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Sample records for beetle biomass abundance

  1. Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass in beech forests of various ages.

    PubMed

    Jelaska, Lucija Šerić; Dumbović, Vlatka; Kučinić, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass (MIB) were analysed in three different successional stages of beech tree stands (60, 80 and 150 years old). Carabid beetles were captured using pitfall traps placed at nine sites (three per age class) in the Papuk Mountain of East Croatia during 2008. A cluster analysis identified three groupings that corresponded to the beech age classes. MIB values increased with stand age, ranging from 255 in 60-year-old stand to 537 in the oldest forests. The 80-year-old stand showed the highest species richness and diversity values. With respect to species composition, large species such as Carabus scheidleri and Carabus coriaceus were dominant only in the oldest forests. Furthermore, species that overwinter in the larval stage were more abundant in the oldest forests (45% of the total number of individuals from the 150-year-old stand) than in the younger ones (20% of individuals from 60-year-old, and 22% of individuals from 80-year-old stands). Our results showed that the analyses of species composition and life history traits are valuable for estimating the conservation values of older forests. Although the investigated sites form part of a continuous forested area and are only a couple of kilometres apart, MIB values detect significant differences associated with forest age and can be a useful tool in evaluating the degree to which a forest reflects a natural state. PMID:21738423

  2. Diversity, abundance and community network structure in sporocarp-associated beetle communities of the central Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Epps, Mary Jane; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Although arthropods are abundant and diverse in and on macrofungal sporocarps, their associations with fungi seldom have been described at a community level. We examined sporocarp-associated beetle communities in two primary sites in the Appalachian Mountains and foothills, assessing beetle diversity and abundance in relation to study site, sampling season (early vs. late summer), and sporocarp characteristics such as taxonomic position, dry mass and age. From 758 sporocarps representing >180 species we recovered 15404 adult beetles representing 72 species and 15 families, primarily Staphylinidae (> 98% of individuals and of 64% morphospecies). The probability of sporocarp colonization by beetles, beetle abundance and diversity differed among fungal species and were positively associated with sporocarp dry mass. Sporocarp age was positively correlated with beetle diversity and abundance (as measured in a focal species, Megacollybia platyphylla, Tricholomataceae), and its effects were independent of dry mass. Many beetle species were generalists, visiting a wide breadth of fungi in both the Agaricales and Polyporales; however, several beetle taxa showed evidence of specialization on particular fungal hosts. Host association data were used to examine the structure underlying sporocarp-beetle associations. Here we present the first evidence of nested community structure in the sporocarp-beetle interaction network. PMID:20648747

  3. Climatic, Edaphic Factors and Cropping History Help Predict Click Beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) (Agriotes spp.) Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kozina, A.; Lemic, D.; Bazok, R.; Mikac, K. M.; Mclean, C. M.; Ivezić, M.; Igrc Barčić, J.

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the abundance of Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is affected by agro-ecological factors such as climatic and edaphic factors and the crop/previous crop grown at the sites investigated. The aim of this study, conducted in three different geographic counties in Croatia from 2007 to 2009, was to determine the factors that influence the abundance of adult click beetle of the species Agriotes brevis Cand., Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.), Agriotes sputator (L.), and Agriotes ustulatus Schall. The mean annual air temperature, total rainfall, percentage of coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt and clay, the soil pH, and humus were investigated as potential factors that may influence abundance. Adult click beetle emergence was monitored using sex pheromone traps (YATLORf and VARb3). Exploratory data analysis was preformed via regression tree models and regional differences in Agriotes species’ abundance were predicted based on the agro-ecological factors measured. It was found that the best overall predictor of A. brevis abundance was the previous crop grown. Conversely, the best predictor of A. lineatus abundance was the current crop being grown and the percentage of humus. The best predictor of A. obscurus abundance was soil pH in KCl. The best predictor of A. sputator abundance was rainfall. Finally, the best predictors of A. ustulatus abundance were soil pH in KCl and humus. These results may be useful in regional pest control programs or for predicting future outbreaks of these species. PMID:26175463

  4. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scaraebidae) at several different ecosystem functions in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Abdullah Muhaimin Mohammad; Yaakop, Salmah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    Dung beetles has known for its bioindicator characteristic. Sensitive towards forest disturbance, dung beetles population and diversity will be less in disturbed and modified area. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diversity and distribution of dung beetles in different type of ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen baited pitfall traps aligned in three transects were used in this study. Samples were collected after 24 h and repeated three time collections and identified afterwards. Two ecosystem types were selected, which are forested and agricultural ecosystem (livestock and plantation). A total of 4249 individuals, 47 species, in 11 genera was successfully collected from all localities. The H' index for Fraser Hill, Langkawi, Bangi Reserve Forest, Selangor (HSB), Sungkai Reserve Forest, Perak (SRF), Chini Lake, Bera Lake, chicken farm, goat farm, Longan plantation, and palm oil plantation were 1.58, 1.74, 2.17, 2.63, 1.80, 1.52, 1.63, 0.46, 0.00 and 1.98 respectively.Forest ecosystem, SRF shows the highest abundance (1486 individuals) and diversity, while for agricultural ecosystem,palm oil plantation shows the highest with 273 individuals and 16 species. Based onDetrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) shows two groups that separate forest ecosystem with the agricultural ecosystem, with palm oil is the nearest to the forest. Palm oil ecosystem can sustain a dung beetles population due to the area can provide the requirements for the dung beetles to survive, such as food which comes from local domestic cows, shade from sunlight provide by the palm oil trees, and ground cover from small plants and shrubs.Even though modified ecosystem should have lower diversity of dung beetles, but some factors must be measured as well in order to have a better point of view.

  5. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  6. Global distribution of microbial abundance and biomass in subseafloor sediment

    PubMed Central

    Kallmeyer, Jens; Pockalny, Robert; Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Smith, David C.; D’Hondt, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The global geographic distribution of subseafloor sedimentary microbes and the cause(s) of that distribution are largely unexplored. Here, we show that total microbial cell abundance in subseafloor sediment varies between sites by ca. five orders of magnitude. This variation is strongly correlated with mean sedimentation rate and distance from land. Based on these correlations, we estimate global subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance to be 2.9⋅1029 cells [corresponding to 4.1 petagram (Pg) C and ∼0.6% of Earth’s total living biomass]. This estimate of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance is roughly equal to previous estimates of total microbial abundance in seawater and total microbial abundance in soil. It is much lower than previous estimates of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance. In consequence, we estimate Earth’s total number of microbes and total living biomass to be, respectively, 50–78% and 10–45% lower than previous estimates. PMID:22927371

  7. Global Distribution of Microbial Abundance and Biomass in Subseafloor Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallmeyer, J.; Pockalny, R. A.; Adhikari, R. R.; Smith, D. C.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Previously published cell counts were mostly from ocean margins and the eastern equatorial Pacific. Cell counts from these environments are generally similar from site to site and decrease logarithmically with sediment depth, although there can be sharp peaks of high cell densities in zones of anaerobic methane-oxidation. Recent counts from the South Pacific Gyre and the North Pacific Gyre are several orders of magnitude lower and show a more rapid decrease with depth than all previously published datasets. With these new data available, total microbial cell abundance in subseafloor sediment varies between sites by ca. five orders of magnitude. The differences between cell counts from ocean margins and upwelling areas and cell counts from oceanic gyres raise three questions. First, how does the abundance of microbes in subseafloor sediment vary throughout the world ocean? Second, what property or properties are likely to control that variation? Third, how does this variation affect estimates of total subseafloor sedimentary biomass and Earth's total biomass? To address these questions, we compiled our cell counts from the South Pacific Gyre, the North Pacific Gyre and the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean with previously published counts and parameterized the cell distribution at each site and determined two parameters, (i) cell concentration at 1 mbsf and (ii) rate of decrease in cell counts with depth. Both parameters are strongly correlated with mean sedimentation rate and distance to shore. Based on these correlations, we estimate global subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance to be 2.9*1029 cells (corresponding to 4.1 Pg C and ~0.6% of Earth's total living biomass). This estimate of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance is roughly equal to previous estimates of total microbial abundance in seawater and total microbial abundance in soil. It is much lower than previous estimates of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance. In consequence, we estimate

  8. Relationships beetween the regional distribution of carabid beetles ( Coleoptera, Carabidae) and the abundance of their potential prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemain, Matthieu; Loreau, Michel; Daufresne, Tanguy

    We studied regional variation in abundance of carabid beetles in relation to both abiotic factors and prey availability in 19 forest sites, with a focus on the relationship between the distributions of the carabid beetle Abax ater Villers and its prey, earthworms. No significant correlation was found between the abundance of Abax ater and any of the abiotic factors considered. On the other had, litter thickness was strongly associated with the composition and structure of the whole carabid community: an increase in litter thickness was accompanied by a decrease in both total carabid abundance and carabid species richnes, and by an increase in the proportion of forest species. The relationship between the regional distributions of abundance of carabid beetles and their potential prev was very different for soil-dwelling and litter-dwelling prey. There was a significant pattern of association between low soil prey abundance and low carabid abundance, which suggests that carabid abundance is partly controlled by prey numbers in the soil. On the other hand, there was a significant pattern of association between high prey density per volume of litter and low Abax ater abundance, thus showing a negative relationship between the abundance of this species and prey density in the litter. We propose two complementary hypotheses to explain this pattern: prey depletion by predation in the litter, and biased sampling of carabids due to differential mobility. The prey depletion hypothesis considers that soil acts as a refuge from predation, so that prey numbers in the soil control carabid abundance, while dominant carabids in turn deplete prey and control their abundance in the litter. This hypothesis suggests a complex relationship between the abundances of carabids and their prey.

  9. Japanese Interest in "Hotaru" (Fireflies) and "Kabuto-Mushi" (Japanese Rhinoceros Beetles) Corresponds with Seasonality in Visible Abundance.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the popularity of fireflies [usually Genji-fireflies (Luciola cruciata Motschulsky) in Japan] and Japanese rhinoceros beetles [Allomyrina dichotoma (Linne)] were investigated to examine whether contemporary Japanese are interested in visible emergence of these insects as seasonal events. The popularity of fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was assessed by the Google search volume of their Japanese names, "Hotaru" and "Kabuto-mushi" in Japanese Katakana script using Google Trends. The search volume index for fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles was distributed across seasons with a clear peak in only particular times of each year from 2004 to 2011. In addition, the seasonal peak of popularity for fireflies occurred at the beginning of June, whereas that for Japanese rhinoceros beetles occurred from the middle of July to the beginning of August. Thus seasonal peak of each species coincided with the peak period of the emergence of each adult stage. These findings indicated that the Japanese are interested in these insects primarily during the time when the two species are most visibly abundant. Although untested, this could suggest that fireflies and Japanese rhinoceros beetles are perceived by the general public as indicators or symbols of summer in Japan. PMID:26466535

  10. Diversity abundance and seasonality of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionida) in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...

  11. Effect of Tillage and Planting Date on Seasonal Abundance and Diversity of Predacious Ground Beetles in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, R. B.; Parajulee, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the

  12. SPECIES-ABUNDANCE-BIOMASS RESPONSES BY ESTUARINE MACROBENTHOS TO SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic community responses can be measured through concerted changes in univariate metrics, including species richness, total abundance, and total biomass. The classic model of pollution effects on marine macroinvertebrate communities recognizes that species/abundance/bioma...

  13. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles attracted to different ages of cow dung at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruchunnan, Ganaswary; Foo, Ng Yong; Ling, Wee Suk; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    The attractiveness of cow dung of different ages towards dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) was studied in Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve from February to April 2014. A total of 1,371 individuals belonging to 29 species and 11 genera had successfully collected in traps baited with cow dung aged at 1, 3 and 5 days. Cow dung was highly attractive at first 24 hours, and its attractiveness greatly reduced at Day 3 and Day 5. The result shows significant differences in the means of abundance (F = 4.60, d f= 2 & 24, P = 0.02) and species richness (F = 15.13, df = 2 & 24, P = 5.6 × 10-5). Bray Curtis similarity index indicated high community similarity between trap captures on Day 3 and Day 5 (59.7 %) compare to Day 1 (15.1 %) that leads to an assumption that some species preferentially colonized fresh dung while some species prefer aged dung. Species Copris agnus, Onthophagus aphodiodes, O. rorarius, O. orientalis, O. rutilans, O. vulpes, Oniticellus tessellatus and Paragymnopleurus maurus were captured on Day-1, while O. peninsularis and O. sumaveiensis captured on Day-3 and Day-5. Among the 11 genera, Onthophagus species was found to be most abundant with 762 individuals representing 55.6 % of the total captures. The most abundant species was Sisyphus thoracicus with 524 individuals (38.2 %). The dung beetle fauna's species accumulation curve in Tasik Chini did not reach to an asymptote suggesting more sampling effort is needed.

  14. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

  15. Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

    2013-07-01

    Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass, to a depth of 350 m, has a mean of 8.4 μg C L-1, median of 0.2 μg C L-1 and a standard deviation of 63.5 μg C L-1. The global annual average estimate of macrozooplankton biomass in the top 350 m, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid-latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted by the lack of information on the size of the organism and/or the absence of taxonomic information. Distribution patterns of global

  16. Phenology and Abundance of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eastern South Dakota on Alfalfa and Soybean Relative to Tillage, Fertilization and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without a...

  17. Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass has a mean of 8.4 μg C l-1, median of 0.15 μg C l-1 and a standard deviation of 63.46 μg C l-1. The global annual average estimate of epipelagic macrozooplankton, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. Biomass is highest in the tropics, decreasing in the sub-tropics and increasing slightly towards the poles. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted in the most part by the lack of information on the size of the

  18. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F; Thayer, Margaret K

    2013-01-01

    Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in

  19. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F.; Thayer, Margaret K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were

  20. Relationships between Plant Diversity and the Abundance and α-Diversity of Predatory Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Mature Asian Temperate Forest Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2013-01-01

    A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and α-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle α-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid α-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems. PMID:24376582

  1. Abundance and Night Hourly Dispersal of the Vesicating Beetles of the Genus Paederus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) Attracted to Fluorescent, Incandescent, and Black Light Sources in the Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Lima, D C B; Costa, A A V; Silva, F S

    2015-01-01

    Paederus beetles are cosmopolitan medically important insects that cause dermatitis linearis to humans. In Brazil, despite the medical importance of these beetles, no studies focusing directly on the abundance and ecological features of harmful species exist. Therefore, this study aims at determining the abundance and the nocturnal hourly dispersal of Paederus species attracted to fluorescent, incandescent, and black light sources in the Brazilian savanna. Paederus species were captured from May to September for three consecutive years, between 2011 and 2013. The specimens were caught hourly, from 1800 to 0600 hours. Paederus beetles were attracted to incandescent, fluorescent, and black light lamps as light sources. A total of 959 individuals of five species were collected. The collected species were Paederus protensus Sharp (59.85%), Paederus columbinus Laporte de Castelnau (29.20%), Paederus mutans Sharp (7.09%), Paederus brasiliensis Erichson (3.34%), and Paederus ferus Erichson (0.52%). The black light was the most attractive source, and the darkest collecting point was the most representative for the number of individuals. The lowest catches were captured at full moon, and the highest catches were between 2200 and 0100 hours. Future investigations are needed to better understand the role of night temperature and soil humidity affecting the seasonal growth of Paederus beetle populations of northeastern Brazil. PMID:26336279

  2. Biomass and abundance biases in European standard gillnet sampling.

    PubMed

    Šmejkal, Marek; Ricard, Daniel; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Muška, Milan; Blabolil, Petr; Čech, Martin; Vašek, Mojmír; Jůza, Tomáš; Monteoliva Herreras, Agustín; Encina, Lourdes; Peterka, Jiří; Kubečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The European Standard EN 14757 recommends gillnet mesh sizes that range from 5 to 55mm (knot-to-knot) for the standard monitoring of fish assemblages and suggests adding gillnets with larger mesh sizes if necessary. Our research showed that the recommended range of mesh sizes did not provide a representative picture of fish sizes for larger species that commonly occur in continental Europe. We developed a novel, large mesh gillnet which consists of mesh sizes 70, 90, 110 and 135mm (knot to knot, 10m panels) and assessed its added value for monitoring purposes. From selectivity curves obtained by sampling with single mesh size gillnets (11 mesh sizes 6 - 55mm) and large mesh gillnets, we identified the threshold length of bream (Abramis brama) above which this widespread large species was underestimated by European standard gillnet catches. We tested the European Standard gillnet by comparing its size composition with that obtained during concurrent pelagic trawling and purse seining in a cyprinid-dominated reservoir and found that the European Standard underestimated fish larger than 292mm by 26 times. The inclusion of large mesh gillnets in the sampling design removed this underestimation. We analysed the length-age relationship of bream in the Římov Reservoir, and concluded that catches of bream larger than 292mm and older than five years were seriously underrepresented in European Standard gillnet catches. The Římov Reservoir is a typical cyprinid-dominated water body where the biomass of bream > 292mm formed 70% of the pelagic trawl and purse seine catch. The species-specific relationships between the large mesh gillnet catch and European Standard catch suggested that the presence of carp (Cyprinus carpio), European catfish (Silurus glanis), tench (Tinca tinca) or bream warrants the use of both gillnet types. We suggest extending the gillnet series in the European Standard to avoid misinterpretation of fish community biomass estimates. PMID:25793776

  3. Biomass and Abundance Biases in European Standard Gillnet Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Muška, Milan; Blabolil, Petr; Čech, Martin; Vašek, Mojmír; Jůza, Tomáš; Monteoliva Herreras, Agustín; Encina, Lourdes; Peterka, Jiří; Kubečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The European Standard EN 14757 recommends gillnet mesh sizes that range from 5 to 55mm (knot-to-knot) for the standard monitoring of fish assemblages and suggests adding gillnets with larger mesh sizes if necessary. Our research showed that the recommended range of mesh sizes did not provide a representative picture of fish sizes for larger species that commonly occur in continental Europe. We developed a novel, large mesh gillnet which consists of mesh sizes 70, 90, 110 and 135mm (knot to knot, 10m panels) and assessed its added value for monitoring purposes. From selectivity curves obtained by sampling with single mesh size gillnets (11 mesh sizes 6 – 55mm) and large mesh gillnets, we identified the threshold length of bream (Abramis brama) above which this widespread large species was underestimated by European standard gillnet catches. We tested the European Standard gillnet by comparing its size composition with that obtained during concurrent pelagic trawling and purse seining in a cyprinid-dominated reservoir and found that the European Standard underestimated fish larger than 292mm by 26 times. The inclusion of large mesh gillnets in the sampling design removed this underestimation. We analysed the length-age relationship of bream in the Římov Reservoir, and concluded that catches of bream larger than 292mm and older than five years were seriously underrepresented in European Standard gillnet catches. The Římov Reservoir is a typical cyprinid-dominated water body where the biomass of bream > 292mm formed 70% of the pelagic trawl and purse seine catch. The species-specific relationships between the large mesh gillnet catch and European Standard catch suggested that the presence of carp (Cyprinus carpio), European catfish (Silurus glanis), tench (Tinca tinca) or bream warrants the use of both gillnet types. We suggest extending the gillnet series in the European Standard to avoid misinterpretation of fish community biomass estimates. PMID:25793776

  4. Use of Droplet Digital PCR for Estimation of Fish Abundance and Biomass in Environmental DNA Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Hideyuki; Uchii, Kimiko; Takahara, Teruhiko; Matsuhashi, Saeko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    An environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis method has been recently developed to estimate the distribution of aquatic animals by quantifying the number of target DNA copies with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). A new quantitative PCR technology, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), partitions PCR reactions into thousands of droplets and detects the amplification in each droplet, thereby allowing direct quantification of target DNA. We evaluated the quantification accuracy of qPCR and ddPCR to estimate species abundance and biomass by using eDNA in mesocosm experiments involving different numbers of common carp. We found that ddPCR quantified the concentration of carp eDNA along with carp abundance and biomass more accurately than qPCR, especially at low eDNA concentrations. In addition, errors in the analysis were smaller in ddPCR than in qPCR. Thus, ddPCR is better suited to measure eDNA concentration in water, and it provides more accurate results for the abundance and biomass of the target species than qPCR. We also found that the relationship between carp abundance and eDNA concentration was stronger than that between biomass and eDNA by using both ddPCR and qPCR; this suggests that abundance can be better estimated by the analysis of eDNA for species with fewer variations in body mass. PMID:25799582

  5. Latitudinal variation in invertebrate megafaunal abundance and biomass in the North Atlantic Ocean Abyss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, M. H.; Rice, A. L.; Bett, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    Megafauna was collected by otter trawl at two widely separated abyssal sites in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. The northern site, on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP, 4850 m), is subject to strong seasonal pulses of phytodetritus deposition, whereas the southern site, on the Madeira Abyssal Plain (OLIGO, 4500-4650 m), showed no indication of such deposition. Data from these two sites were compared with those from a third site (GME), also apparently not affected by phytodetritus, but on the Madeira Abyssal Plain 1200 km from OLIGO. Mean abundance and biomass of invertebrate megafauna at PAP were 72.6 individuals ha -1 and 1974 g ha -1 respectively. The corresponding values for OLIGO were 10.2 individuals ha -1 and 63.4 g ha -1 and for GME 21.7 individuals ha -1 and 112.9 g ha -1. Size-spectral curves of abundance and biomass based on PAP samples showed peaks in the 40-80 g wet weight class, thus confirming the megafauna as a functional entity. No evidence for seasonal variation of abundance or biomass was found. At OLIGO, abundance declined more or less regularly over the organism size range sampled, and biomass was spread fairly evenly across the larger size classes. Major differences in trophic structure among the three sites were evident, with OLIGO and GME more similar to one another than either were to PAP, with much of the higher biomass at PAP represented by particle-selective detritivorous holothurians. The contribution of invertebrates to overall megafaunal biomass at OLIGO (8%) and GME (30%) was lower than at PAP (48%), but a high proportion of fish biomass at OLIGO and GME, and almost all at PAP, belonged to macrophagous species trophically independent of benthic production.

  6. Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA).

    PubMed

    Heidelberg, Karla B; O'Neil, Keri L; Bythell, John C; Sebens, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 +/- 1949 SD individuals m(-3), but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93-96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m(-3) and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs. PMID:20046854

  7. Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Heidelberg, Karla B.; O'Neil, Keri L.; Bythell, John C.; Sebens, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 ± 1949 SD individuals m−3, but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93–96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m−3 and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs. PMID:20046854

  8. Macroinvertebrate Abundance and Biomass: 2007 Data, BPA-51; Preliminary Report, February 10, 2009..

    SciTech Connect

    Holderman, Charles

    2009-02-10

    Four Excel files containing information on the 2007 macroinvertebrate data were initially provided to Statistical Consulting Services (SCS) by EcoAnalysts on 1/27/2009. These data files contained information on abundance and biomass data at the level of taxonomic groups. The data were subsequently reformatted and compiled, and aggregated for analysis by SCS. All descriptions and analyses below relate to this compiled data. Computations were carried out separately for each site over all sample periods. Basic summary information for both the abundance and biomass data is presented in Print Out No.2. The 14 sites varied widely in their minimum, mean, maximum and variance values. The number of observations ranged from 10 to 18. Some large abundance values (abundance > 40,000) were noted for sites KR6 and KR13. A more detailed summary of each site is given in Print Out No.3. Site KR3, for example, had a mean abundance of 6914 with a sample size of 17. The variance was 4591991 and the standard error of the mean was 1643. The skewness value, a measure of symmetry for the frequency distribution, was moderately large at 1.29 indicating an asymmetric distribution. Biomass for KR3 had a mean value of 0.87 g/m{sup 2} with 17 observations. The variance was 0.8872 and the standard error was 0.228 g/m{sup 2}. Skewness for biomass was also high at 1.29. Further examination of the quantiles and frequency plots for abundance and biomass also indicate considerable skewness. The stem and leaf diagram (frequency plot) for abundance in KR3 shows most of the data centered on smaller values with a few very large counts. The distribution for biomass has a similar pattern. Statistical tests for normality are significant for both response variables in KR3, thus, the hypothesis that the data originates from a symmetric normal distribution is rejected. Because sample size estimation and statistical inference assume normally distributed data, a transformation of the data is required prior to

  9. [Interannual Variations in Abundance and Biomass of Planktonic Copepods Oithona in the Barents Sea].

    PubMed

    Dvoretsky, V G; Dvoretsky, A G

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns of the common arctic zooplankton species Oithona similis and Oithona atlantica were investigated in the Barents Sea during warm and temperate years. The maximum abundance and biomass of Oithona spp. (159 x 10(3) ind./m2 and 38.8 mgC/m2, respectively) were recorded in the waters of Atlantic origin. O. atlantica occurred in Arctic waters only during anomalously warm years. It has been found that the quantitative characteristics of O. similis were negatively correlated with salinity and the winter NAO index, whereas the abundance of O. atlantica in Atlantic waters was positively correlated with the temperature anomaly. It is found that the abundance and biomass of Oithona pp. were comparable with the values recorded in other Arctic regions. PMID:26638241

  10. Global patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: Species richness, abundance, biomass and body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton

    2013-10-01

    Global patterns in species richness in sandy beach ecosystems have been poorly understood until comparatively recently, because of the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases at continental scales. We analyze information from more than 200 sandy beaches around the world, which harbor hundreds of macrofauna species, and explore latitudinal trends in species richness, abundance and biomass. Species richness increases from temperate to tropical sites. Abundance follows contrasting trends depending on the slope of the beach: in gentle slope beaches, it is higher at temperate sites, whereas in steep-slope beaches it is higher at the tropics. Biomass follows identical negative trends for both climatic regions at the whole range of beach slopes, suggesting decreasing rates in carrying capacity of the environment towards reflective beaches. Various morphodynamic variables determine global trends in beach macrofauna. Species richness, abundance and biomass are higher at dissipative than at reflective beaches, whereas a body size follows the reverse pattern. A generalized linear model showed that large tidal range (which determines the vertical dimension of the intertidal habitat), small size of sand particles and flat beach slope (a product of the interaction among wave energy, tidal range and grain size) are correlated with high species richness, suggesting that these parameters represent the most parsimonious variables for modelling patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. Large-scale patterns indicate a scaling of abundance to a body size, suggesting that dissipative beaches harbor communities with highest abundance and species with the smallest body sizes. Additional information for tropical and northern hemisphere sandy beaches (underrepresented in our compilation) is required to decipher more conclusive trends, particularly in abundance, biomass and body size. Further research should integrate meaningful oceanographic variables, such as temperature and primary

  11. [Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-huai; Gao, Yang; Fang, Hong-da

    2011-10-01

    An investigation was conducted on the meiobenthic abundance and biomass in the Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary in July-August 2006 (summer), April 2007 (spring), and October 2007 (autumn). A total of 15 meiobenthic groups were recorded, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Ostracoda, Kinorhyncha, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Tanaidacea, Gnathostomulida, Nemertea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Sipuncula, Echiura, and other unidentified taxa. The average abundance of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 272.1 +/- 281.9, 165.1 +/- 147.1 and 246. 4 +/- 369.3 ind 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda was the most dominant group in abundance, accounting for 86.8%, 83.5%, and 93.4% of the total, respectively, followed by Polychaeta, and benthic Copepoda. The meiobenthic abundance had an uneven vertical distribution. 54.1% of the meibenthos were in 0-2 cm sediments, 35.2% were in 2-5 cm sediments, and 10.8% were in 5-10 cm sediments. 87.4% of nematodes were distributed in 0-5 cm sediments. The average biomass of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 374.6 +/- 346.9, 274.1 +/- 352.2, and 270.8 +/- 396.0 microg 10 cm(-2), and Polychaeta was the most dominant group in biomass, accounting for 30.1%, 46.7% and 46.0%, respectively, followed by Nematoda (25.2%, 20.1%, and 34.0%), and Ostracoda (20.6%, 15.3%, and 14.8%). The horizontal distribution of the meiobenthos had a trend of increasing from north to south, and being higher at east than at west. The meiobenthic abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with water depth. PMID:22263483

  12. Community composition, abundance and biomass of tintinnids (Ciliata: Protozoa) in the Western Harbour, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Heneash, Ahmed M M; Abdel-Rahman, Nasser S; Gharib, Samiha M

    2015-08-01

    Seasonal variations in species composition, abundance and biomass of tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliata) were investigated in the Western Harbour, seasonally during 2012. There were remarkable seasonal variations in environmental parameters, phytoplankton concentrations and abundance and biomass of tintinnids: highest in spring and lowest in autumn. Annual average abundance and biomass of tintinnids were 8.435 ind. l(-1) and 3.725 μg C l(-1), respectively. A total of 29 species of tintinnids belonging to 11 genera was identified. Of which, Tintinnopsis was the most abundant genus in terms of number of species (9), but Favella was the best quantitatively (89% of the total tintinnids). The overall mean abundance and biomass were highest (mean 24.415 ind. l(-1) and 10.355 μg C l(-1), respectively) during spring than the remaining seasons. Due to significant positive relationship between the total biomass of tintinnids and phytoplankton concentrations, food supply is not a problem for tintinnids harbouring in the Western Harbour. Hence, predation loss by meso- and macrozooplankton might be the possible reasons for the estimated low biomass of tintinnids in the present study. Some of the seasonal environmental factors as water salinity, nitrite, dissolved oxygen and pH values exert an influence on the species composition, abundance and biomass of tintinnids. PMID:26202815

  13. Influence of Trap Height and Bait Type on Abundance and Species Diversity of Cerambycid Beetles Captured in Forests of East-Central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Schmeelk, Thomas C; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-08-01

    We assessed how height of panel traps above the forest floor, and the type of trap bait used, influenced the abundance and diversity of cerambycid beetles caught in forested areas of east-central Illinois. Panel traps were suspended from branches of hardwood trees at three heights above the ground: understory (∼1.5 m), lower canopy (∼6 m), and midcanopy (∼12 m). Traps were baited with either a multispecies blend of synthesized cerambycid pheromones or a fermenting bait mixture. Traps captured a total of 848 beetles of 50 species in the cerambycid subfamilies Cerambycinae, Lamiinae, Lepturinae, and Parandrinae, and one species in the closely related family Disteniidae. The species caught in highest numbers was the cerambycine Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), represented by 349 specimens. The 17 most abundant species (mean ± 1 SD: 45 ± 80 specimens per species) included 12 cerambycine and five lamiine species. Of these most abundant species, 13 (77%) were attracted to traps baited with the pheromone blend. Only the cerambycine Eburia quadrigeminata (Say) was attracted by the fermenting bait. Three species were captured primarily in understory traps, and another five species primarily in midcanopy traps. Variation among cerambycid species in their vertical distribution in forests accounted for similar overall abundances and species richness across trap height treatments. These findings suggest that trapping surveys of native communities of cerambycids, and quarantine surveillance for newly introduced exotic species, would be optimized by including a variety of trap baits and distributing traps across vertical strata of forests. PMID:27298428

  14. [Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Southern Yellow Sea in winter].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-nan; Huang, Yong; Hua, Er

    2007-02-01

    A two cruises investigation on the meiobenthos in the continental shelf of Southern Yellow Sea was made in January 2003 and January 2004. The results showed that the average abundance of meiobenthos was (954.20 +/- 269.47) ind x 10 cm(-2) and ( 1 186.12+/- 486.07) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the biomass was (954.38+/-403.93) microg x10 cm(-2) and (1 120.72+/-487.21 ) mg x 10 cm(-2) in January 2003 and January 2004, respectively, with no significant difference observed. A total of twenty meiobenthic groups were identified. Free-living marine nematodes was the most dominant group in abundance, with a relative dominance of 87% in 2003 and 90% in 2004, followed by benthic harpacticoids copepoda, polychaeta and kinorhyncha. In terms of biomass, the dominant groups were nematoda (34% -38%), polychaeta (25% -33%), ostracoda (9% -22%) and copepoda (8%). 96. 64% of the meiobenthos distributed in the top 0-5 cm of sediment, while 72. 48% of nematode and 89. 46% of copepoda were in the top 0-2 cm of the sediment. Meiobenthos biomass had significant correlation with the sand and silt contents of sediment and the content of Chl-a. The species composition and biodiversity analyses of six representative stations indicated that there were three meiobenthos communities in the study area, i. e. , inshore, cold waters mass, and transitional communities. PMID:17450749

  15. The cryptofauna of Zostera marina (L.): Abundance, biomass and population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl Baden, Susanne

    Cryptofauna (epifauna passing a 2-mm but retained on a 0.2-mm mesh sieve) of Zostera marina on the Swedish west coast (58°N, 11°E) is dominated by crustaceans, mainly detritivorous tube-building amphipods and harpacticoids. Abundance and biomass of amphipods in two relatively unpolluted Z. marina beds were higher than any data from the literature, with maximum abundance of 80·10 3 ind·m -2 and 1 g AFDW·m -2 bottom. This is at least partly due to the small mesh size used in this investigation. The recruitment of the crustaceans started in late June and was continuous through the rest of the season, whereas the recruitment of the molluscs peaked in late June and July. In a Z. marina bed (Rixö) located 2 km from an oil refinery, the seasonal abundance of amphipods was 15% of the abundance in the other beds, whereas the remaining fauna had about the same density. In Rixö the percentage of female amphipod with empty brood pouches increased during the season. It is suggested that low abundances and fecundity of amphipods in Rixö could result from oil pollution.

  16. Bacterial abundance, biomass and production during spring blooms in the northern Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturluson, Maria; Gissel Nielsen, Torkel; Wassmann, Paul

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate importance of bacterioplankton in the Barents Sea, we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of bacterial abundance, biomass and production in relation to spring-bloom stages. During three cruises in 2003-2005, 12 stations were investigated. Average bacterial abundance (±S.D.) in the photic zone was 3.6±3.0×10 5 cells ml -1, corresponding to 7.1±6.1 mg C m -3. Bacterial production in the photic zone was measured using dual labelling technique with 3H-thymidine and 14C-leucine, resulting in average production rates (±S.D.) of 1.5±1.0 and 6.9±4.8 mg C m -3 d -1, respectively. In spite of low water temperature, the bacterial community was well developed and active. Similarity analysis of stations resulted in four distinct spring-bloom stages, covering pre- early-, late- and post-bloom stages. In the photic zone, bacterial biomass on average corresponded to 6±2% of phytoplankton biomass. Highest integrated bacterial biomass was observed at mid- to late-bloom stages. Average bacterial production equalled 32±6% (±S.E., n=24) of particulate primary production. The bacterial production to primary production ratio tended to increase at late-bloom stages. The observed bacterial activity illustrates the importance of the bacterial pathway for channelling carbon from DOC through the microbial food web back into the classical food web, which previously has not been adequately considered in plankton ecosystem models of the Barents Sea.

  17. Heterogeneity of macrozoobenthic assemblages within a Zostera noltii seagrass bed: diversity, abundance, biomass and structuring factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Hugues; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Lucas, Aurélien; Chardy, Pierre

    2004-09-01

    The macrobenthic fauna community of a 70-km 2Zostera noltii seagrass bed (Arcachon bay, France) was studied by sampling 49 stations systematically. A total of 126 taxa were identified. Cluster Analysis based on χ2 distance showed that in this apparently homogeneous habitat, four distinct macrobenthic communities could be identified. Multiple Discriminant Analysis highlighted the major contribution of the overlying water mass as a forcing variable, and, to a lesser extent, of tidal level and Z. noltii's below-ground parts. Seven stations did not constitute any conspicuous group, and were characterized by a low biomass of leaf (<28 g DW m -2), considered as the lowest value to constitute a Z. noltii community. Less than 24% of the seagrass bed was situated in more oceanic waters and at a quite low tidal level. In this relatively stable environment, the macrofauna community was characterized by a high species richness (mean = 39) and a moderate density and high biomass (12 638 individuals m -2 and 25 g AFDW m -2, respectively). Annelids dominated, particularly the oligochaetes. When physical constraints increased (emersion or brackish water conditions), diversity decreased, abundance and biomass increased. The seagrass bed (55%) was flooded with highly fluctuating waters in term of temperature and salinity, here species richness was low (mean = 27) but abundance and biomass were high (24 384 individuals m -2 and 28 g AFDW m -2, respectively), with a dominance of molluscs. The meadow (7%) was in external waters but at a higher tidal level (2.4 m vs 1.8 m above medium low tide level). This community was characterized by the particularly high density (41 826 individuals m -2) and dominance of oligochaetes (79% of total abundance). Species richness was high (mean = 37) here. A fourth community, extending over 12% of the meadow was dominated by the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae but could not be linked to a specific forcing variable. This study confirmed the almost

  18. Abundance, biomass and growth rates of Synechococcus sp. in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Philippines, South China Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agawin, N. S. R.; Duarte, C. M.; Agustí, S.; McManus, L.

    2003-03-01

    The abundance, biomass and growth rates of Synechococcus sp. were estimated in a tropical coastal ecosystem (Philippines, South China Sea). The patterns of change of these parameters were further examined in relation to human-derived disturbance such as siltation, and by short-term episodic disturbances such as the typhoons, which are frequent in the region. The average abundance and biomass of Synechococcus sp. in the coastal ecosystem ranged from 0.13 to 21×10 6 cells l -1, and from 0.01 to l.6 mg C m -3, respectively, with higher biomass occurring near river sources rich in inorganic nutrients. There was, however, a significant decline of specific growth rates and maximum frequency of cells in division with increasing siltation, which suggests a deterioration of the environmental conditions to support picocyanobacterial populations. The low biomass of Synechococcus sp. in more pristine sites, in spite of relatively high growth rates there suggests that loss factors (i.e. grazing) are important in controlling the biomass in the area. The temporal pattern of picocyanobacterial abundance in the tropical ecosystem studied was tightly coupled with their temporal patterns of growth indicating that changes in abundance may result from changes in growth rate. There was not, however, a clear annual pattern of Synechococcus sp. abundance in the study site but there was some evidence for effects of storms on Synechococcus sp. abundance.

  19. Dung Beetle Community and Functions along a Habitat-Disturbance Gradient in the Amazon: A Rapid Assessment of Ecological Functions Associated to Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Rodrigo F.; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

  20. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rodrigo F; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

  1. Afforestation impacts microbial biomass and its natural (13)C and (15)N abundance in soil aggregates in central China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjun; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Fan; Lei, Yao; Zhang, Quanfa; Cheng, Xiaoli

    2016-10-15

    We investigated soil microbial biomass and its natural abundance of δ(13)C and δ(15)N in aggregates (>2000μm, 250-2000μm, 53-250μm and <53μm) of afforested (implementing woodland and shrubland plantations) soils, adjacent croplands and open area (i.e., control) in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of central China. The afforested soils averaged higher microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) levels in all aggregates than in open area and cropland, with higher microbial biomass in micro-aggregates (<250μm) than in macro-aggregates (>2000μm). The δ(13)C of soil microbial biomass was more enriched in woodland soils than in other land use types, while δ(15)N of soil microbial biomass was more enriched compared with that of organic soil in all land use types. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N of microbial biomass were positively correlated with the δ(13)C and δ(15)N of organic soil across aggregates and land use types, whereas the (13)C and (15)N enrichment of microbial biomass exhibited linear decreases with the corresponding C:N ratio of organic soil. Our results suggest that shifts in the natural (13)C and (15)N abundance of microbial biomass reflect changes in the stabilization and turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby imply that afforestation can greatly impact SOM accumulation over the long-term. PMID:27285796

  2. Polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity patterns at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Mark A.; Blanco-Perez, Raimundo

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in the North Atlantic Ocean accounts for a large proportion of available bathyal soft-sediment habitat. When comparing the MAR to the continental margins of the North Atlantic, it is apparent that very little is known about the soft-sediment macrofaunal community associated with the MAR. In the present study, as part of the ECOMAR (Ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the Sub-Polar Front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone) project, the polychaete component of the MAR macrofaunal community was investigated. A total of 751 polychaete specimens and 133 species were identified from megacorer samples collected at four MAR sites (48-54°N, depth: 2500-2800 m) sampled during the RRS James Cook 48 cruise in the summer of 2010. Polychaetes were the most abundant member of the macrofaunal community, and there was no significant difference in polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity between any of the MAR sites. In addition, the MAR did not appear to provide a physical barrier to the distribution of bathyal polychaetes either side of the ridge.

  3. Copepods attain high abundance, biomass and production in the absence of large predators but suffer cannibalistic loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uye, Shin-ichi; Liang, Dong

    1998-06-01

    Zooplankton samples were collected at intervals of 3-5 days for a year in Fukuyama Harbor, a eutrophic inlet of the Inland Sea of Japan, using a 62-μm-mesh plankton net. The copepod community, which consisted of twelve species, had a very high abundance, biomass and production rate. Acartia omorii, Centropages abdominalis, Oithona davisae and Paracalanus sp. were the most abundant species. The annual average abundance and biomass of adults and copepodites were 1.10×10 5 ind. m -3 and 39.1 mg C m -3, respectively, one of the highest values so far reported in coastal marine waters. The annual average production rate was 6.85 mg C m -3 d -1, of which Paracalanus sp., O. davisae, A. omorii and C. abdominalis accounted for 27, 26, 25 and 13%, respectively. The combination of an abundant food supply and scarce large predators, except for the ctenophore Bolinopsis mikado which was abundant only in mid-summer, allowed the high abundance, biomass and production of copepods. However, predation on copepod eggs and early nauplii by adults and late copepodites reduced the population recruitment rate and copepod production.

  4. [Abundance and biomass of planktonic ciliates in the shelf of East China Sea in spring and autumn].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Zhang, Wu-chang; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Cheng-gang; Feng, Mei-ping; Li, Hai-bo; Zhao, Yuan; Xiao, Tian

    2013-08-01

    An investigation was made on the abundance and biomass of planktonic ciliates in the shelf of East China Sea in May (spring) and November (autumn), 2011. The abundance of the ciliates in spring and autumn was averagely (614 +/- 861) and (934 +/- 809) ind x L(-1), and the biomass was averagely (1.70 +/- 3.91) and (0.93 +/- 0.99) microg C x L(-1), respectively. The high abundance and biomass in spring were found in coastal and offshore areas, and those in autumn were in offshore only. In the two seasons, the ciliates tended to accumulate in the waters upper layer, and sometimes flocked in the bottom. In the spring, aloricate ciliate species were larger than those in the autumn. Tintinnids occupied (26.9% +/- 34.3)% and (44.9% +/- 25.2)% of the total ciliates abundance in spring and autumn, respectively. In taxonomy, 52 tintinnid species of 27 genera were identified. The most dominant species were Tintinnidium primitivum, Stenosemella oliva, and Tintinnopsis tubulosoides in spring, and Tintinnidium primitivum, Stenosemella parvicollis, and Tintinnopsis nana in autumn. The ciliates abundance showed significant positive correlations with water temperature and Chl a concentration, the tintinnids abundance showed significant negative correlation with water salinity, and the tintinnids community was significantly related to water temperature. PMID:24380353

  5. Influences of the Tamarisk Leaf Beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on the diet of insectivorous birds along the Dolores River in Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, Sarah L.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a biologic control agent, the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), on native avifauna in southwestern Colorado, specifically, addressing whether and to what degree birds eat tamarisk leaf beetles. In 2010, we documented avian foraging behavior, characterized the arthropod community, sampled bird diets, and undertook an experiment to determine whether tamarisk leaf beetles are palatable to birds. We observed that tamarisk leaf beetles compose 24.0 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 19.9-27.4 percent) and 35.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 32.4-45.1 percent) of arthropod abundance and biomass in the study area, respectively. Birds ate few tamarisk leaf beetles, despite a superabundance of D. carinulata in the environment. The frequency of occurrence of tamarisk leaf beetles in bird diets was 2.1 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 1.3- 2.9 percent) by abundance and 3.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 2.6-4.2 percent) by biomass. Thus, tamarisk leaf beetles probably do not contribute significantly to the diets of birds in areas where biologic control of tamarisk is being applied.

  6. A database of marine phytoplankton abundance, biomass and species composition in Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Davies, Claire H; Coughlan, Alex; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Ajani, Penelope; Armbrecht, Linda; Atkins, Natalia; Bonham, Prudence; Brett, Steve; Brinkman, Richard; Burford, Michele; Clementson, Lesley; Coad, Peter; Coman, Frank; Davies, Diana; Dela-Cruz, Jocelyn; Devlin, Michelle; Edgar, Steven; Eriksen, Ruth; Furnas, Miles; Hassler, Christel; Hill, David; Holmes, Michael; Ingleton, Tim; Jameson, Ian; Leterme, Sophie C; Lønborg, Christian; McLaughlin, James; McEnnulty, Felicity; McKinnon, A David; Miller, Margaret; Murray, Shauna; Nayar, Sasi; Patten, Renee; Pritchard, Tim; Proctor, Roger; Purcell-Meyerink, Diane; Raes, Eric; Rissik, David; Ruszczyk, Jason; Slotwinski, Anita; Swadling, Kerrie M; Tattersall, Katherine; Thompson, Peter; Thomson, Paul; Tonks, Mark; Trull, Thomas W; Uribe-Palomino, Julian; Waite, Anya M; Yauwenas, Rouna; Zammit, Anthony; Richardson, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    There have been many individual phytoplankton datasets collected across Australia since the mid 1900s, but most are unavailable to the research community. We have searched archives, contacted researchers, and scanned the primary and grey literature to collate 3,621,847 records of marine phytoplankton species from Australian waters from 1844 to the present. Many of these are small datasets collected for local questions, but combined they provide over 170 years of data on phytoplankton communities in Australian waters. Units and taxonomy have been standardised, obviously erroneous data removed, and all metadata included. We have lodged this dataset with the Australian Ocean Data Network (http://portal.aodn.org.au/) allowing public access. The Australian Phytoplankton Database will be invaluable for global change studies, as it allows analysis of ecological indicators of climate change and eutrophication (e.g., changes in distribution; diatom:dinoflagellate ratios). In addition, the standardised conversion of abundance records to biomass provides modellers with quantifiable data to initialise and validate ecosystem models of lower marine trophic levels. PMID:27328409

  7. Twenty-eight Years of Stream Invertebrate Abundance, Biomass, and Secondary Production From Three Headwater Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, J.; Eggert, S. L.; Cross, W. F.; Rosemond, A. D.; Meyer, J. L.

    2005-05-01

    We analyzed 28 years of abundance, biomass and secondary production data from 3 headwater streams at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, NC, USA. These data include years of extreme drought and precipitation (78-y record) and 8 years of reduced litter inputs (litter exclusion) and wood removal for one stream. Analysis of functional feeding group (FFG) proportions revealed strong habitat-specific preferences for either mixed substrates or bedrock outcrop habitats, with remarkable between year similarities. For both reference streams and litter reduction streams there was a significant relationship between annual CPOM standing crop and secondary production for the dominant mixed substrate habitats. Habitat-weighted production across reference streams averaged 8.2 g AFDM/m2/y (range = 4.6 to 13.2) versus 1.7 g AFDM/m2/y (range = 0.9 to 3.5) for litter exclusion years. Predator production was strongly correlated (P<0.001) with total secondary production over all years, and based on known bioenergetic efficiencies, indicate the importance of predators in these streams. Our study suggests that trophic interactions, including standing crop of CPOM as a food source, strongly influence secondary production in these headwater streams.

  8. A database of marine phytoplankton abundance, biomass and species composition in Australian waters

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Claire H.; Coughlan, Alex; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Ajani, Penelope; Armbrecht, Linda; Atkins, Natalia; Bonham, Prudence; Brett, Steve; Brinkman, Richard; Burford, Michele; Clementson, Lesley; Coad, Peter; Coman, Frank; Davies, Diana; Dela-Cruz, Jocelyn; Devlin, Michelle; Edgar, Steven; Eriksen, Ruth; Furnas, Miles; Hassler, Christel; Hill, David; Holmes, Michael; Ingleton, Tim; Jameson, Ian; Leterme, Sophie C.; Lønborg, Christian; McLaughlin, James; McEnnulty, Felicity; McKinnon, A. David; Miller, Margaret; Murray, Shauna; Nayar, Sasi; Patten, Renee; Pritchard, Tim; Proctor, Roger; Purcell-Meyerink, Diane; Raes, Eric; Rissik, David; Ruszczyk, Jason; Slotwinski, Anita; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Tattersall, Katherine; Thompson, Peter; Thomson, Paul; Tonks, Mark; Trull, Thomas W.; Uribe-Palomino, Julian; Waite, Anya M.; Yauwenas, Rouna; Zammit, Anthony; Richardson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    There have been many individual phytoplankton datasets collected across Australia since the mid 1900s, but most are unavailable to the research community. We have searched archives, contacted researchers, and scanned the primary and grey literature to collate 3,621,847 records of marine phytoplankton species from Australian waters from 1844 to the present. Many of these are small datasets collected for local questions, but combined they provide over 170 years of data on phytoplankton communities in Australian waters. Units and taxonomy have been standardised, obviously erroneous data removed, and all metadata included. We have lodged this dataset with the Australian Ocean Data Network (http://portal.aodn.org.au/) allowing public access. The Australian Phytoplankton Database will be invaluable for global change studies, as it allows analysis of ecological indicators of climate change and eutrophication (e.g., changes in distribution; diatom:dinoflagellate ratios). In addition, the standardised conversion of abundance records to biomass provides modellers with quantifiable data to initialise and validate ecosystem models of lower marine trophic levels. PMID:27328409

  9. Vertical changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods down to 3000 m in the southern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, Tomoe; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2010-08-01

    Vertical changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods down to 3000 m depth were studied at a single station of the Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea (53°28'N, 177°00'W, depth 3779 m) on the 14th June 2006. Both abundance and biomass of copepods were greatest near the surface layer and decreased with increase in depth. Abundance and biomass of copepods integrated over 0-3000 m were 1,390,000 inds. m -2 and 5056 mg C m -2, respectively. Copepod carcasses occurred throughout the layer, and the carcass:living specimen ratio was the greatest in the oxygen minimum layer (750-100 m, the ratio was 2.3). A total of 72 calanoid copepod species belonging to 34 genera and 15 families occurred in the 0-3000 m water column (Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida and Poecilostomatoida were not identified to species level). Cluster analysis separated calanoid copepod communities into 5 groups (A-E). Each group was separated by depth, and the depth range of each group was at 0-75 m (A), 75-500 m (B), 500-750 m (C), 750-1500 m (D) and 1500-3000 m (E). Copepods were divided into four types based on the feeding pattern: suspension feeders, suspension feeders in diapause, detritivores and carnivores. In terms of abundance the most dominant group was suspension feeders (mainly Cyclopoida) in the epipelagic zone, and detritivores (mainly Poecilostomatoida) were dominant in the meso- and bathypelagic zones. In terms of biomass, suspension feeders in diapause (calanoid copepods Neocalanus spp. and Eucalanus bungii) were the major component (ca. 10-45%), especially in the 250-3000 m depth. These results are compared with the previous studies in the same region and that down to greater depths in the worldwide oceans.

  10. Seasonal variability of plankton blooms in the Ria de Ferrol (NW Spain): II. Plankton abundance, composition and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, Antonio; Álvarez-Ossorio, M. Teresa; González, Nicolás; Lorenzo, Jorge; Rodríguez, Cristina; Varela, Manuel; Varela, Marta M.

    2005-04-01

    The abundance, taxonomic composition and biomass of plankton components were studied in the mostly eutrophic waters of the Ria de Ferrol (Galicia, NW Spain) in contrasting seasons. Three stations arranged in a transect along the main ria axis were sampled during cruises in February, May, July and September 2000. Phytoplankton, bacteria, micro- (40-200 μm) and mesozooplankton (>200 μm) compartments were considered. Phytoplankton blooms (>10 3 cel ml -1) and high total plankton biomass (up to 44 g C m -2) was found at all seasons, except in winter when values were <1 g C m -2. Phytoplankton generally accounted for most of total plankton biomass, particularly in late summer, thus driving most of plankton dynamics. The blooming species were always diatoms, either fast-growing, chain-forming species, well adapted to relatively turbulent conditions (e.g. Chaetoceros socialis), or disturbance-tolerant, estuarine adapted species (e.g. Skeletonema costatum). In addition, microflagellates (<10 μm) reached high abundances, particularly during summer. The influence of shelf waters, where coastal upwelling events are frequent for most of the spring and summer, prevents the establishment of a marked pycnocline and the dominance of dinoflagellates. Microheterotrophs (bacteria, protozoa and larval stages of metazoa) increased their abundance and biomass from winter to late summer, while mesozooplankton peaked in spring and summer. Zooplankton dynamics were characterised by the presence of large numbers of larvae of both planktonic copepods and benthic metazoans, the latter mainly cirripeds and bivalve molluscs. The absence of a definite succession pattern in the mesozooplankton species abundance data, in contrast with phytoplankton data, along with the dominance of estuarine species (e.g. Acartia margalefi), suggest that mesozooplankton communities inside the ria behave differently from communities in shelf waters. Despite its small size and reduced influence of upwelling

  11. Hydrodynamic control of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in northern Svalbard waters (79-81°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Søreide, Janne E.; Kwasniewski, Slawek; Sundfjord, Arild; Hop, Haakon; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Nøst Hegseth, Else

    2008-10-01

    The spatial variation in mesozooplankton biomass, abundance and species composition in relation to oceanography was studied in different climatic regimes (warm Atlantic vs. cold Arctic) in northern Svalbard waters. Relationships between the zooplankton community and various environmental factors (salinity, temperature, sampling depth, bottom depth, sea-ice concentrations, algal biomass and bloom stage) were established using multivariate statistics. Our study demonstrated that variability in the physical environment around Svalbard had measurable effect on the pelagic ecosystem. Differences in bottom depth and temperature-salinity best explained more than 40% of the horizontal variability in mesozooplankton biomass (DM m -2) after adjusting for seasonal variability. Salinity and temperature also explained much (21% and 15%, respectively) of the variability in mesozooplankton vertical distribution (ind. m -3) in August. Algal bloom stage, chlorophyll- a biomass, and depth stratum accounted for additional 17% of the overall variability structuring vertical zooplankton distribution. Three main zooplankton communities were identified, including Atlantic species Fritillaria borealis, Oithona atlantica, Calanus finmarchicus, Themisto abyssorum and Aglantha digitale; Arctic species Calanus glacialis, Gammarus wilkitzkii, Mertensia ovum and Sagitta elegans; and deeper-water inhabitants Paraeuchaeta spp., Spinocalanus spp., Aetideopsis minor, Mormonilla minor, Scolecithricella minor, Gaetanus ( Gaidius) tenuispinus, Ostracoda, Scaphocalanus brevicornis and Triconia borealis. Zooplankton biomasses in Atlantic- and Arctic-dominated water masses were similar, but biological "hot-spots" were associated with Arctic communities.

  12. Composition, abundance, biomass, and production of macrofauna in a New England estuary: comparisons among eelgrass meadows and other nursery habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heck, K.L., Jr.; Able, K.W.; Roman, C.T.; Fahay, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative suction sampling was used to characterize and compare the species composition, abundance, biomass, and secondary production of macrofauna inhabiting intertidal mudflat and sandflat, eelgrass meadow, and saltmarshpool habitats in the Nauset Marsh complex, Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA). Species richness and abundance were often greatest in eelgrass habitat, as was macroinvertebrate biomass and production. Most striking was the five to fifteen times greater rate of annual macrofaunal production in eelgrass habitat than elsewhere, with values ranging from approximately 23139 g AFDW m super(2) yr super(1). The marsh pool containing widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) supported surprisingly low numbers of macroinvertebrates, probably due to stressfully low dissolved oxygen levels at night during the summer. Two species of macroinvertebrates, blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and to a lesser extent bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), used eelgrass as 'nursery habitat.' Calculations showed that macroinvertebrate production is proportionally much greater than the amount of primary production attributable to eelgrass in the Nauset Marsh system, and that dramatic changes at all trophic levels could be expected if large changes in seagrass abundance should occur. This work further underscores the extraordinarily large impact that seagrass can have on both the structure and function of estuarine ecosystems.

  13. Spatial-temporal scales of synchrony in marine zooplankton biomass and abundance patterns: A world-wide comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelder, Harold P.; Mackas, David L.; O'Brien, Todd D.

    2012-05-01

    Large scale synchrony in the fluctuations of abundance or biomass of marine fish populations in regions on opposite sides of an ocean basin or in different oceans have been viewed as externally forced by correlated environmental stochasticity (e.g., common external forcing), most often as atmospheric teleconnections of basin-to-global scale atmospheric forcing, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Specific causal mechanisms have been difficult to unequivocally discover, but possible mechanisms include influences on habitat temperatures, productivity operating through bottom-up (trophodynamic) mechanisms or direct climate influence on the fish populations (top-down mechanisms). For small pelagic fishes (sardines and anchovies) in widely separated large marine ecosystems that lack obvious ocean interconnectivity, it has been argued that the teleconnections may be atmospheric, acting on the fishes directly and propagating to the ecosystem from the middle out (wasp-waist species). Zooplankton biomass or abundance time series data from >100 sites world-wide are used to examine the spatial scales of coherent temporal synchrony. If spatially correlated environmental factors (like climate) are important for creating synchrony in fish populations via bottom-up effects (trophic interactions involving fish prey, e.g., zooplankton), then we would expect to observe synchrony in fluctuations of zooplankton biomass/numbers at spatial scales similar to those found for fish species. Zooplankton biomass/abundance have 50% spatial decorrelation scales of ca. 700-1400 km and scales of significant coherence that extend to separation distances of ca. 3000 km. These are also the spatial scales of environmental (sea surface temperature) synchrony from our global analysis. These scales are slightly greater than the 50% decorrelation scales of ca. 150-700 km for recruitment synchrony in Atlantic marine fish and survival and

  14. Abundance in Persea americana of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Vector of Laurel Wilt: A Case of Intra-guild Competition?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus is a pest of plant species in the Lauraceae, including Persea borbonia, P. pallustris, P. americana, and others. Xyleborus glabratus infestation levels in P. borbonia maintain a high proportion compared to other species, such as Xylosandrus crassiuscu...

  15. Scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities using functional diversity and community deconstruction approaches.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  16. Scale-Dependence of Processes Structuring Dung Beetle Metacommunities Using Functional Diversity and Community Deconstruction Approaches

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  17. [Effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in Huangfuchuan watershed, Inner Mongolia of North China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Run-Run; Liu, Xin-Min

    2013-03-01

    By using pitfall trap method, and taking the croplands and natural grasslands under different soil and water loss control measures as sampling plots, an investigation was conducted on the dung beetle assemblages in the Huangfuchuan watershed of Inner Mongolia from September 2007 to September 2008, aimed to understand the effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed. A total of 6169 dung beetles were captured, belonging to 15 species, 5 genus, and 2 families. The dominant species were Aphodius rectus and Onthophagus gibbulus, accounting for 66. 54% and 13. 26% of the total captured beetles, respectively. A lack of the species suitable for living in woodland habitats was the basic feature of the dung beetle assemblages. As compared with the control, all test soil and water loss control measures did not cause an obvious increase of species richness, biomass, and abundance of the dung beetle assemblages. The biomass and species richness of the assemblages as well as the abundance of the functional groups II and III had a significant negative correlation with the average tree (grass) height. Under the effects of long-term agricultural cultivation and the lack of large herbivores, the species richness and abundance of the functional group I (larger paracoprids and telocoprids) were lower than those of the functional groups II (relatively smaller paracoprids) and II (endocoprids), the main components of the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed. The faeces of the residents and livestock in the study region provided abundant foods for the dung beetle assemblages, inducing the relatively high abundance and spices richness of the assemblages occurred in the croplands nearby the villages. Our results suggested that natural grasslands were the suitable habitats for the dung beetles in Huangfuchuan watershed. At regional scale, to popularize the successful experiences of comprehensive soil and water loss control

  18. How does landscape use influence small mammal diversity, abundance and biomass in hedgerow networks of farming landscapes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Nadia; Burel, Françoise; Butet, Alain

    2006-07-01

    Over the last decades, profound changes in agricultural practices in the world have led to modifications of land-use as well as landscape structure and composition. Major changes resulted in enlargement of parcel size, increase of cultivated areas and drastic reduction of permanent elements such as woods, hedges or natural meadows. In this context we chose to investigate the composition and structure of small mammal communities in the hedgerow networks of three landscape units of Western France (Brittany) differing by their level of agricultural land-use intensity and hedgerow network density: a slightly intensified dense hedgerow network landscape unit (BOC1), a moderately intensified and fragmented hedgerow network landscape unit (BOC2) and a highly intensified landscape unit on an area reclaimed from the sea (POL). Characterization of small mammal communities was performed using live trapping on permanent habitats (eight hedges per landscape unit). In each of the 24 trapping units, a standardized method was used consisting of a baited 100-m trap-line. Diversity indices were used to compare the three communities. Species richness didn't vary across landscapes whereas Shannon's index of diversity underlined a clear difference between, on the one hand, the most intensified landscape unit (POL) which displayed the lowest diversity and, on the other hand, the two other less intensified units. The abundance of small mammals differed between the three sites: they were significantly more numerous in the hedges of the most intensified site than in hedges of the two other sites. Differences between species also appeared: for example, the Bank vole ( Clethrionomys glareolus) was very characteristic of POL, whereas the Pygmy shrew ( Sorex minutus) was much more associated with BOC sites. Within hedges, like for abundance, small mammal biomass was the highest in the most intensified site (POL > BOC2 = BOC1). On the contrary, at the landscape scale, biomass was the lowest in

  19. RNA-sequencing analysis reveals abundant developmental stage-specific and immunity-related genes in the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H; Badapanda, C; Knorr, E; Vilcinskas, A

    2014-02-01

    The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) is a major pest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and other cruciferous crops in Europe. Pesticide-resistant pollen beetle populations are emerging, increasing the economic impact of this species. We isolated total RNA from the larval and adult stages, the latter either naïve or immunized by injection with bacteria and yeast. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was carried out to establish a comprehensive transcriptome catalogue and to screen for developmental stage-specific and immunity-related transcripts. We assembled the transcriptome de novo by combining sequence tags from all developmental stages and treatments. Gene expression data based on normalized read counts revealed several functional gene categories that were differentially expressed between larvae and adults, particularly genes associated with digestion and detoxification that were induced in larvae, and genes associated with reproduction and environmental signalling that were induced in adults. We also identified many genes associated with microbe recognition, immunity-related signalling and defence effectors, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes. Digital gene expression analysis revealed significant differences in the profile of AMPs expressed in larvae, naïve adults and immune-challenged adults, providing insight into the steady-state differences between developmental stages and the complex transcriptional remodelling that occurs following the induction of immunity. Our data provide insight into the adaptive mechanisms used by phytophagous insects and could lead to the development of more effective control strategies for insect pests. PMID:24252113

  20. Abundance of {sup 14}C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fellner, Johann Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-05-15

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO{sub 2} emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes {sup 14}C and {sup 12}C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in {sup 14}C and reflect the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying {sup 14}C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper {sup 14}C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated {sup 14}C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135 pMC.

  1. Abundance of (14)C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-05-01

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO(2) emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes (14)C and (12)C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in (14)C and reflect the (14)CO(2) abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying (14)C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper (14)C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated (14)C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135pMC. PMID:19157836

  2. Can DNA-Based Ecosystem Assessments Quantify Species Abundance? Testing Primer Bias and Biomass--Sequence Relationships with an Innovative Metabarcoding Protocol.

    PubMed

    Elbrecht, Vasco; Leese, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Metabarcoding is an emerging genetic tool to rapidly assess biodiversity in ecosystems. It involves high-throughput sequencing of a standard gene from an environmental sample and comparison to a reference database. However, no consensus has emerged regarding laboratory pipelines to screen species diversity and infer species abundances from environmental samples. In particular, the effect of primer bias and the detection limit for specimens with a low biomass has not been systematically examined, when processing samples in bulk. We developed and tested a DNA metabarcoding protocol that utilises the standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding fragment to detect freshwater macroinvertebrate taxa. DNA was extracted in bulk, amplified in a single PCR step, and purified, and the libraries were directly sequenced in two independent MiSeq runs (300-bp paired-end reads). Specifically, we assessed the influence of specimen biomass on sequence read abundance by sequencing 31 specimens of a stonefly species with known haplotypes spanning three orders of magnitude in biomass (experiment I). Then, we tested the recovery of 52 different freshwater invertebrate taxa of similar biomass using the same standard barcoding primers (experiment II). Each experiment was replicated ten times to maximise statistical power. The results of both experiments were consistent across replicates. We found a distinct positive correlation between species biomass and resulting numbers of MiSeq reads. Furthermore, we reliably recovered 83% of the 52 taxa used to test primer bias. However, sequence abundance varied by four orders of magnitudes between taxa despite the use of similar amounts of biomass. Our metabarcoding approach yielded reliable results for high-throughput assessments. However, the results indicated that primer efficiency is highly species-specific, which would prevent straightforward assessments of species abundance and biomass in a sample. Thus, PCR-based metabarcoding

  3. Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

    2013-01-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future. PMID:24062759

  4. Free-living plathelminthes in sheep-grazed and ungrazed supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea: Abundance, biomass, and their significance in food chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, W.

    The supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea are marked by high halophyte primary productivity. The environmental factors are strongly fluctuating. Despite these features the metazoan meiofaunal abundance is equal to that found in other littoral habitats. On average 1250 marine metazoans are found per 10 cm 2 in ungrazed and 770 per 10 cm 2 in sheep-grazed supralittoral salt marshes. Nematoda dominate in numerical abundance, Oligochaeta in biomass. Plathelminthes account for 15% of marine metazoans in ungrazed and 5% in grazed salt marshes. Total plathelminth abundance increases with halophyte density, whereas the abundance of diatom-feeding Plathelminthes decreases. In ungrazed marshes on average 104 Plathelminthes are found per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.65 g DW·m -2. In sheep-grazed marshes the average abundance is only 32 individuals per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.1 g DW·m -2. Average individual weight is 3.2 μg DW or 2.5 μg AFDW. In grazed salt marshes, 30% of plathelminthes feed on diatoms, 66% are predators, and 4% feed on bacteria (gut analysis). In ungrazed salt marshes only 3% are diatom-feeders, and 90% are predators feeding on Nematoda, Copepoda, Oligochaeta, and smaller Plathelminthes. Presumably plathelminthes are top predators on the salt marsh meiofauna.

  5. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  6. Seasonal variations in species composition, abundance, biomass and estimated production rates of tintinnids at tropical estuarine and mangrove waters, Parangipettai, southeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godhantaraman, N.

    2002-10-01

    Seasonal varaitions in species composition, abundance, biomass and production rates of tintinnids (Protozoa: Ciliata) were investigated in the tropical estuarine and mangrove systems of Parangipettai, South India, monthly from January to December 1994. There were remarkable seasonal variations in environmental parameters, chlorophyll a concentrations and abundance, biomass and production rates of tintinnids: highest in postmosoon/summer and lowest in monsoon. The total abundance and biomass of tintinnids were in the range of 2-420 indiv. l -1 and 0.02 3.01 μg C l -1, respectively, with the peak appearing in the estuarine waters. A total of 47 species of tintinnids belonging to 14 genera was identified. Of which, Tintinnopsis was the most abundant genus in terms of number of species (20), followed by Codonellopsis (4), Stenosemella (4), Favella (3), Eutintinnus (3), and the remaining genus, number of species are one or two. Most of the tintinnid species occurred on distinct seasonal pattern and closely associated to species-specific environmental conditions. Due to large thermal gradients (range: 22.5-33.8 °C), the overall mean biomass was highest (mean: 1.64 μg C l -1) during summer than the remaining seasons. Estimated production rates of tintinnids ranged from 0.02 to 2.5 μg C l -1 day -1, with peak in summer. The trophodynamic role of tintinnids was assessed by estimating their grazing impact as expressed by daily removal of phytoplankton biomass. The grazing impact also demonstrated a seasonal pattern and ranged from 0.03% to 1.24% removal day -1. The higher grazing impact estimated during summer could be related to high concentrations of food supply. Due to significant positive relationship between the total biomass of tintinnids and chlorophyll a concentrations, food supply is not a problem for tintinnids harboring in this estuarine and mangrove systems. Hence, predation loss by meso- and macrozooplankton might be the possible reasons for the estimated

  7. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Work, Timothy T; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus(Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  8. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Work, Timothy T.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  9. A doubling of microphytobenthos biomass coincides with a tenfold increase in denitrifier and total bacterial abundances in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary.

    PubMed

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Tytgat, Bjorn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB) biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen). Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold) increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-). This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community. PMID:25961719

  10. A Doubling of Microphytobenthos Biomass Coincides with a Tenfold Increase in Denitrifier and Total Bacterial Abundances in Intertidal Sediments of a Temperate Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Tytgat, Bjorn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB) biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen). Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold) increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-). This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community. PMID:25961719

  11. Large Spatial Scale Variability in Bathyal Macrobenthos Abundance, Biomass, α- and β-Diversity along the Mediterranean Continental Margin

    PubMed Central

    Baldrighi, Elisa; Lavaleye, Marc; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Manini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale deep-sea biodiversity distribution of the benthic fauna was explored in the Mediterranean Sea, which can be seen as a miniature model of the oceans of the world. Within the framework of the BIOFUN project (“Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Contrasting Southern European Deep-sea Environments: from viruses to megafauna”), we investigated the large spatial scale variability (over >1,000 km) of the bathyal macrofauna communities that inhabit the Mediterranean basin, and their relationships with the environmental variables. The macrofauna abundance, biomass, community structure and functional diversity were analysed and the α-diversity and β-diversity were estimated across six selected slope areas at different longitudes and along three main depths. The macrobenthic standing stock and α-diversity were lower in the deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean basin, compared to the western and central basins. The macrofaunal standing stock and diversity decreased significantly from the upper bathyal to the lower bathyal slope stations. The major changes in the community composition of the higher taxa and in the trophic (functional) structure occurred at different longitudes, rather than at increasing water depth. For the β-diversity, very high dissimilarities emerged at all levels: (i) between basins; (ii) between slopes within the same basin; and (iii) between stations at different depths; this therefore demonstrates the high macrofaunal diversity of the Mediterranean basins at large spatial scales. Overall, the food sources (i.e., quantity and quality) that characterised the west, central and eastern Mediterranean basins, as well as sediment grain size, appear to influence the macrobenthic standing stock and the biodiversity along the different slope areas. PMID:25225909

  12. Large spatial scale variability in bathyal macrobenthos abundance, biomass, α- and β-diversity along the Mediterranean continental margin.

    PubMed

    Baldrighi, Elisa; Lavaleye, Marc; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Manini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale deep-sea biodiversity distribution of the benthic fauna was explored in the Mediterranean Sea, which can be seen as a miniature model of the oceans of the world. Within the framework of the BIOFUN project ("Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Contrasting Southern European Deep-sea Environments: from viruses to megafauna"), we investigated the large spatial scale variability (over >1,000 km) of the bathyal macrofauna communities that inhabit the Mediterranean basin, and their relationships with the environmental variables. The macrofauna abundance, biomass, community structure and functional diversity were analysed and the α-diversity and β-diversity were estimated across six selected slope areas at different longitudes and along three main depths. The macrobenthic standing stock and α-diversity were lower in the deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean basin, compared to the western and central basins. The macrofaunal standing stock and diversity decreased significantly from the upper bathyal to the lower bathyal slope stations. The major changes in the community composition of the higher taxa and in the trophic (functional) structure occurred at different longitudes, rather than at increasing water depth. For the β-diversity, very high dissimilarities emerged at all levels: (i) between basins; (ii) between slopes within the same basin; and (iii) between stations at different depths; this therefore demonstrates the high macrofaunal diversity of the Mediterranean basins at large spatial scales. Overall, the food sources (i.e., quantity and quality) that characterised the west, central and eastern Mediterranean basins, as well as sediment grain size, appear to influence the macrobenthic standing stock and the biodiversity along the different slope areas. PMID:25225909

  13. The effect of inundation frequency on ground beetle communities in a channelized mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalski, T.; Kedzior, R.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.

    2012-04-01

    Under natural conditions, river channels and floodplains are shaped by flow and sediment regime and are one of the most dynamic ecosystems. At present, European river floodplains are among the most endangered landscapes due to human modifications to river systems, including channel regulation and floodplain urbanization, and land use changes in the catchments. Situated in a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic environments, exposed riverine sediments (ERS) play a key role in the functioning of riverine ecosystems. This study aimed to verify whether the bare granular substrate is the only factor responsible for sustaining the biota associated with ERS or the inundation frequency also plays a role, modifying the potential of particular species to colonize these habitats. Ground beetles (Col. Carabidae) were selected as the investigated group of organisms and the study was carried out in Porębianka, a Polish Carpathian stream flowing through both unconstrained channel sections and sections with varied channelization schemes (rapid hydraulic structures, concrete revetments or rip-rap of various age). In each of the distinguished channel types, four replicates of 10 pitfall traps were established in three rows varying in distance to the mean water level (at three different benches). Almost 7000 individuals belonging to 102 species were collected on 60 plots. Forward selection of redundancy analysis revealed four factors significantly describing the variation in ground beetle species data: bank modification, potential bankfull discharge, frequency of inundation and plant height. Most of the biggest species were ordered at the positive site of first axis having the highest values of periods between floods. Total biomass of ground beetles and mean biomass of individuals differed significantly between sites of various frequency of inundation, whereas the variation in abundance and species richness of ground beetles was independent of the river dynamics. The body

  14. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  15. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dena M; Marcot, Jonathan D

    2015-04-22

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  16. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dena M.; Marcot, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  17. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population.

    PubMed

    Penning, Bryan W; Sykes, Robert W; Babcock, Nicholas C; Dugard, Christopher K; Held, Michael A; Klimek, John F; Shreve, Jacob T; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F; Decker, Stephen R; Turner, Geoffrey B; Mosier, Nathan S; Springer, Nathan M; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

  18. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

  19. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; et al

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yieldmore » was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.« less

  20. Geographical and seasonal variations in mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in relation to environmental parameters in Lake Shinji Ohashi River Lake Nakaumi brackish-water system, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uye, S.; Shimazu, T.; Yamamuro, M.; Ishitobi, Y.; Kamiya, H.

    2000-10-01

    We measured the abundance and biomass of the major taxonomic groups of mesozooplankton at six stations in Lake Shinji-Ohashi River-Lake Nakaumi brackish-water system, Japan, monthly for three full years (1995-1997), except for one station (for 1 year and 9 months). Over the entire area, copepods overwhelmingly dominated the zooplankton community both in terms of abundance (mean: 87.9%) and biomass (83.4%). The remaining taxa were cladocerans (i.e. Diphanosoma brachyurum, Evadone tergestina, Penilia avirostris, Podon leuckarti and Podon polyphemoides), appendicularians ( Oikopleura dioica and Oikopleura longicauda), chaetognaths ( Sagitta crassa) and the larvae of benthos (e.g. polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods and malacostracans). The geographical and seasonal variations of the mesozooplankton community were therefore principally explained by the variations of the copepod community. The geographical difference in copepod species composition was associated with salinity preference or tolerance of respective species. In Lake Shinji, where the salinity was lowest (mean: 4.0), Sinocalanus tenellus was monospecifically abundant with sporadic occurrence of Pseudodiaptomus inopinus. In Ohashi River (mean salinity: 9.9), Acartia hudsonica, Acartia sinjiensis, Eurytemora pacifica and Oithona davisae added to the community. At central and southeast Lake Nakaumi and in Honjo District, where mean salinity ranged from 16.4 to 21.7, these four species became more important than S. tenellus and P. inopinus. At the entrance of Sakai Strait, where the salinity was highest (mean: 24.0), Paracalanus spp. constituted a significant component. Due to large temperature fluctuation with season, the copepods showed remarkable seasonal variations in abundance and biomass, with enormous annual peaks in winter-spring. These annual peaks might be attributed to scarce occurrence of predators.

  1. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    SciTech Connect

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.

  2. Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: implications for prey fish sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murry, Brent A.; Connerton, Michael J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Stewart, Donald J.; Ringlerd, Neil H.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking levels of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for Lake Ontario have been highly controversial since the early 1990s, largely because of uncertainties about lakewide abundance and rates of prey consumption. Previous estimates have focused on years before 1995; since then, however, the Lake Ontario ecosystem has undergone substantial changes, and there is new evidence of extensive natural recruitment. Presented here are new abundance estimates of Chinook salmon and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario and a reevaluation of the potential risk of alewife population collapse. We found that Lake Ontario has been supporting, on average (1989–2005), 1.83 × 106 (range, 1.08 × 106 to 3.24 × 106) Chinook salmon of ages 1–4, amounting to a mean annual biomass of 11.33 × 103 metric tons (range, 5.83 × 103 to 23.04 × 103 metric tons). During the same period (1989–2005), the lake supported an alewife biomass of 173.66 × 103 metric tons (range, 62.37 × 103 to 345.49 × 103 metric tons); Chinook salmon of ages 1–4 consumed, on average, 22% (range, 11–44%) of the alewife biomass annually. Because our estimates probably underestimate total consumption and because Chinook salmon are only one of several salmonine species that depend on alewives, predation pressure on the Lake Ontario alewife population may be high enough to raise concerns about long-term stability of this predator–prey system.

  3. Factors influencing benthic bacterial abundance, biomass, and activity on the northern continental margin and deep basin of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Jody W.; Carpenter, Shelly D.

    2008-12-01

    As part of a larger project on the deep benthos of the Gulf of Mexico, an extensive data set on benthic bacterial abundance ( n>750), supplemented with cell-size and rate measurements, was acquired from 51 sites across a depth range of 212-3732 m on the northern continental slope and deep basin during the years 2000, 2001, and 2002. Bacterial abundance, determined by epifluorescence microscopy, was examined region-wide as a function of spatial and temporal variables, while subsets of the data were examined for sediment-based chemical or mineralogical correlates according to the availability of collaborative data sets. In the latter case, depth of oxygen penetration helped to explain bacterial depth profiles into the sediment, but only porewater DOC correlated significantly (inversely) with bacterial abundance ( p<0.05, n=24). Other (positive) correlations were detected with TOC, C/N ratios, and % sand when the analysis was restricted to data from the easternmost stations ( p<0.05, n=9-12). Region-wide, neither surface bacterial abundance (3.30-16.8×10 8 bacteria cm -3 in 0-1 cm and 4-5 cm strata) nor depth-integrated abundance (4.84-17.5×10 13 bacteria m -2, 0-15 cm) could be explained by water depth, station location, sampling year, or vertical POC flux. In contrast, depth-integrated bacterial biomass, derived from measured cell sizes of 0.027-0.072 μm 3, declined significantly with station depth ( p<0.001, n=56). Steeper declines in biomass were observed for the cross-slope transects (when unusual topographic sites and abyssal stations were excluded). The importance of resource changes with depth was supported by the positive relationship observed between bacterial biomass and vertical POC flux, derived from measures of overlying productivity, a relationship that remained significant when depth was held constant (partial correlation analysis, p<0.05, df=50). Whole-sediment incubation experiments under simulated in situ conditions, using 3H-thymidine or 14C

  4. Effects of soil tillage and management of crop residues on soil properties: abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms, soil structure and nutrient evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lemtiri, Aboulkacem

    2013-04-01

    The living soil is represented by soil biota that interacts with aboveground biota and with the abiotic environment, soil structure, soil reaction, organic matter, nutrient contents, aso. Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is an important issue to conciliate soil quality and agricultural productivity. Earthworms are key actors in soil structure formation through the production of casts and the incorporation of soil organic matter in the soil. Research is still needed about the interactive effects of various tillage and crop residue management practices on earthworm populations and physical and chemical properties of soil. To investigate the impacts of two tillage management systems and two cropping systems on earthworm populations, soil structure evolution and nutrient dynamics, we carried out a three years study in an experimental field. The aims of this experimentation, were to assess the effects of the tillage systems (ploughing versus reduced tillage) and the availability of crop residues (export versus no export) on (i) the abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms, on the soil structure and on the temporal variation of water extractable nutrients and organic carbon. The first results show that tillage management did significantly affect earthworm abundance and biomass. However, crop residue management did not affect abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms. Regarding soil physical properties, the tillage affected the compaction profiles within the top 30cm. The analysis of nutrient and organic carbon dynamics show divergent trends (decrease of calcium and magnesium, increase of hot water extractable carbon and phosphorus…) but no clear effect of the studied factors could be identified. The question of the initial soil variability raised as a crucial point in the discussion.

  5. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. PMID:26992100

  6. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra. PMID:25499796

  7. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed, but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  8. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetle (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge {Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  9. Investigating the association of fish abundance and biomass with cold-water corals in the deep Northeast Atlantic Ocean using a generalised linear modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biber, Matthias F.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Davies, Andrew J.; Bergman, Magda J. N.; van den Beld, Inge M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) can form complex three-dimensional structures that can support a diverse macro- and megafaunal community. These reef structures provide important biogenic habitats that can act as refuge, feeding, spawning and nursery areas for fish. However, quantitative data assessing the linkage between CWC and fish are scarce. The North Atlantic Ocean is a key region in the worldwide distribution of Lophelia pertusa, which is thought to be the most widespread frame-work forming cold-water coral species in the world. This study examined the relationship between fish and CWC reefs in the northeast Atlantic Ocean by means of video and remotely sensed data from three different CWC communities (Rockall Bank, Hatton Bank and the Belgica Mound Province). Using a tethered camera system, 37 transects were recorded during a period of 8 years. Fish-coral association was investigated using a generalised linear modelling (GLM) approach. Overall, Lepidion eques was the most abundant fish species present (143 ind. ha-1). Other common species were Sigmops bathyphilus (17 ind. ha-1), Synaphobranchus kaupii (15 ind. ha-1), Helicolenus dactylopterus (16 ind. ha-1) and Mora moro (7 ind. ha-1). The highest fish biomass was measured for Lophius piscatorius (26.3 kg ha-1). Other species with a high biomass were Helicolenus dactylopterus (4.3 kg ha-1), Lepidion eques (13.2 kg ha-1) and Mora moro (7.8 kg ha-1). Overall, no significant difference in fish abundance and biomass was found at coral framework habitats compared to non-coral areas. The relationship between fish and coral framework varied among fish species and study site. Fish count and length modelling results showed that terrain variables explain a small proportion of the variation of our data. Depth, coral-framework and terrain rugosity were generally the most important explanatory variables, but this varied with species and study site.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  11. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  12. Ambrosia beetle fungiculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3,500 species of ambrosia beetles, represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. This presentation focuses on the discovery of a clade within the filamentous fungus Fusarium that is associ...

  13. Carabid Beetles as Parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid habit is uncommon in beetles; only 11 beetle families include parasitoid species. Three tribes of 76 in the Carabidae are known to have species in which larvae are pupal ectoparasitoids: Brachinini, Peleciini, and Lebiini. The first larval instar is the free-living, host-finding stage...

  14. Semiochemical-MediatedFlight Strategies of Two Invasive Elm Bark Beetles: A Potential Factor in Competitive Displacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent seven-state survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus was not as abundant. Behavioral trials were conducted by hanging sm...

  15. Diversity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Attracted to Avocado, Lychee, and Essential Oil Lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trapping studies conducted in north-central Florida for the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) captured numerous non-target ambrosia beetles, providing information on species diversity and relative abundance. Traps (Lindgren and sticky) baited with essential oil lures (manuka and p...

  16. Nitrogen content, 15N natural abundance and biomass of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. in relation to atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Solga, A; Burkhardt, J; Zechmeister, H G; Frahm, J-P

    2005-04-01

    The suitability of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Scleropodium purum for assessing spatial variation in nitrogen deposition was investigated. Sampling was carried out at eight sites in the western part of Germany with bulk deposition rates ranging between 6.5 and 18.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). In addition to the effect of deposition on the nitrogen content of the two species, its influence on 15N natural abundance (delta15N values) and on productivity was examined. Annual increases of the mosses were used for all analyses. Significant relationships between bulk N deposition and nitrogen content were obtained for both species; delta15N-values reflected the ratio of NH4-N to NO3-N in deposition. A negative effect of nitrogen input on productivity, i.e. decreasing biomass per area with increasing N deposition due to a reduction of stem density, was particularly evident with P. schreberi. Monitoring of N deposition by means of mosses is considered an important supplement to existing monitoring programs. It makes possible an improved spatial resolution, and thus those areas that receive high loads of nitrogen are more easily discernible. PMID:15620592

  17. Lady beetles of South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lady beetles are one of the most familiar groups of beneficial insects. Farmers and gardeners appreciate them for devouring insect pests. Both adult lady beetles and caterpillar-like juveniles eat pests. Lady beetles are recognizable by their red and orange colors that contrast with black spots and...

  18. Variations in dung beetles assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) within two rain forest habitats in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Feer, François

    2013-06-01

    The structure of dung beetle communities inhabiting tropical forests are known to be sensitive to many kinds of environmental changes such as microclimate related to vegetation structure. I examined Scarabaeinae assemblages in two sites of undisturbed high forest and two sites of low forest forming a transitional zone with the open habitat of an inselberg in French Guiana. Sampling was made with pitfall and flight interception traps during 2003 and 2004. The driest and warmest conditions characterized the low forest sites. Across two years we obtained 2 927 individuals from 61 species with pitfall traps and 1 431 individuals from 85 species with flight interception traps. Greater species richness and abundance characterized all sites sampled with pitfall traps during 2003 more than 2004. In 2003 no differences were detected among sites by rarefaction analyses. In 2004 the species richest high forest site was significantly different from one of the low forest sites. For both years Clench model asymptotes for species richness were greater in high forest than in low forest sites. For both years, mean per-trap species richness, abundance and biomass among high forest sites were similar and higher than in low forest sites, especially where the lowest humidity and the highest temperature were recorded. Within the two low forest sites, species richness and abundance recorded during the second year, decreased with distance to edge. Different dominant roller species characterized the pitfall samples in one site of low forest and in other sites. Small variations in microclimatic conditions correlated to canopy height and openness likely affected dung beetle assemblages but soil depth and the presence of large mammals providing dung resource may also play a significant role. PMID:23885587

  19. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    PubMed

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards < or = 0.5 km from rain forest were predominantly visited by five previously unrecognized native beetle pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production. PMID:16156571

  20. Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

    2014-04-01

    In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (ρ=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (ρ=0.50), polychaetes (ρ=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (ρ=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves

  1. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  2. Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small hive beetles (SHB) have become serious pests of honey bees, especially in the southeastern region of the United States. Both adults and larvae cause serious feeding damages and their fecal matters contaminate harvestable honey. At present, Coumaphos (used as an in-hive treatment) and Gardstar ...

  3. Beetles, Biofuel, and Coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier

    2015-05-06

    Berkeley Lab scientist Javier Ceja-Navarro discusses his research on the microbial populations found the guts of insects, specifically the coffee berry borer, which may lead to better pest management and the passalid beetle, which could lead to improved biofuel production.

  4. Pine Beetle Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

  5. Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...

  6. Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009).

    PubMed

    Pizzolotto, Roberto; Gobbi, Mauro; Brandmayr, Pietro

    2014-04-01

    Very little is known about the changes of ground beetle assemblages in the last few decades in the Alps, and different responses to climate change of animal populations living above and below the treeline have not been estimated yet. This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites in Italy, the Paneveggio Regional Park. We compared the ground beetle (Carabidae) populations sampled in 1980 in six stands below and above the treeline (1650-2250 m a.s.l.) with those sampled in the same sites almost 30 years later (2008/9). Quantitative data (species richness and abundance) have been compared by means of several diversity indexes and with a new index, the Index of Rank-abundance Change (IRC). Our work shows that species richness and abundance have changed after almost 30 years as a consequence of local extinctions, uphill increment of abundance and uphill shift of distribution range. The overall species number dropped from 36 to 27, while in the sites above the treeline, species richness and abundance changed more than in the forest sites. Two microtherm characteristic species of the pioneer cushion grass mats, Nebria germari and Trechus dolomitanus, became extinct or showed strong abundance reduction. In Nardetum pastures, several hygrophilic species disappeared, and xerophilic zoophytophagous elements raised their population density. In forest ecosystems, the precipitation reduction caused deep soil texture and watering changes, driving a transformation from Sphagnum-rich (peaty) to humus-rich soil, and as a consequence, soil invertebrate biomass strongly increased and thermophilic carabids enriched the species structure. In three decades, Carabid assemblages changed consistently with the hypothesis that climate change is one of the main factors triggering natural environment modifications. Furthermore, the level of human disturbance could enhance the

  7. Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009)

    PubMed Central

    Pizzolotto, Roberto; Gobbi, Mauro; Brandmayr, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the changes of ground beetle assemblages in the last few decades in the Alps, and different responses to climate change of animal populations living above and below the treeline have not been estimated yet. This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites in Italy, the Paneveggio Regional Park. We compared the ground beetle (Carabidae) populations sampled in 1980 in six stands below and above the treeline (1650–2250 m a.s.l.) with those sampled in the same sites almost 30 years later (2008/9). Quantitative data (species richness and abundance) have been compared by means of several diversity indexes and with a new index, the Index of Rank-abundance Change (IRC). Our work shows that species richness and abundance have changed after almost 30 years as a consequence of local extinctions, uphill increment of abundance and uphill shift of distribution range. The overall species number dropped from 36 to 27, while in the sites above the treeline, species richness and abundance changed more than in the forest sites. Two microtherm characteristic species of the pioneer cushion grass mats, Nebria germari and Trechus dolomitanus, became extinct or showed strong abundance reduction. In Nardetum pastures, several hygrophilic species disappeared, and xerophilic zoophytophagous elements raised their population density. In forest ecosystems, the precipitation reduction caused deep soil texture and watering changes, driving a transformation from Sphagnum-rich (peaty) to humus-rich soil, and as a consequence, soil invertebrate biomass strongly increased and thermophilic carabids enriched the species structure. In three decades, Carabid assemblages changed consistently with the hypothesis that climate change is one of the main factors triggering natural environment modifications. Furthermore, the level of human disturbance could enhance the

  8. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  9. A Multi-omics Approach to Understand the Microbial Transformation of Lignocellulosic Materials in the Digestive System of the Wood-Feeding Beetle Odontotaenius disjunctus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceja Navarro, J. A.; Karaoz, U.; White, R. A., III; Lipton, M. S.; Adkins, J.; Mayali, X.; Blackwell, M.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Brodie, E.; Hao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Odontotaenius disjuctus is a wood feeding beetle that processes large amounts of hardwoods and plays an important role in forest carbon cycling. In its gut, plant material is transformed into simple molecules by sequential processing during passage through the insect's digestive system. In this study, we used multiple 'omics approaches to analyze the distribution of microbial communities and their specific functions in lignocellulose deconstruction within the insect's gut. Fosmid clones were selected and sequenced from a pool of clones based on their expression of plant polymer degrading enzymes, allowing the identification of a wide range of carbohydrate degrading enzymes. Comparison of metagenomes of all gut regions demonstrated the distribution of genes across the beetle gut. Cellulose, starch, and xylan degradation genes were particularly abundant in the midgut and posterior hindgut. Genes involved in hydrogenotrophic production of methane and nitrogenases were more abundant in the anterior hindgut. Assembled contigs were binned into 127 putative genomes representing Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi and Nematodes. Eleven complete genomes were reconstructed allowing to identify linked functions/traits, including organisms with cellulosomes, and a combined potential for cellulose, xylan and starch hydrolysis and nitrogen fixation. A metaproteomic study was conducted to test the expression of the pathways identified in the metagenomic study. Preliminary analyses suggest enrichment of pathways related to hemicellulosic degradation. A complete xylan degradation pathway was reconstructed and GC-MS/MS based metabolomics identified xylobiose and xylose as major metabolite pools. To relate microbial identify to function in the beetle gut, Chip-SIP isotope tracing was conducted with RNA extracted from beetles fed 13C-cellulose. Multiple 13C enriched bacterial groups were detected, mainly in the midgut. Our multi-omics approach has allowed us to characterize the contribution of

  10. Intraguild Predation and Native Lady Beetle Decline

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Mary M.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Landis, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  11. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  12. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization. PMID:26314028

  13. Potential of yellow sticky traps for lady beetle survey in cotton.

    PubMed

    Parajulee, M N; Slosser, J E

    2003-02-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to investigate the potential of using yellow sticky traps to survey lady beetles in cotton and to quantify seasonal activity patterns. The performance of sticky traps was compared with that of a 2-cycle vacuum sampler. The most common lady beetle species captured by sticky traps and vacuum sampler in cotton were Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville and Scymnus loewii Mulsant. Sticky traps captured significantly more of both species of lady beetles, had greater capture efficiency, and more effectively detected lady beetles compared with the vacuum sampler. These data indicate that the sticky trap can be a valuable tool in monitoring lady beetle populations in cotton. In the second part of this study, a year-round survey of lady beetle populations in the periphery of a cotton farm using sticky traps showed that lady beetles remained active throughout the year in the Texas Rolling Plains, but the activity was influenced by winter severity. Over a 2-yr period, H. convergens, S. loewii, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) comprised 89.6, 8.2, 1.9, and 0.3% of the specimens, respectively. Sticky trap captures were affected by year, trap height, and cropping season. Traps placed at 0.75 m above ground captured significantly more (80%) lady beetles than traps placed at 1.50 m (20%) above ground; traps at 0.75 m above ground also detected the rarer species while the traps at 1.50 m above ground detected only the abundant species. Trap captures were higher during the noncotton season (November to April) compared with the cotton season (May to October). A significant positive correlation between cotton aphid abundance during the growing season and H. convergens abundance during the following noncotton season was also detected, indicating a significant movement of H. convergens from cotton to the periphery of the farm to seek refuge after cotton termination. PMID:12650368

  14. Associational Patterns of Scavenger Beetles to Decomposition Stages.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Nestor D

    2015-07-01

    Beetles associated with carrion play an important role in recycling organic matter in an ecosystem. Four experiments on decomposition, one per season, were conducted in a semirural area in Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Melyridae are reported for the first time of forensic interest. Apart from adults and larvae of Scarabaeidae, thirteen species and two genera of other coleopteran families are new forensic records in Argentina. Diversity, abundance, and species composition of beetles showed differences between stages and seasons. Our results differed from other studies conducted in temperate regions. Four guilds and succession patterns were established in relation to decomposition stages and seasons. Dermestidae (necrophages) predominated in winter during the decomposition process; Staphylinidae (necrophiles) in Fresh and Bloat stages during spring, summer, and autumn; and Histeridae (necrophiles) and Cleridae (omnivores) in the following stages during those seasons. Finally, coleopteran activity, diversity and abundance, and decomposition rate change with biogeoclimatic characteristics, which is of significance in forensics. PMID:26174466

  15. The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  16. The spatial distribution of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in soybean fields.

    PubMed

    Sara, Stacey A; McCallen, Emily B; Switzer, Paul V

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  17. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  18. Host Acceptance and Larval Competition between the Invasive Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Potential Mechanisms for Competitive Displacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was much more abundant than the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus, in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. This study sought to determine whether competitive displacement of S. mul...

  19. Local and Regional Effects on Community Structure of Dung Beetles in a Mainland-Island Scenario

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat

  20. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  1. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    SciTech Connect

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A.

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  2. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress.

    PubMed

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knízek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-07-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10 x 50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O(3) level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O(3) levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. PMID:15046842

  3. Effect of trap type, trap position, time of year, and beetle density on captures of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Ulyshen, Michael D; Horn, Scott

    2011-04-01

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont Raffaellea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich, and Aghayeva are responsible for widespread redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., mortality in the southern United States. Effective traps and lures are needed to monitor spread of the beetle and for early detection at ports-of-entry, so we conducted a series of experiments to find the best trap design, color, lure, and trap position for detection of X. glabratus. The best trap and lure combination was then tested at seven sites varying in beetle abundance and at one site throughout the year to see how season and beetle population affected performance. Manuka oil proved to be the most effective lure tested, particularly when considering cost and availability. Traps baited with manuka oil lures releasing 5 mg/d caught as many beetles as those baited with lures releasing 200 mg/d. Distributing manuka oil lures from the top to the bottom of eight-unit funnel traps resulted in similar numbers of X. glabratus as a single lure in the middle. Trap color had little effect on captures in sticky traps or cross-vane traps. Funnel traps caught twice as many beetles as cross-vane traps and three times as many as sticky traps but mean catch per trap was not significantly different. When comparing height, traps 1.5 m above the ground captured 85% of the beetles collected but a few were caught at each height up to 15 m. Funnel trap captures exhibited a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.79) with X. glabratus attack density and they performed well throughout the year. Catching beetles at low densities is important to port of entry monitoring programs where early detection of infestations is essential. Our trials show that multiple funnel traps baited with a single manuka oil lure were effective for capturing X. glabratus even when no infested trees were visible in the area. PMID:21510198

  4. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  5. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  6. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  7. The response of beetles to group selection harvesting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT The environmental protection and sustainable management of our remaining forests are increasingly important concerns. Group selection harvesting is an uneven-aged forest management practice that removes patches of desirable trees to create small openings mimicking natural disturbances. To determine the effects of this technique on beetles, malaise and pitfall traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the forest surrounding artificially created gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Beetles were generally more abundant and species rich in the centers of younger gaps than in the centers of older gaps or in the forest surrounding them. There were relatively few differences in the abundance and richness of beetles between old gaps and the surrounding forest but species composition differed considerably. These differences may be explained by the uneven distribution of various resources.

  8. Short-Term Responses of Ground-Dwelling Beetles to Ice Storm-Induced Treefall Gaps in a Subtropical Broad-Leaved Forest in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chong-Ling; Lü, Liang; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Periodic natural disturbances shape the mosaic character of many landscapes and influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. In this study, we tested the effect of ice storm-induced treefall gaps on ground-dwelling beetle assemblages in different-aged successional stands of subtropical broad-leaved forest in southeastern China. We evaluated the relative importance of gap-phase microhabitat type (within gap, gap edge, and interior shaded) within different stand ages (regenerating stands and mature stands) as determinants of changes in beetle diversity and community structure. At 18 replicate sites sampled during 2009-2010, no significant differences were found in species richness and the abundances of the most common beetle species captured in pitfall traps among the three gap-phase microhabitat types, but the abundances of total beetles, as well as fungivorous and phytophagous species groups, were significantly lower in gap microhabitats than in interior shaded microhabitats in mature stands. Beetle assemblage composition showed no significant differences among the three microhabitat types, and only the fauna of gap plots slightly diverged from those of edge and shaded plots in mature stands. Cover of shrubs and stand age significantly affected beetle assemblage structure. Our results suggest that beetle responses to gap-phase dynamics in early successional forests are generally weak, and that effects are more discernible in the mature stands, perhaps due to the abundance responses of forest-specialist species. PMID:26377249

  9. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

  10. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Theimer, T.C.; Sogge, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a wellstudied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  11. Methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene abundance correlates with activity measurements of methanogenic H2/CO2-enriched anaerobic biomass

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Rachel; Schauer-Gimenez, Anne; Bhattad, Ujwal; Kearney, Colleen; Struble, Craig A; Zitomer, Daniel; Maki, James S

    2014-01-01

    Biologically produced methane (CH4) from anaerobic digesters is a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, but digester failure can be a serious problem. Monitoring the microbial community within the digester could provide valuable information about process stability because this technology is dependent upon the metabolic processes of microorganisms. A healthy methanogenic community is critical for digester function and CH4 production. Methanogens can be surveyed and monitored using genes and transcripts of mcrA, which encodes the α subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase – the enzyme that catalyses the final step in methanogenesis. Using clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared the diversity and abundance of mcrA genes and transcripts in four different methanogenic hydrogen/CO2 enrichment cultures to function, as measured by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays using H2/CO2. The mcrA gene copy number significantly correlated with CH4 production rates using H2/CO2, while correlations between mcrA transcript number and SMA were not significant. The DNA and cDNA clone libraries from all enrichments were distinctive but community diversity also did not correlate with SMA. Although hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated these enrichments, the results indicate that this methodology should be applicable to monitoring other methanogenic communities in anaerobic digesters. Ultimately, this could lead to the engineering of digester microbial communities to produce more CH4 for use as renewable fuel. PMID:24320083

  12. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  13. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  14. Longer-term effects of selective thinning on carabid beetles and spiders in the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, R.; Niwa, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Within late-successional forests of the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon, abundances of carabid beetles (Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) from pitfall traps were compared between stands thinned 16-41 years prior and nearby unthinned stands. Species richness of both taxa were moderate for coniferous forests of this region, with 12 carabid beetle species and >120 spider species collected. No differences in total abundance or species richness were found between stand types for carabid beetles, although abundances of four of the six most common species differed significantly. Pterostichus setosus, the most abundant species collected, was significantly more abundant in unthinned stands, while Omus cazieri, P. lama, and Carabus taedatus were more numerous in thinned stands. In contrast, both total spider abundance and species richness were significantly higher in thinned stands. Hunting spiders within the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae, and the funnel web-building Dictynidae were captured more often in thinned stands while sheet web spiders within Linyphiidae and Hahniidae were more abundant in unthinned stands. The forest floor within unthinned stands was structurally more diverse than in thinned stands, but this did not lead to greater overall abundance or diversity of either carabid beetles or spiders.

  15. Dung beetles in an avian-dominated island ecosystem: feeding and trophic ecology.

    PubMed

    Stavert, J R; Gaskett, A C; Scott, D J; Beggs, J R

    2014-09-01

    Globally, dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are linked to many critical ecosystem processes involving the consumption and breakdown of mammal dung. Endemic New Zealand dung beetles (Canthonini) are an anomaly, occurring at high abundance and low diversity on an island archipelago historically lacking terrestrial mammals, except bats, and instead dominated by birds. Have New Zealand's dung beetles evolved to specialise on bird dung or carrion, or have they become broad generalist feeders? We test dietary preferences by analysing nitrogen isotope ratios of wild dung beetles and by performing feeding behaviour observations of captive specimens. We also use nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes to determine if the dung beetle Saphobius edwardsi will consume marine-derived carrion. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated trophic generalism in Saphobius dung beetles and this was supported by behavioural observations where a broad range of food resources were utilised. Alternative food resource use was further illustrated experimentally by nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures of S. edwardsi, where individuals provided with decomposed squid had δ(15)N and δ(13)C values that had shifted toward values associated with marine diet. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of native mammal dung resources, New Zealand dung beetles have evolved a generalist diet of dung and carrion. This may include marine-derived resources, as provided by the seabird colonies present in New Zealand forests before the arrival of humans. This has probably enabled New Zealand dung beetles to persist in indigenous ecosystems despite the decline of native birds and the introduction of many mammal species. PMID:24974270

  16. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in the Conservation Reserve Program crop rotation systems in Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...

  17. Euphausiid distribution along the Western Antarctic Peninsula—Part A: Development of robust multi-frequency acoustic techniques to identify euphausiid aggregations and quantify euphausiid size, abundance, and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Gareth L.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Stanton, Timothy K.; Ashjian, Carin J.

    2008-02-01

    Methods were refined and tested for identifying the aggregations of Antarctic euphausiids ( Euphausia spp.) and then estimating euphausiid size, abundance, and biomass, based on multi-frequency acoustic survey data. A threshold level of volume backscattering strength for distinguishing euphausiid aggregations from other zooplankton was derived on the basis of published measurements of euphausiid visual acuity and estimates of the minimum density of animals over which an individual can maintain visual contact with its nearest neighbor. Differences in mean volume backscattering strength at 120 and 43 kHz further served to distinguish euphausiids from other sources of scattering. An inversion method was then developed to estimate simultaneously the mean length and density of euphausiids in these acoustically identified aggregations based on measurements of mean volume backscattering strength at four frequencies (43, 120, 200, and 420 kHz). The methods were tested at certain locations within an acoustically surveyed continental shelf region in and around Marguerite Bay, west of the Antarctic Peninsula, where independent evidence was also available from net and video systems. Inversion results at these test sites were similar to net samples for estimated length, but acoustic estimates of euphausiid density exceeded those from nets by one to two orders of magnitude, likely due primarily to avoidance and to a lesser extent to differences in the volumes sampled by the two systems. In a companion study, these methods were applied to the full acoustic survey data in order to examine the distribution of euphausiids in relation to aspects of the physical and biological environment [Lawson, G.L., Wiebe, P.H., Ashjian, C.J., Stanton, T.K., 2008. Euphausiid distribution along the Western Antarctic Peninsula—Part B: Distribution of euphausiid aggregations and biomass, and associations with environmental features. Deep-Sea Research II, this issue [doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.11.014

  18. The Response of Subalpine Vegetation to Climate Change and Bark Beetle Infestations: A Multi-Scale Interaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, A.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Negrón, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mean annual temperatures in the western United States have increased in the last few decades, and are predicted to continue warming. In the subalpine zone of the Rocky Mountains, this warming is also predicted to increase the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks. Climate change itself may affect this vegetation, potentially leading to shifts in species compositions. These forests are a crucial part of the US's carbon budget, thus it is important to analyze how climate change and bark beetles in conjunction will affect the biomass and species composition of vegetation in subalpine zone. UVAFME is an individual-based gap model that simulates biomass and species composition of a forest. This model has been quantitatively tested at various Rocky Mountain sites in the Front Range, and has been shown to accurately simulate the vegetation dynamics in the region. UVAFME has been updated with a spruce beetle subroutine that calculates the probability for beetle infestation of each tree on a plot. This probability is based on site, climate, and individual tree characteristics, such as temperature; stand structure; and tree stress level, size, and age. These governing characteristics are based on data from the US Forest Service, and other studies on spruce susceptibility and spruce beetle phenology. UVAFME is then run with multiple climate change and beetle scenarios to determine the net effect of both variables on subalpine vegetation. These results are compared among the different scenarios and to current forest inventory data. We project that increasing temperatures due to climate change will cause an increase in the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks, leading to a decrease in the biomass and dominance of Engelmann spruce. These results are an important step in understanding the possible futures for the vegetation of subalpine zone in the Rocky Mountains.

  19. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  20. Large carbon release legacy from bark beetle outbreaks across Western United States.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A; Collatz, G James; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Rogan, John; Kulakowski, Dominik; Masek, Jeffrey G

    2015-08-01

    Warmer conditions over the past two decades have contributed to rapid expansion of bark beetle outbreaks killing millions of trees over a large fraction of western United States (US) forests. These outbreaks reduce plant productivity by killing trees and transfer carbon from live to dead pools where carbon is slowly emitted to the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration which subsequently feeds back to climate change. Recent studies have begun to examine the local impacts of bark beetle outbreaks in individual stands, but the full regional carbon consequences remain undocumented for the western US. In this study, we quantify the regional carbon impacts of the bark beetle outbreaks taking place in western US forests. The work relies on a combination of postdisturbance forest regrowth trajectories derived from forest inventory data and a process-based carbon cycle model tracking decomposition, as well as aerial detection survey (ADS) data documenting the regional extent and severity of recent outbreaks. We find that biomass killed by bark beetle attacks across beetle-affected areas in western US forests from 2000 to 2009 ranges from 5 to 15 Tg C yr(-1) and caused a reduction of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of about 6.1-9.3 Tg C y(-1) by 2009. Uncertainties result largely from a lack of detailed surveys of the extent and severity of outbreaks, calling out a need for improved characterization across western US forests. The carbon flux legacy of 2000-2009 outbreaks will continue decades into the future (e.g., 2040-2060) as committed emissions from heterotrophic respiration of beetle-killed biomass are balanced by forest regrowth and accumulation. PMID:25826244

  1. The incidence and use of Oryctes virus for control of rhinoceros beetle in oil palm plantations in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ramle, M; Wahid, M B; Norman, K; Glare, T R; Jackson, T A

    2005-05-01

    The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, has emerged as a serious pest of oil palm since the prohibition of burning as a method for maintaining estate hygiene in the 1990s. The abundance of beetles is surprising given that the Malay peninsula was the site of first discovery of the Oryctes virus, which has been used to effect good as a biological control agent in other regions. A survey of adult beetles was carried out throughout Malaysia using pheromone traps. Captured beetles were examined for presence of virus using both visual/microscopic examination and PCR detection methods. The survey indicated that Oryctes virus was common in Malaysia among the adult beetles. Viral DNA analysis was carried out after restriction with HindIII enzyme and indicated at least three distinct viral genotypes. Bioassays were used to compare the viral strains and demonstrate that one strain (type B) is the most virulent against both larvae and adults of the beetle. Virus type B has been cultured and released into healthy populations where another strain (type A) forms the natural background. Capture and examination of beetles from the release site and surrounding area has shown that the spread and persistence of the applied virus strain is accompanied by a reduction in palm frond damage. PMID:16039309

  2. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  4. Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

    1990-05-01

    Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed. PMID:2189910

  5. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  6. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  7. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  8. Pastoral Practices to Reverse Shrub Encroachment of Sub-Alpine Grasslands: Dung Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) Respond More Quickly Than Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of

  9. Specific detection of the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans DNA in predatory diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Vinnersten, Thomas Z Persson; Halvarsson, Peter; Lundström, Jan O

    2015-08-01

    Floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are associated with periodically flooded wet meadows, marshes, and swamps in floodplains of major rivers worldwide, and their larvae are abundant in the shallow parts of flooded areas. The nuisance caused by the blood-seeking adult female mosquitoes motivates mosquito control. Larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is considered the most environmentally safe method. However, some concern has been raised whether aquatic predatory insects could be indirectly affected by this reduction in a potential vital prey. Top predators in the temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains are diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), and Aedes sticticus and Ae. vexans are the target species for mosquito control. For detailed studies on this aquatic predator-prey system, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of mosquito DNA in the guts of medium-sized diving beetles. Primers were designed for amplifying short mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans, respectively. Primer specificity was confirmed and half-life detectability of Ae. sticticus DNA in diving beetle guts was derived from a feeding and digestion experiment. The Ae. sticticus DNA within diving beetle guts was detected up to 12 h postfeeding, and half-life detectability was estimated to 5.6 h. In addition, field caught diving beetles were screened for Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans DNA and in 14% of the diving beetles one or both mosquito species were detected, showing that these mosquito species are utilized as food by the diving beetles. PMID:24895318

  10. Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.

    2008-08-01

    The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the zooplankton community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer zooplankton community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the zooplankton community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the zooplankton composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from

  11. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  12. Response of Flour Beetles to Multiple Stressors of Parasitic (Hymenolepis diminuta), Environmental (Diatomaceous Earth), and Host (Reproduction) Origin.

    PubMed

    Shostak, Allen W; Van Buuren, Kala G; Cook, Ranon

    2015-08-01

    Organisms face a multitude of potential stressors, and the way these stressors interact can provide insights into underlying biological processes. This study examined the flour beetle Tribolium confusum and its survival, net fecundity, and surface-seeking behavior in response to combinations of stressors from 3 categories. Infection by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta provided a stress of parasitic origin. Exposure to diatomaceous earth (DE) provided a stress of environmental origin. Use of virgin and mated beetles evaluated reproduction as a stress of host origin. Single and multiple exposure of beetles to parasite eggs achieved a maximum mean abundance of 21 parasites/beetle and a maximum intensity of 90 parasites in an individual beetle. DE reduced initial parasite establishment, but did not directly affect survival of parasites after their establishment in the host. A rehydration technique was used to recover parasites from dead beetles, enabling this to be the first study to correlate H. diminuta intensity at time of death directly to mortality of T. confusum. A dichotomous intensity-mortality relationship was observed in 8% DE, whereby lightly infected (<20 parasites) hosts were killed by DE in an intensity-independent manner, but more heavily infected hosts were killed in an intensity-dependent manner. Host mating status did not affect host survival, but there were interactions among mating status, parasitism, and DE on net fecundity and surface-seeking behavior. However, these effects were minor compared to the host mortality that occurred when parasite abundance and DE concentration were both high. The aggregated distribution of T. confusum in beetles, the difficulty of achieving high mean abundances, and an apparent need for the stressors to have strong effects individually if they are to have enhanced effects when in combination, suggests that exposure to multiple stressors would seriously impact only a small proportion of the host population. PMID

  13. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest. PMID:22182536

  14. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Koivula, Matti J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  15. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moths...

  16. Standard methods for small hive beetle research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are parasites and scavengers of honey bee and other social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa, where they are a minor pest only. In contrast, the beetles can be harmful parasites of European honey bee subspecies. Very rapidly after A. tumida established pop...

  17. Book review: Methods for catching beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

  18. Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

  19. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moth...

  20. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  1. Anemomenotatic orientation in beetles and scorpions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsenmair, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Orientation, by beetles and scorpions, according to wind direction and force are analyzed. Major efforts were made to determine: (1) which physical qualities of the air current influence anemomenotaxis, (2) which physiological mechanism is responsible for such orientation, (3) which sense organs do beetles and scorpions use to perceive wind directions, and (4) what the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in the beetle and scorpion is. Experimental results show that the trichobothria in scorpions perceives wind direction; in the beetle it is perceived by sense organs excited by pendicellus-flagellum joint movements. A compensation mechanism is suggested as the basis for anemomenotactic orientation. It was also suggested that the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in scorpions is space orientation; while in beetles it was found to be part of the appetitive behavior used to search for olfactory sign stimuli.

  2. Sampling Scarab Beetles in Tropical Forests: The Effect of Light Source and Night Sampling Periods

    PubMed Central

    García-López, Alejandra; Micó, Estefanía; Zumbado, Manuel A.; Galante, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Light traps have been used widely to sample insect abundance and diversity, but their performance for sampling scarab beetles in tropical forests based on light source type and sampling hours throughout the night has not been evaluated. The efficiency of mercury-vapour lamps, cool white light and ultraviolet light sources in attracting Dynastinae, Melolonthinae and Rutelinae scarab beetles, and the most adequate period of the night to carry out the sampling was tested in different forest areas of Costa Rica. Our results showed that light source wavelengths and hours of sampling influenced scarab beetle catches. No significant differences were observed in trap performance between the ultraviolet light and mercury-vapour traps, whereas these two methods caught significantly more species richness and abundance than cool white light traps. Species composition also varied between methods. Large differences appear between catches in the sampling period, with the first five hours of the night being more effective than the last five hours. Because of their high efficiency and logistic advantages, we recommend ultraviolet light traps deployed during the first hours of the night as the best sampling method for biodiversity studies of those scarab beetles in tropical forests. PMID:22208730

  3. Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum. PMID:20578952

  4. Succession of ground-dwelling beetle assemblages after fire in three habitat types in the Andean forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this

  5. Succession of Ground-Dwelling Beetle Assemblages After Fire in Three Habitat Types in the Andean Forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this

  6. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  7. Studies on the life history and control of small hive beetles in the south-eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We monitored natural infestation of adult small hive beetles (SHB) in honey bee colonies from 2005 to 2008. We found that SHB populations varied throughout the year with peak infestations observed in the autumn (September and November). Abundance of SHB was significantly correlated with the proport...

  8. Large woody debris and salmonid habitat in the Anchor River basin, Alaska, following an extensive spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A widespread and intense spruce beetle outbreak has killed most of the mature white spruce trees across many watersheds in south-central Alaska. To investigate the potential habitat impacts in a salmon stream, we characterized the current abundance and species composition of large woody debris (LWD...

  9. The Comparative Effectiveness of Rodents and Dung Beetles as Local Seed Dispersers in Mediterranean Oak Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Verdú, José R.; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications

  10. Optimising Bait for Pitfall Trapping of Amazonian Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Charles J.; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology

  11. Relations Between the Structure of Benthic Macro-Invertebrates and the Composition of Adult Water Beetle Diets from the Dytiscidae Family.

    PubMed

    Frelik, Anna; Pakulnicka, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the relations between the diet structure of predaceous adult water beetles from the Dytiscidae family and the structure of macrofauna inhabiting the same environments. The field studies were carried out from April until September in 2012 and 2013 in 1-mo intervals. In total, >1,000 water beetles and 5,115 benthic macro-invertebrates were collected during the whole period of the study. Subsequently, 784 specimens of adult water beetles (70.6% out of the total sampled) with benthic macro-invertebrates found in their proventriculi, were subject to analysis. The predators were divided into three categories depending on their body size: small beetles (2.3-5.0 mm), medium-sized beetles (13-15 mm), and large beetles (27-37 mm). All adult Dytiscidae consumed primarily Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae larvae. Although Asellidae were numerically dominant inhabitants of the sites, the adult water beetles did not feed on them. The analysis of feeding relations between predators and their prey revealed that abundance of Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae, and larval Dytiscidae between the environment and the diet of adult Dytiscidae were strongly correlated. PMID:26314015

  12. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Lü, Liang; Wang, Feng-Yan; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zou, Si-Si; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Song, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae) along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation) gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011-2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles. PMID:27138752

  13. How Does Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Diversity Vary Along a Rainy Season in a Tropical Dry Forest?

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Samuel M. A.; Evangelista, Lucas A.; Reis-Júnior, Ronaldo; Neves, Frederico S.

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetle community dynamics are determined by regional rainfall patterns. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these communities in tropical dry forests (TDFs). This study was designed to test the following predictions: 1) Peak diversity of dung beetle species occurs early in the wet season, with a decrease in diversity (α and β) and abundance throughout the season; 2) Nestedness is the primary process determining β-diversity, with species sampled in the middle and the end of the wet season representing subsets of the early wet season community. Dung beetles were collected in a TDF in the northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil over three sampling events (December 2009, February and April 2010). We sampled 2,018 dung beetles belonging to 39 species and distributed among 15 genera. Scarabaeinae α-diversity and abundance were highest in December and equivalent between February and April, while β-diversity among plots increased along the wet season. The importance of nestedness and species turnover varies between pairs of sample periods as the main process of temporal β-diversity. Most species collected in the middle and end of the wet season were found in greater abundance in early wet season. Thus, the dung beetle community becomes more homogeneous at the beginning of the wet season, and as the season advances, higher resource scarcity limits population size, which likely results in a smaller foraging range, increasing β-diversity. Our results demonstrate high synchronism between the dung beetle life cycle and seasonality of environmental conditions throughout the wet season in a TDF, where the onset of rains determines adult emergence for most species. PMID:27620555

  14. The Relative Importance of Spatial and Local Environmental Factors in Determining Beetle Assemblages in the Inner Mongolia Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Lü, Liang; Wang, Feng-Yan; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zou, Si-Si; Wang, Cheng-Bin; Song, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of the relative importance of the input of geographic and local environmental factors on richness and composition of epigaeic steppe beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Tenebrionidae) along a geographic (longitudinal/precipitation) gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Specifically, we evaluate the associations of environmental variables representing climate and environmental heterogeneity with beetle assemblages. Beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at 25 sites scattered across the full geographic extent of the study biome in 2011–2012. We used variance partitioning techniques and multi-model selection based on the Akaike information criterion to assess the relative importance of the spatial and environmental variables on beetle assemblages. Species richness and abundance showed unimodal patterns along the geographic gradient. Together with space, climate variables associated with precipitation, water-energy balance and harshness of climate had strong explanatory power in richness pattern. Abundance pattern showed strongest association with variation in temperature and environmental heterogeneity. Climatic factors associated with temperature and precipitation variables and the interaction between climate with space were able to explain a substantial amount of variation in community structure. In addition, the turnover of species increased significantly as geographic distances increased. We confirmed that spatial and local environmental factors worked together to shape epigaeic beetle communities along the geographic gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Moreover, the climate features, especially precipitation, water-energy balance and temperature, and the interaction between climate with space and environmental heterogeneity appeared to play important roles on controlling richness and abundance, and species compositions of epigaeic beetles. PMID:27138752

  15. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  16. Biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Dowd, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Florida posseses climatic, land, and water resources favorable for abundant biomass production. Therefore, a statewide program has been initiated to determine adapted species for the available array of production sites. Plant resources under investigation include woody, aquatic, grasses, hydrocarbon, and root crop species. The goal is to produce a continuous stream of biomass for the various biofuel conversion options. Preliminary yields from energy cropping experiments range from about 10 to nearly 90 metric tons per hectare per year, depending on the crop and the production systems employed. (Refs. 15).

  17. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    PubMed Central

    Koksharov, Mikhail I.; Ugarova, Natalia N.

    2012-01-01

    Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems. PMID:24688645

  18. Biomass pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  19. BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...

  20. The impact of overgrazing on dung beetle diversity in the Italian Maritime Alps.

    PubMed

    Negro, Matteo; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are undoubtedly the most typical and ecologically relevant insects of grazed alpine habitats because they provide valuable ecological services such as biological pest control and soil fertilization. Despite the great ecological contribution of these insects to pasture ecosystem functioning, little is known about their direct or indirect relationships with pastoral activities. The main aim of the study was to assess whether dung beetle diversity was influenced by different intensities of cattle grazing. Dung beetle communities of two adjacent alpine valleys within the Maritime Alps Natural Park (north-western Italian Alps), representing overgrazed and ungrazed pastures, were studied by pitfall trapping. A hierarchical design (three levels: valleys, transects, and replicates) was established for additive partitioning of γ-diversity and Indicator Species Analysis. Evenness and Shannon diversity were significantly higher at the ungrazed than at the overgrazed site because abundances were much more evenly distributed at the former than at the latter site (where one species was dominant over all the others). Dung beetle abundance and species richness of the overgrazed graminaceous pasture vegetation types were in most cases significantly lower than those of the ungrazed nongraminaceous vegetation type. In the additive partitioning of γ -diversity analysis relative to the whole study area, the randomization procedure indicated that the contribution of β to γ-diversity was significantly different from that expected by chance, suggesting that one or more environmental factors has intervened to change the partition of total diversity in the system considered. The analysis of the preferences and fidelity of species (Indicator Species Analysis) showed that only one species chose overgrazed pastures; all the others positively selected the ungrazed site, or the only ungrazed pasture vegetation type (Rumicetum alpini Beger) occurring at

  1. Intermediate disturbance in experimental landscapes improves persistence of beetle metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Byju N; Feng, Zhilan; DeWoody, Yssa D; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-03-01

    Human-dominated landscapes often feature patches that fluctuate in suitability through space and time, but there is little experimental evidence relating the consequences of dynamic patches for species persistence. We used a spatially and temporally dynamic metapopulation model to assess and compare metapopulation capacity and persistence for red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) in experimental landscapes differentiated by resource structure, patch dynamics (destruction and restoration), and connectivity. High connectivity increased the colonization rate of beetles, but this effect was less pronounced in heterogeneous relative to homogeneous landscapes. Higher connectivity and faster patch dynamics increased extinction rates in landscapes. Lower connectivity promoted density-dependent emigration. Heterogeneous landscapes containing patches of different carrying capacity enhanced landscape-level occupancy probability. The highest metapopulation capacity and persistence was observed in landscapes with heterogeneous patches, low connectivity, and slow patch dynamics. Control landscapes with no patch dynamics exhibited rapid declines in abundance and approached extinction due to increased adult mortality in the matrix, higher pupal cannibalism by adults, and extremely low rates of exchange between remaining habitable patches. Our results highlight the role of intermediate patch dynamics, intermediate connectivity, and the nature of density dependence of emigration for persistence of species in heterogeneous landscapes. Our results also demonstrate the importance of incorporating local dynamics into the estimation of metapopulation capacity for conservation planning. PMID:26236869

  2. Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Robert A.; Rhodes, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic bitter substances of the Cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. These beetles (e.g., Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (Cuc) B on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. Six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to Cuc B than to Cuc E and less responsive to Cuc D, I, and L. Chloroform extracts of 18 species of Cucurbita were developed on thin-layer chromatograms and exposed to diabroticite beetles. The feeding patterns showed pronounced beetle responses to three general Cuc distribution patterns: Cuc B and D as in Cucurbita andreana and C. ecuadorensis; Cuc E and I as in C. okeechobeensis and C. martinezii; and Cuc E glycoside in C. texana. All the diabroticites responded in exactly the same feeding patterns. The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles. PMID:16592849

  3. Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, R L; Metcalf, R A; Rhodes, A M

    1980-07-01

    The characteristic bitter substances of the Cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. These beetles (e.g., Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (Cuc) B on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. Six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to Cuc B than to Cuc E and less responsive to Cuc D, I, and L. Chloroform extracts of 18 species of Cucurbita were developed on thin-layer chromatograms and exposed to diabroticite beetles. The feeding patterns showed pronounced beetle responses to three general Cuc distribution patterns: Cuc B and D as in Cucurbita andreana and C. ecuadorensis; Cuc E and I as in C. okeechobeensis and C. martinezii; and Cuc E glycoside in C. texana. All the diabroticites responded in exactly the same feeding patterns. The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles. PMID:16592849

  4. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  5. Chemical signals synchronize the life cycles of a plant-parasitic nematode and its vector beetle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Hao, Haijun; Zhang, Bin; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

    2013-10-21

    The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused severe damage to pine forests in large parts of the world [1-4]. Dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode occurs when the nematode develops into the dispersal fourth larval stage (LIV) upon encountering its insect vector, the Monochamus pine sawyer beetle, inside an infected pine tree [5-9]. Here, we show that LIV formation in B. xylophilus is induced by C16 and C18 fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which are produced abundantly on the body surface of the vector beetle specifically during the late development pupal, emerging adult, and newly eclosed adult stages. The LIV can then enter the tracheal system of the adult beetle for dispersal to a new pine tree. Treatment of B. xylophilus with long-chain FAEEs, or the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, promotes LIV formation, while Δ7-dafachronic acid blocks the effects of these chemicals, suggesting a conserved role for the insulin/IGF-1 and DAF-12 pathways in LIV formation. Our work provides a mechanism by which LIV formation in B. xylophilus is specifically coordinated with the life cycle of its vector beetle. Knowledge of the chemical signals that control the LIV developmental decision could be used to interfere with the dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode. PMID:24120638

  6. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms. PMID:18392795

  7. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  8. Infestation of grain fields and degree-day phenology of the cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Utah: long-term patterns.

    PubMed

    Evans, Edward W; Carlile, Nolan R; Innes, Matthew B; Pitigala, Nadishan

    2014-02-01

    Scouting at key times in the seasonal development of insect pest populations, as guided by degree-day accumulation, is important for minimizing unwarranted insecticide application. Fields of small grains in northern Utah were censused weekly from 2001 to 2011, to assess infestation by the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and develop degree-day guidelines for measuring cereal leaf beetle abundance at peak egg and larval densities in any given year. Even in years of high overall numbers of cereal leaf beetle, relatively few fields were heavily infested (with 20 or more cereal leaf beetle eggs + larvae per 0.09 m2) at either egg or larval peak density during the growing season. In individual fields, the number of immature cereal leaf beetle (eggs + larvae) at peak larval density was positively related to the number of immature cereal leaf beetles present earlier at peak egg density. Although there was large variation among years in when cereal leaf beetle egg and larval numbers peaked during the season as measured by degree-day accumulation from 1 January, much of this variation was accounted for by the warmth of the early spring before significant egg laying occurred. Hence, degree-day estimates that account for early spring warmth can guide growers in scouting grain fields at peak egg densities to identify fields at high risk of subsequent economic damage from cereal leaf beetle larval feeding. The relatively low incidence of fields heavily infested by cereal leaf beetle in northern Utah emphasizes the benefit that growers can gain by scouting early before applying insecticide treatments. PMID:24665707

  9. Biomass Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Ian Bonner; David J. Muth

    2015-04-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  10. Changes in soil biogeochemistry following disturbance by girdling and mountain pine beetles in subalpine forests.

    PubMed

    Trahan, Nicole A; Dynes, Emily L; Pugh, Evan; Moore, David J P; Monson, Russell K

    2015-04-01

    A recent unprecedented epidemic of beetle-induced tree mortality has occurred in the lodgepole pine forests of Western North America. Here, we present the results of studies in two subalpine forests in the Rocky Mountains, one that experienced natural pine beetle disturbance and one that experienced simulated disturbance imposed through bole girdling. We assessed changes to soil microclimate and biogeochemical pools in plots representing different post-disturbance chronosequences. High plot tree mortality, whether due to girdling or beetle infestation, caused similar alterations in soil nutrient pools. During the first 4 years after disturbance, sharp declines were observed in the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (45-51 %), microbial biomass carbon concentration (33-39 %), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentration (31-42%), and inorganic phosphorus (PO4(3-)) concentration (53-55%). Five to six years after disturbance, concentrations of DOC, DON, and PO4(3-) recovered to 71-140 % of those measured in undisturbed plots. Recovery was coincident with observed increases in litter depth and the sublitter, soil O-horizon. During the 4 years following disturbance, soil ammonium, but not nitrate, increased to 2-3 times the levels measured in undisturbed plots. Microbial biomass N increased in plots where increased ammonium was available. Our results show that previously observed declines in soil respiration following beetle-induced disturbance are accompanied by losses in key soil nutrients. Recovery of the soil nutrient pool occurs only after several years following disturbance, and is correlated with progressive mineralization of dead tree litter. PMID:25676101

  11. Mountain Pine beetle disturbance and climate effects on subalpine forest carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Bowling, D. R.; Monson, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in Western North America have experienced an epidemic outbreak of Mountain Pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), reducing net primary productivity and significantly compromising the potential for these ecosystems to sequester atmospheric carbon. Estimates of lost carbon sequestration and trajectories of future carbon uptake as these forests recover, are uncertain due to lack of fundamental knowledge about the carbon cycle processes that are impacted. Furthermore, the effects of this disturbance are informed by their interplay with important climatic drivers of subalpine carbon uptake such as the availability of snowmelt water. To examine some of these carbon cycle processes, we measured soil respiration rates, the 13C/12C of soil respired CO2, extractable soil carbon, and microbial biomass carbon in a chronosequence of plots consisting of lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) that experienced beetle kill or were girdled (simulating beetle kill). The plots are located in the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux and Fraser Experimental Forests of Colorado. The chronosequence extended from approximately 2002 to 2010. In addition, in 2008 and 2009 we amended and removed spring snow on a subset of girdled and control plots to isolate potential snowpack effects on the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration. Soil respiration, extractable carbon, and microbial biomass carbon were higher in control plot soils compared to soils in plots with girdled or beetle killed trees. These differences were greatest between control soils and soils of more recently girdled and beetle killed trees. Over the growing season, we found the 13C/12C ratio of soil respired CO2 was enriched in plots with girdled trees compared to the control plots past the second year of treatment. Finally, ungirdled plots in 2009 responded to spring snow amendments with increased soil respiration rates and a more depleted signature of δ13C. These effects occurred in early summer during the

  12. Mountain pine beetle disturbance effects on soil respiration and nutrient pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Brayden, B. H.; Dynes, E.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonos ponderosae has infested more than 86 million hectares of high elevation forest in the Western U.S.A. While bark beetles are endemic to western forests and important agents of regeneration, the current mountain pine beetle outbreak is larger than any other on record and the resulting tree mortality has significant consequences for nutrient cycling and regional carbon exchange. We established decade-long parallel disturbance chronosequences in two lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado: one composed of mountain pine beetle killed lodgepole stands and one consisting of trees where beetle mortality was simulated by stem girdling. Over the 2010 and 2011 growing season we measured plot level soil respiration fluxes, as well as soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and pools of ammonium, nitrate and inorganic phosphorus. We show that soil respiration sharply declines with gross primary productivity after tree mortality, but rebounds during the next 4 years, then declines again from 6-8 years post-disturbance. Soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and inorganic phosphorous pools follow the pattern observed in soil respiration fluxes across disturbance age classes for both sites, while patterns in total dissolved nitrogen exhibit site specific variation. Levels of detectable soil nitrate were low and did not significantly change across the chronosequence, while soil ammonium increased in a similar pattern with soil moisture in disturbed plots. These patterns in soil respiration and nutrient pools reflect the loss of autotrophic respiration and rhizodeposition immediately after tree mortality, followed by a pulse in soil efflux linked to the decomposition of older, less labile carbon pools. This pulse is likely controlled by the fall rate of litter, coarse woody debris and the relative impact of post-disturbance water

  13. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

  14. Mountain Pine Beetles Colonizing Historical and Naïve Host Trees Are Associated with a Bacterial Community Highly Enriched in Genes Contributing to Terpene Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Aaron S.; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandye M.; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

  15. Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their

  16. Volatile emissions from the lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) is a serious, cosmopolitan pest in poultry production facilities, consuming grain, carrying disease organisms, and causing structural damage in poultry house walls. Pheromones have been described for many economically important beetle speci...

  17. Do Pine Beetles Fan the Flames in Western Forests?

    NASA Video Gallery

    As mountain pine beetles damage whole regions of Western forests, some worry that the dead trees left behind have created a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? I...

  18. Living near the edge: Being close to mature forest increases the rate of succession in beetle communities.

    PubMed

    Fountain-Jones, Nicholas M; Jordan, Gregory J; Baker, Thomas P; Balmer, Jayne M; Wardlaw, Tim; Baker, Susan C

    2015-04-01

    In increasingly fragmented landscapes, it is important to understand how mature forest affects adjacent secondary forest (forest influence). Forest influence on ecological succession of beetle communities is largely unknown. We investigated succession and forest influence using 235 m long transects across boundaries between mature and secondary forest at 15 sites, sampling a chronosequence of three forest age classes (5-10, 23- 29, and 42-46 years since clear-cutting) in tall eucalypt forest in Tasmania, Australia. Our results showed that ground-dwelling beetle communities showed strong successional changes, and in the oldest secondary forests, species considered indicators of mature forest had recolonized to abundance levels similar to those observed within adjacent mature forest stands. However, species composition also showed forest influence gradients in all age classes. Forest influence was estimated to extend 13 m and 20 m in the youngest and intermediate-aged secondary forests, respectively. However, the estimated effect extended to at least 176 m in the oldest secondary forest. Our environmental modeling suggests that leaf litter, microclimate, and soil variables were all important in explaining the spatial variation in beetle assemblages, and the relative importance of factors varied between secondary forest age classes. Mature-forest beetle communities can recolonize successfully from the edge, and our results provide a basis for land managers to build mature habitat connectivity into forest mosaics typical of production forests. Our results also indicate the importance of forest influence in determining potential conservation value of older secondary forest for beetles. PMID:26214924

  19. Dead ant walking: a myrmecophilous beetle predator uses parasitoid host location cues to selectively prey on parasitized ants.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2016-08-17

    Myrmecophiles (i.e. organisms that associate with ants) use a variety of ecological niches and employ different strategies to survive encounters with ants. Because ants are typically excellent defenders, myrmecophiles may choose moments of weakness to take advantage of their ant associates. This hypothesis was studied in the rove beetle, Myrmedonota xipe, which associates with Azteca sericeasur ants in the presence of parasitoid flies. A combination of laboratory and field experiments show that M. xipe beetles selectively locate and prey upon parasitized ants. These parasitized ants are less aggressive towards beetles than healthy ants, allowing beetles to eat the parasitized ants alive without interruption. Moreover, behavioural assays and chemical analysis reveal that M. xipe are attracted to the ant's alarm pheromone, the same secretion used by the phorid fly parasitoids in host location. This strategy allows beetles access to an abundant but otherwise inaccessible resource, as A. sericeasur ants are typically highly aggressive. These results are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a predator sharing cues with a parasitoid to gain access to an otherwise unavailable prey item. Furthermore, this work highlights the importance of studying ant-myrmecophile interactions beyond just their pairwise context. PMID:27512148

  20. Burning of logged sites to protect beetles in managed boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Tero; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2007-12-01

    Natural disturbance-based management and conservation strategies are needed to protect forest biodiversity. Boreal forests of northern Europe are typically clearcut and otherwise intensively managed for timber production. As a result, natural disturbances such as forest fires have became rare and the volume of dead wood has decreased. These changes have had a profound negative effect on species that depend on dead wood (saproxylic). Therefore, it is important to determine whether modifications of forest management methods can enhance the survival of these species. In our study area in southern Finland, we determined whether burning of logged sites and leaving trees (i.e., retention trees) on the sites benefited saproxylic, rare, and red-listed beetle species and how long the burned sites remained suitable habitat for these species. We surveyed the beetle fauna at 40 sites logged 1-16 years previously, 20 of which were burned after logging. The abundance and species richness of saproxylic beetles were positively affected by burning, but the effect depended on the retention of trees in the otherwise clearcut stands. The difference between burned and unburned sites increased with the number of retention trees, and the effect of burning was not significant when there were fewer than approximately 15 retention trees/ha. Most important, the species groups that were unlikely to persist in ordinarily managed forests (rare saproxylic and red-listed beetles), benefited strongly from burning and tree retention. The species richness of saproxylic beetles decreased with time since logging at both burned and at unburned sites. We conclude that burning of logged sites and leaving an adequate number of retention trees may be useful in the conservation of disturbance-adapted species and can be used to improve the environmental quality of the matrix surrounding protected areas. Unfortunately, sites remained high-quality habitat for only a short time; thus, a continuum of burned

  1. Diversity of beetle genes encoding novel plant cell wall degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pauchet, Yannick; Wilkinson, Paul; Chauhan, Ritika; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H

    2010-01-01

    Plant cell walls are a heterogeneous mixture of polysaccharides and proteins that require a range of different enzymes to degrade them. Plant cell walls are also the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the planet. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are therefore important in a wide range of biotechnological processes from the production of biofuels and food to waste processing. However, despite the fact that the last common ancestor of all deuterostomes was inferred to be able to digest, or even synthesize, cellulose using endogenous genes, all model insects whose complete genomes have been sequenced lack genes encoding such enzymes. To establish if the apparent "disappearance" of PCWDEs from insects is simply a sampling problem, we used 454 mediated pyrosequencing to scan the gut transcriptomes of beetles that feed on a variety of plant derived diets. By sequencing the transcriptome of five beetles, and surveying publicly available ESTs, we describe 167 new beetle PCWDEs belonging to eight different enzyme families. This survey proves that these enzymes are not only present in non-model insects but that the multigene families that encode them are apparently undergoing complex birth-death dynamics. This reinforces the observation that insects themselves, and not just their microbial symbionts, are a rich source of PCWDEs. Further it emphasises that the apparent absence of genes encoding PCWDEs from model organisms is indeed simply a sampling artefact. Given the huge diversity of beetles alive today, and the diversity of their lifestyles and diets, we predict that beetle guts will emerge as an important new source of enzymes for use in biotechnology. PMID:21179425

  2. Olfactory Cues from Plants Infected by Powdery Mildew Guide Foraging by a Mycophagous Ladybird Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical “moldy” odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms. PMID:21876772

  3. Elevational Distribution of Flightless Ground Beetles in the Tropical Rainforests of North-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Staunton, Kyran M.; Nakamura, Akihiro; Burwell, Chris J.; Robson, Simon K. A.; Williams, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the environment influences patterns of diversity is vital for effective conservation management, especially in a changing global climate. While assemblage structure and species richness patterns are often correlated with current environmental factors, historical influences may also be considerable, especially for taxa with poor dispersal abilities. Mountain-top regions throughout tropical rainforests can act as important refugia for taxa characterised by low dispersal capacities such as flightless ground beetles (Carabidae), an ecologically significant predatory group. We surveyed flightless ground beetles along elevational gradients in five different subregions within the Australian Wet Tropics World Heritage Area to investigate (1) whether the diversity and composition of flightless ground beetles are elevationally stratified, and, if so, (2) what environmental factors (other than elevation per se) are associated with these patterns. Generalised linear models and model averaging techniques were used to relate patterns of diversity to environmental factors. Unlike most taxonomic groups, flightless ground beetles increased in species richness and abundance with elevation. Additionally, each subregion consisted of relatively distinct assemblages containing a high level of regional endemic species. Species richness was most strongly and positively associated with historical and current climatic stabilities and negatively associated with severity of recent disturbance (treefalls). Assemblage composition was associated with latitude and historical and current climatic conditions. Although the results need to be interpreted carefully due to inter-correlation between historical and current climatic variables, our study is in agreement with the hypothesis that upland refugia provided stable climatic conditions since the last glacial maximum, and supported a diverse fauna of flightless beetle species. These findings are important for conservation

  4. Elevational Distribution of Flightless Ground Beetles in the Tropical Rainforests of North-Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Kyran M; Nakamura, Akihiro; Burwell, Chris J; Robson, Simon K A; Williams, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the environment influences patterns of diversity is vital for effective conservation management, especially in a changing global climate. While assemblage structure and species richness patterns are often correlated with current environmental factors, historical influences may also be considerable, especially for taxa with poor dispersal abilities. Mountain-top regions throughout tropical rainforests can act as important refugia for taxa characterised by low dispersal capacities such as flightless ground beetles (Carabidae), an ecologically significant predatory group. We surveyed flightless ground beetles along elevational gradients in five different subregions within the Australian Wet Tropics World Heritage Area to investigate (1) whether the diversity and composition of flightless ground beetles are elevationally stratified, and, if so, (2) what environmental factors (other than elevation per se) are associated with these patterns. Generalised linear models and model averaging techniques were used to relate patterns of diversity to environmental factors. Unlike most taxonomic groups, flightless ground beetles increased in species richness and abundance with elevation. Additionally, each subregion consisted of relatively distinct assemblages containing a high level of regional endemic species. Species richness was most strongly and positively associated with historical and current climatic stabilities and negatively associated with severity of recent disturbance (treefalls). Assemblage composition was associated with latitude and historical and current climatic conditions. Although the results need to be interpreted carefully due to inter-correlation between historical and current climatic variables, our study is in agreement with the hypothesis that upland refugia provided stable climatic conditions since the last glacial maximum, and supported a diverse fauna of flightless beetle species. These findings are important for conservation

  5. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  6. Thermal and water relations of desert beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J.

    2001-11-01

    The physical problems that living organisms have to contend with in hot deserts are primarily extremes of temperature, low humidity, shortage or absence of free water, and the environmental factors that accentuate these - such as strong winds, sand-storms, lack of shade, rocky and impenetrable soils. Climatic factors are particularly important to smaller animals such as arthropods on account of their relatively enormous surface to volume ratios. Nevertheless, beetles (especially Tenebrionidae and, to a lesser extent, Chrysomelidae) are among the most successful animals of the desert, and are often the only ones to be seen abroad during the day. Similar physical problems are experienced by insects in all terrestrial biomes, but they are much enhanced in the desert. Although climatic extremes are often avoided by burrowing habits coupled with circadian and seasonal activity rhythms, as well as reproductive phenology, several species of desert beetle are nevertheless able to withstand thermal extremes that would rapidly cause the death of most other arthropods including insects. The reactions of desert beetles to heat are largely behavioural whilst their responses to water shortage are primarily physiological. The effects of coloration are not discussed. In addition to markedly low rates of transpiration, desert beetles can also withstand a considerable reduction in the water content of their tissues. The study of desert beetles is important because it illustrates many of the solutions evolved by arthropods to the problems engendered, in an extreme form, by life in all terrestrial environments.

  7. Thermal and water relations of desert beetles.

    PubMed

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J L

    2001-11-01

    The physical problems that living organisms have to contend with in hot deserts are primarily extremes of temperature, low humidity, shortage or absence of free water, and the environmental factors that accentuate these--such as strong winds, sand-storms, lack of shade, rocky and impenetrable soils. Climatic factors are particularly important to smaller animals such as arthropods on account of their relatively enormous surface to volume ratios. Nevertheless, beetles (especially Tenebrionidae and, to a lesser extent, Chrysomelidae) are among the most successful animals of the desert, and are often the only ones to be seen abroad during the day. Similar physical problems are experienced by insects in all terrestrial biomes, but they are much enhanced in the desert. Although climatic extremes are often avoided by burrowing habits coupled with circadian and seasonal activity rhythms, as well as reproductive phenology, several species of desert beetle are nevertheless able to withstand thermal extremes that would rapidly cause the death of most other arthropods including insects. The reactions of desert beetles to heat are largely behavioural whilst their responses to water shortage are primarily physiological. The effects of coloration are not discussed. In addition to markedly low rates of transpiration, desert beetles can also withstand a considerable reduction in the water content of their tissues. The study of desert beetles is important because it illustrates many of the solutions evolved by arthropods to the problems engendered, in an extreme form, by life in all terrestrial environments. PMID:11771473

  8. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  9. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  10. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J D; Pirk, C W W; Hepburn, H R; Kastberger, G; Elzen, P J

    2002-07-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y. PMID:12216866

  11. Species Composition and Community Structure of Dung Beetles Attracted to Dung of Gaur and Elephant in the Moist Forests of South Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Sabu, Thomas K.

    2007-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats. PMID:20337551

  12. Patterns on the iridescent beetle, Chrysina gloriosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Ok; Sharma, Vivek; Crne, Matija; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2009-03-01

    The brilliant metallic color of a beetle Chrysina gloriosa has been known to occur due to selective reflectance from a cholesteric structure on the exoskeleton. The surface also appears to have hexagonally packed structures. Crystallographic concepts and Voronoi analysis were used to determine the degree of order in different regions of the beetle. Along the hexagons in the Voronoi diagram, many clustered pentagons and heptagons were observed. Due to the surface curvature, the number of pentagons was found to be higher than the number of heptagons. The cells appear yellow in the center surrounded by a green region with a yellow edge. Confocal microscopy was used to image the underlying structure, which was found to consist of concentric arcs on a surface of a shallow cone. The observed structures resemble the defects on a cholesteric phase with a free surface, and provide an interesting explanation of structural color development in beetles, along with inspiration for the design of chiral photonic structures.

  13. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed. PMID:21738430

  14. Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower.(From the Biomass Program's home page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/) The Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database allows the user to choose from more than 150 types of biomass samples. The specialized interface then guides the user through choices within the sample (such as "Ash" as a choice in the "Hardwood" sample and displays tables based on choice of composition properties, structure properties, elemental properties, extractive properties, etc.)

  15. Edge Effects Are Important in Supporting Beetle Biodiversity in a Gravel-Bed River Floodplain

    PubMed Central

    Langhans, Simone D.; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60–100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February–November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct – yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity. PMID:25545280

  16. Edge effects are important in supporting beetle biodiversity in a gravel-bed river floodplain.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60-100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February-November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct--yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity. PMID:25545280

  17. BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S R; Brown, Susan J

    2007-01-01

    BeetleBase (http://www.bioinformatics.ksu.edu/BeetleBase/) is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software components developed by the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project. This strategy not only reduces the time required to develop the database query tools but also makes the data structure of BeetleBase compatible with that of other model organism databases. BeetleBase will be useful to the Tribolium research community for genome annotation as well as comparative genomics. PMID:17090595

  18. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

    1997-09-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

  19. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  20. Beetle and plant density as cues initiating dispersal in two species of adult predaceous diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Taylor, Stacy; Vamosi, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Dispersal can influence population dynamics, species distributions, and community assembly, but few studies have attempted to determine the factors that affect dispersal of insects in natural populations. Consequently, little is known about how proximate factors affect the dispersal behavior of individuals or populations, or how an organism's behavior may change in light of such factors. Adult predaceous diving beetles are active dispersers and are important predators in isolated aquatic habitats. We conducted interrelated studies to determine how several factors affected dispersal in two common pond-inhabiting species in southern Alberta, Canada: Graphoderus occidentalis and Rhantus sericans. Specifically, we (1) experimentally tested the effect of plant and beetle densities on dispersal probabilities in ponds; (2) surveyed ponds and determined the relationships among beetle densities and plant densities and water depth; and (3) conducted laboratory trials to determine how beetle behavior changed in response to variation in plant densities, conspecific densities, food, and water depth. Our field experiment determined that both species exhibited density dependence, with higher beetle densities leading to higher dispersal probabilities. Low plant density also appeared to increase beetle dispersal. Consistent with our experimental results, densities of R. sericans in ponds were significantly related to plant density and varied also with water depth; G. occidentalis densities did not vary with either factor. In the laboratory, behavior varied with plant density only for R. sericans, which swam at low density but were sedentary at high density. Both species responded to depth, with high beetle densities eliciting beetles to spend more time in deeper water. The presence of food caused opposite responses for G. occidentalis between experiments. Behavioral changes in response to patch-level heterogeneity likely influence dispersal in natural populations and are expected

  1. Soil Respiration Declines Following Beetle - Induced Forest Mortality in a Lodgepole Pine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkhuu, B.; Peckham, S. D.; Norton, U.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.

    2014-12-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests in northern Colorado and southeast Wyoming have been undergoing a major mortality event owing to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation since 2007. We studied biotic and abiotic drivers of growing season soil respiration in four mature stands experiencing different levels of mortality between 2008 and 2012 in the Medicine Bow Mountains, southeastern Wyoming, USA. For five years, beetle infestation significantly altered forest structure. Stand mortality was 30% and more than 80% in stands with the lowest and highest mortality, respectively. Understory vegetation cover increased by 50% for five years following beetle infestation. Needlefall was increased by more than 50% during first two years of beetle infestation compared to the pre-disturbance period. We did not observe an immediate increase in soil respiration following beetle infestation as suggested by some researchers. Soil respiration rates in midsummer ranged from 1.4 ± 0.1 μmol m-2 s-1 in stands with highest mortality to 3.1 ± 0.2 μmol m-2s-1 in uninfested stand. Live tree basal area was the dominant factor controlling soil respiration, explaining more than 60% of the interannual and spatial variations in response to the disturbance. In addition, soil respiration was significantly correlated with fine root biomass, which explained 55% of variations, providing strong evidence that autotrophic respiration dominated the forest soil respiration flux. Furthermore, the seasonality of soil respiration was controlled mainly by mean monthly precipitation and mid-day photosynthetically active radiation. Each factor predicted from 30% to 50% of seasonal soil respiration variability with the highest correlation coefficients in stand with the lowest mortality. Our results clearly indicate that the reduction of photosynthesis in trees over the infestation period significantly reduced soil respiration. The remaining activity in dead stands may

  2. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  3. Manufacture of Prebiotics from Biomass Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Moure, Andrés; Alonso, José Luis; Domínguez, Herminia; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    Biomass from plant material is the most abundant and widespread renewable raw material for sustainable development, and can be employed as a source of polymeric and oligomeric carbohydrates. When ingested as a part of the diet, some biomass polysaccharides and/or their oligomeric hydrolysis products are selectively fermented in the colon, causing prebiotic effects.

  4. Systematics of Fusaria associated with Ambrosia beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here, I summarize research efforts directed at characterizing ambrosia beetle-associated fusaria, including the species responsible for avocado wilt in Israel (Mendel et al., Phytoparasitica 2012) and branch dieback in California (Eskalen et al., Pl. Dis. 2012). Our multilocus molecular phylogenetic...

  5. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  6. Research on Asian longhorned beetle in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An established population of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis) (Motschulsky) was discovered in 2003 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Given the enormous risk that ALB posses to the expansive forests of southern Canada and northern U.S. and the urgent need to eradicate ALB, as ...

  7. Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

  8. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  9. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium–Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known independent evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symb...

  10. Two new water beetles from the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2014-01-01

    Mesoceration hantam sp. nov. and Parhydraena faeni sp. nov., are described from the Hantamsberg plateau, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa. The new species are so far known only from temporary waters on the Hantamsberg summit, where they were both abundant. Sampling in these mountains also revealed an interesting accompanying water beetle fauna, including the northernmost known record of Hydropeplus montanus Omer-Cooper, a species characteristic of mountain fynbos further south in the region. PMID:25543944

  11. Detection of seed DNA in regurgitates of granivorous carabid beetles.

    PubMed

    Wallinger, C; Sint, D; Baier, F; Schmid, C; Mayer, R; Traugott, M

    2015-12-01

    Granivory can play a pivotal role in influencing regeneration, colonization as well as abundance and distribution of plants. Due to their high abundance, nutrient content and longevity, seeds are an important food source for many animals. Among insects, carabid beetles consume substantial numbers of seeds and are thought to be responsible for a significant amount of seed loss. However, the processes that govern which seeds are eaten and are therefore prevented from entering the seedbank are poorly understood. Here, we assess if DNA-based diet analysis allows tracking the consumption of seeds by carabids. Adult individuals of Harpalus rufipes were fed with seeds of Taraxacum officinale and Lolium perenne allowing them to digest for up to 3 days. Regurgitates were tested for the DNA of ingested seeds at eight different time points post-feeding using general and species-specific plant primers. The detection of seed DNA decreased with digestion time for both seed species, albeit in a species-specific manner. Significant differences in overall DNA detection rates were found with the general plant primers but not with the species-specific primers. This can have implications for the interpretation of trophic data derived from next-generation sequencing, which is based on the application of general primers. Our findings demonstrate that seed predation by carabids can be tracked, molecularly, on a species-specific level, providing a new way to unravel the mechanisms underlying in-field diet choice in granivores. PMID:26271284

  12. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  13. Floral Associations of Cyclocephaline Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: 1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, 2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and 3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  14. ROOT BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN THE WORLD'S UPLAND FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root biomass based on standard meth...

  15. A gene associated with social immunity in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, William J.; Duarte, Ana; Schrader, Matthew; Day, Jonathan P.; Kilner, Rebecca; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Some group-living species exhibit social immunity, where the immune response of one individual can protect others in the group from infection. In burying beetles, this is part of parental care. Larvae feed on vertebrate carcasses which their parents smear with exudates that inhibit microbial growth. We have sequenced the transcriptome of the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides and identified six genes that encode lysozymes—a type of antimicrobial enzyme that has previously been implicated in social immunity in burying beetles. When females start breeding and producing antimicrobial anal exudates, we found that the expression of one of these genes was increased by approximately 1000 times to become one of the most abundant transcripts in the transcriptome. Females varied considerably in the antimicrobial properties of their anal exudates, and this was strongly correlated with the expression of this lysozyme. We conclude that we have likely identified a gene encoding a key effector molecule in social immunity and that it was recruited during evolution from a function in personal immunity. PMID:26817769

  16. Area burned in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T; Chapman, Teresa B

    2015-04-01

    In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km(2) of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase area burned and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed areas burned on areas infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the area burned in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed area and expected area burned in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of area burned during the 2002-2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the annual area burned in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541

  17. Community- Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Jeltsch, Florian; Wurst, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae) larvae (43%) in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height), and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio). Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently, were also positively related to high plant growth rates and furthermore to root dry mass, but were not related to tissue quality. Insect root herbivore numbers were not related to plant cover, plant species richness and soil water content. Plant species composition and to a lesser extent plant trait composition displayed spatial autocorrelation, which was not influenced by land use intensity. Insect root herbivore abundance was not spatially autocorrelated. We conclude that in semi-natural grasslands with a high share of generalist insect root herbivores, insect root herbivores affiliate with large, fast growing plants, presumably because of availability of high quantities of food. Affiliation of insect root

  18. Community-Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance.

    PubMed

    Sonnemann, Ilja; Pfestorf, Hans; Jeltsch, Florian; Wurst, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae) larvae (43%) in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height), and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio). Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently, were also positively related to high plant growth rates and furthermore to root dry mass, but were not related to tissue quality. Insect root herbivore numbers were not related to plant cover, plant species richness and soil water content. Plant species composition and to a lesser extent plant trait composition displayed spatial autocorrelation, which was not influenced by land use intensity. Insect root herbivore abundance was not spatially autocorrelated. We conclude that in semi-natural grasslands with a high share of generalist insect root herbivores, insect root herbivores affiliate with large, fast growing plants, presumably because of availability of high quantities of food. Affiliation of insect root

  19. A quarter of a century succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages in remnant habitats in an urbanized matrix (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Kamal J.K.; Epstein, Marc E.; Koehle, Jessica J.; Purrington, Foster F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We studied the long-term (23–24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2–3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4–1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our

  20. Seasonal phenology of the cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lawrence M.; Reagel, Peter F.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wong, Joseph C. H.; Meier, Linnea R.; Silliman, Christina A.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Striman, Becca L.; Robinson, Kenneth P.; Mongold-Diers, Judith A.; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize field data on the species composition and seasonal phenology of the community of cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Data were drawn from field bioassays conducted during 2009 – 2012 that tested attraction of adult beetles of diverse species to a variety of synthetic pheromones and host plant volatiles. A total of 34,086 beetles of 114 species were captured, including 48 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 41 species in the Lamiinae, 19 species in the Lepturinae, two species in the Spondylidinae, and one species each in the Necydalinae, Parandrinae, Prioninae, and the Disteniidae. Most of the best-represented species were attracted to pheromones that were included in field experiments, particularly species that use (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a pheromone component. The species captured, and their patterns of abundance and seasonal phenology were similar to those in an earlier study conducted in Pennsylvania. The most abundant species identified in both studies included the cerambycines Elaphidion mucronatum (Say), Neoclytus a. acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus m. mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Cerambycine species became active in an orderly progression from early spring through late fall, whereas most lamiine species were active in summer and fall, and lepturine species were limited to summer. Potential cross attraction between some cerambycine species that shared pheromone components may have been averted by differences in seasonal activity period, and by minor pheromone components that acted as synergists for conspecifics and/or antagonists for heterospecifics. These results provide quantitative data on the abundance and seasonal phenology of a large number of species. PMID:24683267

  1. Structure of dung beetle communities in an altitudinal gradient of neotropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, D; Marín-Armijos, D; Ruiz, C

    2015-02-01

    To understand the effects of global warming in tropical insect communities, it is necessary to comprehend how such communities respond to different abiotic factors that covariate with altitude. In this study, we partially answer this question applied to dung beetle communities distributed along an altitudinal gradient. The sampling was conducted in seven stations 100 m apart each in altitude in a dry mountain scrub in southern Ecuador. A total of 7422 individuals belonging to six species were captured. Canthon balteatus Boheman was the most abundant with 6502 individuals, and Onoreidium ohausi (Arrow) was the least abundant with 20 individuals. We found significant changes in the structure of the dung beetle communities with altitude. Two abiotic factors showed a relationship with the abundance pattern for all species (altitude, Z = 0.011, p < 0.01, and temperature, Z = 0.859, p < 0.01). Canthon balteatus Boheman showed a positive relationship with altitude (Z = 1.422, p < 0.001) and temperature (Z = 1.121, p < 0.001), Dichotomius problematicus (Lüederwaldt) a positive relationship with precipitation (Z = 0.113, p < 0.001), and Malagoniella cupreicollis (Waterhouse) a positive relationship with temperature (Z = 0.668, p < 0.001) and negative with precipitation (Z = -0.189, p < 0.001). Phanaeus achilles Boheman, Onthophagus sp., and O. ohausi (Arrow) did not show any relationship with the studied variables, nor was the richness correlated with the studied variables. These results suggest that the effects of global warming over dung beetle communities will be difficult to predict because of species-specific responses to global warming. PMID:26013011

  2. A tapeworm molecule manipulates vitellogenin expression in the beetle Tenebrio molitor

    PubMed Central

    Warr, E.; Meredith, J. M.; Nimmo, D. D.; Basu, S.; Hurd, H.; Eggleston, P.

    2006-01-01

    Metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta secrete a molecule that decreases vitellogenin (Vg) synthesis in the beetle host, Tenebrio molitor. The 5608 bp T. molitor Vg cDNA represents a single-copy gene encoding a single open reading frame of 1821 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 206 kDa. Northern blot analysis revealed detectable levels of transcripts only in adult females. In vivo, Vg mRNA abundance was significantly higher in fat bodies from infected females compared with control females at all but the earliest time point. In vitro, Vg mRNA abundance was significantly increased in fat bodies incubated with live stage I–II parasites. The apparent conflict between increased Vg mRNA abundance and decreased Vg protein in fat bodies from infected females is discussed. PMID:16907836

  3. Effects of Chitin and Contact Insecticide Complexes on Rove Beetles in Commercial Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Balog, A.; Ferencz, L.; Hartel, T.

    2011-01-01

    A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility. PMID:21870981

  4. Effects of chitin and contact insecticide complexes on rove beetles in commercial orchards.

    PubMed

    Balog, A; Ferencz, L; Hartel, T

    2011-01-01

    A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility. PMID:21870981

  5. Endozoochory by beetles: a novel seed dispersal mechanism

    PubMed Central

    de Vega, Clara; Arista, Montserrat; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Herrera, Carlos M.; Talavera, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Due in part to biophysical sized-related constraints, insects unlike vertebrates are seldom expected to act as primary seed dispersers via ingestion of fruits and seeds (endozoochory). The Mediterranean parasitic plant Cytinus hypocistis, however, possesses some characteristics that may facilitate endozoochory by beetles. By combining a long-term field study with experimental manipulation, we tested whether C. hypocistis seeds are endozoochorously dispersed by beetles. Methods Field studies were carried out over 4 years on six populations in southern Spain. We recorded the rate of natural fruit consumption by beetles, the extent of beetle movement, beetle behaviour and the relative importance of C. hypocistis fruits in beetle diet. Key Results The tenebrionid beetle Pimelia costata was an important disperser of C. hypocistis seeds, consuming up to 17·5 % of fruits per population. Forty-six per cent of beetles captured in the field consumed C. hypocistis fruits, with up to 31 seeds found in individual beetle frass. An assessment of seeds following passage through the gut of beetles indicated that seeds remained intact and viable and that the proportion of viable seeds from beetle frass was not significantly different from that of seeds collected directly from fruits. Conclusions A novel plant–animal interaction is revealed; endozoochory by beetles may facilitate the dispersal of viable seeds after passage through the gut away from the parent plant to potentially favourable underground sites offering a high probability of germination and establishment success. Such an ecological role has until now been attributed only to vertebrates. Future studies should consider more widely the putative role of fruit and seed ingestion by invertebrates as a dispersal mechanism, particularly for those plant species that possess small seeds. PMID:21303784

  6. Aggregation pheromone of the cereal leaf beetle: field evaluation and emission from males in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sujaya; Cossé, Allard A; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Bartelt, Robert J

    2003-09-01

    The previously identified, male-specific compound of the cereal leaf beetle (CLB, Chrysomelidae; Oulema melanopus), (E)-8-hydroxy-6-methyl-6-octen-3-one, was studied further with respect to field activity and emission rate from male beetles. In a 5-week field experiment in Oregon, the compound was shown to function as an aggregation pheromone in attracting male and female CLBs migrating from overwintering sites in spring. Traps baited with the synthetic compound (500 microg per rubber septum) caught 3.3 times more CLBs than control traps. Lower doses of the pheromone (50 and 150 microg) were less attractive than the 500 microg dose. One relatively abundant, volatile compound from the host plant (oats), (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, that elicited responses from beetle antennae was not attractive, either by itself or as a synergist of the pheromone. Both sexes were captured about equally for all treatments. We also measured daily pheromone emission by male beetles in the laboratory. Individual males feeding on oat seedlings under greenhouse conditions emitted as much as 6 microg per day, which is about 500 times higher than had been previously observed under incubator conditions. The pheromone emission rate was at least five times higher during the day than at night, and in one male, emission spanned a period of 28 d. The release rate of synthetic pheromone from the 500 microg septa was very similar to the maximum from single males; thus, future experiments should evaluate even higher doses. The field results indicate that the pheromone has potential as a monitoring tool for early detection of CLBs as they move from their overwintering sites into newly planted cereal crops in spring. PMID:14584683

  7. Allozyme gene diversities in some leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Krafsur, E S

    1999-08-01

    Gene diversity at allozyme loci was investigated in the bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata Forster; the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller); the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricus; the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the southern corn rootworm, also called the spotted cucumber beetle, D. undecimpunctata howardi Baker; the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence; and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Six of these species are economically important pests of crops and display adaptive traits that may correlate with genetic diversity. Gene diversity H(E) in bean leaf beetles was 17.7 +/- 4.0% among 32 loci. In western corn rootworms, H(E) = 4.8 +/- 2.0% among 36 loci, and in spotted cucumber beetles, H(E) = 11.9 +/- 2.7% among 39 loci. Diversity among 27 loci was 10.5 +/- 4.3% in the Colorado potato beetle. The data were compared with gene diversity estimates from other leaf beetle species in which heterozygosities varied from 0.3 to 21% and no correlation was detected among heterozygosities, geographic ranges, or population densities. Distributions of single-locus heterozygosities were consistent with selective neutrality of alleles. PMID:10624512

  8. Biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers a broad, interdisciplinary approach to assessing the factors that are key determinants to the use of biomass energies, stressing their limitations, complexities, uncertainties, links, and consequences. Considers photosynthesis, energy costs of nutrients, problems with monoculture, and the energy analysis of intensive tree plantations. Subjects are examined in terms of environmental and economic impact. Emphasizes the use and abuse of biomass energies in China, India, and Brazil. Topics include forests, trees for energy, crop residues, fuel crops, aquatic plants, and animal and human wastes. Recommended for environmental engineers and planners, and those involved in ecology, systematics, and forestry.

  9. Prison construction and guarding behaviour by European honeybees is dependent on inmate small hive beetle density.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J D; Hepburn, H R; Ellis, A M; Elzen, P J

    2003-08-01

    Increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) density changes prison construction and guarding behaviour in European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). These changes include more guard bees per imprisoned beetle and the construction of more beetle prisons at the higher beetle density. Despite this, the number of beetles per prison (inmate density) did not change. Beetles solicited food more actively at the higher density and at night. In response, guard bees increased their aggressive behaviour towards beetle prisoners but did not feed beetles more at the higher density. Only 5% of all beetles were found among the combs at the low density but this percentage increased five-fold at the higher one. Successful comb infiltration (and thus reproduction) by beetles is a possible explanation for the significant damage beetles cause to European honeybee colonies in the USA. PMID:12955230

  10. Functional diversity of staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in maize fields: testing the possible effect of genetically modified, insect resistant maize.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Z; Skoková Habuštová, O; Boháč, J; Sehnal, F

    2016-08-01

    Staphylinid beetles are recommended bioindicators for the pre-market environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) insect protected maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Our multiannual study is a unique European analysis of a staphylinid community within a 14 ha maize field. GM maize, its near-isogenic hybrid (with or without insecticide treatment), and two other reference hybrids were each grown in five 0.5 ha plots. The opportunity for exposure to Cry toxin from plant residues ploughed into the soil was shown by the presence of saprophagous dipteran larvae that are common prey of predatory staphylinid species and hosts of the parasitoid species. 2587 individuals belonging to 77 staphylinid species were sampled using pitfall traps. Lesteva longoelytrata (31%), Oxypoda acuminata (12%), Aloconota sulcifrons (8%) and Anotylus rugosus (7%) were the most abundant beetles in the field. Bionomics, food specialization, temperature requirements and size group were assigned for 25 most common species. These traits determine the occurrence of staphylinid beetles in the field, the food sources they could utilize and thus also their likely contact with the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Statistical analysis of activity abundance, Rao indices and multivariate analysis of distribution of particular categories of functional traits in the field showed negligible effects of the experimental treatments, including the GM maize, upon the staphylinid community. Staphylinid beetles represent a considerably diverse part of epigeic field fauna with wide food specialization; these features render them suitable for the assessment of environmental safety of GM insect protected maize. However, the availability of prey and the presence of particular staphylinid species and their abundance are highly variable; this complicates the interpretation of the results. PMID:26781035