Note: This page contains sample records for the topic beetle biomass abundance from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Ground Covers Influence the Abundance and Behavior of Japanese Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground covers were tested for 3 consecutive yr for their effect on Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), abundance and behavior in a blueberry planting. Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), pe- rennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and bare ground were compared within row-middles for their effect on abundance of adult female beetles, female beetle behavior

Zsofia Szendrei; Rufus Isaacs

2006-01-01

2

Seasonal abundance of sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in date plantations in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal abundance of nitidulid beetles infesting date plantations in Israel was studied through captures of adults in traps.Carpophilus mutilatus andC. hemipterus were found throughout autumn, winter and spring; in the summer their populations declined considerably.Urophorus humeralis predominated during the summer whileHaptoncus luteolus was most abundant during late summer and autumn. Damage to ripening fruit by sap beetles is apparently inflicted

M. Kehat; D. Blumberg; R. N. Williams

1983-01-01

3

Habitat Fragmentation and Burying Beetle Abundance and Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of burying beetle (Nicrophorus marginatus F., N. tomentosus Weber, N. orbicollis Say and N. defodiens Mannerheim) are attracted to small, fresh mouse carcasses in northern Michigan. The number of burying beetles and their success (burial of a carcass) were greater in woodlands than in edge or field habitats. Species diversity was least in open fields as assessed by

Stephen T. Trumbo; Philip L. Bloch

2000-01-01

4

The relative abundance of mountain pine beetle fungal associates through the beetle life cycle in pine trees.  

PubMed

The mountain pine beetle (MPB) is a native bark beetle of western North America that attacks pine tree species, particularly lodgepole pine. It is closely associated with the ophiostomatoid ascomycetes Grosmannia clavigera, Leptographium longiclavatum, Ophiostoma montium, and Ceratocystiopsis sp.1, with which it is symbiotically associated. To develop a better understanding of interactions between beetles, fungi, and host trees, we used target-specific DNA primers with qPCR to assess the changes in fungal associate abundance over the stages of the MPB life cycle that occur in galleries under the bark of pine trees. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified statistically significant changes in the relative abundance of the fungi over the life cycle of the MPB. Univariate analysis of covariance identified a statistically significant increase in the abundance of Ceratocystiopsis sp.1 through the beetle life cycle, and pair-wise analysis showed that this increase occurs after the larval stage. In contrast, the abundance of O. montium and Leptographium species (G. clavigera, L. longiclavatum) did not change significantly through the MPB life cycle. From these results, the only fungus showing a significant increase in relative abundance has not been formally described and has been largely ignored by other MPB studies. Although our results were from only one site, in previous studies we have shown that the fungi described were all present in at least ten sites in British Columbia. We suggest that the role of Ceratocystiopsis sp.1 in the MPB system should be explored, particularly its potential as a source of nutrients for teneral adults. PMID:22735936

Khadempour, Lily; LeMay, Valerie; Jack, David; Bohlmann, Jörg; Breuil, Colette

2012-06-27

5

Abundance and Biomass of Metazoan Meiobenthos in The Deep Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Quantitative information on the abundance and biomass of deep-sea metazoan meiobenthos, gathered principally from research\\u000a conducted since 1980, is summarized. Abundance and biomass in the deep Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans generally range\\u000a between 100 and 1000 x 103 individuals m-2 and 10 to 400 mg C m-2, respectively. Both decrease significantly with increasing water depth. Relationships between abundance and

John H. Tietjen

6

Effects of cereal headland treatments on the abundance and movements of three species of carabid beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and activity of carabid beetles in the headlands of cereal fields in the Breckland ESA, England, were monitored using pitfall traps and directional barrier traps. Uncropped wildlife strips were 6m wide headlands left unsown and unsprayed but rotovated in autumn. Early the following spring they had significantly less vegetation than fully-sprayed headlands planted with winter wheat. Pterostichus melanarius

A. J Hawthorne; Mark Hassall; N. W Sotherton

1998-01-01

7

Habitat selection determines abundance, richness and species composition of beetles in aquatic communities  

PubMed Central

Distribution and abundance patterns at the community and metacommunity scale can result from two distinct mechanisms. Random dispersal followed by non-random, site-specific mortality (species sorting) is the dominant paradigm in community ecology, while habitat selection provides an alternative, largely unexplored, mechanism with different demographic consequences. Rather than differential mortality, habitat selection involves redistribution of individuals among habitat patches based on perceived rather than realized fitness, with perceptions driven by past selection. In particular, habitat preferences based on species composition can create distinct patterns of positive and negative covariance among species, generating more complex linkages among communities than with random dispersal models. In our experiments, the mere presence of predatory fishes, in the absence of any mortality, reduced abundance and species richness of aquatic beetles by up to 80% in comparison with the results from fishless controls. Beetle species' shared habitat preferences generated distinct patterns of species richness, species composition and total abundance, matching large-scale field patterns previously ascribed to random dispersal and differential mortality. Our results indicate that landscape-level patterns of distribution and species diversity can be driven to a large extent by habitat selection behaviour, a critical, but largely overlooked, mechanism of community and metacommunity assembly.

Binckley, Christopher A; Resetarits, William J

2005-01-01

8

Linking species abundance distributions in numerical abundance and biomass through simple assumptions about community structure  

PubMed Central

Species abundance distributions (SADs) are widely used as a tool for summarizing ecological communities but may have different shapes, depending on the currency used to measure species importance. We develop a simple plotting method that links SADs in the alternative currencies of numerical abundance and biomass and is underpinned by testable predictions about how organisms occupy physical space. When log numerical abundance is plotted against log biomass, the species lie within an approximately triangular region. Simple energetic and sampling constraints explain the triangular form. The dispersion of species within this triangle is the key to understanding why SADs of numerical abundance and biomass can differ. Given regular or random species dispersion, we can predict the shape of the SAD for both currencies under a variety of sampling regimes. We argue that this dispersion pattern will lie between regular and random for the following reasons. First, regular dispersion patterns will result if communities are comprised groups of organisms that use different components of the physical space (e.g. open water, the sea bed surface or rock crevices in a marine fish assemblage), and if the abundance of species in each of these spatial guilds is linked to the way individuals of varying size use the habitat. Second, temporal variation in abundance and sampling error will tend to randomize this regular pattern. Data from two intensively studied marine ecosystems offer empirical support for these predictions. Our approach also has application in environmental monitoring and the recognition of anthropogenic disturbance, which may change the shape of the triangular region by, for example, the loss of large body size top predators that occur at low abundance.

Henderson, Peter A.; Magurran, Anne E.

2010-01-01

9

Disruption of Ant-Aphid Mutualism in Canopy Enhances the Abundance of Beetles on the Forest Floor  

PubMed Central

Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web.

Ma, Keming

2012-01-01

10

Relearning the ABC: taxonomic changes and abundance\\/biomass relationships in disturbed benthic communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

For marine macrobenthic communities, a shift from higher biomass dominance with increasing levels of disturbance can be determined by the abundance\\/biomass comparison (ABC) method. This response results from (i) a shift in the proportions of different phyla present in communities, some phyla having larger-bodied species than others, and (ii) a shift in the relative distributions of abundance and biomass among

R. M. Warwick; K. R. Clarke

1994-01-01

11

SPECIES-ABUNDANCE-BIOMASS RESPONSES BY ESTUARINE MACROBENTHOS TO SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION.  

EPA Science Inventory

Macrobenthic community responses can be measured through concerted changes in univariate metrics, including species richness, total abundance, and total biomass. The classic model of pollution effects on marine macroinvertebrate communities recognizes that species/abundance/bioma...

12

Effects of bark beetle outbreaks on species composition, biomass, and nutrient distribution in a mixed deciduous forest  

SciTech Connect

The increment of forest biomass and nutrient content on Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee, from 1967 to 1983 was interrupted by two bark beetle outbreaks. An outbreak of the southern pine beetle in the early 1970s and an outbreak of the hickory borer in the late 1970s, early 1980s killed a number of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and hickory (Carya spp.) respectively. Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) growth increased over this 16-year period, especially in response to the mortality of shortleaf pine. The net result of these events was little change in total biomass but a substantial shift in species composition (from pine to yellow-poplar) in the Pine forest type over this period. No species has yet responded to the mortality of hickory. Due to the shift in species composition in the Pine type, calcium and magnesium accumulation rates in biomass increased but foliage biomass decreased over the inventory period. There was little change in foliage biomass or nutrient content in other forest types. The beetle attacks, combined with apparently natural self-thinning, caused a large increase in standing dead biomass and in nutrient return via tree fall. This increased rate of return will substantially alter forest floor nutrient content and availability, especially with regard to calcium and nitrogen.

Johnson, D.W.; Henderson, G.S.; Harris, W.F.

1987-01-01

13

Effect of Tillage and Planting Date on Seasonal Abundance and Diversity of Predacious Ground Beetles in Cotton  

PubMed Central

A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the other species. Ground beetle species abundance, diversity, and species richness were significantly higher in conservation tillage plots. This suggests that field conditions arising from the practice of conservation tillage may support higher predacious ground beetle activity than might be observed under field conditions arising from conventional tillage practices.

Shrestha, R. B.; Parajulee, M. N.

2010-01-01

14

Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass, to a depth of 350 m, has a mean of 8.4 ?g C L-1, median of 0.2 ?g C L-1 and a standard deviation of 63.5 ?g C L-1. The global annual average estimate of macrozooplankton biomass in the top 350 m, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid-latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted by the lack of information on the size of the organism and/or the absence of taxonomic information. Distribution patterns of global macrozooplankton biomass and statistical information about biomass concentrations may be used to validate biogeochemical and plankton functional type models. Macrozooplankton abundance and biomass dataset doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.777398.

Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

2013-07-01

15

Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eastern South Dakota on alfalfa and soybean relative to tillage, fertilization, and yield.  

PubMed

Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without added nitrogen (N). Populations were also sampled early and late season in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Beetles were present in alfalfa by late May and most were reproductively active within a week, but their presence in alfalfa did not always precede soybean emergence. Most beetles taken from alfalfa in late fall were teneral; all were previtellogenic and unmated. Reproductively active beetles were detected in soybeans as soon as seedlings emerged. A partial second generation apparently occurred each year. First-generation beetles started to emerge in soybean fields during the first or third week of July but, whether emergence started early or late, most beetles emerging after July seemingly failed to mature their eggs and started leaving soybeans within several weeks of eclosion. This pattern suggested that any second generation arose from only the earliest emerging beetles of the first generation, with later emerging individuals having to overwinter before reproducing. Thus, any factors delaying emergence of the first generation, such as delayed soybean planting, could potentially limit its reproductive capacity through winter mortality. Cumulative seasonal beetle counts were lower in N-treated subplots and in ridge-tilled compared with chisel-tilled plots. Soybean grain yield increased with decreases in peak abundance of first-generation beetles and with N fertilization. PMID:20550786

Hammack, Leslie; Pikul, Joseph L; West, Mark S

2010-06-01

16

Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass has a mean of 8.4 ?g C l-1, median of 0.15 ?g C l-1 and a standard deviation of 63.46 ?g C l-1. The global annual average estimate of epipelagic macrozooplankton, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. Biomass is highest in the tropics, decreasing in the sub-tropics and increasing slightly towards the poles. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted in the most part by the lack of information on the size of the organism and/or the absence of taxonomic information. Distribution patterns of global macrozooplankton biomass and statistical information about biomass concentrations may be used to validate biogeochemical models and Plankton Functional Type models. Original dataset http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777398 Gridded dataset http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777398

Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

2012-04-01

17

Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and production in a Brazilian coastal lagoon and in two German lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterioplanktonic abundance, biomass, and production within a tropical lagoon (Cabiúnas, Brazil) and two temperate lakes (Stechlin and Dagow, Germany) were compared. Bacterial abundance and production were significantly different among the three water bodies. The lowest bacterial production (0 .8µ gCl -1 d -1 ) was observed in the tropical Cabiúnas Lagoon despite its higher mean temperature and dissolved organic

ANDRÉ L. S. FURTADO; PETER CASPER; FRANCISCO A. ESTEVES

2001-01-01

18

Micronekton abundance and biomass in Hawaiian waters as influenced by seamounts, eddies, and the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micronekton abundance, biomass, and community composition was determined from 58 Cobb trawl samples taken from 2005 to 2008 at several locations in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. The results indicated a strong influence of the lunar illumination on micronekton abundance and biomass. This effect was evident in shallow night tows and probably was the result of lunar light affecting the nighttime depths of migrating species. The abundance and biomass of micronekton is remarkably consistent between years and areas in Hawaiian waters after the affects of moon phase are accounted for. Micronekton, principally migratory myctophids, were reduced over the summit of Cross Seamount but not Finch Seamount that has a summit below the daytime depth of most migrators. However, during a new moon, micronekton abundance over Cross seamount was similar to surrounding areas either because of altered migration patterns or because predators such as tunas cannot forage as effectively at night without lunar illumination. Species belonging to the Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary layer community were found to vary in presence and abundance between years at Cross Seamount suggesting that a consistent seamount associated fauna does not exist. Sparse sampling of a cyclonic mid-ocean eddy suggested very high micronekton abundance and biomass both in shallow waters at night but also at depth during the day. Although preliminary, these results suggest that eddies may aggregate the micronekton which probably feed on the enhanced secondary productivity.

Drazen, Jeffrey C.; De Forest, Lisa G.; Domokos, Reka

2011-05-01

19

Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA)  

PubMed Central

Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 ± 1949 SD individuals m?3, but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93–96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m?3 and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs.

Heidelberg, Karla B.; O'Neil, Keri L.; Bythell, John C.; Sebens, Kenneth P.

2010-01-01

20

Increasing liana abundance and biomass in tropical forests: emerging patterns and putative mechanisms.  

PubMed

Tropical forests are experiencing large-scale structural changes, the most apparent of which may be the increase in liana (woody vine) abundance and biomass. Lianas permeate most lowland tropical forests, where they can have a huge effect on tree diversity, recruitment, growth and survival, which, in turn, can alter tree community composition, carbon storage and carbon, nutrient and water fluxes. Consequently, increasing liana abundance and biomass have potentially profound ramifications for tropical forest composition and functioning. Currently, eight studies support the pattern of increasing liana abundance and biomass in American tropical and subtropical forests, whereas two studies, both from Africa, do not. The putative mechanisms to explain increasing lianas include increasing evapotranspirative demand, increasing forest disturbance and turnover, changes in land use and fragmentation and elevated atmospheric CO?. Each of these mechanisms probably contributes to the observed patterns of increasing liana abundance and biomass, and the mechanisms are likely to be interrelated and synergistic. To determine whether liana increases are occurring throughout the tropics and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the observed patterns, a widespread network of large-scale, long-term monitoring plots combined with observational and manipulative studies that more directly investigate the putative mechanisms are essential. PMID:21314879

Schnitzer, Stefan A; Bongers, Frans

2011-02-14

21

Macroinvertebrate Abundance and Biomass: 2007 Data, BPA-51; Preliminary Report, February 10, 2009..  

SciTech Connect

Four Excel files containing information on the 2007 macroinvertebrate data were initially provided to Statistical Consulting Services (SCS) by EcoAnalysts on 1/27/2009. These data files contained information on abundance and biomass data at the level of taxonomic groups. The data were subsequently reformatted and compiled, and aggregated for analysis by SCS. All descriptions and analyses below relate to this compiled data. Computations were carried out separately for each site over all sample periods. Basic summary information for both the abundance and biomass data is presented in Print Out No.2. The 14 sites varied widely in their minimum, mean, maximum and variance values. The number of observations ranged from 10 to 18. Some large abundance values (abundance > 40,000) were noted for sites KR6 and KR13. A more detailed summary of each site is given in Print Out No.3. Site KR3, for example, had a mean abundance of 6914 with a sample size of 17. The variance was 4591991 and the standard error of the mean was 1643. The skewness value, a measure of symmetry for the frequency distribution, was moderately large at 1.29 indicating an asymmetric distribution. Biomass for KR3 had a mean value of 0.87 g/m{sup 2} with 17 observations. The variance was 0.8872 and the standard error was 0.228 g/m{sup 2}. Skewness for biomass was also high at 1.29. Further examination of the quantiles and frequency plots for abundance and biomass also indicate considerable skewness. The stem and leaf diagram (frequency plot) for abundance in KR3 shows most of the data centered on smaller values with a few very large counts. The distribution for biomass has a similar pattern. Statistical tests for normality are significant for both response variables in KR3, thus, the hypothesis that the data originates from a symmetric normal distribution is rejected. Because sample size estimation and statistical inference assume normally distributed data, a transformation of the data is required prior to further analysis. As was the case for previous years, the natural logarithm was chosen as a transformation to mitigate distributional skewness. Abundance and biomass for the remaining sites were also notably skewed, therefore, these data were also log transformed prior to analysis. Summary information for the transformed data (referred to as L-abun and L-bio for abundance and biomass, respectively) are given in Print Out No.4. For site KR3, the logarithmic transformation reduced skewness value for biomass to -0.66. The distributions of abundance and biomass in the other sites also generally showed improvement as well. Hence, all subsequent statistical analyses reported here will be based on the log transformed data.

Holderman, Charles

2009-02-10

22

Global patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: Species richness, abundance, biomass and body size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global patterns in species richness in sandy beach ecosystems have been poorly understood until comparatively recently, because of the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases at continental scales. We analyze information from more than 200 sandy beaches around the world, which harbor hundreds of macrofauna species, and explore latitudinal trends in species richness, abundance and biomass. Species richness increases from temperate to tropical sites. Abundance follows contrasting trends depending on the slope of the beach: in gentle slope beaches, it is higher at temperate sites, whereas in steep-slope beaches it is higher at the tropics. Biomass follows identical negative trends for both climatic regions at the whole range of beach slopes, suggesting decreasing rates in carrying capacity of the environment towards reflective beaches. Various morphodynamic variables determine global trends in beach macrofauna. Species richness, abundance and biomass are higher at dissipative than at reflective beaches, whereas a body size follows the reverse pattern. A generalized linear model showed that large tidal range (which determines the vertical dimension of the intertidal habitat), small size of sand particles and flat beach slope (a product of the interaction among wave energy, tidal range and grain size) are correlated with high species richness, suggesting that these parameters represent the most parsimonious variables for modelling patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. Large-scale patterns indicate a scaling of abundance to a body size, suggesting that dissipative beaches harbor communities with highest abundance and species with the smallest body sizes. Additional information for tropical and northern hemisphere sandy beaches (underrepresented in our compilation) is required to decipher more conclusive trends, particularly in abundance, biomass and body size. Further research should integrate meaningful oceanographic variables, such as temperature and primary production, in deciphering latitudinal trends.

Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton

2013-10-01

23

Fauna of polyhaline subtidal marsh creeks in Southern New Jersey: Composition, abundance and biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three polyhaline subtidal marsh creeks in southern New Jersey were sampled with weirs and seines to determine seasonal patterns\\u000a of utilization by fishes and macroinvertebrates. Sixty-four species of fish, 13 invertebrates, and the diamondback terrapin\\u000a were collected in 69 weir and 57 seine samples from April to November 1988 and April to October 1989. Average abundance, biomass,\\u000a and faunal composition

Rodney A. Rountree; Kenneth W. Able

1992-01-01

24

Picoplankton abundance and biomass in the East China Sea during autumn and winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Nov. 2006 and Feb. 2007, two investigations were carried out to investigate the abundance, carbon biomass, and distribution of picoplankton (Pico) and its relationship to the hydrological regime in the East China Sea (ECS). Pico consisted of three groups of photosynthetic picoplankton (phPico)— Synechococcus (Syn), Prochlorococcus (Pro) and Picoeukaryotes (PEuk)—and heterotrophic bacteria (HBAC). The average abundance of Pro, PEuk and HBAC was lower in autumn than in winter, but for Syn the opposite trend was observed. Water temperature, salinity, and stability of water column influenced Pico distribution in both seasons. Regression analysis showed distinct positive correlations between HBAC and phPico in both seasons. Syn contributed more to phPico in coastal waters, whereas Pro dominanted in the shelf and slope areas. PEuk was the major contributor to carbon biomass. In the Pico community, HBAC was predominant, both in abundance and in terms of carbon biomass. The phenomenon of subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) was observed ubiquitously in the shelf and slope area, and Pico organisms were the major contributors.

Le, Fengfeng; Ning, Xiuren; Liu, Chenggang; Ni, Xiaobo; Hao, Qiang

2012-02-01

25

A global diatom database - abundance, biovolume and biomass in the world ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoplankton identification and abundance data are now commonly feeding plankton distribution databases worldwide. This study is a first attempt to compile the largest possible body of data available from different databases as well as from individual published or unpublished datasets regarding diatom distribution in the world ocean. The data obtained originate from time series studies as well as spatial studies. This effort is supported by the Marine Ecosystem Model Inter-Comparison Project (MAREMIP), which aims at building consistent datasets for the main plankton functional types (PFTs) in order to help validate biogeochemical ocean models by using carbon (C) biomass derived from abundance data. In this study we collected over 293 000 individual geo-referenced data points with diatom abundances from bottle and net sampling. Sampling site distribution was not homogeneous, with 58% of data in the Atlantic, 20% in the Arctic, 12% in the Pacific, 8% in the Indian and 1% in the Southern Ocean. A total of 136 different genera and 607 different species were identified after spell checking and name correction. Only a small fraction of these data were also documented for biovolumes and an even smaller fraction was converted to C biomass. As it is virtually impossible to reconstruct everyone's method for biovolume calculation, which is usually not indicated in the datasets, we decided to undertake the effort to document, for every distinct species, the minimum and maximum cell dimensions, and to convert all the available abundance data into biovolumes and C biomass using a single standardized method. Statistical correction of the database was also adopted to exclude potential outliers and suspicious data points. The final database contains 90 648 data points with converted C biomass. Diatom C biomass calculated from cell sizes spans over eight orders of magnitude. The mean diatom biomass for individual locations, dates and depths is 141.19 ?g C l-1, while the median value is 11.16 ?g C l-1. Regarding biomass distribution, 19% of data are in the range 0-1 ?g C l-1, 29% in the range 1-10 ?g C l-1, 31% in the range 10-100 ?g C l-1, 18% in the range 100-1000 ?g C l-1, and only 3% > 1000 ?g C l-1. Interestingly, less than 50 species contributed to > 90% of global biomass, among which centric species were dominant. Thus, placing significant efforts on cell size measurements, process studies and C quota calculations of these species should considerably improve biomass estimates in the upcoming years. A first-order estimate of the diatom biomass for the global ocean ranges from 444 to 582 Tg C, which converts to 3 to 4 Tmol Si and to an average Si biomass turnover rate of 0.15 to 0.19 d-1. Link to the dataset: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.777384.

Leblanc, K.; Arístegui, J.; Armand, L.; Assmy, P.; Beker, B.; Bode, A.; Breton, E.; Cornet, V.; Gibson, J.; Gosselin, M.-P.; Kopczynska, E.; Marshall, H.; Peloquin, J.; Piontkovski, S.; Poulton, A. J.; Quéguiner, B.; Schiebel, R.; Shipe, R.; Stefels, J.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; Varela, M.; Widdicombe, C.; Yallop, M.

2012-11-01

26

A global diatom database - abundance, biovolume and biomass in the world ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoplankton identification and abundance data are now commonly feeding plankton distribution databases worldwide. This study is a first attempt to compile the largest possible body of data available from different databases as well as from individual published or unpublished datasets regarding diatom distribution in the world ocean. The data obtained originate from time series studies as well as spatial studies. This effort is supported by the Marine Ecosystem Model Inter-Comparison Project (MAREMIP), which aims at building consistent datasets for the main Plankton Functional Types (PFT) in order to help validate biogeochemical ocean models by using carbon (C) biomass derived from abundance data. In this study we collected over 293 000 individual geo-referenced data points with diatom abundances from bottle and net sampling. Sampling site distribution was not homogeneous, with 58% of data in the Atlantic, 20% in the Arctic, 12% in the Pacific, 8% in the Indian and 1% in the Southern Ocean. A total of 136 different genera and 607 different species were identified after spell checking and name correction. Only a small fraction of these data were also documented for biovolumes and an even smaller fraction was converted to C biomass. As it is virtually impossible to reconstruct everyone's method for biovolume calculation, which is usually not indicated in the datasets, we decided to undertake the effort to document, for every distinct species, the minimum and maximum cell dimensions, and to convert all the available abundance data into biovolumes and C biomass using a single standardized method. Statistical correction of the database was also adopted to exclude potential outliers and suspicious data points. The final database contains 90 648 data points with converted C biomass. Diatom C biomass calculated from cell sizes spans over eight orders of magnitude. The mean diatom biomass for individual locations, dates and depths is 141.19 ?g C l-1, while the median value is 11.16 ?g C l-1. Regarding biomass distribution, 19% of data are in the range 0-1 ?g C l-1, 29% in the range 1-10 ?g C l-1, 31% in the range 10-100 ?g C l-1, 18% in the range 100-1000 ?g C l-1, and only 3% >1000 ?g C l-1. Interestingly, less than 50 species contributed to >90% of global biomass, among which centric species were dominant. Thus, placing significant efforts on cell size measurements, process studies and C quota calculations on these species should considerably improve biomass estimates in the upcoming years. A first-order estimate of the diatom biomass for the global ocean ranges from 449 to 558 Tg C, which converts to 5 to 6 Tmol Si and to an average Si biomass turnover rate of 0.11 to 0.20 d-1. Link to the dataset: preliminary link http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777384.

Leblanc, K.; Arístegui, J.; Armand, L.; Assmy, P.; Beker, B.; Bode, A.; Breton, E.; Cornet, V.; Gibson, J.; Gosselin, M.-P.; Kopczynska, E.; Marshall, H.; Peloquin, J.; Piontkovski, S.; Poulton, A. J.; Quéguiner, B.; Schiebel, R.; Shipe, R.; Stefels, J.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; Varela, M.; Widdicombe, C.; Yallop, M.

2012-04-01

27

Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an savanna.  

PubMed

In the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, we compared the scarab beetle assemblages in the dung of three wild ungulates (African buffalo, a ruminant foregut fermenter; hippopotamus, nonruminant foregut fermenter; and warthog, nonruminant hindgut fermenter). Dung was collected from two sandy-clay soils with different percentage of coarse sand. We aimed at investigating habitat resource selection by dung beetle species within a savanna natural contest with abundant and diverse food availability. Analyses were performed to detect differences for dung beetle assemblages in abundance, diversity, functional groups. Species richness in the three dung types and in the two soil types was similar. However, warthog dung and sandy-rich soil appeared the preferred habitat resources, in terms of abundance and biomass, while hippopotamus dung hosted the lowest values for these parameters. The analysis of functional groups revealed that slow-burying tunnellers held the major role, both in terms of abundance and biomass, and were mainly found in warthog dung. PMID:22182540

Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Ieradi, Michele

2010-12-01

28

Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: abundances, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine N2 fixing microorganisms, termed diazotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen (N2) to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences primary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abundances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes) and N2 fixation rates. Biomass conversion factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is limited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Lower mean N2 fixation rate was found in the North Atlantic Ocean than the Pacific Ocean. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geometric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (53-73) Tg N yr-1 and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 4.7 (2.3-9.6) Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (40-200) Tg C from nifH-based abundances. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about ±70%. This evolving database can be used to study spatial and temporal distributions and variations of marine N2 fixation, to validate geochemical estimates and to parameterize and validate biogeochemical models. The database is stored in PANGAEA (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.774851).

Luo, Y.-W.; Doney, S. C.; Anderson, L. A.; Benavides, M.; Bode, A.; Bonnet, S.; Boström, K. H.; Böttjer, D.; Capone, D. G.; Carpenter, E. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Church, M. J.; Dore, J. E.; Falcón, L. I.; Fernández, A.; Foster, R. A.; Furuya, K.; Gómez, F.; Gundersen, K.; Hynes, A. M.; Karl, D. M.; Kitajima, S.; Langlois, R. J.; Laroche, J.; Letelier, R. M.; Marañón, E.; McGillicuddy, D. J., Jr.; Moisander, P. H.; Moore, C. M.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.; Mulholland, M. R.; Needoba, J. A.; Orcutt, K. M.; Poulton, A. J.; Raimbault, P.; Rees, A. P.; Riemann, L.; Shiozaki, T.; Subramaniam, A.; Tyrrell, T.; Turk-Kubo, K. A.; Varela, M.; Villareal, T. A.; Webb, E. A.; White, A. E.; Wu, J.; Zehr, J. P.

2012-02-01

29

Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine N2 fixing microorganisms, termed diazotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen (N2) to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences primary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abundances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes) and N2 fixation rates. Biomass conversion factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is limited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geometric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (52-73) Tg N yr-1 and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 2.1 (1.4-3.1) Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (43-150) Tg C from nifH-based abundances. Reporting the arithmetic mean and one standard error instead, these three global estimates are 140 ± 9.2 Tg N yr-1, 18 ± 1.8 Tg C and 590 ± 70 Tg C, respectively. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about ±70%. It was recently established that the most commonly applied method used to measure N2 fixation has underestimated the true rates. As a result, one can expect that future rate measurements will shift the mean N2 fixation rate upward and may result in significantly higher estimates for the global N2 fixation. The evolving database can nevertheless be used to study spatial and temporal distributions and variations of marine N2 fixation, to validate geochemical estimates and to parameterize and validate biogeochemical models, keeping in mind that future rate measurements may rise in the future. The database is stored in PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.774851).

Luo, Y.-W.; Doney, S. C.; Anderson, L. A.; Benavides, M.; Berman-Frank, I.; Bode, A.; Bonnet, S.; Boström, K. H.; Böttjer, D.; Capone, D. G.; Carpenter, E. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Church, M. J.; Dore, J. E.; Falcón, L. I.; Fernández, A.; Foster, R. A.; Furuya, K.; Gómez, F.; Gundersen, K.; Hynes, A. M.; Karl, D. M.; Kitajima, S.; Langlois, R. J.; LaRoche, J.; Letelier, R. M.; Marañón, E.; McGillicuddy, D. J., Jr.; Moisander, P. H.; Moore, C. M.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.; Mulholland, M. R.; Needoba, J. A.; Orcutt, K. M.; Poulton, A. J.; Rahav, E.; Raimbault, P.; Rees, A. P.; Riemann, L.; Shiozaki, T.; Subramaniam, A.; Tyrrell, T.; Turk-Kubo, K. A.; Varela, M.; Villareal, T. A.; Webb, E. A.; White, A. E.; Wu, J.; Zehr, J. P.

2012-08-01

30

Composition, abundance, biomass, and production of macrofauna in a New England estuary: Comparisons among eelgrass meadows and other nursery habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative suction sampling was used to characterize and compare the species composition, abundance, biomass, and secondary\\u000a production of macrofauna inhabiting intertidal mud-flat and sand-flat, eelgrass meadow, and salt-marsh-pool habitats in the\\u000a Nauset Marsh complex, Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA). Species richness and abundance were often greatest in eelgrass habitat,\\u000a as was macroinvertebrate biomass and production. Most striking was the five to

K. L. Heck; K. W. Able; C. T. Roman; M. P. Fahay

1995-01-01

31

Bacterial abundance, biomass and production during spring blooms in the northern Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate importance of bacterioplankton in the Barents Sea, we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of bacterial abundance, biomass and production in relation to spring-bloom stages. During three cruises in 2003-2005, 12 stations were investigated. Average bacterial abundance (±S.D.) in the photic zone was 3.6±3.0×10 5 cells ml -1, corresponding to 7.1±6.1 mg C m -3. Bacterial production in the photic zone was measured using dual labelling technique with 3H-thymidine and 14C-leucine, resulting in average production rates (±S.D.) of 1.5±1.0 and 6.9±4.8 mg C m -3 d -1, respectively. In spite of low water temperature, the bacterial community was well developed and active. Similarity analysis of stations resulted in four distinct spring-bloom stages, covering pre- early-, late- and post-bloom stages. In the photic zone, bacterial biomass on average corresponded to 6±2% of phytoplankton biomass. Highest integrated bacterial biomass was observed at mid- to late-bloom stages. Average bacterial production equalled 32±6% (±S.E., n=24) of particulate primary production. The bacterial production to primary production ratio tended to increase at late-bloom stages. The observed bacterial activity illustrates the importance of the bacterial pathway for channelling carbon from DOC through the microbial food web back into the classical food web, which previously has not been adequately considered in plankton ecosystem models of the Barents Sea.

Sturluson, Maria; Gissel Nielsen, Torkel; Wassmann, Paul

2008-10-01

32

Gradients of abundance and biomass across reserve boundaries in six Mediterranean marine protected areas: Evidence of fish spillover?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered as an effective tool in marine coastal management, and considered able to enhance local fisheries through adult fish spillover. Indirect evidence of fish spillover could be obtained by horizontal gradients in fish abundance. To address this question, the existence of gradients of fish abundance and biomass across marine reserve boundaries was assessed in six

Mireille Harmelin-Vivien; Laurence Le Diréach; Just Bayle-Sempere; Eric Charbonnel; José Antonio García-Charton; Denis Ody; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Olga Reñones; Pablo Sánchez-Jerez; Carlos Valle

2008-01-01

33

Effect of tillage on abundance of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Col., Scarabaeidae), larvae and adults in highbush blueberry fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 15 commercial highbush blueberry farms, fields where row middles were tilled had 72% lower larval density of Popillia japonica than fields with grass in row middles. Popillia japonica larval populations were similar in the perimeters of tilled and untilled fields. Soil parameters measured in these sites were not correlated with larval density of P. japonica. Samples of adult beetles

Z. Szendrei; N. Mallampalli; R. Isaacs

2005-01-01

34

Effect of forest removal on the abundance of the endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test the hypothesis that the decline of the endangered American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) from over 90% of its original range is the result of habitat loss and fragmentation of eastern North America. Forest removal\\u000a at a site in southeastern Oklahoma known to have a significant population of N. americanus gave us a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis. At

J. Curtis Creighton; Robert Bastarache; Mark V. Lomolino; Mark C. Belk

2009-01-01

35

Geographical and seasonal variations in abundance, biomass and estimated production rates of microzooplankton in the Inland Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured abundance and biomass of 3 major groups of microzooplankton, i.e. tintinnids, naked ciliates and copepod nauplii, at 21 stations in the Inland Sea of Japan in October 1993, January, April and June 1994. The average abundance of the microzooplankton over the entire Inland Sea of Japan ranged from 2.39×105 indiv. m?3 in January to 4.00×105 indiv. m?3 in

Shin-ichi Uye; Naoki Nagano; Hidenori Tamaki

1996-01-01

36

Twenty-eight Years of Stream Invertebrate Abundance, Biomass, and Secondary Production From Three Headwater Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed 28 years of abundance, biomass and secondary production data from 3 headwater streams at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, NC, USA. These data include years of extreme drought and precipitation (78-y record) and 8 years of reduced litter inputs (litter exclusion) and wood removal for one stream. Analysis of functional feeding group (FFG) proportions revealed strong habitat-specific preferences for either mixed substrates or bedrock outcrop habitats, with remarkable between year similarities. For both reference streams and litter reduction streams there was a significant relationship between annual CPOM standing crop and secondary production for the dominant mixed substrate habitats. Habitat-weighted production across reference streams averaged 8.2 g AFDM/m2/y (range = 4.6 to 13.2) versus 1.7 g AFDM/m2/y (range = 0.9 to 3.5) for litter exclusion years. Predator production was strongly correlated (P<0.001) with total secondary production over all years, and based on known bioenergetic efficiencies, indicate the importance of predators in these streams. Our study suggests that trophic interactions, including standing crop of CPOM as a food source, strongly influence secondary production in these headwater streams.

Wallace, J.; Eggert, S. L.; Cross, W. F.; Rosemond, A. D.; Meyer, J. L.

2005-05-01

37

Seasonal variation of fish abundance and biomass in gillnet catches of an East Mediterranean lake: Lake Doirani.  

PubMed

The seasonal variation of fish species composition and abundance in gillnet catches (14-90 mm knot-to-knot) from the Greek part of the transboundary Lake Doirani was studied during the period 2006-2007. A total of 8,419 specimens weighing 182.3 kg and belonging to 9 species were caught. Catch composition differed with season. Thus, Rhodeus meridionalis dominated in terms of NPUE the spring, Perca fluviatilis the summer and Albumus macedonicus the autumn and winter catches. Cyprinids were generally the most abundant, with the cyprinids:percids biomass ratio ranging from 1.7 in summer to 14.8 in winter, supporting the eutrophic character of the lake. Richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indices differed seasonally (ANOVA; p < 0.05). The abundance-biomass comparative (ABC) curves showed that fish communities were dominated by one or a few opportunistic species (e.g. Rhodeus meridionalis, Albumus macedonicus), which while dominated in number did not dominate in biomass, being small bodied. PMID:21506488

Bobori, Dimitra C; Salvarina, Ioanna

2010-11-01

38

[Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].  

PubMed

A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period. PMID:24066551

Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

2013-06-01

39

Temporal changes of abundance, biomass and production of copepod community in a shallow temperate estuary (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study reports on temporal changes of abundance, biomass and secondary production of the copepod community of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Zooplankton sampling and hydrological measurements (salinity, temperature, chlorophyll a and nutrients concentrations) were conducted at four occasions (June 2000, September 2000, December 2000 and March 2001), at 6 sampling stations and during ebb and flood. The contribution of copepods (from nauplius to adults) to the total abundance and biomass of the zooplankton community of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) was equal to 63.6% and 62.0%, respectively (annual average). The estimate of nauplius abundance given by two zooplankton nets with different meshes was significantly different (P < 0.001) with the 64 ?m net collecting 13.9 times more than the 125 ?m one. No significant differences were found for copepodites and adults. The abundance of all development stages (except adults) was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with salinity and temperature. The seasonal patterns of abundance and biomass were similar to those found in other temperate coastal waters. Mean daily secondary production rate (mean ± SE) estimated by the Huntley and Lopez growth model [Huntley, M.E., Lopez, M.D.G., 1992. Temperature-dependent production of marine copepods: a global synthesis. American Naturalist 140, 201 242] was 22% higher than the value given by the application of the Hirst and Bunker model [Hirst, A.G., Bunker, A.J., 2003. Growth of marine planktonic copepods: global rates and patterns in relation to chlorophyll a, temperature, and body weight. Limnology and Oceanography 48, 1988 2010]: 3.71 ± 0.540 and 2.90 ± 0.422 mg C m-3 d-1, respectively.

Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Morgado, Fernando; Pereira, Fábio; Queiroga, Henrique

2007-08-01

40

Microalgae on the arctic ocean section, 1994: species abundance and biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Algal species from the ice, the water directly below the ice (the sub-ice area), and the water column from 21 stations in the Arctic Ocean were examined using epifluorescence and inverted light microscopy. Biomass of autotrophic dinoflagellates and other miscellaneous autotrophic flagellates was determined for the first time in the central Arctic basins. Together these two groups dominated phytoplankton biomass in 74% of samples from the central Arctic, with diatom biomass predominant in the remainder. Picophytoplankton at selected stations in the Canada and Makarov Basins contributed 93% to autotroph cell numbers and 36% to autotroph biomass. Diatom species achieved high biomass in ice and sub-ice samples. The centric diatom Melosira arctica dominated the sub-ice area, while pennate diatoms were major contributors to the ice samples. Despite ample silicate concentrations in the water, diatom frustules were often lightly silicified.

Booth, Beatrice C.; Horner, Rita A.

41

Managing forests infested by spruce beetles in south-central Alaska: Effects on nitrogen availability, understory biomass, and spruce regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Alaska, an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) recently infested over one million hectares of spruce (Picea spp.) forest. As a result, land management agencies have applied different treatments to infested forests to minimize fire hazard and economic loss and facilitate forest regeneration. In this study we investigated the effects of high-intensity burning, whole-tree harvest, whole-tree harvest with nitrogen

Lilly F. Goodman; Bruce A. Hungate

2006-01-01

42

Influence of seagrass beds and oyster parks on the abundance and biomass patterns of meio- and macrobenthos in tidal flats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Arcachon Bay, on the south-west coast of France, the intertidal area is mainly occupied by sandbanks, oyster parks ( Crassostrea gigas) and mud flats covered with seagrass beds ( Zostera noltii). In order to estimate the relative contribution of meio- and macrofauna to the benthic ecology of these tidal flats, seven stations were studied seasonally for a year. Relationships between faunal density and biomass, and external factors such as sediment structure, benthic chlorophyll and seagrass debris were investigated. A comparison was made between bare sands, oyster beds and vegetated sediment in semi-exposed conditions and in sheltered areas. Using a stepwise method of multiple linear regression it was shown that high densities of macrobenthos are mostly explained by high quantities of plant debris. For meiofauna, together with plant debris, other effective variables are involved: silt content, organic carbon, chlorophyll pigments. On an average, a correlation between macro- and meiofaunal abundances could be found. However, this general pattern is modified by the biogenic structure created by the oysters and seagrass. When compared to the adjacent sandbanks, oysters clearly enhanced meiofaunal abundance (from 1130-4170 individuals 10 cm -2) but depressed macrofaunal densities (from 640-370 individuals 400 cm -2). The organic-rich oyster biodeposits probably favour meiofauna by an increase of the trophic resources but do not favour macroinfauna by inducing low oxygen concentrations. Moreover, it is likely that macrofauna is more sensitive to predation than meiofauna both in sandbanks and in oyster parks. For both meio- and macrofauna the highest incidences (7200 individuals 10 cm -2 and 2470 individuals 400 cm -2, respectively) are recorded in seagrass bed sediments. Zostera induces an enhancement of organic detritus and provides a refuge against predation. In terms of biomass, the macrofauna/meiofauna ratio is 25·1 in sandbanks, 1·5 in oyster parks and 4·2 in seagrass bed sediments. Macrofaunal biomass is more variable both spatially and temporally than meiofauna biomass. It is likely that the macrofauna is more sensitive to external factors such as predation, anoxia, exposure, than the meiofauna. Meiofauna abundance and biomass are more usually a function of food abundance and physical properties of the sediment.

Castel, Jacques; Labourg, Pierre-Jean; Escaravage, Vincent; Auby, Isabelle; Garcia, Maria Elena

1989-01-01

43

Meiofauna of the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea: distribution and abundance in relation to bacterial biomass, organic matter composition and other environmental factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative information on the abundance and biomass of metazoan meiofauna was obtained from samples collected at 15 deep-sea stations in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (533–2400m). Meiofaunal abundance was compared to bacterial biomass and other environmental factors such as the total sedimentary organic matter content, the concentrations of the main biochemical classes of organic compounds (i.e. proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and

Roberto Danovaro; Norberto Della Croce; Anastasios Eleftheriou; Mauro Fabiano; Nadia Papadopoulou; Chris Smith; Anastasios Tselepides

1995-01-01

44

Abundance, production and stabilization of microbial biomass under conventional and reduced tillage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil tillage practices affect the soil microbial community in various ways, with possible consequences for nitrogen (N) losses, plant growth and soil organic carbon (C) sequestration. As microbes affect soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics largely through their activity, their impact may not be deduced from biomass measurements alone. Moreover, residual microbial tissue is thought to facilitate SOM stabilization, and to

Kees-Jan van Groenigen; Jaap Bloem; Erland Bååth; Pascal Boeckx; Johannes Rousk; Samuel Bodé; Dermot Forristal; Michael B. Jones

2010-01-01

45

Monitoring spatiotemporal variation in abundance and dispersal by a pheromone-kairomone system in the threatened saproxylic beetles Osmoderma eremita and Elater ferrugineus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pheromone monitoring could provide unique spatial and temporal information about rare and threatened insect species for conservation\\u000a purposes. Pheromone traps may be especially valuable in detecting fluctuations and declines in vulnerable species, if trap\\u000a catch can be related to population density. We exploited the pheromone-kairomone system of the hermit beetle Osmoderma eremita and its predator, the red click beetle Elater

Mattias C. Larsson; Glenn P. Svensson

46

Abundance in Persea americana of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Vector of Laurel Wilt: A Case of Intra-guild Competition?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus is a pest of plant species in the Lauraceae, including Persea borbonia, P. pallustris, P. americana, and others. Xyleborus glabratus infestation levels in P. borbonia maintain a high proportion compared to other species, such as Xylosandrus crassiuscu...

47

Biomass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, part of a site about the future of energy, introduces students to the use of biomass as an energy source. Biomass is defined, and students are presented with examples of biomass sources that can supply energy. Information is also provided about the benefits, limitations, and geographical considerations of using biomass. A sidebar offers links to other articles and information on the site that relate to biomass as an energy source. Three of these articles discuss the use of oak hulls, recycled French fry grease, and burnt switch grass as fuel. The article also provides annotated links to external materials about topics such as ethanol, biomass statistics, and the storage of excess carbon dioxide at the bottom of the ocean.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

48

Abundance of (14)C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels.  

PubMed

In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO(2) emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes (14)C and (12)C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in (14)C and reflect the (14)CO(2) abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying (14)C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper (14)C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated (14)C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135pMC. PMID:19157836

Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

2009-01-20

49

Abundance of {sup 14}C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels  

SciTech Connect

In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO{sub 2} emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes {sup 14}C and {sup 12}C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in {sup 14}C and reflect the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying {sup 14}C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper {sup 14}C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated {sup 14}C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135 pMC.

Fellner, Johann [Institute for Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: johann.fellner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut [Institute for Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

2009-05-15

50

Interannual and seasonal variation of the population structure, abundance, and biomass of the arctic copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of multiyear observations of the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the population structure, abundance, and biomass of the arctic calanoids copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea are presented. The spring season represents the most crucial period for the population’s seasonal dynamics. During the spring, the maximal abundance, biomass, and contribution of C. glacialis to the total zooplankton biomass is observed. The interannual variability of the abundance is closely related to the timing of the spring warming of the upper water column and the respective shifts of the onset of reproduction and the offspring development. The development of a new generation to the overwintering copepodite stage IV is usually completed three to four weeks later in the cold years compared to the warm ones. Our multiyear observations suggest that C. glacialis could be more tolerant of Arctic warming than it is usually believed. The high abundance of the C. glacialis population in the White Sea indicates that this arctic species is able to cope with the seasonal surface warming and should continue to do so, being provided with the cold water “refuge” in the deep sea.

Pertsova, N. M.; Kosobokova, K. N.

2010-08-01

51

Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution  

PubMed Central

The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future.

Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

2013-01-01

52

Quality assurance of hydroacoustic surveys: the repeatability of fish-abundance and biomass estimates in lakes within and between hydroacoustic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain information on the repeatability of hydroacoustic estimates of abundance and biomass of the fish stocks in Stechlinsee (Germany) and Irrsee (Austria), we performed synchronised surveys in three expert teams using either two identical 120 kHz SIMRAD EY500 echosounders (Stechlinsee) or one such machine and a 200 kHz BioSonics DT6000 (Irrsee). At Stechlinsee, where the fish stock

Josef Wanzenbock; Thomas Mehner; Michael Schulz; Hubert Gassner; Ian J. Winfield

2003-01-01

53

Spatio-temporal variations of biomass and abundance in bathyal non-crustacean megafauna in the Catalan Sea (North-western Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatio-temporal variations in diversity, biomass and abundance of bathyal invertebrates (excluding decapod crustaceans,\\u000a which have been analysed elsewhere) from the North-western Mediterranean margin are described. The upper canyon (?450 m),\\u000a middle slope (?650 m) and lower slope (?1,200 m) habitats were investigated throughout the year. The first two sites are visited\\u000a daily by a specialised commercial fisheries’ fleet, while the deeper site

Eva Ramírez-Llodra; Manuel Ballesteros; Luis Dantart; Francisco Sardà

2008-01-01

54

Microbial community abundance and biomass along a 180° transect in the equatorial Pacific during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the French Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Etude du Broutage en Zone Equatoriale program, we investigated the distributions of microorganisms (bacteria and protists <200 ?m) in the upper 120 m of the equatorial Pacific from 8°S to 8°N, along 180°. Population distributions, determined by a combination of flow cytometry, microscopy and spectrofluorometry, were closely related to physical features across the study site. Phytoplankton biomass, ranging from 1.2 to 34.2 ?g C L-1 and averaging 15.5 ?g C L-1, was most enhanced in the divergence zone. Carbon to chlorophyll ratios were also enhanced in the divergence zone and showed distinct latitudinal variations. Heterotrophic biomass, excluding ciliates, was patchy across the area, ranging from 5 to 36 ?g C L-1 and averaging 13 ?g C L-1. Prokaryotic species (Prochlorococcus spp., Synechococcus spp., and heterotrophic bacteria) showed similar patterns of abundance, with the main feature being their distributional asymmetry to the south of the equator. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass were enriched in the convergent zone at 4°-5°N between the South Equatorial Current and the North Equatorial Counter Current. Heterotrophic biomass exceeded phytoplankton biomass in the more nutrient-impoverished waters to the north and in the branch of a tropical instability wave eddy. Microplankton represented only a small portion of the total autotrophic carbon and was comprised mostly of dinoflagellates. Large species dominated the relatively modest diatom biomass. Food web interactions and biogeochemical fluxes in the central equatorial Pacific may be significantly influenced by temporal and spatial variability of the microbial community associated with physical features of the region.

Brown, Susan L.; Landry, Michael R.; Neveux, Jacques; Dupouy, CéCile

2003-12-01

55

American Burying Beetle Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The American burying beetle, (Nicrophorus americanus) is a member of the carrion beetle family Silphidae, an important group of detritivores that recycle decaying materials into the ecosystem. The American burying beetle is the largest carrion-feeding ins...

W. W. Hoback

2008-01-01

56

Influences of temperature and nutrients on Synechococcus abundance and biomass in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synechococci are small (<1 ?m) coccoid prokaryotes that play a significant ecological role in microbial food webs and are important contributors to carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles. Under funding from NOAA and NASA, we developed a time series observatory to understand the seasonal variability of Synechococcus and other phytoplankton. Our goal is to understand the distribution and relative contribution of Synechococcus to the carbon cycle and how they relate to nutrients and temperature. Synechococcus in the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight exhibited a clear seasonal abundance pattern in both inshore and offshore waters—peaking in abundance (11×10 4 cells ml -1) during warm periods of summer. Synechococci were numerically important during periods of stratification when waters were warm and macronutrients were low. Using a simple algorithm to convert cellular volume to cellular carbon using image analysis, we estimated that Synechococcus cellular carbon ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 pg C per cell and was most significant compared to total particulate carbon in the summer peaking at ˜25% of the total carbon available. No direct correlations were found between Synechococcus abundance and nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, and silicate. However, inshore Synechococcus abundance peaked at 10 4 cells ml -1 when nitrogen concentrations were lowest. Our results suggest that Synechococcus is adapted to warm temperatures and are capable of demonstrating rapid growth during summer when macronutrients are limiting. The ability of Synechococcus to take advantage of high summer temperatures, low nutrient concentrations and low light levels allows them to maintain a picoplankton community during periods of low detritus and nanophytoplankton is nutrient limited. Temperature-dependence is important in altering the size spectrum of the phytoplankton community and affects the carbon cycle on the Mid Atlantic Bight.

Moisan, Tiffany A.; Blattner, Kristen L.; Makinen, Carla P.

2010-07-01

57

Removal rates of native and exotic dung by dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a fragmented tropical rain forest.  

PubMed

Many studies have evaluated the effect of forest fragmentation on dung beetle assemblage structure. However, few have analyzed how forest fragmentation affects the processes carried out by these insects in tropical forests where their food sources consist mainly of dung produced by native herbivore mammals. With the conversion of forests to pastures, cattle dung has become an exotic alternative and abundant food for dung beetles. This study compares dung removal rates of native (monkey) and exotic (cow) dung in different-sized fragments of tropical rain forests, during the dry and rainy seasons at the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve. Dung removal rates were affected by season, dung type, and the interaction between resource type and season. During the dry season, the removal rates of monkey dung were somewhat similar than during the rainy season, whereas the removal rates of cow dung were much higher during the rainy season. Dung beetle biomass and species richness were almost three times greater in monkey dung than in cow dung. Monkey dung attracted species belonging to the dweller, roller, and tunneler guilds; cow dung attracted mostly tunnelers. Therefore, the use of exotic dung may result in a biased misconception of the rates of dung removal in tropical forest and an underestimation of dung beetle diversity. This study highlights the importance of working with natural tropical forest resources when attempting to identify realistic tendencies concerning processes in natural habitats and those modified by fragmentation and by other human activities. PMID:20388260

Amézquita, Sandra; Favila, Mario E

2010-04-01

58

Spatial Variation in Abundance, Size and Orientation of Juvenile Corals Related to the Biomass of Parrotfishes on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

PubMed Central

For species with complex life histories such as scleractinian corals, processes occurring early in life can greatly influence the number of individuals entering the adult population. A plethora of studies have examined settlement patterns of coral larvae, mostly on artificial substrata, and the composition of adult corals across multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, relatively few studies have examined the spatial distribution of small (?50 mm diameter) sexually immature corals on natural reef substrata. We, therefore, quantified the variation in the abundance, composition and size of juvenile corals (?50 mm diameter) among 27 sites, nine reefs, and three latitudes spanning over 1000 km on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. Overall, 2801 juveniles were recorded with a mean density of 6.9 (±0.3 SE) ind.m?2, with Acropora, Pocillopora, and Porites accounting for 84.1% of all juvenile corals surveyed. Size-class structure, orientation on the substrate and taxonomic composition of juvenile corals varied significantly among latitudinal sectors. The abundance of juvenile corals varied both within (6–13 ind.m?2) and among reefs (2.8–11.1 ind.m?2) but was fairly similar among latitudes (6.1–8.2 ind.m?2), despite marked latitudinal variation in larval supply and settlement rates previously found at this scale. Furthermore, the density of juvenile corals was negatively correlated with the biomass of scraping and excavating parrotfishes across all sites, revealing a potentially important role of parrotfishes in determining distribution patterns of juvenile corals on the Great Barrier Reef. While numerous studies have advocated the importance of parrotfishes for clearing space on the substrate to facilitate coral settlement, our results suggest that at high biomass they may have a detrimental effect on juvenile coral assemblages. There is, however, a clear need to directly quantify rates of mortality and growth of juvenile corals to understand the relative importance of these mechanisms in shaping juvenile, and consequently adult, coral assemblages.

Trapon, Melanie L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Hoey, Andrew S.

2013-01-01

59

Spatial variation in abundance, size and orientation of juvenile corals related to the biomass of parrotfishes on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  

PubMed

For species with complex life histories such as scleractinian corals, processes occurring early in life can greatly influence the number of individuals entering the adult population. A plethora of studies have examined settlement patterns of coral larvae, mostly on artificial substrata, and the composition of adult corals across multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, relatively few studies have examined the spatial distribution of small (?50 mm diameter) sexually immature corals on natural reef substrata. We, therefore, quantified the variation in the abundance, composition and size of juvenile corals (?50 mm diameter) among 27 sites, nine reefs, and three latitudes spanning over 1000 km on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Overall, 2801 juveniles were recorded with a mean density of 6.9 (±0.3 SE) ind.m(-2), with Acropora, Pocillopora, and Porites accounting for 84.1% of all juvenile corals surveyed. Size-class structure, orientation on the substrate and taxonomic composition of juvenile corals varied significantly among latitudinal sectors. The abundance of juvenile corals varied both within (6-13 ind.m(-2)) and among reefs (2.8-11.1 ind.m(-2)) but was fairly similar among latitudes (6.1-8.2 ind.m(-2)), despite marked latitudinal variation in larval supply and settlement rates previously found at this scale. Furthermore, the density of juvenile corals was negatively correlated with the biomass of scraping and excavating parrotfishes across all sites, revealing a potentially important role of parrotfishes in determining distribution patterns of juvenile corals on the Great Barrier Reef. While numerous studies have advocated the importance of parrotfishes for clearing space on the substrate to facilitate coral settlement, our results suggest that at high biomass they may have a detrimental effect on juvenile coral assemblages. There is, however, a clear need to directly quantify rates of mortality and growth of juvenile corals to understand the relative importance of these mechanisms in shaping juvenile, and consequently adult, coral assemblages. PMID:23469067

Trapon, Melanie L; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S

2013-02-28

60

Secondary productivity ( 3 H-Leucine and 3 H-Thymidine incorporation), abundance and biomass of the epiphytic bacteria attached to detritus of Typha domingensis pers. in a tropical coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senescent, naturally dried leaves of Typha domingensis were incubated inthe littoral region of a coastal lagoon and epiphytic bacterial volume,abundance, biomass and secondary productivity were measured during 127 daysof decomposition. The peak of cell abundance was registered at t =127 days when expressed per leaf surface area (10.07×107cells cm-2; 7.26 µgC cm-2), and at t= 26 days when expressed per

Sidinei Magela Thomaz; Francisco de Assis Esteves

1997-01-01

61

Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed, but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

Larson, D. L.; Grace, J. B.

2004-01-01

62

Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetle (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge {Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

Larson, D. L.; Grace, J. B.

2004-01-01

63

Sikes Tiger Beetle Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

735 tiger beetle specimens in the post-1980 University of Connecticut Insect Collection are sorted by species and month of collection.Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) 1996-1998 Derek S. Sikes (1999) Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae)1996-1998 Conservation status, Taxonomy and Ecology. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. University of Connecticut. Storrs, CT 06269

Ethel Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2009-01-10

64

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in RealPlayer, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Ecducation, Johns H.; Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

65

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

66

The effect of the landscape matrix on the distribution of dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest.  

PubMed

Understanding the response of species to anthropogenic landscape modification is essential to design effective conservation programs. Recently, insects have been used in empirical studies to evaluate the impact of habitat modification and landscape fragmentation on biological diversity because they are often affected rapidly by changes in land use. In this study, the use of the landscape matrix by dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve was analyzed. Fragments of tropical rain forest, forest-pasture edges, pastures, isolated trees, living fences (trees connected with barbed wire) and barbed wire fences were studied both near and far from forest fragments. Forest fragments had the highest abundance values, but pastures had the highest dung and carrion beetle biomass. Habitat specificity was high for the beetles in the most dissimilar habitats. Forest fragments and forest-pasture edges had and shared the highest number of species, but they shared only two species with pastures, barbed wire fences and isolated trees. Only one forest species was found within living fences far from the forest fragments. However, approximately 37% of the forest species were caught within living fences near the forest fragments. Therefore, forest-pasture edges function as hard edges and prevent movement among forest fragments, but living fences seem to act as continuous habitat corridors when connected to forest fragments, allowing forest beetles to move between the fragments. Further studies are necessary to determine the minimum width of living fences necessary to provide good corridors for these beetles and other species. PMID:20673066

Díaz, Alfonso; Galante, Eduardo; Favila, Mario E

2010-01-01

67

Bioenergy from Mountain Pine Beetle Timber and Forest Residuals: The Economics Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the large volumes of pine killed in the Interior forests in British Columbia by the mountain pine beetle, many are keen to employ forest biomass as an energy source. To assess the feasibility of a wood biomass-fired power plant in the BC Interior it is necessary to know both how much physical biomass might be available over

Kurt Niquidet; Brad Stennes; G. Cornelis van Kooten

2008-01-01

68

Ground Beetles as Predators of Oilseed Rape Pests: Incidence, Spatio-Temporal Distributions and Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ground beetles or carabids are amongst the most abundant invertebrate predators in fields of oilseed rape in Europe. The immature\\u000a stages of the six major pests of oilseed rape i.e., cabbage stem flea beetle, pollen beetle, cabbage seed weevil, cabbage\\u000a stem weevil, rape stem weevil and brassica pod midge, are vulnerable to predation by carabids when they are in or

Ingrid H. Williams; Andrew W. Ferguson; Märt Kruus; Eve Veromann; Douglas J. Warner

69

Semiochemical-MediatedFlight Strategies of Two Invasive Elm Bark Beetles: A Potential Factor in Competitive Displacement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A recent seven-state survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus was not as abundant. Behavioral trials were conducted by hanging sm...

70

Bark beetle effects on fuel profiles across a range of stand structures in Douglas-fir forests of Greater Yellowstone.  

PubMed

Consequences of bark beetle outbreaks for forest wildfire potential are receiving heightened attention, but little research has considered ecosystems with mixed-severity fire regimes. Such forests are widespread, variable in stand structure, and often fuel limited, suggesting that beetle outbreaks could substantially alter fire potentials. We studied canopy and surface fuels in interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii v. glauca) forests in Greater Yellowstone, Wyoming, USA, to determine how fuel characteristics varied with time since outbreak of the Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae). We sampled five stands in each of four outbreak stages, validated for pre-outbreak similarity: green (undisturbed), red (1-3 yr), gray (4-14 yr), and silver (25-30 yr). General linear models were used to compare variation in fuel profiles associated with outbreak to variation associated with the range of stand structures (dense mesic forest to open xeric parkland) characteristic of interior Douglas-fir forest. Beetle outbreak killed 38-83% of basal area within stands, generating a mix of live trees and snags over several years. Canopy fuel load and bulk density began declining in the red stage via needle drop and decreased by approximately 50% by the silver stage. The dead portion of available canopy fuels peaked in the red stage at 41%. After accounting for background variation, there was little effect of beetle outbreak on surface fuels, with differences mainly in herbaceous biomass (50% greater in red stands) and coarse woody fuels (doubled in silver stands). Within-stand spatial heterogeneity of fuels increased with time since outbreak, and surface-to-crown continuity decreased and remained low because of slow/sparse regeneration. Collectively, results suggest reduced fire potentials in post-outbreak stands, particularly for crown fire after the red stage, although abundant coarse fuels in silver stands may increase burn residence time and heat release. Outbreak effects on fuels were comparable to background variation in stand structure. The net effect of beetle outbreak was to shift the structure of mnsic closed-canopy stands toward that of parklands, and to shift xeric parklands toward very sparse woodlands. This study highlights the importance of evaluating outbreak effects in the context of the wide structural variation inherent to many forest types in the absence of beetle disturbance. PMID:23495632

Donato, Daniel C; Harvey, Brian J; Romme, William H; Simard, Martin; Turner, Monica G

2013-01-01

71

Evaluation of Funnel Traps for Characterizing the Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Communities in Ponderosa Pine Forests of North-Central Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure

Christopher J. Hayes; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold

2008-01-01

72

The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)|

Kramer, David C.

1988-01-01

73

Organizing the beetle files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When biologists set out to organize the family tree for the huge family of beetles, they ended up identifying previously unknown relationships for many of the beetle groups -- somewhat like finding new cousins -- and re-defining the major families, new research shows.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2007-12-20

74

Evaluation of New Approaches for Management of Japanese Beetles in Highbush Blueberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, can be a pest of highbush blueberries because of direct feeding on berries and leaves, and the risk of contaminating harvested fruit. To determine where beetles are most abundant and whether cultural controls have potential for use against P. japonica in blueberry, soil was sampled for grubs during 2001 and 2002 in and around fifteen

Rufus Isaacs; Zsofia Szendrei; John C. Wise

2004-01-01

75

Understanding trait-dependent community disassembly: dung beetles, density functions, and forest fragmentation.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic disturbances such as fragmentation are rapidly altering biodiversity, yet a lack of attention to species traits and abundance patterns has made the results of most studies difficult to generalize. We determined traits of extinction-prone species and present a novel strategy for classifying species according to their population-level response to a gradient of disturbance intensity. We examined the effects of forest fragmentation on dung beetle communities in an archipelago of 33 islands recently created by flooding in Venezuela. Species richness, density, and biomass all declined sharply with decreasing island area and increasing island isolation. Species richness was highly nested, indicating that local extinctions occurred nonrandomly. The most sensitive dung beetle species appeared to require at least 85 ha of forest, more than many large vertebrates. Extinction-prone species were either large-bodied, forest specialists, or uncommon. These explanatory variables were unrelated, suggesting at least 3 underlying causes of extirpation. Large species showed high wing loading (body mass/wing area) and a distinct flight strategy that may increase their area requirements. Although forest specificity made most species sensitive to fragmentation, a few persistent habitat generalists dispersed across the matrix. Density functions classified species into 4 response groups on the basis of their change in density with decreasing species richness. Sensitive and persistent species both declined with increasing fragmentation intensity, but persistent species occurred on more islands, which may be due to their higher baseline densities. Compensatory species increased in abundance following the initial loss of sensitive species, but rapidly declined with increasing fragmentation. Supertramp species (widespread habitat generalists) may be poor competitors but strong dispersers; their abundance peaked following the decline of the other 3 groups. Nevertheless, even the least sensitive species were extirpated or rare on the smallest and most isolated islands. PMID:18616744

Larsen, Trond H; Lopera, Alejandro; Forsyth, Adrian

2008-06-20

76

Variations in dung beetles assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) within two rain forest habitats in French Guiana.  

PubMed

The structure of dung beetle communities inhabiting tropical forests are known to be sensitive to many kinds of environmental changes such as microclimate related to vegetation structure. I examined Scarabaeinae assemblages in two sites of undisturbed high forest and two sites of low forest forming a transitional zone with the open habitat of an inselberg in French Guiana. Sampling was made with pitfall and flight interception traps during 2003 and 2004. The driest and warmest conditions characterized the low forest sites. Across two years we obtained 2 927 individuals from 61 species with pitfall traps and 1 431 individuals from 85 species with flight interception traps. Greater species richness and abundance characterized all sites sampled with pitfall traps during 2003 more than 2004. In 2003 no differences were detected among sites by rarefaction analyses. In 2004 the species richest high forest site was significantly different from one of the low forest sites. For both years Clench model asymptotes for species richness were greater in high forest than in low forest sites. For both years, mean per-trap species richness, abundance and biomass among high forest sites were similar and higher than in low forest sites, especially where the lowest humidity and the highest temperature were recorded. Within the two low forest sites, species richness and abundance recorded during the second year, decreased with distance to edge. Different dominant roller species characterized the pitfall samples in one site of low forest and in other sites. Small variations in microclimatic conditions correlated to canopy height and openness likely affected dung beetle assemblages but soil depth and the presence of large mammals providing dung resource may also play a significant role. PMID:23885587

Feer, François

2013-06-01

77

Japanese Beetle Program Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: List of Tables; List of Figures; Introduction (Japanese Beetle Program Manual for Airports); General Information (Management and Compliance Agreements (CAs), Airport Monitoring and Classification, Monitoring Airports in JB-infested Areas, Determ...

2004-01-01

78

The importance of monkey beetle (Scarabaeidae: Hopliini) pollination for Aizoaceae and Asteraceae in grazed and ungrazed areas at Paulshoek, Succulent Karoo, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of monkey beetles (Hopliini, Scarabeidae) as pollinators of Asteraceae and Aizoaceae in the Succulent Karoo as well as the influence of livestock grazing on their abundance and diversity was investigated. Hopliine beetles proved to be the, or among the, most abundant flower visitors of 12 investigated plant species. However, during single flower observations at three Aizoaceae species,

Carolin Mayer; Geoffrey Soka; Mike Picker

2006-01-01

79

Chemical ecology of bark beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purview of chemical ecology and the recent criticisms of improper application of theory to bark beetle phenomena is briefly discussed. Seven levels of research in chemical ecology are presented as well as their relationship to research on bark beetles. The biology and chemical ecology of several pest bark beetles from North America and Europe are discussed in regard

J. A. Byers

1989-01-01

80

Converting Riparian Restoration Waste to Energy: Testing Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Woody Biomass as Fuel for Downdraft Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of riparian ecological restoration work, tamarisk biomass is often piled and burned, generating air pollution, or shipped to landfills—a costly alternative. Information on processing and utilizing tamarisk biomass is becoming increasingly valuable in light of the spread of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) as a biological control agent. As beetle populations expand, information on the properties

Michael Boyle; James Diebold; Tillie Walton; Robb Walt; Jamie Nielsen

2011-01-01

81

Converting Riparian Restoration Waste to Energy: Testing Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Woody Biomass as Fuel for Downdraft Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

: In the course of riparian ecological restoration work, tamarisk biomass is often piled and burned, generating air pollution, or shipped to landfills—a costly alternative. Information on processing and utilizing tamarisk biomass is becoming increasingly valuable in light of the spread of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) as a biological control agent. As beetle populations expand, information on the

Michael Boyle; James Diebold; Tillie Walton; Robb Walt; Jamie Nielsen

2011-01-01

82

An evaluation of the ABC-method (abundance\\/biomass comparison) as applied to macrozoobenthic communities living on tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ABC-method proposed by Warwick (1986) for detecting pollution effects on marine zoobenthic communities, was tested on distribution patterns of numbers and biomass among species in macrozoobenthos samples taken annually for 13 yr in a uniform way at 15 tidal-flat stations in the western part of the Dutch Wadden Sea. Along the margins of the tidal-flat area studied, where exposition

J. J. Beukema

1988-01-01

83

Abundance and biomass of the gut-living microorganisms (bacteria, protozoa and fungi) in the irregular sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Spatangoida: Echinodermata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microorganisms associated with the gut contents of the irregular sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant) include non-filamentous and filamentous bacteria, zoosporic fungi and protozoa. The numbers of microorganisms decrease\\u000a through the gut segments, except for the two caeca. In the anoxic anterior caecum, the microbial biomass increases to 5% of\\u000a the total particulate organic carbon (POC) compared to 2% of

M. S. Thorsen

1999-01-01

84

Cross-scale Drivers of Natural Disturbances Prone to Anthropogenic Amplification: The Dynamics of Bark Beetle Eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biome-scaledisturbancesbyeruptiveherbivoresprovidevaluableinsightsintospeciesinteractions,ecosystemfunction,andimpactsof globalchange. We present a conceptual framework using one system as a model, emphasizing interactions across levels of biological hierarchy and spatiotemporal scales. Bark beetles are major natural disturbance agents in western North American forests. However, recent bark beetle population eruptions have exceeded the frequencies, impacts, and ranges documented during the previous 125 years. Extensive host abundance and susceptibility, concentrated

Kenneth F. Raffa; Brian H. Aukema; Barbara J. Bentz; Allan L. Carroll; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Monica G. Turner; William H. Romme

2008-01-01

85

[The structure of a beetle (Coleoptera, Insecta) complex attracted by a light source in Galich'ya Gora Nature Reserve].  

PubMed

In Morozova Gora tract, Galich'ya Gora Nature Reserve, 33,973 beetles of 542 species from 66 families were collected with the help of a 100-W light trap between 1996 and 2008. The structure of the beetle complex attracted by light is studied, as are the seasonal and annual dynamics of abundance and species composition of this group. The structure of the beetle complex attracted by light is unraveled based on the data on their daily activity. The influence of weather conditions in various seasons on beetles flight towards the light source is studied. PMID:21793253

Tsurikov, M N

86

Plankton biomass and larval fish abundance prior to and during the El Niño period of 1997 1998 along the central Pacific coast of México  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal and spatial distributions of zooplankton biomass and larval fish recorded during 27 months (December 1995 December 1998) off the Pacific coast of central México are analyzed. A total of 316 samples were obtained by surface (from 40 68 to 0 m) oblique hauls at 12 sampling sites using a Bongo net. Two well-defined periods were observed: a pre-ENSO period (December 1995 march 1997) and an ENSO event (July 1997 September 1998) characterized by impoverishment of the pelagic habitat. The highest biomass concentrations occurred at coastal stations during the pre-ENSO period. During the El Niño period no spatial patterns were found in coastal waters. The months with highest biomass were those in which the lowest sea surface temperature (SST) occurred (January May), and this pattern was also observed during the ENSO period. A typical, although attenuated, seasonal environmental pattern with enhanced phytoplankton (diatoms and dinoflagellates) was prevalent during the El Niño event in nearshore waters. During the El Niño period the phytoplankton was mainly small diatoms (microphytoplankton), while dinoflagellates were practically absent. The most parsimonious generalized linear models explaining spatial and temporal distribution of larval fish species included the ENSO index (MEI), upwelling index (UI) and distance to the coast. The environmental variability defined on an interannual time-scale by the ENSO event and the seasonal hydroclimatic pattern defined by the UI (intra-annual-scale) controlled the ecosystem productivity patterns. The small-scale distribution patterns (defined by a cross-shore gradient) of plankton were related to the hydroclimatic seasonality and modulated by interannual anomalies.

C. Franco-Gordo; Godínez-Domínguez, E.; Filonov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, I. E.; Freire, J.

2004-11-01

87

Pinacate beetle from the Mojave desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The beetle's outer covering helps it survive in the harsh desert environment. These beetles also give off an unpleasant smell to deter predators. Beetles and other insects are eaten in the desert for their water and nutrient content.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

88

Waves and Water Beetles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)|

Tucker, Vance A.

1971-01-01

89

Identification of triterpenoid feeding deterrent of red pumpkin beetles ( Aulacophora foveicollis ) from Momordica charantia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The triterpenoids isolated from the leaves ofMomordica charantia Linn (bitter gourd) were found to elicit feeding-deterrent activity against red pumpkin beetles (Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas). The most abundant triterpenoid which deterred feeding was identified as momordicine II, 23-O-ß-glucopyranoside of 3,7,23-trihydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al. A concentration of 3200µg\\/ml and above of the triterpenoids caused significant reduction of feeding by red pumpkin beetles in in vitro

M. V. Chandravadana

1987-01-01

90

Factors affecting overwinter survival of the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) is relatively abundant at Fort Chaffee Maneuver Training Center in northwestern Arkansas. There is a paucity of basic life-history\\u000a information available, particularly with respect to factors affecting overwintering success. In a field experiment we: (1)\\u000a captured beetles at Fort Chaffee; (2) bred them in captivity; (3) in the fall on Fort Chaffee placed

Gary D. Schnell; Ana E. Hiott; J. Curtis Creighton; Victoria L. Smyth; April Komendat

2008-01-01

91

Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of the synthetic sex attractant (R,Z)-5-(1-decenyl) dihydro-2(3H)-furanone with a 3:7 mixture of phenethyl propionate (PEP) and eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxphenol) caught significantly morePopillia japonica Newman than either the sex attractant or the mixture did alone. Also, the synthetic sex attractant captured significantly more males than the PEP-eugenol did during the period of heavy adult emergence of the beetles. The two

M. G. Klein; J. H. Tumlinson; T. L. Ladd; R. E. Doolittle

1981-01-01

92

Intraguild Predation and Native Lady Beetle Decline  

PubMed Central

Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild predation by both native and exotic predators may contribute to native coccinellid decline, and that landscape structure interacts with local predator communities to shape the specific outcomes of predator-predator interactions.

Gardiner, Mary M.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Landis, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

93

Aggregation pheromone of Australian SAP beetle, Carpophilus davidsoni (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male-produced aggregation pheromone was identified for the Australian sap beetle,Carpophilus davidsoni Dobson (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), by bioassay-guided fractionation of volatiles collected from feeding beetles. The most abundant components were: (2E,4E,6E)-5-ethyl-3-methyl-2,4,6-nonatriene, (3E,5E,7E)-6-ethyl-4-methyl-3,5,7-decatriene, (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene, and (2E,4E,6E,8E)-7-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene. The relative abundance of these components in collections from individual males feeding on artificial diet was 100:7:9:31, respectively. Pheromone production began within several days after males

Robert J. Bartelt; David G. James

1994-01-01

94

Evidence for behavioral attractiveness of methoxylated aromatics in a dynastid scarab beetle-pollinated araceae.  

PubMed

Many plants attract their pollinators with floral scents, and these olfactory signals are especially important at night, when visual signals become inefficient. Dynastid scarab beetles are a speciose group of night-active pollinators, and several plants pollinated by these insects have methoxylated aromatic compounds in their scents. However, there is a large gap in our knowledge regarding the compounds responsible for beetle attraction. We used chemical analytical analyses to determine temporal patterns of scent emission and the composition of scent released from inflorescences of Philodendron selloum. The attractiveness of the main components in the scent to the dynastid scarab beetle Erioscelis emarginata, the exclusive pollinator of this plant, was assessed in field biotests. The amount of scent increased rapidly in the evening, and large amounts of scent were released during the activity time of the beetle pollinators. Inflorescences emitted a high number of compounds of different biosynthetic origin, among them both uncommon and also widespread flower scents. Methoxylated aromatic compounds dominated the scent, and 4-methoxystyrene, the most abundant compound, attracted E. emarginata beetles. Other compounds, such as (Z)-jasmone and possibly also the methoxylated aromatic compound 3,4-dimethoxystyrene increased the attractiveness of 4-methoxystyrene. Methoxylated aromatics, which are known from other dynastid pollinated plants as well, are important signals in many scarab beetles in a different context (e.g., pheromones), thus suggesting that these plants exploit pre-existing preferences of the beetles for attracting this group of insects as pollinators. PMID:23143663

Dötterl, Stefan; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Silberbauer-Gottsberger, Ilse; Gottsberger, Gerhard

2012-11-11

95

Carpet beetle dermatitis.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of recurrent urticarial and papulovesicular lesions. Careful history suggested a close examination of his environment. The woolen rug in his bedroom was infested with larvae of a carpet beetle. The insect was identified as Anthrenus verbasci. Fumigation of the house with sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane) resulted in complete clinical recovery. Intradermal injection of the antigenic extract from the larvae showed a wheal and erythema on the patient's skin, and not on normal controls. This suggests that the patient had immediate-type hypersensitivity to some of the antigens extracted from larvae. Electron microscopic pictures of the insect are presented. PMID:7287958

Ahmed, A R; Moy, R; Barr, A R; Price, Z

1981-10-01

96

Effect of trap type, trap position, time of year, and beetle density on captures of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

PubMed

The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont Raffaellea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich, and Aghayeva are responsible for widespread redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., mortality in the southern United States. Effective traps and lures are needed to monitor spread of the beetle and for early detection at ports-of-entry, so we conducted a series of experiments to find the best trap design, color, lure, and trap position for detection of X. glabratus. The best trap and lure combination was then tested at seven sites varying in beetle abundance and at one site throughout the year to see how season and beetle population affected performance. Manuka oil proved to be the most effective lure tested, particularly when considering cost and availability. Traps baited with manuka oil lures releasing 5 mg/d caught as many beetles as those baited with lures releasing 200 mg/d. Distributing manuka oil lures from the top to the bottom of eight-unit funnel traps resulted in similar numbers of X. glabratus as a single lure in the middle. Trap color had little effect on captures in sticky traps or cross-vane traps. Funnel traps caught twice as many beetles as cross-vane traps and three times as many as sticky traps but mean catch per trap was not significantly different. When comparing height, traps 1.5 m above the ground captured 85% of the beetles collected but a few were caught at each height up to 15 m. Funnel trap captures exhibited a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.79) with X. glabratus attack density and they performed well throughout the year. Catching beetles at low densities is important to port of entry monitoring programs where early detection of infestations is essential. Our trials show that multiple funnel traps baited with a single manuka oil lure were effective for capturing X. glabratus even when no infested trees were visible in the area. PMID:21510198

Hanula, James L; Ulyshen, Michael D; Horn, Scott

2011-04-01

97

Exploring biomass energy of microorganisms using data mining methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy crisis is a global issue and biomass energy is treated as a potential alternative energy. Biomass energy is a renewable energy that is converted by the use of abundant biomass. Archaea, which are suitable microorganisms for biomass converting into biomass energy, can survive under ammonia oxidation environment and release energy through the genetic metabolism. In this study, we analyzed

S. F. Cheng; C. I. Hung; I. C. Yang

2011-01-01

98

Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the zooplankton community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer zooplankton community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the zooplankton community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the zooplankton composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from the middle shelf indicates that the warmer conditions in 2004 are part of a trend rather than an expression of interannual variability. These results suggest that if climate on the Bering Sea shelf continues to warm, the zooplankton community may shift from large to small taxa which could strongly impact apex predators and the economies they support.

Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.

2008-08-01

99

Hydrogen Isotopes in Beetle Chitin  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Beetles, one of the most diverse and long-lived animal groups, provide a trove of ecological and palaeoenvironmental information\\u000a largely because their exoskeletons contain chitin, a highly resistant biopolymer which preserves well in the geological record.\\u000a In addition to palaeoenvironmental inferences that can be derived from presence or absence of particular taxa, beetle chitin\\u000a records the hydrogen stable isotope ratios (D\\/H)

Darren R. Gröcke; Maarten van Hardenbroek; Peter E. Sauer; Scott A. Elias

100

Longer-term effects of selective thinning on carabid beetles and spiders in the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Within late-successional forests of the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon, abundances of carabid beetles (Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) from pitfall traps were compared between stands thinned 16-41 years prior and nearby unthinned stands. Species richness of both taxa were moderate for coniferous forests of this region, with 12 carabid beetle species and >120 spider species collected. No differences in total abundance or species richness were found between stand types for carabid beetles, although abundances of four of the six most common species differed significantly. Pterostichus setosus, the most abundant species collected, was significantly more abundant in unthinned stands, while Omus cazieri, P. lama, and Carabus taedatus were more numerous in thinned stands. In contrast, both total spider abundance and species richness were significantly higher in thinned stands. Hunting spiders within the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae, and the funnel web-building Dictynidae were captured more often in thinned stands while sheet web spiders within Linyphiidae and Hahniidae were more abundant in unthinned stands. The forest floor within unthinned stands was structurally more diverse than in thinned stands, but this did not lead to greater overall abundance or diversity of either carabid beetles or spiders.

Peck, R.; Niwa, C. G.

2005-01-01

101

Pollen digestion by flower-feeding Scarabaeidae: protea beetles (Cetoniini) and monkey beetles (Hopliini)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen protoplasm is very nutritious, but the hard and highly resistant outer wall (exine) of the pollen grain presents an obstacle that pollen-feeders must overcome to benefit from the valuable protoplasm. Pollen digestion in three pollen-eating scarab beetles, the green protea beetle Trichostetha fascicularis and two monkey beetle species, Peritrichia cinerea and Pachynema flavolineata, was investigated. Adult beetles were collected

Shelley A Johnson; Susan W Nicolson

2001-01-01

102

Guild structure, diversity and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung in South Western Ghats forests.  

PubMed

The diversity, guild structure and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung is described in a deciduous forest site in Western Ghats, a hot spot of diversity in India. Dung beetles were collected using baited pitfall traps and from exposed dung pats in the forest at intervals of 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 21 days. Twenty-one dung beetle species belonging to the 3 major functional guilds were recorded. Abundance of dwellers was high compared to rollers deviating from earlier reports on the high abundance of rollers in the afrotropical regions. Dweller Drepanocerus setosus and tunneler Onthophagus bronzeus were the most abundant species. Dung pats aged 3-5 days attracted the highest abundance of dung beetles. Bray Curtis similarity index indicated low community similarity between different stages of succession. Species richness and abundance of tunnelers increased with dung age and decreasing moisture up to a threshold level, followed by a decrease. Rollers and dwellers did not show any significant relationship with dung moisture content. Further research is needed to estimate the dung beetle community associated with the dung pats of other mega herbivores as well as of elephant dung in other forests of the Western Ghats. PMID:19537983

Sabu, Thomas K; Vinod, K V; Vineesh, P J

2006-01-01

103

Common flea beetles of North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A very nicely illustrated key to 46 flea beetles regularly found in North Dakota. The key is a lucid style key, and the images are carefully produced. A beautiful photo gallery and list of common flea beetles is also included.

0002-11-30

104

The Army's Remote-Controlled Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Technology Review discusses the new technology of controlling insects using cybernetic implants. It includes several pictures of a beetle with implanted equipment that researchers use to direct the movements of the beetle.

2009-11-30

105

Ultrastructure of pheromone-detecting sensillum placodeum of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newmann (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pheromone-detecting sensilla placodea are significantly more numerous than other sensory structures in the antennae of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Their abundance in males is nearly twice of that in females, showing a clear sexual dimorphism. Externally, they have a tortoise shell-like round cuticular plate containing a few polygonal plates separated by narrow ridges. Internally, they house

J.-Y. Kim; W. S. Leal

2000-01-01

106

LARGE SUMMER POPULATION OF MULTICOLORED ASIAN LADY BEETLE IN NORTH DAKOTA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

I found Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), multicolored Asian lady beetles, extremely abundant on American elm trees in Valley City, Barnes County, North Dakota on July 14, 2002. Adults, pupae, and larvae of H. axyridis were present on American elm throughout the town. All adult H. axyridis observed had ...

107

Predation on Colorado Potato Beetle Eggs by Generalist Predators in Research and Commercial Potato Plantings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies quantified predation on Colorado potato beetle [Leptinotarsa decemlineata(Say)] eggs and determined the relationship between predation and egg mass abundance in research and commercial potato plantings in eastern North Carolina. Predator exclusion experiments were conducted weekly in research plantings. In addition, egg mass density and predation on egg masses were monitored throughout the season in research plots and commercial

Angelika Hilbeck; Craig Eckel; George G. Kennedy

1997-01-01

108

Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemiology in Lodgepole Pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following brief synthesis of mountain pine beetle epidemiology is based on host-beetle interaction. In the first part I briefly describe the relationship between the dynamics of lodgepole pine and mountain pine beetle. The second part describes the phases in the infestation cycle and their main characteristics. This synthesis is based on published information on infestation behaviour in western Canada,

Les Safranyik

109

Attractant pheromone for the Colorado potato beetle  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method has been discovered for attracting Colorado potato beetles to an area of object or area, which method involves treating the object or area with a Colorado potato beetle attracting composition which contains a carrier material and a Colorado potato beetle attracting effective amount of (S)-3,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-oct-6-ene-1,3-diol.

Dickens; Joseph C. (Ellicott City, MD); Oliver; James (Laurel, MD)

2005-10-25

110

Biomass conversion potential in the Southeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biomass production and conversion potential of the southeastern U.S., with its large forest land and wood residue, long coastal areas, abundance of water, large amounts of readily collectable agricultural, urban and industrial waste materials, longer rainfall and fertile soil, is examined. Various types of biomass production and conversion methods, including terrestrial and silvicultural biomass as well as herbaceous, aquatic

H. Saha

1978-01-01

111

Plant abundance: the measurement and relationship with seed size  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There are many inconsistencies in early reports describing the relationships between plant abundance and other biotic (e.g., seed size) or abiotic variables (e.g., precipitation). It has been difficult to generalize such relationships when abundance is measured differently (e.g., density, biomass, cover). This article suggests using abundance in two broad categories: numerical abundance (e.g., number of individuals, density) and mass abundance (e.g., biomass, cover). Collective evidence indicates that when abundance is measured the same way, the observed patterns may actually be more consistent.

Guo, Q.

2003-01-01

112

Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.  

SciTech Connect

For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

2004-05-13

113

Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.  

PubMed

The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest. PMID:22182536

Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

2010-12-01

114

Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.  

PubMed

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH??) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

2013-06-05

115

Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

Keville, Megan P.;Reed, Sasha C.;Cleveland, Cory C.

2013-01-01

116

The Dung Beetle Dance: An Orientation Behaviour?  

PubMed Central

An interesting feature of dung beetle behaviour is that once they have formed a piece of dung into a ball, they roll it along a straight path away from the dung pile. This straight-line orientation ensures that the beetles depart along the most direct route, guaranteeing that they will not return to the intense competition (from other beetles) that occurs near the dung pile. Before rolling a new ball away from the dung pile, dung beetles perform a characteristic “dance,” in which they climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This dance behaviour can also be observed during the beetles' straight-line departure from the dung pile. The aim of the present study is to investigate the purpose of the dung beetle dance. To do this, we explored the circumstances that elicit dance behaviour in the diurnal ball-rolling dung beetle, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus. Our results reveal that dances are elicited when the beetles lose control of their ball or lose contact with it altogether. We also find that dances can be elicited by both active and passive deviations of course and by changes in visual cues alone. In light of these results, we hypothesise that the dung beetle dance is a visually mediated mechanism that facilitates straight-line orientation in ball-rolling dung beetles by allowing them to 1) establish a roll bearing and 2) return to this chosen bearing after experiencing a disturbance to the roll path.

Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J.; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric J.; Dacke, Marie

2012-01-01

117

The dung beetle dance: an orientation behaviour?  

PubMed

An interesting feature of dung beetle behaviour is that once they have formed a piece of dung into a ball, they roll it along a straight path away from the dung pile. This straight-line orientation ensures that the beetles depart along the most direct route, guaranteeing that they will not return to the intense competition (from other beetles) that occurs near the dung pile. Before rolling a new ball away from the dung pile, dung beetles perform a characteristic "dance," in which they climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This dance behaviour can also be observed during the beetles' straight-line departure from the dung pile. The aim of the present study is to investigate the purpose of the dung beetle dance. To do this, we explored the circumstances that elicit dance behaviour in the diurnal ball-rolling dung beetle, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus. Our results reveal that dances are elicited when the beetles lose control of their ball or lose contact with it altogether. We also find that dances can be elicited by both active and passive deviations of course and by changes in visual cues alone. In light of these results, we hypothesise that the dung beetle dance is a visually mediated mechanism that facilitates straight-line orientation in ball-rolling dung beetles by allowing them to 1) establish a roll bearing and 2) return to this chosen bearing after experiencing a disturbance to the roll path. PMID:22279572

Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie

2012-01-18

118

Filial cannibalism in burying beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infanticide is a common phenomenon in many animal groups, but filial cannibalism, the deliberate killing and consumption by parents of their own young, is extremely unusual. The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides Herbst has a limited food supply, in the form of a buried corpse, on which to raise its young. On corpses weighing 10–15 g, clutch size in the lab

J. Bartlett

1987-01-01

119

UNVEILING THE FIRST BEETLE GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, has been sequenced at 7-fold coverage using the whole-genome shotgun approach, generating 1.8 million end-sequences from fragments 3-6 kb in length. A preliminary assembly (Tcas_1.0) has been released by the Human Genome Sequencing Center, Ba...

120

Raising Beetles in a Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

Hackett, Erla

121

Habitat associations of saproxylic beetles in the southeastern United States: A comparison of forest types, tree species and wood postures.  

SciTech Connect

Saproxylic beetles are highly sensitive to forest management practices that reduce the abundance and variety of dead wood. However, this diverse fauna continues to receive little attention in the southeastern United States even though this region supports some of the most diverse, productive and intensively managed forests in North America. In this replicated three-way factorial experiment, we investigated the habitat associations of saproxylic beetles on the coastal plain of South Carolina. The factors of interest were forest type (upland pine-dominated vs. bottomland hardwood), tree species (Quercus nigra L., Pinustaeda L. and Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and wood posture (standing and downed dead wood, i.e., snags and logs). Wood samples were taken at four positions along each log and snag (lower bole,middle bole, upper bole and crown) _11 months after the trees were killed and placed in rearing bags to collect emerging beetles. Overall, 33,457 specimens from 52 families and _250 species emerged. Based on an analysis of covariance, with surface area and bark coverage as covariates, saproxylic beetle species richness differed significantly between forest types as well as between wood postures. There were no significant interactions. Species richness was significantly higher in the upland pine-dominated stand than the bottomland hardwood forest, possibly due to higher light exposure and temperature in upland forests. Although L. styraciflua yielded more beetle species (152) than either Q. nigra (122) or P. taeda (125), there were no significant differences in species richness among tree species. There were also no relationships evident between relative tree abundance and observed or expected beetle species richness. Significantly more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags. However snags had a distinct fauna including several potential canopy specialists. Our results suggest that conservation practices that retain or create entire snags as opposed to high stumps or logs alone will most greatly benefit saproxylic beetles in southeastern forests.

Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James, L.

2008-09-01

122

Biomass production in Florida  

SciTech Connect

Florida posseses climatic, land, and water resources favorable for abundant biomass production. Therefore, a statewide program has been initiated to determine adapted species for the available array of production sites. Plant resources under investigation include woody, aquatic, grasses, hydrocarbon, and root crop species. The goal is to produce a continuous stream of biomass for the various biofuel conversion options. Preliminary yields from energy cropping experiments range from about 10 to nearly 90 metric tons per hectare per year, depending on the crop and the production systems employed. (Refs. 15).

Smith, W.H.; Dowd, M.L.

1981-08-01

123

The ground beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Kenyir water catchment, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

An assemblage of beetle specimens from family Carabidae (ground beetles) was carried out at Kenyir water catchment as an indicator to measure disturbance. The samplings were conducted from 30th July to 1st August 2007 at limestone forest of Teluk Bewah and the dipterocarp forest of Sungai Cicir. 28 individuals from 13 species were collected from Teluk Bewah whereas 54 individuals from ten species was sampled from Sungai Cicir. The carabids were more specious (Simpson Diversity index: 0.97) and more abundant (Margalef index: 5.35) at Teluk Bewah compared to Sungai Cicir (Simpson Diversity index, 0.72: Margalefindex, 2.22). Light trapping was most efficient assembling 97.56% of ground beetles compared to Malaise trap, pitfall and net sweeping. This is the first record of beetle assemblage at Kenyir water catchment, Malaysia. New records for Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia are Abacetus sp. 1, Abacetus sp. 2, Acupalpus rectifrotis, Aephnidius adelioides, Dischissus notulatus, Dolichoctis sp., Dolichoctis sp. 2, Dolichoctis straitus, Ophinoea bimaculata, Perigona sp., Pheropsophus piciccollis, Pheropsophus occipitalis, Stenolophus quinquepustulatus, Stenolophus smaragdulus, Stenolophus sp., Tachys coracinus, Casnoidea sp., Orthogonius sp. Seven species coded as Cara C, Cara J, Cara M, Cara N, Cara O, Cara R and Cara S were unidentified and are probably new species to be described in another report. There is moderately high diversity (Simpson Diversity index: 0.846) of Carabidae indicating that ecotourism does not affect diversity of ground beetle at Kenyir Lake. PMID:19205267

Abdullah, Fauziah; Sina, Ibnu; Fauzee, Fatmahjihan

2008-11-01

124

Bacterial Protection of Beetle-Fungus Mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-microbe symbioses play a critical role in the evolution of biological diversity and complexity. In a notably intricate system, southern pine beetles use symbiotic fungi to help overcome host-tree defenses and to provide nutrition for their larvae. We show that this beetle-fungal mutualism is chemically mediated by a bacterially produced polyunsaturated peroxide. The molecule's selective toxicity toward the beetle's fungal

Jarrod J. Scott; Dong-Chan Oh; M. Cetin Yuceer; Kier D. Klepzig; Jon Clardy; Cameron R. Currie

2008-01-01

125

USDA Forest Service: Asian Longhorned Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Asian longhorned beetles are an exotic species of insect that have been wreaking havoc on North American trees, particularly maples, alders, birches, elms, horsechestnut, poplars, and willows. This site from the USDA Forest Service had some general information about the beetle (including images), and resources on identifying them and reporting sightings. Check out the "Publications" link for some more extensive tips on identifying the asian longhorned beetle, and controlling its spread.

2008-02-04

126

Sampling Scarab Beetles in Tropical Forests: The Effect of Light Source and Night Sampling Periods  

PubMed Central

Light traps have been used widely to sample insect abundance and diversity, but their performance for sampling scarab beetles in tropical forests based on light source type and sampling hours throughout the night has not been evaluated. The efficiency of mercury-vapour lamps, cool white light and ultraviolet light sources in attracting Dynastinae, Melolonthinae and Rutelinae scarab beetles, and the most adequate period of the night to carry out the sampling was tested in different forest areas of Costa Rica. Our results showed that light source wavelengths and hours of sampling influenced scarab beetle catches. No significant differences were observed in trap performance between the ultraviolet light and mercury-vapour traps, whereas these two methods caught significantly more species richness and abundance than cool white light traps. Species composition also varied between methods. Large differences appear between catches in the sampling period, with the first five hours of the night being more effective than the last five hours. Because of their high efficiency and logistic advantages, we recommend ultraviolet light traps deployed during the first hours of the night as the best sampling method for biodiversity studies of those scarab beetles in tropical forests.

Garcia-Lopez, Alejandra; Mico, Estefania; Zumbado, Manuel A.; Galante, Eduardo

2011-01-01

127

Lunar orientation in a beetle.  

PubMed Central

Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects.

Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

2004-01-01

128

Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

2013-09-01

129

Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.  

PubMed

Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest. PMID:22127165

Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

2010-08-01

130

Studies on the life history and control of small hive beetles in the south-eastern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We monitored natural infestation of adult small hive beetles (SHB) in honey bee colonies from 2005 to 2008. We found that SHB populations varied throughout the year with peak infestations observed in the autumn (September and November). Abundance of SHB was significantly correlated with the proport...

131

Succession of Ground-Dwelling Beetle Assemblages After Fire in Three Habitat Types in the Andean Forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina  

PubMed Central

Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this was reflected by beetle diversity.

Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.

2010-01-01

132

Optimization of biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With sufficient territory and abundant biomass resources Spain appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. This paper addresses biomass fuelled generation of electricity in the specific aspect of finding the best location and the supply area

P. Reche López; M. Gómez González; N. Ruiz Reyes; F. Jurado

2008-01-01

133

Continuous plankton recorder underestimates zooplankton abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison between monthly mean Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) data and zooplankton data caught during winter and early spring with different sampling devices in the North Sea is presented to estimate the relative error in abundance of CPR measurements. CPR underestimates the abundance of zooplankton by a factor 25 during winter and early spring and by a factor 18 if Oithona spp. is not considered. This has serious implications for estimation of biomass as well as for modelling ecosystem dynamics.

Dippner, Joachim W.; Krause, Michael

2013-02-01

134

Two linear beetle-type scanning tunneling microscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two beetle-type scanning tunneling microscopes are described. Both designs have the thermal stability of the Besocke beetle and the simplicity of the Wilms beetle. Moreover, sample holders were designed that also allow both semiconductor wafers and metal single crystals to be studied. The coarse approach is a linear motion of the beetle towards the sample using inertial slip-stick motion. Ten

J. M. MacLeod; Antje Moffat; J. A. Miwa; A. G. Mark; G. K. Mullins; R. H. J. Dumont; G. E. Constant; A. B. McLean

2003-01-01

135

Quantitative assessment of the nematode fauna present on Geotrupes dung beetles reveals species-rich communities with a heterogeneous distribution.  

PubMed

Pristionchus spp. nematodes exhibit several traits that might serve as pre-adaptations to parasitism. Under harsh environmental conditions, these nematodes can arrest development and form dauer larvae. In addition, they have been shown to live in necromenic association with a range of beetles, including dung beetles ( Geotrupes stercorosus ) on which, for example, Pristionchus entomophagus is commonly found. It has been argued that the formation of dauer larvae and the association with invertebrates represent intermediate steps towards parasitism. To better understand necromenic associations, and to gain information on Pristionchus spp. abundance and the general species composition on dung beetles, we extracted all the nematode fauna present on 114 individuals of G. stercorosus. By direct sequencing using the 18S SSU, we provide a barcode for all nematodes isolated from the beetle samples. In total, 5,002 dauer-stage nematodes were sequenced, which included Pristionchus spp., Koerneria spp. (Diplogastridae), Pelodera spp. (Rhabditidae), and Strongyloidea as well as Spirurida. Intensities of infection varied from over 1,000 nematodes isolated from a single G. stercorosus to none, with Pelodera spp. being the most abundant group isolated. This study presents the first quantitative data on the Pristionchus spp. infection of beetles. PMID:20557197

Weller, Andreas M; Mayer, Werner E; Rae, Robbie; Sommer, Ralf J

2010-06-01

136

Targeting red-headed flea beetle larvae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red-headed flea beetle (RHFB), Systena frontalis, is an emerging pest of cranberry that requires significant grower investment in monitoring and repeated applications of insecticides to reduce adult populations. The adult beetles are highly mobile and consume a broad range of host plants whereas t...

137

THE SECRET LIFE OF SAP BEETLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strawberry sap beetle (SSB) is a pest of growing concern among New York strawberry growers. The beetles are widespread throughout New York, being present in all of 37 fields across 14 farms included in a 2002 statewide sampling for SSB, and are considered the number one arthropod threat to strawberries by New York Berry Growers Association members. The two

Rebecca L. Loughner

138

New Pest Response Guidelines: Khapra Beetle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use New Pest Response Guidelines: Khapra Beetle as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of this pest. If khapra beetle is detected in the United States, PPQ personnel will produce a site-specif...

J. Stibick

2007-01-01

139

Colorado's Forests and the Pine Beetle Epidemic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features CU Boulder Professor Jeff Mitton and his research team, who study the effects of mountain pine beetle infestations on the forest ecology in the Rocky Mountains. They explain the pine beetle life cycle and how they attack trees. An outlook into the future is also provided.

Boulder, Office O.

140

An evaluation of British Columbian beetle-killed hybrid spruce for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

The development of bioconversion technologies for production of fuels, chemicals, and power from renewable resources is currently a high priority for developed nations such as the United States, Canada, and the European Union as a way to improve national energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The widespread implementation of such technologies will require a sustainable supply of biomass from forestry and agriculture. Forests are a major source of feedstocks for biofuels production in Canada. Woody biomass includes residues from logging and forest thinning, and from wood processing and pulp production. More recently, damaged wood caused by beetle infestations has become available on a large scale in Western Canada. This study evaluates beetle-killed British Columbian hybrid spruce (HS) (Picea glauca x P. engelmannii) as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. In the past 30 yr, attack by the beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis and associated fungi has resulted in estimated losses of more than three billion board feet in British Columbia alone. Here we describe the chemical and some physical characteristics of both healthy (HHS) and beetle-killed (BKHS) British Columbian HS and evaluate the technical feasibility of using these feedstocks as a source of biomass for bioethanol production. Untreated HHS and BKHS did not differ significantly in chemical composition except for the moisture content, which was significantly lower in BKHS (approx 10%) compared with HHS (approx 18%). However, the yields of carbohydrates in hydrolyzable and fermentable forms were higher at mild pretreatment conditions (H-Factor <1000) for BKHS compared with HHS. At medium (H-Factor 1000-2000) and severe (H-Factor >2000) pretreatment conditions HHS and BKHS behaved similarly. Organosolv pretreated HHS and BKHS demonstrated good ethanol theoretical yields, approx 70 and 80%, respectively. PMID:18478394

Berlin, Alex; Muñoz, Claudio; Gilkes, Neil; Alamouti, Sepideh Massoumi; Chung, Pablo; Kang, Kyu-Young; Maximenko, Vera; Baeza, Jaime; Freer, Juanita; Mendonça, Regis; Saddler, Jack

2007-04-01

141

Honey bee, Apis mellifera L., confinement behavior toward beetle invaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed two experiments to study the hiding behavior of various beetles introduced into colonies of European honey bees,\\u000a Apis mellifera L. In the first experiment, we studied the spatial distribution within confinement sites of six beetle species at eight time\\u000a intervals following their introduction into honey bee observation hives. For each beetle species, we also determined whether\\u000a the beetle’s

E. B. Atkinson; J. D. Ellis

142

Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of amazonian dung beetles (coleoptera: scarabaeinae).  

PubMed

The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology. PMID:24023675

Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

2013-08-30

143

Population stability in relation to resource availability in an introduced population of an herbivorous lady beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms responsible for population stability in relation to resource availability were studied in an introduced herbivorous\\u000a lady beetle,Epilachna niponica. The introduced population was relatively constant over a seven-year study period. Egg density was related to the variation\\u000a in host-plant abundance in different years, and was highly stabilized during the period from reproductive adult to egg stage.\\u000a Two density-dependent processes were

Takayuki OI-IGUSHI; Hiroichi Sawada

1997-01-01

144

Manufacture of Prebiotics from Biomass Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass from plant material is the most abundant and widespread renewable raw material for sustainable development, and can be employed as a source of polymeric and oligomeric carbohydrates. When ingested as a part of the diet, some biomass polysaccharides and/or their oligomeric hydrolysis products are selectively fermented in the colon, causing prebiotic effects.

Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Moure, Andrés; Alonso, José Luis; Domínguez, Herminia; Parajó, Juan Carlos

145

Experimental Beetle Metapopulations Respond Positively to Dynamic Landscapes and Reduced Connectivity  

PubMed Central

Interactive effects of multiple environmental factors on metapopulation dynamics have received scant attention. We designed a laboratory study to test hypotheses regarding interactive effects of factors affecting the metapopulation dynamics of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Within a four-patch landscape we modified resource level (constant and diminishing), patch connectivity (high and low) and patch configuration (static and dynamic) to conduct a 23 factorial experiment, consisting of 8 metapopulations, each with 3 replicates. For comparison, two control populations consisting of isolated and static subpopulations were provided with resources at constant or diminishing levels. Longitudinal data from 22 tri-weekly counts of beetle abundance were analyzed using Bayesian Poisson generalized linear mixed models to estimate additive and interactive effects of factors affecting abundance. Constant resource levels, low connectivity and dynamic patches yielded greater levels of adult beetle abundance. For a given resource level, frequency of colonization exceeded extinction in landscapes with dynamic patches when connectivity was low, thereby promoting greater patch occupancy. Negative density dependence of pupae on adults occurred and was stronger in landscapes with low connectivity and constant resources; these metapopulations also demonstrated greatest stability. Metapopulations in control landscapes went extinct quickly, denoting lower persistence than comparable landscapes with low connectivity. When landscape carrying capacity was constant, habitat destruction coupled with low connectivity created asynchronous local dynamics and refugia within which cannibalism of pupae was reduced. Increasing connectivity may be counter-productive and habitat destruction/recreation may be beneficial to species in some contexts.

Govindan, Byju N.; Swihart, Robert K.

2012-01-01

146

Response of understory vegetation to variable tree mortality following a mountain pine beetle epidemic in lodgepole pine stands in northern Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the response of understory vegetation beneath monotypic, even-aged stands of lodgepole pine to increasing tree mortality following an epidemic of mountain pine beetles. we hypothesized that understory biomass would increase continually as the tree canopy was reduced and competition with trees for light and soil moisture decreased, but that plant species diversity and heterogeneity would peak at intermediate

William E. Stone; Michael L. Wolfe

1996-01-01

147

Biomass utilization  

SciTech Connect

Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).

Coute, W.A. (ed.)

1983-01-01

148

13 C abundance, water-soluble and microbial biomass carbon as potential indicators of soil organic carbon dynamics in subtropical forests at different successional stages and subject to different nitrogen loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in forest ecosystems, and thereby\\u000a alters the stable C isotopic abundance of plant and soil. Three successional stages, disturbed, rehabilitated and mature forests\\u000a were studied for their responses to different nitrogen input levels. N-addition manipulative experiments were conducted at\\u000a low, medium and high N levels. To study

Hua-Jun Fang; Gui-Rui Yu; Shu-Lan Cheng; Jiang-Ming Mo; Jun-Hua Yan; Shenggong Li

2009-01-01

149

Survival of the Fittest: Battling Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guided inquiry three-part activity engages learners in thinking about the mechanism of natural selection through data collection and pattern recognition. In this scenario, learners use M&Ms and other simple materials to investigate the mating habits of beetles and whether genetic variations give male beetles advantages against weaker beetles. Learners will collect and calculate data to draw conclusions. The third part of this activity allows learners to model Hardy-Weinberg and selection using an Excel spreadsheet and is recommended for more advanced learners.

Colvard, Mary

2010-01-01

150

Bark beetle outbreaks affect regional carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bark beetle outbreaks can kill a large number of trees—in fact, insect outbreaks affect an area similar in size to that affected by forest fires annually across North America. Trees absorb carbon dioxide, so bark beetle outbreaks can significantly affect regional carbon dynamics. In general, immediately after an outbreak, carbon uptake by trees decreases. Dead trees become snags, which may fall to the ground several or more years after the outbreak. After snags fall, decomposition increases. Carbon uptake begins to recover years to decades after a bark beetle outbreak. There have been few studies of biogeochemical cycling following outbreaks, and those studies have shown a variety of effects in different forests.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-02-01

151

The impact of overgrazing on dung beetle diversity in the Italian Maritime Alps.  

PubMed

Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are undoubtedly the most typical and ecologically relevant insects of grazed alpine habitats because they provide valuable ecological services such as biological pest control and soil fertilization. Despite the great ecological contribution of these insects to pasture ecosystem functioning, little is known about their direct or indirect relationships with pastoral activities. The main aim of the study was to assess whether dung beetle diversity was influenced by different intensities of cattle grazing. Dung beetle communities of two adjacent alpine valleys within the Maritime Alps Natural Park (north-western Italian Alps), representing overgrazed and ungrazed pastures, were studied by pitfall trapping. A hierarchical design (three levels: valleys, transects, and replicates) was established for additive partitioning of ?-diversity and Indicator Species Analysis. Evenness and Shannon diversity were significantly higher at the ungrazed than at the overgrazed site because abundances were much more evenly distributed at the former than at the latter site (where one species was dominant over all the others). Dung beetle abundance and species richness of the overgrazed graminaceous pasture vegetation types were in most cases significantly lower than those of the ungrazed nongraminaceous vegetation type. In the additive partitioning of ? -diversity analysis relative to the whole study area, the randomization procedure indicated that the contribution of ? to ?-diversity was significantly different from that expected by chance, suggesting that one or more environmental factors has intervened to change the partition of total diversity in the system considered. The analysis of the preferences and fidelity of species (Indicator Species Analysis) showed that only one species chose overgrazed pastures; all the others positively selected the ungrazed site, or the only ungrazed pasture vegetation type (Rumicetum alpini Beger) occurring at the overgrazed site. Results conformed to evidences that overgrazing represents a serious threat to the conservation of alpine dung beetles. To conserve local dung beetle assemblages, especially in protected areas, cattle overgrazing should be avoided. This does not mean, however, that pastoral activities are incompatible with biodiversity conservation. The contemporaneous presence of wild ungulates and low intensity extensive pastoral activities may be useful to preserve both local dung beetle assemblages and alpine pasture ecosystems. PMID:22251720

Negro, Matteo; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

2011-10-01

152

How selection structures species abundance distributions  

PubMed Central

How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in large bodied species in guilds where habitat structure provides protection from predators, but not in those guilds associated with open habitats and where safety in numbers is a mechanism for reducing predation risk. We further demonstrate that while there is temporal turnover in the abundances and identities of species that comprise these guilds, guild rank order is conserved across our 30-year time series. These results demonstrate that ecological communities are not randomly assembled but can be decomposed into guilds where capacity is predictably allocated among species.

Magurran, Anne E.; Henderson, Peter A.

2012-01-01

153

ROOT BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN THE WORLD'S UPLAND FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root biomass based on standard meth...

154

Lunar orientation in a beetle.  

PubMed

Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects. PMID:15101694

Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

2004-02-22

155

Field evidence for the exposure of ground beetles to Cry1Ab from transgenic corn.  

PubMed

Non-target organisms associated with the soil might be adversely affected by exposure to the CrylAb protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in transgenic corn (Zea mays L.). To check for such exposure, we used ELISA to test for Cry1Ab in ground beetles collected live from fields with Bt corn residues and Bt corn (Bt/Bt), Bt corn residues and non-Bt crops (Bt/non-Bt), or non-Bt corn residues and non-Bt crops (non-Bt/non-Bt). In fields with Bt corn residues (Bt/Bt and Bt/non-Bt), Cry1Ab was present in all seven species of ground beetles examined (Agonum placidum, Bembidion rupicola, Clivina impressefrons, Cyclotrachelus iowensis, Harpalus pensylvanicus, Poecilus chalcites, and Poecilus lucublandus). For the two most abundant species, P. chalcites and P. lucublandus, the proportion of beetles with Cry1Ab was significantly higher in Bt/Bt fields (0.50-1.0) and Bt/non-Bt fields (0.41-0.50) than in non-Bt/non-Bt fields (0.0). This is the first field evidence that some ground beetle species are exposed to Cry1Ab. The implications of exposure on the performance of these non-target organisms are unclear. PMID:16402666

Zwahlen, Claudia; Andow, David A

156

Treatment outcome of Paederus dermatitis due to rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) on guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Linear dermatitis (or dermatitis linearis, DL) is a skin blistering inflammatory lesion caused by exposure to the pederin toxin from rove beetles. Although it is prevalent in many countries of the Middle East region, this is not a notifiable disease. In recent years, a number of clinical symptoms outbreaks of DL has been reported from a few neighboring countries of Iran, but no report of experimental treatment among small laboratory rodents is known. This is a prerequisite to ascertain the nature of the best treatment strategy in cases of infestation with these beetles, as it occurs among local settlers during hot seasons in certain parts of the southern Iranian province of Fars. Live Paederus beetles were collected, identified to species level, sexed apart and partly processed to obtain their hemolymph toxin pederin in ethanol for dermal application on guinea pigs. Two Paederus species were found. Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was more abundant than P. iliensis (Coiffait). Recovery from DL due to live P. ilsae beetles was quicker and less complex than that of pederin in ethanol on guinea pigs. The application of potassium permanganate with calamine to heal DL was also more effective than fluocinolone treatment. This topical corticosteroid is thus considered less able to avert the cytotoxic action of pederin on the skin of guinea pigs than the antipruritic and cleansing agents. It seems likely that fluocinolone has certain effects which delays the recovery period for the treated skin. PMID:22041764

Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Azizi, K; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

2011-08-01

157

Chemical signals synchronize the life cycles of a plant-parasitic nematode and its vector beetle.  

PubMed

The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused severe damage to pine forests in large parts of the world [1-4]. Dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode occurs when the nematode develops into the dispersal fourth larval stage (LIV) upon encountering its insect vector, the Monochamus pine sawyer beetle, inside an infected pine tree [5-9]. Here, we show that LIV formation in B. xylophilus is induced by C16 and C18 fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which are produced abundantly on the body surface of the vector beetle specifically during the late development pupal, emerging adult, and newly eclosed adult stages. The LIV can then enter the tracheal system of the adult beetle for dispersal to a new pine tree. Treatment of B. xylophilus with long-chain FAEEs, or the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, promotes LIV formation, while ?(7)-dafachronic acid blocks the effects of these chemicals, suggesting a conserved role for the insulin/IGF-1 and DAF-12 pathways in LIV formation. Our work provides a mechanism by which LIV formation in B. xylophilus is specifically coordinated with the life cycle of its vector beetle. Knowledge of the chemical signals that control the LIV developmental decision could be used to interfere with the dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode. PMID:24120638

Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Hao, Haijun; Zhang, Bin; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

2013-10-10

158

Micro and Macro-Habitat Associations in Saproxylic Beetles: Implications for Biodiversity Management  

PubMed Central

Restoration of habitats is critically important in preventing full realization of the extinction debt owed as a result of anthropogenic habitat destruction. Although much emphasis has been placed on macrohabitats, suitable microhabitats are also vital for the survival of most species. The aim of this large-scale field experiment was to evaluate the relative importance of manipulated microhabitats, i.e., dead wood substrates of spruce (snags, and logs that were burned, inoculated with wood fungi or shaded) and macrohabitats, i.e., stand types (clear-cuts, mature managed forests, and forest reserves) for species richness, abundance and assemblage composition of all saproxylic and red-listed saproxylic beetles. Beetles were collected in emergence traps in 30 forest stands in 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2006. More individuals emerged from snags and untreated logs than from burned and shaded logs, but species richness did not differ among substrates. Assemblage composition differed among substrates for both all saproxylics and red-listed saproxylic species, mainly attributed to different assemblage composition on snags. This suggests that the practise of leaving snags for conservation purposes should be complemented with log supplementation. Clear-cuts supported fewer species and different assemblages from mature managed forests and reserves. Neither abundance, nor species richness or assemblage composition differed between reserves and mature managed forests. This suggests that managed stands subjected to selective cutting, not clear-felling, maintain sufficient old growth characteristics and continuity to maintain more or less intact assemblages of saproxylic beetles. Thus, alternative management methods, e.g., continuity forestry should be considered for some of these stands to maintain continuity and conservation values. Furthermore, the significantly higher estimated abundance per ha of red-listed beetles in reserves underlines the importance of reserves for maintaining viable populations of rare red-listed species and as source areas for saproxylic species in boreal forest landscapes.

Hjalten, Joakim; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Pettersson, Roger B.; Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Danell, Kjell; Ball, John P.; Hilszczanski, Jacek

2012-01-01

159

Micro and macro-habitat associations in saproxylic beetles: implications for biodiversity management.  

PubMed

Restoration of habitats is critically important in preventing full realization of the extinction debt owed as a result of anthropogenic habitat destruction. Although much emphasis has been placed on macrohabitats, suitable microhabitats are also vital for the survival of most species. The aim of this large-scale field experiment was to evaluate the relative importance of manipulated microhabitats, i.e., dead wood substrates of spruce (snags, and logs that were burned, inoculated with wood fungi or shaded) and macrohabitats, i.e., stand types (clear-cuts, mature managed forests, and forest reserves) for species richness, abundance and assemblage composition of all saproxylic and red-listed saproxylic beetles. Beetles were collected in emergence traps in 30 forest stands in 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2006. More individuals emerged from snags and untreated logs than from burned and shaded logs, but species richness did not differ among substrates. Assemblage composition differed among substrates for both all saproxylics and red-listed saproxylic species, mainly attributed to different assemblage composition on snags. This suggests that the practise of leaving snags for conservation purposes should be complemented with log supplementation. Clear-cuts supported fewer species and different assemblages from mature managed forests and reserves. Neither abundance, nor species richness or assemblage composition differed between reserves and mature managed forests. This suggests that managed stands subjected to selective cutting, not clear-felling, maintain sufficient old growth characteristics and continuity to maintain more or less intact assemblages of saproxylic beetles. Thus, alternative management methods, e.g., continuity forestry should be considered for some of these stands to maintain continuity and conservation values. Furthermore, the significantly higher estimated abundance per ha of red-listed beetles in reserves underlines the importance of reserves for maintaining viable populations of rare red-listed species and as source areas for saproxylic species in boreal forest landscapes. PMID:22848432

Hjältén, Joakim; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Pettersson, Roger B; Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Danell, Kjell; Ball, John P; Hilszcza?ski, Jacek

2012-07-25

160

Polarisation vision: beetles see circularly polarised light.  

PubMed

It has long been known that the iridescent cuticle of many scarab beetles reflects circularly polarised light. It now turns out that scarabs can also see this light, potentially using it as a covert visual signal. PMID:20656207

Warrant, Eric J

2010-07-27

161

Dr. Susan Prichard and Pine Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, scientist Dr. Susan Prichard discusses the impact of pine bark beetles on western forests, including information on how climate change, specifically rising temperatures, is exacerbating the problem.

Central, Climate

162

Creosote production from beetle infested timber  

SciTech Connect

Wood-tar creosote accumulation in stove pipes and chimneys following burning of beetle-killed southern pine, green pine, seasoned hardwood totalled 6.21, 3.21, 4.27 and 3.73 lb/ton DM respectively. Tests showed that accumulation depends more on air supply to the stove than type or moisture content of wood burned. It is suggested that beetle-killed pine should not be rejected as a fuelwood on the basis of creosote production.

Allen, J.F.; Maxwell, T.T.

1982-01-01

163

Biomass Conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In its simplest terms, biomass is all the plant matter found on our planet. Biomass is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. Plant photosynthesis uses energy from the sun to combine carbon dioxide from the atmosphere with water to produce organic plant matter. More inclusive definitions are possible. For example, animal products and waste can be included in the definition of biomass. Animals, like plants, are renewable; but animals clearly are one step removed from the direct use of sunlight. Using animal rather than plant material thus leads to substantially less efficient use of our planet's ultimate renewable resource, the sun. So, we emphasize plant matter in our definition of biomass. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utlize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a "carbon neutral" fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere.

Decker, Stephen R.; Sheehan, John; Dayton, David C.; Bozell, Joseph J.; Adney, William S.; Hames, Bonnie; Thomas, Steven R.; Bain, Richard L.; Czernik, Stefan; Zhang, Min; Himmel, Michael E.

164

Japanese beetles facilitate feeding by green june beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on ripening grapes.  

PubMed

Adult activity of native green June beetles, Cotinis nitida L., and invasive Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman, peaked in late July in Kentucky coincident with later stages of veraison in early- and midseason ripening grape (Vitis spp.) cultivars. Most C. nitida feeding aggregations sampled on clusters of early-ripening grapes in the research vineyard also contained Japanese beetles. Assays showed C. nitida generally are unable to bite into intact ripe grape berries, whereas Japanese beetles readily do so. The beetles' disparate biting ability is likely because of differences in their mandibles, which are sharply pointed and opposable in P. japonica compared with C. nitida mandibles that are bluntly spatulate, do not meet at their tips, and seemingly are only suited for feeding on fruit pulp or other soft food. Japanese beetles were shown to facilitate C. nitida feeding by biting through the skin and providing access to the soft berry pulp. Juice from early- and midseason ripening grape cultivars with relatively high sugar content elicited the greatest feeding by P. japonica. A scenario is suggested wherein Japanese beetles open wound sites and contaminate fruits with yeasts that induce fermentation volatiles that attract C. nitida. Japanese beetles had difficulty biting berries of Sunbelt, a late-ripening cultivar. Phenological resistance, i.e., planting cultivars that ripen after peak flight, could be an effective management strategy. Establishment of P. japonica in grape-growing regions of the southeastern United States will likely elevate the pest status of C. nitida in vineyards. PMID:18419935

Hammons, Derrick L; Kurtural, S Kaan; Potter, Daniel A

2008-04-01

165

Characteristics of a Beetle's Free Flight and a Flapping-Wing System that Mimics Beetle Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we first present a method to experimentally capture the free flight of a beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma), which is not an active flyer. The beetle is suspended in the air by a hanger to induce the free flight. This flight is filmed using two high-speed cameras. The high speed images are then examined to obtain flapping angle, flapping

Quoc Viet Nguyen; Hoon Cheol Park; Nam Seo Goo; Doyoung Byun

2010-01-01

166

Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

167

Effects of reforestation practices on Staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Southwestern China forests.  

PubMed

In 2004, Staphylinid beetle (Coleoptera) assemblages were studied via pitfall trapping to examine the effects of reforestation in southwestern China forests. Sites included two 100-yr-old mature forest types (hemlock-spruce forest and birch forest), and three 40-yr-old forest types established after harvesting (spruce plantation, larch plantation, and natural broad-leaved forest). Staphylinid species richness was greater in natural broad-leaved forests than those in hemlock-spruce forests and spruce plantations, but no significant difference was found in abundance among the five forest types. Beetle assemblages from young forest stands were significantly different from those in older forest stands, and some environmental characteristics, i.e., elevation, proportion of broad-leaved trees, and coarse woody debris, significantly affected species abundances. Moreover, some staphylinid species predominantly found only in older forest stands indicate that mature forest specialists might be threatened by loss of habitat. So it is necessary to retain adequate patches of older successional stages for conserving these beetle assemblages. PMID:23339781

Luo, Tian-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

2013-02-01

168

Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle ...  

Treesearch

Title: Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle infestation of ... pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has created management ... wildfire risk, human safety, and scenic, wildlife, and watershed resources in ...

169

Olfactory Cues from Plants Infected by Powdery Mildew Guide Foraging by a Mycophagous Ladybird Beetle  

PubMed Central

Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical “moldy” odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.

Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.

2011-01-01

170

Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution  

PubMed Central

Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their beetle hosts. Instead, frequent host switching is observed. The molecular phylogeny of the Diplogastridae provides a framework for further examinations of the evolution of these associations, for the study of interactions within the ecosystems, and for investigations of diplogastrid genome evolution.

Mayer, Werner E; Herrmann, Matthias; Sommer, Ralf J

2009-01-01

171

Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).  

PubMed

The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently. PMID:22263651

Shostak, Allen W

2012-01-20

172

Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British\\u000a Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using

Diana L. Six; Z. Wilhelm de Beer; Tuan A. Duong; Allan L. Carroll; Michael J. Wingfield

2011-01-01

173

How Habitat Change and Rainfall Affect Dung Beetle Diversity in Caatinga, a Brazilian Semi-Arid Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate how dung beetle communities respond to both environment and rainfall in the Caatinga, a semi-arid ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. The communities were sampled monthly from May 2006 to April 2007 using pitfall traps baited with human feces in two environments denominated “land use area” and “undisturbed area.” Abundance and species richness were compared between the two environments and two seasons (dry and wet season) using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error distribution. Diversity was compared between the two environments (land use area and undisturbed area) and seasons (dry and wet) using the Two-Way ANOVA test. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was performed on the resemblance matrix of Bray-Curtis distances (with 1000 random restarts) to determine whether disturbance affected the abundance and species composition of the dung beetle communities. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine whether rainfall was correlated with abundance and species richness. A total of 1097 specimens belonging to 13 species were collected. The most abundant and frequent species was Dichotomius geminatus Arrow (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The environment exerted an influence over abundance. Abundance and diversity were affected by season, with an increase in abundance at the beginning of the wet season. The correlation coefficient values were high and significant for abundance and species richness, which were both correlated to rainfall. In conclusion, the restriction of species to some environments demonstrates the need to preserve these areas in order to avoid possible local extinction. Therefore, in extremely seasonable environments, such as the Caatinga, seasonal variation strongly affects dung beetle communities.

Liberal, Carolina Nunes; de Farias, Angela Maria Isidro; Meiado, Marcos Vinicius; Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.; Iannuzzi, Luciana

2011-01-01

174

Population structure of a predatory beetle: the importance of gene flow for intertrophic level interactions.  

PubMed

Migration and gene flow of natural enemies play an important role in the stability of predator-prey interactions and community organization in both natural and managed systems. Yet, relative to that of their herbivorous insect prey, the genetic structure of natural enemy populations has been little studied. We present evidence that populations of the predatory coccinellid beetle Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), are not genetically subdivided and that levels of gene flow among these populations are extremely high. Furthermore, in the same geographical area, gene flow of C. maculata was significantly (one order of magnitude) greater than that of an abundant prey species, the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The high mobility of this natural enemy relative to the insect herbivores on which it feeds may contribute to its effectiveness as a biological control agent in agricultural systems. PMID:8188496

Coll, M; Garcia de Mendoza, L; Roderick, G K

1994-03-01

175

Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested forest within managed forest landscapes and practice partial harvest of beetle-killed spruce rather than commercial clear-cutting of infested stands in order to sustain breeding bird populations until natural reforestation occurs. Because breeding densities do not always reflect fitness, assessing impacts of a massive natural disturbance should include measuring impacts of changes in vegetation on both reproductive success and predator-prey dynamics.

Matsuoka, S. M.; Handel, C. M.

2007-01-01

176

Species composition and community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur and elephant in the moist forests of South Western Ghats.  

PubMed

The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats. PMID:20337551

Vinod, K V; Sabu, Thomas K

2007-01-01

177

Regeneration beneath lodgepole pine dominated stands attacked or threatened by the mountain pine beetle in the south central Interior, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the species composition and abundance of germinants, seedlings, saplings, and larger trees in 167 stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Dougl ex. Loudon) in south central British Columbia. These stands had either been attacked or were threatened by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.). The mean density of understory stems varied widely within and between

Alan Vyse; Christine Ferguson; David J. Huggard; Jean Roach; Barbara Zimonick

2009-01-01

178

Beetles’ choice—proline for energy output: control by AKHs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many beetle species use proline and carbohydrates in a varying ratio to power flight. The degree of contribution of either fuel varies widely between species. In contrast, dung beetle species investigated, thus far, do not have any carbohydrate reserves and rely completely on proline to power energy-costly activities such as flight and, probably, walking and ball-rolling. While the fruit beetle,

Gerd Gäde; Lutz Auerswald

2002-01-01

179

Biomass energy  

SciTech Connect

This book offers a broad, interdisciplinary approach to assessing the factors that are key determinants to the use of biomass energies, stressing their limitations, complexities, uncertainties, links, and consequences. Considers photosynthesis, energy costs of nutrients, problems with monoculture, and the energy analysis of intensive tree plantations. Subjects are examined in terms of environmental and economic impact. Emphasizes the use and abuse of biomass energies in China, India, and Brazil. Topics include forests, trees for energy, crop residues, fuel crops, aquatic plants, and animal and human wastes. Recommended for environmental engineers and planners, and those involved in ecology, systematics, and forestry.

Smil, V.

1983-01-01

180

Disruption by conophthorin of the kairomonal response of sawyer beetles to bark beetle pheromones.  

PubMed

Antennally active nonhost angiosperm bark volatiles were tested for their ability to reduce the response of three common species of coniferophagous wood-boring Cerambycidae to attractant-baited multiple funnel traps in the southern interior of British Columbia. Of the nonhost volatiles tested, only conophthorin was behaviorally active, disrupting the attraction of sawyer beetles, Monochamus spp., to traps baited with the host volatiles alpha-pinene and ethanol and the bark beetle pheromones ipsenol and ipsdienol. Conophthorin did not affect the attraction of sawyer beetles to the host kairomones alpha-pinene and ethanol in the absence of bark beetle pheromones, nor did it have any behavioral effect on adults of Xylotrechus longitarsis, which were not attracted to bark beetle pheromones. These results indicate that conophthorin does not act as a general repellent for coniferophagous Cerambycidae, as it seems to do for many species of Scolytidae, but has the specific activity of disrupting the kairomonal response of sawyer beetles to bark beetle pheromones. PMID:14584679

Morewood, W D; Simmonds, K E; Gries, R; Allison, J D; Borden, J H

2003-09-01

181

Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine Forests Part 3: Sampling and Modeling of Mountain Pine Beetle Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the last of a three-part series on the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests. Part III contains original research, a review of published literature primarily on epidemic beetle populations, and sampling and modeling of beetle populations....

W. E. Cole G. D. Amman C. E. Jensen

1985-01-01

182

The Solar Argon Abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar argon abundance cannot be directly derived by spectroscopic observations of the solar photosphere. The solar argon abundance is evaluated from solar wind measurements, nucleosynthetic arguments, observations of B stars, H II regions, planetary nebulae, and noble gas abundances measured in Jupiter's atmosphere. These data lead to a recommended argon abundance of N(Ar)=91,200+\\/-23,700 (on a scale where Si=106 atoms).

Katharina Lodders

2008-01-01

183

Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass  

SciTech Connect

Lignocellulosic biomass includes agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste (MSW), fiber resulting from grain operations, waste cellulosics (e.g. paper and pulp operations), and energy crops. Taken together, these materials represent one of the most abundant renewable resources on earth. The conversion of even a small portion of this resource to ethanol could substantially reduce current gasoline consumption and dependence on petroleum. Lignocellulosic materials are composed of three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose polymers can be hydrolyzed into their component sugars, primarily glucose and xylose, respectively, which can then be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol and fuel additives from ethanol have properties useful for dealing with urban air pollution. In addition, using renewable lignocellulosic resources for ethanol production can reduce the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thereby aid in the prevention of global warming. Moreover, producing ethanol from an abundant domestic lignocellulosic resource will provide new opportunities for agriculture. In an overall process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, the biomass is first pretreated by mechanical and chemical processes. An acid-based pretreatment process is one method that can be used to hydrolyze the hemicellulose to xylose. To hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose, processes based on the use of acids or cellulase enzyme can then be used. For enzymatic processes, the rate and yield of glucose from cellulose depends on the characteristics of the cellulose enzymes, which are synthesized by cellulolytic microorganisms such as fungi or bacteria. A variety of microorganisms can be used to ferment xylose and glucose to ethanol. 178 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

Schell, D.J.; McMillian, J.D.; Philippidis, G.P. [and others

1992-12-31

184

Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.  

PubMed

Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035

Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

2012-03-09

185

Wildfires in Bamboo-Dominated Amazonian Forest: Impacts on Above-Ground Biomass and Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p?=?0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions.

Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M.; Mestre, Luiz A. M.; Andrade, Rafael B.; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z.; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sebastien; Cochrane, Mark A.

2012-01-01

186

Biomass energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book offers a broad, interdisciplinary approach to assessing the factors that are key determinants to the use of biomass energies, stressing their limitations, complexities, uncertainties, links, and consequences. Considers photosynthesis, energy costs of nutrients, problems with monoculture, and the energy analysis of intensive tree plantations. Subjects are examined in terms of environmental and economic impact. Emphasizes the use and

Smil

1983-01-01

187

Loss of flight promotes beetle diversification  

PubMed Central

The evolution of flight is a key innovation that may enable the extreme diversification of insects. Nonetheless, many species-rich, winged insect groups contain flightless lineages. The loss of flight may promote allopatric differentiation due to limited dispersal power and may result in a high speciation rate in the flightless lineage. Here we show that loss of flight accelerates allopatric speciation using carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). We demonstrate that flightless species retain higher genetic differentiation among populations and comprise a higher number of genetically distinct lineages than flight-capable species, and that the speciation rate with the flightless state is twice that with the flight-capable state. Moreover, a meta-analysis of 51 beetle species from 15 families reveals higher genetic differentiation among populations in flightless compared with flight-capable species. In beetles, which represent almost one-fourth of all described species, repeated evolution of flightlessness may have contributed to their steady diversification since the Mesozoic era.

Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Sota, Teiji

2012-01-01

188

Influence of Elevation on Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) Community Structure and Flight Periodicity in Ponderosa Pine Forests of Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined abundance and ßight periodicity of Þve Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600 Ð1,736 m; middle: 2,058 Ð2,230 m; high: 2,505Ð2,651 m) for 3

Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Andy Miller

2008-01-01

189

BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

BeetleBase (http://www.bioinformatics.ksu.edu/BeetleBase/) is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software components developed by the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project. This strategy not only reduces the time required to develop the database query tools but also makes the data structure of BeetleBase compatible with that of other model organism databases. BeetleBase will be useful to the Tribolium research community for genome annotation as well as comparative genomics. PMID:17090595

Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S R; Brown, Susan J

2006-11-07

190

Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

1997-09-01

191

Distribution of Fishes in Seagrass Meadows: Role of Macrophyte Biomass and Species Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large spatial variation was found in the abundance and species composition of ichthyofauna in seagrass meadows of Apalachee Bay and Indian River lagoon, Florida. Abundance of fishes was a direct function of aboveground seagrass biomass in Apalachee Bay wh...

A. W. Stoner

1983-01-01

192

Use of Semiochemicals of Secondary Bark Beetles to Disrupt Spruce Beetle Attraction and Survival in Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field experiments using baited multiple-funnel traps and baited felled trees were conducted to test the hypothesis that semiochemicals from secondary species of scolytids could be used to disrupt spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennnis (Kirby)) attraction...

R. A. Werner E. H. Holsten

2002-01-01

193

Southern Pine Beetle Handbook. How to Identify Common Insect Associates of the Southern Pine Beetle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heavy timber damage by the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontails Zimmermann) (SPB) and recent intensive research have resulted in the need to identify this subcorticular insect and its insect associates. Associates include insects reported to be pr...

2005-01-01

194

Carbon–nitrogen stoichiometry in the tritrophic food chain willow, leaf beetle, and predatory ladybird beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although plant quality can indirectly increase the performance of the third trophic level by bottom-up cascading effects,\\u000a the mechanisms of this indirect effect are still unclear. In this study the carbon–nitrogen stoichiometry in a tri-trophic\\u000a system consisting of the willow, a leaf beetle, and a predatory ladybird beetle were examined to determine the mechanisms\\u000a of the bottom-up cascading effect. The

Hideki Kagata; Takayuki Ohgushi

2007-01-01

195

A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera).  

PubMed

This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevi?ius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category and data on their distribution in neighbouring countries is presented. Completion of this study provides evidence that the Lithuanian coleopteran fauna has yet to be completely investigated and it is estimated that approximately 28 % of beetle species remain undiscovered in Lithuania. More than 85% of beetle species expected for Lithuania have been found in the following families: Cerylonidae, Geotrupidae, Haliplidae, Kateridae, Lycidae, Lucanidae, Mycetophagidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae. In families with few species such as Alexiidae, Boridae, Byturidae, Dascilidae, Drilidae, Eucinetidae, Lampyridae, Lymexilidae, Megalopodidae, Nemonychidae, Nosodendridae, Noteridae, Orsodacnidae, Pyrochroidae, Pythidae, Psephenidae, Rhysodidae, Sphaeritidae, Sphaeriusidae, Sphindidae, Stenotrahelidae and Trogidae, all possible species have already been discovered. However in some beetle families such as Aderidae, Bothrideridae, Eucnemidae, Laemoploeidae, Mordellidae, Ptiliidae, Scraptidae and Throscidae less than 50% of all possible species are known. At present the beetle species recorded in Lithuania belong to 92 families, with species from 9 other families such as Agyrtidae, Biphylidae, Deradontidae, Mycteridae, Ochodaeidae, Phleophilidae, Phloeostichidae, Prostomidae, Trachypachidae are expected to be found.A bibliography and a index of subfamily and genus levels are provided. The information published in the monograph will serve to further faunistic and distribution research of beetles and will help to avoid confusion in the identificatation of coleopteran fauna of Lithuania. PMID:22461725

Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamut?, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

2011-08-05

196

Effects of Chitin and Contact Insecticide Complexes on Rove Beetles in Commercial Orchards  

PubMed Central

A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility.

Balog, A.; Ferencz, L.; Hartel, T.

2011-01-01

197

The Solar Argon Abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar argon abundance cannot be directly derived by spectroscopic observations of the solar photosphere. The solar argon abundance is evaluated from solar wind measurements, nucleosynthetic arguments, observations of B stars, H II regions, planetary nebulae, and noble gas abundances measured in Jupiter's atmosphere. These data lead to a recommended argon abundance of N(Ar)=91,200+/-23,700 (on a scale where Si=106 atoms). The recommended abundance for the solar photosphere [on a scale where logN(H)=12] is A(Ar)photo=6.50+/-0.10, and taking element settling into account, the solar system (protosolar) abundance is A(Ar)solsys=6.57+/-0.10.

Lodders, Katharina

2008-02-01

198

Distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) across a forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern China.  

PubMed

This paper studied the occurrence of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the forest edge, the adjacent forest interior, and the surrounding grassland in southwestern China. Beetles were collected with pitfall traps along five replicated transects. Forest species rarely penetrated into the grassland from the forest interior, and the grassland specialists were not found in the forest interior. The forest edge hosted additional species from the adjacent grassland that increased its overall species richness. Nearly all forest species (23 of 24 species) and grassland species (13 of 15 species) can be found in the forest edge. Carabids of the forest edge were more similar to those of the forest interior than to those of the grassland by ordination and cluster analysis. Based on the specificity and fidelity, carabids can be distinguished into five species groups: habitat generalists, grassland-associated species, forest generalists, forest specialists, and edge-associated species. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that canopy cover and/or shrub cover were the most important factors in determining the richness, abundance, and diversity of carabids. The forest edge may serve as a transition zone for dispersal and re-colonization of carabid beetles from adjacent habitats and therefore is important for natural conservation. PMID:17445369

Yu, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang; Yang, Jian

2007-04-01

199

Suspected side effects of a herbicide on dung beetle populations (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

This paper addresses the association between use of a herbicide and anecdotal reports of reduced dung degradation and dung beetle populations. Dung beetles were monthly collected at two adjacent ranches in Mexico. Ranches were similar in area, elevation, exposition, soil, and vegetation, but differed in weed control. Ranch A controlled weeds manually, and ranch B controlled unwanted vegetation with applications of the herbicide Tordon 101M. The main species recovered on each ranch (Ataenius apicalis) was significantly more abundant at ranch A than at ranch B. Conversely, similar numbers of a second species, Ataenius sculptor, were recovered from both ranches. Three lines of evidence support the tentative conclusion that herbicide applications may be causing a decline in populations of A. apicalis on ranch B. First, the greatest reductions of A. apicalis were observed during periods of herbicide application. Second, A. sculptor, apparently little affected by these same herbicide applications, is active primarily during months without herbicide applications. Third, preliminary results of laboratory studies show that exposure to herbicide can impair reproductive function of the dung beetle Canthon cyanellus. PMID:11725706

Martínez, I M; Lumaret, J P; Cruz, M R

2001-11-01

200

Trophic structure stability and extinction dynamics of beetles (Coleoptera) in tropical forest fragments  

PubMed Central

A first analysis of the stability of trophic structure following tropical forest fragmentation was performed in an experimentally fragmented tropical forest landscape in Central Amazonia. A taxonomically and trophically diverse assemblage of 993 species of beetles was sampled from 920 m2 of leaf litter at 46 sites varying in distance from forest edge and fragment area. Beetle density increased significantly towards the forest edge and showed non-linear changes with fragment area, due to the influx of numerous disturbed-area species into 10 ha and 1 ha fragments. There was a marked change in species composition with both decreasing distance from forest edge and decreasing fragment area, but surprisingly this change in composition was not accompanied by a change in species richness. Rarefied species richness did not vary significantly across any of the sites, indicating that local extinctions of deep forest species were balanced by equivalent colonization rates of disturbed-area species. The change in species composition with fragmentation was non-random across trophic groups. Proportions of predator species and xylophage species changed significantly with distance from forest edge, but no area-dependent changes in proportions of species in trophic groups were observed. Trophic structure was also analysed with respect to proportions of abundance in six trophic groups. Proportions of abundance of all trophic groups except xylomycetophages changed markedly with respect to both distance from forest edge and fragment area. Local extinction probabilities calculated for individual beetle species supported theoretical predictions of the differential susceptibility of higher trophic levels to extinction, and of changes in trophic structure following forest fragmentation. To reduce random effects due to sampling error, only abundant species (n = 46) were analysed for extinction probabilities, as defined by absence from samples. Of these common species, 27% had significantly higher probabilities of local extinction following fragmentation. The majority of these species were predators; 42% of all abundant predator species were significantly more likely to be absent from samples in forest fragments than in undisturbed forest. These figures are regarded as minimum estimates for the entire beetle assemblage because rarer species will inevitably have higher extinction probabilities. Absolute loss of biodiversity will affect ecosystem process rates, but the differential loss of species from trophic groups will have an even greater destabilizing effect on food web structure and ecosystem function.

Didham, R. K.

1998-01-01

201

A quarter of a century succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages in remnant habitats in an urbanized matrix (Coleoptera, Carabidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied the long-term (23–24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2–3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4–1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our sampled areas are among some of the last remnants of the original oak savanna habitats in central Minnesota, we hypothesize that conservation of these sites may be critical to maintaining epigaeic beetle assemblages under increased urbanization pressure.

Gandhi, Kamal J.K.; Epstein, Marc E.; Koehle, Jessica J.; Purrington, Foster F.

2011-01-01

202

Remote sensing and GIS studies on the spatial distribution and management of Japanese beetle adults and grubs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are rapidly developing technologies that offer new opportunities and potentially more effective methods for detecting and monitoring insect pests, as well as understanding their spatial dynamics. These technologies (coupled with traditional trapping) were investigated for their use in managing Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) adults and grubs and studying their spatial distribution and dynamics. Japanese beetle grubs are important root-feeding pests of turfgrass in the Midwest and eastern United States. No non-invasive methods exist to detect grub infestations before unsightly damage has occurred. Studies were conducted to determine whether remote sensing could be used to detect the pre-visible symptoms of simulated and natural grub damage in turfgrass. Simulated grub damage was detected with surface temperature measurements (but not with spectrometer data) before significant visual differences were found. Plots infested with grubs were distinguished from uninfested plots using spectrometer data 10--16 days before significant differences in visual ratings were found. Results using multispectral imagery were mixed. Currently, Japanese beetles are not established in the western United States. There is great concern over their inadvertent transportation into Pacific costal states via cargo transport planes. Beetles may fly onboard cargo planes while they are loaded or unloaded and be accidentally transported to the western states. A study was initiated to evaluate trapping as a method to reliably detect Japanese beetle hotspots near cargo terminals at the Indianapolis International Airport and to assess the spatial variability of the population around the airport. The potential influence of land use on beetle abundance was also assessed, using a GIS. Baited Japanese beetle traps were placed around the perimeter of the airport and emptied daily. Location-dependent variation in trap catch was found. Seasonal average trap catches were highly correlated from year to year, by location. A mark-release-recapture study showed that Japanese beetles frequently flew up to 500m during a day, but could travel up to 700m. Using a GIS, a spatially explicit map of land use and trap location was created. Agricultural land within 500m of the traps was generally positively correlated with trap catch.

Hamilton, Randy M.

203

Saproxylic and non-saproxylic beetle assemblages in boreal spruce forests of different age and forestry intensity.  

PubMed

Current clear-cutting forestry practices affect many boreal organisms negatively, and those dependent on dead wood (saproxylics) are considered as particularly vulnerable. The succession of species assemblages in managed forest habitats regenerating after clear-cutting is, however, poorly known. We compared beetle assemblages in three successional stages of managed boreal spruce forests established after clear-cutting and two types of older spruce forests that had not been clear-cut. We also assessed whether saproxylic and non-saproxylic beetle assemblages show similar biodiversity patterns among these forest types. Beetles were collected in window traps in nine study areas, each encompassing a protected old-growth forest (mean forest age approximately 160 years, mean dead wood volume 34 m3/ha), an unprotected mature forest (approximately 120 years old, 15 m3/ha), a middle-aged commercially thinned forest (53 years old, 3 m3/ha), a young unthinned forest (30 years old, 4 m3/ha), and a clearcut (5-7 years after harvest, 11 m3/ha). Saproxylic beetles, in particular red-listed species, were more abundant and more species rich in older forest types, whereas no significant differences among forest types in these variables were detected for non-saproxylics. The saproxylic assemblages were clearly differentiated; with increasing forest age, assemblage compositions gradually became more similar to those of protected old-growth forests, but the assemblage composition in thinned forests could not be statistically distinguished from those of the two oldest forest types. Many saproxylic beetles adapted to late-successional stages were present in thinned middle-aged forests but absent from younger unthinned forests. In contrast, non-saproxylics were generally more evenly distributed among the five forest types, and the assemblages were mainly differentiated between clearcuts and forested habitats. The saproxylic beetle assemblages of unprotected mature forests were very similar to those of protected old-growth forests. This indicates a relatively high conservation value of mature boreal forests currently subjected to clear-cutting and raises the question of whether future mature forests will have the same qualities. Our results suggest a high beetle conservation potential of developing managed forests, provided that sufficient amounts and qualities of dead wood are made available (e.g., during thinning operations). Confirming studies of beetle reproduction in dead wood introduced during thinning are, however, lacking. PMID:21265460

Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim; Hilszcza?ski, Jacek; Dynesius, Mats

2010-12-01

204

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section 301.48-6...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a...

2010-01-01

205

78 FR 4812 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle From the Federal List of Endangered and...remove the valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus...remove the valley elderberry longhorn beetle from the List of Endangered and...

2013-01-23

206

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section 301.48-6...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a...

2013-01-01

207

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section 301.48-6...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a...

2009-01-01

208

77 FR 60237 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...very small local populations, and isolation of habitat patches renders beetle populations...very small local populations, and isolation of habitat patches renders beetle populations...robust conclusions regarding frequent isolations of beetle populations across the...

2012-10-02

209

Female-coerced monogamy in burying beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive interests of the sexes often do not coincide, and this fundamental conflict is believed to underlie a variety of sex-specific behavioral adaptations. Sexual conflict in burying beetles arises when a male and female secure a carcass that can support more offspring than a single female can produce. In such a situation, any male attracting a second female sires

Anne-Katrin Eggert; Scott K. Sakaluk

1995-01-01

210

THE ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF BURYING BEETLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burying beetles conceal small vertebrate carcasses underground and prepare them for consumption by their young. This review places their complex social behavior in an ecological context that focuses on the evolution of biparental care and communal breeding. Both males and females provide extensive parental care, and the major benefit of male assistance is to help defend the brood and carcass

Michelle Pellissier Scott

1998-01-01

211

Joint breeding in female burying beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Burying beetles (Nicrophorus) exhibit advanced parental care, by feeding and guarding their offspring on buried vertebrate carrion. Till now, interactions between two conspecific females on a carcass have been thought to be mostly competitive, and parental care was thought to be provided by single females or male-female pairs exclusively. Here we demonstrate that cooperative brood care occurs in this

Anne-Katrin Eggert; Josef K. Miiller

1992-01-01

212

Nestmate recognition in burying beetles: the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burying beetles use small vertebrate carcasses as food for their larvae and defend these carcasses against intra- and interspecific competitors. Breeding associations on carcasses can consist of single females, heterosexual pairs, or various combinations of males and females. When a heterosexual pair collaborate in a breeding attempt, they do not typically exhibit aggressive behavior toward each other, but do attack

Anne-Katrin Eggert; Tobias Elsnera

2003-01-01

213

Character Displacement in Giant Rhinoceros Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

I quantitatively analyzed male morphology of two closely related rhinoceros beetles species (Chalcosoma caucasus F. and Chal- cosoma atlas L.) in 12 allopatric and seven sympatric locations throughout Southeast Asia. The qualitative features and the mag- nitude of intraspecific variation of each species were unaltered be- tween allopatric and sympatric locations. Across allopatric locations, body size, horn size, dimorphic dimension,

Kazuo Kawano

2002-01-01

214

Reproductive strategies of Tribolium flour beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although, beetles of the genus Tribolium first evolved as saprophylic insects, they have adapted to the stored products environment for several thousand years. In this study reproductive strategies are described for eight species of Tribolium that are known to occur in this environment. Experiments were conducted under the same conditions for every species, and several life history traits, including egg

Ludovic Arnaud; Yves Brostaux; Stéphane Lallemand; Eric Haubruge

2005-01-01

215

Asian longhorned beetle public service announcement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This public service announcement featuring John Walsh of America's Most Wanted is designed to raise awareness of the Asian Longhorned Beetle. The sound quality and lighting are good. The compression of the video makes the visuals less useable for some purposes.

0002-11-30

216

Comparison of terrestrial invertebrate biomass and richness in ...  

Treesearch

P.O. Box 96090 ... There are indications that red alder in mixed stands mitigates some of the negative ... Collembola, then Aranac taxa were most abundant but Colcoptera had the greatest invertebrate biomass on boles of red alder, Sitka ...

217

Temporal coexistence of dung-dweller and soil-digger dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) in contrasting Mediterranean habitats.  

PubMed

The western part of the Mediterranean basin is a transitional biogeographical region for the distribution of the representatives of the main guilds of dung beetles; towards the south, Aphodiinae (dung-dwellers) become scarce, whereas northwards Scarabaeinae (soil-diggers) progressively disappear. The number of species in local dung beetle assemblages is enhanced by this double faunistic contribution. Annual dung beetle assemblages were sampled in two sub-Mediterranean sites, which differed by 600 m in elevation, in order to determine the phenological dynamics related to the way of using dung (dung-dwellers/Aphodiinae vs. soil-diggers/Scarabaeinae and Geotrupinae). Aphodiids were active all year round, although they were affected by summer drought and, at high elevation, by the length of the cold season. This reduced activity was related to an impoverishment of Aphodiinae and to reduced temporal segregation between species. In contrast, soil-diggers were not active all year round and showed different species assemblages in the two sites. An extension of the activity period of these beetles was observed due to the occurrence of cold resistant species at high elevation. Our results suggested that the occurrence of soil-diggers seemingly did not affect the seasonality of dung-dwellers; their local abundance showed no negative correlation and, most importantly, phenological differences between dung-dwellers were always significantly higher than the seasonal differences between dwellers and diggers. PMID:18257957

Jay-Robert, P; Errouissi, F; Lumaret, J P

2008-02-07

218

Cross-scale Drivers of Natural Disturbances Prone to Anthropogenic Amplification: The Dynamics of Bark Beetle Eruptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biome-scale disturbances by eruptive herbivores provide valuable insights into species interactions, ecosystem function, and impacts of global change. We present a conceptual framework using one system as a model, emphasizing interactions across levels of biological hierarchy and spatiotemporal scales. Bark beetles are major natural disturbance agents in western North American forests. However, recent bark beetle population eruptions have exceeded the frequencies, impacts, and ranges documented during the previous 125 years. Extensive host abundance and susceptibility, concentrated beetle density, favorable weather, optimal symbiotic associations, and escape from natural enemies must occur jointly for beetles to surpass a series of thresholds and exert widespread disturbance. Opposing feedbacks determine qualitatively distinct outcomes at junctures at the biochemical through landscape levels. Eruptions occur when key thresholds are surpassed, prior constraints cease to exert influence, and positive feedbacks amplify across scales. These dynamics are bidirectional, as landscape features influence how lower-scale processes are amplified or buffered. Climate change and reduced habitat heterogeneity increase the likelihood that key thresholds will be exceeded, and may cause fundamental regime shifts. Systems in which endogenous feedbacks can dominate after external forces foster the initial breach of thresholds appear particularly sensitive to anthropogenic perturbations.

Kenneth F. Raffa et al (University of Wisconsin;)

2008-06-01

219

The Role of Beetle Marks and Flower Colour on Visitation by Monkey Beetles (Hopliini) in the Greater Cape Floral Region, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

†Background and Aims A deviation from the classical beetle pollination syndrome of dull-coloured flowers with an unpleasant scent is found in the Greater Cape Floral Region of South Africa. Here, monkey beetles (Scarabaeidae) visit brightly coloured, odourless flowers with conspicuous dark spots and centres (beetle marks). The role of flower colour and markings in attracting monkey beetles is still poorly

MARK VA N K LEUNEN; I NGRID N ANNI; J OHN S. DONALDSON; J OHN C. M ANNING

2007-01-01

220

Estimating abundance of tuatara  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation history of an endemic New Zealand reptile, tuatara (Sphenodon spp.) is used to illustrate the necessity for accurate knowledge of population abundance for the effective management and subsequent recovery of threatened species. The precision and relative cost of line transect and mark-recapture estimates of abundance were compared in a population of tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) on Lady Alice Island

Phillip Cassey; Graham T Ussher

1999-01-01

221

Molecular Abundances in Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two topics are discussed here. The first is an observational study on molecular abundance in nearby (< 10 Mpc) gas-rich galaxies based on our ammonia survey and on data in literature. As a result, a systematically peculiar molecular abundance was found in a famous starburst galaxy M 82 regarding the formation mechanisms of molecules. We discussed possible reasons for this

Shuro Takano

2006-01-01

222

The solar hafnium abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar Hf abundance is determined using nine Hf ii lines in the photospheric spectrum. The transition probabilities were obtained from lifetime measurements performed by the beam-foil technique. The abundance derived from synthetic spectrum calculations is A(Hf) = 0.88 ± 0.08 in the logarithmic A(H) = 12.00 scale.

T. Andersen; P. Petersen; Ö. Hauge

1976-01-01

223

Green leaf volatiles as inhibitors of bark beetle aggregation pheromones  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A composition for preventing or limiting the attack and infestation of trees by pine bark beetles, by inhibiting the response of the beetles to their aggregation pheromones. The composition comprises a green leaf volatile selected from six carbon alcohols, aldehydes, their derivatives such as acetates, and mixtures thereof. The green leaf volatile may be employed alone or in combination with an additional, known inhibitor of the pheromone response of the beetle.

1995-11-21

224

Endozoochory by beetles: a novel seed dispersal mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Due in part to biophysical sized-related constraints, insects unlike vertebrates are seldom expected to act as primary seed dispersers via ingestion of fruits and seeds (endozoochory). The Mediterranean parasitic plant Cytinus hypocistis, however, possesses some characteristics that may facilitate endozoochory by beetles. By combining a long-term field study with experimental manipulation, we tested whether C. hypocistis seeds are endozoochorously dispersed by beetles. Methods Field studies were carried out over 4 years on six populations in southern Spain. We recorded the rate of natural fruit consumption by beetles, the extent of beetle movement, beetle behaviour and the relative importance of C. hypocistis fruits in beetle diet. Key Results The tenebrionid beetle Pimelia costata was an important disperser of C. hypocistis seeds, consuming up to 17·5 % of fruits per population. Forty-six per cent of beetles captured in the field consumed C. hypocistis fruits, with up to 31 seeds found in individual beetle frass. An assessment of seeds following passage through the gut of beetles indicated that seeds remained intact and viable and that the proportion of viable seeds from beetle frass was not significantly different from that of seeds collected directly from fruits. Conclusions A novel plant–animal interaction is revealed; endozoochory by beetles may facilitate the dispersal of viable seeds after passage through the gut away from the parent plant to potentially favourable underground sites offering a high probability of germination and establishment success. Such an ecological role has until now been attributed only to vertebrates. Future studies should consider more widely the putative role of fruit and seed ingestion by invertebrates as a dispersal mechanism, particularly for those plant species that possess small seeds.

de Vega, Clara; Arista, Montserrat; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Herrera, Carlos M.; Talavera, Salvador

2011-01-01

225

Trophic associations of a dung beetle assemblage (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a woodland savanna of Botswana.  

PubMed

Species richness and abundance of dung beetles were assessed across a range of bait types that acted as surrogates for the food resources available in Chobe National Park, Botswana. These bait types were comprised of the dung of pig (omnivore), cattle (ruminant herbivore dropping fine-fiberd pads), sheep (pellet-dropping ruminant herbivore), and elephant (monogastric, nonruminant herbivore producing coarse-fibered droppings), and chicken livers (carrion). Species richness was similar between traps baited with pig, cattle, and elephant dung but was relatively lower in those baited with sheep dung and carrion. In traps baited with pig dung, abundance was relatively greater than in all other bait types. A cluster analysis of species abundance distributions for the 30 most abundant species identified four different patterns of bait type association at a 60% level of similarity. All but 1 of the 15 species in cluster A were attracted primarily to the dung of omnivores and pad-dropping ruminant herbivores (pig and cattle). All seven species of cluster B were attracted primarily to coarse-fibered, nonruminant herbivore dung (elephant). All four species of cluster C were primarily carrion and pig dung associated, whereas all four species of cluster D were carrion specialists. In conclusion, the most abundant species were attracted to all bait types, but most species were largely specialized to different dung types or carrion, with dung attracting the majority of the fauna in terms of both species richness and abundance. PMID:18419915

Tshikae, B Power; Davis, Adrian L V; Scholtz, Clarke H

2008-04-01

226

Advanced Thermochemical Biomass Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of advanced biomass gasification systems offers the potential for increasing the industrial use of biomass. An overview of the limitations of thermal gasification systems for producing medium-Btu gas from biomass is presented. The use of an ex...

R. S. Butner D. C. Elliott L. J. Sealock

1986-01-01

227

An overview of hydrogen production from biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production plays a very important role in the development of hydrogen economy. One of the promising hydrogen production approaches is conversion from biomass, which is abundant, clean and renewable. Alternative thermochemical (pyrolysis and gasification) and biological (biophotolysis, water–gas shift reaction and fermentation) processes can be practically applied to produce hydrogen. This paper gives an overview of these technologies for

Meng Ni; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Michael K. H. Leung; K. Sumathy

2006-01-01

228

Formation of rigid, non-flight forewings (elytra) of a beetle requires two major cuticular proteins.  

PubMed

Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings) of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa) and TcCPR18 (20 kDa), which are also present in pronotum and ventral abdominal cuticles. Both are members of the Rebers and Riddiford family of cuticular proteins and contain RR2 motifs. Transcripts for both genes dramatically increase in abundance at the pharate adult stage and then decline quickly thereafter. Injection of specific double-stranded RNAs for each gene into penultimate or last instar larvae had no effect on larval-larval, larval-pupal, or pupal-adult molting. The elytra of the resulting adults, however, were shorter, wrinkled, warped, fenestrated, and less rigid than those from control insects. TcCPR27-deficient insects could not fold their hindwings properly and died prematurely approximately one week after eclosion, probably because of dehydration. TcCPR18-deficient insects exhibited a similar but less dramatic phenotype. Immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of TcCPR27 in the elytral cuticle. These results demonstrate that TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are major structural proteins in the rigid elytral, dorsal thoracic, and ventral abdominal cuticles of the red flour beetle, and that both proteins are required for morphogenesis of the beetle's elytra. PMID:22570623

Arakane, Yasuyuki; Lomakin, Joseph; Gehrke, Stevin H; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Tomich, John M; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kramer, Karl J; Kanost, Michael R

2012-04-26

229

Formation of Rigid, Non-Flight Forewings (Elytra) of a Beetle Requires Two Major Cuticular Proteins  

PubMed Central

Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings) of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa) and TcCPR18 (20 kDa), which are also present in pronotum and ventral abdominal cuticles. Both are members of the Rebers and Riddiford family of cuticular proteins and contain RR2 motifs. Transcripts for both genes dramatically increase in abundance at the pharate adult stage and then decline quickly thereafter. Injection of specific double-stranded RNAs for each gene into penultimate or last instar larvae had no effect on larval–larval, larval–pupal, or pupal–adult molting. The elytra of the resulting adults, however, were shorter, wrinkled, warped, fenestrated, and less rigid than those from control insects. TcCPR27-deficient insects could not fold their hindwings properly and died prematurely approximately one week after eclosion, probably because of dehydration. TcCPR18-deficient insects exhibited a similar but less dramatic phenotype. Immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of TcCPR27 in the elytral cuticle. These results demonstrate that TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are major structural proteins in the rigid elytral, dorsal thoracic, and ventral abdominal cuticles of the red flour beetle, and that both proteins are required for morphogenesis of the beetle's elytra.

Arakane, Yasuyuki; Lomakin, Joseph; Gehrke, Stevin H.; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Tomich, John M.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W.; Kramer, Karl J.; Kanost, Michael R.

2012-01-01

230

Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

1992-03-01

231

Integrating remote sensing and spatial statistics to model herbaceous biomass distribution in a tropical savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling herbaceous biomass is critical for an improved understanding of wildlife feeding patterns and distribution as well as for the development of early warning systems for fire management. Most savannas in South Africa are characterized by complex stand structure and abundant vegetation species. This has prohibited accurate estimation of biomass in such environments. We investigated the possibility of improving biomass

O. Mutanga; D. Rugege

2006-01-01

232

Oxygen Abundances in Cepheids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V.

2013-07-01

233

Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution and ecology  

PubMed Central

Many important questions in developmental biology increasingly interface with related questions in other biological disciplines such as evolutionary biology and ecology. In this article, we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range of approaches, from gene function analysis in the laboratory to population ecological and behavioral studies in the field. Specifically, we focus on three key questions at the current interface of developmental biology, evolutionary biology and ecology: (1) the developmental mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of novel, complex traits, (2) the relationship between phenotypic diversification and the diversification of genes and transcriptomes, and (3) the role of behavior as a leader or follower in developmental evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current understanding of key issues, as well as highlight challenges and opportunities for future studies.

Kijimoto, Teiya; Pespeni, Melissa; Beckers, Oliver; Moczek, Armin P.

2013-01-01

234

Satellite DNA from the beetle Tenebrio molitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A 142 base-pair satellite DNA from the mealworm beetle,Tenebrio molitor, has been cloned and sequenced. The satellite DNA is revealed by making a restriction digest of genomic DNA with either EcoRI or Hinfl, and constitutes approximately 49% of the genomic DNA. The presence of huge amounts of satellite DNA correlates well with the prominent blocks of heterochromatin found in

E. Petitpierre; J. M. Gatewood; C. W. Schrnid

1988-01-01

235

Patterns of movement of radioactive carabid beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking of individual 192Ir-labeled ground beetles released in the field revealed that both the day-active and night-active species studied showed periods of small distances covered per day in random directions, alternating with periods of directed movement with large distances covered per day. This pattern occurred not only in the reproductive period but outside the breeding season as well in juvenile

M. A. Baars

1979-01-01

236

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS OF DIATOMS ON 'CLADOPHORA' IN LAKE HURON  

EPA Science Inventory

Rocks bearing Cladophora were collected from May to November 1979 at two locations near Harbor Beach, Michigan, in Lake Huron to document seasonal patterns of epiphytic diatom abundance and diatom proportion of the Cladophora-epiphyte assemblage biomass in an area receiving efflu...

237

Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region) and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions) as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys. PMID:22735139

Segura, M O; Fonseca-Gessner, A A; Spies, M R; Siegloch, A E

2012-05-01

238

Innate olfactory preferences in dung beetles.  

PubMed

The effects of insect larval diet on adult olfactory responses to host-plant or food volatiles are still debated. The induction of adult host preferences has been studied in insects with diverse ecologies, including parasitoids, flower-visitors and phytophagous species. We investigated this question for the first time in a coprophagous insect species. Larvae of the French scarab dung beetle Agrilinus constans were reared on four different artificial substrates containing dung from cattle, horse, sheep or wild boar, and responses of imagos to dung volatiles were then behaviourally tested in an olfactometer. We also reported the first analysis of the composition of different mammal dung volatiles. We showed that adult beetles were more attracted to cattle and sheep dung odours, and that larval feeding experience had no effect on the adult olfactory responses to dung volatiles. A second experiment showed that the presence of other insects inside the dung resource affects the process of dung selection by adults. We identified 64 chemical compounds from dung emissions, and showed that dung volatiles clearly differed among different mammal species, allowing olfactory discrimination by dung beetles. Our results suggest that resource selection in coprophagous insects may be based on innate olfactory preferences. Further experiments should examine whether Agrilinus adults can learn new dung odours, and whether larval diet may influence the behaviour of adults in other coprophagous species. PMID:20802120

Dormont, Laurent; Jay-Robert, Pierre; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Rapior, Sylvie; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

2010-09-15

239

Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; P?žová, Tereza

2008-08-01

240

Loss of flight promotes beetle diversification.  

PubMed

The evolution of flight is a key innovation that may enable the extreme diversification of insects. Nonetheless, many species-rich, winged insect groups contain flightless lineages. The loss of flight may promote allopatric differentiation due to limited dispersal power and may result in a high speciation rate in the flightless lineage. Here we show that loss of flight accelerates allopatric speciation using carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). We demonstrate that flightless species retain higher genetic differentiation among populations and comprise a higher number of genetically distinct lineages than flight-capable species, and that the speciation rate with the flightless state is twice that with the flight-capable state. Moreover, a meta-analysis of 51 beetle species from 15 families reveals higher genetic differentiation among populations in flightless compared with flight-capable species. In beetles, which represent almost one-fourth of all described species, repeated evolution of flightlessness may have contributed to their steady diversification since the Mesozoic era. PMID:22337126

Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Sota, Teiji

2012-01-31

241

Artificial defoliation effect on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration  

SciTech Connect

The impact of artificial defoliation on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was examined. Four Populus clones were field planted and artificially defoliated. Assigned defoliation levels (0, 25, 50, or 75%) were applied to leaves of leaf plastochron index 0 through 8 during a 6-d period in a 3-step incremental manner to simulate cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., larval feeding patterns. Artificial defoliations were timed to coincide with the outbreaks of natural beetle populations in adjacent areas. After 2 growing seasons, trees were measured for height, diameter, and biomass accumulation. Root samples were collected from 0 and 75% defoliation treatments for each clone. Biomass was reduced an average of 33% as defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%. As defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%, a consistent allocation ratio of biomass to 2/3 above and 1/3 below ground components continued in all clones. An overcompensation response occurred in above ground biomass when a defoliation level of 25% was applied. Between 25 and 75% a strong linear trend of decreasing biomass as defoliation increased was indicated. Vitality of the tree, as indicated by total nonstructural carbohydrate content, was affected only slightly by increasing defoliation. 26 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Reichenbacker, R.R.; Hart, E.R.; Schultz, R.C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1996-06-01

242

Characterisation and tissue distribution of the PISCF allatostatin receptor in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

The insect PISCF/allatostatins (ASTs) are pleiotropic peptides that are involved in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, are myoinhibitory on the gut and the heart, and suppress feeding in various insects, but their roles in beetles are poorly understood. To provide further insight into the significance of PISCF/ASTs in beetles, the PISCF/AST receptor from Tribolium castaneum has been characterised and its tissue distribution determined. The biological activity of the T. castaneum PISCF/AST (Trica-AS) was also investigated. The Trica-AS receptor shows high sequence homology to other insect PISCF/AST receptors, which are related to the mammalian somatostatin/opioid receptors, a family of G protein-coupled receptors. The Trica-AS receptor was activated in a dose-dependent manner by both Trica-AS and T. castaneum allatostatin double C (Trica-ASTCC) as well as Manduca sexta-allatostatin (Manse-AS). Other allatoregulatory peptides (a FLG/AST, a MIP/AST and an allatotropin) and somatostatin(14) were inactive on this receptor. Receptor transcript levels in tissues, determined by qRT-PCR, were highest in the head and the gut, with variable amounts in the fat body and reproductive organs. There were measurable differences in receptor levels of the head, fat body and reproductive organs between males and females. There was also a widespread distribution of Trica-AS in various tissues of T. castaneum. The Trica-AS peptide precursor was most abundant in the head and there was a significant difference between levels in the heads and reproductive organs of males and females. Whole mount immunocytochemistry localised Trica-AS in the median and lateral neurosecretory cells of the brain, in the corpus cardiacum and throughout the ventral nerve cord. The peptide was also present in midgut neurosecretory cells, but no immunostaining was detected in the reproductive organs or Malpighian tubules. The widespread distribution of both Trica-AS and its receptor suggest this peptide may have multiple roles in beetles. However, Trica-AS had no effect on the spontaneous contractions of the gut or ovaries of T. castaneum but this peptide did stimulate the release of proteases from the anterior midgut of another beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The activation of the Trica-AS receptor by Trica-ASTCC implies a physiological role for this peptide in beetles, which remains to be identified. PMID:23085356

Audsley, Neil; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Weaver, Robert; Dani, Paulina; Matthews, June; Down, Rachel; Vuerinckx, Kristel; Kim, Young-Joon; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

2012-10-17

243

Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.  

PubMed

Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience. PMID:23977350

Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

2013-08-20

244

Butanol production from renewable biomass by clostridia.  

PubMed

Global energy crisis and limited supply of petroleum fuels have rekindled the worldwide focus towards development of a sustainable technology for alternative fuel production. Utilization of abundant renewable biomass offers an excellent opportunity for the development of an economical biofuel production process at a scale sufficiently large to have an impact on sustainability and security objectives. Additionally, several environmental benefits have also been linked with the utilization of renewable biomass. Butanol is considered to be superior to ethanol due to its higher energy content and less hygroscopy. This has led to an increased research interest in butanol production from renewable biomass in recent years. In this paper, we review the various aspects of utilizing renewable biomass for clostridial butanol production. Focus is given on various alternative substrates that have been used for butanol production and on fermentation strategies recently reported to improve butanol production. PMID:22939593

Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Lee, Sang Yup

2012-08-07

245

Volatile compounds induced by herbivory act as aggregation kairomones for the Japanese beetle ( Popillia japonica Newman)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese beetle is a polyphagous insect that typically aggregates on preferred host plants in the field. We studied the response of Japanese beetles to artificial damage, fresh feeding damage, and overnight feeding damage to test the hypothesis that beetles are attracted to feeding-induced volatiles. Crabapple leaves that had been damaged overnight by Japanese beetles or fall webworms attracted significantly

John H. Loughrin; Daniel A. Potter; Thomas R. Hamilton-Kemp

1995-01-01

246

Comparative Resistance of Russian and Italian Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to Small Hive Beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the

Amanda M. Frake; Lilia I. de Guzman; Thomas E. Rinderer

2009-01-01

247

Mountain Pine Beetle Emergence from Lodgepole Pine at Different Elevations Near Fraser, CO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mountain pine beetle emergence was studied at 8760 ft, 9200 ft, and 9900 ft near Fraser, CO. Beetles began emerging at 8760 ft between July 9 and July 14 while no beetles emerged at 9200 ft and only one beetle emerged at 9900 ft during the same period. Be...

J. Tishmack S. A. Mata J. M. Schmid

2005-01-01

248

Burying beetles: intraspecific interactions and reproductive success in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery and utilization of small carcasses by burying beetles (Silphidae, Nicrophorus) was studied by placing dead mice at random points on large grids at two Iocations in Michigan, U.S.A. 2. The majority of mice are found within 24 h by more beetles than ulti- mately will utilize the carcass. If a carcass is likely to be usurped by a

DAVID SLOAN WILSON; JULIE FUDGE

1984-01-01

249

CARRION BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: SILPHIDAE) OF THE KONZA PRAIRIE BIOLOGICAL STATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pitfall traps were used to determine diversity, seasonality, and numbers of burying beetles on the Konza Prairie Biological Station (KPBS) during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Traps were baited with either beef liver (1997) or whole mouse carcasses (1997 and 1998); significantly more carrion beetles...

250

Managing the Japanese Beetle: A Homeowner's Handbook (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) is a highly destructive plant pest of foreign origin. It was first found in the United States in a nursery in southern New Jersey nearly 80 years ago. In its native Japan, where the beetle's natural enemies k...

1998-01-01

251

Simulation model of the red flour beetle in flour mills  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is one of the most common insect pests infesting wheat flour mills. Structural treatments such as methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride and heat, are used to control the red flour beetle. The structural treatments do not provide any residual action and, thus, any s...

252

METALLIC FLEA BEETLE FEEDING PREFERENCES ON CRAPE MYRTLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine resistance of crape myrtles (Lagerstroemia spp.) to metallic flea beetles (Altica spp.). Damage ratings showed variation among cultivars in susceptibility to beetle feeding, with those cultivars with L. fauriei in their parentage showing the l...

253

Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

254

Male-specific sesquiterpenes from Phyllotreta flea beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flea beetles in several genera are known to possess male-specific sesquiterpenes, at least some of which serve as aggregation pheromones that attract both sexes. In continuing research on the chemical ecology of Phyllotreta flea beetles, six new male-specific sesquiterpenes were identified, one fro...

255

Heat-Injured Lodgepole Pine From Mountain Pine Beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat- injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 per- cent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it

Gene D. Amman; Kevin C. Ryan

256

Convergent evolution and adaptive radiation of beetle-pollinated angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review of 34 families of flowering plants containing at least one species pollinated primarily by beetles is presented. While the majority of species are represented by magnoliids and basal monocotyledons specialized, beetle-pollinated systems have evolved independently in 14 families of eudicotyldons and six families of petaloid monocots. Four, overlapping modes of floral presentation in plants pollinated exclusively by

P. Bernhardt

2000-01-01

257

The Mountain Pine Beetle in Lodgepole Pine Forests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the primary silvicultural problems is now to manage lodgepole pine in the face of constant beetle pressure and recurring tree mortality. The objective and scope of this paper is to explore the role of the mountain pine beetle as an ecological agent...

A. L. Roe G. D. Amman

1970-01-01

258

Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)|

Dockery, Michael

1997-01-01

259

Modernizing biomass energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass accounts for an estimated one-third of all energy used in developing countries today. Most of this biomass is used inefficiently and with significant pollutant emis- sions by the more than 2 billion people who cook using direct combustion of biomass. Contrasting today's use of biomass energy, several recent major assessments of future global energy supply show much larger roles

Eric D. Larson

260

Engine fuels from biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of biomass fuels for engines are compared to other synfuels. Biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid engine fuels by the same processes utilized for coal conversion such as gasification, direct liquefaction, and indirect liquefaction. Alternatively, biomass can be converted into liquid fuels by fermentation to methane or ethanol. The quantities of biomass derived engine fuels potentially available

H. W. Parker

1981-01-01

261

U.S. Department of Energy: Biomass Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the U.S. Department of Energy, this website presents information about the Biomass Program, whose mission is to work with U.S. industry to transform "abundant biomass resources into clean, affordable, and domestically produced biofuels, biopower, and high-value bioproducts." Visitors can download the Biomass Program Multi-Year Program Plan which outlines "the Department of Energy's strategy for research, development, and deployment of various biomass technologies from 2007 through 2017." Information here is specifically tailored for industry, researchers, policymakers, consumers, or students.

2007-12-26

262

Microorganisms in the gut of beetles: evidence from molecular cloning.  

PubMed

We have regularly cultured yeasts from the gut of certain beetles in our ongoing research. In this study cloned PCR products amplified from the gut contents of certain mushroom-feeding and wood-ingesting beetles in four families (Erotylidae, Tenebrionidae, Ciidae, and Passalidae) were sequenced and compared with culture results. Cultural techniques detected some yeasts present in the gut of the beetles, including a Pichia stipitis-like yeast associated with wood-ingesting passalid beetles. Clone sequences similar to several ascomycete yeasts and Malassezia restricta, a fastidious basidiomycetous yeast requiring special growth media, however, were not detected by culturing. Unexpectedly, phylogenetic analysis of additional clone sequences discovered from passalid beetles showed similarity to members of the Parabasalia, protists known from other wood-ingesting insects, termites, and wood roaches. Examination of all gut regions of living passalids, however, failed to reveal parabasalids, and it is possible that they were parasites in the gut tissue present in low numbers. PMID:14726245

Zhang, Ning; Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith

2003-11-01

263

Rapid Adaptation of Bean Beetles to a Novel Host  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bean beetles (Callosobruchus maculatus) are phytophagous insects that lay their eggs on the surface of several species of beans in the family Fabaceae. Larval development is completed within the bean. Therefore, we would expect strong selection when the beetle switches to a new host. Students are provided with live cultures of beetles containing adults that have been raised on mung beans (Vigna radiata) for many generations; they also are given cultures that were originally grown on mung beans, but were recently switched to another bean species. In this exercise, students design and conduct an experiment to determine whether beetles have adapted to the new host. In the first class period, students design and set up the experiment. In subsequent sessions, they isolate beans with eggs and record data on life history traits including time to emergence and mass at emergence to evaluate the success of beetles on their historic and novel hosts.http://www.beanbeetles.org/protocols/rapid_adaptation/downloads.html

Blumer, Lawrence

2011-03-09

264

Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries.  

PubMed

Parasites can have strong impacts but are thought to contribute little biomass to ecosystems. We quantified the biomass of free-living and parasitic species in three estuaries on the Pacific coast of California and Baja California. Here we show that parasites have substantial biomass in these ecosystems. We found that parasite biomass exceeded that of top predators. The biomass of trematodes was particularly high, being comparable to that of the abundant birds, fishes, burrowing shrimps and polychaetes. Trophically transmitted parasites and parasitic castrators subsumed more biomass than did other parasitic functional groups. The extended phenotype biomass controlled by parasitic castrators sometimes exceeded that of their uninfected hosts. The annual production of free-swimming trematode transmission stages was greater than the combined biomass of all quantified parasites and was also greater than bird biomass. This biomass and productivity of parasites implies a profound role for infectious processes in these estuaries. PMID:18650923

Kuris, Armand M; Hechinger, Ryan F; Shaw, Jenny C; Whitney, Kathleen L; Aguirre-Macedo, Leopoldina; Boch, Charlie A; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunham, Eleca J; Fredensborg, Brian L; Huspeni, Todd C; Lorda, Julio; Mababa, Luzviminda; Mancini, Frank T; Mora, Adrienne B; Pickering, Maria; Talhouk, Nadia L; Torchin, Mark E; Lafferty, Kevin D

2008-07-24

265

Orion A helium abundance  

SciTech Connect

The 22.4-GHz (H,He)66-alpha and 36.5-GHz (H,He)56-alpha radio recombination lines have been observed at several Jaffe-Pankonin positions in the central part of the Orion A source. The measured relative abundance of ionized helium increases with distance, averaging 11.6 percent at peripheral points. The observed behavior is interpreted by a blister-type model nebula, which implies that Orion A has a true He abundance of 12 percent, is moving with a radial velocity of 5 km/sec, and is expanding. 18 references.

Tsivilev, A.P.; Ershov, A.A.; Smirnov, G.T.; Sorochenko, R.L.

1986-12-01

266

Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them.  

PubMed

Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles.Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks. PMID:18698369

Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B; Aneshansley, Daniel J; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

2008-01-01

267

ASSESSING GROUND BEETLE CONTRIBUTION TO ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: DOES IT MATTER IF THERE ARE MORE GROUND BEETLES?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diversification of the agroecosystem can enhance ecosystem services that beneficial insects provide. Habitat management within a farming system can lead to increased biological control of insect pests. The ground predator assemblage comprised of ground beetles (Coloptera: Carabidae) are not only a s...

268

INTRODUCED LADY BEETLES (COLEOPTERA; COCCINELLIDAE): BENEFICIAL AGENTS OR ALIEN INVADERS? INTRODUCED LADY BEETLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lady beetles (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae) are valued for their role in the suppression of many plant pests. They are common predators in natural ecosystems, as well as cultivated gardens, orchards, rangelands and agricultural fields. These beneficial insects can be utilized in a number of ways: Indig...

269

Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them  

PubMed Central

Summary Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles. Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks.

Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

2008-01-01

270

Potato expressing beetle-specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin reduces performance of a moth.  

PubMed

Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis beetle-specific toxin Cry3Aa, which renders a genetically modified potato cultivar resistant to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata, exerts a deleterious effect on the polyphagous moth Spodoptera littoralis. The caterpillars of S. littoralis feed less and produce smaller pupae on the genetically modified cultivar (NewLeaf Superior) than on the parental nontransgenic cultivar (Superior). The conversion efficiencies of total dry matter, combustion heat, carbon, and nitrogen from leaves to insect biomass are similar on both cultivars. In spite of similar food utilization and a relatively small difference in the body mass at pupation, female adults that developed from caterpillars fed on NewLeaf Superior lay a mean of 309 eggs compared to a mean of 713 eggs deposited by females that developed from caterpillars fed on Superior. Because of this difference and a simultaneous reduction in fertility (egg hatchability) from 78 to 48%, a pair of adults that fed as larvae on NewLeaf Superior produces only 148 larvae, whereas a pair of adults that fed as larvae on Superior produces 556 larvae. We suggest that small amounts of Cry3Aa that accumulate in insect tissue and persist until the adult stage are responsible for the decline in reproduction. PMID:16525866

Hussein, Hany M; Habustová, Oxana; Turanli, Ferit; Sehnal, Frantisek

2006-02-26

271

Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks

B. J. Bentz; J. A. Powell; J. A. Logan

1996-01-01

272

Primeval Element Abundances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

According to conventional cosmology, the Galaxy should have been formed with an initial helium abundance in the range of 25 to 30% by mass, resulting from nuclear reactions in the early stages of expansion of the Universe. It is now a question of some mom...

P. J. E. Peebles

1968-01-01

273

Measuring solar abundances  

SciTech Connect

This is the rapporteur paper of Working Group 2 on Measuring Solar Abundances. The working group presented and discussed the different observations and methods for obtaining the elemental and isotopic composition of the Sun, and critically reviewed their results and the accuracies thereof. Furthermore, a few important yet unanswered questions were identified, and the potential of future missions to provide answers was assessed.

Reisenfeld, D. B. (Daniel B.); Von Steiger, R. (Rudolf); Vial, J.-C. (Jean-Claude); Bochsler, P.; Chaussidon, M.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Fleck, B.; Heber, V. S.; Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

2001-01-01

274

Abundances of light elements.  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well.

Pagel, B E

1993-01-01

275

Distribution and abundance of zooplankton populations in Crater Lake, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake exhibited consistency in species richness and general taxonomic composition, but varied in density and biomass during the period between 1988 and 2000. Collectively, the assemblages included 2 cladoceran taxa and 10 rotifer taxa (excluding rare taxa). Vertical habitat partitioning of the water column to a depth of 200 m was observed for most species with similar food habits and/or feeding mechanisms. No congeneric replacement was observed. The dominant species in the assemblages were variable, switching primarily between periods of dominance of Polyarthra-Keratella cochlearis and Daphnia. The unexpected occurrence and dominance of Asplanchna in 1991 and 1992 resulted in a major change in this typical temporal shift between Polyarthra-K. cochlearis and Daphnia. Following a collapse of the zooplankton biomass in 1993 that was probably caused by predation from Asplanchna, Kellicottia dominated the zooplankton assemblage biomass between 1994 and 1997. The decline in biomass of Kellicottia by 1998 coincided with a dramatic increase in Daphnia biomass. When Daphnia biomass declined by 2000, Keratella biomass increased again. Thus, by 1998 the assemblage returned to the typical shift between Keratella-Polyarthra and Daphnia. Although these observations provided considerable insight about the interannual variability of the zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake, little was discovered about mechanisms behind the variability. When abundant, kokanee salmon may have played an important role in the disappearance of Daphnia in 1990 and 2000 either through predation, inducing diapause, or both. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Larson, G. L.; McIntire, C. D.; Buktenica, M. W.; Girdner, S. F.; Truitt, R. E.

2007-01-01

276

Abundance fluctuations and habitat changes of soil beetles in central amazonian inundation forests (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Staphylinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the emersion phase of the years 1971\\/72 in three different inundation forests of Central?Amazonia the carbid and staphylinid fauna was studied. The three inundation forests were: (1) a site in the white water area of the Rio Solimões (Ilha de Curarí), (2) a site in a mixed water area (Lago Janauarí) and in the black water area of the

Ulrich Irmler

1979-01-01

277

Dung beetles ignore landmarks for straight-line orientation.  

PubMed

Upon locating a suitable dung pile, ball-rolling dung beetles shape a piece of dung into a ball and roll it away in a straight line. This guarantees that they will not return to the dung pile, where they risk having their ball stolen by other beetles. Dung beetles are known to use celestial compass cues such as the sun, the moon and the pattern of polarised light formed around these light sources to roll their balls of dung along straight paths. Here, we investigate whether terrestrial landmarks have any influence on straight-line orientation in dung beetles. We find that the removal or re-arrangement of landmarks has no effect on the beetle's orientation precision. Celestial compass cues dominate straight-line orientation in dung beetles so strongly that, under heavily overcast conditions or when prevented from seeing the sky, the beetles can no longer orient along straight paths. To our knowledge, this is the only animal with a visual compass system that ignores the extra orientation precision that landmarks can offer. PMID:23076443

Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric; Baird, Emily

2012-10-18

278

Ammonia abundances in comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

279

Specialization for pollination by beetles and wasps: the role of lollipop hairs and fragrance in Satyrium microrrhynchum (Orchidaceae).  

PubMed

Exposed nectar presentation is a key trait in flowers specialized for pollination by short-tongued insects. We investigated the pollination of Satyrium microrrhynchum, a rare South African orchid in which nectar is secreted as droplets on long floral hairs ("lollipop hairs") at the mouth of a shallow labellum. Our observations indicate that this orchid is pollinated specifically by two insect species: a cetoniid beetle (Atrichelaphinus tigrina) and a pompilid wasp (Hemipepsis hilaris). Both insects have short mouthparts and remove nectar from the hairs with sweeping motions of their mouthparts. Pollinaria become attached to the upper surface of their heads while they feed on the nectar. Beetles damage the hairs while feeding, which may explain the positive relationship between hair damage and pollination success in plants of S. microrrhynchum from populations where beetles were common. The orchid has cryptic green-yellow flowers with spectral reflectance similar to that of its leaves. The fragrance from plants in three populations, analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, was dominated by various terpenoids; linalool was the most abundant. Plants in different populations emitted similar compounds, but eugenol and derivatives of this compound were found in only one of the three populations. In an electrophysiological study (gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography), using antennae of A. tigrina, clear signals were elicited by some of the floral scent compounds. PMID:21642207

Johnson, Steven D; Ellis, Allan; Dötterl, Stefan

2007-01-01

280

Habitat differences in dung beetle assemblages in an African savanna-forest ecotone: implications for secondary seed dispersal.  

PubMed

The probability and pattern of secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) depend on their community structure and composition at the site of primary deposition, which, in turn, seem to be strongly determined by vegetation. Consequently, we expected pronounced differences in secondary seed dispersal between forest and savanna in the northern Ivory Coast, West Africa. We found 99 dung beetle species at experimentally exposed dung piles of the olive baboon (Papio anubis (Lesson, 1827)), an important primary seed disperser in West Africa. Seventy-six species belonged to the roller and tunneler guilds, which are relevant for secondary seed dispersal. Most species showed a clear habitat preference. Contrary to the Neotropics, species number and abundance were much higher in the savanna than in the forest. Rollers and tunnelers each accounted for approximately 50% of the individuals in the savanna, but in the forest rollers made up only 4%. Seeds deposited into the savanna by an omnivorous primary disperser generally have a higher overall probability of being more rapidly dispersed secondarily by dung beetles than seeds in the forest. Also, rollers disperse seeds over larger distances. In contrast to other studies, small rollers were active in dispersal of large seeds, which were seemingly mistaken for dung balls. Our results suggest that rollers can remove seeds from any plant dispersed in primate dung in this ecosystem. PMID:21645274

Kunz, Britta K; Krell, Frank-Thorsten

2011-06-01

281

Elucidation and reproduction of the iridescence of a jewel beetle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the structural colors of some beetles originate from multilayer thin-film interference. We investigated such an example, a jewel beetle Chrysochroa fulgidissima, to quantitatively characterize the coloration mechanisms. The essential physical factors of the iridescence were elucidated by careful determinations of the structural parameters, measurements of angle and polarization-dependent reflection spectra, and theoretical modeling of the multilayer system. On the basis of the elucidated coloration mechanisms, we successfully prepared a dielectric thin film structure that reproduces the iridescence of the jewel beetle.

Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi; Iida, Haruhisa; Hariyama, Takahiko

2012-10-01

282

Nematodes of the genus Pristionchus are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle in Western Europe.  

PubMed

Evolutionary developmental biology examines how changes in developmental programmes give rise to developmental and, ultimately, morphological novelty. To this end, comparisons of related but distinct organisms have to be performed. The diplogastrid nematode Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a satellite system for a detailed comparison of various developmental processes to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a rhabditid nematode. In addition to developmental and genetic studies, a genomic platform has been established to analyse the biology of this organism. However, only little is known about where and how Pristionchus pacificus and its relatives live in the wild. Here we show that nematodes of the genus Pristionchus live in close association with scarabaeoid beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. In total, we generated 371 isogenic female lines from 4242 beetles collected at 25 sampling sites all over Europe. Isogenic female lines were subjected to sequence analysis and mating experiments for species determination. The 371 isolates fell into six species. Two hermaphroditic species account for about 60% of the collected nematodes. We found Pristionchus maupasi almost exclusively on cockchafers and Pristionchus entomophagus predominantly on dung beetles. Colorado potato beetles carried the gonochoristic species Pristionchus uniformis, which was only rarely observed on scarabaeoid beetles. We describe the initial evidence for the association of Pristionchus nematodes with beetles and provide a phylogeny based on sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:16616467

Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Sommer, Ralf J

2006-04-17

283

The bark beetle holobiont: why microbes matter.  

PubMed

All higher organisms are involved in symbioses with microbes. The importance of these partnerships has led to the concept of the holobiont, defined as the animal or plant with all its associated microbes. Indeed, the interactions between insects and symbionts form much of the basis for the success and diversity of this group of arthropods. Insects rely on microbes to perform basic life functions and to exploit resources and habitats. By "partnering" with microbes, insects access new genomic variation instantaneously allowing the exploitation of new adaptive zones, influencing not only outcomes in ecological time, but the degree of innovation and change that occurs over evolutionary time. In this review, I present a brief overview of the importance of insect-microbe holobionts to illustrate how critical an understanding of the holobiont is to understanding the insect host and it interactions with its environment. I then review what is known about the most influential insect holobionts in many forest ecosystems-bark beetles and their microbes-and how new approaches and technologies are allowing us to illuminate how these symbioses function. Finally, I discuss why it will be critical to study bark beetles as a holobiont to understand the ramifications and extent of anthropogenic change in forest ecosystems. PMID:23846183

Six, Diana L

2013-07-12

284

Energy from Biomass.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)|

Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

1987-01-01

285

Biomass for Electricity Generation  

EIA Publications

This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

Zia Haq

2002-07-01

286

Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

287

[Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) of the northwestern slope of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia].  

PubMed

The community structure of dung beetles in the middle and lower river basin of the Gaira river, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described. Four sites were selected along an altitudinal gradient of 50-940 m for sampling from June to October, 2004. Dung beetles were captured using modified pitfall traps and manual recollections. We captured 7,872 individuals belonging to 29 species, distributed in 15 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae. Canthon and Onthophagus were the most diverse genera, each represented by six species. The sampled sites shared the following species: Onthophagus acuminatus Harold, O. clypeatus Blanchard, O. marginicollis Harold. Bocatoma was the most diverse site with 23 species; whereas Port Mosquito presented the highest abundance, with 3,262 individuals. Seven species represented 89% of all captures: Canthidium sp., Dichotomius sp., Uroxys sp. 1, Uroxys sp. 2, O. marginicollis, O. clypeatus and O. acuminatus. Of the 29 captured species, 17 belonged to the functional group of diggers and 10 were ball-rollers. We did not observe significant among-site differences in community structure. Abiotic factors such as altitude, temperature and humidity cannot explain observed variation in community structure across sites, indicating other variables such as vegetation cover, density of the vegetation and soil type may play a role in the community structure of these insects. PMID:20098915

Martínez, Neis J; García, Héctor; Pulido, Luz A; Ospino, Deibi; Harváez, Juan C

288

Differences in critical thermal maxima and mortality across life stages of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

Thermal limits to activity profoundly affect the abundance and distribution of ectothermic animals. Upper thermal limits to activity are typically reported as the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), the temperature at which activity becomes uncontrolled. Thermolimit respirometry is a new technique that allows CT(max) to be quantified in small animals, such as insects, as the point of spiracular failure by measuring CO(2) release from the animal as temperature increases. Although prior studies have reported a characteristic pattern of CO(2) release for insects during thermolimit respirometry trials, no studies have been carried out to determine the universality of this pattern across development, or at what point death occurs along this pattern. Here, we compared the CT(max) and patterns of CO(2) release among three life stages of a beetle species, Tenebrio molitor, and mapped heat death onto these patterns. Our study is the first to report distinct patterns of CO(2) release in different life stages of an insect species during thermolimit respirometry. Our results show that CT(max) was significantly higher in adult beetles than in either larvae or pupae (P<0.001) and, similarly, death occurred at higher temperatures in adults than in larvae and pupae. We also found that death during heating closely follows CT(max) in these animals, which confirms that measuring the loss of spiracular control with thermolimit respirometry successfully identifies the point of physiological limitation during heat stress. PMID:22675193

Vorhees, Ashley S; Bradley, Timothy J

2012-07-01

289

Executive summary of some employment and earning implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their abundant forest and agricultural biomass resources, New England and the Cornbelt are likely to grow considerably in the development of biomass energy systems during the next decade or two. Observations of 189 specific biomass-related operations suggest that substantial employment and earnings could be generated by this activity. Forty thousand or more permanent jobs might be created in

S. E. Bell; R. M. Gove; J. R. Little

1981-01-01

290

BECON, Biomass Energy CONversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How is biomass transformed into a usable fuel? This article, part of a series about the future of energy, discusses the BECON (Biomass Energy CONversion) facility, located in the state of Iowa. Here students read about methods used to produce alternative fuels from biomass. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

291

Fuel production \\/biomass energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough review of various aspects of biomass fuel production is presented. Fundamentals, integrated agricultural waste management, material recovery, biomass fuel plantations, technology development needs, an economic assessment and projections, environmental impact, a comparison with alternate approaches, interfacing with conventional systems, data needs, a technology assessment and projections, and a recommended implementation plan are discussed. Principal advantages of biomass energy

A. L. Johnson Jr.

1975-01-01

292

Biomass energy for Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. Examples include wood, crop wastes, and municipal wastes. Biomass is a significant but largely unrecognized contributor to the energy resources in the state of Mississippi. It may be surprising to many Mississippians that 7% of the energy currently consumed in the state comes from biomass. Since that is twice

L. L. Wright; H. Draper; P. C. Badger; R. T. Jr. Brooks; T. J. Straka; D. K. Walter; D. Stevens; F. Hanna; S. Lee

1989-01-01

293

Biomass energy in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass energy contributes an estimated 50% of the total energy consumption in the Egyptian rural areas with approximately 20 million tons of agricultural residues being available annually to comprise the country's largest single biomass resource. Most of the R and D activities in the field of biomass energy utilization are geared to biogas production. Within the framework of local needs,

El-Halwagi

2009-01-01

294

Influence of host gender on infection rate, density and distribution of the parasitic fungus, Hesperomyces virescens, on the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis.  

PubMed

Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) is a parasitic fungus that infects lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) via horizontal transmission between adults at overwintering and feeding sites. The differential behavior of male and female hosts could have profound effects on intensity of infection and positioning of fungus on the host's integument. The influence of host gender on infection rate, density and distribution of this parasite on the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was determined at a feeding site. Adult H. axyridis were sampled from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, trees in northern Mississippi, USA, during summer and early fall 2003-2004. Results indicated that the behavior of male or female beetles on pecan trees had only a limited effect on the intensity of infection. When averaged over the entire season, the percentage of H. axyridis infected with H. virescens was not influenced by host gender. In 2003, a seasonal average of 54 and 39% of males and females, respectively, were infected; whereas in 2004, 36 and 41% of male and female beetles, respectively, were infected. The percentage of males infected with H. virescens was correlated with the number of males captured at the site in 2003; infection rate decreased as male abundance increased. Infection rate did not correlate with female abundance in 2003 or male or female abundance in 2004. Host gender had a considerable effect on the density and distribution of the fungus. Hesperomyces virescens mature thalli were denser on male rather than female beetles. Also, thallus density was often greatest on the elytra, meso- and metathorax, and abdomen of males and elytra of females, than on other body parts, in 2003. In 2003 and 2004, approximately 59 and 97% and 67 and 96% of males and females, respectively, had mature thalli distributed on the elytra. Prevalence of H. virescens thalli on the dorsum of H. axyridis females suggests that mating behavior is important in fungal transmission. However, prevalence of thalli on the dorsum of H. axyridis males suggests that behaviors other than mating contribute to the transmission of H. virescens onto male beetles. Spread of H. virescens ascospores from infected to uninfected H. axyridis adults of different generations, at feeding sites, might be vital to maintaining stable populations of the fungus. PMID:20298119

Riddick, E W

2006-01-01

295

Influence of Host Gender on Infection Rate, Density and Distribution of the Parasitic Fungus, Hesperomyces virescens, on the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis  

PubMed Central

Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) is a parasitic fungus that infects lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) via horizontal transmission between adults at overwintering and feeding sites. The differential behavior of male and female hosts could have profound effects on intensity of infection and positioning of fungus on the host's integument. The influence of host gender on infection rate, density and distribution of this parasite on the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was determined at a feeding site. Adult H. axyridis were sampled from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, trees in northern Mississippi, USA, during summer and early fall 2003–2004. Results indicated that the behavior of male or female beetles on pecan trees had only a limited effect on the intensity of infection. When averaged over the entire season, the percentage of H. axyridis infected with H. virescens was not influenced by host gender. In 2003, a seasonal average of 54 and 39% of males and females, respectively, were infected; whereas in 2004, 36 and 41% of male and female beetles, respectively, were infected. The percentage of males infected with H. virescens was correlated with the number of males captured at the site in 2003; infection rate decreased as male abundance increased. Infection rate did not correlate with female abundance in 2003 or male or female abundance in 2004. Host gender had a considerable effect on the density and distribution of the fungus. Hesperomyces virescens mature thalli were denser on male rather than female beetles. Also, thallus density was often greatest on the elytra, meso- and metathorax, and abdomen of males and elytra of females, than on other body parts, in 2003. In 2003 and 2004, approximately 59 and 97% and 67 and 96% of males and females, respectively, had mature thalli distributed on the elytra. Prevalence of H. virescens thalli on the dorsum of H. axyridis females suggests that mating behavior is important in fungal transmission. However, prevalence of thalli on the dorsum of H. axyridis males suggests that behaviors other than mating contribute to the transmission of H. virescens onto male beetles. Spread of H. virescens ascospores from infected to uninfected H. axyridis adults of different generations, at feeding sites, might be vital to maintaining stable populations of the fungus.

Riddick, E. W.

2006-01-01

296

Three beetles—three concepts. Different defensive strategies of congeneric myrmecophilous beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myrmecophiles, i.e., organisms associated with ants live in a variety of ecological niches in the vicinity or inside ant colonies\\u000a and employ different strategies to survive ant encounters. Because different niches are characterized by different encounter\\u000a rates with host ants, strategies used to avoid ant aggressions should depend on these niches. This hypothesis was studied\\u000a with three rove beetle species

Michael Stoeffler; Till Tolasch; Johannes L. M. Steidle

2011-01-01

297

The Role of Beetle Marks and Flower Colour on Visitation by Monkey Beetles (Hopliini) in the Greater Cape Floral Region, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims A deviation from the classical beetle pollination syndrome of dull-coloured flowers with an unpleasant scent is found in the Greater Cape Floral Region of South Africa. Here, monkey beetles (Scarabaeidae) visit brightly coloured, odourless flowers with conspicuous dark spots and centres (beetle marks). The role of flower colour and markings in attracting monkey beetles is still poorly understood. Method Artificial model flowers with different marking patterns were used to test the effect of beetle marks on visitation by monkey beetles. To test whether monkey beetles are conditioned to the colour of the local matrix species, model flowers of different colours were placed in populations of three differently coloured species of Iridaceae. Key Results Among all three matrix species the presence of dark markings of some kind (either centres or spots) increased visitation rates but the different matrix species differed in whether the effect was due to a dark centre or to dark spots. Monkey beetles were not conditioned for the colour of the matrix species: model colour was not significant in the Hesperantha vaginata and in the Romulea monadelpha matrices, whereas yellow model flowers were preferred over orange ones in the orange-flowered Sparaxis elegans matrix. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate that beetle marks attract pollinating monkey beetles in the Greater Cape Floral Region. In contrast to plants with the classical beetle pollination syndrome that use floral scent as the most important attractant of pollinating beetles, plants with the monkey beetle pollination syndrome rely on visual signals, and, in some areas at least, monkey beetles favour flowers with dark beetle markings over unmarked flowers.

Van Kleunen, Mark; Nanni, Ingrid; Donaldson, John S.; Manning, John C.

2007-01-01

298

Connecting overwintering success of eastern larch beetle to health ...  

Treesearch

Source: In: Potter, Kevin M.; Conkling, Barbara L. Forest health monitoring: ... U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station: 167-169. ... Although eastern larch beetles often attack stressed tamarack, recent attacks ...

299

Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

300

Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

301

Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)|

Beck, Keith

1978-01-01

302

Wood-destroying Beetle Treatment Incidence in Arkansas and ...  

Treesearch

Global Forest Information Service ... With inflation and the fact that beetles can no longer be treated in combination with termite treatments ... Personal inspection of 31 houses in Arkansas, 77 in Georgia, and 68 in Mississippi indicated that over ...

303

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass  

PubMed Central

Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70–80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery.

Binder, Joseph B.; Raines, Ronald T.

2010-01-01

304

Parental care improves offspring survival and growth in burying beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burying beetles (genusNicrophorus) provide elaborate parental care to their offspring. Parental beetles defend a small vertebrate carcass, which constitutes the sole food source for the larvae. They also manipulate the carcass in various ways and directly regurgitate pre-digested carrion to the young. The benefits of carcass manipulation and regurgitation have been the subject of a few small-scale studies that have

ANNE-KATRIN EGGERT; MARTINA REINKING; JOSEF K MÜLLER

1998-01-01

305

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder\\/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that

Dale B. Gelman; Robert A. Bell; Lynda J. Liska; Jing S. Hu

306

Bacterial Communities within Digestive Tracts of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identiÞed the bacterial communities within the alimentary tracts of two granivorous ground beetles as a Þrst step in the exploration of bacteriaÐ ground beetle symbioses. Terminal- restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of bacterial rRNA extracted from the guts of Þeld-collected individuals of Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Anisodactylus sanctaecrucis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) revealed that gut-associated bacterial communities were of low

Jonathan G. Lundgren; R. Michael Lehman; Joanne Chee-sanford

2007-01-01

307

Mycangia of ambrosia beetles host communities of bacteria.  

PubMed

The research field of animal and plant symbioses is advancing from studying interactions between two species to whole communities of associates. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities supports multiplexed sampling for statistically robust tests of hypotheses about symbiotic associations. We focus on ambrosia beetles, the increasingly damaging insects primarily associated with fungal symbionts, which have also been reported to support bacteria. To analyze the diversity, composition, and specificity of the beetles' prokaryotic associates, we combine global sampling, insect anatomy, 454 sequencing of bacterial rDNA, and multivariate statistics to analyze prokaryotic communities in ambrosia beetle mycangia, organs mostly known for transporting symbiotic fungi. We analyze six beetle species that represent three types of mycangia and include several globally distributed species, some with major economic importance (Dendroctonus frontalis, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus bispinatus-ferrugineus, Xyleborus glabratus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus germanus). Ninety-six beetle mycangia yielded 1,546 bacterial phylotypes. Several phylotypes appear to form the core microbiome of the mycangium. Three Mycoplasma (originally thought restricted to vertebrates), two Burkholderiales, and two Pseudomonadales are repeatedly present worldwide in multiple beetle species. However, no bacterial phylotypes were universally present, suggesting that ambrosia beetles are not obligately dependent on bacterial symbionts. The composition of bacterial communities is structured by the host beetle species more than by the locality of origin, which suggests that more bacteria are vertically transmitted than acquired from the environment. The invasive X. glabratus and the globally distributed X. crassiusculus have unique sets of bacteria, different from species native to North America. We conclude that the mycangium hosts in multiple vertically transmitted bacteria such as Mycoplasma, most of which are likely facultative commensals or parasites. PMID:22546962

Hulcr, J; Rountree, N R; Diamond, S E; Stelinski, L L; Fierer, N; Dunn, R R

2012-05-01

308

Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

1996-08-01

309

Resource shifts in Malagasy dung beetles: contrasting processes revealed by dissimilar spatial genetic patterns.  

PubMed

The endemic dung beetle subtribe Helictopleurina has 65 species mostly in wet forests in eastern Madagascar. There are no extant native ungulates in Madagascar, but three Helictopleurus species have shifted to the introduced cattle dung in open habitats in the past 1500 years. Helictopleurus neoamplicollis and Helictopleurus marsyas exhibit very limited cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 haplotype diversity and a single haplotype is present across Madagascar, suggesting that these species shifted to cattle dung in a small region followed by rapid range expansion. In contrast, patterns of molecular diversity in Helictopleurus quadripunctatus indicate a gradual diet shift across most of southern Madagascar, consistent with somewhat broader diet in this species. The three cattle dung-using Helictopleurus species have significantly greater geographical ranges than the forest-dwelling species, apparently because the shift to the currently very abundant new resource relaxed interspecific competition that hinders range expansion in the forest species. PMID:18778273

Hanski, Ilkka; Wirta, Helena; Nyman, Toshka; Rahagalala, Pierre

2008-09-04

310

Bacterial biomass distribution in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compiled a database of bacterial abundance of 39 766 data points. After gridding with 1° spacing, the database covers 1.3% of the ocean surface. There is data covering all ocean basins and depth except the Southern Hemisphere below 350 m or from April until June. The average bacterial biomass is 3.9 ± 3.6 ?g l-1 with a 20-fold decrease between the surface and the deep sea. We estimate a total ocean inventory of about 1.3 × 1029 bacteria. Using an average of published open ocean measurements for the conversion from abundance to carbon biomass of 9.1 fg cell-1, we calculate a bacterial carbon inventory of about 1.2 Pg C. The main source of uncertainty in this inventory is the conversion factor from abundance to biomass. http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.779142

Buitenhuis, E. T.; Li, W. K. W.; Lomas, M. W.; Karl, D. M.; Landry, M. R.; Jacquet, S.

2012-05-01

311

Orthologous gene of beetle luciferase in non-luminous click beetle, Agrypnus binodulus (Elateridae), encodes a fatty acyl-CoA synthetase.  

PubMed

A homologous gene of beetle luciferase, AbLL (Agrypnus binodulusluciferase-like gene) was isolated from a Japanese non-luminous click beetle, A. binodulus, and its gene product was characterized. The identity of amino acid sequence deduced from AbLL with the click beetle luciferase from the Jamaican luminous click beetle, Pyrophorus plagiophthalmus, is 55%, which is higher than that between click beetle luciferase and firefly luciferase (approximately 48%). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AbLL places in a clade of beetle luciferases, suggesting that AbLL is an orthologous gene of beetle luciferase. The gene product of AbLL (AbLL) has medium- and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase activity, but not luciferase activity. The fatty acyl-CoA synthetic activity was slightly inhibited in the presence of beetle luciferin, suggesting that AbLL has poor affinity for beetle luciferin. By comparing the amino acid residues of the catalytic domains in beetle luciferases with AbLL, the key substitutions for the luminescence activity in beetle luciferase will be proposed. PMID:17996401

Oba, Yuichi; Iida, Koichiro; Ojika, Makoto; Inouye, Satoshi

2007-10-13

312

Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater Alison Bradford and Alex Storrs Towson University We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images to determine the abundance of minerals near Aristarchus crater. Following the calibration of Robinson et al. (2007) we present ratio maps of images obtained in August of 2005 showing the abundance of TiO2 and other minerals in this interesting area in

Alison Bradford; A. Storrs

2007-01-01

313

Neonicotinoid insecticides disrupt predation on the eggs of turf-infesting scarab beetles.  

PubMed

Turfgrass applications of imidacloprid were previously shown to suppress the abundance of certain soil arthropods. To ascertain whether those impacts harbor functional consequences, the effect of neonicotinoids on Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) predation was examined in three experiments that measured removal of eggs implanted into non-irrigated field plots. A first experiment confirmed that a single imidacloprid application reduced the abundance of nontarget fauna and the rate of egg removal. A second experiment compared the impacts of imidacloprid with those of three other neonicotinoids, while a third measured the impact of imidacloprid when applied in July, August or September. Egg removal declined 28.3-76.1% in imidacloprid-treated plots across all studies. Effects were detected as early as one week after treatment (WAT) and persisted as long as four WAT. The extent of suppression did not vary across month of application. Clothianidin, dinotefuran and thiamethoxam also suppressed egg removal, and the effects were similar among them and with imidacloprid. There was no discernible association between variation in rainfall and treatment effects, but this was not explicitly tested. Results support the hypotheses that a single neonicotinoid application can suppress predation on pest populations and that the effect does not vary with respect to active ingredient or season of application. Neonicotinoid application at the time of beetle oviposition puts intended effects (mortality of neonates) in conflict with unintended effects (disruption of egg predation). The conservation of predation on early life stages might buffer the reduced efficacy of late season applications that target more advanced instars. As application timing and post-application irrigation affect insecticide performance, they might also be manipulated to reduce nontarget effects. PMID:20482932

Peck, D C; Olmstead, D

2010-05-19

314

The ecology and behavior of burying beetles.  

PubMed

Burying beetles conceal small vertebrate carcasses underground and prepare them for consumption by their young. This review places their complex social behavior in an ecological context that focuses on the evolution of biparental care and communal breeding. Both males and females provide extensive parental care, and the major benefit of male assistance is to help defend the brood and carcass from competitors. As intensity and type of competition vary, so do the effectiveness and duration of male care. In many species, a single brood may be reared on large carcasses by more than one male and/or female. Limited reproductive opportunities, the greater effectiveness of groups in preventing the probability of brood failure (especially that caused by competing flies), and the superabundance of food on large carcasses have contributed to the evolution of this cooperative behavior. PMID:15012399

Scott, M P

1998-01-01

315

Reproductive strategies of Tribolium flour beetles  

PubMed Central

Although, beetles of the genus Tribolium first evolved as saprophylic insects, they have adapted to the stored products environment for several thousand years. In this study reproductive strategies are described for eight species of Tribolium that are known to occur in this environment. Experiments were conducted under the same conditions for every species, and several life history traits, including egg mass, adult mass, developmental time and fecundity were examined and compared among these species. Common reproductive strategies were not found among the different species and univariate analysis highlighted strong differences between the species for most of the traits investigated. Some species showed reproductive traits that are likely to give a fitness advantage in the environment of stored products. Multivariate statistical analysis allowed the detection of different sub-groups with respect to their reproductive strategy. Adult mass and egg-to-adult developmental time discriminated between groups. Intraspecific allometric relationships were further investigated but only a few correlations appeared to be significant.

Arnaud, Ludovic; Brostaux, Yves; Lallemand, Stephane; Haubruge, Eric

2005-01-01

316

Bibliography of the Rusty Grain Beetle, 'Cryptolestes ferrugineus' (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rusty grain beetles are major pests of stored products throughout most of the world. The bibliography lists 239 papers published about these beetles. Citations are grouped by subject and are indexed by geography, host, and author.

J. E. Throne

1987-01-01

317

Bibliography of the Flat Grain Beetle, 'Cryptolestes pusillus' (Schoenherr) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flat grain beetles are pests of stored products throughout most of the world. The bibliography lists 178 papers published about these beetles. Citations are grouped by subject and are indexed by geography, host, and author.

J. E. Thorne

1988-01-01

318

NEW NEBRASKA OCCURRENCES OF THE ENDANGERED AMERICAN BURYING BEETLE (COLEOPTERA: SILPHIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new records for the endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus Olivier, are reported from the Nebraska Sandhills. Nebraska is one of only four states in the United States where this beetle remains extant.

Brett C. Ratcliffe; Mary Liz Jameson

1992-01-01

319

Mountain Pine Beetle in Ponderosa Pine: Effects of Phloem Thickness and Egg Gallery Density.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of phloem thickness in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) on mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) were determined in a laboratory study. Brood production, beetle size, sex ratio, and rate of emergence were significantly related to phloem t...

G. D. Amman J. E. Pasek

1986-01-01

320

Using Pheromones to Protect Heat-Injured Lodgepole Pine from Mountain Pine Beetle Infestation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation...

G. D. Amman K. C. Ryan

1994-01-01

321

Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.  

PubMed

Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood. PMID:14610654

Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

2003-09-30

322

First record of a Mermithidae (Nematoda) from the meloid beetle Meloe violaceus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae).  

PubMed

A new record of nematode parasitism of meloid beetles is reported and all earlier records are summarised. Rates of parasitism could be influenced by the toxic compound cantharidin that these beetles possess. PMID:12743809

Lückmann, Johannes; Poinar, George O

2003-02-12

323

Ecology and Physiology of Diapause in the Colorado Beetle (Ekologiya i Fiziologiya Diapauzy Koloradskogo Zhuka).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Various forms of physiological dormancy in the Colorado Beetle as one of the reasons for its areal enlargement; Ecology of winter diapause of Colorado Beetle; Effect of ecological conditions of hibernation on the tissue metabolism of the Colorad...

1976-01-01

324

How-To-Do-It. A Beetle, a Bur, and the Potato: An Introduction to Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the interrelation of the potato beetle, the buffalo-bur, and the potato is used as an introduction to ecology. Methods of controlling the beetle and ecological principles illustrated in the interrelationship are discussed. (JN)|

Jantzen, Paul G.

1983-01-01

325

An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts.  

PubMed

Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3500 species of ambrosia beetles. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusual in that some are plant pathogens that cause significant damage in naïve natural and cultivated ecosystems, and currently threaten avocado production in the United States, Israel and Australia. Most AFC fusaria produce unusual clavate macroconidia that serve as a putative food source for their insect mutualists. AFC symbionts were abundant in the heads of four Euwallacea spp., which suggests that they are transported within and from the natal gallery in mandibular mycangia. In a four-locus phylogenetic analysis, the AFC was resolved in a strongly supported monophyletic group within the previously described Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). Divergence-time estimates place the origin of the AFC in the early Miocene ?21.2 Mya, which coincides with the hypothesized adaptive radiation of the Xyleborini. Two strongly supported clades within the AFC (Clades A and B) were identified that include nine species lineages associated with ambrosia beetles, eight with Euwallacea spp. and one reportedly with Xyleborus ferrugineus, and two lineages with no known beetle association. More derived lineages within the AFC showed fixation of the clavate (club-shaped) macroconidial trait, while basal lineages showed a mix of clavate and more typical fusiform macroconidia. AFC lineages consisted mostly of genetically identical individuals associated with specific insect hosts in defined geographic locations, with at least three interspecific hybridization events inferred based on discordant placement in individual gene genealogies and detection of recombinant loci. Overall, these data are consistent with a strong evolutionary trend toward obligate symbiosis coupled with secondary contact and interspecific hybridization. PMID:23608321

Kasson, Matthew T; O'Donnell, Kerry; Rooney, Alejandro P; Sink, Stacy; Ploetz, Randy C; Ploetz, Jill N; Konkol, Joshua L; Carrillo, Daniel; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Smith, Jason A; Black, Adam W; Hulcr, Jiri; Bateman, Craig; Stefkova, Kristyna; Campbell, Paul R; Geering, Andrew D W; Dann, Elizabeth K; Eskalen, Akif; Mohotti, Keerthi; Short, Dylan P G; Aoki, Takayuki; Fenstermacher, Kristi A; Davis, Donald D; Geiser, David M

2013-04-19

326

BIOSEP: A NEW ETHANOL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR SMALL SCALE RURAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM BIOMASS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research activities on bioethanol have increased substantially as a result of the current concerns with energy security. Inexpensive biomass including forest residues, mill residues, agricultural residues, urban wood wastes and dedicated energy corps that exists in abundance acr...

327

Attack and Reproductive Success of Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Fire-Damaged Lodgepole Pines  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-intensityÞres are known to kill adult and larval bark beetles, but it is unclear how mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) respond to trees that have been damaged bylower-intensityground Þres at the peripheryof burns. We conducted an experiment to determine whether mountain pine beetles preferentiallyattack trees that have been damaged byÞre and to determine how Þre damage affects beetlesÕ reproductive

Ché M. Elkin; Mary L. Reid

2004-01-01

328

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

PubMed Central

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that had been fed on potato leaves. Maximum weights of prepupae, newly emerged adults and day 5 – 9 adults were approximately 78, 80 and 82%, respectively, of the weights for comparable stages of control beetles. Mean percent mortality for 1st instars was two to six times higher for artificial diet-fed CPBs than for leaf-fed beetles. However, since pupal mortality was four times higher for control beetles than for beetles reared on artificial diet, mean percent total mortality (newly hatched through the 9 day old adult) was equivalent for leaf-fed beetles and for later generations of potato and Lettuce+Potato diet-fed CPBs. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and fluctuations in mature 4th instar larvae and prepupae were similar in controls and experimental groups. Number of hatchlings produced per adult pair per day (fertility) was approximately eight times greater in control beetles than in later generations of artificial diet-fed beetles, primarily because fewer egg masses were laid per day, percent hatch was lower and cannibalism of eggs was higher in these latter groups. Interestingly, the mean percent hatch, although only 68% of the control value, was 1.5 times greater for beetles reared on diet containing lettuce-leaf powder, and a small percentage of potato leaf powder, than on diet containing only potato leaf powder. Percent hatch was equal for beetles fed on diet containing only lettuce-leaf powder and those fed on potato leaves. Finally, it is noteworthy that the quality of eggs, as judged by the ability of the wasp parasitoid, Edovum puttleri, to parasitize and develop in the eggs, was similar for eggs produced by control beetles and for those produced by beetles fed on potato and Lettuce+Potato diets. The diets and rearing system described here will be useful for providing beetles on a year-round basis for experiments designed to evaluate the effects of potential insect control agents, to investigate the mechanism(s) by which insects become resistant to control agents and for other applied and fundamental studies related to the control of this serious pest. The use of lettuce leaf powder in place of most of the potato leaf powder is especially advantageous because of the much reduced cost and greater availability of lettuce as compared to potato leaves.

Gelman, Dale B.; Bell, Robert A.; Liska, Lynda J.; Hu, Jing S.

2001-01-01

329

Complex pendulum biomass sensor  

DOEpatents

A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

2007-12-25

330

Biomass deconstruction to sugars.  

PubMed

The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass relies on the depolymerization of its polysaccharide content into fermentable sugars. Accomplishing this requires pretreatment of the biomass to reduce its size, and chemical or physical alteration of the biomass polymers to enhance the susceptibility of their glycosidic linkages to enzymatic or acid catalyzed cleavage. Well-studied approaches include dilute and concentrated acid pretreatment and catalysis, and the dissolution of biomass in organic solvents. These and recently developed approaches, such as solubilization in ionic liquids, are reviewed in terms of the chemical and physical changes occurring in biomass pretreatment. As pretreatment represents one of the major costs in converting biomass to fuels, the factors that contribute to pretreatments costs, and their impact on overall process economics, are described. PMID:21834132

Blanch, Harvey W; Simmons, Blake A; Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel

2011-08-10

331

Thermophilic biogasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect

Secondary sewage effluent- and fresh-water-grown water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes), Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), and a hyacinth-grass-municipal solid waste-sludge (biomass-waste) blend were used as test feeds to develop a fast thermophilic biomass- digestion process. For the pure biomass feeds thermophilic digestion has no apparent advantage over mesophilic digestion, but the reverse is true for the biomass-waste blend. Alkaline pretreatment of the feed improved thermophilic digester performance substantially. For a given plant feed load, the reactor volume, culture-heating requirements, and CH4 production rate for thermophilic digestion of the pretreated biomass-waste feed were 18,46, and 135% of those for conventional mesophilic digestion. For a biomass-waste feed the respective volatile solids reduction and energy recovery efficiencies were 46 and 49% for thermophilic and 36 and 43% for mesophilic digestions.

Ghosh, S.; Klass, D.L.; Edwards, V.H.; Christopher, R.W.

1980-01-01

332

Detection and characterization of kodamaea ohmeri associated with Small Hive Beetle Aethina tumida infesting honeybee hives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Honeybee hive infestation by the Small Hive Beetle (SHB) is associated with fermentation of hive materials. Pollen, beetles, and robbing bees (ten of each) were collected from hives infested with SHB in both Florida and Kenya. Plating of homogenized bodies of beetles and bees and comb swabs result...

333

Mechanisms Underlying Sawtoothed Grain Beetle ( Oryzaephilus surinamensis [L.]) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) Infestation of Consumer Food Packaging Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), isan extremely destruc- tive pest of packaged consumer food products. The beetle is not believed to chew directly through packaging materials, but to use openings or ßaws in damaged or improperly sealed packages to gain entry. We investigated the behavioral mechanisms by which the sawtoothed grain beetle infests packages with ßaws. SigniÞcantly more

S. V. Mowery; M. A. Mullen; J. F. Campbell; A. B. Broce

2002-01-01

334

High water-loss rates and rapid dehydration in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus marginatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer months, there is a high mortality of burying beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae) species in pitfall traps containing dry soil. The present study investigated the possibility that the burying beetle Nicrophorus marginatus is highly susceptible to death from desiccation. In the laboratory, adult beetles lose 1-5% body mass per hour in low humidity conditions (25-30% relative humid- ity), depending

JON C. B EDICK; W. W Y ATT; C. A LBRECHT

335

Management of Lodgepole Pine Stand Density to Reduce Susceptibility to Mountain Pine Beetle Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural strategies to reduce tree losses from mountain pine beetle attacks typically seek to reduce relative densities in order to increase tree resistance and thus lower potential beetle attacks. For lodgepole pine stan&, however, the tree mortality\\/relative density relationship is nonlinear. We describe three relative density zones corresponding to different levels of resistance to beetle attack. In the density management

J. A. Anhold; M. J. Jenkins

336

Modeling the dynamics of mountain pine beetle aggregation in a lodgepole pine stand  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least once a year the mountain pine beetle searches for lodgepole pines that provide a suitable habitat for a new brood. After attacking females feed, they produce an attractant pheromone that causes beetles to aggregate and, during outbreaks, to usually mass attack the “focus” tree. Near the completion of mass attack, incoming beetles are repelled and initiate attacks on

D. R. Geiszler; V. F. Gallucci; R. I. Gara

1980-01-01

337

7 CFR 305.26 - Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled... Heat Treatments § 305.26 Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled...milled products may be treated for khapra beetle using schedule T307-a. The...

2010-01-01

338

7 CFR 305.26 - Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled... Heat Treatments § 305.26 Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled...milled products may be treated for khapra beetle using schedule T307-a. The...

2009-01-01

339

Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects  

SciTech Connect

DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

Not Available

1997-08-01

340

Biomass energy potential in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of biomass energy potential including biomass residue and forestry biomass in Thailand was carried out taking into account the amount of biomass residue which has already been used and the possibility of biomass energy plantation in accordance with the National Plan of the Thai Government. According to this estimation, 65 PJ can be derived from agricultural and forestry waste

Shin-ya Yokoyama; Tomoko Ogi; Anan Nalampoon

2000-01-01

341

A novel method for evaluating the release of fermentable sugars from cellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass into free sugars for the production of bioethanol would allow utilization of an abundant and renewable natural resource. However, complex microcrystalline cellulose in biomass resists digestion. A preferred method to deconstruct cellulose is using enzyme cocktails, but the presence of multiple enzymes with synergistic outcomes for this process complicates direct biochemical analysis as a reliable

Rafael Jimenez-Flores; Gina Fake; Jennifer Carroll; Elizabeth Hood; John Howard

2010-01-01

342

Optimal biomass allocation in heterogeneous environments in a clonal plant—Spatial division of labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

When interconnected ramets of clonal plants are growing in heterogeneous environments, ramets may specialize to uptake locally abundant resources rather than scarce resources. This biomass allocation pattern may result in more efficient sharing of resources through physiological integration and an overall benefit to the plants (spatial division of labor; DoL).For specialization, allocating the largest biomass to organs growing under a

Makihiko Ikegami; Dennis F. Whigham; Marinus J. A. Werger

2008-01-01

343

Rheological study of comingled biomass and coal slurries with hydrothermal pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gasification of comingled biomass and coal feedstock is an effective means of reducing the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in the coal gasification process while maintaining its inherent benefits of abundance and high-energy density. However, feeding a comingled biomass and coal feedstock into a pressurized gasification reactor poses a technical problem. Conventional dry feeding systems, such as lock hoppers

Wei He; Chan S. Park; Joseph M. Norbeck

2009-01-01

344

Some employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their abundant forest and agricultural biomass resources, New England and the Cornbelt are likely to grow considerably in the development of biomass energy systems during the next decade or two. Forty thousand or more permanent jobs might be created in New England's wood energy industry by the end of the century. If alcohol-fuel use continues to grow, even

W. Stevenson; S. E. Bell; L. M. Blair; R. M. Gove; J. R. Little

1981-01-01

345

On the origin and evolutionary diversification of beetle horns.  

PubMed

Many scarab beetles produce rigid projections from the body called horns. The exaggerated sizes of these structures and the staggering diversity of their forms have impressed biologists for centuries. Recent comparative studies using DNA sequence-based phylogenies have begun to reconstruct the historical patterns of beetle horn evolution. At the same time, developmental genetic experiments have begun to elucidate how beetle horns grow and how horn growth is modulated in response to environmental variables, such as nutrition. We bring together these two perspectives to show that they converge on very similar conclusions regarding beetle evolution. Horns do not appear to be difficult structures to gain or lose, and they can diverge both dramatically and rapidly in form. Although much of this work is still preliminary, we use available information to propose a conceptual developmental model for the major trajectories of beetle horn evolution. We illustrate putative mechanisms underlying the evolutionary origin of horns and the evolution of horn location, shape, allometry, and dimorphism. PMID:17494751

Emlen, Douglas J; Corley Lavine, Laura; Ewen-Campen, Ben

2007-05-09

346

Mountain pine beetle infestation impacted by water availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation pattern and landscape structure intersect to exert strong control over ecohydrological dynamics at the watershed scale. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance (e.g. fire, disease etc.) depend on the spatial pattern and form of environmental change. Here we investigate this intersection at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana with a focus on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic currently affecting the Rocky Mountains. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with a leaf-level spectral library of local vegetation. We used this spectral library to determine optimal vegetation indices for differentiating stages of beetle infestation within the 37 km2 TCEF watershed. These indices formed the basis of a three-component mixing model to quantify the extent and magnitude of beetle infestation across the TCEF watershed. We compared disturbance patterns to spatially distributed topography and vegetation variables derived from a LiDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) of TCEF. We determined that certain landscape characteristics (low vegetation density, south facing slopes, steep slopes, locations with small contributing areas, and locations with lower values of the topographic wetness index (TWI)) were significantly more likely to exhibit the effects of beetle infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality across space and time provide a context for assessing landscape susceptibility to initial mountain pine beetle infestation via feedbacks between biodiversity and hydrological patterns and further research into understanding how outbreak (i.e. landscape scale infestation) patterns may affect watershed ecohydrology via altered water and biogeochemical cycles.

Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B.; Emanuel, R.

2012-04-01

347

Viral abundance and distribution in mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters of the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the fact that marine viruses have been increasingly investigated in the last decade, knowledge on virus abundance, biomass and distribution in mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters is limited. We report here the results of a large-spatial-scale study (covering more than 3000 km) on the virioplankton distribution in epi-, meso- and bathypelagic waters in 19 areas of the Mediterranean Sea, from the Alboran Sea and Western Mediterranean, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicily Channel and Ionian Sea. Integrated viral abundance in epipelagic waters was significantly higher than in deep-sea waters (on average, 2.4 vs. 0.5×10 12 viruses m -3). However, abundance of viruses in the deep-Mediterranean waters was the highest reported so far for deep seas worldwide (7.0 and 3.1×10 11 viruses m -3 in mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters, respectively) and their biomass accounted for 13-18% of total prokaryotic C biomass. The significant relationship between viral abundance and prokaryotic abundance and production in deep waters suggests that also deep-sea viruses are closely dependent on the abundance and metabolism of their hosts. Moreover, virus to prokaryote (and nucleoid-containing cell (NuCC)) abundance ratio increased with increasing depths suggesting that deep waters may represent optimal environments for viral survival or proliferation. Overall, our results indicate that deep waters may represent a significant reservoir of viruses and open new perspectives for future investigations of viral impact on the functioning of meso-bathypelagic ecosystems.

Magagnini, Mirko; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Monticelli, Luis S.; De Domenico, Emilio; Danovaro, Roberto

2007-08-01

348

Biomass: an energy natural  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology for growing, harvesting, and converting biomass for energy production is still in its infancy. The prospects are good that systematic research will bring rapid improvements. Biomass as a source of energy for the rural areas of the developing world has many advantages including low cost, reduction of waste, environmental improvement, and self-sufficiency. Unfortunately, most areas of the world

1979-01-01

349

Progress in biomass conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reviews the long-range potential of biomass. It also discusses how biomass could replace petroleum and natural gas through different processes and under different circumstances, and at what price and to what extent. It provides a comparison with alternative resources, including coal and petroleum, and taking into consideration such problems as corrosion and erosion....These papers provide a demonstration of

D. A. Tillman; E. C. Jahn

1984-01-01

350

Biomass management and energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of managing biomass specifically for the conservation or production of energy can become a significant factor in the global management of atmopsheric CO2 over the next century. This paper evaluates the global potential for: (1) conserving energy by using trees and wood for shading, shelterbelts, windbreaks, and construction material; and (2) increasing the use of biomass and improving

R. Neil Sampson; Lynn L. Wright; Jack K. Winjum; John D. Kinsman; John Benneman; Ernst Kürsten; J. M. O. Scurlock

1993-01-01

351

Chemicals from biomass feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows how production of industrial chemicals from biomass is technically feasible, either as fractionated compounds by thermochemical conversion to synthesis gas or by fermentation. Emphasizes that a significant problem in using biomass feedstocks for fuels is the high cost of the assembled feedstock when compared to the value of the final fuel product. Presents typical costs of centrally

L. D. Clements; S. R. Beck; C. Heintz

1983-01-01

352

Forest biomass sustainability and availability  

Treesearch

These include a federal cellulosic fuel target with biomass source restrictions, state-level ... Keywords: Biomass utilization, biomass, sustainability, renewable natural ... forest products industry, greenhouse gases, greenhouse gas mitigation , ...

353

Hawaii: An International Model for Methanol from Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of Hawaii is 90% dependent upon imported petroleum today but has embarked on a transition program to shift to indigenous renewable energy resources. Hawaii, like most tropical islands, has no fossil fuels (oil, gas, or coal) but has abundant renewable energy resources in fast growing biomassFor the past 12 years, considerable work has been under way in Hawaii

PATRICK K. TAKAHASHI; D. RICHARD NEILL; VICTOR D. PHILLIPS; CHARLES M. KINOSHITA

1990-01-01

354

Picoheterotroph (Bacteria and Archaea) biomass distribution in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compiled a database of 39 766 data points consisting of flow cytometric and microscopical measurements of picoheterotroph abundance, including both Bacteria and Archaea. After gridding with 1° spacing, the database covers 1.3% of the ocean surface. There are data covering all ocean basins and depths except the Southern Hemisphere below 350 m or from April until June. The average picoheterotroph biomass is 3.9 ± 3.6 ?g C l-1 with a 20-fold decrease between the surface and the deep sea. We estimate a total ocean inventory of about 1.3 × 1029 picoheterotroph cells. Surprisingly, the abundance in the coastal regions is the same as at the same depths in the open ocean. Using an average of published open ocean measurements for the conversion from abundance to carbon biomass of 9.1 fg cell-1, we calculate a picoheterotroph carbon inventory of about 1.2 Pg C. The main source of uncertainty in this inventory is the conversion factor from abundance to biomass. Picoheterotroph biomass is ~2 times higher in the tropics than in the polar oceans. doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779142

Buitenhuis, E. T.; Li, W. K. W.; Lomas, M. W.; Karl, D. M.; Landry, M. R.; Jacquet, S.

2012-09-01

355

Improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficient utilization of all available sugars in lignocellulosic biomass, which is more abundant than available commodity crops and starch, represents one of the most difficult technological challenges for the production of bioethanol. The well-studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has played a...

356

Abundances from supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernovae of both types are responsible for essentially all of the element abundances between O and the Fe-group, and possibly for about 1/2 of the heavy elements beyond Fe. Therefore, they represent the most important nucleosynthesis source for the evolution of galaxies. Unfortunately our theoretical understanding is still burdened with many uncertainties. The present overview tries especially to clarify the link between model uncertainties and their nucleosynthesis imprint. Type II supernovae (SNe II) are linked to massive stars (M > 8 Msolar) at the end of their evolution. Gravitational collapse results in a central hot proto-neutron star which cools via neutrino emission. Neutrino opacities and transport determine the neutrino emission luminosity, which is responsible for the heating of outer layers, expected to cause the explosion and ejection of matter. Nucleosynthesis products are effected via two to three main uncertainties, (I) the location of the mass cut between the ejecta and the remaining neutron star, (II) the total explosion energy responsible for explosive nucleosynthesis, and (III) the possibility that explosion asymmetries may cause severe effects on the composition of the innermost ejected layers. Observations of individual supernovae can constrain these quantities. The full theoretical understanding how (I)-(III) depend on the progenitor mass is still missing. Connections to the chemical evolution of Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, and Fe can provide constraints. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are explained by exploding white dwarfs in binary stellar systems. The favored systems are accreting white dwarfs, approaching the (maximum stable) Chandrasekhar mass before contraction and central ignition. Their major uncertainties are related (I) to the accretion rate in the binary system which determines the carbon ignition density, (II) the flame speed after central ignition, (III) a possible transition from a subsonic deflagration to a supersonic detonation, and (IV) a possible dependence of (I)-(III) on the metallicity of the object or the accreted matter. SNe Ia represent the major source of Fe-group nuclei. Observations of r-process nuclei show already in low metallicity stars a solar r-process pattern (beyond Ba). Recent observations of a non-solar r-process pattern for e.g. Ag, I, and Pd in these objects indicate the need for a second r-process component in the nuclear mass range A?80-120.

Thielemann, F.-K.; Brachwitz, F.; Freiburghaus, C.; Rosswog, S.; Iwamoto, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nomoto, K.; Umeda, H.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Dean, D. J.; Hix, W. R.; Strayer, M. S.

357

Picophytoplankton biomass distribution in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The smallest marine phytoplankton, collectively termed picophytoplankton, have been routinely enumerated by flow cytometry since the late 1980s during cruises throughout most of the world ocean. We compiled a database of 40 946 data points, with separate abundance entries for Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes. We use average conversion factors for each of the three groups to convert the abundance data to carbon biomass. After gridding with 1° spacing, the database covers 2.4% of the ocean surface area, with the best data coverage in the North Atlantic, the South Pacific and North Indian basins, and at least some data in all other basins. The average picophytoplankton biomass is 12 ± 22 ?g C l-1 or 1.9 g C m-2. We estimate a total global picophytoplankton biomass of 0.53-1.32 Pg C (17-39% Prochlorococcus, 12-15% Synechococcus and 49-69% picoeukaryotes), with an intermediate/best estimate of 0.74 Pg C. Future efforts in this area of research should focus on reporting calibrated cell size and collecting data in undersampled regions. http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777385

Buitenhuis, E. T.; Li, W. K. W.; Vaulot, D.; Lomas, M. W.; Landry, M. R.; Partensky, F.; Karl, D. M.; Ulloa, O.; Campbell, L.; Jacquet, S.; Lantoine, F.; Chavez, F.; Macias, D.; Gosselin, M.; McManus, G. B.

2012-08-01

358

Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States)

1992-03-01

359

Optimal foraging for specific nutrients in predatory beetles.  

PubMed

Evolutionary theory predicts that animals should forage to maximize their fitness, which in predators is traditionally assumed equivalent to maximizing energy intake rather than balancing the intake of specific nutrients. We restricted female predatory ground beetles (Anchomenus dorsalis) to one of a range of diets varying in lipid and protein content, and showed that total egg production peaked at a target intake of both nutrients. Other beetles given a choice to feed from two diets differing only in protein and lipid composition selectively ingested nutrient combinations at this target intake. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced diets, beetles balanced the over- and under-ingestion of lipid and protein around a nutrient composition that maximized egg production under those constrained circumstances. Selective foraging for specific nutrients in this predator thus maximizes its reproductive performance. Our findings have implications for predator foraging behaviour and in the structuring of ecological communities. PMID:22237910

Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren; Clissold, Fiona J; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

2012-01-11

360

Observation and modeling of polarized light from scarab beetles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light reflected from scarab beetles illuminated with unpolarized white light is analyzed ellipsometrically and displayed as the sum of an elliptically polarized spectrum Ip and an unpolarized spectrum Iu. A chirped stack of chiral resonators, each with a characteristic Bragg wavelength and partial realignment of birefringent material to a fixed axis, is proposed as a model for simulation of both reflection and polarization spectra. Possible mechanisms that effectively eliminate impedance mismatch at the air-elytron interface and allow some beetles to exhibit nearly perfect circularly polarized reflections are discussed. Results are presented for three representative beetles, Ischiosopha bifasciata, which is shown to be a narrowband left-circular polarizer; Chrysophora chrysochlora, a broadband left-circular polarizer; and Chrysina woodi, an elliptical polarizer. The methods that are developed are applicable to the more general problem of synthesis of reflectors with prescribed reflection and polarization spectra.

Lowrey, Sam; de Silva, Lakshman; Hodgkinson, Ian; Leader, John

2007-08-01

361

Observation and modeling of polarized light from scarab beetles.  

PubMed

The light reflected from scarab beetles illuminated with unpolarized white light is analyzed ellipsometrically and displayed as the sum of an elliptically polarized spectrum I(p) and an unpolarized spectrum I(u). A chirped stack of chiral resonators, each with a characteristic Bragg wavelength and partial realignment of birefringent material to a fixed axis, is proposed as a model for simulation of both reflection and polarization spectra. Possible mechanisms that effectively eliminate impedance mismatch at the air-elytron interface and allow some beetles to exhibit nearly perfect circularly polarized reflections are discussed. Results are presented for three representative beetles, Ischiosopha bifasciata, which is shown to be a narrowband left-circular polarizer; Chrysophora chrysochlora, a broadband left-circular polarizer; and Chrysina woodi, an elliptical polarizer. The methods that are developed are applicable to the more general problem of synthesis of reflectors with prescribed reflection and polarization spectra. PMID:17621345

Lowrey, Sam; De Silva, Lakshman; Hodgkinson, Ian; Leader, John

2007-08-01

362

The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

2010-03-01

363

Quaternary beetle research: the state of the art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quaternary beetle research has progressed in a variety of ways during the last decade. New kinds of data are being extracted from the fossil specimens themselves, such as ancient DNA and stable isotopes. The ancient DNA studies hold the promise of proving new insights on the stability of beetle genotypes. The study of stable isotopes of H and O from fossil beetle chitin holds the promise of providing an independent proxy for the reconstruction of temperature and precipitation. The discipline is also expanding into previously unstudied regions, such as Australia, New Zealand, and northern Asia. Along with the new study regions, new schools of thought are also forming in the discipline, challenging old research paradigms. This is a necessary step forward for the discipline, as it grows and develops in the 21st Century.

Elias, Scott A.

2006-08-01

364

Origin of a haplodiploid beetle lineage  

PubMed Central

The beetle family Scolytidae includes several groups having regular sib-mating and extremely female-biased sex ratios. Two such groups are known to include haplodiploid species: (i) the tribe Xyleborini and (ii) Coccotrypes and related genera within the tribe Dryocoetini. Relationships of these groups have been controversial. We analysed elongation factor 1-? (852 bp) and cytochrome oxidase 1 (1179 bp) sequences for 40 species. The most-parsimonious trees imply a single origin of haplodiploidy uniting Xyleborini (approximately 1200 species) and sib-mating Dryocoetini (approximately 160 species). The sister-group of the haplodiploid clade is the outcrossing genus Dryocoetes. The controversial genus Premnobius is outside the haplodiploid clade. Most haplodiploid scolytids exploit novel resources, ambrosia fungi or seeds, but a few have the ancestral habit of feeding on phloem. Thus, scolytids provide the clearest example of W. D. Hamilton's scenario for the evolution of haplodiploidy (life under bark leading to inbreeding and hence to female-biased sex ratios through haplodiploidy) and now constitute a unique opportunity to study diplodiploid and haplodiploid sister-lineages in a shared ancestral habitat. There is some evidence of sex determination by maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria, which may explain the consistency with which female-biased sex ratios and close inbreeding have been maintained.

Normark, B. B.; Jordal, B. H.; Farrell, B. D.

1999-01-01

365

Influence of Coronal Abundance Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multispecies loop modeling project addresses the modeling of TRACE and SOHO observations as a plasma rather than a single fluid. In the single-fluid approximation the effects of heavy species are considered in an averaged sense. Further, loop abundances are usually taken to be uniform throughout the loop, in spite of observational evidence for considerable variation in coroner abundances.

DeLuca, E. E.

2002-05-01

366

Galactic Cepheid abundances (Andrievsky+, 2002)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

File table1 contains information about the program stars and spectra . Note that we also added to our sample two distant Cepheids (TV Cam and YZ Aur) which were previously analyzed by Harris & Pilachowski (1984ApJ...282..655H). File table2 contains relative-to-solar averaged elemental abundances (i.e. [El/H]) for program stars. First column gives the name of the star, other columns list the abundance data for all investigated elements. File tablea1 contains an Appendix table with elemental abundances from individual ions (ions are listed in the first column). For each star the following information is given: relative-to-solar abundance of a given ion (i.e. [M/H]), sigma-value, number of the lines used in analysis, absolute abundance of a given ion (M/H) in the scale where logA(H)=12.00. (3 data files).

Andrievsky, S. M.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Luck, R. E.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Bersier, D.; Maciel, W. J.; Barbuy, B.; Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.; Karpischek, R. U.

2001-11-01

367

Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles  

PubMed Central

Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-?-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray-parenchyma cells in the wood xylem. Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood) and not in adults (which feed only on fungi) indicates that only larvae (pre-) digest plant cell wall structures. This implies that in X. saxesenii and likely also in many other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae do not compete for the same food within their nests - in contrast, larvae increase colony fitness by facilitating enzymatic wood degradation and fungus cultivation.

2012-01-01

368

Modeling optical reflectance from chiral micromirrors embedded in manuka beetles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical and electron microscopies reveal complexity in the multilayered chiral coatings that produce green metallic-like reflections from manuka (scarab) beetles. In particular the reflectors are shown to have the form of small concave pits and troughs that are filled with contouring chiral material. Each chiral micro-reflector presents a range of pitch and tilt to an incident beam of light. The presentation attempts to relate these physical properties to optical properties such as spectral reflectance, angle of spread and perceived color of the beetles.

Hodgkinson, Ian J.; De Silva, Lakshman; Murray, Petra; Wu, Qi Hong; Arnold, Matthew; Leader, John P.

2004-08-01

369

[Sampling optimization for tropical invertebrates: an example using dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Venezuela].  

PubMed

The development of efficient sampling protocols is an essential prerequisite to evaluate and identify priority conservation areas. There are f ew protocols for fauna inventory and monitoring in wide geographical scales for the tropics, where the complexity of communities and high biodiversity levels, make the implementation of efficient protocols more difficult. We proposed here a simple strategy to optimize the capture of dung beetles, applied to sampling with baited traps and generalizable to other sampling methods. We analyzed data from eight transects sampled between 2006-2008 withthe aim to develop an uniform sampling design, that allows to confidently estimate species richness, abundance and composition at wide geographical scales. We examined four characteristics of any sampling design that affect the effectiveness of the sampling effort: the number of traps, sampling duration, type and proportion of bait, and spatial arrangement of the traps along transects. We used species accumulation curves, rank-abundance plots, indicator species analysis, and multivariate correlograms. We captured 40 337 individuals (115 species/morphospecies of 23 genera). Most species were attracted by both dung and carrion, but two thirds had greater relative abundance in traps baited with human dung. Different aspects of the sampling design influenced each diversity attribute in different ways. To obtain reliable richness estimates, the number of traps was the most important aspect. Accurate abundance estimates were obtained when the sampling period was increased, while the spatial arrangement of traps was determinant to capture the species composition pattern. An optimum sampling strategy for accurate estimates of richness, abundance and diversity should: (1) set 50-70 traps to maximize the number of species detected, (2) get samples during 48-72 hours and set trap groups along the transect to reliably estimate species abundance, (3) set traps in groups of at least 10 traps to suitably record the local species composition, and (4) separate trap groups by a distance greater than 5-10km to avoid spatial autocorrelation. For the evaluation of other sampling protocols we recommend to, first, identify the elements of sampling design that could affect the sampled effort (the number of traps, sampling duration, type and proportion of bait) and their spatial distribution (spatial arrangement of the traps) and then, to evaluate how they affect richness, abundance and species composition estimates. PMID:23894965

Ferrer-Paris, José Rafael; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

2013-03-01

370

Maize Benefits the Predatory Beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to Provide Potential to Enhance Biological Control for Aphids in Cotton  

PubMed Central

Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The ?13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton.

Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

2012-01-01

371

Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Cellulosic Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for fuel ethanol production. However, the lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis because of its structural complexity. Controlled-pH liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of cellulosic feedstock improves its enzymatic digestibility by removing hemicellulose and making the cellulose more accessible to cellulase enzymes. The removed hemicellulose is solubilized in the liquid phase of the pretreated feedstock as oligosaccharides. Formation of monomeric sugars during the LHW pretreatment is minimal. The LHW pretreatment is carried out by cooking the feedstock in process water at temperatures between 160 and 190°C and at a pH of 4-7. No additional chemicals are needed. This chapter presents the detailed procedure of the LHW pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

Kim, Youngmi; Hendrickson, Rick; Mosier, Nathan S.; Ladisch, Michael R.

372

Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind\\u000a als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Anfallende Biomasse\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Angebaute Biomasse

Richard Zahoransky; Hans-Josef Allelein; Elmar Bollin; Helmut Oehler; Udo Schelling

2010-01-01

373

Converting Biomass to Products  

SciTech Connect

For nearly 30 years, PNNL has been developing and applying novel thermal, chemical and biological processes to convert biomass to industrial and consumer products, fuels and energy. Honors for technologies resulting from this research include the Presidential Green Chemistry Award and several Federal Laboratory Consortium and R&D 100 Awards. PNNL’s research and development activities address the complete processing scheme, from feedstock pretreatment to purified product recovery. The laboratory applies fundamental science and advanced engineering capabilities to biomass conversion and processing to ensure effective recovery of optimal value from biomass; carbohydrate polymer systems to maximize energy efficiencies; and micro-technology systems for separation and conversion processes. For example, bioproducts researchers in the laboratory’s Institute for Interfacial Catalysis develop and demonstrate the utility of new catalyst formulations for production of bio-based chemicals. This article describes a sampling of current and recent catalysis projects for biomass conversion.

Graybeal, Judith W.

2006-06-01

374

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction of experimental equipment for research on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass was completed. Modifications were made on the equipment to improve performance. Information obtained from preliminary runs indicated that...

1977-01-01

375

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in the construction of the biogasifier to be used in experiments on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass. Photographs illustrating various stages in the construction are included. (ERA citation 03:014252)

1977-01-01

376

Combustion Systems for Biomass Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is one of humanity's earliest sources of energy. Traditionally, biomass has been utilized through direct combustion, and this process is still widely used in many parts of the world. Biomass thermo-chemical conversion investigations are certainly not the most important options at present; combustion is responsible for over 97% of the world's bio-energy production. Biomass combustion is a series of

Ayhan Demirbas

2007-01-01

377

A novel biomass pulverization technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve fuel quality of biomass, a novel biomass crushing system was presented. In this paper there were different biomasses, namely pine chips, corn stalk and cotton stalk, chosen for size reduction study. The production process was described and physical characteristics (particle size distribution, micro-morphology and bulk density) of biomass powder were investigated. The results show that 95%

Siyi Luo; Chang Liu; Bo Xiao; Lei Xiao

2011-01-01

378

Antimicrobial strategies in burying beetles breeding on carrion  

PubMed Central

Rich and ephemeral resources, such as carrion, are a source of intense interspecific competition among animal scavengers and microbial decomposers. Janzen [Janzen DH (1977) Am Nat 111:691–713] hypothesized that microbes should be selected to defend such resources by rendering them unpalatable or toxic to animals, and that animals should evolve counterstrategies of avoidance or detoxification. Despite the ubiquity of animal-microbe competition, there are few tests of Janzen's hypothesis, in particular with respect to antimicrobial strategies in animals. Here, we use the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, a species that obligately breeds on carcasses of small vertebrates, to investigate the role of parental care and avoidance as antimicrobial strategies. We manipulated competition between beetle larvae and microbes by providing beetles with either fresh carcasses or old ones that had reached advanced putrefaction. We found evidence for a strong detrimental effect of microbial competition on beetle reproductive success and larval growth. We also found that parental care can largely compensate for these negative effects, and that when given a choice between old and fresh carcasses, parents tended to choose to rear their broods on the latter. We conclude that parental care and carcass avoidance can function as antimicrobial strategies in this species. Our findings extend the range of behavioral counterstrategies used by animals during competition with microbes, and generalize the work of Janzen to include competition between microbes and insects that rely on carrion as an obligate resource for breeding and not just as an opportunistic meal.

Rozen, D. E.; Engelmoer, D. J. P.; Smiseth, P. T.

2008-01-01

379

Antimicrobial strategies in burying beetles breeding on carrion.  

PubMed

Rich and ephemeral resources, such as carrion, are a source of intense interspecific competition among animal scavengers and microbial decomposers. Janzen [Janzen DH (1977) Am Nat 111:691-713] hypothesized that microbes should be selected to defend such resources by rendering them unpalatable or toxic to animals, and that animals should evolve counterstrategies of avoidance or detoxification. Despite the ubiquity of animal-microbe competition, there are few tests of Janzen's hypothesis, in particular with respect to antimicrobial strategies in animals. Here, we use the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, a species that obligately breeds on carcasses of small vertebrates, to investigate the role of parental care and avoidance as antimicrobial strategies. We manipulated competition between beetle larvae and microbes by providing beetles with either fresh carcasses or old ones that had reached advanced putrefaction. We found evidence for a strong detrimental effect of microbial competition on beetle reproductive success and larval growth. We also found that parental care can largely compensate for these negative effects, and that when given a choice between old and fresh carcasses, parents tended to choose to rear their broods on the latter. We conclude that parental care and carcass avoidance can function as antimicrobial strategies in this species. Our findings extend the range of behavioral counterstrategies used by animals during competition with microbes, and generalize the work of Janzen to include competition between microbes and insects that rely on carrion as an obligate resource for breeding and not just as an opportunistic meal. PMID:19001269

Rozen, D E; Engelmoer, D J P; Smiseth, P T

2008-11-10

380

Process for Delayed Production of Japanese Beetle Larvae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the storage of fertile Japanese beetle eggs for as long as three weeks to provide an out-of-season supply of newly hatched larvae. The freshly collected eggs are stored at 3-5C. in 0.85% NaCl solution for the desired period, then ...

G. St. Julian

1969-01-01

381

Japanese Beetle Program Manual for Airports (12/2004-01).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this APHIS-PPQ manual is to protect the agriculture of the Western United States by preventing the artificial spread of the Japanese beetle from the Eastern United States. Artificial spread is the movement of an organism to a new ...

2004-01-01

382

Genetically improved potatoes: protection from damage by Colorado potato beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russet Burbank potato plants have been genetically improved to resist insect attack and damage by Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) by the insertion of a cryIIIA gene encoding the insect control protein of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. A modified gene that dramatically improved plant expression of this protein was utilized. Its expression in Russet Burbank potato plants resulted in

Frederick J. Perlak; Terry B. Stone; Yvonne M. Muskopf; Lisa J. Petersen; Gregory B. Parker; Sylvia A. McPherson; Jeff Wyman; Stephen Love; Gary Reed; Duane Biever; David A. Fischhoff

1993-01-01

383

"TREES UNDER THREAT: THE ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE IN GREATER TORONTO"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a popular publication created in response to the infestation of Asian longhorned beetle discovered in the Toronto area in September 2003. The publication targets both the green industry and the general public at large. The contents of the publication addresses: (1) invasive species; (2) po...

384

Observation and modeling of polarized light from scarab beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light reflected from scarab beetles illuminated with unpolarized white light is analyzed ellipsometrically and displayed as the sum of an elliptically polarized spectrum Ip and an unpolarized spectrum Iu. A chirped stack of chiral resonators, each with a characteristic Bragg wavelength and partial realignment of birefringent material to a fixed axis, is proposed as a model for simulation of

Sam Lowrey; Lakshman de Silva; Ian Hodgkinson; John Leader

2007-01-01

385

Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle and Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the

Robert K. Lawrence

386

PATCH EXPLOITATION BY FEMALE RED FLOUR BEETLES, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characte...

387

Homeothermic Response to Reduced Ambient Temperature in a Scarab Beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elephant beetles (Megasoma elephas; Scarabaeidae) weighing from 10 to 35 grams, respond homeothermically when ambient temperature is reduced below about 20 degrees C in the laboratory. This metabolic response is not associated with locomotion or any other overt activity. Warming is initiated when the body temperature reaches an apparent set point of 20 degrees to 22 degrees C. Unlike the

K. R. Morgan; G. A. Bartholomew

1982-01-01

388

Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible “blueprints” for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity\\/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case

L. P. Biró

2010-01-01

389

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tribolium castaneum is a representative of earth’s most numerous eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and also an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved an abil...

390

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,

Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin

2008-01-01

391

Crabapples Resistant to Apple Scab and Japanese Beetle in Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of form, flower, and leaf color that crabapples can offer has made them one of the most popular small trees in Indiana landscapes. Two defoliating pests, apple scab and Japanese beetle, have also given this plant a reputation of being prone to insect and disease problems. Both these pests are widely distributed in Indiana. Apple scab is a

Cliff Sadof; Paul Pecknold

392

Beauveria bassiana Infection of Eggs of Stored-Product Beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin was tested under maximum challenge conditions with a dose of estimated dose of 1.1x105 conidia/mm2 for its effects on eggs of four of the major beetle pests of stored grain and grain products. When ambient relative humidity (RH) was 92%, hatch of fungus-treat...

393

THE SMALL HIVE BEETLE: AN INVASIVE PEST OF HONEY BEES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The small hive beetle (SHB) is an African honeybee pest, where reproduction is restricted to weak colonies, abandoned nests or fruits. In contrast, SHB are harmful pests of European bees, where they can reproduce even in strong colonies. Because SHB are not killed when attacked, the bees try to en...

394

Juvenile hormone mediates sexual dimorphism in horned beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes and consequences of sexual dimorphism are major themes in biology. Here we explore the endocrine regulation of sexual dimorphism in horned beetles. Specifically, we explore the role of juvenile hormone (JH) in regulating horn expression in females of two species with regular sexual dimorphism for pronotal horns (females have much shorter horns than males) and a third species

J. Andrew Shelby; Richard Madewell; Armin P. Moczek

2007-01-01

395

Microorganism Mediated Reproductive Isolation in Flour Beetles (Genus Tribolium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive isolation is induced by microorganisms in diverse geographic strains of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The incompatibility between populations is due to nongenetic cytoplasmically inherited factors. Males of infected strains produce no progeny when crossed with females of noninfected strains; however, they produce ``normal'' numbers of progeny when crossed with infected females. Males from noninfected strains show

Michael J. Wade; Lori Stevens

1985-01-01

396

"COLORADO POTATO BEETLE:PEST ON THE MOVE"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spite of almost 150 years of research on Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae); CPB), knowledge of its biology and management is still surprisingly incomplete. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to sever...

397

Conservation, innovation, and the evolution of horned beetle diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetle horns represent an evolutionary novelty exhibiting remarkable diversity above and below the species level. Here, we show that four typical appendage patterning genes, extradenticle (exd), homothorax (hth), dachshund (dac), and Distal-less (Dll) are expressed in the context of the development of sexually dimorphic thoracic horns in three Onthophagus species. At least two of these genes, Dll and hth, exhibited

Armin P. Moczek; Debra Rose; William Sewell; Bethany R. Kesselring

2006-01-01

398

Vitamin Requirement of the American Flour Beetle Tribolium confusum Duval  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE larvæ of the American flour beetle Tribolium confusum Duval can only develop on a diet consisting of protein, carbohydrate, salts, and water if yeast or some other suitable vitamin source is added1. Fröbrich2 found the addition of 5 per cent of dry yeast to a diet of casein, rice starch and Osborne-Mendel salt mixture in a relative humidity of

H. Rosenthal; T. Reichstein

1942-01-01

399

Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles  

PubMed Central

Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.

Johansson, L. Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T.; Hedenstrom, Anders

2012-01-01

400

Down and Dirty with Dung Beetles: Innovating Teaching and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A lecturer at the University of Queensland has developed an excellent model to give students an authentic, hands-on experience of ecological research. The first-year university students have been learning about biodiversity as they carry out the task of beetle identification. This partnership gives the students a chance to contribute to an…

Kelk, Joee

2009-01-01

401

Gene amplification in the oocytes of dytiscid water beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conspicuous mass of extrachromosomal DNA (Giardina's body) is found in oogonia and oocytes of Dytiscid water beetles. Since in older oocytes this DNA is associated with numerous nucleoli, it seemed probable that the ovary might contain extra copies of the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). This hypothesis has been confirmed by centrifugation and molecular hybridization studies. —In Dytiscus marginalis

Joseph G. Gall; Herbert C. Macgregor; Mary Elizabeth Kidston

1969-01-01

402

"Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are naturally more eye-catching…

Kan, Da

2004-01-01

403

Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a native insect of the pine forests of western North America, and its populations periodically erupt into large-scale outbreaks. During outbreaks, the resulting widespread tree mortality reduces forest carbon uptake and increases future emissions from the decay of killed trees. The impacts of insects on forest carbon dynamics, however,

W. A. Kurz; C. C. Dymond; G. Stinson; G. J. Rampley; E. T. Neilson; A. L. Carroll; T. Ebata; L. Safranyik

2008-01-01

404

Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time.

Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jurgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

2010-01-01

405

Mating disruption of oriental beetle with sprayable sex pheromone formulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The feasibility of mating disruption in the oriental beetle (OB), Anomala orientalis, with microencapsulated sprayable formulations of the major component of its sex pheromone, was evaluated in turfgrass. The effect of the applications was measured by monitoring male OB captures in pheromone-baited ...

406

Ammonia abundances in four comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NH2 emission band strengths were measured in four comets and the NH2 column densities were determined in order to measure the ammonia content of the comets. The mean ammonia/water abundance ratio derived for the four comets is found to be 0.13 + or - 0.06 percent, with no significant variation among the comets. The uniformity of this abundance attests to a remarkable degree of chemical homogeneity over large scales in the comet-forming region of the primordial solar nebula, and contrasts with the CO abundance variations found previously in comets. The N2 and NH3 abundances indicate a condensation temperature in the range 20-160 K, consistent with virtually all comet formation hypotheses.

Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S. C.; Engel, L.

1991-02-01

407

Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater Alison Bradford and Alex Storrs Towson University We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images to determine the abundance of minerals near Aristarchus crater. Following the calibration of Robinson et al. (2007) we present ratio maps of images obtained in August of 2005 showing the abundance of TiO2 and other minerals in this interesting area in the middle of Oceanus Procellarum. A prominent cleft (Schroter's Valley, presumably a collapsed lava tube) makes this region of special interest for analyzing the formation of mare basalts. Reference: Robinson, M.S., et al. (2007): "High resolution mapping of TiO2 abundances on the Moon using the Hubble Space Telescope", GRL 34, L13203

Bradford, Alison; Storrs, A.

2007-12-01

408

Bulk chemicals from biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a clear short-term (0-10 year) substitution potential of 10-15 % of fossil oil-based bulk chemicals

Jacco van Haveren; Elinor L. Scott; Johan Sanders

2008-01-01

409

Energy, the biomass options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical survey of the production of fuels and chemicals from plant materials is presented. Critical evaluations of processes in use and options available for biomass are given along with recommendations concerning these options. Prospects for energy and chemicals from biomass are analyzed in terms of feedstocks, conversion processes, and the consequences of new technology. Particular consideration is given to such processes as thermochemical methods, anaerobic digestion, fractionation and pretreatment, fermentation, and photobiological processes. Cost and environmental factors are discussed.

Bungay, H. R.

410

Ammonia abundances in four comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

NH2 emission band strengths were measured in four comets and the NH2 column densities were determined in order to measure the ammonia content of the comets. The mean ammonia\\/water abundance ratio derived for the four comets is found to be 0.13 + or - 0.06 percent, with no significant variation among the comets. The uniformity of this abundance attests to

S. Wyckoff; S. C. Tegler; L. Engel

1991-01-01

411

New myotropic and metabotropic actions of pyrokinins in tenebrionid beetles.  

PubMed

Pyrokinins are a large family of insect neuropeptides exhibiting pleiotropic activity, but are predominantly myostimulatory hormones. In this study, four pyrokinins Tenmo-PK-1 (HVVNFTPRLa), Tenmo-PK-2 (SPPFAPRLa), Tenmo-PK-3 (HLSPFSPRLa) and Zopat-PK-1 (LPHYPRLa) from the neuro-endocrine system of two tenebrionid beetles, Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus, were tested in homologous bioassays to evaluate their putative myotropic and glycaemic actions. The four investigated bioassays systems (the heart, oviduct, ejaculatory duct and hindgut) revealed species-specific and organ-specific myotropic actions for the pyrokinins tested. In most bioassays with both beetles, the peptides showed myostimulatory properties with different efficacy. However, the T. molitor heart is not sensitive to Tenmo-PK-1, Tenmo-PK-2 and Tenmo-PK-3, and one of the peptides Tenmo-PK-1, is myoinhibitory on the oviduct. Tenmo-PK-2, which is also present in Z. atratus, exerted an inhibitory effect on the contractions of the heart and ejaculatory duct muscles in this beetle. Such myoinhibitory properties of pyrokinins in insects are shown here for the first time. Only one of the peptides tested, Tenmo-PK-2, stimulated a hyperglycaemic response in the haemolymph of larvae of T. molitor and Z. atratus, and this effect suggests a possible additional metabotropic function of this peptide in beetles. The differences in the myotropic and glycaemic responses to pyrokinins suggest that these peptides modulate contractions of muscles from visceral organs and free sugar levels in the haemolymph of the beetles, through complex and species-specific mechanisms. PMID:22542898

Marciniak, Pawe?; Szymczak, Monika; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Audsley, Neil; Kuczer, Mariola; Rosi?ski, Grzegorz

2012-04-20

412

Juvenile Hormone Regulates Extreme Mandible Growth in Male Stag Beetles  

PubMed Central

The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J.; Miura, Toru

2011-01-01

413

Two new bacterial pathogens of Colorado potato beetle Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).  

PubMed

Other than Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, few bacteria are lethal to the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata [Say]), a major pest of potatoes and eggplant. Expanded use of biologicals for the control of Colorado potato beetle will improve resistance management, reduce pesticide use, and produce novel compounds for potential use in transgenic plants. Using freeze-dried, rehydrated artificial diet in pellet form to screen bacteria lethal to other insects, we determined that strains of Photorhabdus luminescens killed Colorado potato beetle larvae. The LC50 for second instar larvae of strain HM5-1 was 6.4 +/- 1.87 x 10(7) cells per diet pellet. In an attempt to find additional naturally occurring P. luminescens strains toxic to Colorado potato beetle larvae, we recovered, from soil, bacteria that produced a purple pigment. This bacterial strain, identified as Chromobacterium sp. by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing, was also toxic to Colorado potato beetle larvae within 3 d. The LC50 for second instar larvae for these bacteria was 2.0 +/- 0.79 x 10(8) cells per diet pellet, while the LC50 was approximately 1 log lower for third instar larvae. P. luminescens appeared to kill by means of a protein toxin that may be similar to the described lepidopteran protein toxins. Based on the heat and acid stability, the toxin or toxins that Chromobacterium sp. produces, while not fully characterized, do not appear to be typical proteins. In both bacteria, the toxins are made after exponential growth ceases. PMID:15279252

Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael; Shropshire, Ashaki D S

2004-06-01

414

Methane abundance on Titan, obtained from the monodeuterated methane abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second most abundant species on Titan's atmosphere, methane (CH4) has a central role in Titan's atmospheric dynamics and radiative balance. Its tropospheric abundance is likely to be controlled by condensation, cycling between surface deposits, vapor phase and tropospheric clouds. So far, different attempts to measure the methane content of Titan's atmosphere have led to conflicting results: Voyager's infrared spectra and the thermal profile from radio occultation data indicate a very high methane content, with up to 150% supersaturation in the troposphere. In contrast, the difference in visible and near infrared spectra between the dark and bright sides of Titan indicate that the total column abundance of methane is low, with no supersaturation occurring. Measurement of the methane column abundance from its absorption bands is difficult due to the very high abundance present on Titan, that saturates all the bands that are strong enough to be well studied in laboratory. As the monodeuterated methane (CH3D) is less abundant than CH4 by a factor of 104, its strong and well-studied absorption bands are optically thin. So we measured the total column abundance of CH3D and the corresponding CH3D/CH4 ratio to infer the total methane column abundance. These were obtained using high resolution near infrared spectra obtained at NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, at 1.5? m, with CSHELL - Cryogenic Near-IR Facility Spectrograph - and 8.6? m with TEXES - Texas Echelon Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph. In the methane window at 1.5? m we observed the 3? 2 absorption band of CH3D to measure the total column abundance of CH3D, where its bands were free from contamination of CH4 bands. At the 8.6? m we measured the stratospheric emission lines of both CH4 and CH3D to obtain a CH3D/CH4 ratio without being significantly dependent of the temperature uncertainties. Paulo Penteado is sponsored by the Brazilian Government through CAPES and NASA Planetary Astronomy Program.

Penteado, P. F.; Griffith, C. A.; Greathouse, T. K.; Richter, M. J.; Lacy, J. H.; Rayner, J. T.

2004-11-01

415

Abundance, growth and mortality of very large trees in neotropical lowland rain forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very large trees, arbitrarily defined as those over 70 cm diameter above buttresses, account for a major portion of the above-ground biomass in neotropical rain forests. Owing to the scarcity of individuals of a given species and the difficulty of accurate measurement, there are few species-level data on the growth, mortality, and abundance of species that regularly reach emergent status.

David B. Clark; Deborah A. Clark

1996-01-01

416

Temporal Patterns of Protozooplankton Abundance and Their Food in Ellis Fjord, Princess Elizabeth Land, Eastern Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and biomass of ciliates, dinoflagellates and heterotrophic and phototrophic nanoflagellates were determined at three sites along an ice-covered Antarctic fjord between January and November 1993. The water column showed little in the way of temperature and salinity gradients during the study period. In general, the protozooplankton exhibited a seasonal variation which closely mirrored that of chlorophyllaand bacterioplankton. The

J. Grey; J. Laybourn-Parry; R. J. G. Leakey; A. McMinn

1997-01-01

417

Combining proteomics and transcriptome sequencing to identify active plant-cell-wall-degrading enzymes in a leaf beetle  

PubMed Central

Background The primary plant cell wall is a complex mixture of polysaccharides and proteins encasing living plant cells. Among these polysaccharides, cellulose is the most abundant and useful biopolymer present on earth. These polysaccharides also represent a rich source of energy for organisms which have evolved the ability to degrade them. A growing body of evidence suggests that phytophagous beetles, mainly species from the superfamilies Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea, possess endogenous genes encoding complex and diverse families of so-called plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). The presence of these genes in phytophagous beetles may have been a key element in their success as herbivores. Here, we combined a proteomics approach and transcriptome sequencing to identify PCWDEs present in larval gut contents of the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Results Using a two-dimensional proteomics approach, we recovered 11 protein bands, isolated using activity assays targeting cellulose-, pectin- and xylan-degrading enzymes. After mass spectrometry analyses, a total of 13 proteins putatively responsible for degrading plant cell wall polysaccharides were identified; these proteins belong to three glycoside hydrolase (GH) families: GH11 (xylanases), GH28 (polygalacturonases or pectinases), and GH45 (?-1,4-glucanases or cellulases). Additionally, highly stable and proteolysis-resistant host plant-derived proteins from various pathogenesis-related protein (PRs) families as well as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) were also identified from the gut contents proteome. In parallel, transcriptome sequencing revealed the presence of at least 19 putative PCWDE transcripts encoded by the P. cochleariae genome. All of these were specifically expressed in the insect gut rather than the rest of the body, and in adults as well as larvae. The discrepancy observed in the number of putative PCWDEs between transcriptome and proteome analyses could be partially explained by differences in transcriptional level. Conclusions Combining proteome and transcriptome sequencing analyses proved to be a powerful tool for the discovery of active PCWDEs in a non-model species. Our data represent the starting point of an in-depth functional and evolutionary characterization of PCWDE gene families in phytophagous beetles and their contribution to the adaptation of these highly successful herbivores to their host plants.

2012-01-01

418

A conceptual comparison of bioenergy options for using mountain pine beetle infested wood in Western Canada.  

PubMed

Biomass is nearly carbon neutral and can be used for the production of various liquid fuels and chemicals. Decisions on biomass utilization should be based on the most economical and mature route. This study analyzes mountain pine beetle (MPB) killed wood as the feedstock for production of bio-ethanol and bio-oil and compares it with the direct combustion route to produce electricity. The MPB infestation of British Columbia's (BC), a western province of Canada, forest has reached an epidemic proportion and is spread over an area of 10 millionha. According to the current estimates of BC's Ministry of Forests and Range, about 1 billion m(3) of trees would be killed by MPB by 2013. This infestation would result in large scale loss of jobs and the standing dead trees are a fire hazard and if left unharvested will decay and release carbon back to the atmosphere. The cost of bio-ethanol production from a 2100dry tonne/day plant using the infested wood for two locations (one remote and other near the industry) in BC is in the range of C$0.37-C$0.40/l (C$1.40-C$1.51/gallon). Similarly, cost of bio-oil production from a 220dry tonne/day plant using the infested wood for same two locations in BC is in the range of C$0.27-C$0.29/l (C$1.02-C$1.09/gallon). The cost of producing electricity using this bio-oil is above C$100/MWh which is higher than the current power price in BC. This cost is also higher than the cost of production of electricity by direct combustion of infested wood in a boiler (C$68-C$74/MWh). PMID:18614359

Kumar, Amit

2008-07-09

419

A survey of dung beetles infected with larval nematodes with particular note on Copris lunaris beetles as a vector for Gongylonema sp. in Iran.  

PubMed

Dung beetles (family Scarabaeidae) are one of the largest families of beetles worldwide. Due to biological behavior of these arthropods, they are considered to play an important role in the life cycle of some helminths. In the present study, dung beetles collected from cattle pastures in rural areas of Ardabil province, north-west of Iran were examined for infection with larval stages of helminths. According to the results, nematodes of 2 genera were identified including Rhabditis and Gongylonema. The more common species was Rhabditis sp. which was found in 9 species of beetles. Out of 15 different species of dung beetles, Copris lunaris was the only scarabaeid to be found naturally infected with the larval stages of Gongylonema sp. Our new findings introduce C. lunaris as a potential biological vector for transmission of Gongylonema sp. to vertebrates in the surveyed region. PMID:19290086

Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Mikaeili, Elmira; Mobedi, Iraj; Kia, Eshratbeigom; Masoomi, Lotfali; Vatandoost, Hassan

2009-03-12

420

A Survey of Dung Beetles Infected with Larval Nematodes with Particular Note on Copris lunaris Beetles as a Vector for Gongylonema sp. in Iran  

PubMed Central

Dung beetles (family Scarabaeidae) are one of the largest families of beetles worldwide. Due to biological behavior of these arthropods, they are considered to play an important role in the life cycle of some helminths. In the present study, dung beetles collected from cattle pastures in rural areas of Ardabil province, north-west of Iran were examined for infection with larval stages of helminths. According to the results, nematodes of 2 genera were identified including Rhabditis and Gongylonema. The more common species was Rhabditis sp. which was found in 9 species of beetles. Out of 15 different species of dung beetles, Copris lunaris was the only scarabaeid to be found naturally infected with the larval stages of Gongylonema sp. Our new findings introduce C. lunaris as a potential biological vector for transmission of Gongylonema sp. to vertebrates in the surveyed region.

Mikaeili, Elmira; Mobedi, Iraj; Kia, Eshratbeigom; Masoomi, Lotfali; Vatandoost, Hassan

2009-01-01

421

The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance only three previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-ultraviolet, and blending of the available transitions with lines of molecular hydrogen. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate, and the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for its production. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of gas and grain chemistry. We report on the results of high S/N-ratio (50-100) FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of neutral fluorine at 951 and 954 Angstroms toward two distant Galactic stars (HD 103779 and HD 164816). The sightline toward HD 103779 lies near the edge of the North Polar Spur and Radio Loop 1. HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M 8) at a distance of about 1.5 kpc, and also probes both distant and local gas. Modeling of both interstellar and stellar absorption lines has been used to determine the abundance from the (blended) strong fluorine line at 954.83 Angstroms. We have also made a sensitive search for the weaker line at 951.87 Angstroms to provide a consistency check for our models, and have made a tentative detection toward HD 103779. While preliminary analysis of these data suggests that the observed fluorine gas-phase abundances (and hence inferred depletions) are roughly consistent with previous measures toward delta Sco (Copernicus) and two stars in Cep OB2 (FUSE), there may be a slight enhancement in the gas-phase abundance toward HD 103779. This research was supported by NASA grant NAG5-13005.

Lauroesch, J. T.; York, D. G.; Truran, J. W.; Timmes, F. X.

2004-12-01

422

Cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose by the beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum.  

PubMed

Fermentation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars from biomass could resolve food-versus-fuel conflicts inherent in the bioconversion of grains. However, the inability to coferment glucose and xylose is a major challenge to the economical use of lignocellulose as a feedstock. Simultaneous cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose is problematic for most microbes because glucose represses utilization of the other saccharides. Surprisingly, the ascomycetous, beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum, which ferments xylose and cellobiose natively, can also coferment these two sugars in the presence of 30 g/liter glucose. S. passalidarum simultaneously assimilates glucose and xylose aerobically, it simultaneously coferments glucose, cellobiose, and xylose with an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g, and it has a specific ethanol production rate on xylose more than 3 times that of the corresponding rate on glucose. Moreover, an adapted strain of S. passalidarum produced 39 g/liter ethanol with a yield of 0.37 g/g sugars from a hardwood hydrolysate. Metabolome analysis of S. passalidarum before onset and during the fermentations of glucose and xylose showed that the flux of glycolytic intermediates is significantly higher on xylose than on glucose. The high affinity of its xylose reductase activities for NADH and xylose combined with allosteric activation of glycolysis probably accounts in part for its unusual capacities. These features make S. passalidarum very attractive for studying regulatory mechanisms enabling bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials by yeasts. PMID:22636012

Long, Tanya M; Su, Yi-Kai; Headman, Jennifer; Higbee, Alan; Willis, Laura B; Jeffries, Thomas W

2012-05-25

423

Cofermentation of Glucose, Xylose, and Cellobiose by the Beetle-Associated Yeast Spathaspora passalidarum  

PubMed Central

Fermentation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars from biomass could resolve food-versus-fuel conflicts inherent in the bioconversion of grains. However, the inability to coferment glucose and xylose is a major challenge to the economical use of lignocellulose as a feedstock. Simultaneous cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose is problematic for most microbes because glucose represses utilization of the other saccharides. Surprisingly, the ascomycetous, beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum, which ferments xylose and cellobiose natively, can also coferment these two sugars in the presence of 30 g/liter glucose. S. passalidarum simultaneously assimilates glucose and xylose aerobically, it simultaneously coferments glucose, cellobiose, and xylose with an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g, and it has a specific ethanol production rate on xylose more than 3 times that of the corresponding rate on glucose. Moreover, an adapted strain of S. passalidarum produced 39 g/liter ethanol with a yield of 0.37 g/g sugars from a hardwood hydrolysate. Metabolome analysis of S. passalidarum before onset and during the fermentations of glucose and xylose showed that the flux of glycolytic intermediates is significantly higher on xylose than on glucose. The high affinity of its xylose reductase activities for NADH and xylose combined with allosteric activation of glycolysis probably accounts in part for its unusual capacities. These features make S. passalidarum very attractive for studying regulatory mechanisms enabling bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials by yeasts.

Long, Tanya M.; Su, Yi-Kai; Headman, Jennifer; Higbee, Alan; Willis, Laura B.

2012-01-01

424

Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion

S. S. Sofer; O. R. Zaborsky

1981-01-01

425

Global distribution of pteropods representing carbonate functional type biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pteropods are a group of holoplanktonic gastropods for which global biomass distribution patterns remain poorly resolved. The aim of this study was to collect and synthesize existing pteropod (Gymnosomata, Thecosomata and Pseudothecosomata) abundance and biomass data, in order to evaluate the global distribution of pteropod carbon biomass, with a particular emphasis on its seasonal, temporal and vertical patterns. We collected 25 902 data points from several online databases and a number of scientific articles. The biomass data has been gridded onto a 360 × 180° grid, with a vertical resolution of 33 WOA depth levels. Data has been converted to NetCDF format which can be downloaded from PANGAEA, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777387. Data were collected between 1951-2010, with sampling depths ranging from 0-1000 m. Pteropod biomass data was either extracted directly or derived through converting abundance to biomass with pteropod specific length to weight conversions. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH) the data were distributed evenly throughout the year, whereas sampling in the Southern Hemisphere was biased towards the austral summer months. 86% of all biomass values were located in the NH, most (42%) within the latitudinal band of 30-50° N. The range of global biomass values spanned over three orders of magnitude, with a mean and median biomass concentration of 8.2 mg C l-1 (SD = 61.4) and 0.25 mg C l-1, respectively for all data points, and with a mean of 9.1 mg C l-1 (SD = 64.8) and a median of 0.25 mg C l-1 for non-zero biomass values. The highest mean and median biomass concentrations were located in the NH between 40-50° S (mean biomass: 68.8 mg C l-1 (SD × 213.4) median biomass: 2.5 mg C l-1) while, in the SH, they were within the 70-80° S latitudinal band (mean: 10.5 mg C l-1 (SD × 38.8) and median: 0.2 mg C l-1). Biomass values were lowest in the equatorial regions. A broad range of biomass concentrations was observed at all depths, with the biomass peak located in the surface layer (0-25 m) and values generally decreasing with depth. However, biomass peaks were located at different depths in different ocean basins: 0-25 m depth in the N Atlantic, 50-100 m in the Pacific, 100-200 m in the Arctic, 200-500 m in the Brazilian region and >500 m in the Indo-Pacific region. Biomass in the NH was relatively invariant over the seasonal cycle, but more seasonally variable in the SH. The collected database provides a valuable tool for modellers for the study of ecosystem processes and global biogeochemical cycles.

Bednaršek, N.; Možina, J.; Vu?kovi?, M.; Vogt, M.; O'Brien, C.; Tarling, G. A.

2012-05-01

426

Factors influencing parasitism of adult Japanese beetles, Polillia japonica (Col.: Scarabaeidae) by entomopathogenic nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several factors that influence the activity of steinernematid and heterorhabditid nematodes against adult Japanese beetles\\u000a were examined in the laboratory. The effect of nematode concentration on mortality of adult beetles was evaluated using a\\u000a Petri plate bioassay. The adults were exposed to 1,000 to 10,000 infective stage juveniles (J3) ofSteinernema glaseri per 10 beetles with or without food for 24

L. A. Lacey; R. Bettencourt; F. J. Garrett; N. J. Simões; R. H. Gaugler

1993-01-01

427

Predaceous diving beetles in Maine: Faunal list and keys to subfamilies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) collected in Maine are summarized. These records are augmented by field surveys of beetles in Aroostook Co., Maine during 1993-95. Keys to subfamilies are presented with color plates for selected species. A list of diving beetles that have been collected near Maine (state or province) is presented so that investigators will know what additional species might be expected in Maine. Basic taxonomy is presented to facilitate use of keys.

Boobar, L.R.; Spangler, P.J.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Hopkins, K.M.

1998-01-01

428

Short-term movement patterns of the endangered American burying beetle Nicrophorus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a mark–recapture study to evaluate short-term movements of the endangered American burying beetle Nicrophorus americanus. We found that beetles moving between sites averaged 1.23kmnight?1 in their search for carrion (n=23 movements between sites) with a range from 0.25km for 1night to a maximum of 10.0km over 6nights. In support of the supposition that American burying beetles are generalists

J. Curtis Creighton; Gary D Schnell

1998-01-01

429

The Siberian timberman Acanthocinus aedilis : a freeze-tolerant beetle with low supercooling points  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the Siberian timberman beetle Acanthocinus aedilis display a number of unique features, which may have important implications for the field of cold hardiness in general. Their\\u000a supercooling points are scattered over a wide temperature range, and some individuals have supercooling points in the low\\u000a range of other longhorn beetles. However, they differ from other longhorn beetles in being

E. Kristiansen; N. G. Li; A. I. Averensky; A. E. Laugsand; K. E. Zachariassen

2009-01-01

430

Holocene records of Dendroctonus bark beetles in high elevation pine forests of Idaho and Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoecological reconstructions from two lakes in the U.S. northern Rocky Mountain region of Idaho and Montana revealed the presence of bark beetle elytra and head capsules (cf. Dendroctonus spp., most likely D. ponderosae, mountain pine beetle). Occurrence of these macrofossils during the period of time associated with the 1920\\/1930 a.d. mountain pine beetle outbreak at Baker Lake, Montana suggest that

Andrea Brunelle; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barbara Bentz; A. Steven Munson

2008-01-01

431

Ophiostoma ips from Pinewood Nematode Vector, Japanese Pine Sawyer Beetle (Monochamus alternatus), in Korea.  

PubMed

Japanese pine sawyer beetle (Monochamus alternatus) is an economically important pest in coniferous trees. Ophiostoma ips was isolated from the beetle and identified based on analysis of morphological properties and the ?-tubulin gene sequence. The fungus easily produced perithecia with a long neck on malt extract agar and its ascospores were rectangular shaped. This is first report of Ophiostoma species associated with the pinewood nematode vector beetle in Korea. PMID:23610541

Suh, Dong Yeon; Hyun, Min Woo; Kim, Jae Jin; Son, Seung Yeol; Kim, Seong Hwan

2013-03-28

432

Forest bolsters bird abundance, pest control and coffee yield.  

PubMed

Efforts to maximise crop yields are fuelling agricultural intensification, exacerbating the biodiversity crisis. Low-intensity agricultural practices, however, may not sacrifice yields if they support biodiversity-driven ecosystem services. We quantified the value native predators provide to farmers by consuming coffee's most damaging insect pest, the coffee berry borer beetle (Hypothenemus hampei). Our experiments in Costa Rica showed birds reduced infestation by ~ 50%, bats played a marginal role, and farmland forest cover increased pest removal. We identified borer-consuming bird species by assaying faeces for borer DNA and found higher borer-predator abundances on more forested plantations. Our coarse estimate is that forest patches doubled pest control over 230 km(2) by providing habitat for ~ 55 000 borer-consuming birds. These pest-control services prevented US$75-US$310 ha-year(-1) in damage, a benefit per plantation on par with the average annual income of a Costa Rican citizen. Retaining forest and accounting for pest control demonstrates a win-win for biodiversity and coffee farmers. PMID:23981013

Karp, Daniel S; Mendenhall, Chase D; Sandí, Randi Figueroa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Ehrlich, Paul R; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C

2013-08-27

433

Biomass fuels update. TVAs biomass fuels program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equipment was installed and tests were conducted on the ethanol from hardwood project. Location of hardwoods, to improve forest management, and to reduce the cost of harvesting woody biomass was assessed. Substantial underutilized cropland exists in the Valley, and a questionnaire survey was administered to supplement available cropland data. The potential liquid fuel yields and production management practices for alternative starch, sugar, and vegetable oil crops were determined to obtain benchmark data and to evaluate alcohol production from alternative agricultural feedstocks. Workshops were conducted to provide information on production of alcohol.

1982-02-01

434

Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites  

SciTech Connect

The authors objective in this study was to obtain additional data on actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites, testing the internal consistency of the direct approach and comparing the direct and indirect approaches on the same sample. Representative aliquots were analyzed for Xe by noble gas mass spectrometry or for U, Th, Ce, Nd, and Sm concentrations by isotope dilution. The nature and abundances of the phosphate phases, known to be major carriers for these elements, were determined petrographically. The high-accuracy isotopic dilution data provide a test of the assumptions of the uniformity of absolute and relative abundances of refractory lithophile elements in ordinary chondrites. Their results also provide the first determinations of the key Nd/U ratio on the same chondrite specimens.

Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA)); Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA)); Tatsumoto, M. (Geological survey, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-10-01

435

Bioconversion of hemicellulosic fraction of perennial Kans grass (Saccharum spontaneum) biomass to ethanol by Pichia stipitis: A kinetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol is a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil and can be produced from abundantly available lignocellulosic biomass. Utilization of acid hydrolysate of Kans grass (Saccharum spontaneum), a perennial grass native to South Asia, has been investigated for ethanol production. The dilute acid treatment was applied to hydrolyse the Kans grass biomass for releasing maximum hemicellulosic sugars.

Lalit Kumar Singh; C. B. Majumder; Sanjoy Ghosh

2012-01-01

436

Microbes in antarctic waters of the Drake Passage: Vertical patterns of substrate uptake, productivity and biomass in January 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial distribution, substrate uptake, productivity and biomass were investigated in the water column of the Drake Pasage, Antarctica. Organic substrate uptake and productivity were determined by the utilization of [14C] and [3H] glucose and by the incorporation of [3H] adenine and [3H] thymidine into RNA and DNA. Microbial biomass was estimated by ATP concentrations and bacterial abundance by epifluorescence direct

R. B. Hanson; H. K. Lowery; D. Shafer; R. Sorocco; D. H. Pope

1983-01-01

437

Some employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of their abundant forest and agricultural biomass resources, New England and the Cornbelt are likely to grow considerably in the development of biomass energy systems during the next decade or two. Forty thousand or more permanent jobs might be created in New England's wood energy industry by the end of the century. If alcohol-fuel use continues to grow, even greater potential for employment in biomass energy exists in the Cornbelt states. The associated earnings would be quite substantial for both regions. The direct combustion of wood and activities related to alcohol-fuel production are expected to be the major contributors to biomass energy production, employment, and earnings; but other biomass systems show potential as well. Energy extraction from municipal waste, anaerobic digestion of animal manure, and other biomass conversion systems will all generate employment as they grow in use.

Stevenson, W.; Bell, S. E.; Blair, L. M.; Gove, R. M.; Little, J. R.

1981-08-01

438

Die Biomasse mariner Makrobenthos-Gesellschaften im Einflußbereich der Klärschlammverklappung vor der Elbemündung  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrofauna of a dumping area in the eastern part of the German Bight (North Sea) was investigated in July, August and November, 1978 at five stations situated on a transect including central and peripheral areas of the dumping region. Abundance and biomass (ash free dry weight) of the macrofauna and its variation from July to November were analysed as well as the biomass of different taxa. Molluscs dominated over polychaetes, crustaceans and echinoderms. A positive correlation seemed to exist between mud content and biomass at the peripherally situated stations. In the central sewage sludge area, however, the biomass values were reduced. In late autumn the biomass decreased in the entire area due to the death of Diastylis rathkei, Abra alba and Pectinaria koreni. These species were replaced by the mollusc Nucula turgida and polychaete Nephtys hombergii. In autumn the biomass values also showed a distinct minimum at the central stations.

Mühlenhardt-Siegel, U.

1981-12-01

439

Coronal Abundances and Their Variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contract supported the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study were a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This is the Final Report, summarizing the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of performance, June 1993 - December 1996.

Saba, Julia L. R.

1996-12-01

440

Coronal abundances and their variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft x ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. A summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the months of June to December 1993 is reported.

Saba, Julia L. R.

1993-12-01