborne pathogens on cattle hides has been the focus of many pre- and post-harvest research efforts. In the area of pre-ha...

  5. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle...

  6. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, bovine WGS databases comprised of related influential sires from relatively few breeds tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle. Thus, our ...

  7. Comparison of the molecular genotypes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from the hides of beef cattle in different regions of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle hides become contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 via pathogen transmission in the feedlot, during transport, and in the lairage environment at the processing facility and the bacteria can be transferred to beef carcasses during processing. Several studies have shown that E. coli O157:H7 strain...

  8. Enumeration of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Ground Beef, Cattle Carcass, Hide and Fecal Samples Using Direct Plating Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: To develop and validate high throughput methods for the direct enumeration of viable and culturable Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef, carcass, hide and fecal (GCHF) samples from cattle. Methods and Results: The hydrophobic grid membrane filtration (HGMF) method and the sp...

  9. Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W

    2013-06-01

    The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve

  10. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Stonecipher, Clint A; Gardner, Dale R; Panter, Kip E; Parsons, Cory; Deboodt, Tim; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-02-01

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in western juniper-infested rangelands tend to have decreased conception rates. The objective of this study was to determine if western juniper alters the estrous cycle of cattle. Fourteen heifers (10 treated and 4 control) were monitored for 74 days for signs of normal estrous behavior, with a 21 day feeding trial with western juniper bark from days 28-48, after which the cattle were bred naturally with a bull. The cattle were checked for pregnancy 30 days after all cattle had been bred. The data from this study indicate that exposure to western juniper bark does not affect normal estrus, estrous cycle or conception rates of cattle. PMID:25554383

  11. Recombination locations and rates in beef cattle assessed from parent-offspring pairs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recombination events tend to occur in hotspots and vary in number among individuals. The presence of recombination influences the accuracy of haplotype phasing and the imputation of missing genotypes. Genes that influence genome-wide recombination rate have been discovered in mammals, yeast, and plants. Our aim was to investigate the influence of recombination on haplotype phasing, locate recombination hotspots, scan the genome for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and identify candidate genes that influence recombination, and quantify the impact of recombination on the accuracy of genotype imputation in beef cattle. Methods 2775 Angus and 1485 Limousin parent-verified sire/offspring pairs were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 chip. Haplotype phasing was performed with DAGPHASE and BEAGLE using UMD3.1 assembly SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) coordinates. Recombination events were detected by comparing the two reconstructed chromosomal haplotypes inherited by each offspring with those of their sires. Expected crossover probabilities were estimated assuming no interference and a binomial distribution for the frequency of crossovers. The BayesB approach for genome-wide association analysis implemented in the GenSel software was used to identify genomic regions harboring QTL with large effects on recombination. BEAGLE was used to impute Angus genotypes from a 7K subset to the 50K chip. Results DAGPHASE was superior to BEAGLE in haplotype phasing, which indicates that linkage information from relatives can improve its accuracy. The estimated genetic length of the 29 bovine autosomes was 3097 cM, with a genome-wide recombination distance averaging 1.23 cM/Mb. 427 and 348 windows containing recombination hotspots were detected in Angus and Limousin, respectively, of which 166 were in common. Several significant SNPs and candidate genes, which influence genome-wide recombination were localized in QTL regions detected in the two breeds. High

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes associated with feed efficiency in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background General, breed- and diet-dependent associations between feed efficiency in beef cattle and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or haplotypes were identified on a population of 1321 steers using a 50 K SNP panel. Genomic associations with traditional two-step indicators of feed efficiency – residual feed intake (RFI), residual average daily gain (RADG), and residual intake gain (RIG) – were compared to associations with two complementary one-step indicators of feed efficiency: efficiency of intake (EI) and efficiency of gain (EG). Associations uncovered in a training data set were evaluated on independent validation data set. A multi-SNP model was developed to predict feed efficiency. Functional analysis of genes harboring SNPs significantly associated with feed efficiency and network visualization aided in the interpretation of the results. Results For the five feed efficiency indicators, the numbers of general, breed-dependent, and diet-dependent associations with SNPs (P-value < 0.0001) were 31, 40, and 25, and with haplotypes were six, ten, and nine, respectively. Of these, 20 SNP and six haplotype associations overlapped between RFI and EI, and five SNP and one haplotype associations overlapped between RADG and EG. This result confirms the complementary value of the one and two-step indicators. The multi-SNP models included 89 SNPs and offered a precise prediction of the five feed efficiency indicators. The associations of 17 SNPs and 7 haplotypes with feed efficiency were confirmed on the validation data set. Nine clusters of Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway categories (mean P-value < 0.001) including, 9nucleotide binding; ion transport, phosphorous metabolic process, and the MAPK signaling pathway were overrepresented among the genes harboring the SNPs associated with feed efficiency. Conclusions The general SNP associations suggest that a single panel of genomic variants can be used regardless of breed and diet. The breed- and diet

  13. Short-term effects of silage volatile compounds on feed intake and digestion in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Goulart, R S; Zopollatto, M; Santos, V P; Toledo Filho, S G; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Lima, J R; Santos, M C; Nussio, L G

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate whether fermentation end products in silage affect intake and digestion in beef cattle. Six rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Each period consisted of 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for sample collection. Steers were housed in a tie-stall barn and individually fed once daily at 0800 h. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were as follows: 60% corn silage plus 40% concentrate (CON), 60% corn silage with added ethanol (2.8% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (ET), and 60% corn silage with added lactic acid (5.4% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (LA). The DMI was similar (P = 0.41) across treatments (average 11.7 kg/d); however, the LA treatment increased the ruminal pH (P = 0.01) and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.01). Diet digestibility decreased by 2.2 to 2.5 percentage units when the DM content was determined by oven drying (at 105°C) rather than by toluene distillation. The treatments in Exp. 2 were as follows: 75% sugarcane silage with no volatile fraction (oven dried at 60°C and rehydrated) and 25% concentrate (75D), 75% sugarcane silage (original moisture content) and 25% concentrate (75W), and 40% sugarcane silage and 60% concentrate (40W). Approximately 21% of the DM content of sugarcane silage consisted of volatile compounds. The presence of these compounds did not alter the DMI (P = 0.36) but did increase both the acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.01) and the fractional absorption rates of valerate (P < 0.01) and ethanol (P = 0.02) in the empty reticulorumen. The 40W diet led to a greater DMI (40W = 9.79 vs. 75W = 6.19 kg/d; P < 0.01), which altered most of the measured variables traditionally associated with high-concentrate diets. As in Exp. 1, diet digestibility decreased by 1.5 to 5.4 units when the DM content was determined by oven drying at 105°C rather than by toluene distillation. In this short-term study, volatile

  14. Effects of chitosan on nutrient digestibility, methane emissions, and in vitro fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Henry, D D; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Ciriaco, F M; Kohmann, M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; DiLorenzo, N

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan was evaluated as a feed additive to mitigate in vivo CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Twenty-four crossbred heifers (BW = 318 ± 35 kg) were used in a randomized block design replicated in 2 periods. The design included a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, which included diet (high concentrate [HC] or low concentrate [LC]) and 0.0, 0.5, or 1.0% of chitosan inclusion (DM basis). Diets were offered ad libitum and individual intake was recorded. An in vitro experiment to analyze chitosan’s effect on fermentation parameters and gas production kinetics was performed. A diet effect (P < 0.01) was observed for CH4 emissions expressed as grams/day, grams/kilogram of BW0.75, and grams/kilogram of DMI. Heifers consuming the LC diet produced 130 g of CH4/d vs. 45 g of CH4/d in those consuming the HC diet. Incubation fluid pH increased linearly (P < 0.05) when chitosan was included in HC substrates. In vitro CH4 production was not affected (P > 0.10) by chitosan in HC substrate; however, when incubated with the LC substrate, CH4 production increased quadratically (P < 0.01) as chitosan inclusion increased. A digestibility marker × diet interaction occurred (P < 0.05) for DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. Diet × chitosan interactions (P < 0.05) occurred for DM, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility when Cr2O3 was used. When TiO2 was used, diet × chitosan interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for NDF and ADF. However, using indigestible NDF as an internal marker, DM and OM digestibility were improved (P < 0.05) by 21 and 19%, respectively, when chitosan was included in LC diets. In conclusion, feeding up to 1% of chitosan (DM basis) to heifers consuming a LC diet increased apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by chitosan feeding, regardless of type of diet, and heifers consuming a 36% concentrate diet produced 2.6 times more methane per day than those consuming an 85% concentrate diet. PMID:26440023

  15. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  16. Genetic grouping strategies in selection efficiency of composite beef cattle ( × ).

    PubMed

    Petrini, J; Pertile, S F N; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S; Mattos, E C; Figueiredo, L G G; Mourão, G B

    2015-02-01

    The inclusion of genetic groups in sire evaluation has been widely used to represent genetic differences among animals not accounted for by the absence of parentage data. However, the definition of these groups is still arbitrary, and studies assessing the effects of genetic grouping strategies on the selection efficiency are rare. Therefore, the aim in this study was to compare genetic grouping strategies for animals with unknown parentage in prediction of breeding values (EBV). The total of 179,302 records of weaning weight (WW), 29,825 records of scrotal circumference (SC), and 70,302 records of muscling score (MUSC) from Montana Tropical animals, a Brazilian composite beef cattle population, were used. Genetic grouping strategies involving year of birth, sex of the unknown parent, birth farm, breed composition, and their combinations were evaluated. Estimated breeding values were predicted for each approach simulating a loss of genealogy data. Thereafter, these EBV were compared to those obtained in an analysis involving a real relationship matrix to estimate selection efficiency and correlations between EBV and animal rankings. The analysis model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups and class of the dam age at calving, the covariates of additive and nonadditive genetic effects, and age, and the additive genetic effect of animal as random effects. A second model also included the fixed effects of genetic group. The use of genetic groups resulted in means of selection efficiency and correlation of 70.4 to 97.1% and 0.51 to 0.94 for WW, 85.8 to 98.8% and 0.82 to 0.98 for SC, and 85.1 to 98.6% and 0.74 to 0.97 for MUSC, respectively. High selection efficiencies were observed for year of birth and breed composition strategies. The maximum absolute difference in annual genetic gain estimated through the use of complete genealogy and genetic groups were 0.38 kg for WW, 0.02 cm for SC, and 0.01 for MUSC, with lower differences obtained when year of birth

  17. The effect of western juniper on the estrous cycle in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous evergreen trees and shrubs contain labdane acids, including isocupressic acid, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle. Recent research has shown that the bark from western juniper trees can also cause late-term abortions in cattle. Additionally, ranchers have observed that cattle in ...

  18. Seasonal methane emissions from a beef cattle feedyard on the U.S. southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are a significant source of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. As cattle production systems intensify, a better understanding of CH4 emissions from cattle feedyards is needed to build more accurate emission inventories, help develop better predictive mo...

  19. Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

    PubMed

    Borgogno, Monica; Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Favotto, Saida; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-08-01

    The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef. PMID:26998946

  20. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunping; Tian, Fei; Yu, Ying; Luo, Juan; Mitra, Apratim; Zhan, Fei; Hou, Yali; Liu, George; Zan, Linsen; Updike, M. Scott; Song, Jiuzhou

    2012-01-01

    Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), was dramatically increased by acute stress. Microarray analysis and qPCR identified a variety of genes that were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in immune response and regulation of metabolism process as activators or repressors. Further analysis identified that these changes may be related with CpG methylation of several genes. Therefore, the results from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms that genetic and epigenetic regulations control meat quality and beef tenderness. PMID:22566754

  1. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa Junior, Ciniro; Cerri, Carlos E P; Pires, Alexandre V; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope "housing to field application" by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO₂eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ~80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO₂eq per kg lwg(-1)). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO₂eq kg lwg(-1) or 95% (±45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (±47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems. PMID:25461102

  2. Effect of age on bovine subcutaneous fat proteome: molecular mechanisms of physiological variations during beef cattle growth.

    PubMed

    Romao, J M; He, M L; McAllister, T A; Guan, L L

    2014-08-01

    Fat deposition influences both meat quality and animal productivity. However, it is not clear how fat development is regulated in growing and fattening beef cattle. This study characterized proteomic changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue from steers fed a high-grain diet in an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms of fat development during feedlot production. Eight British-Continental crossbred steers had two subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies at 12 and 15 mo of age. Protein expression in fat samples was profiled using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). During the finishing period, steers increased subcutaneous adipose tissue mass with concomitant changes in the proteome profile, but the nature of these changes varied among steers. The expression of 123 out of 627 identified proteins differed (P <: 0.05) between 2 ages. Functional analyses on differentially expressed proteins revealed that 20.2% of them were associated with cellular growth and proliferation of adipose tissue. There were 17 out of 108 differentially expressed proteins associated with lipid metabolism, which were acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1), annexin A1 (ANXA1), apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3), apolipoprotein H (beta-2-glycoprotein I; APOH), EH-domain containing 1 (EHD1), coagulation factor II (thrombin; F2), gelsolin (GSN), lamin A/C (LMNA), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1), myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle (MYH9), orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3), retinol binding protein 4, plasma (RBP4), renin binding protein (RENBP), succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp; SDHA), serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade C (antithrombin), member 1 (SERPINC1), and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G (C1 inhibitor), member 1 (SERPING1). Further analysis of the expression levels of proteins associated with lipid metabolism indicated a downregulation in the synthesis of fatty acids

  3. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine methyltransferase 3b gene and their association with meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits. PMID:22843074

  4. Toxicokinetics of norditerpenoid alkaloids from low larkspur (Delphinium andersonii) orally administered in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective- To better assess low larkspur toxicity and manage treatment of poisoned animals, more knowledge is needed about the serum toxicokinetics of toxic low larkspur alkaloids in cattle. Animals- Five black angus steers. Procedures- Low larkspur (Delphinium andersonii) in the flowering stage...

  5. Effects of a Minimal Hide Wash Cabinet on the Levels and Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on the Hides of Beef Cattle at Slaughter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the hides of animals at slaughter has been shown to be the main source of contamination of beef carcasses during processing. In light of this finding, interventions have been designed and implemented to target the hides of cattle following entry into beef processing plan...

  6. Methane emissions, feed intake, and performance of finishing beef cattle offered maize silages harvested at 4 different stages of maturity.

    PubMed

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Foley, P A; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-04-01

    This experiment aimed to quantify the methane emissions and intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered maize (Zea mays) silages harvested at 1 of 4 sequential stages of maturity and to relate these values to those obtained from animals offered an ad libitum concentrate-based diet. Sixty continental crossbred steers with a mean initial BW of 531 kg (SD 23.8) were blocked (n = 12 blocks) according to BW and allocated from within block to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design: maize silage harvested on September 13 (DM = 277 g/kg), maize silage harvested on September 28 (DM = 315 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 9 (DM = 339 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 23 (DM = 333 g/kg), and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). Diets based on maize silage were supplemented with 2.57 kg of concentrate DM daily, and ALC diets were supplemented with 1.27 kg of grass silage DM daily. Silage and total DMI were greater (P = 0.004) with maize silage harvested on September 28 than with any other treatment, which in turn did not differ. Advancing maize maturity at harvest did not affect BW or carcass gain, with the ALC diet exhibiting greater (P = 0.036) rates of carcass gain than any of the maize silage-based treatments. Apparent in vivo digestibility, determined using the AIA indigestible marker technique, was not affected by harvest maturity, with no linear or quadratic trends being identified. Digestibility of DM from the ALC diet was greater (P < 0.001) than with any of the maize silage treatments. Starch digestibility did not differ across maize silage maturities; however, a linear (P = 0.009) decrease in NDF digestibility was observed. Methane emissions, (g/d) measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, were not affected by maize silage maturity. Methane emissions relative to DMI tended (P = 0.05) to decline with advancing maize silage maturity, with a similar decline observed

  7. Whole-genome association study of fatty acid composition in a diverse range of beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M J; Tume, R K; Fortes, M; Thompson, J M

    2014-05-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue associated with meat is an important factor for the beef industry because of its implications for human health, processing, meat quality, and palatability. Individual fatty acid composition is a trait under genetic control, so improvement via selective breeding of cattle is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and identify genes associated with this trait in 3 breed types: Bos indicus (Brahman), Bos taurus (4 breeds), and tropically adapted composites (2 breeds). Using high-density data, regions on chromosomes 1, 9, 14, 16, 19, 23, 26, 29, and X were associated with fat composition and quantity traits. Known candidate genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN; chromosome 19) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; chromosome 26), were confirmed in our results. Other candidate genes and regions represent novel association results, requiring further validation. PMID:24782392

  8. Efficacy and safety of clorsulon used concurrently with ivermectin for control of Fasciola hepatica in Florida beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Courtney, C H; Shearer, J K; Plue, R E

    1985-06-01

    The safety and anthelmintic efficacy of clorsulon (7 mg/kg of body weight, orally) given concurrently with ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously) for control of Fasciola hepatica were evaluated in 75 crossbred beef cattle. Twenty-three control animals were given only ivermectin. Fluke egg counts were significantly lower (P less than 0.0001) in clorsulon-treated animals by day 14 after treatment than before treatment (base line) and were significantly lower (P less than 0.005) after treatment in clorsulon-treated animals than in controls. There was no significant change in fluke egg counts of controls after treatment. The efficacy of clorsulon in reducing F hepatica egg counts was 99%. Clorsulon showed poor efficacy against paramphistomes. Adverse reactions were not observed. PMID:3839640

  9. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  10. Influence of lasalocid level on forage intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, liquid flow and performance of beef cattle grazing winter range.

    PubMed

    Jacques, K A; Cochran, R C; Corah, L R; Avery, T B; Zoellner, K O; Higginbotham, J F

    1987-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the effects of lasalocid level on performance, intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and fluid flow of beef cattle grazing dormant, tallgrass prairie. In Exp. 1, 120 pregnant, mature beef cows of primarily Hereford breeding (avg wt = 471 kg) were randomly assigned to received 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg lasalocid X head-1 X d-1 in 1.82 kg supplement. Weight changes at 30, 60 or 90 d, condition score change and calf birth weight were not affected (P greater than .10) by lasalocid level. In Exp. 2, estimates of intake and digestibility were obtained with 40 pregnant, mature Hereford cows (avg wt = 474 kg) and 12 esophageal-cannulated, Hereford X Angus steers (avg wt = 225 kg), using Yb and indigestible acid detergent fiber as markers for fecal output and digestibility, respectively. Levels of lasalocid provided to cows and steers were similar, on a body weight (BW) basis, to those in Exp. 1 and corresponded to approximately 0, .22, .44 or .66 mg lasalocid/kg BW. Total diet and forage organic matter digestibility for beef cows decreased (P less than .01) at the .22 mg/kg BW level, but increased at the .44 and .66 mg/kg BW levels. Organic matter intake was not influenced (P greater than .10) by lasalocid addition. In Exp. 3, 16 ruminal-cannulated, Hereford X Angus steers (avg wt = 227 kg) were given the same lasalocid dosages per kg BW as in Exp. 2, and were used to study the effects of lasalocid on ruminal fermentation and fluid flow characteristics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3667441

  11. Dissipation of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in Composted and Stockpiled Beef Cattle Manure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanwei; Sura, Srinivas; Zaheer, Rahat; Wang, George; Smith, Alanna; Cook, Shaun; Olson, Andrew F; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-03-01

    Windrow composting or stockpiling reduces the viability of pathogens and antimicrobial residues in manure. However, the impact of these manure management practices on the persistence of genes coding for antimicrobial resistance is less well known. In this study, manure from cattle administered 44 mg of chlortetracycline kg feed (dry wt. basis) (CTC), 44 mg of CTC and 44 mg of sulfamethazine kg feed (CTCSMZ), 11 mg of tylosin kg feed (TYL), and no antimicrobials (control) were composted or stockpiled over 102 d. Temperature remained ≥55°C for 35 d in compost and 2 d in stockpiles. Quantitative PCR was used to measure levels of 16S rRNA genes and tetracycline [(B), (C), (L), (M), (W)], erythromycin [(A), (B), (F), (X)], and sulfamethazine [(1), (2)] resistance determinants. After 102 d, 16S rRNA genes and all resistance determinants declined by 0.5 to 3 log copies per gram dry matter. Copies of 16S rRNA genes were affected ( < 0.05) by antimicrobials with the ranking of control > CTC = TYL > CTCSMZ. Compared with the control, antimicrobials did not increase the abundance of resistance genes in either composted or stockpiled manure, except (M) and (2) in CTCSMZ ( < 0.05). The decline in 16S rRNA genes and resistance determinants was higher ( < 0.05) in composted than in stockpiled manure. We conclude that composting may be more effective than stockpiling in reducing the introduction of antimicrobial resistance genes into the environment before land application of manure. PMID:27065400

  12. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ∼6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL. PMID:26487642

  13. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    PubMed

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  14. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance and Transfer of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Won; Shin, Min Kyoung; Jung, Myunghwan; Belaynehe, Kuastros Mekonnen; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and transferability of resistance in tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from beef cattle in South Korea. A total of 155 E. coli isolates were collected from feces in South Korea, and 146 were confirmed to be resistant to tetracycline. The tetracycline resistance gene tet(A) (46.5%) was the most prevalent, followed by tet(B) (45.1%) and tet(C) (5.8%). Strains carrying tet(A) plus tet(B) and tet(B) plus tet(C) were detected in two isolates each. In terms of phylogenetic grouping, 101 (65.2%) isolates were classified as phylogenetic group B1, followed in decreasing order by D (17.4%), A (14.2%), and B2 (3.2%). Ninety-one (62.3%) isolates were determined to be multidrug resistant by the disk diffusion method. MIC testing using the principal tetracyclines, namely, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline, revealed that isolates carrying tet(B) had higher MIC values than isolates carrying tet(A). Conjugation assays showed that 121 (82.9%) isolates could transfer a tetracycline resistance gene to a recipient via the IncFIB replicon (65.1%). This study suggests that the high prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates in beef cattle is due to the transferability of tetracycline resistance genes between E. coli populations which have survived the selective pressure caused by the use of antimicrobial agents. PMID:26048929

  15. A Multi-Trait, Meta-analysis for Detecting Pleiotropic Polymorphisms for Stature, Fatness and Reproduction in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Pryce, Jennie E.; Reverter, Antonio; Zhang, Yuandan; Barendse, William; Kemper, Kathryn; Tier, Bruce; Savin, Keith; Hayes, Ben J.; Goddard, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms that affect complex traits or quantitative trait loci (QTL) often affect multiple traits. We describe two novel methods (1) for finding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with one or more traits using a multi-trait, meta-analysis, and (2) for distinguishing between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL. The meta-analysis uses the effect of each SNP on each of n traits, estimated in single trait genome wide association studies (GWAS). These effects are expressed as a vector of signed t-values (t) and the error covariance matrix of these t values is approximated by the correlation matrix of t-values among the traits calculated across the SNP (V). Consequently, t'V−1t is approximately distributed as a chi-squared with n degrees of freedom. An attractive feature of the meta-analysis is that it uses estimated effects of SNPs from single trait GWAS, so it can be applied to published data where individual records are not available. We demonstrate that the multi-trait method can be used to increase the power (numbers of SNPs validated in an independent population) of GWAS in a beef cattle data set including 10,191 animals genotyped for 729,068 SNPs with 32 traits recorded, including growth and reproduction traits. We can distinguish between a single pleiotropic QTL and multiple linked QTL because multiple SNPs tagging the same QTL show the same pattern of effects across traits. We confirm this finding by demonstrating that when one SNP is included in the statistical model the other SNPs have a non-significant effect. In the beef cattle data set, cluster analysis yielded four groups of QTL with similar patterns of effects across traits within a group. A linear index was used to validate SNPs having effects on multiple traits and to identify additional SNPs belonging to these four groups. PMID:24675618

  16. Modeling methane production from beef cattle using linear and nonlinear approaches.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Kebreab, E; Odongo, N E; Beauchemin, K; McGinn, S; Nkrumah, J D; Moore, S S; Christopherson, R; Murdoch, G K; McBride, B W; Okine, E K; France, J

    2009-04-01

    Canada is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions to 6% below 1990 amounts between 2008 and 2012, and methane is one of several greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Methane production from ruminants is one area in which the agriculture sector can contribute to reducing our global impact. Through mathematical modeling, we can further our understanding of factors that control methane production, improve national or global greenhouse gas inventories, and investigate mitigation strategies to reduce overall emissions. The purpose of this study was to compile an extensive database of methane production values measured on beef cattle, and to generate linear and nonlinear equations to predict methane production from variables that describe the diet. Extant methane prediction equations were also evaluated. The linear equation developed with the smallest root mean square prediction error (RMSPE, % observed mean) and residual variance (RV) was Eq. I: CH(4), MJ/d=2.72 (+/-0.543) + [0.0937 (+/-0.0117) x ME intake, MJ/d] + [4.31 (+/-0.215) x Cellulose, kg/d] - [6.49 (+/-0.800) x Hemicellulose, kg/d] - [7.44 (+/-0.521) x Fat, kg/d] [RMSPE=26.9%, with 94% of mean square prediction error (MSPE) being random error; RV=1.13]. Equations based on ratios of one diet variable to another were also generated, and Eq. P, CH(4), MJ/d=2.50 (+/-0.649) - [0.367 (+/-0.0191) x (Starch:ADF)] + [0.766 (+/-0.116) x DMI, kg/d], resulted in the smallest RMSPE values among these equations (RMSPE=28.6%, with 93.6% of MSPE from random error; RV=1.35). Among the nonlinear equations developed, Eq. W, CH(4), MJ/d=10.8 (+/-1.45) x (1-e([-0.141 (+/-0.0381) x DMI, kg/d])), performed well (RMSPE=29.0%, with 93.6% of MSPE from random error; RV=3.06), as did Eq. W(3), CH(4), MJ/d=10.8 (+/-1.45) x [1-e({-[-0.034 x (NFC/NDF)+0.228] x DMI, kg/d})] (RMSPE=28.0%, with 95% of MSPE from random error). Extant equations from a previous publication by the authors performed comparably with, if not

  17. Urolithiasis in a Herd of Beef Cattle Associated with Oxalate Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Waltner-Toews, D.; Meadows, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed. PMID:7363261

  18. Feed efficiency in beef cattle: how far have we come, how far can we go?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically the main objective when feeding cattle has been to maximize outputs. The nutrient requirements of cattle vary amongst individuals, and often we over-feed the majority of the animals to ensure that we meet the requirements of the animals with the greatest needs. The value of maximizing...

  19. A Region on BTA6 Is Associated with Feed Intake and Gain in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic selection for animals that require less feed while still achieving acceptable levels of production could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers with predictive merit for differences among cattle in feed intake and BW gai...

  20. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most important arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The most recent detailed estimate of the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production, $608 million, was published in 1992. Subsequently, several studies on the impact of stable flies on...

  1. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P < .05) LPL activity than fat from the other depots. Generally, there were no differences (P > .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P < .05) than those for T and R. Marbling was greatest (P < .05) for S and did not differ (P > .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle. PMID:9535321

  2. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost. PMID:25244259

  3. Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ilha, M R S; Loretti, A P; Reis, A C F

    2005-10-10

    A sporadic wasting syndrome affecting beef cattle herds parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum is described in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The disease was characterized by progressive weight loss, poor body condition despite plenty of good quality forage available, and death. Annual losses ranged from 1 to 3%. The clinical course of the disease varied from 2 to 10 months after the onset of the first clinical signs. At necropsy, one of the three distinct following patterns of lesions were observed: the pancreas was of normal size and color; small, shrunken, white and markedly and diffusely firm (fibrosis); or slightly enlarged and dark with a shriveled capsular surface. Myriads of leaf-shaped trematodes of the genus Eurytrema were packed inside multiple dilated ducts with thickened, whitish fibrous walls, or the flukes were embedded in the remaining pancreatic parenchyma. Microscopic findings included extensive loss of the pancreatic parenchyma with replacement fibrosis, intralesional flukes and eggs, and ductal hyperplasia. Inflammatory reaction varied from absent to severe with the presence of a granulomatous reaction around the trematode eggs. One affected animal had high plasma amylase concentration (1580U/L) suggesting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Glucose blood levels were not significantly increased. We suggest that diffuse and marked fibrosis of the pancreas induced by the presence of large amounts of pancreatic flukes is the cause of the sporadic cases of chronic wasting and death of cattle in this geographic area. PMID:16046069

  4. Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) diet. Ruminal fluid was collected from 14 high (H) and 14 low (L) RFI animals across both dietary periods. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted to quantify the abundance of total and specific rumen methanogenic microbes. Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the association between the relative abundance of methanogens and animal performance, rumen fermentation variables and diet digestibility. Results Abundance of methanogens, did not differ between RFI phenotypes. However, relative abundance of total and specific methanogen species was affected (P < 0.05) by diet type, with greater abundance observed while animals were offered the LF compared to the HF diet. Conclusions These findings suggest that differences in abundance of specific rumen methanogen species may not contribute to variation in CH4 emissions between efficient and inefficient animals, however dietary manipulation can influence the abundance of total and specific methanogen species. PMID:25276350

  5. Genetic differences based on a beef terminal index are reflected in future phenotypic performance differences in commercial beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Connolly, S M; Cromie, A R; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    The increased demand for animal-derived protein and energy for human consumption will have to be achieved through a combination of improved animal genetic merit and better management strategies. The objective of the present study was to quantify whether differences in genetic merit among animals materialised into phenotypic differences in commercial herds. Carcass phenotypes on 156 864 animals from 7301 finishing herds were used, which included carcass weight (kg), carcass conformation score (scale 1 to 15), carcass fat score (scale 1 to 15) at slaughter as well as carcass price. The price per kilogram and the total carcass value that the producer received for the animal at slaughter was also used. A terminal index, calculated in the national genetic evaluations, was obtained for each animal. The index was based on pedigree index for calving performance, feed intake and carcass traits from the national genetic evaluations. Animals were categorised into four terminal index groups on the basis of genetic merit estimates that were derived before the expression of the phenotypic information by the validation animals. The association between terminal index and phenotypic performance at slaughter was undertaken using mixed models; whether the association differed by gender (i.e. young bulls, steers and heifers) or by early life experiences (animals born in a dairy herd or beef herd) was also investigated. The regression coefficient of phenotypic carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat on their respective estimated breeding values (EBVs) was 0.92 kg, 1.08 units and 0.79 units, respectively, which is close to the expectation of one. Relative to animals in the lowest genetic merit group, animals in the highest genetic merit group had, on average, a 38.7 kg heavier carcass, with 2.21 units greater carcass conformation, and 0.82 units less fat. The superior genetic merit animals were, on average, slaughtered 6 days younger than their inferior genetic merit

  6. The monster we don't see: subclinical BRD in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dee

    2014-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most expensive disease affecting United States cattle. Recently weaned calves are the focus of prevention and treatment research. Identifying affected cattle early in the course of BRD is difficult. Intervention during the early stages of BRD improves treatment outcomes; however, cattle as prey animals are excellent at hiding signs of disease, especially if the caregiver has not gained their trust. Depression, appetite loss, and changes in respiratory character are the principal signs used to identify BRD. Rectal temperatures from cattle pulled for treatment are a final measure of evaluation. Cattle suffering from subclinical BRD frequently escape identification and treatment. Observations of lungs at packing plants for anterior ventral (AV) lesions frequently document higher BRD incidence rates than observed pre-harvest, suggesting subclinical BRD is common. Data from numerous studies document lower average daily gains (ADG) from cattle with AV lung lesions at packing plants that were not treated for BRD compared with cattle with normal lungs. Scoring lung lesions at the packing plant can be a useful tool for gaining insight into BRD incidence. Data indicate that BRD lowers ADG by 0.2 lbs on average, and lowers the USDA Quality Grade by 50 marbling points. PMID:25497500

  7. PRODUCTION AND FINANCIAL LOSSES ASSOCIATED WITH PRE-WEANING DISEASE IN BEEF CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year 2000 production and herd health records of 1470 crossbred beef calves at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center were examined to determine the long-term effects of calf-hood morbidity. Disease incidence was low in this herd with four cases of neonatal diarrhea (0.3%), five septicemias (0.3%), eig...

  8. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized ...

  9. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  10. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  11. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  12. Coprological evaluation of pour-on and injectable formulation of moxidectin in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two, 28 day(d) studies were conducted with naturally infected beef calves to assess the effect of allo-grooming behavior on fecal egg count (FEG)reductions and coproculture counts following treatment with pour-on or injectable moxidectin. The first study was conducted at the USDA Southern Plains Ex...

  13. Influence of breed on postpartum interval and estrous cycle length in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Before genetic markers can be generated for fertility in beef cows, greater characterization of reproductive phenotypes is needed to understand the components of reproductive efficiency. The present study tested the hypotheses that 1) breeds vary in postpartum interval (PPI) and estrous cycle length...

  14. Relationship of glucocorticoids and hematological measures with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of finishing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of glucocorticoids and markers for immune status in finishing beef steers and heifers with DMI, growth, and efficiency. Calves (n = 236) were individually fed a finishing ration for 84 d with BW measured every 21 d. Blood samples we...

  15. Effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles to beef cattle on air and manure quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality is becoming a pressing issue for beef feedlot producers. Feeding practices influence the excretion of starch, fiber, nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) in manure, thereby affecting nutrient content and the production of ammonia and odorous compounds. Wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS...

  16. Effects of camelina meal supplementation on ruminal forage degradability, performance, and physiological responses of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments compared ruminal, physiological, and performance responses of beef steers consuming hay ad libitum and receiving grain-based supplements without (CO) or with (CAM) the inclusion of camelina meal. In Exp. 1, 9 steers fitted with ruminal cannulas received CAM (2.04 kg of DM/d; n = 5)...

  17. Nitrogen sustainability and beef cattle feedyards: introduction and influence of pen surface conditions and diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greater public awareness of the potential effects of agriculture on the environment calls for beef production systems that are sustainable with regard to the environment, society, and the economy. Reactive nitrogen (N) from feedyards could negatively influence air and water quality in the event of v...

  18. Comparison of management intensive grazing and continuous grazing in beef cattle pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management intensive grazing (MIG) offers the potential to increase the financial profitability and productivity of grazing beef and dairy farms in Appalachian Ohio, with minimum environmental impacts. The objective of the project was to compare MIG with conventional continuous grazing (CG) and rela...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  20. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  1. Polymorphisms in positional candidate genes on BTA14 and BTA26 affect carcass quality in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Marques, E; Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Moore, S S

    2009-08-01

    carcass backfat QTL. These results suggest that polymorphisms discovered in DECR1, CBFA2T1, and FGF8 may play a role in the lipid metabolism pathway affecting carcass quality traits in beef cattle. However, further studies are needed to confirm that these polymorphisms are responsible for the differences observed in carcass quality in beef cattle. PMID:19395506

  2. Assessment of welfare of finishing beef cattle kept on different types of floor after short- or long-term housing.

    PubMed

    Brscic, M; Gottardo, F; Tessitore, E; Guzzo, L; Ricci, R; Cozzi, G

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating short- and long-term effects of housing beef cattle on deep litter (DL) or concrete fully slatted floor (FS) on their welfare. Animal-based measures of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle were used to assess health status and behaviour of bulls. The assessment was carried out in a large commercial farm on 15 batches of bulls (4 DL and 11 FS) 1 month after their receiving day (short-term) and on 12 batches (three DL and nine FS) the week before slaughter (long-term). Signs of better comfort on deep litter in terms of shorter lying down durations (5.1 ± 0.5 v. 6.5 ± 0.4 s; P<0.05) and lower risk of hairless patches (odds ratio=0.09; 95% confidence interval=0.01 to 0.68; P<0.05) were already observed after 1 month. Heavy bulls after a long-term housing on FS showed a higher prevalence of bursitis, hairless patches and lesions/swellings than animals on DL. Bulls on fully slatted floor were at higher risk of early culling (odds ratio=6.44; 95% confidence interval=1.57 to 26.37; P<0.01), mainly due to musculoskeletal system pathologies/lameness. Deep litter proved to be a valid alternative to slatted floor, making animals more confident to interact with powerful movements such as mounting at the end of the finishing period. A negative aspect of the deep litter was the poor cleanliness of the bulls. Compared with the fully slatted floor, there were higher odds ratios for dirty bulls at both, the short- (odds ratio=25.09; 95% confidence interval=8.96 to 70.22; P<0.001) and the long-term housing (odds ratio=276.13; 95% confidence interval=98.21 to 776.38; P<0.001). In order to improve health and welfare of beef cattle finished at a heavy weight, deep litter systems are a promising alternative to fully slatted floors. However, proper management of deep litter is necessary to maintain satisfactory cleanliness of the bulls. PMID:25711698

  3. Hydrogen and methane emissions from beef cattle and their rumen microbial community vary with diet, time after feeding and genotype.

    PubMed

    Rooke, John A; Wallace, R John; Duthie, Carol-Anne; McKain, Nest; de Souza, Shirley Motta; Hyslop, Jimmy J; Ross, David W; Waterhouse, Tony; Roehe, Rainer

    2014-08-14

    The aims of the present study were to quantify hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) emissions from beef cattle under different dietary conditions and to assess how cattle genotype and rumen microbial community affected these emissions. A total of thirty-six Aberdeen Angus-sired (AAx) and thirty-six Limousin-sired (LIMx) steers were fed two diets with forage:concentrate ratios (DM basis) of either 8:92 (concentrate) or 52:48 (mixed). Each diet was fed to eighteen animals of each genotype. Methane (CH4) and H2 emissions were measured individually in indirect respiration chambers. H2 emissions (mmol/min) varied greatly throughout the day, being highest after feed consumption, and averaged about 0·10 mol H2/mol CH4. Higher H2 emissions (mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet. Higher CH4 emissions (mol/d and mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet (P< 0·001); the AAx steers produced more CH4 on a daily basis (mol/d, P< 0·05) but not on a DM intake basis (mol/kg DM intake). Archaea (P= 0·002) and protozoa (P< 0·001) were found to be more abundant and total bacteria (P< 0·001) less abundant (P< 0·001) on feeding the mixed diet. The relative abundance of Clostridium cluster IV was found to be greater (P< 0·001) and that of cluster XIVa (P= 0·025) lower on feeding the mixed diet. The relative abundance of Bacteroides plus Prevotella was greater (P= 0·018) and that of Clostridium cluster IV lower (P= 0·031) in the LIMx steers. There were no significant relationships between H2 emissions and microbial abundance. In conclusion, the rate of H2 production immediately after feeding may lead to transient overloading of methanogenic archaea capacity to use H2, resulting in peaks in H2 emissions from beef cattle. PMID:24780126

  4. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  5. Occurrence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in the Beef Cattle Production and Processing Continuum.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, John W; Agga, Getahun E; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Shackelford, Steven D; Wang, Rong; Wheeler, Tommy L; Arthur, Terrance M

    2015-01-01

    Specific concerns have been raised that third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC(r)) Escherichia coli, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant (COT(r)) E. coli, 3GC(r) Salmonella enterica, and nalidixic acid-resistant (NAL(r)) S. enterica may be present in cattle production environments, persist through beef processing, and contaminate final products. The prevalences and concentrations of these organisms were determined in feces and hides (at feedlot and processing plant), pre-evisceration carcasses, and final carcasses from three lots of fed cattle (n = 184). The prevalences and concentrations were further determined for strip loins from 103 of the carcasses. 3GC(r) Salmonella was detected on 7.6% of hides during processing and was not detected on the final carcasses or strip loins. NAL(r) S. enterica was detected on only one hide. 3GC(r) E. coli and COT(r) E. coli were detected on 100.0% of hides during processing. Concentrations of 3GC(r) E. coli and COT(r) E. coli on hides were correlated with pre-evisceration carcass contamination. 3GC(r) E. coli and COT(r) E. coli were each detected on only 0.5% of final carcasses and were not detected on strip loins. Five hundred and 42 isolates were screened for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) virulence-associated markers. Only two COT(r) E. coli isolates from hides were ExPEC, indicating that fed cattle products are not a significant source of ExPEC causing human urinary tract infections. The very low prevalences of these organisms on final carcasses and their absence on strip loins demonstrate that current sanitary dressing procedures and processing interventions are effective against antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. PMID:25398858

  6. A genomewide association study identified CYP2J2 as a gene controlling serum vitamin D status in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Leach, R J; Reinhardt, T A; Thallman, R M; Lippolis, J D; Bennett, G L; Kuehn, L A

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin D is an important modulator of calcium homeostasis and has several effects on the immune system. The objective of the study was to estimate its heritability and to identify genomic regions associated with concentration of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in beef cattle. Status of vitamin D was measured in crossbred animals from Cycle VII of the United States Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation Project. Progeny were born from March through May in 2008 and in 2010. Heritability was estimated and a genomewide association study was conducted on the concentration of 25OHD measured in 1,432 animals at preconditioning and 1,333 animals at weaning. Genotyping of the population was done by imputing from the parental generation genotyped with a high density array (777,000 SNP) to a target population genotyped with a medium density SNP array (50,000 SNP). After imputation, 675,018 SNP were used in the genomewide association study. Heritability of concentration of circulating 25OHD in cattle at preconditioning and at weaning was 0.41 ± 0.08 and 0.32 ± 0.11, respectively. A region on chromosome 3 was associated with circulating 25OHD. The region on BTA3 had 7 SNP significantly (P < 7.4 × 10(-8)) associated at the genomewide level with serum concentrations of serum 25OHD. Genomewide significant SNP spanned the region between 84.93 and 86.65 megabases (Mb); however, 6 SNP reside between 86.64 and 86.65 Mb. The gene CYP2J2 was identified as a candidate gene associated with concentrations of serum 25OHD in cattle. This is 1 of 6 enzymes involved in metabolizing vitamin D to 25OHD. Results from the present study suggest that CYP2J2 is a gene controlling serum 25OHD concentrations in cattle. CYP2J2 should be considered a prime candidate for understanding both genetic and physiological factors affecting serum 25OHD concentrations in cattle and, therefore, vitamin D status. PMID:23736055

  7. A study of the level and dynamics of Eimeria populations in naturally infected, grazing beef cattle at various stages of production in the mid-Atlantic U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little information available on the species dynamics of eimerian parasites in grazing cattle in the central Appalachian region of the United States. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the level of infection and species dynamics of Eimeria spp. in grazing beef cattle of ...

  8. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Ileocecal Lymph Nodes and on Hides and Carcasses from Cull Cows and Fed Cattle at Commercial Beef Processing Plants in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical associations between Crohn’s disease in humans and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) have been suggested but not confirmed. Map is the causative agent for Johne’s disease in cattle. Infected cattle could be sources for Map transmission to humans via dairy and beef prod...

  9. Beef cattle body temperature during climatic stress: a genome-wide association study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are sold for use in multiple environments that differ greatly in multiple climactic parameters, making the ability to regulate body temperature across multiple environments essential. Collecting phenotypic body temperature measurements is difficult and expensive, thus a genomics approach is ...

  10. Tympanic temperature in confined beef cattle exposed to excessive heat load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, T. L.; Gaughan, J. B.; Johnson, L. J.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Angus crossbred yearling steers ( n = 168) were used to evaluate effects on performance and tympanic temperature (TT) of feeding additional potassium and sodium to steers exposed to excessive heat load (maximum daily ambient temperature exceeded 32°C for three consecutive days) during seasonal summer conditions. Steers were assigned one of four treatments: (1) control; (2) potassium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3); (3) sodium supplemented (diet containing 1.10% NaCl); or (4) potassium and sodium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3 and 1.10% NaCl). Overall, additional KHCO3 at the 2% level or NaCl at the 1% level did not improve performance or heat stress tolerance with these diet formulations. However, the addition of KHCO3 did enhance water intake. Independent of treatment effects, TT of cattle displaying high, moderate, or low levels of stress suggest that cattle that do not adequately cool down at night are prone to achieving greater body temperatures during a subsequent hot day. Cattle that are prone to get hot but can cool at night can keep average tympanic temperatures at or near those of cattle that tend to consistently maintain lower peak and mean body temperatures. In addition, during cooler and moderately hot periods, cattle change TT in a stair-step or incremental pattern, while under hot conditions, average TT of group-fed cattle moves in conjunction with ambient conditions, indicating that thermoregulatory mechanisms are at or near maximum physiological capacity.

  11. Utilization of Bt corn residues by grazing beef steers and Bt corn silage and grain by growing beef cattle and lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Folmer, J D; Grant, R J; Milton, C T; Beck, J

    2002-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-11 transformation event in two parental corn hybrids differing in date of maturity on beef and dairy cattle performance. Sixteen lactating Holstein dairy cows in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares were assigned to four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement: Bt vs non-Bt trait and early- vs late-maturing corn hybrids. The diets contained 40% of the test corn silage plus 28% corn grain from the same corn hybrid (DM basis). There was no effect of the Bt trait on efficiency of milk production, ruminal pH, acetate:propionate ratio, or in situ digestion kinetics of NDF. The early-maturing corn hybrids resulted in greater total VFA concentrations in the rumen and efficiency of 4% fat-corrected milk production than the later-maturing hybrids (P < 0.05). Sixty-seven steer calves were used in a 70-d corn residue grazing trial for the late-maturing corn hybrids only. Daily BW gain of steers was similar for those grazing Bt and non-Bt corn residues, and the steers exhibited no grazing preference between Bt and non-Bt corn residue. One hundred twenty-eight steer calves were assigned to four silage-based growing diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement: Bt vs non-Bt trait and early- vs late-maturing corn hybrids. The diets contained 90% corn silage and 10% supplement (DM basis). The DMI was higher for steers fed Bt compared with non-Bt hybrids (P < 0.02). An interaction (P < 0.03) was observed for feed efficiency between hybrid genotype and incorporation of the Bt trait. Feed efficiency was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed the later-maturing non-Bt hybrid compared with the later-maturing Bt hybrid; however, feed efficiency was similar between steers fed early-maturing Bt and non-Bt corn silages. Steers fed the early-maturing hybrid gained 11% faster and were 7% more efficient compared with those fed the late-maturing hybrid. These latter results agree with the dairy experiment in which the

  12. A microbiological assay to estimate the antimicrobial activity of parenteral tildipirosin against foodborne pathogens and commensals in the colon of beef cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Pridmore, A; Shaw, A; Wilhelm, C; Menge, M; Kilp, S; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2016-06-01

    Tildipirosin (TIP) is a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide authorized for the treatment of bovine and swine respiratory disease. The pH dependency of macrolide antimicrobial activity is well known. Considering that the pH in the colon contents of growing beef cattle and pigs is usually below pH 7.0, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of TIP against foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Campylobacter (C.) coli, C. jejuni and Salmonella enterica and commensal species including Enterococcus (E.) faecalis, E. faecium and Escherichia coli were determined under standard (pH 7.3 ± 1) or neutral as well as slightly acidic conditions. A decrease in pH from 7.3 to 6.7 resulted in an increase in MICs of TIP. Except for the MICs > 256 μg/mL observed in the resistant subpopulation of the C. coli and the Enterococcus species, the MIC ranges increased from 2-8 μg/mL to 64-> 256 μg/mL for Salmonella enterica and E. coli, from 8-16 μg/mL to 32-128 μg/mL for the two Campylobacter species, and from 4-32 μg/mL to 128-> 256 μg/mL for both Enterococcus species. To estimate the antimicrobial activity of TIP in the colon contents of livestock during recommended usage of the parenterally administered TIP (Zuprevo(®) ), and to compare this with the increased MICs at the slightly acidic colonic pH, we developed and validated a microbiological assay for TIP and used this to test incurred faecal samples collected from cattle and pigs. Microbiological activity of luminal TIP was determined in aqueous supernatants from diluted faeces, using standard curves produced from TIP-spiked faecal supernatants. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for TIP was 1 μg/mL (ppm). In a cattle study (n = 14), 3 of 28 faecal samples collected 24 and 48 h post-treatment were found to contain TIP above the LOQ (concentrations of 1.3-1.8 ppm). In another cattle study (n = 12) with faecal samples collected at 8, 24 and 48 h post-treatment, TIP concentrations were above the LOQ in 4

  13. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    PubMed

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P < 0.01). Total VFA concentrations were not affected (P = 0.12); however, molar proportion of acetate was reduced and that for propionate increased when NOP was added (P < 0.01), which reduced the acetate to propionate ratio (3.0 vs. 4.0; P < 0.01). The total copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of total bacteria was not affected (P = 0.50) by NOP, but the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of methanogens was reduced (P < 0.01) and the copy number of the 18S rRNA gene of protozoa was increased (P = 0.03). The residual effect of NOP for

  14. Fatty acid composition of muscle fat and enzymes of storage lipid synthesis in whole muscle from beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kazala, E Chris; Lozeman, Fred J; Mir, Priya S; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Schmutz, Sheila M; Weselake, Randall J

    2006-11-01

    Enhanced intramuscular fat content (i.e., marbling) in beef is a desirable trait, which can result in increased product value. This study was undertaken with the aim of revealing biochemical factors associated with the marbling trait in beef cattle. Samples of longissimus lumborum (LL) and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) were taken from a group of intact crossbred males and females at slaughter, lipids extracted, and the resulting FAME examined for relationships with marbling fat deposition. For LL, significant associations were found between degree of marbling and myristic (14:0, r = 0.55, P < 0.01), palmitic (16:0, r = 0.80, P < 0.001), stearic (18:0, r = -0.58, P < 0.01), and oleic (18:1c-9, r = 0.79, P < 0.001) acids. For PCD, significant relationships were found between marbling and palmitic (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) and oleic (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) acids. Microsomal fractions prepared from PCD muscle were assayed for diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), and phosphatidic acid phosphatase-1 (PAP-1) activity, and the results examined for relationships with degree of intramuscular fat deposition. None of the enzyme activities from PCD displayed an association with marbling fat content, but DGAT specific activity showed significant positive associations with LPAAT (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), total PAP (r = 0.66, P < 0.001), and PAP-1 (r = 0.63, P < 0.01) specific activities. The results on FA compositions of whole muscle tissues provide insight into possible enzyme action associated with the production of specific FA. The increased proportion of oleic acid associated with enhanced lipid content of whole muscle is noteworthy given the known health benefits of this FA. PMID:17263304

  15. Corticotropin releasing hormone is a promising candidate gene for marbling and subcutaneous fat depth in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Tito A; Michal, Jennifer J; Jiang, Zhihua

    2007-10-01

    The gene corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is mapped on bovine chromosome 14 (BTA14), where more than 30 fat-related quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been reported in dairy and beef cattle. The gene product regulates secretion of adrenocorticotrophin hormone, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and multiple hypothalamic functions; therefore, we hypothesized that CRH is a promising candidate gene for beef marbling score (BMS) and subcutaneous fat depth (SFD) in a Wagyu x Limousin F2 population. Two pairs of primers were designed and a total of 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: g.9657C>T, c.10718G>C, c.10841G>A, c.10893A>C, and c.10936G>C (AAFC03076794.1). Among the 4 cSNPs, c.10718G>C, c.10841G>A, and c.10936G>C are missense mutations leading to amino acid changes from arginine to proline, from serine to asparagine, and from aspartic acid to histidine, respectively. These 5 SNPs were genotyped on ~250 F2 progeny, but only 4 were selected as tagging SNPs for association analysis because no historical recombination was observed between c.10718G>C and c.10893A>C. Statistical analysis showed that g.9657C>T, c.10718G>C, and c.10936G>C and their haplotypes had significant effects on SFD, but only c.10936G>C was significantly associated with BMS. The SNP in the promoter (g.9657C>T) led to gain/loss of a CpG site and 4 potential regulatory binding sites. Different haplotypes among the 4 cSNPs significantly affected mRNA secondary structures but were not associated with phenotypes. Overall, our results provide further evidence that CRH is a promising candidate gene for a concordant QTL related to lipid metabolism in mammals. PMID:18059556

  16. Detecting Loci under Recent Positive Selection in Dairy and Beef Cattle by Combining Different Genome-Wide Scan Methods

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Pérez O’Brien, Ana Maria; Sonstegard, Tad Stewart; Van Tassell, Curtis Paul; do Carmo, Adriana Santana; Mészáros, Gábor; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José Fernando

    2013-01-01

    As the methodologies available for the detection of positive selection from genomic data vary in terms of assumptions and execution, weak correlations are expected among them. However, if there is any given signal that is consistently supported across different methodologies, it is strong evidence that the locus has been under past selection. In this paper, a straightforward frequentist approach based on the Stouffer Method to combine P-values across different tests for evidence of recent positive selection in common variations, as well as strategies for extracting biological information from the detected signals, were described and applied to high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data generated from dairy and beef cattle (taurine and indicine). The ancestral Bovinae allele state of over 440,000 SNP is also reported. Using this combination of methods, highly significant (P<3.17×10−7) population-specific sweeps pointing out to candidate genes and pathways that may be involved in beef and dairy production were identified. The most significant signal was found in the Cornichon homolog 3 gene (CNIH3) in Brown Swiss (P = 3.82×10−12), and may be involved in the regulation of pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. Other putative pathways under selection are the glucolysis/gluconeogenesis, transcription machinery and chemokine/cytokine activity in Angus; calpain-calpastatin system and ribosome biogenesis in Brown Swiss; and gangliosides deposition in milk fat globules in Gyr. The composite method, combined with the strategies applied to retrieve functional information, may be a useful tool for surveying genome-wide selective sweeps and providing insights in to the source of selection. PMID:23696874

  17. Measuring and modeling nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure management: First assessments under Brazilian condition.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ciniro; Li, Changsheng; Cerri, Carlos E P; Cerri, Carlos C

    2014-01-01

    Intensive beef production has increased during recent decades in Brazil and may substantially increase both methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from manure management. However, the quantification of these gases and methods for extrapolating them are scarce in Brazil. A case study examines CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from one typical beef cattle feedlot manure management continuum in Brazil and the applicability of Manure-DNDC model in predicting these emissions for better understand fluxes and mitigation options. Measurements track CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from manure excreted in one housing floor holding 21 animals for 78 days, stockpiled for 73 days and field spread (360 kg N ha(-1)). We found total emissions (CH(4) + N(2)O) of 0.19 ± 0.10 kg CO(2)eq per kg of animal live weight gain; mostly coming from field application (73%), followed housing (25%) and storage (2%). The Manure-DNDC simulations were generally within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, differing in -28% in total emission. Large uncertainties in measurements showed the model was more accurate estimating the magnitude of gases emissions than replicate results at daily basis. Modeled results suggested increasing the frequency of manure removal from housing, splitting the field application and adopting no-tillage system is the most efficient management for reducing emissions from manure (up to about 75%). Since this work consists in the first assessment under Brazilian conditions, more and continuous field measurements are required for decreasing uncertainties and improving model validations. However, this paper reports promising results and scientific perceptions for the design of further integrated work on farm-scale measurements and Manure-DNDC model development for Brazilian conditions. PMID:25035919

  18. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected cattle and BVDV subtypes in affected cattle in beef herds in south central United States.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Whitley, Evan M; Johnson, Bill J; Ridpath, Julia F; Kapil, Sanjay; Burge, Lurinda J; Cook, Billy J; Confer, Anthony W

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined using 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples were collected by ear notches and tested for BVDV antigens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE). Animals with initial positives on both IHC and ACE were sampled again using both tests and serums were collected for viral propagation and sequencing of a viral genomic region, 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) for viral subtyping. Samples were also collected from the dams of PI calves. There were 25 PI calves from 4530 samples (0.55%) and these PI calves were from 5 of the 30 herds (16.7%). Two herds had multiple PI calves and 3 herds had only 1 PI calf. Only 1 of the 25 dams with a PI calf was also PI (4.0%). The subtype of all the PI isolates was BVDV1b. Histories of the ranches indicated 23 out of 30 had herd additions of untested breeding females. Twenty-four of the 30 herds had adult cowherd vaccinations against BVDV, primarily using killed BVDV vaccines at pregnancy examination. PMID:20046630

  19. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: metabolic response to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Broadway, P R; Hughes, H D; Roberts, S L; Richeson, J T; Schmidt, T B; Vann, R C

    2016-07-01

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggest that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 calm and 15 temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 9 AM on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5-mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution), and at 2 PM on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum blood urea nitrogen and insulin sensitivity (calculated using Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index) compared with calm steers. During the GTT, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to calm cattle. During the IST, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum

  20. Predicting microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle: relationship to intakes of total digestible nutrients and crude protein.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-11-01

    Prediction of microbial CP (MCP) synthesis in the rumen is an integral part of the MP system. For the NRC beef model, MCP is calculated as 0.13 multiplied by TDN intake (TDNI), with adjustment for physically effective NDF (peNDF) concentrations less than 20%. Despite its application for nearly 2 decades, MCP predictions using this approach have not been extensively evaluated. We assembled a database of 285 treatment means from 66 published papers using beef cattle and dairy or dairy × beef crossbred steers, fed diets with a wide range of TDN, CP, and ether extract (EE) concentrations, in which MCP synthesis was measured. Fat-free TDN (FFTDN) concentration was calculated by subtracting 2.25 × percent EE from the TDN concentration. Based on initial model selection procedures indicating that DMI and concentrations of TDN, FFTDN, and CP were significantly (P < 0.04) related to MCP synthesis, linear and quadratic effects of TDNI and FFTDN intake (FFTDNI) and CP intake (CPI) were considered as potential independent variables. Mixed model regression methods were used to fit 1-, 2-, and 3-independent-variable models based on either TDNI or FFTDNI (e.g., TDNI only, TDNI and CPI, and TDNI, CPI, and the quadratic effect of TDNI; or FFTDNI only, FFTDNI and CPI, and FFTDNI, CPI, and the quadratic effect of FFTDNI). True ruminal OM digested (TROMD; g/d) was highly related (r(2) = 0.84 using citation-adjusted data) to MCP synthesis. Similarly, both TDNI and FFTDNI were highly related to citation-adjusted TROMD (r(2) > 0.96) and MCP synthesis (r(2) > 0.89). Models with FFTDNI were slightly more precise with slightly smaller prediction errors than those with TDNI. Randomly dividing the citations into Development (60%) and Evaluation (40%) data sets indicated that models such as those derived from the overall database accounted for 46 to 56% of the variation in MCP synthesis, with neither mean nor linear bias (P ≥ 0.26). In contrast, calculating MCP as 0.13 × TDNI, with or

  1. Technical note: Prediction of chemical rib section composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Zebu beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Prados, L F; Zanetti, D; Amaral, P M; Mariz, L D S; Sathler, D F T; Filho, S C Valadares; Silva, F F; Silva, B C; Pacheco, M C; Alhadas, H M; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-06-01

    It is expensive and laborious to evaluate carcass composition in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate a method to predict the 9th to 11th rib section (rib) composition through empirical equations using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is a validated method used to describe tissue composition in humans and other animals, but few studies have evaluated this technique in beef cattle, and especially in the Zebu genotype. A total of 116 rib were used to evaluate published prediction equations for rib composition and to develop new regression models using a cross-validation procedure. For the proposed models, 93 ribs were randomly selected to calculate the new regression equations, and 23 different ribs were randomly selected to validate the regressions. The rib from left carcasses were taken from Nellore and Nellore × Angus bulls from 3 different studies and scanned using DXA equipment (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) in the Health Division at Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Viçosa, Brazil). The outputs of the DXA report were DXA lean (g), DXA fat free mass (g), DXA fat mass (g), and DXA bone mineral content (BMC; g). After being scanned, the rib were dissected, ground, and chemically analyzed for total ether extract (EE), CP, water, and ash content. The predictions of rib fat and protein from previous published equations were different ( < 0.01) from the observed composition. New equations were established through leave-one-out cross-validation using the REG procedure in SAS. The equations were as follows: lean (g) = 37.082 + 0.907× DXA lean ( = 0.95); fat free mass (g) = 103.224 + 0.869 × DXA fat free mass ( = 0.93); EE mass (g) = 122.404 + 1.119 × DXA fat mass ( = 0.86); and ash mass (g) = 18.722 + 1.016 × DXA BMC ( = 0.39). The equations were validated using Mayer's test, the concordance correlation coefficient, and the mean square error of prediction for decomposition. For both equations, Mayer's test

  2. Associations between response to handling and growth and meat quality in frequently handled Bos taurus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Turner, S P; Navajas, E A; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Richardson, R I; Prieto, N; Bell, M; Jack, M C; Roehe, R

    2011-12-01

    Fearful behavioral responses to handling (temperament) are undesirably associated with ADG and meat quality in infrequently handled Bos indicus cattle. It has never been assessed whether these relationships exist in calmer Bos taurus breeds in systems where handling is more frequent. Such systems predominate in some countries where beef production is a major agricultural activity. During fattening, 144 crossbred cattle from Limousin and Aberdeen Angus sires were assessed for temperament using 4 approaches: response to movement along a race (race score; 4 occasions), restraint in a crush (crush score; 4 occasions), flight speed from the crush (flight speed; 4 occasions), and isolation in a pen with a human (isolation score; 1 occasion in yr 1, 2 occasions in yr 2). Measurements of ADG were made between birth and slaughter and between 16 and 18 mo of age during fattening. Fattening occurred indoors on a complete mixed diet fed for ad libitum intake. Meat quality was measured by pH, color, and Volodkevitch shear force and by a sensory panel. The repeatability of temperament traits was 0.17 (race score), 0.35 (crush score), 0.51 (flight speed), and 0.36 (isolation score). The proportion of the total variance of temperament traits attributable to the sire and the social group was low (0.003 to 0.402). However, the sire did affect behavior in all tests apart from the crush score (ranging from P = 0.02 to P < 0.001). Correlations between behavior in the different tests (ranging from r = 0.21 to 0.54, and P = 0.02 to P < 0.001) apart from between-flight speed and isolation score indicate that fearful behavior was consistently shown across assessment methods. A calm response in the crush score test was associated with a greater ADG during fattening (P = 0.05), whereas a calm response during the isolation test was associated with a greater ADG in cold carcass weight (P = 0.02). Animals with a calm isolation score had less tender meat as judged by the sensory panel (P = 0

  3. Factors associated with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Wasdin, J G; Dixon, W P; Jones, J L

    2006-01-01

    Cow and calf genetic and environmental factors were evaluated for their association with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed population of beef cattle. The ELISA scores are a measure of the presence or absence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum. The linear mixed-model analysis used 352 ELISA scores from 238 cows: 51 Angus (A); 34 Brahman (B); 41 (3/4 A 1/4 B); 45 (1/2 A 1/2 B); 34 (1/4 A 3/4 B); and 33 Brangus (5/8 A 3/8 B). Cows were assumed to be unrelated. Year affected (P < 0.001) ELISA scores, but age of cow did not, which was expected to be significant because of the chronic progressive nature of this disease. Important regressions on fixed effects associated with cows were 1) a positive estimate of cow B breed effect (0.59 +/- 0.24; P < 0.017), indicating an upward trend of ELISA scores toward 100% B cows; 2) a negative estimate for weight change from before calving (late November) to the date of the blood sample in May (-0.0062 +/- 0.0019 score/kg; P < 0.002), indicating that poorer maintenance of cow weights was associated with higher ELISA scores; and 3) a positive estimate for days in lactation of cow on the date of the blood sample (0.0086 +/- 0.0034 score/d; P < 0.021), indicating the production of larger amounts of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as lactation progressed. Relevant regressions on fixed effects associated with calves were 1) calf birth weight (-0.022 +/- 0.010 score/kg; P < 0.035), and 2) calf gain from birth to the date of the cow blood sample (-0.0092 +/- 0.0027 score/kg; P < 0.001). These estimates indicate that cows that produced lighter calves at birth and/or calves with slower preweaning growth tended to have greater ELISA scores. Although the sensitivity (percentage of infected animals detected) of ELISA was only 50%, these results suggest that subclinical paratuberculosis may be negatively affecting cows and their offspring. Factors

  4. Supplementation with sunflower seed increases circulating cholesterol concentrations and potentially impacts on the pregnancy rates in Bos indicus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Mariângela B; Peres, Mariana S; de Souza, Johnny M; Gaspar, Pércio; Barbiere, Fausto; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Filho, Milton Maturana; Dinardi, Robson N; Nogueira, Guilherme P; Mesquita, Fernando S; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Martins, Thiago; Binelli, Mario; Membrive, Claudia M B

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with sunflower seed on blood concentrations of progesterone and cholesterol and on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) and timed embryo transfer (TET). In experiment 1, cows were received 22-day supplements containing (sunflower, n = 66) sunflower seed or not (control, n = 67) immediately after a progesterone/estradiol-based TAI protocol (Day 0). The cholesterol concentration on Day 21 and the pregnancy rate were greater (P < 0.03) in the sunflower group (148.2 ± 6.1 mg/dL and 66.7%) than those in the control group (116.0 ± 6.4 mg/dL and 47.8%). In experiment 2, heifers received an in vitro-produced embryo 7 days after the expected time of the synchronized ovulation. Heifers were separated into two supplementation groups (sunflower, n = 106 and control, n = 111) for 22 days. The plasma progesterone concentration on Day 7 was not different between the groups. However, on Day 19, the plasma progesterone concentration was greater (P < 0.0001) in the sunflower group (5.8 ± 0.4 ng/mL) than that in the control group (3.5 ± 0.4 ng/mL). A greater (P < 0.05) cholesterol concentration was observed in the sunflower group than that in the control group on Days 7 (306.0 ± 11.6 vs. 277.1 ± 11.9 mg/dL, respectively) and 19 (260.5 ± 8.0 vs. 232.0 ± 8.0 mg/dL, respectively). The pregnancy rate was greater (P = 0.01) in the sunflower-treated heifers (55.7%) than that in control-treated heifers (36.9%). Results indicate that sunflower seed supplementation increases the circulating cholesterol concentrations and potentially impacts the pregnancy rate in suckled beef cattle subjected to TAI or TET. PMID:25772849

  5. Effects of label-dose permethrin administration in yearling beef cattle: I. Reproductive function and embryo quality of superovulated heifers.

    PubMed

    Dohlman, Tyler M; Jahnke, Marianna M; West, James K; Phillips, Patrick E; Gunn, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to study the effects of a commercial pyrethroid-based pour-on product, permethrin, on reproductive performance in superovulated beef heifers by assessing steroid biosynthesis and embryo quality. Nonpregnant, yearling beef heifers (n = 10; 418 ± 33 kg; 5.5 ± 0.2 body conditioning scores) were assigned by body weight and breed to either (1) saline control or (2) permethrin pour-on administered at label dose (PYR). Superovulation was achieved on all heifers using a timed, 17-day, CIDR-based protocol with GnRH and PGF2α and decreasing total dosage of 240-mg FSH administered twice daily for 4 days. Heifers were artificially inseminated twice (at onset of estrus and 12 hours later) by same technician with frozen semen from single bull collection. To determine short- and long-term effects of permethrin on embryo quality and steroid biosynthesis, superovulation was initiated twice with collection of embryos occurring at 17 and 51 days after treatment. Embryos were recovered 6.5 days after first artificial insemination via nonsurgical flush and were evaluated by International Embryo Transfer Society standards. Blood was collected at standing estrus and day of embryo recovery. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were analyzed via RIA. MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS were used to analyze continuous and categorical data, respectively. Heifer per flush was the experimental unit. Total embryos recovered did not differ because of treatment (P = 0.30), but did decrease in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.02). Quality grade, total transferable quality embryos, and overall flush success did not differ because of treatment (P ≥ 0.16). However, transferable quality embryos were decreased in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.05). Total unfertilized oocytes were greater in saline control (P = 0.04). The PYR heifers tended to have less total P4 (P = 0.15) and P4 per CL (P = 0.06) at recovery. E2 per ovulated

  6. Intrinsic movement patterns of grazing Rocky Mountains elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) and beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk and cattle are important components of mountainous ecosystems in the western United States and exist contemporaneously on many landscapes. These animals utilize similar resources yet the evolutionary lines that produced them have been distinct for approximately 30 million years. ...

  7. Evaluation of bovine chemerin (RARRES2) gene variation on beef cattle production traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous genome-wide association study in cattle based on >48,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in steers (P<0.008). Chemerin is an adipokine that has been associated with obe...

  8. US consortium for the genetic improvement of feed efficiency in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection is the only technology proven to unabatedly increase the food produced per animal. However, the cost and difficulty of measurement of feed efficiency (FE) in cattle has constrained quantitative genetic improvement to primarily output traits such as growth, meat yield and quality. As the wo...

  9. Predicting back fat thickness in beef cattle using A-mode ultrasound

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because fat thickness in feedlot cattle can be a predictor of carcass quality and yield grade, estimates of fat thickness during the later stages of the finishing period can be used to make marketing decisions. Ultrasound technology is a nondestructive and humane technique used to estimate fat thick...

  10. Diet, fecal microbiome and Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding in beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, such as E. coli O157:H7, are foodborne zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe illness and death in humans. The gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals has been identified as a primary habitat for E. coli O157:H7, and in cattle the terminal gastrointestinal tra...

  11. Particulate matter concentrations for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. Producers may maintain a deep-bedded manure pack (Pack), they may remove all bedding/manure material from the pens weekly (Scrape), or use a combination of management styles...

  12. Phase feeding crude protein to decrease ammonia emissions from finishing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dietary protein requirement of cattle decreases as animals grow, and mature. Thus, it maybe possible to decrease the protein content of finishing diets to conserve nitrogen, and decrease ammonia emissions. This publicatoin gives a brief review of research conducted on phase feeding protein to ...

  13. Escherichia coli O157:H7, diet, and fecal microbiome in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, such as E. coli O157:H7, are foodborne zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe illness and death in humans. The gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals has been identified as a primary habitat for E. coli O157:H7, and in cattle the terminal gastrointestinal tra...

  14. Characterization of biological types of cattle: Indicator traits of fertility in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status. However, there are clearly gene...

  15. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  16. Effect of forage energy intake and supplementation on marbling deposition in growing beef cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is the primary carbon source for fatty acid synthesis in intramuscular fat, whereas, acetate is primarily utilized by subcutaneous fat. Our objective was to examine the effect of forage energy intake and type of fermentation on marbling deposition by stocker cattle grazing dormant native ra...

  17. 19 Beef cattle pregnancy rates following insemination with aged frozen angus semen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination has proven to be a valuable asset to the cattle industry. It is assumed that once good quality semen is frozen in liquid nitrogen it should remain viable indefinitely; however, semen viability has not been systematically evaluated after being stored for several decades. In th...

  18. Food safety - mitigating pathogens in beef cattle: What can producers do?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are colonized by a complex microbiome within their gastrointestinal tract and on their skin/hide which can be colonized by foodborne pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). In-plant pathogen reduction strategies reduce direct foodborne il...

  19. Estimates of genetic variation for feed intake and other characteristics in growing beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves born between 2003 and 2006 at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center provided data for estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for measures of body weight and gain and feed intake during the finishing phase. At average age 278 d, cattle were started on a high-energy diet of corn, alfalf...

  20. Characterization of fungi from ruminal fluid of beef cattle with different ages and raised in tropical lignified pastures.

    PubMed

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Vieira, Edvaldo Alves; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; da Silva-Hughes, Alice Ferreira; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Rodrigues, Norberto Mario

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rumen mycobiota from three age groups of Nelore beef cattle reared extensively on lignified pasture. The experiment was randomized and sampled 50 steers, 50 cows, and 50 calves grazed on Brachiaria spp. pasture during the dry season. Rumen fluid in all animals was aromatic, slightly viscous, and greenish-brown in color. Microscopic examination revealed monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi in similar proportions (P > 0.05) in the rumen fluid of cows and steers. However, these microorganisms were not identified in any of the samples from calves. In culture exams, aerobic filamentous population was significantly higher for rumen fluid of cows compared to the other two groups. Microculture and rDNA sequence analyses showed Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent aerobic fungus among the isolates from the three bovine groups evaluated. Biochemical profiles were determined by the growth level of yeast isolates with 44 nutrient sources. Ten different yeast profiles were obtained, and yeast isolates from cow ruminal fluid showed ability to catabolize greater diversity of carbon and nitrogen sources. The differences in the fungal populations observed in this study could be explained by microbial and physiological interactions existing in the ruminal ecosystem of each age bovine group. The present study showed the fungal population of the rumen related with differences among age of cattle raised in lignified pastures. Metabolic capabilities of mycelial fungi or yeast identified in this study may be employed in new probiotics or microbial additives for different bovine categories. PMID:24962597

  1. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  2. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥ 200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective

  3. Runoff losses of excreted chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin from surface-applied and soil-incorporated beef cattle feedlot manure.

    PubMed

    Amarakoon, Inoka D; Zvomuya, Francis; Cessna, Allan J; Degenhardt, Dani; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-03-01

    Veterinary antimicrobials in land-applied manure can move to surface waters via rain or snowmelt runoff, thus increasing their dispersion in agro-environments. This study quantified losses of excreted chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin in simulated rain runoff from surface-applied and soil-incorporated beef cattle ( L.) feedlot manure (60 Mg ha, wet wt.). Antimicrobial concentrations in runoff generally reflected the corresponding concentrations in the manure. Soil incorporation of manure reduced the concentrations of chlortetracycline (from 75 to 12 μg L for a 1:1 mixture of chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine and from 43 to 17 μg L for chlortetracycline alone) and sulfamethazine (from 3.9 to 2.6 μg L) in runoff compared with surface application. However, there was no significant effect of manure application method on tylosin concentration (range, 0.02-0.06 μg L) in runoff. Mass losses, as a percent of the amount applied, for chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine appeared to be independent of their respective soil sorption coefficients. Mass losses of chlortetracycline were significantly reduced with soil incorporation of manure (from 6.5 to 1.7% when applied with sulfamethazine and from 6.5 to 3.5% when applied alone). Mass losses of sulfamethazine (4.8%) and tylosin (0.24%) in runoff were not affected by manure incorporation. Although our results confirm that cattle-excreted veterinary antimicrobials can be removed via surface runoff after field application, the magnitudes of chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine losses were reduced by soil incorporation of manure immediately after application. PMID:25602656

  4. High prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in Asturiana de la Montaña beef cattle kept in extensive conditions in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Ibarra, Jesús A; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; García-Peña, Francisco J; Rojo-Montejo, Silvia; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A; San Miguel-Ibáñez, Elena; Navarro-Lozano, Vanesa; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Osoro, Koldo; Collantes-Fernandez, Esther

    2012-07-01

    Bovine trichomonosis (BT) and bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC) are sexually transmitted diseases that can be important infectious causes of reproductive failure in extensively managed beef cattle where natural mating is a common practice. However, their prevalence in Europe was thought to be insignificant or very low. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with BT and BCG in a representative beef cattle breed, Asturiana de la Montaña (AM), which is usually managed extensively in the mountain areas of Northern Spain and putative risk factors associated with the two diseases are present on most farms holding AM cattle. Preputial smegma samples were collected from 103 bulls belonging to 65 herds. Pathogen detection was undertaken using culture and PCR. Two scraping methods for sample collection (AI pipette and plastic scraper), as well as different culture media and DNA extraction methods were evaluated on field samples. Campylobacter fetus veneralis infection was not detected in any animal in any herd. However, Tritrichomonas foetus infection was demonstrated in 32% (33/103) and 41.5% (27/65) of bulls and herds tested, respectively. AM bulls older than 3 years (39.7%) were more likely to be infected than young bulls (16%) (OR=3.45, CI=1.07-11.19). An increase in repeat breeder cows was reported in herds from which T. foetus was detected (OR=5.2, CI=1.5-17.18). These findings highlight the re-emergence of this disease in extensively managed beef cattle in Spain. For routine diagnosis, the use of a culture technique and PCR in combination is advisable for testing smegma samples under field conditions. PMID:22178360

  5. Effect of thyroglobulin gene polymorphisms on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits in Chinese beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lupei; Ren, Hongyan; Yang, Jiuguang; Gan, Qianfu; Zhao, Fuping; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

    2015-09-01

    The thyroglobulin (TG) gene has been studied as an important gene related to fat deposition, since not only does TG gene locate in a quantitative trait locus with an effect on fat deposition, but also it encodes the precursor of thyroid hormones which have crucial biological functions in energy metabolism. In the present study, we identified four novel SNPs at the 5' flanking region of the bovine TG gene. Association analysis indicated that the G275A, G277C, G280A and C281G SNPs were significantly associated with average daily gain (ADG, P < 0.01 for G275A and G277C, P < 0.05 for G280A and C281G). Five haplotypes for the 4 SNPs were constructed and their effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits were evaluated. The results showed no significant effect of haplotype on ADG. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between 4 SNPs and other growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits including intramuscular fat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 4 SNPs may results in potential transcription factor binding site changes. Results of this study suggest that TG gene-specific SNPs may be a useful marker for growth traits in marker assisted selection programs in beef cattle. PMID:26232928

  6. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small. PMID:3372376

  7. A meta-analysis of lasalocid effects on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Golder, H M; Lean, I J

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lasalocid on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits were evaluated using meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to investigate sources of heterogeneity. Ten studies (20 comparisons) were used in the meta-analysis on rumen measures. Lasalocid increased total VFA and ammonia concentrations by 6.46 and 1.44 m, respectively. Lasalocid increased propionate and decreased acetate and butyrate molar percentage (M%) by 4.62, 3.18, and 0.83%, respectively. Valerate M% and pH were not affected. Meta-regression found butyrate M% linearly increased with duration of lasalocid supplementation (DUR; = 0.017). When >200 mg/d was fed, propionate and valerate M% were higher and acetate M% was lower ( = 0.042, = 0.017, and = 0.005, respectively). Beef performance was assessed using 31 studies (67 comparisons). Lasalocid increased ADG by 40 g/d, improved feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) by 410 g/kg, and improved feed efficiency (FE; combined measure of G:F and the inverse of F:G). Lasalocid did not affect DMI, but heterogeneity in DMI was influenced by DUR ( = 0.004) and the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.011). The combination of ≤100 vs. >100 d DUR and entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg showed that cattle ≤275 kg at entry fed lasalocid for >100 d had the lowest DMI. Heterogeneity of ADG was influenced by the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.028) but not DUR. Combining entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg and DUR showed that cattle entering at >275 kg fed ≤100 d had the highest ADG. The FE ( = 0.025) and F:G ( = 0.015) linearly improved with dose, and entry BW >275 kg improved F:G ( = 0.038). Fourteen studies (25 comparisons) were used to assess carcass traits. Lasalocid increased HCW by 4.73 kg but not dressing percentage, mean fat cover, or marbling score. Heterogeneity of carcass traits was low and not affected by DUR or dose. Seven studies (11 comparisons) were used to assess dairy performance but the study power was relatively low and the evidence base is

  8. Effect of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle on consumer palatability ratings.

    PubMed

    Mehaffey, J M; Brooks, J C; Rathmann, R J; Alsup, E M; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Johnson, B J; Miller, M F

    2009-11-01

    The need to provide consumer data for beef steak tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability ratings from zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) beef to the processor, retailers, restaurants, and consumers is paramount. Consumer palatability responses were studied for 14- and 21-d aged USDA Choice and USDA Select quality grade beef and USDA Choice calf-fed Holstein New York Strip steaks from cattle that had been fed ZH for 0, 20, and 30 d before slaughter. Strip loins were cut into 2.54-cm-thick New York strip steaks and assigned to a 14- or 21-d aging treatment. The first and fourth steaks were assigned for 14- or 21-d WBSF analysis, and the second, third, fifth, and sixth steaks were reserved for consumer sensory panel evaluation. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) analysis was conducted at Texas Tech University (TTU, Lubbock), Kansas State University (Manhattan), Oklahoma State University (Stillwater), and West Texas A&M University (Canyon) with values used to sort steaks for consumer evaluation. Slice shear force analysis was performed at TTU on available paired consumer steaks. Consumers (n = 3,007) in 4 metropolitan areas (Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC; Chicago, IL; Los Angeles, CA; and Lubbock, TX) were asked to rate tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability. Consumers were selected to represent a wide range of income, education, and ethnicity at each city. Steaks were cooked to a medium degree of doneness (71 degrees C), cut into 1 cm(3) pieces, and served warm to consumers. Consumers tasted samples from each of 3 separate steaks from each ZH treatment (0, 20, and 30 d) and within each USDA quality grade and within the 14- and 21-d aging treatments. Steaks were selected to represent the distribution of tenderness for the first, second, and third SD either side of the mean for each treatment. A second calf-fed Holstein consumer study (n = 240) was conducted with consumers eating USDA Choice 14- and 21-d aged steaks from Holstein cattle fed

  9. Pharmacokinetic studies of passively administered ovine anti-testosterone antibodies given to cattle by the subcutaneous and intravenous routes.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, J; Rhind, S M; Groves, D J; Morris, B A

    1990-01-01

    Passive immunization of cattle with ovine anti-testosterone antiserum can result in an increased ovulation rate, but the effect is variable and may be influenced by the route of administration. Investigations were made into the pharmacokinetics of these antibodies in cattle when given intravenously (i.v.), subcutaneously (s.c.) or via a combination of these two routes. Serum levels of free residual binding sites were measured by testosterone radioimmunoassay, whilst total circulating ovine IgG was determined using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which shows no cross-reactivity with bovine IgG. The biological half-life of the administered antibodies was longer when it was calculated by measuring titre than when it was calculated by measuring IgG. Subcutaneous injection resulted in a significantly longer half-life of IgG than intravenous injection or the combined route, with a concomitant increase in the area under the curve. No significant differences between the half-lives as measured by titre were noted following the various routes of administration, but the mean value following s.c. injection was longest. The choice of route of administration of antiserum for passive immunization can be used to control the timing and duration of effective antibody levels. The results of the present study suggest that the s.c. or combined i.v. and s.c. routes are the preferred methods of passive immunization if an effect of long duration is required. It may be that it is the period over which the maximum level is maintained, rather than the absolute maximum level, which is important for successful immunomodulation of ovulation rate. PMID:2335379

  10. Development of a beef flavor lexicon and its application to compare the flavor profile and consumer acceptance of rib steaks from grass- or grain-fed cattle.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Tansawat, Rossarin; Cornforth, Daren; Ward, Robert; Martini, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Ten panelists were selected from the local community to develop a meat lexicon composed of 18 terms that describe flavor attributes found in red meats. This flavor lexicon was used to compare the flavor profile of meat from beef cattle finished on grass or grain. Steaks from grass-fed animals were significantly (P<0.05) higher in barny, bitter, gamey, and grassy flavor, and lower in juicy and umami notes. Gamey, barny, bitter and grassy were some of the attributes inversely correlated to the degree of liking of the meat and therefore can be classified as "negative" attributes. Brothy, umami, roast beef, juicy, browned, fatty and salty are some of the attributes positively correlated to the degree of liking of beef and therefore can be identified as attributes that drive consumers' acceptance. Steaks from grass-fed cattle were rated by consumers as slightly liked (6.08 on a 9-point scale), while steaks from grain-fed animals were rated as moderately liked (7.05 on a 9-point scale). PMID:21703775

  11. Comparison of the Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Methods for Discriminating among Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), Imported, and Crossbred Beef in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Jo; Park, Hyun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The identity of 45 Hanwo and 47 imported beef (non-Hanwoo) samples from USA and Australia were verified using the microsatellite (MS) marker and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) methods. Samples were collected from 19 supermarkets located in the city of Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea, from 2009 to 2011. As a result, we obtained a 100% concordance rate between the MS and SNP methods for identifying Hanwoo and non-Hanwoo beef. The MS method presented a 95% higher individual discriminating value for Hanwoo (97.8%) than for non-Hanwoo (61.7%) beef. For further comparison of the MS and SNP methods, blood samples were collected and tested from 54 Hanwoo × Holstein crossbred cattle (first, second, and third generations). By using the SNP and MS methods, we correctly identified all of the first-generation crossbred cattle as non-Hanwoo; in addition, among the second and third generation crossbreds, the ratio identified as Hanwoo was 20% and 10%, respectively. The MS method used in our study provides more information, but requires sophisticated techniques during each experimental process. By contrast, the SNP method is simple and has a lower error rate. Our results suggest that the MS and SNP methods are useful for discriminating Hanwoo from non-Hanwoo breeds. PMID:26761672

  12. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and performance by beef feedlot cattle given Lactobacillus direct-fed microbials.

    PubMed

    Brashears, M M; Galyean, M L; Loneragan, G H; Mann, J E; Killinger-Mann, K

    2003-05-01

    Fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pens and on carcasses and hides, and cattle performance as a result of daily dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) were evaluated in a feeding trial involving 180 beef steers. Steers were evaluated for shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by an immunomagnetic separation technique on arrival at the feedlot, just before treatment with the DFMs, and every 14 days thereafter until slaughter. Composite pen fecal samples were collected every 14 days (alternating weeks with animal testing), and prevalence on hides and carcasses at slaughter was also evaluated. Feedlot performance (body weight gain and feed intake) was measured for the period during which the DFMs were fed. Gain efficiency was calculated as the ratio of weight gain to feed intake. Lactobacillus acidophilus NPC 747 decreased (P < 0.01) the shedding of E. coli O157:H7 in the feces of individual cattle during the feeding period. E. coli O157:H7 was approximately twice as likely to be detected in control animal samples as in samples from animals receiving L. acidophilus NPC 747. In addition, DFM supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) the number of E. coli O157:H7-positive hide samples at harvest and the number of pens testing positive for the pathogen. Body weight gains (on a live or carcass basis) and feed intakes during the DFM supplementation period did not differ among treatments. Gain efficiencies on a live-weight basis did not differ among treatments, but carcass-based gain/feed ratios tended (P < 0.06) to be better for animals receiving the two DFM treatments than for control animals. The results of this study suggest that the feeding of a Lactobacillus-based DFM to cattle will decrease, but not eliminate, fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7, as well as contamination on hides, without detrimental effects on performance. PMID:12747680

  13. Co-composting of Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiying; Hill, Brett; Caffyn, Pam; Travis, Greg; Olson, Andrew F; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim; Alexander, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    With increased availability of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) as cattle feed and the need to recycle organic wastes, this research investigated the feasibility of co-composting DDGS cattle feedlot manure with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Manure was collected from cattle fed a typical western Canadian finishing diet (CK) of 860 g rolled barley ( L.) grain, 100 g barley silage, and 40 g vitamin and mineral supplement kg dry matter (DM) and from cattle fed the same diet but (DG manure) with 300 g kg DM barley grain being replaced by DDGS. The CK and DG manures were co-composted with and without C&D waste in 13 m bins. Compost materials were turned on Days 14, 37, and 64, and terminated on Day 99. Adding C&D waste led to higher compost temperatures (0.4 to 16.3°C, average 7.2°C) than manure alone. Final composts had similar total C, total N, C/N ratios, and water-extractable K, Mg, and NO content across all treatments. However, adding C&D waste increased δC, δN, water-extractable SO, and Ca contents and decreased pH, total P (TP), water-extractable C, N, and P and most volatile fatty acids (VFA). The higher C&D compost temperatures should reduce pathogens while reduced VFA content should reduce odors. When using the final compost product, the increased SO and reduced TP and available N and P content in C&D waste compost should be taken into consideration. Increased S content in C&D compost may be beneficial for some crops grown on S-deficient soils. PMID:25603264

  14. Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hünerberg, M; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Okine, E K; Harstad, O M; McAllister, T A

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the impact of corn- or wheat-based dried distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS or WDDGS) on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from growing beef cattle and determine if the oil in CDDGS was responsible for any response observed. Effects of CDDGS or WDDGS on total N excretion and partitioning between urine and fecal N were also examined in this replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 16 ruminally cannulated crossbreed heifers (388.5 ± 34.9 kg of initial BW). The control diet contained (DM basis) 55% whole crop barley silage, 35% barley grain, 5% canola meal, and 5% vitamin and mineral supplement. Three dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) diets were formulated by replacing barley grain and canola meal (40% of dietary DM) with CDDGS, WDDGS, or WDDGS plus corn oil (WDDGS+oil). For WDDGS+oil, corn oil was added to WDDGS (4.11% fat DM basis) to achieve the same fat level as in CDDGS (9.95% fat DM basis). All total mixed diets were fed once daily ad libitum. Total collection of urine and feces was conducted between d 11 and 14. Enteric CH4 was measured between d 18 and 21 using 4 environmental chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber). Methane emissions per kilogram of DM intake (DMI) and as percent of GE intake (GEI) among heifers fed WDDGS (23.9 g/kg DMI and 7.3% of GEI) and the control (25.3 g/kg DMI and 7.8% of GEI) were similar (P = 0.21 and P = 0.19) whereas heifers fed CDDGS (21.5 g/kg DMI and 6.6% of GEI) and WDDGS+oil (21.1 g/kg DMI and 6.3% of GEI) produced less (P < 0.05) CH4. Total N excretion (g/d) differed (P < 0.001) among treatments with WDDGS resulting in the greatest total N excretion (303 g/d) followed by WDDGS+oil (259 g/d), CDDGS (206 g/d), and the control diet (170 g/d), respectively. Compared with the control diet, heifers offered WDDGS, CDDGS, and WDDGS+oil excreted less fecal N (P < 0.001) but more (P < 0.001) urinary N. Results suggest that high-fat CDDGS or WDDGS+oil can mitigate enteric

  15. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  16. Adaptation of beef cattle to high-concentrate diets: performance and ruminal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brown, M S; Ponce, C H; Pulikanti, R

    2006-04-01

    The diet adaptation period is widely considered a critical period of time in which nutritional management practices can promote or impair subsequent performance and health. Performance studies indicate that adapting feedlot cattle with incremental increases in dietary concentrate, from approximately 55 to 90% of diet DM, in 14 d or less, while allowing ad libitum access to the diet, generally results in reduced performance during adaptation or over the entire feeding period. However, the number of cattle involved in these studies does not allow insight into the frequencies of metabolic disorders associated with the management practices tested. Adapting cattle by restricting the quantity of higher-concentrate diets offered shows promise for improving production efficiency, but further development is needed for application in commercial feedlots. Evidence suggests considerable diversity in the ability of animals to cope with ingested cereal grain, and indicates that diet adaptation procedures should affect the frequency of health-impaired or low-performing cattle in a pen. Individuals that seem to effectively regulate voluntary feed intake during adaptation generally display a steady increase in DMI as dietary concentrate is increased. These data also highlight a seemingly counterproductive, repeating cycle of overconsumption, followed by a pronounced reduction in ruminal pH, by cattle that appear to cope less favorably with grain adaptation. At least a portion of this diversity may relate to the maintenance of protozoal populations. Increases in amylolytic bacteria seemed to follow the increment of additional concentrate. Protozoa were most numerous when the diet contained approximately 60% concentrate, and lactate-utilizing bacteria increased more markedly when the diet contained more than approximately 70% concentrate. Available in vivo data suggest that the number of lactate-utilizing bacteria may reach a plateau for a given diet composition after 2 to 7 d, but

  17. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    PubMed

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    ) distance to the spectral centroid of a calibration population of 796 faecal samples collected throughout 2 years in four herds. Seasonal trends in pasture quality and responses to management practices were identified adequately and H<3.0 for 98% of faecal samples collected. We conclude that the development of FNIRS equations with confined animals is not only unexpensive and ethically acceptable, but their predictions are also sufficiently accurate to monitor dietary composition (but not intake) of beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands. PMID:26323211

  18. The influence of growth stage on carcass composition and factors associated with marbling development in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kern, S A; Pritchard, R H; Blair, A D; Scramlin, S M; Underwood, K R

    2014-11-01

    Subcutaneous fat and marbling both increase in beef cattle during the feeding phase but are antagonistic in regard to their contribution to beef carcass value. The objective of this study was to determine whether cellular factors associated with marbling development change with growth stage throughout the feeding period and whether they are correlated to marbling relative to carcass composition. Twenty-four steers of known origin with the cytosine and thymine (CT) leptin genotype were allotted to 3 harvest groups. Six steers per harvest group were harvested at the following predetermined points: 35 d on feed (early feeding period, EF), average live weight of 464 kg (middle feeding period, MF), and 1.17-cm 12th-rib subcutaneous fat thickness (late feeding period, LF). Longissmus muscle samples were collected within 30 min postmortem and snap frozen for real-time PCR and Western blot analysis of lipoprotein lipase, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), PPARγ, C/EBP-β, and myostatin. Carcass data were recorded, and LM samples were collected and aged 2, 7, 14, and 21 d postmortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force determination. Carcass composition was estimated by dissection of the 9-10-11 rib section and subsequent proximate analysis of the soft tissue. Intramuscular fat content of the LM increased linearly throughout the feeding period, giving additional support to marbling as an early developing tissue. Expression of AMPKα was found to be downregulated, whereas SCD expression was upregulated in the LF group relative to the first 2 harvest groups. Additionally, SCD and PPARγ were downregulated in the EF group relative to the latter 2 harvest groups. These changes in gene expression resulted in a linear increase in only PPARγ protein abundance, whereas myostatin tended to increase quadratically. A correlation was found between intramuscular fat and PPARγ abundance. This gives further evidence of the

  19. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying sensory meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Hocquette, J F; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Journaux, L; Renand, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving the traits that underlie meat quality is a major challenge in the beef industry. The objective of this paper was to detect QTL linked to sensory meat quality traits in 3 French beef cattle breeds. We genotyped 1,059, 1,219, and 947 young bulls and their sires belonging to the Charolais, Limousin, and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds, respectively, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After estimating relevant genetic parameters using VCE software, we performed a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis on 4 meat traits: intramuscular fat content, muscle lightness, shear force, and tenderness score. Heritability coefficients largely ranged between 0.10 and 0.24; however, they reached a maximum of 0.44 and 0.50 for intramuscular fat content and tenderness score, respectively, in the Charolais breed. The 2 meat texture traits, shear force and tenderness score, were strongly genetically correlated (-0.91 in the Charolais and Limousin breed and -0.86 in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed), indicating that they are 2 different measures of approximately the same trait. The genetic correlation between tenderness and intramuscular fat content differed across breeds. Using a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-4) for QTL detection, we found more than 200 significant positions across the 29 autosomal chromosomes for the 4 traits in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds; in contrast, there were only 78 significant positions in the Limousin breed. Few QTL were common across breeds. We detected QTL for intramuscular fat content located near the myostatin gene in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds. No mutation in this gene has been reported for the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed; therefore, it suggests that an unknown mutation could be segregating in this breed. We confirmed that, in certain breeds, markers in the calpastatin and calpain 1 gene regions affect tenderness. We also found new QTL as several QTL on chromosome 3 that are

  20. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

    2016-05-01

    Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

  1. Effect of sward dry matter digestibility on methane production, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations of zero-grazed beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Martin, P G; Foley, P A; Kenny, D A; Boland, T M

    2009-10-01

    threshold for fungi when determined using quantitative PCR between dietary treatments with mean values of 73.0 ng/microL, 0.958, and 21.75 C(T), respectively. Results of this study demonstrate that there was no difference in CH(4) production when corrected for intake or rumen fermentation variables of beef cattle offered a high or low digestibility sward. PMID:19542500

  2. Introduction to Beef Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to beef production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the beef industry; (2) breeds of beef cattle; (3) principles of beef cattle selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (7)…

  3. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...This proposed rule would adjust representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that have occurred since the most recent Board reapportionment rule became effective in October 2008. These adjustments are required by the Beef......

  4. Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

    2014-01-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II) (n = 9 per group). The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05). Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05), and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05), compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05). Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05). The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility. PMID:25178304

  5. Body temperature and respiratory dynamics in un-shaded beef cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.

    2014-09-01

    In this study body temperature (BT, °C) and panting score (PS, 0-4.5; where 0 = no panting/no stress and 4.5 = catastrophic stress) data were obtained from 30 Angus steers housed outside over 120 days Steers were implanted with a BT transmitter on day -31, BT was recorded at 30-min intervals to a data logger and downloaded each day to a database. The cattle were housed in ten outdoor un-shaded pens with an earthen floor, eight of which had a pen floor area of 144 m2 (three transmitter steers plus five non-transmitter steers; 18 m2/steer) and two had an area of 168 m2 (three transmitter steers and six non-transmitter steers; 18.7 m2/steer). Only data from the transmitter steers were used in this study. The PS of the steers was obtained daily (± 15 min) at 0600 hours (AM), 1200 hours (MD) and 1600 hours (PM). At the same times climate variables (ambient temperature, black globe temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall) were obtained from an on-site weather station. PS observations were made from outside the pens so as not to influence cattle responses. The two closest BT values to the time when PS was obtained were downloaded retrospectively from a logger and averaged. A total of 8,352 observations were used to generate second order polynomial response curves: (AM) y = 39.08 + 0.009 x + 0.137 x 2 ( R 2 = 0.94; P < 0.001) (MD) y = 39.09 + 0.914 x - 0.080 x 2 ( R 2 = 0.89; P < 0.001) and (PM) y = 39.52 + 0.790 x - 0.068 x 2 ( R 2 = 0.83; P < 0.001) where y = BT (°C) and x PS. These data suggest that PS is a good indicator of body temperature. The BT at MD corresponded to slightly lower PS compared with PM, e.g., for PS 1; BT at MD = 39.1 ± 0.05 °C whereas BT at PM = 39.5 ± 0.05 °C. However during AM, BT was lower ( P < 0.05) at PS 1, 2 and 2.5 compared with MD and PM. For example, when PS was 2.5 the BT at AM was 40.2 ± 0.04 °C, at MD it was 40.9 ± 0.04 °C and at PM BT was 41.1 ± 0.04 °C. When PS was 0 the BT at AM and MD

  6. Body temperature and respiratory dynamics in un-shaded beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L

    2014-09-01

    In this study body temperature (BT, °C) and panting score (PS, 0-4.5; where 0 = no panting/no stress and 4.5 = catastrophic stress) data were obtained from 30 Angus steers housed outside over 120 days Steers were implanted with a BT transmitter on day -31, BT was recorded at 30-min intervals to a data logger and downloaded each day to a database. The cattle were housed in ten outdoor un-shaded pens with an earthen floor, eight of which had a pen floor area of 144 m2 (three transmitter steers plus five non-transmitter steers; 18 m2/steer) and two had an area of 168 m2 (three transmitter steers and six non-transmitter steers; 18.7 m2/steer). Only data from the transmitter steers were used in this study. The PS of the steers was obtained daily (± 15 min) at 0600 hours (AM), 1200 hours (MD) and 1600 hours (PM). At the same times climate variables (ambient temperature, black globe temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall) were obtained from an on-site weather station. PS observations were made from outside the pens so as not to influence cattle responses. The two closest BT values to the time when PS was obtained were downloaded retrospectively from a logger and averaged. A total of 8,352 observations were used to generate second order polynomial response curves: (AM) y = 39.08 + 0.009 x + 0.137x2 (R2 = 0.94; P < 0.001) (MD) y = 39.09 + 0.914x − 0.080x2 (R2 = 0.89; P < 0.001) and (PM) y = 39.52 + 0.790x − 0.068x2 (R2 = 0.83; P < 0.001) where y = BT (°C) and  x PS. These data suggest that PS is a good indicator of body temperature. The BT at MD corresponded to slightly lower PS compared with PM, e.g., for PS 1; BT at MD = 39.1 ± 0.05 °C whereas BT at PM = 39.5 ± 0.05 °C. However during AM, BT was lower (P < 0.05) at PS 1, 2 and 2.5 compared with MD and PM. For example, when PS was 2.5 the BT at AM was 40.2 ± 0.04 °C, at MD it was 40.9

  7. Transportation and lairage environment effects on prevalence, numbers, and diversity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on hides and carcasses of beef cattle at processing.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Guerini, Michael N; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Shackelford, Steven D; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2007-02-01

    Hide has been established as the main source of carcass contamination during cattle processing; therefore, it is crucial to minimize the amount of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on cattle hides before slaughter. Several potential sources of E. coli O157: H7 are encountered during transportation and in the lairage environment at beef-processing facilities that could increase the prevalence and numbers of E. coli O157:H7 on the hides of cattle. On three separate occasions, samples were obtained from cattle at the feedlot and again after cattle were stunned and exsanguinated at the processing plant (286 total animals). The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on hides increased from 50.3 to 94.4% between the time cattle were loaded onto tractor-trailers at the feedlot and the time hides were removed in the processing plant. Before transport, nine animals had E. coli O157:H7 in high numbers (> 0.4 CFU/cm2) on their hides. When sampled at the slaughter facility, the number of animals with high hide numbers had increased to 70. Overall, only 29% of the E. coli O157:H7 isolates collected postharvest (221 of 764) matched pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types collected before transport. The results of this study indicate that transport to and lairage at processing plants can lead to increases in the prevalence and degree of E. coli O157:H7 contamination on hides and the number of E. coli O157:H7 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types associated with the animals. More study is needed to confirm the mechanism by which additional E. coli O157:H7 strains contaminate cattle hides during transport and lairage and to design interventions to prevent this contamination. PMID:17340859

  8. The use of bovine anti-PMSG serum in beef cattle after PMSG-superovulation.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, A; Hiraizumi, S; Onodera, K; Suzuki, H; Kudo, Y; Domeki, I

    1992-02-01

    Thirteen beef cows were superovulated using 4,000 i.u. of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) on days 9 to 14 of the estrous cycle, followed by two injections of 500 micrograms prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue (PGF2 alpha) 48 and 55 hrs later. Seven of them were injected intramuscularly with bovine anti-PMSG serum 12 hrs after the first signs of estrus. The remaining 6 cows were served as controls and received no antiserum. Peripheral blood concentrations of progesterone (P) and estradiol-17 beta (E2) were compared in relation to the superovulatory responses. The injection of anti-PMSG serum did not significantly affect the numbers of the corpora lutea (CL), the anovulatory follicles and the transferable embryos at 7 to 8 days after superovulatory estrus, but increased the ratio of embryos classified as excellent or good quality. Although the plasma P concentration showed no significant differences between the anti-PMSG-treated and control cows, the plasma E2 concentration displayed a characteristic difference, suppressing the second E2 peak in the anti-PMSG-treated cows. It is concluded that the use of bovine anti-PMSG serum for PMSG/PGF2 alpha-treated cows at 12 hrs after the beginning of the estrus improves the quality of embryos recovered, probably due to inhibition of high estrogenic environment following ovulation. PMID:1558896

  9. Life-cycle assessment of the beef cattle production system for the northern great plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, David E; Benning, Jennifer L; Stone, James J

    2013-09-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to estimate the environmental impacts associated with four different U.S. Northern Great Plains (NPG) beef production systems. The LCA model followed a "cradle-to-gate" approach and incorporated all major unit processes, including mineral supplement production. Four distinct operation scenarios were modeled based on production strategies common to the NGP, and a variety of impacts were determined. The scenarios include a normal operation, early weaning of the calf, fast-tack backgrounding, and grassfed. Enteric emissions and manure emissions and handling were consistently the largest contributors to the LCA impacts. There was little variability between production scenarios except for the grassfed, where the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 37% higher due to a longer finishing time and lower finishing weight. However, reductions to GHG emissions (15-24%) were realized when soil organic carbon accrual was considered and may be a more realistic estimate for the NGP. Manure emissions and handing were primary contributors to potential eutrophication and acidification impacts. Mitigation strategies to reduce LCA impacts, including diet manipulation and management strategies (i.e., treatment of manure), were considered from a whole-systems perspective. Model results can be used for guidance by NGP producers, environmental practitioners, and policymakers. PMID:24216416

  10. Comparison of flight speed and exit score as measurements of temperament in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Vetters, M D D; Engle, T E; Ahola, J K; Grandin, T

    2013-01-01

    Observations were collected for the purpose of comparing exit velocity measurements in the form of exit score (ES; walk, trot, canter, or run) and flight speed (FS) as assessments of cattle temperament. Squeeze chute exit velocity was obtained for 1,181 crossbred yearling steers using ES and FS temperament systems. Flight speed used infrared sensors to determine the time taken for an animal to traverse a fixed distance of 1.83 m after exiting the squeeze chute. Exit score (1=walk, 2=trot, 3=canter, and 4=run) was assigned by 2 different observers when each steer crossed a fixed point between the infrared sensors. All animals were scored with each system (ES and FS) simultaneously on exiting the squeeze chute on d -21 and d -1 of the experiment. Of the 1,181 cattle, 357 were moved to a nearby research feedyard for use in a 140 d feedlot trial. These cattle were scored using both measurement systems and BW was recorded at 35 d intervals throughout the trial. Exit score was assessed for observer reliability, ES and FS were compared for measurement repeatability, and both were assessed on ability to predict ADG. Exit score between observers on a single day showed considerable agreement (weighted Kappa=0.66), indicating the system was reliable between different observers. However, the agreement for a single observer between day was only moderate (weighted Kappa=0.40), indicating a day effect for ES. In addition, although mean velocities for day were not different (P>0.18; FS=2.98±.87 and 3.02±0.87 m/s for day, respectively), the persistence of FS for each animal was low (Spearman rank correlation coefficient=0.25). The frequency that an animal would be placed into the same third of FS or receive the same ES on consecutive weigh days was 50% and 60.0%, respectively, and both were moderate predictors of ADG (R2=0.14 and R2=0.17). These data indicate that ES and FS are reliable instruments for assessment of temperament on a given day, and show moderate repeatability

  11. Control Points on Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in a Beef Cattle CAFO and the Cropland that Supports it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurwick, N. P.; Tonitto, C.

    2011-12-01

    Although spatially separated in the U.S. agricultural landscape, CAFOs (confined animal feeding operations) and Illinois grain agriculture are interdependent. Therefore, we need to consider both systems to identify methods for reducing inefficiency, GHG losses, and N pollution from them. We construct a budget for an average 30,000 animal beef cattle CAFO. Assuming cattle stay on the CAFO 5 months, we estimate total grain demand at 1.8 M bu yr-1 of corn (21 M kg C) and 0.3 M bu yr-1 of soybean (3.7 M kg C). To grow this feed requires 19,000 acres of cropland (2/3 in corn and 1/3 in soybean). We visualize C and N fluxes for a 4,000 acre farm growing corn and soybeans. Corn and soybeans on this farm fix ˜15 M and 4.5 M kg C yr-1 respectively. Plant and soil respiration return ˜50% of GPP to the atmosphere from the cornfield, and˜70% from the soybean field. Emissions from on-farm equipment are ˜60,000 kg C yr-1. About 5.1 M kg C yr-1 move from this farm to CAFO (4.3 M kg C in corn and 0.8 M kg C in soybean). To meet cattle demand requires 4.75 such farms. Transporting grain from all 19,000 ac releases ˜3 M kg C yr-1. Once at the CAFO, ˜20% of C in grain is converted to steer biomass. Of the remaining grain C (˜20 M kg C), about half leaves the steers as CO2, ˜6.6 M kg C exits the steers as manure, and ˜7% is converted to methane in the rumen. Of the ˜100 M kg C pulled from the atmosphere on the farms, about 2 M kg C exit the CAFO as methane, which increases GWP of the carbon stream by 50%. At typical application rates, a grower adds ˜216,000 kg N yr-1 to the corn field. On the soybean field, we estimate fixation of 64,000 kg N yr-1 and assume no other N additions. Corn and soybeans acquire ˜135,000 and 106,000 kg N respectively. Nitrate leaching from the corn field is ˜43,000 kg N (equivalent to ~20% of fertilizer N) and losses from the soybean field are ˜11,000 kg N. A fraction of N inputs to the fields (˜0.5%) exits as N2O, totaling < 1,500 N2O-N for

  12. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  13. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  14. Timed artificial insemination in beef cattle using GnRH agonist, PGF2alpha and estradiol benzoate (EB).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Teixeira, A B; Crocci, A J; Barros, C M

    2001-04-15

    The present work evaluated low-cost protocols for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef cattle. In Experiment 1, cycling nonlactating Nelore cows (Bos indicus, n=98) were assigned to the following groups: GnRH-PGF (GP) and GnRH-PGF-GnRH (GPG), whereas cycling (n=328, Experiment 2) or anestrus (n = 225, Experiment 3) lactating (L) cows were divided into 3 groups: GP-L, GPG-L and GnRH-PGF-Estradiol benzoate (GPE-L). In Experiment 4, lactating cows (n=201) were separated into 3 groups: GP-L, GPE-L and G/2PE-L. Animals from Experiment 1, 3 and 4 were treated (Day 0), at random stages of the estrous cycle, with 8 microg of buserelin acetate (GnRH agonist) intramuscularly (i.m.), whereas in Experiment 2 half of the cows received 8 and the other half 12 microg of GnRH (i.m.). Seven days later (D 7) all animals were treated with 25 mg of dinoprost trometamine (PGF2alpha, i.m.) except those cows from the G/2PE-L group which received only 1/2 dose of PGF2alpha (12.5 mg) via intravulvo-submucosa (i.v.s.m.). After PGF2alpha injection the animals from the control groups (GP and GP-L) were observed twice daily to detect estrus and AI was performed 12 h afterwards. The cows from the other groups received a second GnRH injection (D 8 in GPG-L and d9 in GPG groups) or one injection of estradiol benzoate (EB, 1.0 mg, D 8 in GPE-L group). All cows from GPG and GPG-L or GPE-L groups were AI 20 to 24 or 30 to 34 h, respectively, after the last hormonal injection. Pregnancy was determined by ultrasonography or rectal palpation 30 to 50 days after AI. In the control groups (GP and GP-L) percentage of animals detected in heat (44.5 to 70.3%) and pregnancy rate (20 to 42%) varied according to the number of animals with corpus luteum (CL) at the beginning of treatment. The administration of a second dose of GnRH either 24 (Experiment 2) or 48 h (Experiment 1) after PGF2alpha resulted in 47.7 and 44.9% pregnancy rates, respectively, after TAI in cycling animals. However, in anestrus

  15. Incidence and persistence of zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens in a beef cattle feedlot runoff control vegetative treatment system.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Woodbury, Bryan L; Nienaber, John A; Eigenberg, Roger A; Thurston, Jeanette A; Wells, James E

    2007-01-01

    Determining the survival of zoonotic pathogens in livestock manure and runoff is critical for understanding the environmental and public health risks associated with these wastes. The occurrence and persistence of the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter spp. in a passive beef cattle feedlot runoff control-vegetative treatment system were examined over a 26-mo period. Incidence of the protozoans Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. was also assessed. The control system utilizes a shallow basin to collect liquid runoff and accumulate eroded solids from the pen surfaces; when an adequate liquid volume is attained, the liquid is discharged from the basin onto a 4.5-ha vegetative treatment area (VTA) of bromegrass which is harvested as hay. Basin discharge transported E. coli O157, Campylobacter spp., and generic E. coli into the VTA soil, but without additional discharge from the basin, the pathogen prevalences decreased over time. Similarly, the VTA soil concentrations of generic E. coli initially decreased rapidly, but lower residual populations persisted. Isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from VTA samples was infrequent, indicating differences in sedimentation and/or transport in comparison to bacteria. Isolation of generic E. coli from freshly cut hay from VTA regions that received basin discharge (12 of 30 vs. 1 of 30 control samples) provided evidence for the risk of contamination; however, neither E. coli O157 or Campylobacter spp. were recovered from the hay following baling. This work indicates that the runoff control system is effective for reducing environmental risk by containing and removing pathogens from feedlot runoff. PMID:17965390

  16. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077759

  17. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    PubMed

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. PMID:17093211

  18. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NaHCO3 and trona in beef cattle diets. Trace element (n = 28) analysis revealed no toxicological or safety concerns with the use of trona. Trona was more (P less than .05) soluble in ruminal fluid than Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 and had greater (P less than .05) buffering capacity (9.6 meq/g) than NaHCO3 (6.1 meq/g) but less (P less than .05) than Na2CO3 (11.1 meq/g). Calcium carbonate was insoluble and did not buffer ruminal fluid. Six yearling (avg 272 kg) Hereford X Angus steers, each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas, were fed 50:50 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) or 90:10 concentrate diets with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3 or with 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Propionate (mmol/liter) increased (17.6 vs 13.5; P less than .05) and butyrate decreased (3.5 vs 5.2; P less than .05) with trona in the 90:10 diet as compared with no buffer. Propionate (16.8) increased (P less than .05) with NaHCO3 in the 90:10 diet. Average ruminal pH was greater (P less than .05) in 90:10 diets with trona or NaHCO3 than with no buffer (5.61, 5.61 vs 5.55); duodenal pH was greater (P less than .01) with trona than with no buffer (2.66 vs 2.55). Trona reduced ruminal pH-hours (P less than .05) and pH-area (P less than .12; time and area below mean pH of control) below control for both concentrate levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3038823

  19. Performance, nitrogen balance and microbial efficiency of beef cattle under concentrate supplementation strategies in intensive management of a tropical pasture.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Tiago Cunha; Fontes, Carlos Augusto de Alencar; da Silva, Renata Tavares Soares; Processi, Elizabeth Fonsêca; do Valle, Felipe Roberto Amaral Ferreira; Lombardi, Cláudio Teixeira; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentrate supplementation strategies on the nutritional characteristics of beef cattle in intensive management of tropical pasture. Twenty-four Nellore steer at 250 kg body weight (BW) were used, divided into two plots, with 12 animals in each plot. The experimental area consisted of 32 paddocks with 0.25 ha of Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça. The experiment consisted of 96-day experimental periods, with three periods of 32 days. The strategies studied were P = exclusively on pasture and without concentrate supplementation (control), ES = pasture and supplemented with a concentrate low in protein, PS = pasture and supplemented with high protein content, and PES = pasture and supplementation with balanced protein-energy. There was reduced intake of DM in animals of the treatment P in relation to supplemented pasture, regardless of supplementation. Animals fed on ES showed an intake of more nutrients than the animals on PS. The CP and TDN were also lower in P than in pastures where animals received the additional types of concentrate, and the PS animals showed greater digestibility of CP and TDN than the ES animals. However, the animals exhibited similar weight gains. Animals on P ingested smaller amounts of N and had lower fecal excretion compared to the supplemented animals, but there was no difference between treatments in nitrogen balance. Urea nitrogen and urea from the blood were higher in the supplemented animals than in animals fed on pasture; these levels were also higher in PS animals compared to animals receiving ES. Both the purines absorbed and microbial protein production were similar between treatments. However, the animals fed with concentrate supplementation, independent of the strategy involved, showed higher microbial efficiency compared to animals fed exclusively on pasture. PMID:26768894

  20. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease. PMID:18998232

  1. Physical and chemical changes during composting of wood chip-bedded and straw-bedded beef cattle feedlot manure.

    PubMed

    Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; Miller, Jim J; DeMaere, Paul R; Zvomuya, Francis; McAllister, Tim A

    2008-01-01

    In the 1990s, restrictions on incineration encouraged the forest industry in western Canada to develop new uses for their wood residuals by product. One such use was as a replacement for cereal straw bedding in southern Alberta's beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlot industry. However, use of carbon (C)-rich bedding, such as wood chips, had implications for subsequent composting of the feedlot manure, a practice that was being increasingly adopted. In a 3-yr study, we compared composting of wood chip-bedded manure (WBM) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw-bedded manure (SBM). There were no significant differences in temperature regimes of SBM and WBM, indicating similar rates of successful composting. Of 17 physical and chemical parameters, five showed significant (P < 0.10) differences due to bedding at the outset of composting (Day 0), and 11 showed significant differences at final sampling (Day 124). During composting (10 sampling times), seven parameters showed significant bedding effects, 16 showed significant time effects, and four showed a Bedding x Time interaction. Significantly lower (P < 0.10) losses of nitrogen (N) occurred with WBM (19%) compared with SBM (34%), which has positive implications for air quality and use as a soil amendment. Other advantages of WBM compost included significantly higher total C (333 vs. 210 kg Mg(-1) for SBM) and inorganic N (1.3 vs. 1.0 kg Mg(-1) for SBM) and significantly lower total phosphorus (4.5 vs. 5.3 kg Mg(-1) for SBM). Our results showed that wood chip bedding should not be a problem for subsequent composting of the manure after pen cleaning. In combination with other benefits, our findings should encourage the adoption of wood chips over straw as a bedding choice for southern Alberta feedlots. PMID:18396561

  2. Genome-Wide Association for Growth Traits in Canchim Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Buzanskas, Marcos E.; Grossi, Daniela A.; Ventura, Ricardo V.; Schenkel, Flávio S.; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Meirelles, Sarah L. C.; Mokry, Fabiana B.; Higa, Roberto H.; Mudadu, Maurício A.; da Silva, Marcos V. G. Barbosa.; Niciura, Simone C. M.; Júnior, Roberto A. A. Torres.; Alencar, Maurício M.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Munari, Danísio P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies are being conducted on the applicability of genomic data to improve the accuracy of the selection process in livestock, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide valuable information to enhance the understanding on the genetics of complex traits. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions and genes that play roles in birth weight (BW), weaning weight adjusted for 210 days of age (WW), and long-yearling weight adjusted for 420 days of age (LYW) in Canchim cattle. GWAS were performed by means of the Generalized Quasi-Likelihood Score (GQLS) method using genotypes from the BovineHD BeadChip and estimated breeding values for BW, WW, and LYW. Data consisted of 285 animals from the Canchim breed and 114 from the MA genetic group (derived from crossings between Charolais sires and ½ Canchim + ½ Zebu dams). After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 10% significance level, a total of 4, 12, and 10 SNPs were significantly associated with BW, WW, and LYW, respectively. These SNPs were surveyed to their corresponding genes or to surrounding genes within a distance of 250 kb. The genes DPP6 (dipeptidyl-peptidase 6) and CLEC3B (C-type lectin domain family 3 member B) were highlighted, considering its functions on the development of the brain and skeletal system, respectively. The GQLS method identified regions on chromosome associated with birth weight, weaning weight, and long-yearling weight in Canchim and MA animals. New candidate regions for body weight traits were detected and some of them have interesting biological functions, of which most have not been previously reported. The observation of QTL reports for body weight traits, covering areas surrounding the genes (SNPs) herein identified provides more evidence for these associations. Future studies targeting these areas could provide further knowledge to uncover the genetic architecture underlying growth traits in Canchim cattle. PMID:24733441

  3. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dajeong; Strucken, Eva M; Choi, Bong Hwan; Chai, Han Ha; Cho, Yong Min; Jang, Gul Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Gondro, Cedric; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle) and in China (Yanbian). These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN). We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected) in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes), reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes), coat color (2 genes), and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes). We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform) 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val) and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene. PMID:27023061

  4. Evaluation of Bovine chemerin (RARRES2) Gene Variation on Beef Cattle Production Traits1

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Rempel, Lea A.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Cushman, Robert A.; McDaneld, Tara G.; Wheeler, Tommy L.; Shackelford, Steven D.; King, David A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2012-01-01

    A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in steers (P < 0.008). Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P < 0.05) and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG) and residual feed intake (RFI), respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW), adjusted fat thickness (AFT), and marbling (P < 0.05). Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit

  5. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bong Hwan; Chai, Han Ha; Cho, Yong Min; Jang, Gul Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Gondro, Cedric; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle) and in China (Yanbian). These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN). We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected) in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes), reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes), coat color (2 genes), and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes). We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform) 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val) and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene. PMID:27023061

  6. Lack of association between the occurrence of Crohn's disease and occupational exposure to dairy and beef cattle herds infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Qual, D A; Kaneene, J B; Varty, T J; Miller, R; Thoen, C O

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify associations between Crohn's disease (CD) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) exposure. A questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to cattle infected with Map, and personal and family history of CD in dairy and beef cattle producers with and without Map-infected herds, and in veterinarians who did or did not have contact with Map-infected herds. Cases of CD were selected from respondents and matched 1:4 with controls on occupation, age, and sex. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between Map exposure and CD. There were 3 cases of CD in 702 producers and 4 cases in 774 veterinarians, yielding a prevalence of 0.47%. No association was found between exposure to JD and CD in any phase of the analysis. However, the number of cases of CD is not large and limits the power to detect important differences. PMID:20494145

  7. Imputation of ungenotyped parental genotypes in dairy and beef cattle from progeny genotypes.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; McParland, S; Kearney, J F; Sargolzaei, M; Mullen, M P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy of imputing the genotype of parents using information on the genotype of their progeny and a family-based and population-based imputation algorithm. Two separate data sets were used, one containing both dairy and beef animals (n=3122) with high-density genotypes (735 151 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) and the other containing just dairy animals (n=5489) with medium-density genotypes (51 602 SNPs). Imputation accuracy of three different genotype density panels were evaluated representing low (i.e. 6501 SNPs), medium and high density. The full genotypes of sires with genotyped half-sib progeny were masked and subsequently imputed. Genotyped half-sib progeny group sizes were altered from 4 up to 12 and the impact on imputation accuracy was quantified. Up to 157 and 258 sires were used to test the accuracy of imputation in the dairy plus beef data set and the dairy-only data set, respectively. The efficiency and accuracy of imputation was quantified as the proportion of genotypes that could not be imputed, and as both the genotype concordance rate and allele concordance rate. The median proportion of genotypes per animal that could not be imputed in the imputation process decreased as the number of genotyped half-sib progeny increased; values for the medium-density panel ranged from a median of 0.015 with a half-sib progeny group size of 4 to a median of 0.0014 to 0.0015 with a half-sib progeny group size of 8. The accuracy of imputation across different paternal half-sib progeny group sizes was similar in both data sets. Concordance rates increased considerably as the number of genotyped half-sib progeny increased from four (mean animal allele concordance rate of 0.94 in both data sets for the medium-density genotype panel) to five (mean animal allele concordance rate of 0.96 in both data sets for the medium-density genotype panel) after which it was relatively stable up to a half-sib progeny group size

  8. Effects of supplementing rare earth element cerium on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, S X; Wei, C; Zhao, G Y; Zhang, T T; Yang, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing rare earth element (REE) cerium (Ce) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, methane (CH4 ) production, nitrogen (N) balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle. Four Simmental male cattle, aged at 14 months, with initial liveweight of 355 ± 8 kg and fitted with permanent rumen cannulas, were used as experimental animals. The cattle were fed with a total mixed ration (TMR) composed of concentrate mixture and corn silage. Four levels of cerium chloride (CeCl3 ·7H2 O, purity 99.9%), that is 0, 80, 160 and 240 mg CeCl3 /kg DM, were added to basal ration in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pre-treatment and the last 3 days were for sampling. The results showed that supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM increased neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility (p < 0.05) and tended to increased acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility (p = 0.083). Supplementing CeCl3 at 80, 160 or 240 mg/kg DM decreased the molar ratio of rumen acetate to propionate linearly (p < 0.05). Supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM decreased total N excretion, urinary N excretion and increased N retention (p < 0.05), increased excretion of total urinary purine derivatives (PD) (p < 0.05) and decreased CH4 /kg DMI (p < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM in the ration of beef cattle increased the digestibility of NDF, decreased the molar ratio of rumen acetate to propionate, increased N retention and microbial N flow and decreased CH4 /kg DMI. PMID:25787979

  9. Short communication: Imputation performances of 3 low-density marker panels in beef and dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dassonneville, R; Fritz, S; Ducrocq, V; Boichard, D

    2012-07-01

    Low-density chips are appealing alternative tools contributing to the reduction of genotyping costs. Imputation enables researchers to predict missing genotypes to recreate the denser coverage of the standard 50K (∼50,000) genotype. Two alternative in silico chips were defined in this study that included markers selected to optimize minor allele frequency and spacing. The objective of this study was to compare the imputation accuracy of these custom low-density chips with a commercially available 3K chip. Data consisted of genotypes of 4,037 Holstein bulls, 1,219 Montbéliarde bulls, and 991 Blonde d'Aquitaine bulls. Criteria to select markers to include in low-density marker panels are described. To mimic a low-density genotype, all markers except the markers present on the low-density panel were masked in the validation population. Imputation was performed using the Beagle software. Combining the directed acyclic graph obtained with Beagle with the PHASEBOOK algorithm provides fast and accurate imputation that is suitable for routine genomic evaluations based on imputed genotypes. Overall, 95 to 99% of alleles were correctly imputed depending on the breed and the low-density chip used. The alternative low-density chips gave better results than the commercially available 3K chip. A low-density chip with 6,000 markers is a valuable genotyping tool suitable for both dairy and beef breeds. Such a tool could be used for preselection of young animals or large-scale screening of the female population. PMID:22720970

  10. Multi-Tissue Omics Analyses Reveal Molecular Regulatory Networks for Puberty in Composite Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L.; Ashley, Ryan L.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Fortes, Marina R. S.; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A.; Snelling, Warren M.; Medrano, Juan F.; Thomas, Milton G.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  11. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L; Ashley, Ryan L; Colgrave, Michelle L; Fortes, Marina R S; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A; Snelling, Warren M; Medrano, Juan F; Thomas, Milton G

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  12. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Commercial Dairy and Beef Cattle in Northern and Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Lv, Wen-Fa; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are important pathogens, commonly responsible for economical loss to cattle farms all over the world, yet their epidemiology in commercial dairy and beef cattle in China is still unknown. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with MAP and BLV infection. The source sample was 3674 cattle from 113 herds in northern and northeastern China. Antibodies against MAP and BLV were detected using ELISA tests. At animal-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 11.79% (433/3674) and 18.29% (672/3674), respectively. At herd-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 20.35% and 21.24% (24/113), respectively. Herd size was identified to be associated with MAP infection while herd size and presence of cattle introduced from other farms were significantly associated with BLV infection. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and improve the knowledge of the epidemiology of these two pathogens in these regions and elsewhere in China. PMID:26504798

  13. Plasma ghrelin concentrations of beef cattle consuming a similar amount of dietary energy supplied by different ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wertz-Lutz, A E; Jennings, J S; Clapper, J A

    2010-07-01

    Previous research demonstrated increased plasma ghrelin concentrations in beef cattle when intake of a high-grain diet was restricted. Two experiments were conducted to determine whether differences in DMI influenced plasma ghrelin concentrations when energy intake was similar but cattle were in either an anabolic or a catabolic state. In Exp. 1, five steers (BW = 592.6 +/- 9.3 kg) were offered dietary treatments of 1) 50:50 hay:concentrate (HY) to meet the NE(m) requirement and were supplied an additional 3.4 Mcal of NE(g) daily, 2) or a diet composed of 10:90 hay:concentrate but were limit-fed to achieve an energy intake similar to that of the HY steers (LFC). The LFC treatment met the NE(m) requirement of each steer and supplied 3.6 Mcal of NE(g) daily. The experiment was conducted as a crossover design composed of 2 21-d periods. In the first period, 2 steers were assigned to the HY treatment and 3 steers were assigned to the LFC treatment. On d 21 after initiation of the dietary treatment, serial blood samples were collected via indwelling jugular catheter, using periods of frequent sampling in which samples were collected at 15-min intervals. The periods of frequent sampling were spread throughout the beginning, middle, and end of the 12-h feeding interval. After the first period, steers were weighed, dietary treatments were switched between steer groups, and intake amounts were recalculated on the basis of the first-period ending BW. The second-period adaptation and sampling were repeated as described for the first period. Plasma samples were assayed for ghrelin, insulin, GH, and NEFA concentrations. Experiment 2 was conducted using the same methodology as Exp. 1, except that steers were in a catabolic state. Five steers (BW = 718.3 +/- 12.8 kg) were offered the HY or LFC diet at an amount that would supply 80% of the NE(m) required to maintain BW. For Exp. 1, energy intake was sufficient to result in similar (P = 0.14) BW gains between treatment groups

  14. Beef cattle body temperature during climatic stress: a genome-wide association study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Jeremy T.; Kachman, Stephen D.; Snelling, Warren M.; Pollak, E. John; Ciobanu, Daniel C.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Spangler, Matthew L.

    2014-09-01

    Cattle are reared in diverse environments and collecting phenotypic body temperature (BT) measurements to characterize BT variation across diverse environments is difficult and expensive. To better understand the genetic basis of BT regulation, a genome-wide association study was conducted utilizing crossbred steers and heifers totaling 239 animals of unknown pedigree and breed fraction. During predicted extreme heat and cold stress events, hourly tympanic and vaginal BT devices were placed in steers and heifers, respectively. Individuals were genotyped with the BovineSNP50K_v2 assay and data analyzed using Bayesian models for area under the curve (AUC), a measure of BT over time, using hourly BT observations summed across 5-days (AUC summer 5-day (AUCS5D) and AUC winter 5-day (AUCW5D)). Posterior heritability estimates were moderate to high and were estimated to be 0.68 and 0.21 for AUCS5D and AUCW5D, respectively. Moderately positive correlations between direct genomic values for AUCS5D and AUCW5D (0.40) were found, although a small percentage of the top 5 % 1-Mb windows were in common. Different sets of genes were associated with BT during winter and summer, thus simultaneous selection for animals tolerant to both heat and cold appears possible.

  15. Relationship of polymorphisms within metabolic genes and carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Rempel, L A; Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L

    2012-04-01

    Feed intake has been shown to alter neurological signaling related to feeding behavior and subsequent activation of adipogenic mechanisms. Fat characteristics are pivotal for carcass and meat quality, including marbling score, flavor, and tenderness. The objective of this study was to establish the association of SNP, from genes functionally related to fat metabolism and obesity, with growth, fat, and carcass traits in steers. A total of 33 informative SNP from candidate genes [cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PK), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fat mass and obesity associated (FTO)] were used to genotype crossbred steers (n = 620), and associations with growth and carcass traits were assessed. Five markers within the DNA-PK gene were associated (P < 0.05) with fat thickness. One of these SNP was also associated (P < 0.05) with percent choice, yield grade, and retail product yield. Additionally, 2 unique DNA-PK SNP were associated (P < 0.05) with marbling score. Three haplotypes were observed using these SNP and were significantly (P = 0.0014) associated with marbling score. Slaughter weight, ADG, and HCW were associated (P < 0.05) with SNP from CART, FTO, and FASN. Data from this study indicate that polymorphisms within candidate genes have an indirect relationship with lipogenesis. Replication of these results within other populations will be necessary to establish if these markers will be successful as predictors of fatness components and carcass traits in cattle. PMID:22100592

  16. Effects of fattening periods on the expression of adipogenic transcription factors in Wagyu beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Kawakami, S-I; Nakanishi, N

    2007-06-01

    In this experiment, we studied the effects of fattening periods (at 19, 24, and 29 months of age) on the expression of the C/EBP family (C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and C/EBPδ) and PPARγ protein levels by Western blot analysis from different fat depots (subcutaneous, intermuscular, and mesenteric fat tissue) of Japanese Black steers. The expressions of C/EBPβ-liver-enriched activator protein (LAP), which activates preadipocyte differentiation, in subcutaneous, intermuscular, and mesenteric fat tissue at 29 months of age were significantly lower than those at 19 months. On the other hand, the expressions of C/EBPβ-liver-enriched inhibitory protein (LIP), which represses preadipocyte differentiation, in subcutaneous and intermuscular fat tissue in 29 months of age were significantly higher than those at 19 months. The expressions of C/EBPα, which activates adipocyte terminal differentiation, in intermuscular fat tissue at 29 months of age were significantly higher than those at 19 months. No significant differences in the C/EBPδ and PPAR γ levels were observed in the fattening periods for any fat depots. These results suggest that adipogenic transcription factors, especially C/EBPβ and C/EBPα, play an important role in regulating adipogenesis during the fattening periods of Japanese Black cattle. PMID:22064298

  17. Modelling considerations in the analysis of associations between antimicrobial use and resistance in beef feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Noyes, N R; Benedict, K M; Gow, S P; Waldner, C L; Reid-Smith, R J; Booker, C W; McALLISTER, T A; Morley, P S

    2016-04-01

    A number of sophisticated modelling approaches are available to investigate potential associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in animal health settings. All have their advantages and disadvantages, making it unclear as to which model is most appropriate. We used advanced regression modelling to investigate AMU-AMR associations in faecal non-type-specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) isolates recovered from 275 pens of feedlot cattle. Ten modelling strategies were employed to investigate AMU associations with resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline and streptomycin. Goodness-of-fit statistics did not show a consistent advantage for any one model type. Three AMU-AMR associations were significant in all models. Recent parenteral tetracycline use increased the odds of finding tetracycline-resistant NTSEC [odds ratios (OR) 1·1-3·2]; recent parenteral sulfonamide use increased the odds of finding sulfisoxazole-resistant NTSEC (OR 1·4-2·5); and recent parenteral macrolide use decreased the odds of recovering ampicillin-resistant NTSEC (OR 0·03-0·2). Other results varied markedly depending on the modelling approach, emphasizing the importance of exploring and reporting multiple modelling methods based on a balanced consideration of important factors such as study design, mathematical appropriateness, research question and target audience. PMID:26541938

  18. Beef cattle body temperature during climatic stress: a genome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jeremy T; Kachman, Stephen D; Snelling, Warren M; Pollak, E John; Ciobanu, Daniel C; Kuehn, Larry A; Spangler, Matthew L

    2014-09-01

    Cattle are reared in diverse environments and collecting phenotypic body temperature (BT) measurements to characterize BT variation across diverse environments is difficult and expensive. To better understand the genetic basis of BT regulation, a genome-wide association study was conducted utilizing crossbred steers and heifers totaling 239 animals of unknown pedigree and breed fraction. During predicted extreme heat and cold stress events, hourly tympanic and vaginal BT devices were placed in steers and heifers, respectively. Individuals were genotyped with the BovineSNP50K_v2 assay and data analyzed using Bayesian models for area under the curve (AUC), a measure of BT over time, using hourly BT observations summed across 5-days (AUC summer 5-day (AUCS5D) and AUC winter 5-day (AUCW5D)). Posterior heritability estimates were moderate to high and were estimated to be 0.68 and 0.21 for AUCS5D and AUCW5D, respectively. Moderately positive correlations between direct genomic values for AUCS5D and AUCW5D (0.40) were found, although a small percentage of the top 5% 1-Mb windows were in common. Different sets of genes were associated with BT during winter and summer, thus simultaneous selection for animals tolerant to both heat and cold appears possible. PMID:24362770

  19. Relationship between Paratuberculosis and the microelements Copper, Zinc, Iron, Selenium and Molybdenum in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Paolicchi, F.; Perea, J.; Cseh, S.; Morsella, C.

    2013-01-01

    To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship between selenium

  20. Optimum measurement period for evaluating feed intake traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, M M; Speidel, S E; Peel, R K; Cockrum, R R; Thomas, M G; Enns, R M

    2015-05-01

    The Beef Improvement Federation recommends residual feed intake (RFI) be calculated from 70-d tests preceded by a 21-d adjustment period. Individual animal feed intake and gain measurements are expensive and time consuming, which limits the number of animals available for national genetic evaluation of feed intake. If a shorter test period of comparable accuracy could be used, the cost would decrease and more animals could be tested annually. The objective of this study was to determine if data from shortened tests is equally as predictive of average daily DMI (ADMI) and RFI values from 70-d tests. Feed intake and weight measures were collected after weaning from Bos taurus bulls, steers, and heifers (n = 612) during four 70-d performance tests. For each individual, ADMI and RFI were calculated. Residual feed intake was calculated by regressing ADMI on metabolic midweight (MMWT) and ADG with the effect of breed included where appropriate. Based on four 70-d intake tests, ADMI, RFI, ADG, and MMWT were evaluated using shortened test lengths in a post hoc analysis where shortened test lengths were imposed on the full-period tests. The ADMI, RFI, ADG, and MMWT values from the full 70-d test were regressed on ADMI, RFI, ADG, and MMWT values resulting from the constructed shorter data subsets. The 8 subsets ranged from 14 to 56 d in length. The fixed effects of test, breed, animal's origin, and sex were included in each comparison for ADMI, ADG, and MMWT. Estimates for regression coefficients of ADMI values from a full test on various subsets ranged from 0.63 to 1.02. Likewise, estimated coefficients obtained from the regression of full test RFI, ADG, and MMWT values on subsets ranged from 0.50 to 1.00, 0.09 to 0.85, and 0.48 to 1.02, respectively. We conclude that ADMI values from a 42-d test ( < 0.0001) and RFI values from a 56-d test (P < 0.0001) adequately predict ADMI and RFI when compared to a 70-d test. These results suggest that testing periods of 42 d for