Sample records for beetle biomass abundance

  1. Ground Covers Influence the Abundance and Behavior of Japanese Beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsofia Szendrei; Rufus Isaacs

    2006-01-01

    Ground covers were tested for 3 consecutive yr for their effect on Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), abundance and behavior in a blueberry planting. Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), pe- rennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and bare ground were compared within row-middles for their effect on abundance of adult female beetles, female beetle behavior

  2. PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Nathan J.

    PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS - ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity

  3. PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Nathan J.

    PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS - ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity

  4. Beetles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The beetles, or Coleoptera, are so abundant that it is said that one in every five living species on earth is a beetle. This Topic in Depth explores the vast insect order of Coleoptera. From the Zoological Institute at the Russian Academy of Sciences, the first site (1) contains beautiful images and information sections regarding Morphology and Anatomy, Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Distribution, Collections, and Publications. The second (2) site was created by Vratislav Bejsak-Colloredo-Mansfeld (of the University of Sydney) for beetle collectors, researchers, ecologists, entomologists, and others interested in beetles. The site contains links to a Coleoptera Bibliography; Coleoptera Databases and Catalogues; A Glossary of Entomological Terms; Images and Sound Library; and more. The third (3) site presents the Coleopterists Society, an international organization devoted to the study of beetles. The website contains information about the Society, upcoming meetings, prizes and awards, beetle conservation, resources, and news. From the University of Texas in Austin, the fourth (4) website presents Water Beetle World, the Newsletter for aquatic Coleoptera workers. The Newsletter serves as a forum for workers to share publication announcements, images, species checklists, resources, and more. The fifth (5) website presents the Purple Loosestrife Project, which was developed collaboratively by Michigan State University and Michigan Sea Grant Extension. The Project, designed for K-12 teachers and students, as well as other concerned citizens, involves the use of certain beetle species to help control the spread of Purple Loosestrife, and encourage the recovery of native vegetation. From Insecta Inspecta World, a project of the Honors Academy at Thornton Jr. High School in Fremont, CA (reported on in the October 18, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences), the sixth (6) site shares concise information about, and several great images of, Scarab beetles. From the archives of Iowa State University's Entomology Image Gallery, the final (7) site contains a collection of good-quality Coleoptera images including bean leaf beetles, blister beetles, wireworms, flea beetles, corn rootworms, weevils, and ladybird beetles.

  5. Thinning of mature lodgepole pine stands increases scolytid bark beetle abundance and diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor D. Hindmarch; Mary L. Reid

    2001-01-01

    Thinning of forests has been used as a management tool for bark beetles; however, its effects have only been studied in a limited number of bark beetle species, and the causes of its effectiveness remain unclear. We sampled the abundance and diversity of secondary bark beetles in mature thinned and unthinned lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., stands (ca.

  6. Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass in beech forests of various ages

    PubMed Central

    Jelaska, Lucija Šeri?; Dumbovi?, Vlatka; Ku?ini?, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Carabid beetle diversity and mean individual biomass (MIB) were analysed in three different successional stages of beech tree stands (60, 80 and 150 years old). Carabid beetles were captured using pitfall traps placed at nine sites (three per age class) in the Papuk Mountain of East Croatia during 2008. A cluster analysis identified three groupings that corresponded to the beech age classes. MIB values increased with stand age, ranging from 255 in 60-year-old stand to 537 in the oldest forests. The 80-year-old stand showed the highest species richness and diversity values. With respect to species composition, large species such as Carabus scheidleri and Carabus coriaceus were dominant only in the oldest forests. Furthermore, species that overwinter in the larval stage were more abundant in the oldest forests (45% of the total number of individuals from the 150-year-old stand) than in the younger ones (20% of individuals from 60-year-old, and 22% of individuals from 80-year-old stands). Our results showed that the analyses of species composition and life history traits are valuable for estimating the conservation values of older forests. Although the investigated sites form part of a continuous forested area and are only a couple of kilometres apart, MIB values detect significant differences associated with forest age and can be a useful tool in evaluating the degree to which a forest reflects a natural state. PMID:21738423

  7. Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction of spatial effects and genotypic diversity.

    PubMed

    Genung, Mark A; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Nathan J

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation and genotypic diversity of host-plants can affect the structure of associated arthropod communities and the dynamics of populations. Similarly, neighboring plants can also affect interactions between host-plants and their associated arthropods. However, most studies on the effects of host-plant genotypes have largely ignored the potential effects of neighboring host-plants on arthropod communities. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to ask how spatial effects of neighboring patches, along with genotype identity and genotypic diversity in tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima), affect the abundances of a common goldenrod herbivore (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity. Additionally, there were strong effects of neighboring plots: aphid abundance in a focal plot was positively correlated to aphid abundance in nearby plots, suggesting strong spatial patterning in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity. However, focal plot genotypic diversity mediated the strength of the neighborhood effect (i.e., strong effects for genotype polyculture focal plots and weak effects for genotype monoculture focal plots). Our results show that aphids were directly influenced by host-plant genotype identity while ladybird beetles responded mainly to prey abundance, and suggest that genotypic diversity can influence the effects of spatial processes on the plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:21805301

  8. Generalist Natural Enemies of a Willow Leaf Beetle (Phratora vulgatissima): Abundance and Feeding Habits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Bj; Peter Dalin; Karin Eklund

    2004-01-01

    The natural enemies attacking eggs (and young larvae) of the willow leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima were identified in the field. Three heteropterans were common natural enemies. The mirid Orthotylus marginalis was the most abundant and had an intermediate consumption rate in the lab, whereas the mirid Closterotomus fulvomaculatus was the least abundant but had the high- est consumption rate. The

  9. Generalist Natural Enemies of a Willow Leaf Beetle ( Phratora vulgatissima ): Abundance and Feeding Habits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christer Björkman; Peter Dalin; Karin Eklund

    2003-01-01

    The natural enemies attacking eggs (and young larvae) of the willow leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima were identified in the field. Three heteropterans were common natural enemies. The mirid Orthotylus marginalis was the most abundant and had an intermediate consumption rate in the lab, whereas the mirid Closterotomus fulvomaculatus was the least abundant but had the highest consumption rate. The anthocorid

  10. Relationships beetween the regional distribution of carabid beetles ( Coleoptera, Carabidae) and the abundance of their potential prey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthieu Guillemain; Michel Loreau; Tanguy Daufresne

    1997-01-01

    We studied regional variation in abundance of carabid beetles in relation to both abiotic factors and prey availability in 19 forest sites, with a focus on the relationship between the distributions of the carabid beetle Abax ater Villers and its prey, earthworms. No significant correlation was found between the abundance of Abax ater and any of the abiotic factors considered.

  11. Temperature determines symbiont abundance in a multipartite bark beetle-fungus ectosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Six, D L; Bentz, B J

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we report evidence that temperature plays a key role in determining the relative abundance of two mutualistic fungi associated with an economically and ecologically important bark beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. The symbiotic fungi possess different optimal temperature ranges. These differences determine which fungus is vectored by dispersing host beetles as temperatures fluctuate over a season. Grosmannia clavigera is the predominant fungus carried by dispersing beetles during cool periods but decreases in prevalence as daily maximum temperatures approach 25 degrees C, and becomes extremely rare when temperatures reach or exceed 32 degrees C. In contrast, Ophiostoma montium increases in prevalence as temperatures approach 25 degrees C, and becomes the predominant symbiont dispersed when temperatures reach or exceed 32 degrees C. The possession of different optimal growth temperatures may facilitate the stable coexistence of the two fungi by supporting growth of each fungus at different times, minimizing direct competition. Furthermore, the beetle may reduce its risk of being left aposymbiotic by exploiting not one, but two symbionts, whose combined growth optima span a wide range of environmental conditions. The possession of multiple symbionts with different temperature tolerances may allow the beetle to occupy highly variable habitats over a wide geographic range. Such temperature-driven symbiont shifts are likely to have major consequences for both the host and its symbionts under current temperature regimes and those predicted to occur because of climate change. PMID:17264992

  12. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  13. [Effects of sewage discharge on abundance and biomass of meiofauna].

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Shou; Lin, Ming-Xian; Chen, Huai-Pu; Wei, Lian-Ming; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Nan

    2014-10-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of sewage discharge on abundance and biomass of meio- fauna, a seasonal survey was carried out on meiofauna at stations with different distances to a sewage outlet in the middle intertidal zone of No. 1 bathing beach in Huiquan Bay, Qingdao in spring (April), summer (August), autumn (October) and winter (December), 2011. The results showed that the annual average meiofaunal abundance was (1859.9 ± 705.1) ind · 10 cm(-2), with higher values of (2444.9 ± 1220.5) ind · 10 cm(-2) at Station S2 (20 m to the sewage outlet) and (2492.2 ± 1839.9) ind · 10 cm(-2) at Station S3 (40 m to the sewage outlet), while the lowest value of (327.9 ± 183.2) ind · 10 cm(-2) was observed at Station S1 (0 m to the sewage outlet) in terms of horizontal distribution. The annual average biomass was (1513.4 ± 372.7) ?g · 10 cm(-2). Meiofaunal abundance and biomass varied seasonally with the highest values in spring and the lowest values in summer. A total of 11 meiofaunal groups were identified, including nematodes, copepods, polychaetes, oligochaetes, tardigrades, halacaroideans, planarians, ostracods, isopods, crustacean nauplii and others. Free-living marine nematodes were the dominant group constituting 83. 1% of the total abundance, followed by benthic copepods, accounting for 12. 8% of the total abundance. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiofauna concentrated in the top 0-2 cm, and the meiofauna abundance decreased with increasing the sediment depth. Meiofauna was also noted to migrate deeper into the sediment in the winter. Pearson correlation analysis showed that meiofaunal abundance and biomass had highly significant negative correlations with sediment median particle diameter and organic matter content. In addition, tourism-induced activities affected meiofaunal abundance and distribution. A comparison with historical data from similar studies was carried out, and the applicability of the ratio of abundance of nematodes to copepods in monitoring organic pollution was discussed. PMID:25796915

  14. Distribution and sequence homogeneity of an abundant satellite DNA in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Davis, C A; Wyatt, G R

    1989-07-25

    The mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, contains an unusually abundant and homogeneous satellite DNA which constitutes up to 60% of its genome. The satellite DNA is shown to be present in all of the chromosomes by in situ hybridization. 18 dimers of the repeat unit were cloned and sequenced. The consensus sequence is 142 nt long and lacks any internal repeat structure. Monomers of the sequence are very similar, showing on average a 2% divergence from the calculated consensus. Variant nucleotides are scattered randomly throughout the sequence although some variants are more common than others. Neighboring repeat units are no more alike than randomly chosen ones. The results suggest that some mechanism, perhaps gene conversion, is acting to maintain the homogeneity of the satellite DNA despite its abundance and distribution on all of the chromosomes. PMID:2762148

  15. Effects of forest restoration treatments on the abundance of bark beetles in Norway spruce forests of southern Finland

    E-print Network

    Kotiaho, Janne S.

    Effects of forest restoration treatments on the abundance of bark beetles in Norway spruce forests of southern Finland Tero Toivanen a, *, Veli Liikanen a , Janne S. Kotiaho a,b a Department of Biological and Environmental Science, PO Box 35, 40014 University of Jyva¨skyla¨, Jyva¨skyla¨, Finland b Natural History Museum

  16. Disruption of ant-aphid mutualism in canopy enhances the abundance of beetles on the forest floor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web. PMID:22558156

  17. Disruption of Ant-Aphid Mutualism in Canopy Enhances the Abundance of Beetles on the Forest Floor

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web. PMID:22558156

  18. Diversity abundance and seasonality of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionida) in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...

  19. Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

    2013-07-01

    Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass, to a depth of 350 m, has a mean of 8.4 ?g C L-1, median of 0.2 ?g C L-1 and a standard deviation of 63.5 ?g C L-1. The global annual average estimate of macrozooplankton biomass in the top 350 m, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid-latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted by the lack of information on the size of the organism and/or the absence of taxonomic information. Distribution patterns of global macrozooplankton biomass and statistical information about biomass concentrations may be used to validate biogeochemical and plankton functional type models. Macrozooplankton abundance and biomass dataset doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.777398.

  20. Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass has a mean of 8.4 ?g C l-1, median of 0.15 ?g C l-1 and a standard deviation of 63.46 ?g C l-1. The global annual average estimate of epipelagic macrozooplankton, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. Biomass is highest in the tropics, decreasing in the sub-tropics and increasing slightly towards the poles. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted in the most part by the lack of information on the size of the organism and/or the absence of taxonomic information. Distribution patterns of global macrozooplankton biomass and statistical information about biomass concentrations may be used to validate biogeochemical models and Plankton Functional Type models. Original dataset http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777398 Gridded dataset http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777398

  1. Micronekton abundance and biomass in Hawaiian waters as influenced by seamounts, eddies, and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; De Forest, Lisa G.; Domokos, Reka

    2011-05-01

    Micronekton abundance, biomass, and community composition was determined from 58 Cobb trawl samples taken from 2005 to 2008 at several locations in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. The results indicated a strong influence of the lunar illumination on micronekton abundance and biomass. This effect was evident in shallow night tows and probably was the result of lunar light affecting the nighttime depths of migrating species. The abundance and biomass of micronekton is remarkably consistent between years and areas in Hawaiian waters after the affects of moon phase are accounted for. Micronekton, principally migratory myctophids, were reduced over the summit of Cross Seamount but not Finch Seamount that has a summit below the daytime depth of most migrators. However, during a new moon, micronekton abundance over Cross seamount was similar to surrounding areas either because of altered migration patterns or because predators such as tunas cannot forage as effectively at night without lunar illumination. Species belonging to the Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary layer community were found to vary in presence and abundance between years at Cross Seamount suggesting that a consistent seamount associated fauna does not exist. Sparse sampling of a cyclonic mid-ocean eddy suggested very high micronekton abundance and biomass both in shallow waters at night but also at depth during the day. Although preliminary, these results suggest that eddies may aggregate the micronekton which probably feed on the enhanced secondary productivity.

  2. Phenology and Abundance of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eastern South Dakota on Alfalfa and Soybean Relative to Tillage, Fertilization and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without a...

  3. Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA).

    PubMed

    Heidelberg, Karla B; O'Neil, Keri L; Bythell, John C; Sebens, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 +/- 1949 SD individuals m(-3), but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93-96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m(-3) and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs. PMID:20046854

  4. Abundance, biomass production, nutrient content, and the possible role of terrestrial salamanders in Missouri Ozark

    E-print Network

    salamanders in Missouri Ozark forest ecosystems R.D. Semlitsch, K.M. O'Donnell, and F.R. Thompson III Abstract of abundance and density of a dominant species, the Southern Redback Salamander (Plethodon serratus Grobman and density estimates to calculate biomass and nutrient content of salamanders at our study sites in the Ozark

  5. Planktonic ciliates in Southampton Water: abundance, biomass, production, and role in pelagic carbon flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. G. Leakey; P. H. Burkill; M. A. Sleigh

    1992-01-01

    The abundance and biomass of marine planktonic ciliates were determined at monthly intervals at two stations in Southampton Water between June 1986 and June 1987. The two stations, an outer one at Calshot and an inner one at N. W. Netley, were subject to differing marine and terrestrial influences. The potential ciliate production at cach station on each visit was

  6. The effects of tree plantation rotation on earthworm abundance and biomass in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiqing Li; Amy Shimabukuro-Madden; Bruce W. Mathews

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms play a large part in soil functioning but the effects and implications of earthworm invasions are not well known in comparison with above-ground invasive species. Few studies have examined land-use change and tree plantation rotation effects on earthworm invasions. Using replicated reciprocal experimentation, this study examined the effects of tree plantation rotation on earthworm abundance, biomass, and community structure

  7. Macroinvertebrate Abundance and Biomass: 2007 Data, BPA-51; Preliminary Report, February 10, 2009..

    SciTech Connect

    Holderman, Charles

    2009-02-10

    Four Excel files containing information on the 2007 macroinvertebrate data were initially provided to Statistical Consulting Services (SCS) by EcoAnalysts on 1/27/2009. These data files contained information on abundance and biomass data at the level of taxonomic groups. The data were subsequently reformatted and compiled, and aggregated for analysis by SCS. All descriptions and analyses below relate to this compiled data. Computations were carried out separately for each site over all sample periods. Basic summary information for both the abundance and biomass data is presented in Print Out No.2. The 14 sites varied widely in their minimum, mean, maximum and variance values. The number of observations ranged from 10 to 18. Some large abundance values (abundance > 40,000) were noted for sites KR6 and KR13. A more detailed summary of each site is given in Print Out No.3. Site KR3, for example, had a mean abundance of 6914 with a sample size of 17. The variance was 4591991 and the standard error of the mean was 1643. The skewness value, a measure of symmetry for the frequency distribution, was moderately large at 1.29 indicating an asymmetric distribution. Biomass for KR3 had a mean value of 0.87 g/m{sup 2} with 17 observations. The variance was 0.8872 and the standard error was 0.228 g/m{sup 2}. Skewness for biomass was also high at 1.29. Further examination of the quantiles and frequency plots for abundance and biomass also indicate considerable skewness. The stem and leaf diagram (frequency plot) for abundance in KR3 shows most of the data centered on smaller values with a few very large counts. The distribution for biomass has a similar pattern. Statistical tests for normality are significant for both response variables in KR3, thus, the hypothesis that the data originates from a symmetric normal distribution is rejected. Because sample size estimation and statistical inference assume normally distributed data, a transformation of the data is required prior to further analysis. As was the case for previous years, the natural logarithm was chosen as a transformation to mitigate distributional skewness. Abundance and biomass for the remaining sites were also notably skewed, therefore, these data were also log transformed prior to analysis. Summary information for the transformed data (referred to as L-abun and L-bio for abundance and biomass, respectively) are given in Print Out No.4. For site KR3, the logarithmic transformation reduced skewness value for biomass to -0.66. The distributions of abundance and biomass in the other sites also generally showed improvement as well. Hence, all subsequent statistical analyses reported here will be based on the log transformed data.

  8. Changes to Rainbow Trout Abundance and Salmonid Biomass in a Washington Watershed as Related to Hatchery Salmon Supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd N. Pearsons; Gabriel M. Temple

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the changes in (1) the abundance, size, and biomass of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, (2) the abundance of spring Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha parr, and (3) the combined biomass of rainbow trout and Chinook salmon parr after nine annual releases of approximately 250,000 Chinook salmon and coho salmon O. kisutch smolts into the North Fork of the Teanaway

  9. Relationships between Plant Diversity and the Abundance and ?-Diversity of Predatory Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Mature Asian Temperate Forest Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2013-01-01

    A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and ?-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle ?-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid ?-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems. PMID:24376582

  10. Global patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: Species richness, abundance, biomass and body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton

    2013-10-01

    Global patterns in species richness in sandy beach ecosystems have been poorly understood until comparatively recently, because of the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases at continental scales. We analyze information from more than 200 sandy beaches around the world, which harbor hundreds of macrofauna species, and explore latitudinal trends in species richness, abundance and biomass. Species richness increases from temperate to tropical sites. Abundance follows contrasting trends depending on the slope of the beach: in gentle slope beaches, it is higher at temperate sites, whereas in steep-slope beaches it is higher at the tropics. Biomass follows identical negative trends for both climatic regions at the whole range of beach slopes, suggesting decreasing rates in carrying capacity of the environment towards reflective beaches. Various morphodynamic variables determine global trends in beach macrofauna. Species richness, abundance and biomass are higher at dissipative than at reflective beaches, whereas a body size follows the reverse pattern. A generalized linear model showed that large tidal range (which determines the vertical dimension of the intertidal habitat), small size of sand particles and flat beach slope (a product of the interaction among wave energy, tidal range and grain size) are correlated with high species richness, suggesting that these parameters represent the most parsimonious variables for modelling patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. Large-scale patterns indicate a scaling of abundance to a body size, suggesting that dissipative beaches harbor communities with highest abundance and species with the smallest body sizes. Additional information for tropical and northern hemisphere sandy beaches (underrepresented in our compilation) is required to decipher more conclusive trends, particularly in abundance, biomass and body size. Further research should integrate meaningful oceanographic variables, such as temperature and primary production, in deciphering latitudinal trends.

  11. Microbial abundance and biomass in sediments of the Texas-Louisiana shelf

    E-print Network

    Cruz-Kaegi, Marta Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    ) for the New England Shelf. Table 4 and Figure 17 show that, in fact, bacterial biomass in these two areas is very similar if the same assumption of 10 fg C cell I used by ROWE, er aL (1988) is applied to the Gulf of Mexico samples. The table also presents... Elizabeth Cruz-Kaegi, B. S. , Universidad Nacional Autdnoma de Honduras Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gilbert T. Rowe Bacterial abundance and biomass were measured in the sediment at 19 stations in three different areas of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf...

  12. Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an savanna.

    PubMed

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Ieradi, Michele

    2010-12-01

    In the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, we compared the scarab beetle assemblages in the dung of three wild ungulates (African buffalo, a ruminant foregut fermenter; hippopotamus, nonruminant foregut fermenter; and warthog, nonruminant hindgut fermenter). Dung was collected from two sandy-clay soils with different percentage of coarse sand. We aimed at investigating habitat resource selection by dung beetle species within a savanna natural contest with abundant and diverse food availability. Analyses were performed to detect differences for dung beetle assemblages in abundance, diversity, functional groups. Species richness in the three dung types and in the two soil types was similar. However, warthog dung and sandy-rich soil appeared the preferred habitat resources, in terms of abundance and biomass, while hippopotamus dung hosted the lowest values for these parameters. The analysis of functional groups revealed that slow-burying tunnellers held the major role, both in terms of abundance and biomass, and were mainly found in warthog dung. PMID:22182540

  13. Hydrodynamic control of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in northern Svalbard waters (79-81°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Søreide, Janne E.; Kwasniewski, Slawek; Sundfjord, Arild; Hop, Haakon; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Nøst Hegseth, Else

    2008-10-01

    The spatial variation in mesozooplankton biomass, abundance and species composition in relation to oceanography was studied in different climatic regimes (warm Atlantic vs. cold Arctic) in northern Svalbard waters. Relationships between the zooplankton community and various environmental factors (salinity, temperature, sampling depth, bottom depth, sea-ice concentrations, algal biomass and bloom stage) were established using multivariate statistics. Our study demonstrated that variability in the physical environment around Svalbard had measurable effect on the pelagic ecosystem. Differences in bottom depth and temperature-salinity best explained more than 40% of the horizontal variability in mesozooplankton biomass (DM m -2) after adjusting for seasonal variability. Salinity and temperature also explained much (21% and 15%, respectively) of the variability in mesozooplankton vertical distribution (ind. m -3) in August. Algal bloom stage, chlorophyll- a biomass, and depth stratum accounted for additional 17% of the overall variability structuring vertical zooplankton distribution. Three main zooplankton communities were identified, including Atlantic species Fritillaria borealis, Oithona atlantica, Calanus finmarchicus, Themisto abyssorum and Aglantha digitale; Arctic species Calanus glacialis, Gammarus wilkitzkii, Mertensia ovum and Sagitta elegans; and deeper-water inhabitants Paraeuchaeta spp., Spinocalanus spp., Aetideopsis minor, Mormonilla minor, Scolecithricella minor, Gaetanus ( Gaidius) tenuispinus, Ostracoda, Scaphocalanus brevicornis and Triconia borealis. Zooplankton biomasses in Atlantic- and Arctic-dominated water masses were similar, but biological "hot-spots" were associated with Arctic communities.

  14. Influence of hydrological seasonality on sandbank benthos: algal biomass and shrimp abundance in a large neotropical river

    E-print Network

    Montoya Ceballos, Jose Vicente

    2009-05-15

    In this study, I examined the influence of hydrological seasonality on spatiotemporal variation of algal biomass and shrimp abundance on sandbanks of the Cinaruco River in southwestern Venezuela. Seasonal variations of abiotic and biotic variables...

  15. Composition, abundance, biomass, and production of macrofauna in a New England estuary: Comparisons among eelgrass meadows and other nursery habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Heck; K. W. Able; C. T. Roman; M. P. Fahay

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative suction sampling was used to characterize and compare the species composition, abundance, biomass, and secondary\\u000a production of macrofauna inhabiting intertidal mud-flat and sand-flat, eelgrass meadow, and salt-marsh-pool habitats in the\\u000a Nauset Marsh complex, Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA). Species richness and abundance were often greatest in eelgrass habitat,\\u000a as was macroinvertebrate biomass and production. Most striking was the five to

  16. Temporal variability in abundance and biomass of ciliates and copepods in the eutrophicated part of Kaštela Bay (Middle Adriatic Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Bojani?; Mladen Šoli?; Nada Krstulovi?; Stefanija Šestanovi?; Ivona Marasovi?; Živana Nin?evi?

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal variations in abundance and carbon biomass of ciliated protozoa and micrometazoa were studied from May 1998 to November 1999 in the eutrophicated area of Kaštela Bay (Middle Adriatic Sea). Ciliates showed peaks in spring and autumn, primarily due to changes in the abundance and biomass of tintinnines, which participated in total ciliate abundance and biomass with 40.48 and 60.02%,

  17. Soil Nutrient Content Influences the Abundance of Soil Microbes but Not Plant Biomass at the Small-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Koorem, Kadri; Gazol, Antonio; Öpik, Maarja; Moora, Mari; Saks, Ülle; Uibopuu, Annika; Sõber, Virve; Zobel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale heterogeneity of abiotic and biotic factors is expected to play a crucial role in species coexistence. It is known that plants are able to concentrate their root biomass into areas with high nutrient content and also acquire nutrients via symbiotic microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. At the same time, little is known about the small-scale distribution of soil nutrients, microbes and plant biomass occurring in the same area. We examined small-scale temporal and spatial variation as well as covariation of soil nutrients, microbial biomass (using soil fatty acid biomarker content) and above- and belowground biomass of herbaceous plants in a natural herb-rich boreonemoral spruce forest. The abundance of AM fungi and bacteria decreased during the plant growing season while soil nutrient content rather increased. The abundance of all microbes studied also varied in space and was affected by soil nutrient content. In particular, the abundance of AM fungi was negatively related to soil phosphorus and positively influenced by soil nitrogen content. Neither shoot nor root biomass of herbaceous plants showed any significant relationship with variation in soil nutrient content or the abundance of soil microbes. Our study suggests that plants can compensate for low soil phosphorus concentration via interactions with soil microbes, most probably due to a more efficient symbiosis with AM fungi. This compensation results in relatively constant plant biomass despite variation in soil phosphorous content and in the abundance of AM fungi. Hence, it is crucial to consider both soil nutrient content and the abundance of soil microbes when exploring the mechanisms driving vegetation patterns. PMID:24637633

  18. Soil nutrient content influences the abundance of soil microbes but not plant biomass at the small-scale.

    PubMed

    Koorem, Kadri; Gazol, Antonio; Öpik, Maarja; Moora, Mari; Saks, Ülle; Uibopuu, Annika; Sõber, Virve; Zobel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale heterogeneity of abiotic and biotic factors is expected to play a crucial role in species coexistence. It is known that plants are able to concentrate their root biomass into areas with high nutrient content and also acquire nutrients via symbiotic microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. At the same time, little is known about the small-scale distribution of soil nutrients, microbes and plant biomass occurring in the same area. We examined small-scale temporal and spatial variation as well as covariation of soil nutrients, microbial biomass (using soil fatty acid biomarker content) and above- and belowground biomass of herbaceous plants in a natural herb-rich boreonemoral spruce forest. The abundance of AM fungi and bacteria decreased during the plant growing season while soil nutrient content rather increased. The abundance of all microbes studied also varied in space and was affected by soil nutrient content. In particular, the abundance of AM fungi was negatively related to soil phosphorus and positively influenced by soil nitrogen content. Neither shoot nor root biomass of herbaceous plants showed any significant relationship with variation in soil nutrient content or the abundance of soil microbes. Our study suggests that plants can compensate for low soil phosphorus concentration via interactions with soil microbes, most probably due to a more efficient symbiosis with AM fungi. This compensation results in relatively constant plant biomass despite variation in soil phosphorous content and in the abundance of AM fungi. Hence, it is crucial to consider both soil nutrient content and the abundance of soil microbes when exploring the mechanisms driving vegetation patterns. PMID:24637633

  19. Abundance and species richness patterns of diving beetles (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) from exposed and protected sites in 98 northern Swedish lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders N. Nilsson; HÓakan Söderberg

    1996-01-01

    Forty species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) were collected in sweepnet samples from 98 boreal lakes in northern Sweden. Samples from protected sites with vegetation had significantly more specimens and species than those from exposed sites without vegetation in the same lakes. No geographically based differences, e.g. latitudinal or in distance from the coast, were found. These gradients were

  20. Geographical and seasonal variations in abundance, biomass and estimated production rates of microzooplankton in the Inland Sea of Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-ichi Uye; Naoki Nagano; Hidenori Tamaki

    1996-01-01

    We measured abundance and biomass of 3 major groups of microzooplankton, i.e. tintinnids, naked ciliates and copepod nauplii, at 21 stations in the Inland Sea of Japan in October 1993, January, April and June 1994. The average abundance of the microzooplankton over the entire Inland Sea of Japan ranged from 2.39×105 indiv. m?3 in January to 4.00×105 indiv. m?3 in

  1. Polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity patterns at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Mark A.; Blanco-Perez, Raimundo

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in the North Atlantic Ocean accounts for a large proportion of available bathyal soft-sediment habitat. When comparing the MAR to the continental margins of the North Atlantic, it is apparent that very little is known about the soft-sediment macrofaunal community associated with the MAR. In the present study, as part of the ECOMAR (Ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the Sub-Polar Front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone) project, the polychaete component of the MAR macrofaunal community was investigated. A total of 751 polychaete specimens and 133 species were identified from megacorer samples collected at four MAR sites (48-54°N, depth: 2500-2800 m) sampled during the RRS James Cook 48 cruise in the summer of 2010. Polychaetes were the most abundant member of the macrofaunal community, and there was no significant difference in polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity between any of the MAR sites. In addition, the MAR did not appear to provide a physical barrier to the distribution of bathyal polychaetes either side of the ridge.

  2. Effect of forest removal on the abundance of the endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Curtis Creighton; Robert Bastarache; Mark V. Lomolino; Mark C. Belk

    2009-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the decline of the endangered American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) from over 90% of its original range is the result of habitat loss and fragmentation of eastern North America. Forest removal\\u000a at a site in southeastern Oklahoma known to have a significant population of N. americanus gave us a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis. At

  3. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rodrigo F; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

  4. Burgeoning Biomass: Creating Efficient and Sustainable Forest Biomass Supply Chains in the Rockies

    E-print Network

    1 Burgeoning Biomass: Creating Efficient and Sustainable Forest Biomass Supply Chains and removing beetle- killed trees, produce a byproduct called woody biomass. Also known as "slash, woody biomass can be collected, processed and transported SUMMARY Woody biomass could be used

  5. Managing forests infested by spruce beetles in south-central Alaska: Effects on nitrogen availability, understory biomass, and spruce regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilly F. Goodman; Bruce A. Hungate

    2006-01-01

    In Alaska, an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) recently infested over one million hectares of spruce (Picea spp.) forest. As a result, land management agencies have applied different treatments to infested forests to minimize fire hazard and economic loss and facilitate forest regeneration. In this study we investigated the effects of high-intensity burning, whole-tree harvest, whole-tree harvest with nitrogen

  6. Microbial abundance and biomass in sediments of the Texas-Louisiana shelf 

    E-print Network

    Cruz-Kaegi, Marta Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    ) . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . Fig. 5. Distribution of sediment bacteria biomass (g C m 2) at locations on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf, Fig. 6. Distribution of sediment bacterial biomass (g C m-2) with water depth (m) on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf. Fig. 7. Relationship between...; C. C6B; D. C7 . . . . . . . . . . ?. ?. . . . . . . Fig 15. Profile of bacterial biomass in the sediments of Galveston Bay. A. Kemah (K); B. Pelican Island (PJ); C. Trinity Bay (TB). . . Fig. 16 Bacteria biomass profile in the sediments...

  7. Biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David O. Hall

    1992-01-01

    In the last century, biomass fuels - mostly wood - provided most of the world's energy. Today biomass in all its forms (wood, dung, and agricultural and forest residues) supplies about 14 percent of our energy - most of it in developing countries, where biomass is the most common energy source. Biomass provides more than a quarter of China's energy,

  8. Influences of the Tamarisk Leaf Beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on the diet of insectivorous birds along the Dolores River in Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, Sarah L.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a biologic control agent, the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), on native avifauna in southwestern Colorado, specifically, addressing whether and to what degree birds eat tamarisk leaf beetles. In 2010, we documented avian foraging behavior, characterized the arthropod community, sampled bird diets, and undertook an experiment to determine whether tamarisk leaf beetles are palatable to birds. We observed that tamarisk leaf beetles compose 24.0 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 19.9-27.4 percent) and 35.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 32.4-45.1 percent) of arthropod abundance and biomass in the study area, respectively. Birds ate few tamarisk leaf beetles, despite a superabundance of D. carinulata in the environment. The frequency of occurrence of tamarisk leaf beetles in bird diets was 2.1 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 1.3- 2.9 percent) by abundance and 3.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 2.6-4.2 percent) by biomass. Thus, tamarisk leaf beetles probably do not contribute significantly to the diets of birds in areas where biologic control of tamarisk is being applied.

  9. Woodpeckers increase in abundance but maintain fecundity in response to an outbreak of mountain pine bark beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda B. Edworthy; Mark C. Drever; Kathy Martin

    2011-01-01

    Many temperate woodpecker species are thought to be highly conservative in their fecundity with little response to fluctuations in availability of resources. In a 15-year field study in interior British Columbia, we evaluated responses in abundance and fecundity of six species of resident and migrant woodpeckers (downy woodpecker [Picoides pubescens], hairy woodpecker [Picoides villosus], American three-toed woodpecker [Picoides dorsalis], pileated

  10. Spatial-temporal scales of synchrony in marine zooplankton biomass and abundance patterns: A world-wide comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelder, Harold P.; Mackas, David L.; O'Brien, Todd D.

    2012-05-01

    Large scale synchrony in the fluctuations of abundance or biomass of marine fish populations in regions on opposite sides of an ocean basin or in different oceans have been viewed as externally forced by correlated environmental stochasticity (e.g., common external forcing), most often as atmospheric teleconnections of basin-to-global scale atmospheric forcing, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Specific causal mechanisms have been difficult to unequivocally discover, but possible mechanisms include influences on habitat temperatures, productivity operating through bottom-up (trophodynamic) mechanisms or direct climate influence on the fish populations (top-down mechanisms). For small pelagic fishes (sardines and anchovies) in widely separated large marine ecosystems that lack obvious ocean interconnectivity, it has been argued that the teleconnections may be atmospheric, acting on the fishes directly and propagating to the ecosystem from the middle out (wasp-waist species). Zooplankton biomass or abundance time series data from >100 sites world-wide are used to examine the spatial scales of coherent temporal synchrony. If spatially correlated environmental factors (like climate) are important for creating synchrony in fish populations via bottom-up effects (trophic interactions involving fish prey, e.g., zooplankton), then we would expect to observe synchrony in fluctuations of zooplankton biomass/numbers at spatial scales similar to those found for fish species. Zooplankton biomass/abundance have 50% spatial decorrelation scales of ca. 700-1400 km and scales of significant coherence that extend to separation distances of ca. 3000 km. These are also the spatial scales of environmental (sea surface temperature) synchrony from our global analysis. These scales are slightly greater than the 50% decorrelation scales of ca. 150-700 km for recruitment synchrony in Atlantic marine fish and survival and recruitment synchrony of Northeast Pacific salmonids (150-1000 km depending on species). However, the spatial scales of synchrony of annual zooplankton biomass anomalies in the Humboldt Current, California Current and Kuroshio ecosystems of the Pacific are much too small (ca. 2000 km) to be directly causal of the basin-scale (7000-15,000 km) synchrony exhibited by sardine and/or anchovy populations in those ecosystems.

  11. Abundance, production and stabilization of microbial biomass under conventional and reduced tillage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kees-Jan van Groenigen; Jaap Bloem; Erland Bååth; Pascal Boeckx; Johannes Rousk; Samuel Bodé; Dermot Forristal; Michael B. Jones

    2010-01-01

    Soil tillage practices affect the soil microbial community in various ways, with possible consequences for nitrogen (N) losses, plant growth and soil organic carbon (C) sequestration. As microbes affect soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics largely through their activity, their impact may not be deduced from biomass measurements alone. Moreover, residual microbial tissue is thought to facilitate SOM stabilization, and to

  12. Focus Article Beetle horns and horned beetles

    E-print Network

    Moczek, Armin P.

    within the Scarabaeidae, the Dynastinae (rhinoceros beetles) and Scarabaeinae (true dung beetles).1Focus Article Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range

  13. Scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities using functional diversity and community deconstruction approaches.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro Giovâni da; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The ?-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to ?-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean ?- and ?-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution and functional organization of Scarabaeinae beetles. We conclude that functional diversity may be used as a complementary approach to traditional measures, and that community deconstruction allows sufficient disentangling of responses of different trait-based groups. PMID:25822150

  14. Can DNA-Based Ecosystem Assessments Quantify Species Abundance? Testing Primer Bias and Biomass—Sequence Relationships with an Innovative Metabarcoding Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Elbrecht, Vasco; Leese, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Metabarcoding is an emerging genetic tool to rapidly assess biodiversity in ecosystems. It involves high-throughput sequencing of a standard gene from an environmental sample and comparison to a reference database. However, no consensus has emerged regarding laboratory pipelines to screen species diversity and infer species abundances from environmental samples. In particular, the effect of primer bias and the detection limit for specimens with a low biomass has not been systematically examined, when processing samples in bulk. We developed and tested a DNA metabarcoding protocol that utilises the standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding fragment to detect freshwater macroinvertebrate taxa. DNA was extracted in bulk, amplified in a single PCR step, and purified, and the libraries were directly sequenced in two independent MiSeq runs (300-bp paired-end reads). Specifically, we assessed the influence of specimen biomass on sequence read abundance by sequencing 31 specimens of a stonefly species with known haplotypes spanning three orders of magnitude in biomass (experiment I). Then, we tested the recovery of 52 different freshwater invertebrate taxa of similar biomass using the same standard barcoding primers (experiment II). Each experiment was replicated ten times to maximise statistical power. The results of both experiments were consistent across replicates. We found a distinct positive correlation between species biomass and resulting numbers of MiSeq reads. Furthermore, we reliably recovered 83% of the 52 taxa used to test primer bias. However, sequence abundance varied by four orders of magnitudes between taxa despite the use of similar amounts of biomass. Our metabarcoding approach yielded reliable results for high-throughput assessments. However, the results indicated that primer efficiency is highly species-specific, which would prevent straightforward assessments of species abundance and biomass in a sample. Thus, PCR-based metabarcoding assessments of biodiversity should rely on presence-absence metrics. PMID:26154168

  15. Effects of augmentative releases of eggs and larvae of the ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata, on the abundance of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea, in organic apple orchards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Wyss; Mathias Villiger; Jean-Louis Hemptinne; Heinz Muller-scharer

    1999-01-01

    The impact of augmentative releases of larvae and eggs of the indigenous ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) against the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantagineaPass. (Homoptera: Aphididae), a major pest insect on apple trees, was assessed in field experiments in Switzerland, during 1997. In a first experiment, eggs and larvae were released on 3-year old apple trees infested with

  16. Abundance of {sup 14}C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fellner, Johann [Institute for Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: johann.fellner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut [Institute for Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO{sub 2} emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes {sup 14}C and {sup 12}C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in {sup 14}C and reflect the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying {sup 14}C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper {sup 14}C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated {sup 14}C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135 pMC.

  17. Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

    2013-01-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future. PMID:24062759

  18. A metabolic and body-size scaling framework for parasite within-host abundance, biomass, and energy flux.

    PubMed

    Hechinger, Ryan F

    2013-08-01

    Energetics may provide a useful currency for studying the ecology of parasite assemblages within individual hosts. Parasite assemblages may also provide powerful models to study general principles of ecological energetics. Yet there has been little ecological research on parasite-host energetics, probably due to methodological difficulties. However, the scaling relationships of individual metabolic rate with body or cell size and temperature may permit us to tackle the energetics of parasite assemblages in hosts. This article offers the foundations and initial testing of a metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework for parasites in hosts. I first provide equations to estimate energetic flux through observed parasite assemblages. I then develop metabolic scaling theory for parasite abundance, energetics, and biomass in individual hosts. In contrast to previous efforts, the theory factors in both host and parasite metabolic scaling, how parasites use host space, and whether energy or space dictates carrying capacity. Empirical tests indicate that host energetic flux can set parasite carrying capacity, which decreases as predicted considering the scaling of host and parasite metabolic rates. The theory and results also highlight that the phenomenon of "energetic equivalence" is not an assumption of MTE but a possible outcome contingent on how species partition resources. Hence, applying MTE to parasites can lend mechanistic, quantitative, predictive insight into the nature of parasitism and can inform general ecological theory. PMID:23852357

  19. A doubling of microphytobenthos biomass coincides with a tenfold increase in denitrifier and total bacterial abundances in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary.

    PubMed

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Tytgat, Bjorn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB) biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen). Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold) increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-). This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community. PMID:25961719

  20. A Doubling of Microphytobenthos Biomass Coincides with a Tenfold Increase in Denitrifier and Total Bacterial Abundances in Intertidal Sediments of a Temperate Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Tytgat, Bjorn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB) biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen). Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold) increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-). This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community. PMID:25961719

  1. Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Work, Timothy T.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

  2. Insecticide (Carbaryl, 1-napthyl-N-methylcarbamate) effects on a freshwater plankton community: Zooplankton size, biomass, and algal abundance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Havens

    1995-01-01

    Natural plankton communities were enclosed in mesocosms and exposed to nine dose levels (0 to 100 µg L-1) of the insecticide Carbaryl. Plankton responses were determined after 4 day in situ incubations. Total Zooplankton biomass and mean individual biomass declined significantly across the range of treatments. Daphnia were not found at concentrations above 20 µg L-1 and all cladocerans were

  3. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

  4. Factors influencing benthic bacterial abundance, biomass, and activity on the northern continental margin and deep basin of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Jody W.; Carpenter, Shelly D.

    2008-12-01

    As part of a larger project on the deep benthos of the Gulf of Mexico, an extensive data set on benthic bacterial abundance ( n>750), supplemented with cell-size and rate measurements, was acquired from 51 sites across a depth range of 212-3732 m on the northern continental slope and deep basin during the years 2000, 2001, and 2002. Bacterial abundance, determined by epifluorescence microscopy, was examined region-wide as a function of spatial and temporal variables, while subsets of the data were examined for sediment-based chemical or mineralogical correlates according to the availability of collaborative data sets. In the latter case, depth of oxygen penetration helped to explain bacterial depth profiles into the sediment, but only porewater DOC correlated significantly (inversely) with bacterial abundance ( p<0.05, n=24). Other (positive) correlations were detected with TOC, C/N ratios, and % sand when the analysis was restricted to data from the easternmost stations ( p<0.05, n=9-12). Region-wide, neither surface bacterial abundance (3.30-16.8×10 8 bacteria cm -3 in 0-1 cm and 4-5 cm strata) nor depth-integrated abundance (4.84-17.5×10 13 bacteria m -2, 0-15 cm) could be explained by water depth, station location, sampling year, or vertical POC flux. In contrast, depth-integrated bacterial biomass, derived from measured cell sizes of 0.027-0.072 ?m 3, declined significantly with station depth ( p<0.001, n=56). Steeper declines in biomass were observed for the cross-slope transects (when unusual topographic sites and abyssal stations were excluded). The importance of resource changes with depth was supported by the positive relationship observed between bacterial biomass and vertical POC flux, derived from measures of overlying productivity, a relationship that remained significant when depth was held constant (partial correlation analysis, p<0.05, df=50). Whole-sediment incubation experiments under simulated in situ conditions, using 3H-thymidine or 14C-amino acids, yielded low production rates (5-75 ?g C m -2 d -1) and higher respiration rates (76-242 ?g C m -2 d -1), with kinetics suggestive of resource limitation at abyssal depths. Compared to similarly examined deep regions of the open ocean, the semi-enclosed Gulf of Mexico (like the Arabian Sea) harbors in its abyssal sediments a greater biomass of bacteria per unit of vertically delivered POC, likely reflecting the greater input of laterally advected, often unreactive, material from its margins.

  5. The effect of inundation frequency on ground beetle communities in a channelized mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalski, T.; Kedzior, R.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.

    2012-04-01

    Under natural conditions, river channels and floodplains are shaped by flow and sediment regime and are one of the most dynamic ecosystems. At present, European river floodplains are among the most endangered landscapes due to human modifications to river systems, including channel regulation and floodplain urbanization, and land use changes in the catchments. Situated in a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic environments, exposed riverine sediments (ERS) play a key role in the functioning of riverine ecosystems. This study aimed to verify whether the bare granular substrate is the only factor responsible for sustaining the biota associated with ERS or the inundation frequency also plays a role, modifying the potential of particular species to colonize these habitats. Ground beetles (Col. Carabidae) were selected as the investigated group of organisms and the study was carried out in Por?bianka, a Polish Carpathian stream flowing through both unconstrained channel sections and sections with varied channelization schemes (rapid hydraulic structures, concrete revetments or rip-rap of various age). In each of the distinguished channel types, four replicates of 10 pitfall traps were established in three rows varying in distance to the mean water level (at three different benches). Almost 7000 individuals belonging to 102 species were collected on 60 plots. Forward selection of redundancy analysis revealed four factors significantly describing the variation in ground beetle species data: bank modification, potential bankfull discharge, frequency of inundation and plant height. Most of the biggest species were ordered at the positive site of first axis having the highest values of periods between floods. Total biomass of ground beetles and mean biomass of individuals differed significantly between sites of various frequency of inundation, whereas the variation in abundance and species richness of ground beetles was independent of the river dynamics. The body size distribution of ground beetles is significantly right skewed on more frequently flooded areas whereas on more stable localities it becomes left skewed. Our results also demonstrated that the presence of ERS does not changes the structure of ground beetle communities if the frequency of inundation of river banks is reduced. This study indicated that not only habitat parameters but also biotic interactions between competing species from a regional pool are important for the conservation of riverine communities. Vulnerable beetles characteristic of riverine habitats are small and usually weak competitors. A reduced frequency of bank inundation creates possibilities for the colonization of ERS by species from surrounding habitats and elimination of the species well adapted to the dynamic flow conditions typifying unmodified stream sections.

  6. Movement patterns of Cetonia beetles (Scarabaeidae) among flowering Viburnum opulus (Caprifoliaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Englund

    1993-01-01

    The movement patterns of flower-visiting Cetonia (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) were studied in central Sweden over 4 years, providing the first quantitative study of beetle pollination behaviour conducted in a temperate zone. The beetles were marked individually and tracked throughout their visits to Viburnum opulus L. (Caprifoliaceae), a partly beetle-pollinated shrub displaying large umbel-like, creamy-white blossoms. Beetle abundance differed greatly between study

  7. Removal rates of native and exotic dung by dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a fragmented tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Amézquita, Sandra; Favila, Mario E

    2010-04-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effect of forest fragmentation on dung beetle assemblage structure. However, few have analyzed how forest fragmentation affects the processes carried out by these insects in tropical forests where their food sources consist mainly of dung produced by native herbivore mammals. With the conversion of forests to pastures, cattle dung has become an exotic alternative and abundant food for dung beetles. This study compares dung removal rates of native (monkey) and exotic (cow) dung in different-sized fragments of tropical rain forests, during the dry and rainy seasons at the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve. Dung removal rates were affected by season, dung type, and the interaction between resource type and season. During the dry season, the removal rates of monkey dung were somewhat similar than during the rainy season, whereas the removal rates of cow dung were much higher during the rainy season. Dung beetle biomass and species richness were almost three times greater in monkey dung than in cow dung. Monkey dung attracted species belonging to the dweller, roller, and tunneler guilds; cow dung attracted mostly tunnelers. Therefore, the use of exotic dung may result in a biased misconception of the rates of dung removal in tropical forest and an underestimation of dung beetle diversity. This study highlights the importance of working with natural tropical forest resources when attempting to identify realistic tendencies concerning processes in natural habitats and those modified by fragmentation and by other human activities. PMID:20388260

  8. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dena M; Marcot, Jonathan D

    2015-04-22

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

  9. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetle (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge {Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  10. Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed, but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

  11. Influence of hydrological seasonality on sandbank benthos: algal biomass and shrimp abundance in a large neotropical river 

    E-print Network

    Montoya Ceballos, Jose Vicente

    2009-05-15

    of the sandbanks in the Cinaruco during the period of rapid changes in hydrology and habitat structure. During low-water periods, when habitat structure of sandbanks is relatively constant, low shrimp abundance appears to be heavily controlled by high fish...

  12. A comparative study of the mollusc communities of two oligohaline intertidal marshes: Spatial and temporal distribution of abundance and biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Dale Bishop; Courtney T. Hackney

    1987-01-01

    Molluscs were collected monthly for a year from two low salinity (0–9‰) intertidal marshes dominated by the macrophytesJuncus roemerianus orSpartina cynosuroides in St. Louis Bay, Mississippi. TheJuncus marsh had lower soil organic matter, higher pH and was more frequently inundated than theSpartina marsh. Eight species of gastropods were abundant and dominated in the higherSpartina marsh, while three bivalve species were

  13. Elm Leaf Beetle

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    2002-05-22

    Elm leaf beetles damage all varieties of elm trees. Learn how to identify this insect and understand its biology and life cycle. There are suggestions for controlling elm leaf beetles, as well as a table of insecticides effective against...

  14. Colorado Bark Beetle Cooperative

    E-print Network

    Colorado Bark Beetle Cooperative Colorado Bark Beetle Cooperative A Place Based Collaborative;Resources and Values at Risk... Human Life, Property, Communities, Water Supplies, Public and Private of Land Management, National Park Service, Colorado State Forest Service, & Northwest Colorado Council

  15. Spatial variation in abundance, size and orientation of juvenile corals related to the biomass of parrotfishes on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Trapon, Melanie L; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    For species with complex life histories such as scleractinian corals, processes occurring early in life can greatly influence the number of individuals entering the adult population. A plethora of studies have examined settlement patterns of coral larvae, mostly on artificial substrata, and the composition of adult corals across multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, relatively few studies have examined the spatial distribution of small (?50 mm diameter) sexually immature corals on natural reef substrata. We, therefore, quantified the variation in the abundance, composition and size of juvenile corals (?50 mm diameter) among 27 sites, nine reefs, and three latitudes spanning over 1000 km on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Overall, 2801 juveniles were recorded with a mean density of 6.9 (±0.3 SE) ind.m(-2), with Acropora, Pocillopora, and Porites accounting for 84.1% of all juvenile corals surveyed. Size-class structure, orientation on the substrate and taxonomic composition of juvenile corals varied significantly among latitudinal sectors. The abundance of juvenile corals varied both within (6-13 ind.m(-2)) and among reefs (2.8-11.1 ind.m(-2)) but was fairly similar among latitudes (6.1-8.2 ind.m(-2)), despite marked latitudinal variation in larval supply and settlement rates previously found at this scale. Furthermore, the density of juvenile corals was negatively correlated with the biomass of scraping and excavating parrotfishes across all sites, revealing a potentially important role of parrotfishes in determining distribution patterns of juvenile corals on the Great Barrier Reef. While numerous studies have advocated the importance of parrotfishes for clearing space on the substrate to facilitate coral settlement, our results suggest that at high biomass they may have a detrimental effect on juvenile coral assemblages. There is, however, a clear need to directly quantify rates of mortality and growth of juvenile corals to understand the relative importance of these mechanisms in shaping juvenile, and consequently adult, coral assemblages. PMID:23469067

  16. Mountain Pine Beetles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Melissa Barker

    This lesson plan has students working in small groups to research the Mountain Pine Beetle in Colorado and other inter-mountain Western states. Students identify the factors that control pine beetle population and research how warmer winters and decreasing spring snowpack allow the population of pine beetles to expand.

  17. Sikes Tiger Beetle Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

    2009-01-10

    735 tiger beetle specimens in the post-1980 University of Connecticut Insect Collection are sorted by species and month of collection.Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) 1996-1998 Derek S. Sikes (1999) Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae)1996-1998 Conservation status, Taxonomy and Ecology. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. University of Connecticut. Storrs, CT 06269

  18. Importance of variation in water-types for water beetle fauna (Coleoptera) in Korenburgerveen, a bog remnant in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilco C. E. P. Verberk; Gert-Jan A. van Duinen; Theo M. J. Peeters; Hans Esselink

    2001-01-01

    Effects of restoration of raised bogs on fauna are largely unknown. Here first results are presented concerning adult water beetles in Korenburgerveen, a Dutch bog remnant. A high water beetle diversity was found including rare and characteristic species. Variation in species composition and abundance could be linked to variation in water-types suggesting that for water beetles presence of variation in

  19. Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE)

    2004-01-01

    This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  20. The effect of the landscape matrix on the distribution of dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfonso; Galante, Eduardo; Favila, Mario E

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the response of species to anthropogenic landscape modification is essential to design effective conservation programs. Recently, insects have been used in empirical studies to evaluate the impact of habitat modification and landscape fragmentation on biological diversity because they are often affected rapidly by changes in land use. In this study, the use of the landscape matrix by dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve was analyzed. Fragments of tropical rain forest, forest-pasture edges, pastures, isolated trees, living fences (trees connected with barbed wire) and barbed wire fences were studied both near and far from forest fragments. Forest fragments had the highest abundance values, but pastures had the highest dung and carrion beetle biomass. Habitat specificity was high for the beetles in the most dissimilar habitats. Forest fragments and forest-pasture edges had and shared the highest number of species, but they shared only two species with pastures, barbed wire fences and isolated trees. Only one forest species was found within living fences far from the forest fragments. However, approximately 37% of the forest species were caught within living fences near the forest fragments. Therefore, forest-pasture edges function as hard edges and prevent movement among forest fragments, but living fences seem to act as continuous habitat corridors when connected to forest fragments, allowing forest beetles to move between the fragments. Further studies are necessary to determine the minimum width of living fences necessary to provide good corridors for these beetles and other species. PMID:20673066

  1. Methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene abundance correlates with activity measurements of methanogenic H? /CO? -enriched anaerobic biomass.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rachel; Schauer-Gimenez, Anne; Bhattad, Ujwal; Kearney, Colleen; Struble, Craig A; Zitomer, Daniel; Maki, James S

    2014-01-01

    Biologically produced methane (CH?) from anaerobic digesters is a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, but digester failure can be a serious problem. Monitoring the microbial community within the digester could provide valuable information about process stability because this technology is dependent upon the metabolic processes of microorganisms. A healthy methanogenic community is critical for digester function and CH? production. Methanogens can be surveyed and monitored using genes and transcripts of mcrA, which encodes the ? subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase - the enzyme that catalyses the final step in methanogenesis. Using clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared the diversity and abundance of mcrA genes and transcripts in four different methanogenic hydrogen/CO? enrichment cultures to function, as measured by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays using H? /CO? . The mcrA gene copy number significantly correlated with CH? production rates using H? /CO? , while correlations between mcrA transcript number and SMA were not significant. The DNA and cDNA clone libraries from all enrichments were distinctive but community diversity also did not correlate with SMA. Although hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated these enrichments, the results indicate that this methodology should be applicable to monitoring other methanogenic communities in anaerobic digesters. Ultimately, this could lead to the engineering of digester microbial communities to produce more CH? for use as renewable fuel. PMID:24320083

  2. Modeling the effects of the mountain pine beetle on snowmelt rates in a subalpine forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. O. Perrot; N. P. Molotch; K. N. Musselman; E. T. Pugh

    2010-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Colorado River Basin has resulted in widespread tree mortality in pine stands across the Colorado Plateau. The mountain pine beetle (MPB) infests trees over large areas at a fairly rapid rate, resulting in a loss of nearly all canopy biomass within three to four years. One of the most significant issues resulting

  3. Nitrogen content, 15N natural abundance and biomass of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr. in relation to atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Solga, A; Burkhardt, J; Zechmeister, H G; Frahm, J-P

    2005-04-01

    The suitability of the two pleurocarpous mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Scleropodium purum for assessing spatial variation in nitrogen deposition was investigated. Sampling was carried out at eight sites in the western part of Germany with bulk deposition rates ranging between 6.5 and 18.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). In addition to the effect of deposition on the nitrogen content of the two species, its influence on 15N natural abundance (delta15N values) and on productivity was examined. Annual increases of the mosses were used for all analyses. Significant relationships between bulk N deposition and nitrogen content were obtained for both species; delta15N-values reflected the ratio of NH4-N to NO3-N in deposition. A negative effect of nitrogen input on productivity, i.e. decreasing biomass per area with increasing N deposition due to a reduction of stem density, was particularly evident with P. schreberi. Monitoring of N deposition by means of mosses is considered an important supplement to existing monitoring programs. It makes possible an improved spatial resolution, and thus those areas that receive high loads of nitrogen are more easily discernible. PMID:15620592

  4. Evaluation of Funnel Traps for Characterizing the Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Communities in Ponderosa Pine Forests of North-Central Arizona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Hayes; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold

    2008-01-01

    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure

  5. Striped Cucumber Beetle Introduction

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Striped Cucumber Beetle Introduction The Striped Cucumber Beetle (SCB), Acalymma vittattum (Fab.), is one of the most devastating pests of cucurbits (cucumbers, summer and winter squashes, all types. This insect is also responsible for the spread of plant diseases such as bacterial wilt and cucumber mosaic

  6. Carabid Beetles as Parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid habit is uncommon in beetles; only 11 beetle families include parasitoid species. Three tribes of 76 in the Carabidae are known to have species in which larvae are pupal ectoparasitoids: Brachinini, Peleciini, and Lebiini. The first larval instar is the free-living, host-finding stage...

  7. Organizing the beetle files

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2007-12-20

    When biologists set out to organize the family tree for the huge family of beetles, they ended up identifying previously unknown relationships for many of the beetle groups -- somewhat like finding new cousins -- and re-defining the major families, new research shows.

  8. Mealworm to Beetle Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners observe how a little worm turns into a full-grown beetle. Learners will be surprised to learn that mealworms aren't worms at all--they're the larval stage of a beetle! Use this activity to explain life cycles, practice observation skills, and explore insects.

  9. Diversity of Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Attracted to Avocado, Lychee, and Essential Oil Lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trapping studies conducted in north-central Florida for the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) captured numerous non-target ambrosia beetles, providing information on species diversity and relative abundance. Traps (Lindgren and sticky) baited with essential oil lures (manuka and p...

  10. Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Aggregation Behavior: The Role of Pheromones and Tree Terpenes in Modifying Insect-Plant Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell D. Beam

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) are considered the most damaging insects affecting conifers in western North America through both economic damage and loss in aesthetic value. However, bark beetles as ecological engineers change the physical state of tree and understory biomass and thus control the availability of vegetation resources for other organisms, such as fungi, birds, and ungulates. The influence of

  11. Elm Leaf Beetle 

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    2002-05-22

    stream_source_info pdf_1591.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5918 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name pdf_1591.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Elm Leaf Beetles L-1812 5-02 Carl D. Patrick... overwintering sites. *Extension Entomologist, The Texas A&M University System. Elm leaf beetle adult. Damage Elm leaf beetles feed exclusively on foliage. Adult feeding causes small, circular holes in leaves. Larval feeding removes most of the green material...

  12. Variations in dung beetles assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) within two rain forest habitats in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Feer, François

    2013-06-01

    The structure of dung beetle communities inhabiting tropical forests are known to be sensitive to many kinds of environmental changes such as microclimate related to vegetation structure. I examined Scarabaeinae assemblages in two sites of undisturbed high forest and two sites of low forest forming a transitional zone with the open habitat of an inselberg in French Guiana. Sampling was made with pitfall and flight interception traps during 2003 and 2004. The driest and warmest conditions characterized the low forest sites. Across two years we obtained 2 927 individuals from 61 species with pitfall traps and 1 431 individuals from 85 species with flight interception traps. Greater species richness and abundance characterized all sites sampled with pitfall traps during 2003 more than 2004. In 2003 no differences were detected among sites by rarefaction analyses. In 2004 the species richest high forest site was significantly different from one of the low forest sites. For both years Clench model asymptotes for species richness were greater in high forest than in low forest sites. For both years, mean per-trap species richness, abundance and biomass among high forest sites were similar and higher than in low forest sites, especially where the lowest humidity and the highest temperature were recorded. Within the two low forest sites, species richness and abundance recorded during the second year, decreased with distance to edge. Different dominant roller species characterized the pitfall samples in one site of low forest and in other sites. Small variations in microclimatic conditions correlated to canopy height and openness likely affected dung beetle assemblages but soil depth and the presence of large mammals providing dung resource may also play a significant role. PMID:23885587

  13. Blister beetle dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Narasimhalu, C R V; Murali, A; Kannan, R; Srinivasan, N

    2010-11-01

    Blister beetle dermatitis or paederus dermatitis is an irritant contact dermatitis due to accidental crush of insects belonging to paederus family on the skin. The characteristic features of blister beetle dermatitis are linear erythematous itchy vesicles over the exposed parts of body and kissing lesions. This condition is commonly seen during or after rainy season. The treatment is removal of irritant by gentle washing and topical steroids. It is often misdiagnosed and causes significant morbidity among the rural population. PMID:21510580

  14. BIOFUELS FROM BIOMASS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Singh; S. Misra

    Biomass is the most abundant, renewable unexplored source of energy. It is organic in nature, basically comprising cellulosic in nature and hemicellulosic matter found in the bio-degradable material from energy crops , agricultural and forest wastes , industrial, consumer and animal wastes . Energy reach compounds, otherwise known as bio-fuels, are prepared from the bio-mass by three important processes, physical,

  15. Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Snyder; Garrett M. Clevenger; Sanford D. Eigenbrode

    2004-01-01

    Introductions of two ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis, into North America for aphid biocontrol have been followed by declines in native species. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) between larvae of these two exotic species and larvae of the two most abundant native coccinellids in eastern Washington State, C. transversoguttata and Hippodamia convergens. In pairings between

  16. Dung beetle communities: a neotropical-north temperate comparison.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Meghan G; Fonseca, Cláudio R V da; Williamson, G Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Dung beetle communities have been compared across north temperate latitudes. Tropical dung beetle communities appear to be more diverse based on studies using different methodologies. Here, we present results from a standardized sampling protocol used to compare dung beetle communities across five neotropical forests in Brazil and Ecuador and two warm, north temperate forests in Mississippi and Louisiana. Species richness in the tropical forests was three to seven times higher than the temperate forests, as would be expected by studies of other taxa across tropical and temperate latitudes. Average body size in the temperate forests was larger than the tropical forests, as predicted by Bergmann's rule. Dung beetle abundance and volume per trap-day were generally higher in Ecuador than Brazil, and higher in Mississippi than Louisiana, but there were no tropical-temperate differences. Species rank-abundance curves were similar within countries and between countries. Rank-volume distributions indicated a smaller range of beetle body sizes in Ecuador versus Brazil or the USA. Community similarity was high within countries and low between countries. Community differences between Brazil and Ecuador sites may be explained by differences in productivity based on geological age of the soils. PMID:20305895

  17. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    PubMed

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards < or = 0.5 km from rain forest were predominantly visited by five previously unrecognized native beetle pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production. PMID:16156571

  18. Differences in coprophilous beetle communities structure in Sierra de Minas (Uruguay): a mosaic landscape.

    PubMed

    González-Vainer, Patricia; Morelli, E; Defeo, O

    2012-10-01

    Coprophilous beetles represent an abundant and rich group with critical importance in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Most coprophagous beetles have a stenotopic distribution in relation to vegetation types. Because of this, they are usually very sensitive to environmental changes and are considered well suited as bioindicator organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze variations in coprophilous beetle assemblages in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Coprophilous beetle communities were sampled monthly for 1 year using pitfall traps baited with cow dung, in native xeric upland forests, 15-years-old plantations of Pinus elliottii and pastures in Sierra de Minas, Lavalleja, Uruguay. A total of 7,436 beetles were caught and identified to species or morphospecies level. The most abundant families were Aphodiidae, Scarabaeidae, and Staphylinidae. Differences in species richness, abundance, Shannon index, evenness, and dominance were detected between habitats. Abundances of most frequent families were significantly higher in both kinds of forests. Species richness and diversity of Aphodiidae and Staphylinidae were higher in forests, while Scarabaeidae showed the highest richness and diversity in pine plantations. Species composition significantly differed between habitats. Uroxys terminalis Waterhouse and Ataenius perforatus Harold typified the assemblages in native forests and pine plantations and also discriminated both communities because of their differential pattern of abundance between habitats. Typifying species in pastures were Onthophagus hirculus, Ateuchus robustus (Harold), and Ataenius platensis Blanchard. Habitat type had a strong effect on the coprophilous beetle community structure and composition. PMID:23950086

  19. Ecology \\/ Écologie Consequences of the cessation of 3000 years of grazing on dry Mediterranean grassland ground-active beetle assemblages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Fadda; Frédéric Henry; Jérôme Orgeas; Philippe Ponel; Élise Buisson; Thierry Dutoit

    Due to extensive grazing regimes over a long period of time, the Plain of Crau, the unique steppe of France, is a particularly suitable model to study the role of sheep grazing on beetle (Coleoptera) assemblages and their response to grazing abandonment. After four years of abandonment, beetle assemblages first only undergo a decrease in the abundance of a few

  20. Cross-scale Drivers of Natural Disturbances Prone to Anthropogenic Amplification: The Dynamics of Bark Beetle Eruptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth F. Raffa; Brian H. Aukema; Barbara J. Bentz; Allan L. Carroll; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Monica G. Turner; William H. Romme

    2008-01-01

    Biome-scaledisturbancesbyeruptiveherbivoresprovidevaluableinsightsintospeciesinteractions,ecosystemfunction,andimpactsof globalchange. We present a conceptual framework using one system as a model, emphasizing interactions across levels of biological hierarchy and spatiotemporal scales. Bark beetles are major natural disturbance agents in western North American forests. However, recent bark beetle population eruptions have exceeded the frequencies, impacts, and ranges documented during the previous 125 years. Extensive host abundance and susceptibility, concentrated

  1. Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...

  2. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  3. Bark-beetle pheromones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Brand; J. Schultz; S. J. Barras; L. J. Edson; T. L. Payne; R. L. Hedden

    1977-01-01

    The two major yeasts isolated from the southern pine beetle,Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, areHansenula holstii Wickerham andPichia pinus (Hoist) Phaff; a third yeast,P. bovis van Uden et do Carmo-Sousa, has been isolated far less frequently. The main volatile metabolites produced by these yeasts are isoamyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-phenylethyl acetate.We have found that certain of these compounds, particularly the

  4. Beetle Devastates Pine Forests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessie Logan (Retired Research Entomologist; )

    2010-03-25

    The warming climate has made conditions suitable for a massive outbreak of mountain pine beetles, which are now infesting the whitebark pine forests in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). The infestation has other ecological consequences such as devastation of forests in the region; loss of a critical food supply for grizzlies and other wildlife; negative impacts on water and watersheds; deterioration of biodiversity; and decline in the aesthetic value of an iconic ecosystem.

  5. Predaceous Ground Beetles 

    E-print Network

    Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

    2003-06-30

    their body weight in food each day. Both adults and lar- vae feed on ground dwelling insect larvae and pupae. Pest Status and Control Ground beetles are unique in that they can be both beneficial insects or nuisance pests. In fields or gardens, they feed... preventative practices than insecticides. Avoid chemical control if possible because these insects are considered beneficial and help control many different insect pests. Photo Credits: Bastiaan M. Drees and Tim Trimble Texas Cooperative Extension The Texas A...

  6. Intraguild Predation and Native Lady Beetle Decline

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Mary M.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Landis, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild predation by both native and exotic predators may contribute to native coccinellid decline, and that landscape structure interacts with local predator communities to shape the specific outcomes of predator-predator interactions. PMID:21931606

  7. Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers. PMID:25356729

  8. Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Key Background

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    metamorphosis are ____________________________ and _________________________. Grasshoppers are ___________________________, __________________________, and __________________________. Butterflies, Beetles, Bees Word Bank: Nymph Grasshoppers

  9. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung). PMID:23644804

  10. Spatial community structure of mountain pine beetle fungal symbionts across a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Roe, Amanda D; James, Patrick M A; Rice, Adrianne V; Cooke, Janice E K; Sperling, Felix A H

    2011-08-01

    Symbiont redundancy in obligate insect-fungal systems is thought to buffer the insect host against symbiont loss and to extend the environmental conditions under which the insect can persist. The mountain pine beetle is associated with at least three well-known and putatively obligate ophiostomatoid fungal symbionts that vary in their environmental tolerances. To better understand the spatial variation in beetle-fungal symbiotic associations, we examined the community composition of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the mountain pine beetle as a function of latitude and elevation. The region investigated represents the leading edge of a recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle in western Canada. Using regression and principal components analysis, we identified significant spatial patterns in fungal species abundances that indicate symmetrical replacement between two of the three fungi along a latitudinal gradient and little variation in response to elevation. We also identified significant variation in the prevalence of pair-wise species combinations that occur within beetle galleries. Frequencies of pair-wise combinations were significantly different from what was expected given overall species abundances. These results suggest that complex processes of competitive exclusion and coexistence help determine fungal community composition and that the consequences of these processes vary spatially. The presence of three fungal symbionts in different proportions and combinations across a wide range of environmental conditions may help explain the success of mountain pine beetle attacks across a broad geographic range. PMID:21468661

  11. Global diversity of water beetles (Coleoptera) in freshwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Jäch; M. Balke

    2008-01-01

    The global diversity of True Water Beetles, False Water Beetles and Phytophilous Water Beetles (sensu Jäch, 1998a. In Jäch\\u000a & Ji (eds), Water Beetles of China, Vol. II. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Österreich and Wiener Coleopterologenverein,\\u000a Wien: 25–42.) is assessed. Facultative Water Beetles, Parasitic Water Beetles and Shore Beetles (sensu Jäch, 1998a. In Jäch\\u000a & Ji (eds), Water Beetles of China,

  12. Effect of trap type, trap position, time of year, and beetle density on captures of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Ulyshen, Michael D; Horn, Scott

    2011-04-01

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont Raffaellea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich, and Aghayeva are responsible for widespread redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., mortality in the southern United States. Effective traps and lures are needed to monitor spread of the beetle and for early detection at ports-of-entry, so we conducted a series of experiments to find the best trap design, color, lure, and trap position for detection of X. glabratus. The best trap and lure combination was then tested at seven sites varying in beetle abundance and at one site throughout the year to see how season and beetle population affected performance. Manuka oil proved to be the most effective lure tested, particularly when considering cost and availability. Traps baited with manuka oil lures releasing 5 mg/d caught as many beetles as those baited with lures releasing 200 mg/d. Distributing manuka oil lures from the top to the bottom of eight-unit funnel traps resulted in similar numbers of X. glabratus as a single lure in the middle. Trap color had little effect on captures in sticky traps or cross-vane traps. Funnel traps caught twice as many beetles as cross-vane traps and three times as many as sticky traps but mean catch per trap was not significantly different. When comparing height, traps 1.5 m above the ground captured 85% of the beetles collected but a few were caught at each height up to 15 m. Funnel trap captures exhibited a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.79) with X. glabratus attack density and they performed well throughout the year. Catching beetles at low densities is important to port of entry monitoring programs where early detection of infestations is essential. Our trials show that multiple funnel traps baited with a single manuka oil lure were effective for capturing X. glabratus even when no infested trees were visible in the area. PMID:21510198

  13. Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks, wildfire severity, and postfire tree regeneration in the US

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    of prefire beetle outbreak severity, primarily from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). We found American beetle outbreaks is attributable to mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB

  14. Guild structure, diversity and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung in South Western Ghats forests

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K. V.; Vineesh, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    The diversity, guild structure and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung is described in a deciduous forest site in Western Ghats, a hot spot of diversity in India. Dung beetles were collected using baited pitfall traps and from exposed dung pats in the forest at intervals of 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 21 days. Twenty-one dung beetle species belonging to the 3 major functional guilds were recorded. Abundance of dwellers was high compared to rollers deviating from earlier reports on the high abundance of rollers in the afrotropical regions. Dweller Drepanocerus setosus and tunneler Onthophagus bronzeus were the most abundant species. Dung pats aged 3–5 days attracted the highest abundance of dung beetles. Bray Curtis similarity index indicated low community similarity between different stages of succession. Species richness and abundance of tunnelers increased with dung age and decreasing moisture up to a threshold level, followed by a decrease. Rollers and dwellers did not show any significant relationship with dung moisture content. Further research is needed to estimate the dung beetle community associated with the dung pats of other mega herbivores as well as of elephant dung in other forests of the Western Ghats. PMID:19537983

  15. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  16. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles 

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  17. Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.

    2008-08-01

    The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the zooplankton community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer zooplankton community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the zooplankton community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the zooplankton composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from the middle shelf indicates that the warmer conditions in 2004 are part of a trend rather than an expression of interannual variability. These results suggest that if climate on the Bering Sea shelf continues to warm, the zooplankton community may shift from large to small taxa which could strongly impact apex predators and the economies they support.

  18. Use of beetles in forensic entomology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj Kulshrestha; D. K Satpathy

    2001-01-01

    Beetles (Coleoptera) have been recognised as providing significant entomological evidence in the medico-legal field, particularly with reference to dry human skeletal remains in the later stages of decomposition.The Dermestidae (skin beetles) and Cleridae (bone beetles) have been found as the most common types infesting exposed human remains and providing evidence in estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMI).

  19. MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS by EDI ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS INC. for Ministry of Environment Mountain Pine Beetle Action Team March 2008 #12;This document was produced under contract to the ministry of environment mountain pine beetle action team (MPBAT) by EDI Environmental

  20. POWDERPOST BEETLES Gary W. Bennett, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    ) availableasemulsifiableconcentrates(EC)thatcanbediluted by mixing with water according to label directions. Control powderpost beetlesPOWDERPOST BEETLES Gary W. Bennett, Extension Entomologist Department of Entomology Household & Structural E-73-W PURDUE EXTENSION Powderpost beetles are second only to termites as de- stroyers of seasoned

  1. Biomass production in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.; Dowd, M.L.

    1981-08-01

    Florida posseses climatic, land, and water resources favorable for abundant biomass production. Therefore, a statewide program has been initiated to determine adapted species for the available array of production sites. Plant resources under investigation include woody, aquatic, grasses, hydrocarbon, and root crop species. The goal is to produce a continuous stream of biomass for the various biofuel conversion options. Preliminary yields from energy cropping experiments range from about 10 to nearly 90 metric tons per hectare per year, depending on the crop and the production systems employed. (Refs. 15).

  2. Differential Importance of Beetle Species Pollinating Dieffenbachia Longispatha (Araceae) Author(s): Helen J. Young

    E-print Network

    Thomson, James D.

    visit on fruit-set of D. longispatha (the "pollinator effectiveness" of each species) did not vary among the abundance and effectiveness of each species and determined in this study from examining fruit-sets. In 1982, when visitation rate of all beetle species was low, fruit-set was positively correlated

  3. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

  4. Dung beetles in an avian-dominated island ecosystem: feeding and trophic ecology.

    PubMed

    Stavert, J R; Gaskett, A C; Scott, D J; Beggs, J R

    2014-09-01

    Globally, dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are linked to many critical ecosystem processes involving the consumption and breakdown of mammal dung. Endemic New Zealand dung beetles (Canthonini) are an anomaly, occurring at high abundance and low diversity on an island archipelago historically lacking terrestrial mammals, except bats, and instead dominated by birds. Have New Zealand's dung beetles evolved to specialise on bird dung or carrion, or have they become broad generalist feeders? We test dietary preferences by analysing nitrogen isotope ratios of wild dung beetles and by performing feeding behaviour observations of captive specimens. We also use nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes to determine if the dung beetle Saphobius edwardsi will consume marine-derived carrion. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated trophic generalism in Saphobius dung beetles and this was supported by behavioural observations where a broad range of food resources were utilised. Alternative food resource use was further illustrated experimentally by nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures of S. edwardsi, where individuals provided with decomposed squid had ?(15)N and ?(13)C values that had shifted toward values associated with marine diet. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of native mammal dung resources, New Zealand dung beetles have evolved a generalist diet of dung and carrion. This may include marine-derived resources, as provided by the seabird colonies present in New Zealand forests before the arrival of humans. This has probably enabled New Zealand dung beetles to persist in indigenous ecosystems despite the decline of native birds and the introduction of many mammal species. PMID:24974270

  5. BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...

  6. Biomass pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  7. Virtual stag beetle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    3D image of a stage beetle (Family Lucanidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

  8. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  9. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  10. Large carbon release legacy from bark beetle outbreaks across Western United States.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A; Collatz, G James; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Rogan, John; Kulakowski, Dominik; Masek, Jeffrey G

    2015-08-01

    Warmer conditions over the past two decades have contributed to rapid expansion of bark beetle outbreaks killing millions of trees over a large fraction of western United States (US) forests. These outbreaks reduce plant productivity by killing trees and transfer carbon from live to dead pools where carbon is slowly emitted to the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration which subsequently feeds back to climate change. Recent studies have begun to examine the local impacts of bark beetle outbreaks in individual stands, but the full regional carbon consequences remain undocumented for the western US. In this study, we quantify the regional carbon impacts of the bark beetle outbreaks taking place in western US forests. The work relies on a combination of postdisturbance forest regrowth trajectories derived from forest inventory data and a process-based carbon cycle model tracking decomposition, as well as aerial detection survey (ADS) data documenting the regional extent and severity of recent outbreaks. We find that biomass killed by bark beetle attacks across beetle-affected areas in western US forests from 2000 to 2009 ranges from 5 to 15 Tg C yr(-1) and caused a reduction of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of about 6.1-9.3 Tg C y(-1) by 2009. Uncertainties result largely from a lack of detailed surveys of the extent and severity of outbreaks, calling out a need for improved characterization across western US forests. The carbon flux legacy of 2000-2009 outbreaks will continue decades into the future (e.g., 2040-2060) as committed emissions from heterotrophic respiration of beetle-killed biomass are balanced by forest regrowth and accumulation. PMID:25826244

  11. MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR CUCUMBER BEETLES ON MUSKMELON

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR CUCUMBER BEETLES ON MUSKMELON Frankie Lam and Ricky E. Foster) Striped cucumber beetle and (B) Spotted cucum- ber beetle or southern corn rootworm beetle. (Photo credit: Frankie Lam, Purdue University) Striped and spotted cucumber beetles (Figs. 1 A and B) are the most

  12. Distribution and dynamics of Japanese beetles along the Indianapolis Airport perimeter and the influence of land use on trap catch.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R M; Foster, R E; Gibb, T J; Sadof, C S; Holland, J D; Engel, B A

    2007-04-01

    As part of a program to minimize the accidental transportation of Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) through cargo aircraft to areas where they are not established, a 4-yr trapping project was initiated to study the relative distribution and dynamics of the beetles along a trap line around the Indianapolis International Airport. Land use influence on beetle abundance (trap catch) was assessed using a geographic information system. Trap catch was consistently high in some locations and low in others. In general, high trap catches occurred near agronomic land planted with corn or soybeans, which are both preferred hosts of adult beetles. Low trap catches generally occurred in areas lacking preferred host plants. The amount of agronomic land within 500 m of the traps was always positively correlated with trap catch. Average trap catches were highly correlated by location from year to year, indicating stability of the relative distribution of the beetles along the trap line. Because high trap catches consistently occurred in the same locations, it can be inferred that trapping can be an effective method to monitor Japanese beetle populations. Taking airport-owned agronomic land out of corn and soybean production near the cargo terminals may reduce beetle activity in these areas. PMID:17445363

  13. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  14. Nitrogen Cycling Responses to Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbance in a High Elevation Whitebark Pine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

  15. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH??) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

  16. Karyotype variation in dermestid beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. John; D. D. Shaw

    1967-01-01

    The system of nucleolar controlled sex-chromosome segregation which characterises Xyp species of hide beetles is also present in the one species (haemorrhoidalis) with an XY system. This, coupled with the fact that the karyotype in the XY species is asymmetrical, whereas species with smaller y-chromosomes show greater symmetry, suggests that “erosion” of the y may have involved translocation of the

  17. The Dung Beetle Dance: An Orientation Behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J.; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric J.; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    An interesting feature of dung beetle behaviour is that once they have formed a piece of dung into a ball, they roll it along a straight path away from the dung pile. This straight-line orientation ensures that the beetles depart along the most direct route, guaranteeing that they will not return to the intense competition (from other beetles) that occurs near the dung pile. Before rolling a new ball away from the dung pile, dung beetles perform a characteristic “dance,” in which they climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This dance behaviour can also be observed during the beetles' straight-line departure from the dung pile. The aim of the present study is to investigate the purpose of the dung beetle dance. To do this, we explored the circumstances that elicit dance behaviour in the diurnal ball-rolling dung beetle, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus. Our results reveal that dances are elicited when the beetles lose control of their ball or lose contact with it altogether. We also find that dances can be elicited by both active and passive deviations of course and by changes in visual cues alone. In light of these results, we hypothesise that the dung beetle dance is a visually mediated mechanism that facilitates straight-line orientation in ball-rolling dung beetles by allowing them to 1) establish a roll bearing and 2) return to this chosen bearing after experiencing a disturbance to the roll path. PMID:22279572

  18. The dung beetle dance: an orientation behaviour?

    PubMed

    Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    An interesting feature of dung beetle behaviour is that once they have formed a piece of dung into a ball, they roll it along a straight path away from the dung pile. This straight-line orientation ensures that the beetles depart along the most direct route, guaranteeing that they will not return to the intense competition (from other beetles) that occurs near the dung pile. Before rolling a new ball away from the dung pile, dung beetles perform a characteristic "dance," in which they climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This dance behaviour can also be observed during the beetles' straight-line departure from the dung pile. The aim of the present study is to investigate the purpose of the dung beetle dance. To do this, we explored the circumstances that elicit dance behaviour in the diurnal ball-rolling dung beetle, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus. Our results reveal that dances are elicited when the beetles lose control of their ball or lose contact with it altogether. We also find that dances can be elicited by both active and passive deviations of course and by changes in visual cues alone. In light of these results, we hypothesise that the dung beetle dance is a visually mediated mechanism that facilitates straight-line orientation in ball-rolling dung beetles by allowing them to 1) establish a roll bearing and 2) return to this chosen bearing after experiencing a disturbance to the roll path. PMID:22279572

  19. MANAGING STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE POPULATIONS ON CANTALOUPE AND WATERMELON

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    MANAGING STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE POPULATIONS ON CANTALOUPE AND WATERMELON Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist Department of Entomology Vegetable Insects E-95-W PURDUE EXTENSION Striped cucumber beetles (Photo Credit: Dan Egel) The striped cucumber beetle feeds exclusively on cucurbits (i

  20. entomology & pathology Phoretic Symbionts of the Mountain Pine Beetle

    E-print Network

    entomology & pathology Phoretic Symbionts of the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts T he mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a natural disturbance agent

  1. 183BEETLES OF BLOCK ISLAND BEETLES OF BLOCK ISLAND: RARE SPECIES

    E-print Network

    Sikes, Derek S.

    americanus), the Island is also home to the only population of the Clay Banks Tiger Beetle (Cicindela limbalis) in southern New England. There are 58 beetle species extirpated from the main- land about

  2. Pastoral practices to reverse shrub encroachment of sub-alpine grasslands: dung beetles (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea) respond more quickly than vegetation.

    PubMed

    Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of grassland enhanced, by using appropriate pastoral practices. PMID:24358277

  3. Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower.(From the Biomass Program's home page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/) The Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database allows the user to choose from more than 150 types of biomass samples. The specialized interface then guides the user through choices within the sample (such as "Ash" as a choice in the "Hardwood" sample and displays tables based on choice of composition properties, structure properties, elemental properties, extractive properties, etc.

  4. Inundative release of Aphthona spp. flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a biological "herbicide" on leafy spurge in riparian areas.

    PubMed

    Progar, R A; Markin, G; Milan, J; Barbouletos, T; Rinella, M J

    2010-04-01

    Inundative releases of beneficial insects are frequently used to suppress pest insects but not commonly attempted as a method of weed biological control because of the difficulty in obtaining the required large numbers of insects. The successful establishment of a flea beetle complex, mixed Aphthona lacertosa (Rosenhauer) and Aphthona nigriscutus Foundras (87 and 13%, respectively), for the control of leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula L., provided an easily collectable source of these natural enemies that enabled us to attempt inundative release as a possible leafy spurge control method in a sensitive riparian ecological zone where chemical control is restricted. Our target weed populations were small isolated patches of leafy spurge along three streams in southwestern, central, and northeastern Idaho. This study assessed leafy spurge and associated vegetation responses to inundative releases of 10 and 50 beetles per spurge flowering stem over two consecutive years. Releasing 10 beetles per flowering stem had inconclusive effects on spurge biomass, crown, stem, and seedling density. Alternatively, releasing 50 beetles per flowering stem resulted in a reduction of biomass, crown and stem density in the range of 60-80% at all three study sites, and about an approximately 60% reduction of seedling density at one site, compared with untreated plots. In contrast to leafy spurge, associated vegetation did not conclusively respond to beetle release, indicating that it may take more than two years for desired riparian vegetation to respond to reductions in leafy spurge competition. PMID:20429434

  5. Deuterium abundances

    E-print Network

    M. Lemoine; J. Audouze; L. Ben Jaffel; P. Feldman; R. Ferlet; G. Hebrard; E. B. Jenkins; C. Mallouris; W. Moos; K. Sembach; G. Sonneborn; A. Vidal-Madjar; D. G. York

    1999-03-02

    We discuss the measurements of deuterium abundances in high redshift quasar absorbers, in the solar system and in the interstellar medium. We present new results that indicate spatial variations of the deuterium abundance in the interstellar medium at the level of 50% over scales possibly as small as 10 pc, and discuss plausible causes for the origin of these variations.

  6. Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

    1990-05-01

    Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed. PMID:2189910

  7. PERSPECTIVE Taking species abundance distributions beyond individuals

    E-print Network

    Enquist, Brian Joseph

    in ecology. Research on this fundamental distribution has primarily focused on the study of numerical counts Distributions (GSADs) encompassing several abundance measures, such as numerical abundance, biomass and resource use, can provide novel insights into the structure of ecological communities and the forces

  8. Biomass utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Coute, W.A. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).

  9. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary ?-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

  10. Predators Feeding on the Colorado Potato Beetle in Insecticide-Free Plots and Insecticide-Treated Commercial Potato Fields in Eastern North Carolina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Hilbeck; George G. Kennedy

    1996-01-01

    Field studies in insecticide-free research plots and insecticide-treated commercial potato fields were conducted to determine the identity and seasonal abundance of the predators feeding on the Colorado potato beetle,Leptinotarsa decemlineata(Say) in eastern North Carolina. Taxa were classified as predaceous on Colorado potato beetle eggs or larvae only if they were observed to feed on them in the field or to

  11. Manufacture of Prebiotics from Biomass Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Moure, Andrés; Alonso, José Luis; Domínguez, Herminia; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    Biomass from plant material is the most abundant and widespread renewable raw material for sustainable development, and can be employed as a source of polymeric and oligomeric carbohydrates. When ingested as a part of the diet, some biomass polysaccharides and/or their oligomeric hydrolysis products are selectively fermented in the colon, causing prebiotic effects.

  12. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest. PMID:22182536

  13. Sampling scarab beetles in tropical forests: the effect of light source and night sampling periods.

    PubMed

    García-López, Alejandra; Micó, Estefanía; Zumbado, Manuel A; Galante, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Light traps have been used widely to sample insect abundance and diversity, but their performance for sampling scarab beetles in tropical forests based on light source type and sampling hours throughout the night has not been evaluated. The efficiency of mercury-vapour lamps, cool white light and ultraviolet light sources in attracting Dynastinae, Melolonthinae and Rutelinae scarab beetles, and the most adequate period of the night to carry out the sampling was tested in different forest areas of Costa Rica. Our results showed that light source wavelengths and hours of sampling influenced scarab beetle catches. No significant differences were observed in trap performance between the ultraviolet light and mercury-vapour traps, whereas these two methods caught significantly more species richness and abundance than cool white light traps. Species composition also varied between methods. Large differences appear between catches in the sampling period, with the first five hours of the night being more effective than the last five hours. Because of their high efficiency and logistic advantages, we recommend ultraviolet light traps deployed during the first hours of the night as the best sampling method for biodiversity studies of those scarab beetles in tropical forests. PMID:22208730

  14. Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest. PMID:22127165

  15. Habitat associations of saproxylic beetles in the southeastern United States: A comparison of forest types, tree species and wood postures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Saproxylic beetles are highly sensitive to forest management practices that reduce the abundance and variety of dead wood. However, this diverse fauna continues to receive little attention in the southeastern United States even though this region supports some of the most diverse, productive and intensively managed forests in North America. In this replicated three-way factorial experiment, we investigated the habitat

  16. Flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) occurring on Amaranthus Retroflexus L. In Erzurum Province, Turkey and their potential as biological control agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species composition and abundance of flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)associated with Amaranthus retroflexus L. was studied in Erzurum provinces, Turkey, with the aim to find candidates for potential biological control of this weed. Insects were collected by sweeping net and aspirator on plan...

  17. SURVEY OF THE ROOT-FEEDING BEETLES DIAPREPES ABBREVIATUS AND PHYLLOPHAGA VANDINEI ON SOME TROPICAL FRUIT TREES IN PUERTO RICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cone emergence traps were used to monitor the abundance of the root-feeding beetles Diaprepes abbreviatus and Phyllophaga vandinei in the soil surrounding young trees of sapodilla (Manilkara zapota), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota), and lychee (Litchi chinensis) at var...

  18. ROOT BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN THE WORLD'S UPLAND FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root biomass based on standard meth...

  19. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moth...

  20. Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

  1. Pine Bark Beetle Outbreaks and Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Museum of Natural History

    This interactive shows the extent of the killing of lodgepole pine trees in western Canada. The spread of pine beetle throughout British Columbia has devastated the lodgepole pine forests there. This animation shows the spread of the beetle and the increasing numbers of trees affected from 1999-2008 and predicts the spread up until 2015.

  2. Bark Beetle Infestation Investigation: Estimation and Pheromones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-14

    This activity investigates how bark beetles can threaten forests by having learners estimate the number of infected trees from a photo. Learners also think about how pheromones could be used to trap the beetles. The activity is written for a kit that can be checked out of a library, but the kit is not necessary.

  3. Targeting red-headed flea beetle larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red-headed flea beetle (RHFB), Systena frontalis, is an emerging pest of cranberry that requires significant grower investment in monitoring and repeated applications of insecticides to reduce adult populations. The adult beetles are highly mobile and consume a broad range of host plants whereas t...

  4. Book review: Methods for catching beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

  5. Colorado's Forests and the Pine Beetle Epidemic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Office of University Outreach at the University of Colorado Boulder

    This video features CU Boulder Professor Jeff Mitton and his research team, who study the effects of mountain pine beetle infestations on the forest ecology in the Rocky Mountains. They explain the pine beetle life cycle and how they attack trees. An outlook into the future is also provided.

  6. Quantitative assessment of the nematode fauna present on Geotrupes dung beetles reveals species-rich communities with a heterogeneous distribution.

    PubMed

    Weller, Andreas M; Mayer, Werner E; Rae, Robbie; Sommer, Ralf J

    2010-06-01

    Pristionchus spp. nematodes exhibit several traits that might serve as pre-adaptations to parasitism. Under harsh environmental conditions, these nematodes can arrest development and form dauer larvae. In addition, they have been shown to live in necromenic association with a range of beetles, including dung beetles ( Geotrupes stercorosus ) on which, for example, Pristionchus entomophagus is commonly found. It has been argued that the formation of dauer larvae and the association with invertebrates represent intermediate steps towards parasitism. To better understand necromenic associations, and to gain information on Pristionchus spp. abundance and the general species composition on dung beetles, we extracted all the nematode fauna present on 114 individuals of G. stercorosus. By direct sequencing using the 18S SSU, we provide a barcode for all nematodes isolated from the beetle samples. In total, 5,002 dauer-stage nematodes were sequenced, which included Pristionchus spp., Koerneria spp. (Diplogastridae), Pelodera spp. (Rhabditidae), and Strongyloidea as well as Spirurida. Intensities of infection varied from over 1,000 nematodes isolated from a single G. stercorosus to none, with Pelodera spp. being the most abundant group isolated. This study presents the first quantitative data on the Pristionchus spp. infection of beetles. PMID:20557197

  7. Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Miller, Andy

    2008-02-01

    We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600-1,736 m; middle: 2,058-2,230 m; high: 2,505-2,651 m) for 3 yr (2004-2006) using pheromone-baited Lindgren funnel traps. Trap contents were collected weekly from March to December. We also studied temperature differences among the elevation bands and what role this may play in beetle flight behavior. Bark beetles, regardless of species, showed no consistent elevational trend in abundance among the three bands. The higher abundances of Ips lecontei Swaine, I. calligraphus ponderosae Swaine, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, and D. brevicomis LeConte at low and middle elevations offset the greater abundance of I. knausi Swaine, D. adjunctus Blandford, D. approximatus Dietz, and D. valens LeConte at high elevations. I. pini (Say) and I. latidens LeConte were found in similar numbers across the three bands. Flight periodicity of several species varied among elevation bands. In general, the flight period shortened as elevation increased; flight initiated later and terminated earlier in the year. The timing, number, and magnitude of peaks in flight activity also varied among the elevation bands. These results suggest that abundance and flight seasonality of several bark beetles are related to elevation and the associated temperature differences. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to bark beetle management and population dynamics. PMID:18348801

  8. Optimising Bait for Pitfall Trapping of Amazonian Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Charles J.; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology. PMID:24023675

  9. How do beetle assemblages respond to cyclonic disturbance of a fragmented tropical rainforest landscape?

    PubMed

    Grimbacher, Peter S; Stork, Nigel E

    2009-09-01

    There are surprisingly few studies documenting effects of tropical cyclones (including hurricanes and typhoons) on rainforest animals, and especially insects, considering that many tropical forests are frequently affected by cyclonic disturbance. Consequently, we sampled a beetle assemblage inhabiting 18 upland rainforest sites in a fragmented landscape in north-eastern Queensland, Australia, using a standardised sampling protocol in 2002 and again 12 months after the passage of Severe Tropical Cyclone Larry (March 2006). The spatial configuration of sites allowed us to test if the effects of a cyclone and those from fragmentation interact. From all insect samples we extracted 12,568 beetles of 382 species from ten families. Beetle species composition was significantly different pre-and post-cyclone although the magnitude of faunal change was not large with 205 species, representing 96% of all individuals, present in both sampling events. Sites with the greatest changes to structure had the greatest changes in species composition. At the site level, increases in woody debris and wood-feeding beetle (Scolytinae) counts were significantly correlated but changes in the percent of ground vegetation were not mirrored by changes in the abundance of foliage-feeding beetles (Chrysomelidae). The overall direction of beetle assemblage change was consistent with increasing aridity, presumably caused by the loss of canopy cover. Sites with the greatest canopy loss had the strongest changes in the proportion of species previously identified in the pre-cyclone study as preferring arid or moist rainforest environments. The magnitude of fragmentation effects was virtually unaltered by the passage of Cyclone Larry. We postulate that in the short-term the effects of cyclonic disturbance and forest fragmentation both reduce the extent of moist, interior habitat. PMID:19597849

  10. Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of Amazonian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology. PMID:24023675

  11. The comparative effectiveness of rodents and dung beetles as local seed dispersers in Mediterranean oak forests.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Verdú, José R; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications for oak recruitment and community dynamics. PMID:24194872

  12. Experimental Beetle Metapopulations Respond Positively to Dynamic Landscapes and Reduced Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Byju N.; Swihart, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Interactive effects of multiple environmental factors on metapopulation dynamics have received scant attention. We designed a laboratory study to test hypotheses regarding interactive effects of factors affecting the metapopulation dynamics of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Within a four-patch landscape we modified resource level (constant and diminishing), patch connectivity (high and low) and patch configuration (static and dynamic) to conduct a 23 factorial experiment, consisting of 8 metapopulations, each with 3 replicates. For comparison, two control populations consisting of isolated and static subpopulations were provided with resources at constant or diminishing levels. Longitudinal data from 22 tri-weekly counts of beetle abundance were analyzed using Bayesian Poisson generalized linear mixed models to estimate additive and interactive effects of factors affecting abundance. Constant resource levels, low connectivity and dynamic patches yielded greater levels of adult beetle abundance. For a given resource level, frequency of colonization exceeded extinction in landscapes with dynamic patches when connectivity was low, thereby promoting greater patch occupancy. Negative density dependence of pupae on adults occurred and was stronger in landscapes with low connectivity and constant resources; these metapopulations also demonstrated greatest stability. Metapopulations in control landscapes went extinct quickly, denoting lower persistence than comparable landscapes with low connectivity. When landscape carrying capacity was constant, habitat destruction coupled with low connectivity created asynchronous local dynamics and refugia within which cannibalism of pupae was reduced. Increasing connectivity may be counter-productive and habitat destruction/recreation may be beneficial to species in some contexts. PMID:22509314

  13. Survival of the Fittest: Battling Beetles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-30

    This guided inquiry three-part activity engages learners in thinking about the mechanism of natural selection through data collection and pattern recognition. In this scenario, learners use M&Ms and other simple materials to investigate the mating habits of beetles and whether genetic variations give male beetles advantages against weaker beetles. Learners will collect and calculate data to draw conclusions. The third part of this activity allows learners to model Hardy-Weinberg and selection using an Excel spreadsheet and is recommended for more advanced learners.

  14. Use of dermestid beetles for cleaning bones.

    PubMed

    Hefti, E; Trechsel, U; Rüfenacht, H; Fleisch, H

    1980-01-01

    Various parts of the skeleton of normal and osteoporotic rats were compared with respect to their dry weight, ash weight, and calcium content when the bones were cleaned by Dermestes maculatus beetles or manually. Both techniques gave similar results. This was also true when whole body calcium measured by neutron activation and total skeletal calcium from bones cleaned by the beetles were compared. Thus dermestid beetles are useful as a technique to clean bones, especially for the parts of the skeleton which are difficult to dissect by hand. PMID:6770972

  15. Lunar orientation in a beetle.

    PubMed Central

    Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J.; Scholtz, Clarke H.; Warrant, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects. PMID:15101694

  16. The impact of overgrazing on dung beetle diversity in the Italian Maritime Alps.

    PubMed

    Negro, Matteo; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are undoubtedly the most typical and ecologically relevant insects of grazed alpine habitats because they provide valuable ecological services such as biological pest control and soil fertilization. Despite the great ecological contribution of these insects to pasture ecosystem functioning, little is known about their direct or indirect relationships with pastoral activities. The main aim of the study was to assess whether dung beetle diversity was influenced by different intensities of cattle grazing. Dung beetle communities of two adjacent alpine valleys within the Maritime Alps Natural Park (north-western Italian Alps), representing overgrazed and ungrazed pastures, were studied by pitfall trapping. A hierarchical design (three levels: valleys, transects, and replicates) was established for additive partitioning of ?-diversity and Indicator Species Analysis. Evenness and Shannon diversity were significantly higher at the ungrazed than at the overgrazed site because abundances were much more evenly distributed at the former than at the latter site (where one species was dominant over all the others). Dung beetle abundance and species richness of the overgrazed graminaceous pasture vegetation types were in most cases significantly lower than those of the ungrazed nongraminaceous vegetation type. In the additive partitioning of ? -diversity analysis relative to the whole study area, the randomization procedure indicated that the contribution of ? to ?-diversity was significantly different from that expected by chance, suggesting that one or more environmental factors has intervened to change the partition of total diversity in the system considered. The analysis of the preferences and fidelity of species (Indicator Species Analysis) showed that only one species chose overgrazed pastures; all the others positively selected the ungrazed site, or the only ungrazed pasture vegetation type (Rumicetum alpini Beger) occurring at the overgrazed site. Results conformed to evidences that overgrazing represents a serious threat to the conservation of alpine dung beetles. To conserve local dung beetle assemblages, especially in protected areas, cattle overgrazing should be avoided. This does not mean, however, that pastoral activities are incompatible with biodiversity conservation. The contemporaneous presence of wild ungulates and low intensity extensive pastoral activities may be useful to preserve both local dung beetle assemblages and alpine pasture ecosystems. PMID:22251720

  17. Pollination by flies, bees, and beetles of Nuphar ozarkana and N. advena (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Lippok, B; Gardine, A A; Williamson, P S; Renner, S S

    2000-06-01

    Nuphar comprises 13 species of aquatic perennials distributed in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The European species N. lutea and N. pumila in Norway, the Netherlands, and Germany are pollinated by bees and flies, including apparent Nuphar specialists. This contrasts with reports of predominant beetle pollination in American N. advena and N. polysepala. We studied pollination in N. ozarkana in Missouri and N. advena in Texas to assess whether (1) there is evidence of pollinator shifts associated with floral-morphological differences between Old World and New World species as hypothesized by Padgett, Les, and Crow (American Journal of Botany 86: 1316-1324. 1999) and (2) whether beetle pollination characterizes American species of Nuphar. Ninety-seven and 67% of flower visits in the two species were by sweat bees, especially Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) nelumbonis. Syrphid fly species visiting both species were Paragus sp., Chalcosyrphus metallicus, and Toxomerus geminatus. The long-horned leaf beetle Donacia piscatrix was common on leaves and stems of N. ozarkana but rarely visited flowers. Fifteen percent of visits to N. advena flowers were by D. piscatrix and D. texana. The beetles' role as pollinators was investigated experimentally by placing floating mesh cages that excluded flies and bees over N. advena buds about to open and adding beetles. Beetles visited 40% of the flowers in cages, and flowers that received visits had 69% seed set, likely due to beetle-mediated geitonogamy of 1st-d flowers. Experimentally outcrossed 1st-d flowers had 62% seed set, and open-pollinated flowers 76%; 2nd-d selfed or outcrossed flowers had low seed sets (9 and 12%, respectively). Flowers are strongly protogynous and do not self spontaneously. Flowers shielded from pollinators set no seeds. A comparison of pollinator spectra in the two Old World and three New World Nuphar species studied so far suggests that the relative contribution of flies, bees, and beetles to pollen transfer in any one population depends more on these insects' relative abundances (and in the case of Donacia, presence) and alternative food sources than on stamen length differences between Old World and New World pond-lilies. PMID:10860920

  18. Treatment outcome of Paederus dermatitis due to rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) on guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Azizi, K; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2011-08-01

    Linear dermatitis (or dermatitis linearis, DL) is a skin blistering inflammatory lesion caused by exposure to the pederin toxin from rove beetles. Although it is prevalent in many countries of the Middle East region, this is not a notifiable disease. In recent years, a number of clinical symptoms outbreaks of DL has been reported from a few neighboring countries of Iran, but no report of experimental treatment among small laboratory rodents is known. This is a prerequisite to ascertain the nature of the best treatment strategy in cases of infestation with these beetles, as it occurs among local settlers during hot seasons in certain parts of the southern Iranian province of Fars. Live Paederus beetles were collected, identified to species level, sexed apart and partly processed to obtain their hemolymph toxin pederin in ethanol for dermal application on guinea pigs. Two Paederus species were found. Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was more abundant than P. iliensis (Coiffait). Recovery from DL due to live P. ilsae beetles was quicker and less complex than that of pederin in ethanol on guinea pigs. The application of potassium permanganate with calamine to heal DL was also more effective than fluocinolone treatment. This topical corticosteroid is thus considered less able to avert the cytotoxic action of pederin on the skin of guinea pigs than the antipruritic and cleansing agents. It seems likely that fluocinolone has certain effects which delays the recovery period for the treated skin. PMID:22041764

  19. Frass analysis of diets of aphidophagous lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Utah alfalfa fields.

    PubMed

    Davidson, L Nicole; Evans, Edward W

    2010-04-01

    Aphidophagous lady beetles enhance their foraging success in natural settings by consuming other types of food in addition to aphids. Frass analysis was used to examine natural diets of female lady beetles in fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in northern Utah. The first (spring) alfalfa crop was censused in 2004 and 2005 to determine the diet of female adults of the introduced Coccinella septempunctata L., and two native species, C. transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Hippodamia convergens Guerin. The proportion of females of the three lady beetle species that fed on pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] and alfalfa weevil larvae [Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), an abundant alternative prey] increased from early to late season during the first crop. A corresponding seasonal decrease occurred in the proportion of females consuming other types of arthropods (e.g., thrips and collembolans) and nonarthropod food (pollen and fungal spores). Overall, frass analysis indicated that the diets of C. septempunctata and the two native species in alfalfa were similar in their inclusion of a broad variety of foods. The study shows that frass analysis can provide a good overview of the diets of lady beetles in natural settings. PMID:20388290

  20. Mountain pine beetle disturbance effects on soil respiration and nutrient pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Brayden, B. H.; Dynes, E.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonos ponderosae has infested more than 86 million hectares of high elevation forest in the Western U.S.A. While bark beetles are endemic to western forests and important agents of regeneration, the current mountain pine beetle outbreak is larger than any other on record and the resulting tree mortality has significant consequences for nutrient cycling and regional carbon exchange. We established decade-long parallel disturbance chronosequences in two lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado: one composed of mountain pine beetle killed lodgepole stands and one consisting of trees where beetle mortality was simulated by stem girdling. Over the 2010 and 2011 growing season we measured plot level soil respiration fluxes, as well as soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and pools of ammonium, nitrate and inorganic phosphorus. We show that soil respiration sharply declines with gross primary productivity after tree mortality, but rebounds during the next 4 years, then declines again from 6-8 years post-disturbance. Soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and inorganic phosphorous pools follow the pattern observed in soil respiration fluxes across disturbance age classes for both sites, while patterns in total dissolved nitrogen exhibit site specific variation. Levels of detectable soil nitrate were low and did not significantly change across the chronosequence, while soil ammonium increased in a similar pattern with soil moisture in disturbed plots. These patterns in soil respiration and nutrient pools reflect the loss of autotrophic respiration and rhizodeposition immediately after tree mortality, followed by a pulse in soil efflux linked to the decomposition of older, less labile carbon pools. This pulse is likely controlled by the fall rate of litter, coarse woody debris and the relative impact of post-disturbance water availability and soil temperatures on decomposition processes. These patterns also indicate that over nearly a decade after disturbance, because of a decline in new substrate for respiration, the immediate impacts of the current beetle outbreak in North America on carbon release are likely to be lower in magnitude than previous estimates.

  1. Mountain Pine beetle disturbance and climate effects on subalpine forest carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Bowling, D. R.; Monson, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in Western North America have experienced an epidemic outbreak of Mountain Pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), reducing net primary productivity and significantly compromising the potential for these ecosystems to sequester atmospheric carbon. Estimates of lost carbon sequestration and trajectories of future carbon uptake as these forests recover, are uncertain due to lack of fundamental knowledge about the carbon cycle processes that are impacted. Furthermore, the effects of this disturbance are informed by their interplay with important climatic drivers of subalpine carbon uptake such as the availability of snowmelt water. To examine some of these carbon cycle processes, we measured soil respiration rates, the 13C/12C of soil respired CO2, extractable soil carbon, and microbial biomass carbon in a chronosequence of plots consisting of lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) that experienced beetle kill or were girdled (simulating beetle kill). The plots are located in the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux and Fraser Experimental Forests of Colorado. The chronosequence extended from approximately 2002 to 2010. In addition, in 2008 and 2009 we amended and removed spring snow on a subset of girdled and control plots to isolate potential snowpack effects on the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration. Soil respiration, extractable carbon, and microbial biomass carbon were higher in control plot soils compared to soils in plots with girdled or beetle killed trees. These differences were greatest between control soils and soils of more recently girdled and beetle killed trees. Over the growing season, we found the 13C/12C ratio of soil respired CO2 was enriched in plots with girdled trees compared to the control plots past the second year of treatment. Finally, ungirdled plots in 2009 responded to spring snow amendments with increased soil respiration rates and a more depleted signature of ?13C. These effects occurred in early summer during the peak of carbon uptake at the Niwot ridge AmeriFlux site, and were not present in the girdled plots. Our results illustrate that the significant contribution of recently fixed autotrophic carbon from root exudates to soil respiration is lost with girdling and beetle kill in lodgepole pines, and that this loss is especially pronounced in the first several years. Additionally, the remaining primarily heterotrophic component of soil respiration demonstrates less sensitivity to early season snowpack moisture.

  2. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  3. Dr. Susan Prichard and Pine Beetles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Climate Central

    In this video, scientist Dr. Susan Prichard discusses the impact of pine bark beetles on western forests, including information on how climate change, specifically rising temperatures, is exacerbating the problem.

  4. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

  5. Use of dermestid beetles for cleaning bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hefti; U. Trechsel; H. Rüfenacht; H. Fleisch

    1980-01-01

    Summary  Various parts of the skeleton of normal and osteoporotic rats were compared with respect to their dry weight, ash weight,\\u000a and calcium content when the bones were cleaned byDermestes maculatus beetles or manually. Both techniques gave similar results. This was also true when whole body calcium measured by neutron\\u000a activation and total skeletal calcium from bones cleaned by the beetles

  6. The Tight Link: Beetle and Plant Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Payne, Laura X.

    1998-01-01

    This week's In The News focuses on the evolutionary link between beetle (Coleoptera) and flowering plant (Angiosperm) diversity. In an article published in the July 24, 1998 issue of Science, Harvard University evolutionary entomologist Brian Farrell shed new light on insect-plant evolution when he revealed "a tight link between plant and beetle diversity." Farrell found that the incredible diversity of beetles--a whopping 330,000 species are estimated today--is linked to the rise of the angiosperms some 100,000,000 years ago. According to Farrell, although some beetles maintained their preference for older plant classes such as cycads and conifers, "well over 100,000 new species of beetles arose because of that move to angiosperms." The significance of these findings, says Farrell, "show how moving into a new environment, where there's no competition, can free you for an explosive, adaptive radiation." The nine resources provided offer insights and information on beetle and plant diversity, and several evolutionary resources as well.

  7. Beetle-to-beetle transmission and dispersal of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) eggs via the feces of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Pappas, P W; Barley, A J

    1999-04-01

    When grain beetles (Tenebrio molitor) were fed eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, many of the eggs passed intact through the beetles' intestines, and eggs were present in the beetles' feces for at least 48 hr after feeding. When uninfected T. molitor were fed beetle feces containing H. diminuta eggs, they became infected. Tenebrio molitor were fed on H. diminuta eggs and then placed in fresh bran for 48 hr. When uninfected T. molitor were placed in this bran, they became infected. Thus, feces from beetles that have ingested H. diminuta eggs serve as a source of eggs for other beetles, as well as a mechanism of egg dispersal. PMID:10219328

  8. Japanese beetles facilitate feeding by green june beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on ripening grapes.

    PubMed

    Hammons, Derrick L; Kurtural, S Kaan; Potter, Daniel A

    2008-04-01

    Adult activity of native green June beetles, Cotinis nitida L., and invasive Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman, peaked in late July in Kentucky coincident with later stages of veraison in early- and midseason ripening grape (Vitis spp.) cultivars. Most C. nitida feeding aggregations sampled on clusters of early-ripening grapes in the research vineyard also contained Japanese beetles. Assays showed C. nitida generally are unable to bite into intact ripe grape berries, whereas Japanese beetles readily do so. The beetles' disparate biting ability is likely because of differences in their mandibles, which are sharply pointed and opposable in P. japonica compared with C. nitida mandibles that are bluntly spatulate, do not meet at their tips, and seemingly are only suited for feeding on fruit pulp or other soft food. Japanese beetles were shown to facilitate C. nitida feeding by biting through the skin and providing access to the soft berry pulp. Juice from early- and midseason ripening grape cultivars with relatively high sugar content elicited the greatest feeding by P. japonica. A scenario is suggested wherein Japanese beetles open wound sites and contaminate fruits with yeasts that induce fermentation volatiles that attract C. nitida. Japanese beetles had difficulty biting berries of Sunbelt, a late-ripening cultivar. Phenological resistance, i.e., planting cultivars that ripen after peak flight, could be an effective management strategy. Establishment of P. japonica in grape-growing regions of the southeastern United States will likely elevate the pest status of C. nitida in vineyards. PMID:18419935

  9. Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035

  10. Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their beetle hosts. Instead, frequent host switching is observed. The molecular phylogeny of the Diplogastridae provides a framework for further examinations of the evolution of these associations, for the study of interactions within the ecosystems, and for investigations of diplogastrid genome evolution. PMID:19703296

  11. Larger Black Flour Beetle in Southern High Plains Homes 

    E-print Network

    Porter, Patrick; McIntyre, Nancy E.

    2007-04-09

    Larger black flour beetles have invaded homes and other buildings in some Southern High Plains counties in Texas. This publication explains how to identify the beetles, find and eliminate the source, and exclude the insects from the house....

  12. Larger Black Flour Beetle in Southern High Plains Homes

    E-print Network

    Porter, Patrick; McIntyre, Nancy E.

    2007-04-09

    Larger black flour beetles have invaded homes and other buildings in some Southern High Plains counties in Texas. This publication explains how to identify the beetles, find and eliminate the source, and exclude the insects from the house....

  13. forest ecology Ecological Consequences of Mountain Pine Beetle

    E-print Network

    pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreaks (Taylor et al. 2006). More generally, multiple. Chalfoun, Steven W. Buskirk, Joslin E. Heyward, and Matthew A. Dresser Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreaks are increasingly prevalent in western North America, causing considerable

  14. PLANTINSECT INTERACTIONS Longevity and Fecundity of Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica)

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    PLANTÐINSECT INTERACTIONS Longevity and Fecundity of Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) on Foliage3), another anthropogenic gaseous pollutant, beetles in the laboratory were fed soybean leaves grown for longevity-enhancing antioxidants, because increases in dietary antioxidants can increase lifespan

  15. Drought and Beetle-Killed Piñon Pines in Arizona

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Drought and beetle-killed piñon pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid some surviving trees. Forest drought stress is highly correlated with mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

  16. Drought and Beetle-Killed Piñon Pines in Arizona

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Drought and beetle-killed piñon pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid a few surviving trees. Forest drought stress is strongly correlated with tree mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

  17. Diversity of Beetle Genes Encoding Novel Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Pauchet, Yannick; Wilkinson, Paul; Chauhan, Ritika; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Plant cell walls are a heterogeneous mixture of polysaccharides and proteins that require a range of different enzymes to degrade them. Plant cell walls are also the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the planet. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are therefore important in a wide range of biotechnological processes from the production of biofuels and food to waste processing. However, despite the fact that the last common ancestor of all deuterostomes was inferred to be able to digest, or even synthesize, cellulose using endogenous genes, all model insects whose complete genomes have been sequenced lack genes encoding such enzymes. To establish if the apparent “disappearance” of PCWDEs from insects is simply a sampling problem, we used 454 mediated pyrosequencing to scan the gut transcriptomes of beetles that feed on a variety of plant derived diets. By sequencing the transcriptome of five beetles, and surveying publicly available ESTs, we describe 167 new beetle PCWDEs belonging to eight different enzyme families. This survey proves that these enzymes are not only present in non-model insects but that the multigene families that encode them are apparently undergoing complex birth-death dynamics. This reinforces the observation that insects themselves, and not just their microbial symbionts, are a rich source of PCWDEs. Further it emphasises that the apparent absence of genes encoding PCWDEs from model organisms is indeed simply a sampling artefact. Given the huge diversity of beetles alive today, and the diversity of their lifestyles and diets, we predict that beetle guts will emerge as an important new source of enzymes for use in biotechnology. PMID:21179425

  18. Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms. PMID:21876772

  19. Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).

    PubMed

    Shostak, Allen W

    2012-06-01

    The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently. PMID:22263651

  20. Dung beetle assemblage structure in Tswalu Kalahari Reserve: responses to a mosaic of landscape types, vegetation communities, and dung types.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian L V; Scholtz, Clarke H; Kryger, Ute; Deschodt, Christian M; Strümpher, Werner P

    2010-06-01

    Tswalu Kalahari Reserve is a private game reserve covering 1,020 km(2) in the Northern Cape, South Africa. It has been created from a number of reclaimed farms and restocked with large indigenous mammals. Two surveys were conducted to inventory the dung beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) and determine their spatial patterns and food type associations. The spatial survey used pig dung-baited pitfall traps to examine dung beetle distribution across three main landscape types (plains, dunes, hills) comprising six principal vegetation communities. The food study examined their relative associations with carrion and four different dung types within a single vegetation community. A total of 70 species was recorded. Because the food association study was spatially restricted and conducted under drought conditions, abundance and species richness (47 species) were much lower than in the spatial study (64 species), which was conducted after substantial rainfall. Principal spatial differences in species abundance structure of assemblages were between the sandy southwest plains and dunes; the sandy northern dune fields and plains; and the rocky hills. Forty species analyzed in the food association study showed clear distributional biases to carrion or the dung of elephant (monogastric herbivore), pig (omnivore), cattle and sheep (ruminant herbivores), or pig and cattle. The results (1) show how dung beetle assemblage structure is locally diversified across the heterogeneous landscape of the reserve and (2) indicate how the different dung types dropped by a diverse assemblage of indigenous mammals may variously favor different species of dung beetles. PMID:20550793

  1. How Habitat Change and Rainfall Affect Dung Beetle Diversity in Caatinga, a Brazilian Semi-Arid Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Carolina Nunes; de Farias, Ângela Maria Isidro; Meiado, Marcos Vinicius; Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.; Iannuzzi, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate how dung beetle communities respond to both environment and rainfall in the Caatinga, a semi-arid ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. The communities were sampled monthly from May 2006 to April 2007 using pitfall traps baited with human feces in two environments denominated “land use area” and “undisturbed area.” Abundance and species richness were compared between the two environments and two seasons (dry and wet season) using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error distribution. Diversity was compared between the two environments (land use area and undisturbed area) and seasons (dry and wet) using the Two-Way ANOVA test. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was performed on the resemblance matrix of Bray-Curtis distances (with 1000 random restarts) to determine whether disturbance affected the abundance and species composition of the dung beetle communities. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine whether rainfall was correlated with abundance and species richness. A total of 1097 specimens belonging to 13 species were collected. The most abundant and frequent species was Dichotomius geminatus Arrow (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The environment exerted an influence over abundance. Abundance and diversity were affected by season, with an increase in abundance at the beginning of the wet season. The correlation coefficient values were high and significant for abundance and species richness, which were both correlated to rainfall. In conclusion, the restriction of species to some environments demonstrates the need to preserve these areas in order to avoid possible local extinction. Therefore, in extremely seasonable environments, such as the Caatinga, seasonal variation strongly affects dung beetle communities. PMID:22224924

  2. How habitat change and rainfall affect dung beetle diversity in Caatinga, a Brazilian semi-arid ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Carolina Nunes; de Farias, Ângela Maria Isidro; Meiado, Marcos Vinicius; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Iannuzzi, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate how dung beetle communities respond to both environment and rainfall in the Caatinga, a semi-arid ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. The communities were sampled monthly from May 2006 to April 2007 using pitfall traps baited with human feces in two environments denominated "land use area" and "undisturbed area." Abundance and species richness were compared between the two environments and two seasons (dry and wet season) using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error distribution. Diversity was compared between the two environments (land use area and undisturbed area) and seasons (dry and wet) using the Two-Way ANOVA test. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was performed on the resemblance matrix of Bray-Curtis distances (with 1000 random restarts) to determine whether disturbance affected the abundance and species composition of the dung beetle communities. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine whether rainfall was correlated with abundance and species richness. A total of 1097 specimens belonging to 13 species were collected. The most abundant and frequent species was Dichotomius geminatus Arrow (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The environment exerted an influence over abundance. Abundance and diversity were affected by season, with an increase in abundance at the beginning of the wet season. The correlation coefficient values were high and significant for abundance and species richness, which were both correlated to rainfall. In conclusion, the restriction of species to some environments demonstrates the need to preserve these areas in order to avoid possible local extinction. Therefore, in extremely seasonable environments, such as the Caatinga, seasonal variation strongly affects dung beetle communities. PMID:22224924

  3. Polymorphism in a flea beetle for the ability to use an atypical host plant

    PubMed Central

    Jong, P. W. de; Nielsen, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    The flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) is polymorphic for its ability to use Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. (Brassicaceae) as a host plant. The genetic factors influencing this ability show both sex-linked and autosomal inheritance. Evidence was found for the presence of major genes such as those found in earlier studies, but also of genes with a smaller effect which have not previously been found. Although the ability to survive on B. vulgaris exists in most populations in eastern Denmark, it is usually at a low frequency. Beetles collected on B. vulgaris, however, usually produced larvae that survived on this plant. The inheritance and the abundance of the ability to use B. vulgaris are discussed in the context of the evolution of the interaction between P. nemorum and its atypical host plant.

  4. Assessment of species diversity from species abundance distributions at different localities

    E-print Network

    Engen, Steinar

    by analysing similarities of communities of rare and endangered species of oak-living beetles in southAssessment of species diversity from species abundance distributions at different localities, Norway. We show how the spatial structure of species diversity can be analyzed using the correlation

  5. SEED BEETLES IN ACACIA PODS Prepared by Alistair Barker

    E-print Network

    SEED BEETLES IN ACACIA PODS Prepared by Alistair Barker Our research focus on the genetics of a group of seed feeding beetles, known as bruchids, that belongs to the beetle family Chrysomelidae, sub that are found feeding on the seeds of Acacia and other closely related and located legumes. Bruchids complete

  6. Rickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle

    E-print Network

    Werren, John H.

    bacterium that causes male-killing in an unrelated ladybird beetle species. Low levels of parthenogenesisRickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle EILLEEN T. LAWSON , TIMOTHY A populations of the buprestid leaf-mining beetle, Brachys tessellatus, from central South Carolina, USA, show

  7. A STRUCTURED THRESHOLD MODEL FOR MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE OUTBREAK

    E-print Network

    Linder, Tamás

    A STRUCTURED THRESHOLD MODEL FOR MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE OUTBREAK MARK A. LEWIS1, WILLIAM NELSON2 AND CAILIN XU2 Abstract. A vigor-structured model for mountain pine beetle outbreak dy- namics within for dynamics of beetle aggregation. This involves a stochastic formulation. 1. Introduction Mountain pine

  8. Threshold evolution in exotic populations of a polyphenic beetle

    E-print Network

    Moczek, Armin P.

    in natural populations. Here we compare the morphologies of male dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus; ColeopteraThreshold evolution in exotic populations of a polyphenic beetle Armin P. Moczek, 1 * John Hunt, 2 use our results to examine potential causes of allometric divergence in onthophagine beetles

  9. Sperm competition games played by dimorphic male beetles

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Joseph L.

    in expenditure should decrease with increasing numbers of sneaks. Male dung beetles in the genus Onthophagus can. Keywords: alternative mating tactics; dung beetles; male dimorphism; sperm competition 1. INTRODUCTIONSperm competition games played by dimorphic male beetles L. W. Simmons* , J. L. Tomkins and J. Hunt

  10. Willow hybridization differentially affects preference and performance of herbivorous beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin M. Orians; Cynthia H. Huang; Alexander Wild; Katherine A. Dorfman; Pamela Zee; Minh Tam T. Dao; Robert S. Fritz

    1997-01-01

    We examined the preferences and performances of five beetle species (four chrysomelids and one scarab) on two species of willows (Salix sericea and S. eriocephala) and their interspecific hybrids. Beetle species differed markedly in their responses. In preference assays, two chrysomelid beetle species (Calligrapha multipunctata bigsbyana and Plagiodera versicolora) preferred hybrids, two chrysomelids (Chrysomela scriptaand Ch. Knabi) preferred hybrids and

  11. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS AND GROUND BEETLES AS NON-TARGET ORGANISMS: DEVELOPING DIETARY TOXICITY ASSAYS FOR LARVAE OF POECILUS CHALCITES (COLEOPTERA: CARABIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a procedure for administering dietary toxins to larvae of Poecilus chalcites, an abundant ground beetle occurring in agricultural systems. A rearing protocol relying on an artificial diet described here was a critical development allowing us to conducted diet-incorporated toxicity assay...

  12. Species Composition and Community Structure of Dung Beetles Attracted to Dung of Gaur and Elephant in the Moist Forests of South Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Sabu, Thomas K.

    2007-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats. PMID:20337551

  13. Edge Effects Are Important in Supporting Beetle Biodiversity in a Gravel-Bed River Floodplain

    PubMed Central

    Langhans, Simone D.; Tockner, Klement

    2014-01-01

    Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60–100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February–November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct – yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity. PMID:25545280

  14. Do bark beetle remains in lake sediments correspond to severe outbreaks? A review of published and ongoing research

    E-print Network

    Anderson, R. Scott

    reproductive cycles leading to exponential population growth. The linkage between beetle out- breaks temperatures observed during the late 20th century altered beetle population dynamics by accelerating beetle

  15. Thermal and water relations of desert beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J.

    2001-11-01

    The physical problems that living organisms have to contend with in hot deserts are primarily extremes of temperature, low humidity, shortage or absence of free water, and the environmental factors that accentuate these - such as strong winds, sand-storms, lack of shade, rocky and impenetrable soils. Climatic factors are particularly important to smaller animals such as arthropods on account of their relatively enormous surface to volume ratios. Nevertheless, beetles (especially Tenebrionidae and, to a lesser extent, Chrysomelidae) are among the most successful animals of the desert, and are often the only ones to be seen abroad during the day. Similar physical problems are experienced by insects in all terrestrial biomes, but they are much enhanced in the desert. Although climatic extremes are often avoided by burrowing habits coupled with circadian and seasonal activity rhythms, as well as reproductive phenology, several species of desert beetle are nevertheless able to withstand thermal extremes that would rapidly cause the death of most other arthropods including insects. The reactions of desert beetles to heat are largely behavioural whilst their responses to water shortage are primarily physiological. The effects of coloration are not discussed. In addition to markedly low rates of transpiration, desert beetles can also withstand a considerable reduction in the water content of their tissues. The study of desert beetles is important because it illustrates many of the solutions evolved by arthropods to the problems engendered, in an extreme form, by life in all terrestrial environments.

  16. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  17. Developmental constraints in cave beetles.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Alexandra; Fresneda, Javier; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-10-01

    In insects, whilst variations in life cycles are common, the basic patterns typical for particular groups remain generally conserved. One of the more extreme modifications is found in some subterranean beetles of the tribe Leptodirini, in which the number of larval instars is reduced from the ancestral three to two and ultimately one, which is not active and does not feed. We analysed all available data on the duration and size of the different developmental stages and compared them in a phylogenetic context. The total duration of development was found to be strongly conserved, irrespective of geographical location, habitat type, number of instars and feeding behaviour of the larvae, with a single alteration of the developmental pattern in a clade of cave species in southeast France. We also found a strong correlation of the size of the first instar larva with adult size, again regardless of geographical location, ecology and type of life cycle. Both results suggest the presence of deeply conserved constraints in the timing and energy requirements of larval development. Past focus on more apparent changes, such as the number of larval instars, may mask more deeply conserved ontogenetic patterns in developmental timing. PMID:25354919

  18. Patterns on the iridescent beetle, Chrysina gloriosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Ok; Sharma, Vivek; Crne, Matija; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2009-03-01

    The brilliant metallic color of a beetle Chrysina gloriosa has been known to occur due to selective reflectance from a cholesteric structure on the exoskeleton. The surface also appears to have hexagonally packed structures. Crystallographic concepts and Voronoi analysis were used to determine the degree of order in different regions of the beetle. Along the hexagons in the Voronoi diagram, many clustered pentagons and heptagons were observed. Due to the surface curvature, the number of pentagons was found to be higher than the number of heptagons. The cells appear yellow in the center surrounded by a green region with a yellow edge. Confocal microscopy was used to image the underlying structure, which was found to consist of concentric arcs on a surface of a shallow cone. The observed structures resemble the defects on a cholesteric phase with a free surface, and provide an interesting explanation of structural color development in beetles, along with inspiration for the design of chiral photonic structures.

  19. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed. PMID:21738430

  20. Biomass Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Traylor, T.D.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    Biomass Energy Research announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development (R&D) information available on biomass power systems, alternate feedstocks from biomass, and biofuels supply options.

  1. Pennsylvania Energy: Biomass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WPSU

    2006-09-23

    Many potential, renewable sources of biomass energy exist in Pennsylvania, especially on farms. This video profiles various facilities that make biomass energy, including biodiesel fuel. Biomass energy is important to the economy and the food supply.

  2. Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Shanmugam; L. O. Ingram; J. A. Maupin-Furlow; J. F. Preston; H. C. Aldrich

    2003-01-01

    Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to

  3. Influence of die pressure on relaxation characteristics of briquetted biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. W Ndiema; P. N Manga; C. R Ruttoh

    2002-01-01

    Briquetting of biomass has been found to be a viable technology for upgrading biomass materials, including agricultural residues, particularly in developing countries where there is abundant biowaste resources. The technology converts the biowaste into forms which are combustible in typical burners. The physical (elongation and voidage) characteristics and, hence, combustion characteristics of the briquettes formed depend on several factors among

  4. Dung Beetle and Terrestrial Mammal Diversity in Forests, Indigenous Agroforestry Systems and Plantain Monocultures in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celia A. Harvey; Jorge Gonzalez; Eduardo Somarriba

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the importance of indigenous agroforestry systems for biodiversity conservation, we compared the abundance,\\u000a species richness and diversity of dung beetles and terrestrial mammals across a gradient of different land use types from\\u000a agricultural monocultures (plantains) to agroforestry systems (cocoa and banana) and forests in the BriBri and Cabcar indigenous\\u000a reserves in Talamanca, Costa Rica. A total

  5. Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?

    PubMed

    Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the need for further research into spatial variation in biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships and how the results of such studies are affected by methodological choices. PMID:24772282

  6. Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the need for further research into spatial variation in biodiversity–ecosystem function relationships and how the results of such studies are affected by methodological choices. PMID:24772282

  7. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.

    PubMed

    Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

    2013-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations. PMID:24468553

  8. BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S R; Brown, Susan J

    2007-01-01

    BeetleBase (http://www.bioinformatics.ksu.edu/BeetleBase/) is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software components developed by the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project. This strategy not only reduces the time required to develop the database query tools but also makes the data structure of BeetleBase compatible with that of other model organism databases. BeetleBase will be useful to the Tribolium research community for genome annotation as well as comparative genomics. PMID:17090595

  9. Attraction of Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Damaged and Chemically Induced Potato Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER J. LANDOLT; J. H. TUMLINSON; D. H. ALBORN

    Unmated adult female Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were attracted to damaged and chemically treated potato plants in an olfactometer. Significantly more beetles moved upwind to potato plants with damage from larval Colorado potato beetle compared with undamaged plants. More beetles moved upwind toward potato plants treated with regurgitant from Colorado potato beetle larvae or cabbage looper larvae, Trichoplusia

  10. Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle?s joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhendong; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2004-01-01

    Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS. The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle’s joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3°). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

  11. My Biomass, Your Biomass, Our Solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US is pursuing an array of renewable energy sources to reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass energy and biomass ethanol are key components in the pursuit. The need for biomass feedstock to produce sufficient ethanol to meet any of the numerous stat...

  12. Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Cellulosic Biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngmi Kim; Rick Hendrickson; Nathan S. Mosier; Michael R. Ladisch

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for fuel ethanol production. However, the lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis because of its structural complexity. Controlled-pH liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of cellulosic feedstock improves its enzymatic digestibility by removing hemicellulose and making the cellulose more accessible to cellulase enzymes. The removed hemicellulose is solubilized in the liquid phase of

  13. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamut?, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevi?ius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category and data on their distribution in neighbouring countries is presented. Completion of this study provides evidence that the Lithuanian coleopteran fauna has yet to be completely investigated and it is estimated that approximately 28 % of beetle species remain undiscovered in Lithuania. More than 85% of beetle species expected for Lithuania have been found in the following families: Cerylonidae, Geotrupidae, Haliplidae, Kateridae, Lycidae, Lucanidae, Mycetophagidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae. In families with few species such as Alexiidae, Boridae, Byturidae, Dascilidae, Drilidae, Eucinetidae, Lampyridae, Lymexilidae, Megalopodidae, Nemonychidae, Nosodendridae, Noteridae, Orsodacnidae, Pyrochroidae, Pythidae, Psephenidae, Rhysodidae, Sphaeritidae, Sphaeriusidae, Sphindidae, Stenotrahelidae and Trogidae, all possible species have already been discovered. However in some beetle families such as Aderidae, Bothrideridae, Eucnemidae, Laemoploeidae, Mordellidae, Ptiliidae, Scraptidae and Throscidae less than 50% of all possible species are known. At present the beetle species recorded in Lithuania belong to 92 families, with species from 9 other families such as Agyrtidae, Biphylidae, Deradontidae, Mycteridae, Ochodaeidae, Phleophilidae, Phloeostichidae, Prostomidae, Trachypachidae are expected to be found. A bibliography and a index of subfamily and genus levels are provided. The information published in the monograph will serve to further faunistic and distribution research of beetles and will help to avoid confusion in the identificatation of coleopteran fauna of Lithuania. PMID:22461725

  14. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

  15. Seasonal phenology of the cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lawrence M.; Reagel, Peter F.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wong, Joseph C. H.; Meier, Linnea R.; Silliman, Christina A.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Striman, Becca L.; Robinson, Kenneth P.; Mongold-Diers, Judith A.; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize field data on the species composition and seasonal phenology of the community of cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Data were drawn from field bioassays conducted during 2009 – 2012 that tested attraction of adult beetles of diverse species to a variety of synthetic pheromones and host plant volatiles. A total of 34,086 beetles of 114 species were captured, including 48 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 41 species in the Lamiinae, 19 species in the Lepturinae, two species in the Spondylidinae, and one species each in the Necydalinae, Parandrinae, Prioninae, and the Disteniidae. Most of the best-represented species were attracted to pheromones that were included in field experiments, particularly species that use (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a pheromone component. The species captured, and their patterns of abundance and seasonal phenology were similar to those in an earlier study conducted in Pennsylvania. The most abundant species identified in both studies included the cerambycines Elaphidion mucronatum (Say), Neoclytus a. acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus m. mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Cerambycine species became active in an orderly progression from early spring through late fall, whereas most lamiine species were active in summer and fall, and lepturine species were limited to summer. Potential cross attraction between some cerambycine species that shared pheromone components may have been averted by differences in seasonal activity period, and by minor pheromone components that acted as synergists for conspecifics and/or antagonists for heterospecifics. These results provide quantitative data on the abundance and seasonal phenology of a large number of species. PMID:24683267

  16. Structure of dung beetle communities in an altitudinal gradient of neotropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, D; Marín-Armijos, D; Ruiz, C

    2015-02-01

    To understand the effects of global warming in tropical insect communities, it is necessary to comprehend how such communities respond to different abiotic factors that covariate with altitude. In this study, we partially answer this question applied to dung beetle communities distributed along an altitudinal gradient. The sampling was conducted in seven stations 100 m apart each in altitude in a dry mountain scrub in southern Ecuador. A total of 7422 individuals belonging to six species were captured. Canthon balteatus Boheman was the most abundant with 6502 individuals, and Onoreidium ohausi (Arrow) was the least abundant with 20 individuals. We found significant changes in the structure of the dung beetle communities with altitude. Two abiotic factors showed a relationship with the abundance pattern for all species (altitude, Z?=?0.011, p?beetle communities will be difficult to predict because of species-specific responses to global warming. PMID:26013011

  17. Effects of Chitin and Contact Insecticide Complexes on Rove Beetles in Commercial Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Balog, A.; Ferencz, L.; Hartel, T.

    2011-01-01

    A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility. PMID:21870981

  18. Area burned in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Sarah J; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T; Chapman, Teresa B

    2015-04-01

    In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km(2) of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase area burned and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed areas burned on areas infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the area burned in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed area and expected area burned in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of area burned during the 2002-2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the annual area burned in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541

  19. Ecology of root-feeding beetles and their associated fungi on longleaf pine in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Zanzot, James W; Matusick, George; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2010-04-01

    Root-feeding beetles, particularly of the curculionid subfamilies Scolytinae and Molytinae, are known to be effective vectors of Ophiostomatoid fungi. Infestation by these insects and subsequent infection by the Ophiostomatoid fungi may play an important role in accelerating symptom progression in pine declines. To examine the relationship between beetles and fungi in longleaf pine stands, root-feeding curculionids were collected in pitfall traps baited with ethanol and turpentine for 62 wk, and Ophiostomatoid fungi were isolated from their body surfaces. The most abundant root-feeding beetles captured were Hylastes tenuis, H. salebrosus, Pachylobius picivorus, Hylobius pales, and Dendroctonus terebrans. The number of insects captured peaked in spring and fall, although peaks for different insect taxa did not coincide. The most frequently isolated fungi were Grosmannia huntii, Leptographium procerum, L. terebrantis, and L. serpens. Other Ophiostomatoid fungi recovered included Ophiostoma spp. and Pesotum spp. Insect infestation data suggest that Hylastes spp. share an ecological niche, as do Hb. pales and P. picivorus, because the ratios of their fungal symbionts were similar. The fungi associated with D. terebrans suggest that it did not share habitat with the other principle vectors. PMID:20388270

  20. Culturable aerobic and facultative bacteria from the gut of the polyphagic dung beetle Thorectes lusitanicus.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Noemi; Escudero, José A; San Millán, Álvaro; González-Zorn, Bruno; Lobo, Jorge M; Verdú, José R; Suárez, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    Unlike other dung beetles, the Iberian geotrupid, Thorectes lusitanicus, exhibits polyphagous behavior; for example, it is able to eat acorns, fungi, fruits, and carrion in addition to the dung of different mammals. This adaptation to digest a wider diet has physiological and developmental advantages and requires key changes in the composition and diversity of the beetle's gut microbiota. In this study, we isolated aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant microbiota amenable to grow in culture from the gut contents of T. lusitanicus and resolved isolate identity to the species level by sequencing 16S rRNA gene fragments. Using BLAST similarity searches and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses, we were able to reveal that the analyzed fraction (culturable, aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant) of beetle gut microbiota is dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Among Proteobacteria, members of the order Enterobacteriales (Gammaproteobacteria) were the most abundant. The main functions associated with the bacteria found in the gut of T. lusitanicus would likely include nitrogen fixation, denitrification, detoxification, and diverse defensive roles against pathogens. PMID:24339348

  1. Can biomass time series be reliably assessed from CPUE time series data Francis Lalo1

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    1 Can biomass time series be reliably assessed from CPUE time series data only? Francis Laloë1 to abundance. This means (i) that catchability is constant and (ii) that all the biomass is catchable. If so, relative variations in CPUE indicate the same relative variations in biomass. Myers and Worm consider

  2. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ? 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  3. Morphometric patterns among diving beetles (Coleoptera: Noteridae,

    E-print Network

    Ribera, Ignacio

    Morphometric patterns among diving beetles (Coleoptera: Noteridae, Hygrobiidae, and Dytiscidae) I Hydradephaga, with an emphasis on Dytiscidae, was performed with nearly 1600 adult specimens belonging to the families Noteridae (2 species), Hygrobiidae (1 species), and Dytiscidae (74 species). The data were studied

  4. Brilliant Whiteness in Ultrathin Beetle Scales

    E-print Network

    Exeter, University of

    colored appearances of animals are in- variably controlled by pigmentation, highly periodic ultrastructure.56, that create such intense optical whiteness for very limited thickness. The quality of the beetle's whiteness coating formulations to enhance scattering contrast and to improve the perceived appearance of white

  5. ATTRACTING VOLTILES FOR THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemicals responsible for attraction of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to its host plant and conspecifics have long been sought, since Mc Indoo in 1926 [1] demonstrated the general attractiveness of potato plant volatiles to adult CP...

  6. Rove beetle blistering--(Nairobi Eye).

    PubMed

    Williams, A N

    1993-02-01

    'Nairobi Eye' is a condition caused by a blister beetle, Paederus eximius, found in Northern Kenya. It has not previously been described as a hazard for troops exercising in this area. Four cases are described. Recommended management is to wash the contact area initially with soap and water, and to treat subsequent lesions with flamazine. PMID:8445591

  7. Systematics of Fusaria associated with Ambrosia beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here, I summarize research efforts directed at characterizing ambrosia beetle-associated fusaria, including the species responsible for avocado wilt in Israel (Mendel et al., Phytoparasitica 2012) and branch dieback in California (Eskalen et al., Pl. Dis. 2012). Our multilocus molecular phylogenetic...

  8. Asian longhorned beetle public service announcement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    This public service announcement featuring John Walsh of America's Most Wanted is designed to raise awareness of the Asian Longhorned Beetle. The sound quality and lighting are good. The compression of the video makes the visuals less useable for some purposes.

  9. The Beetles Are Coming Jeff Mitton

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    " the first beetles, and the resin dries into yellow pitch tubes on the bark. Terpenes in the resin by coordinating attacks to overcome resin defenses, by destroying conducting tubes as they dig galleries, they sever resin canals, releasing a flood of resin from healthy trees. Flowing resin can "pitch out

  10. Research on Asian longhorned beetle in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An established population of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis) (Motschulsky) was discovered in 2003 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Given the enormous risk that ALB posses to the expansive forests of southern Canada and northern U.S. and the urgent need to eradicate ALB, as ...

  11. A quarter of a century succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages in remnant habitats in an urbanized matrix (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Kamal J.K.; Epstein, Marc E.; Koehle, Jessica J.; Purrington, Foster F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We studied the long-term (23–24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2–3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4–1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our sampled areas are among some of the last remnants of the original oak savanna habitats in central Minnesota, we hypothesize that conservation of these sites may be critical to maintaining epigaeic beetle assemblages under increased urbanization pressure. PMID:22371681

  12. Remote sensing and GIS studies on the spatial distribution and management of Japanese beetle adults and grubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Randy M.

    Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are rapidly developing technologies that offer new opportunities and potentially more effective methods for detecting and monitoring insect pests, as well as understanding their spatial dynamics. These technologies (coupled with traditional trapping) were investigated for their use in managing Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) adults and grubs and studying their spatial distribution and dynamics. Japanese beetle grubs are important root-feeding pests of turfgrass in the Midwest and eastern United States. No non-invasive methods exist to detect grub infestations before unsightly damage has occurred. Studies were conducted to determine whether remote sensing could be used to detect the pre-visible symptoms of simulated and natural grub damage in turfgrass. Simulated grub damage was detected with surface temperature measurements (but not with spectrometer data) before significant visual differences were found. Plots infested with grubs were distinguished from uninfested plots using spectrometer data 10--16 days before significant differences in visual ratings were found. Results using multispectral imagery were mixed. Currently, Japanese beetles are not established in the western United States. There is great concern over their inadvertent transportation into Pacific costal states via cargo transport planes. Beetles may fly onboard cargo planes while they are loaded or unloaded and be accidentally transported to the western states. A study was initiated to evaluate trapping as a method to reliably detect Japanese beetle hotspots near cargo terminals at the Indianapolis International Airport and to assess the spatial variability of the population around the airport. The potential influence of land use on beetle abundance was also assessed, using a GIS. Baited Japanese beetle traps were placed around the perimeter of the airport and emptied daily. Location-dependent variation in trap catch was found. Seasonal average trap catches were highly correlated from year to year, by location. A mark-release-recapture study showed that Japanese beetles frequently flew up to 500m during a day, but could travel up to 700m. Using a GIS, a spatially explicit map of land use and trap location was created. Agricultural land within 500m of the traps was generally positively correlated with trap catch.

  13. Climate change and the outbreak ranges of two North American bark beetles

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae undergo regional of their host forests. Keywords Climate change, Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus ponderosae, discriminant: Scolytidae) species, southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Correspondence: Dr David W. Williams, USDA

  14. Acoustics of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (Curculionidae, Scolytinae): sonic, ultrasonic, and vibration

    E-print Network

    Yack, Jayne E.

    ARTICLE Acoustics of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (Curculionidae, Scolytinae behavioural contexts. Signals were studied in the male mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins: acoustic, mountain pine beetle, communication, Dendroctonus ponderosae, vibration. Résumé : Si l

  15. Phylogenetic Relationships of Iberian Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae): Insights on the Evolution of Nesting Behavior

    E-print Network

    Zardoya, Rafael

    Phylogenetic Relationships of Iberian Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae): Insights 2001 / Accepted: 25 January 2002 Abstract. A phylogeny of the main lineages of dung beetles (Coleoptera Introduction The Scarabaeinae (dung beetles) are a worldwide- distributed, highly successful subfamily

  16. Effects of Macrocheles mites on longevity of males of the dimorphic dung beetle Onthophagus binodis

    E-print Network

    Kotiaho, Janne S.

    Effects of Macrocheles mites on longevity of males of the dimorphic dung beetle Onthophagus binodis of the phoretic relationship between the cosmopolitan mite Macrocheles merdarius and the dimorphic dung beetle, mites, Macrocheles, dung beetle, Onthophagus binodis, alternative reproductive strategies INTRODUCTION

  17. Big Soda Lake (Nevada). 1. Pelagic bacterial heterotrophy and biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JON P. ZEHR; RONALD W. HARVEY; RONALD S. OREMLAND; JAMES E. CLOERN; LEAH H. GEORGE

    1987-01-01

    Bacterial activities and abundance were measured seasonally in the water column of meromictic Big Soda Lake which is divided into three chemically distinct zones: aerobic mixolimnion, anaerobic mixolimnion, and anaerobic monimolimnion. Bacterial abundance ranged between 5 and 52 x 10h cells ml-', with highest biomass at the interfaces between these zones: 2-4 mg C liter' in the photosynthetic bacterial layer

  18. Artificial defoliation effect on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbacker, R.R.; Hart, E.R.; Schultz, R.C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The impact of artificial defoliation on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was examined. Four Populus clones were field planted and artificially defoliated. Assigned defoliation levels (0, 25, 50, or 75%) were applied to leaves of leaf plastochron index 0 through 8 during a 6-d period in a 3-step incremental manner to simulate cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., larval feeding patterns. Artificial defoliations were timed to coincide with the outbreaks of natural beetle populations in adjacent areas. After 2 growing seasons, trees were measured for height, diameter, and biomass accumulation. Root samples were collected from 0 and 75% defoliation treatments for each clone. Biomass was reduced an average of 33% as defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%. As defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%, a consistent allocation ratio of biomass to 2/3 above and 1/3 below ground components continued in all clones. An overcompensation response occurred in above ground biomass when a defoliation level of 25% was applied. Between 25 and 75% a strong linear trend of decreasing biomass as defoliation increased was indicated. Vitality of the tree, as indicated by total nonstructural carbohydrate content, was affected only slightly by increasing defoliation. 26 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  19. SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM IN THE DIVING BEETLE LACCOPHILUS MACULOSUS SAY (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE)

    E-print Network

    Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht

    SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM IN THE DIVING BEETLE LACCOPHILUS MACULOSUS SAY (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE) EVAN to a better understanding of the evolution and maintenance of SSD. Predaceous diving beetles (Dytiscidae

  20. Can predicted mountain pine beetle net production be used to improve stand prioritization for management?

    E-print Network

    Lindgren, Staffan

    pine beetle Brood productivity Stand-level mortality Net brood production Dendroctonus ponderosae Pinus. Introduction Outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponder- osae Hopk., can have devastating

  1. Ice age climate, evolutionary constraints and diversity patterns of European dung beetles

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    LETTER Ice age climate, evolutionary constraints and diversity patterns of European dung beetles patterns of diversity. We assess their associations with the European Scarabaeinae dung beetles, a group

  2. Spatial and temporal variation of dung beetle assemblages in a fragmented landscape at eastern humid chaco.

    PubMed

    Damborsky, M P; Alvarez Bohle, M C; Ibarra Polesel, M G; Porcel, E A; Fontana, J L

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the fauna of dung beetles and analyze their spatial and temporal diversity in a cattle ranch in the province of Chaco. Seven surveys were conducted in three environmental units: a forest fragment, a cattle pasture, and an open grassland. The efficiency of the sampling was assessed with non-parametric richness estimators, and attributes of the assemblage were evaluated. The species composition and the abundance distribution in each of the environmental units studied were compared using rank-abundance curves. The indicator value of each species was measured with the IndVal method. The relationship between richness, abundance, and environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity) was calculated by multivariate multiple regression analysis. A total of 3,356 adult individuals belonging to 29 species of the subfamily Scarabaeinae and to five species of Aphodiinae were captured. Dichotomius nisus (Olivier), Trichillum externepunctatum (Preudhomme), Canthon podagricus (Harold), Onthophagus hirculus (Mannerheim), Pseudocanthon aff. perplexus, Ontherus sulcator (Fabricius), and Ataenius platensis (Blanchard) were the most abundant. Diversity, species richness, and abundance were highest in the forest fragment and in spring and summer captures. Between 94% and 97% of the species present in the entire landscape were recorded. According to the analysis of similarity, the composition of the assemblage was different among habitats. Eurysternus caribaeus (Herbst), Eurysternus aeneus (Génier), and O. sulcator were indicators of the forest. In the three units, the coprophagous species represented more than 60% of the total species number. The rainfall regime, the temperature, and the heterogeneous use of the environmental units influenced the structure of dung beetle assemblages. PMID:26013010

  3. Visual control of cursorial prey pursuit by tiger beetles (Cicindelidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gilbert

    1997-01-01

    Target detection poses problems for moving animals, such as tiger beetles, that track targets visually. The pursuer's movements\\u000a degrade target image contrast and induce reafferent image movement that confounds continuous detection of prey. In nature,\\u000a beetles pursue prey discontinuously with several iterations of stop-and-go running. The beetle's dynamics were analyzed by\\u000a filming pursuits of prey or experimenter-controlled dummies. Durations of

  4. Blister beetle periorbital dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Poole, T R

    1998-01-01

    Two cases of periorbital dermatitis and one case of keratoconjunctivitis following contact with blister beetle are presented. In Tanzania and Kenya the commonest blister beetle is known as Nairobi Fly and is of the genus Paederus. Ocular symptoms are common, usually secondary to transfer by the fingers of the toxic chemical involved from elsewhere on the skin. Blister beetle keratoconjunctivitis has not previously been described in detail. PMID:10070529

  5. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex ‘search for morphological defects’ or a ‘quick search’ for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed. PMID:25378303

  6. The Influence of Previous Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus

    E-print Network

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    The Influence of Previous Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Activity on the 1988 (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) activity within Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, for the 25-years period

  7. Study of the dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) community at two sites: Atlantic forest and clear-cut, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, F A B; Costa, C M Q; Moura, R C; Farias, A I

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) community structure at two sites in the Charles Darwin Ecological Refuge in Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil. Dung beetles were collected in 2006 using monthly samples from 48 pitfall traps baited with human dung and bovine carrion. The dung beetle communities from the study sites were compared in terms of abundance, species richness, and diversity (Shannon index). Seasonality was analyzed by Spearman correlation between rainfall data and community parameters. In total, 2,560 individuals belonging to 40 species, 16 genera, and 6 tribes were collected. Species richness was higher for the clear-cut area compared with the forest habitat. Estimators of species richness suggested a total richness of 42-47 species in the entire study area. A positive correlation was observed between monthly rainfall and total abundance of individuals for the clear-cut area but not for the forest habitat. This study contributes to a better understanding of Scarabaeinae ecology in the Atlantic rainforest of northeastern Brazil. PMID:20388264

  8. Formation of rigid, non-flight forewings (elytra) of a beetle requires two major cuticular proteins.

    PubMed

    Arakane, Yasuyuki; Lomakin, Joseph; Gehrke, Stevin H; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Tomich, John M; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kramer, Karl J; Kanost, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings) of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa) and TcCPR18 (20 kDa), which are also present in pronotum and ventral abdominal cuticles. Both are members of the Rebers and Riddiford family of cuticular proteins and contain RR2 motifs. Transcripts for both genes dramatically increase in abundance at the pharate adult stage and then decline quickly thereafter. Injection of specific double-stranded RNAs for each gene into penultimate or last instar larvae had no effect on larval-larval, larval-pupal, or pupal-adult molting. The elytra of the resulting adults, however, were shorter, wrinkled, warped, fenestrated, and less rigid than those from control insects. TcCPR27-deficient insects could not fold their hindwings properly and died prematurely approximately one week after eclosion, probably because of dehydration. TcCPR18-deficient insects exhibited a similar but less dramatic phenotype. Immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of TcCPR27 in the elytral cuticle. These results demonstrate that TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are major structural proteins in the rigid elytral, dorsal thoracic, and ventral abdominal cuticles of the red flour beetle, and that both proteins are required for morphogenesis of the beetle's elytra. PMID:22570623

  9. Formation of Rigid, Non-Flight Forewings (Elytra) of a Beetle Requires Two Major Cuticular Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Arakane, Yasuyuki; Lomakin, Joseph; Gehrke, Stevin H.; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Tomich, John M.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W.; Kramer, Karl J.; Kanost, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings) of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa) and TcCPR18 (20 kDa), which are also present in pronotum and ventral abdominal cuticles. Both are members of the Rebers and Riddiford family of cuticular proteins and contain RR2 motifs. Transcripts for both genes dramatically increase in abundance at the pharate adult stage and then decline quickly thereafter. Injection of specific double-stranded RNAs for each gene into penultimate or last instar larvae had no effect on larval–larval, larval–pupal, or pupal–adult molting. The elytra of the resulting adults, however, were shorter, wrinkled, warped, fenestrated, and less rigid than those from control insects. TcCPR27-deficient insects could not fold their hindwings properly and died prematurely approximately one week after eclosion, probably because of dehydration. TcCPR18-deficient insects exhibited a similar but less dramatic phenotype. Immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of TcCPR27 in the elytral cuticle. These results demonstrate that TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are major structural proteins in the rigid elytral, dorsal thoracic, and ventral abdominal cuticles of the red flour beetle, and that both proteins are required for morphogenesis of the beetle's elytra. PMID:22570623

  10. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

  11. Suitability of some southern and western pines as hosts for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Eager, T A; Berisford, C W; Dalusky, M J; Nielsen, D G; Brewer, J W; Hilty, S J; Haack, R A

    2004-04-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.), is an exotic pest that has become established in North America. Discovered in Ohio in 1992, it has since been found in at least 13 states and parts of Canada. The beetle can cause significant growth loss in pines, and it represents a potential threat to trees in areas where it has not yet become established. To evaluate this threat to native pines, field and laboratory tests were conducted on several common and important southern and western species to determine whether they are acceptable hosts for T. piniperda. Comparisons with Pinus sylvestris L., Scots pine, a preferred natural host for the beetle, were made where possible. Measurements of beetle attack success on southern pine billets showed that Pinus taeda L., Pinus echinata Miller, Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelmann, Pinus palustris Miller, and Pinus virginiana Miller (loblolly, shortleaf, slash, longleaf, and Virginia pine, respectively) and two western pines, Pinus ponderosa Lawson and Pinus contorta Douglas (ponderosa and lodgepole pine, respectively), were acceptable for breeding material, but brood production was highly variable. Among the southern pines, P. taeda and P. echinata were susceptible to shoot feeding by T. piniperda, whereas P. elliottii was highly resistant and P. palustris seemed to be virtually immune. Shoot feeding tests on the western pines were conducted only in the laboratory, but there was moderate-to-good survival of adults feeding on both species. It seems that if T. piniperda is introduced into the south and west it will likely establish and may cause some damage to native pines. P. taeda may be affected more than other southern pines because it is the most abundant species, it is readily attacked for brood production, which can result in moderately large broods, and the beetle survives well during maturation feeding on P. taeda shoots. PMID:15154468

  12. Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution and ecology

    PubMed Central

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Pespeni, Melissa; Beckers, Oliver; Moczek, Armin P.

    2013-01-01

    Many important questions in developmental biology increasingly interface with related questions in other biological disciplines such as evolutionary biology and ecology. In this article, we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range of approaches, from gene function analysis in the laboratory to population ecological and behavioral studies in the field. Specifically, we focus on three key questions at the current interface of developmental biology, evolutionary biology and ecology: (1) the developmental mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of novel, complex traits, (2) the relationship between phenotypic diversification and the diversification of genes and transcriptomes, and (3) the role of behavior as a leader or follower in developmental evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current understanding of key issues, as well as highlight challenges and opportunities for future studies. PMID:23799584

  13. Bird abundance and species richness on Florida lakes: influence of trophic status, lake morphology, and aquatic macrophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark V. Hoyer; Daniel E. Canfield

    1994-01-01

    Data from 46 Florida lakes were used to examine relationships between bird abundance (numbers and biomass) and species richness, and lake trophic status, lake morphology and aquatic macrophyte abundance. Average annual bird numbers ranged from 7 to 800 birds km-2 and bird biomass ranged from 1 to 465 kg km-2. Total species richness ranged from 1 to 30 species per

  14. Water capture by a desert beetle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Andrew R.; Lawrence, Chris R.

    2001-11-01

    Some beetles in the Namib Desert collect drinking water from fog-laden wind on their backs. We show here that these large droplets form by virtue of the insect's bumpy surface, which consists of alternating hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions. The design of this fog-collecting structure can be reproduced cheaply on a commercial scale and may find application in water-trapping tent and building coverings, for example, or in water condensers and engines.

  15. Niche relations among dung-inhabiting beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Hanski I; H. Koskela

    1977-01-01

    The whole dung-inhabiting (adult) beetle community living in southern Finland was studied with reference to the seasonal (6 summer months), macrohabitat (open field, half-open pine forest and closed spruce forest) and successional (30 days) gradients. The material comprised 50 coprophagous and 129 carnivorous species, represented by 26,650 and 35,850 individuals, respectively. The most important characteristics of each species are given

  16. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; P?žová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  17. Loss of flight promotes beetle diversification.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Sota, Teiji

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of flight is a key innovation that may enable the extreme diversification of insects. Nonetheless, many species-rich, winged insect groups contain flightless lineages. The loss of flight may promote allopatric differentiation due to limited dispersal power and may result in a high speciation rate in the flightless lineage. Here we show that loss of flight accelerates allopatric speciation using carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). We demonstrate that flightless species retain higher genetic differentiation among populations and comprise a higher number of genetically distinct lineages than flight-capable species, and that the speciation rate with the flightless state is twice that with the flight-capable state. Moreover, a meta-analysis of 51 beetle species from 15 families reveals higher genetic differentiation among populations in flightless compared with flight-capable species. In beetles, which represent almost one-fourth of all described species, repeated evolution of flightlessness may have contributed to their steady diversification since the Mesozoic era. PMID:22337126

  18. Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Segura, M O; Fonseca-Gessner, A A; Spies, M R; Siegloch, A E

    2012-05-01

    Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region) and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions) as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys. PMID:22735139

  19. Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle epidemic.

    PubMed

    Treu, Roland; Karst, Justine; Randall, Morgan; Pec, Gregory J; Cigan, Paul W; Simard, Suzanne W; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cahill, James F

    2014-04-01

    Forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosa) is rapidly transforming western North American landscapes. The rapid and widespread death of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) will likely have cascading effects on biodiversity. One group particularly prone to such declines associated with MPB are ectomycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic organisms that can depend on pine for their survival, and are critical for stand regeneration. We evaluated the indirect effects of MPB on above- (community composition of epigeous sporocarps) and belowground (hyphal abundance) occurrences of ectomycorrhizal fungi across 11 forest stands. Along a gradient of mortality (0-82% pine killed), macromycete community composition changed; this shift was driven by a decrease in the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Both the proportion of species that were ectomycorrhizal and hyphal length in the soil declined with increased MPB-caused pine mortality; < 10% of sporocarp species were ectomycorrhizal in stands with high pine mortality compared with > 70% in stands without MPB attacks. The rapid range expansion of a native insect results not only in the widespread mortality of an ecologically and economically important pine species, but the effect of MPB may also be exacerbated by the concomitant decline of fungi crucial for recovery of these forests. PMID:24933827

  20. Woody Biomass-Nebraska

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    the.gov

    This video illustrates the advantages of woody biomass as a renewable, carbon-neutral energy source. Woody biomass is underutilized and often overlooked as a renewable fuel, and it can be harvested sustainably and burned cleanly.

  1. Energy from Biomass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

  2. Crystallinity A Rate-determining Parameter for Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass Yuzhi Kanga,d, Prabuddha Bansala,b, Matthew Realffa,d, Andreas Bommariusacd*

    E-print Network

    Das, Suman

    Crystallinity ­ A Rate-determining Parameter for Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass Yuzhi Kanga. · For pretreated lignocellulosics, crystallinity is a key parameter determining enzymatic hydrolysis rate MOTIVATION Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable organic resource for biofuel production

  3. Functional Roles Affect Diversity-Succession Relationships for Boreal Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of “functional” groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience. PMID:23977350

  4. Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in North ­ This study is part of a larger project aimed at quantifying the biomass and biomass increment been developed to estimate the biomass and biomass increment of coarse, small and fine roots of trees

  5. Characterisation and tissue distribution of the PISCF allatostatin receptor in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Neil; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Weaver, Robert; Dani, Paulina; Matthews, June; Down, Rachel; Vuerinckx, Kristel; Kim, Young-Joon; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    The insect PISCF/allatostatins (ASTs) are pleiotropic peptides that are involved in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, are myoinhibitory on the gut and the heart, and suppress feeding in various insects, but their roles in beetles are poorly understood. To provide further insight into the significance of PISCF/ASTs in beetles, the PISCF/AST receptor from Tribolium castaneum has been characterised and its tissue distribution determined. The biological activity of the T. castaneum PISCF/AST (Trica-AS) was also investigated. The Trica-AS receptor shows high sequence homology to other insect PISCF/AST receptors, which are related to the mammalian somatostatin/opioid receptors, a family of G protein-coupled receptors. The Trica-AS receptor was activated in a dose-dependent manner by both Trica-AS and T. castaneum allatostatin double C (Trica-ASTCC) as well as Manduca sexta-allatostatin (Manse-AS). Other allatoregulatory peptides (a FLG/AST, a MIP/AST and an allatotropin) and somatostatin(14) were inactive on this receptor. Receptor transcript levels in tissues, determined by qRT-PCR, were highest in the head and the gut, with variable amounts in the fat body and reproductive organs. There were measurable differences in receptor levels of the head, fat body and reproductive organs between males and females. There was also a widespread distribution of Trica-AS in various tissues of T. castaneum. The Trica-AS peptide precursor was most abundant in the head and there was a significant difference between levels in the heads and reproductive organs of males and females. Whole mount immunocytochemistry localised Trica-AS in the median and lateral neurosecretory cells of the brain, in the corpus cardiacum and throughout the ventral nerve cord. The peptide was also present in midgut neurosecretory cells, but no immunostaining was detected in the reproductive organs or Malpighian tubules. The widespread distribution of both Trica-AS and its receptor suggest this peptide may have multiple roles in beetles. However, Trica-AS had no effect on the spontaneous contractions of the gut or ovaries of T. castaneum but this peptide did stimulate the release of proteases from the anterior midgut of another beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The activation of the Trica-AS receptor by Trica-ASTCC implies a physiological role for this peptide in beetles, which remains to be identified. PMID:23085356

  6. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  7. Soil carbon cycle 13C responses in the decade following bark beetle and girdling disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, G. E.; Chan, A. M.; Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Bowling, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have impacted millions of hectares of conifer forests leading to uncertainty about whether these forests will become new sources of atmospheric CO2. In large part, this depends on whether enhanced respiration from the decomposition of newly dead organic matter will outpace the recovery of ecosystem carbon uptake by the ecosystems. To understand how rapidly conifer forest carbon pools turn over following these disturbances, we examined changes in the isotopic composition of soil respiration (?13Cresp) following beetle and girdling mortality in two subalpine forests in Colorado, U.S.A. At the beetle-impacted forest ?13Cresp declined by ~1‰ between 3 and 8 years post-disturbance, but recovered in years 9-10. In the girdled forest, deep (<10 cm depth) soil respiration from plots at <1 to 2 years post-girdling was depleted by ~1‰ relative to ungirdled plots, but then gradually increased until there was a significant spike in ?13Cresp at 8-9 years post-girdling. Based on our understanding of isotopic composition in carbon pools and fluxes at these forests, we attribute these changes to removal of recently assimilated C in rhizosphere respiration (1-2 years) followed by the decomposition of litterfall (needles and roots) 8-10 years post-disturbance. Relative to ungirdled plots, there was also a transient enrichment in surface ?13Cresp from plots at <1 to 2 years post-girdling (~0.5‰, not statistically significant) and significant declines in microbial carbon in surface soils in 2-4 year post-girdling plots. Again, based on current understanding, we interpret these to signify the rapid turnover of mycorrhizal and rhizosphere microbial biomass in the 2 years following girdling. A potential confounding factor in this study is that seasonal variation in ?13Cresp was similar in magnitude to changes with time since disturbance and was significantly related to variation in soil temperature and water content.

  8. A culture method for darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp., have become a serious pest of Cucurbitaceae crops, especially in California. A culture method was sought to provide large numbers (> 500) of adult beetles of known age and sex that could be used for laboratory testing when needed. A method previously developed for ...

  9. Rare and Endemic Rhode Island Beetles by Derek S. Sikes

    E-print Network

    Sikes, Derek S.

    Rare and Endemic Rhode Island Beetles by Derek S. Sikes RINHewS 5(1):6-7 [April 1998] During History Survey's Biota of Rhode Island project, I came across five interesting records. Three of these records are beetle species that are technically endemic to Rhode Island, the fourth is a species known

  10. Department of Entomology JAPANESE BEETLES IN THE URBAN LANDSCAPE

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    in color with a row of white tufts (spots) of hair on each side of its body. Adult beetles are most active Newman Annual white grub Metallic Green Bronze White tufts of hair (actual size 1/2") Infestations of the Japanese beetle are found in rural and urban areas throughout Indiana.This insect is most damaging tolawns,trees,flowers,fruits

  11. Rust and Beetle Interactions in Pinus albicaulis Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Bockino; Daniel B. Tinker

    2009-01-01

    Current mountain pine beetle activity in whitebark pine ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is unprecedented in extent and severity. Dynamics among beetles, white pine blister rust, and climate change are placing this foundation species in a precarious state. Stand- and tree-level data was recorded to quantify how the severity of rust and the presence of an alternate host influence

  12. Convergent evolution and adaptive radiation of beetle-pollinated angiosperms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bernhardt

    2000-01-01

    A literature review of 34 families of flowering plants containing at least one species pollinated primarily by beetles is presented. While the majority of species are represented by magnoliids and basal monocotyledons specialized, beetle-pollinated systems have evolved independently in 14 families of eudicotyldons and six families of petaloid monocots. Four, overlapping modes of floral presentation in plants pollinated exclusively by

  13. Bark Beetle-Fungal Symbiosis: Context Dependency in Complex Associations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. KLEPZIGl; D. L. SIX

    Recent thinking in symbiosis research has emphasized a holistic consideration of these complex interactions. Bark beetles and their associated microbes are one group which has previously not been addressed in this manner. We review the study of symbiotic interactions among bark beetles and microbes in light of this thinking. We describe the considerable progress already made, examine areas where further

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, remate

    E-print Network

    Gwynne, Darryl T.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Female seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, remate for male-supplied water rather beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, mate multiply even though association with males and copulations carry through the acquisition of food and water, two material benefits hypothesized to be obtained from

  15. Ecological functions and ecosystem services provided by Scarabaeinae dung beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nichols; S. Spector; J. Louzada; T. Larsen; S. Amezquita; M. E. Favila

    2008-01-01

    Clear understanding of the links between ecological functions and biodiversity is needed to assess and predict the true environmental consequences of human activities. Several key ecosystem functions are provided by coprophagous beetles in the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), which feed on animal excreta as both adults and larvae. Through manipulating feces during the feeding process, dung beetles instigate a series

  16. Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

  17. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DeGuzman, L.I.& A.M. Frake. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles - The life history of small hive beetles (SHB) kept in an incubator (34ºC) and at room temperature (24-28ºC) was compared. Six slides of eggs, obtained using the glass slide technique, were placed individually in rear...

  18. Simulation model of the red flour beetle in flour mills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is one of the most common insect pests infesting wheat flour mills. Structural treatments such as methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride and heat, are used to control the red flour beetle. The structural treatments do not provide any residual action and, thus, any s...

  19. Antennal transcriptome analysis of the chemosensory gene families in the tree killing bark beetles, Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, and the North American mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are severe pests of coniferous forests. Both bark beetle species utilize aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass-attacks on host trees, while odorants from host and non-host trees modulate the pheromone response. Thus, the bark beetle olfactory sense is of utmost importance for fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfactory detection has been lacking in bark beetles and is limited in Coleoptera. We assembled antennal transcriptomes from next-generation sequencing of I. typographus and D. ponderosae to identify members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. Results Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific GO terms was highly similar in the two species. Transcripts with terms related to olfactory function were found in both species. Focusing on the chemosensory gene families, we identified 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 6 chemosensory proteins (CSP), 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 43 odorant receptors (OR), 6 gustatory receptors (GR), and 7 ionotropic receptors (IR) in I. typographus; and 31 putative OBPs, 11 CSPs, 3 SNMPs, 49 ORs, 2 GRs, and 15 IRs in D. ponderosae. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the cerambycid beetle, Megacyllene caryae, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The most notable result was found among the ORs, for which large bark beetle-specific expansions were found. However, some clades contained receptors from all four beetle species, indicating a degree of conservation among some coleopteran OR lineages. Putative GRs for carbon dioxide and orthologues for the conserved antennal IRs were included in the identified receptor sets. Conclusions The protein families important for chemoreception have now been identified in three coleopteran species (four species for the ORs). Thus, this study allows for improved evolutionary analyses of coleopteran olfaction. Identification of these proteins in two of the most destructive forest pests, sharing many semiochemicals, is especially important as they might represent novel targets for population control. PMID:23517120

  20. Responses to air flow and airborne plant odour in the Colorado beetle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wilde; K. Hille Ris Lambers-Suverkropp; A. Tol

    1969-01-01

    Colorado beetles moved upwind in a wind tunnel. Odour from leaves of potato, nightshade, tomato and bittersweet enhanced the response. The response disappeared after four antennal segments had been amputated. The odour from meadow grass and dandelion repelled the beetles. Beetles 2–3 weeks emerged but not newly emerged beetles were slightly attracted by celerey. In the same wind tunnel, the

  1. Phylogeny of Hydradephagan Water Beetles Inferred from 18S rRNA Sequences

    E-print Network

    Ribera, Ignacio

    Phylogeny of Hydradephagan Water Beetles Inferred from 18S rRNA Sequences Ignacio Ribera,1 James E (burrowing water beetles, 270 species), Halipli- dae (crawling water beetles, 220 species), and two mo- cies). Diving beetles spend most of their life cycle in the water, with only the pupae terrestrial

  2. WATER BEETLES IN RELATION TO PONDFISH CULTURE, WITH LIFE HISTORIES OF THOSE FOUND. IN FISHPONDS

    E-print Network

    WATER BEETLES IN RELATION TO PONDFISH CULTURE, WITH LIFE HISTORIES OF THOSE FOUND. IN FISHPONDS . Importance of water beetles . Ignorance ofAmericanspecies . Lakes versus fishponds...........·.... Methods OF WATER BEETLES. The beetles are far more numerous than any other order of insects and are very

  3. Variability of zooplankton biomass and dominant species abundance

    E-print Network

    , serv- ing as the connecting link between primary producers and secondary consumers. The availability.S. Northeastern continental shelf marine ecosystem from 1977 through 1987 with bimonthly surveys, measuring of Georges Bank zooplankton and how it relates to ichthyoplankton life histories. Addi- tional studies (Davis

  4. Measurement for isotopic abundances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1973-01-01

    Review was made on the determination of isotopic abundance ratio by the ; mass spectroscopic method, relation between the abundance ratio and atomic ; weight, problems in the relative measurement of the ratio, standard materials for ; the determination of the abundance ratio and extraterrestrial materials, and ; specific topics on varlous elements. Use of mass spectrographs is classified ;

  5. INTRODUCED LADY BEETLES (COLEOPTERA; COCCINELLIDAE): BENEFICIAL AGENTS OR ALIEN INVADERS? INTRODUCED LADY BEETLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lady beetles (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae) are valued for their role in the suppression of many plant pests. They are common predators in natural ecosystems, as well as cultivated gardens, orchards, rangelands and agricultural fields. These beneficial insects can be utilized in a number of ways: Indig...

  6. Dead wood creation and restoration burning: Implications for bark beetles and beetle induced tree deaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miikka Eriksson; Saara Lilja; Heikki Roininen

    2006-01-01

    Dead wood creation is an important tool for restoring the natural characteristics of boreal managed forests, where the amount of dead wood has seriously declined as a result of forest management practices. Although many forest species would benefit from restoration, foresters are concerned about the increased risk of bark beetle attacks on surrounding managed forests. In our study, we investigated

  7. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle’s Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Maurizi, Emanuela; Barbero, Francesca; Sala, Marco; Fattorini, Simone; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants’ activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus) are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can “speak” three different “languages”, each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen). Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants. PMID:26154266

  8. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Joseph B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70–80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. PMID:20194793

  9. Adsorption of lead (Pb) from aqueous solution with Typha angustifolia biomass modified by SOCl 2 activated EDTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Jun Liu; Fan-Xin Zeng; Hong Jiang; Xue-Song Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A chemically modified Typha angustifolia biomass (CMTAB) material with abundant carboxyl groups was prepared using thionyl chloride (SOCl2) activated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a modification reagent. The CMTAB was characterized by back titration, elemental analysis, FTIR and SEM. The results show that EDTA is effectively grafted to the biomass matrix and the carboxyl group content of the biomass sharply increases

  10. Primary Research Paper Changes in the distribution and abundance of Dreissena polymorpha

    E-print Network

    Padilla, Dianna

    and biomass were followed in three Belarusian lakes with different trophic status over a 12-year period, relative abundance of substrate available for colonization, lake morphometry and trophic type. Zebra mussel

  11. Effects of landscape composition and rotation distance on Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) abundance in cultivated potato.

    PubMed

    Huseth, A S; Frost, K E; Knuteson, D L; Wyman, J A; Groves, R L

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the Colorado potato beetle's, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), relationship to previous potato crops has contributed to the development of a pest management strategy focused upon crop rotation. Previous investigations revealed that potato rotations exceeding 0.4 km were effective in reducing colonization in current season potato. The current study examines the relationship between beetle abundance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and distance from multiple, previous year potato fields in Wisconsin, and integrates information about the influence of natural habitats adjacent to previous season potato. Colorado potato beetle count data were collected in 1998 and 2008 and distance to previous potato, field areas, and landscape classes were estimated using maps from 1997 and 2007. Poisson regression was used to relate counts to combinations of distance and local landscape characteristics calculated for all fields within 1,500 m of sampled potato. In 1998, beetle counts measured in current season potato declined significantly with increasing distance from previous potato fields and field size did not influence these counts. However, there was no relationship between beetle abundance and distance to prior year potatoes in 2008. In both years, increased proportions of surrounding habitats, previously described as preferred for diapause sites (e.g., wooded field boundaries), did not relate significantly to counts. However, grassland habitat was negatively correlated with counts. Results indicate that distance from previous potato remains an important factor to reduce the magnitude of colonization. This analysis further suggests that certain landscape components (e.g., grassland) may influence infestation, which may be useful for refining future integrated pest management programs. PMID:23321104

  12. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2015-03-01

    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000?m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells?ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells?ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14?pg C?ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web. PMID:25290506

  13. Deep phylogeographical structure and parallel host range evolution in the leaf beetle Agelasa nigriceps.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Matsumoto, Kazuma; Katakura, Haruo

    2014-02-01

    To understand the mechanisms behind the diversification of herbivorous insects through insect-plant interactions, it is important to know how the insects change their diet breadth in response to environmental changes. In this study, we investigated the phylogeographical pattern of the leaf beetle Agelasa nigriceps to infer the evolutionary history of its host range. While this beetle commonly uses Actinidia arguta (Actinidiaceae) as a host plant, it has been recorded recently on Pterostyrax hispidus (Styracaceae), which is now increasing in abundance at some localities in Japan due to the indirect effects of high population size of a mammalian herbivore. Considerable variation among populations in the ability of Ag. nigriceps to use P. hispidus suggests that P. hispidus is a newly acquired host plant for this beetle. Phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) revealed a high degree of phylogeographical structure in Ag. nigriceps throughout Japan, which is consistent with the hypothesis that several glacial refugia existed in the Japanese archipelago. In contrast, no genetic structure associated with the host plants was detected. Both the mitochondrial DNA and AFLP analyses showed that populations that can use P. hispidus are polyphyletic. These results and geographical variation in host use suggest that the host range expansion to a novel host, P. hispidus, is a very recent and possibly ongoing phenomenon and has occurred independently in several regions. Our study illustrates that the host range of herbivorous insects can evolve repeatedly in response to similar environmental changes. PMID:24261568

  14. Dung beetles ignore landmarks for straight-line orientation.

    PubMed

    Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric; Baird, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Upon locating a suitable dung pile, ball-rolling dung beetles shape a piece of dung into a ball and roll it away in a straight line. This guarantees that they will not return to the dung pile, where they risk having their ball stolen by other beetles. Dung beetles are known to use celestial compass cues such as the sun, the moon and the pattern of polarised light formed around these light sources to roll their balls of dung along straight paths. Here, we investigate whether terrestrial landmarks have any influence on straight-line orientation in dung beetles. We find that the removal or re-arrangement of landmarks has no effect on the beetle's orientation precision. Celestial compass cues dominate straight-line orientation in dung beetles so strongly that, under heavily overcast conditions or when prevented from seeing the sky, the beetles can no longer orient along straight paths. To our knowledge, this is the only animal with a visual compass system that ignores the extra orientation precision that landmarks can offer. PMID:23076443

  15. Dung beetles and fecal helminth transmission: patterns, mechanisms and questions.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Gómez, Andrés

    2014-04-01

    Dung beetles are detrivorous insects that feed on and reproduce in the fecal material of vertebrates. This dependency on vertebrate feces implies frequent contact between dung beetles and parasitic helminths with a fecal component to their life-cycle. Interactions between dung beetles and helminths carry both positive and negative consequences for successful parasite transmission, however to date there has been no systematic review of dung beetle-helminth interactions, their epidemiological importance, or their underlying mechanisms. Here we review the observational evidence of beetle biodiversity-helminth transmission relationships, propose five mechanisms by which dung beetles influence helminth survival and transmission, and highlight areas for future research. Efforts to understand how anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity may influence parasite transmission must include the development of detailed, mechanistic understanding of the multiple interactions between free-living and parasitic species within ecological communities. The dung beetle-helminth system may be a promising future model system with which to understand these complex relationships. PMID:24476794

  16. Thermophilic biogasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Klass, D.L.; Edwards, V.H.; Christopher, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Secondary sewage effluent- and fresh-water-grown water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes), Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), and a hyacinth-grass-municipal solid waste-sludge (biomass-waste) blend were used as test feeds to develop a fast thermophilic biomass- digestion process. For the pure biomass feeds thermophilic digestion has no apparent advantage over mesophilic digestion, but the reverse is true for the biomass-waste blend. Alkaline pretreatment of the feed improved thermophilic digester performance substantially. For a given plant feed load, the reactor volume, culture-heating requirements, and CH4 production rate for thermophilic digestion of the pretreated biomass-waste feed were 18,46, and 135% of those for conventional mesophilic digestion. For a biomass-waste feed the respective volatile solids reduction and energy recovery efficiencies were 46 and 49% for thermophilic and 36 and 43% for mesophilic digestions.

  17. BIOMASS TO BIO-OIL BY LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-10

    Significant efforts have been devoted to develop processes for the conversion of biomass, an abundant and sustainable source of energy, to liquid fuels and chemicals, in order to replace diminishing fossil fuels and mitigate global warming. Thermochemical and biochemical methods have attracted the most attention. Among the thermochemical processes, pyrolysis and liquefaction are the two major technologies for the direct conversion of biomass to produce a liquid product, often called bio-oil. This chapter focuses on the liquefaction, a medium-temperature and high-pressure thermochemical process for the conversion of biomass to bio-oil. Water has been most commonly used as a solvent and the process is known as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Fundamentals of HTL process, key factors determining HTL behavior, role of catalyst in HTL, properties of produced bio-oil, and the current status of the technology are summarized. The liquefaction of biomass by using organic solvents, a process called solvolysis, is also discussed. A wide range of biomass feedstocks have been tested for liquefaction including wood, crop residues, algae, food processing waste, and animal manure.

  18. Polyols and polyurethanes from the liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Li, Yebo

    2014-01-01

    Polyurethanes (PUs), produced from the condensation polymerizations between polyols and isocyanates, are one of the most versatile polymer families. Currently, both polyols and isocyanates are largely petroleum derived. Recently, there have been extensive research interests in developing bio-based polyols and PUs from renewable resources. As the world's most abundant renewable biomass, lignocellulosic biomass is rich in hydroxyl groups and has potential as a feedstock to produce bio-based polyols and PUs. Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted to liquid polyols for PU applications through acid- or base-catalyzed atmospheric liquefaction processes using polyhydric alcohols as liquefaction solvents. Biomass liquefaction-derived polyols can be used to prepare various PU products, such as foams, films and adhesives. The properties of biomass liquefaction-derived polyols and PUs depend on various factors, such as feedstock characteristics, liquefaction conditions, and PU formulations. PMID:24357542

  19. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Predation by Carabid Beetles (Carabidae) on Nematode Infected and Uninfected Slugs in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Hatteland, Bjørn Arild; Haukeland, Solveig; Roth, Steffen; Brurberg, May Bente; Vaughan, Ian P.; Symondson, William O. C.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita. PMID:24349202

  20. Habitat differences in dung beetle assemblages in an African savanna-forest ecotone: implications for secondary seed dispersal.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta K; Krell, Frank-Thorsten

    2011-06-01

    The probability and pattern of secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) depend on their community structure and composition at the site of primary deposition, which, in turn, seem to be strongly determined by vegetation. Consequently, we expected pronounced differences in secondary seed dispersal between forest and savanna in the northern Ivory Coast, West Africa. We found 99 dung beetle species at experimentally exposed dung piles of the olive baboon (Papio anubis (Lesson, 1827)), an important primary seed disperser in West Africa. Seventy-six species belonged to the roller and tunneler guilds, which are relevant for secondary seed dispersal. Most species showed a clear habitat preference. Contrary to the Neotropics, species number and abundance were much higher in the savanna than in the forest. Rollers and tunnelers each accounted for approximately 50% of the individuals in the savanna, but in the forest rollers made up only 4%. Seeds deposited into the savanna by an omnivorous primary disperser generally have a higher overall probability of being more rapidly dispersed secondarily by dung beetles than seeds in the forest. Also, rollers disperse seeds over larger distances. In contrast to other studies, small rollers were active in dispersal of large seeds, which were seemingly mistaken for dung balls. Our results suggest that rollers can remove seeds from any plant dispersed in primate dung in this ecosystem. PMID:21645274

  1. The Solar Argon Abundance

    E-print Network

    Katharina Lodders

    2007-10-24

    The solar argon abundance cannot be directly derived by spectroscopic observations of the solar photosphere. The solar Ar abundance is evaluated from solar wind measurements, nucleosynthetic arguments, observations of B stars, HII regions, planetary nebulae, and noble gas abundances measured in Jupiter's atmosphere. These data lead to a recommended argon abundance of N(Ar) = 91,200(+/-)23,700 (on a scale where Si = 10^6 atoms). The recommended abundance for the solar photosphere (on a scale where log N(H) = 12) is A(Ar)photo = 6.50(+/-)0.10, and taking element settling into account, the solar system (protosolar) abundance is A(Ar)solsys = 6.57(+/-)0.10.

  2. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Developmental Plasticity in Horned Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Valena, Sophie; Moczek, Armin P.

    2012-01-01

    All developmental plasticity arises through epigenetic mechanisms. In this paper we focus on the nature, origins, and consequences of these mechanisms with a focus on horned beetles, an emerging model system in evolutionary developmental genetics. Specifically, we introduce the biological significance of developmental plasticity and summarize the most important facets of horned beetle biology. We then compare and contrast the epigenetic regulation of plasticity in horned beetles to that of other organisms and discuss how epigenetic mechanisms have facilitated innovation and diversification within and among taxa. We close by highlighting opportunities for future studies on the epigenetic regulation of plastic development in these and other organisms. PMID:22567393

  3. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor), egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola) activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i) untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii) egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii) feeding, (iv) artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v) methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans) and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant) database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction, transport and primary metabolism. Conclusion Here we present a dataset for a large-scale study of the mechanisms of plant defense against insect eggs in a co-evolved, natural ecological plant–insect system. The EST database analysis provided here is a first step in elucidating the transcriptional responses of elm to elm leaf beetle infestation, and adds further to our knowledge on insect egg-induced transcriptomic changes in plants. The sequences identified in our comparative analysis give many hints about novel defense mechanisms directed towards eggs. PMID:22702658

  4. SEASONAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS OF DIATOMS ON 'CLADOPHORA' IN LAKE HURON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rocks bearing Cladophora were collected from May to November 1979 at two locations near Harbor Beach, Michigan, in Lake Huron to document seasonal patterns of epiphytic diatom abundance and diatom proportion of the Cladophora-epiphyte assemblage biomass in an area receiving efflu...

  5. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  6. Righting kinematics in beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid

    2004-07-01

    Twenty modes of stereotyped righting motions were observed in 116 representative species of coleoptera. Methods included cine and stereocine recording with further frame by frame analysis, stereogrammetry, inverse kinematic reconstruction of joint angles, stroboscopic photography, recording of electromyograms, 3D measurements of the articulations, etc. The basic mode consists of a search phase, ending up with grasping the substrate, and a righting, overturning phase. Leg coordination within the search cycle differs from the walking cycle with respect to phasing of certain muscle groups. Search movements of all legs appear chaotic, but the tendency to move in antiphase is still present in adjacent ipsilateral and contralateral leg pairs. The system of leg coordination might be split: legs of one side might search, while contralateral legs walk, or fore and middle legs walk while hind legs search. Elaborated types of righting include somersaults with the aid of contralateral or diagonal legs, pitch on elytra, jumps with previous energy storage with the aid of unbending between thoracic segments (well-known for Elateridae), or quick folding of elytra (originally described in Histeridae). Righting in beetles is compared with righting modes known in locusts and cockroaches. Search in a righting beetle is directed dorsad, while a walking insect searches for the ground downwards. Main righting modes were schematized for possible application to robotics. PMID:18089036

  7. Dew condensation on desert beetle skin.

    PubMed

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Mongruel, A; Medici, M-G; Baquero, E; Parker, A R; Milimouk-Melnytchuk, I; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D

    2014-11-01

    Some tenebrionind beetles inhabiting the Namib desert are known for using their body to collect water droplets from wind-blown fogs. We aim to determine whether dew water collection is also possible for desert insects. For this purpose, we investigated the infra-red emissivity, and the wetting and structural properties, of the surface of the elytra of a preserved specimen of Physasterna cribripes (Tenebrionidæ) beetle, where the macro-structure appears as a series of "bumps", with "valleys" between them. Dew formation experiments were carried out in a condensation chamber. The surface properties (infra-red emissivity, wetting properties) were dominated by the wax at the elytra surface and, to a lower extent, its micro-structure. We performed scanning electron microscope on histological sections and determined the infra-red emissivity using a scanning pyrometer. The emissivity measured (0.95±0.07 between 8-14 ?m) was close to the black body value. Dew formation occurred on the insect's elytra, which can be explained by these surface properties. From the surface coverage of the condensed drops it was found that dew forms primarily in the valleys between the bumps. The difference in droplet nucleation rate between bumps and valleys can be attributed to the hexagonal microstructure on the surface of the valleys, whereas the surface of the bumps is smooth. The drops can slide when they reach a critical size, and be collected at the insect's mouth. PMID:25403836

  8. Unilateral range finding in diving beetle larvae.

    PubMed

    Bland, Kevin; Revetta, Nicholas P; Stowasser, Annette; Buschbeck, Elke K

    2014-02-01

    One of the biggest challenges that predators, such as the larvae of the diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), are faced with is to accurately assess the distance of their prey. Most animals derive distance information from disparities of images that are viewed from different angles, from information that is obtained from well-controlled translational movements (motion parallax) or from the image size of known objects. Using a behavioral assay we demonstrated that T. marmoratus larvae continue to accurately strike at artificial prey, even if none of these typical distance estimation cues are available to them. Specifically, we excluded bilateral binocular stereopsis by occlusion, confounded possible motion parallax cues with an artificially moving prey, and excluded the possibility that beetle larvae simply approached their targets based on known prey size by presenting different prey sizes. Despite these constraints, larvae consistently struck our artificial targets from a distance of ~4.5 mm. Based on these findings we conclude that T. marmoratus likely employ an unusual mechanism to accurately determine prey distances, possibly mediated by the object-distance-dependent activation of specific subsets of their many-tiered and peculiarly positioned photoreceptors. PMID:24477608

  9. Phenotypic plasticity in a willow leaf beetle depends on host plant species: release and recognition of beetle odors.

    PubMed

    Austel, Nadine; Reinecke, Andreas; Björkman, Christer; Hilker, Monika; Meiners, Torsten

    2015-02-01

    Aggregation behavior of herbivorous insects is mediated by a wide range of biotic and abiotic factors. It has been suggested that aggregation behavior of the blue willow leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima is mediated by both host plant odor and by odor released by the beetles. Previous studies show that the beetles respond to plant odors according to their prior host plant experiences. Here, we analyzed the effect of the host plant species on odor released and perceived by adult P. vulgatissima. The major difference between the odor of beetles feeding on salicin-rich and salicin-poor host plants was the presence of salicylaldehyde in the odor of the former, where both males and females released this compound. Electrophysiological studies showed that the intensity of responses to single components of odor released by beetles was sex specific and dependent on the host plant species with which the beetles were fed. Finally, behavioral studies revealed that males feeding on salicin-rich willows were attracted by salicylaldehyde, whereas females did not respond behaviorally to this compound, despite showing clear antennal responses to it. Finally, the ecological relevance of the influence of a host plant species on the plasticity of beetle odor chemistry, perception, and behavior is discussed. PMID:25537016

  10. BIOSEP: A NEW ETHANOL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR SMALL SCALE RURAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM BIOMASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research activities on bioethanol have increased substantially as a result of the current concerns with energy security. Inexpensive biomass including forest residues, mill residues, agricultural residues, urban wood wastes and dedicated energy corps that exists in abundance acr...

  11. Differences in critical thermal maxima and mortality across life stages of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Ashley S; Bradley, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Thermal limits to activity profoundly affect the abundance and distribution of ectothermic animals. Upper thermal limits to activity are typically reported as the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), the temperature at which activity becomes uncontrolled. Thermolimit respirometry is a new technique that allows CT(max) to be quantified in small animals, such as insects, as the point of spiracular failure by measuring CO(2) release from the animal as temperature increases. Although prior studies have reported a characteristic pattern of CO(2) release for insects during thermolimit respirometry trials, no studies have been carried out to determine the universality of this pattern across development, or at what point death occurs along this pattern. Here, we compared the CT(max) and patterns of CO(2) release among three life stages of a beetle species, Tenebrio molitor, and mapped heat death onto these patterns. Our study is the first to report distinct patterns of CO(2) release in different life stages of an insect species during thermolimit respirometry. Our results show that CT(max) was significantly higher in adult beetles than in either larvae or pupae (P<0.001) and, similarly, death occurred at higher temperatures in adults than in larvae and pupae. We also found that death during heating closely follows CT(max) in these animals, which confirms that measuring the loss of spiracular control with thermolimit respirometry successfully identifies the point of physiological limitation during heat stress. PMID:22675193

  12. Synthetic attractants for the bark beetle parasitoid Coeloides bostrichorum Giraud (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersson, Eva M.; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter

    2001-02-01

    Coeloides bostrichorum Giraud parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attack late larval stages of various bark beetle species breeding in spruce. Volatile compounds collected from Norway spruce (Picea abies) infested by Ips typographus L. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the predominant volatile compounds of fresh Norway spruce, while the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes indicates damaged trees. Between one and eight EAD-active oxygenated monoterpenes were used, in amounts reflecting their natural abundance in spruce trees containing bark beetle larvae, to prepare five synthetic baits which were tested in wind tunnel bioassays. Odour samples collected from spruce logs containing the preferred host stage were attractive, while similar samples from uninfested logs failed to elicit any flight activity. However, when a four- or an eight-component synthetic bait was added to volatiles collected from uninfested spruce logs, this combination was as attractive as volatiles collected from infested spruce logs.

  13. Species richness - Energy relationships and dung beetle diversity across an aridity and trophic resource gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshikae, B. Power; Davis, Adrian L. V.; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding factors that drive species richness and turnover across ecological gradients is important for insect conservation planning. To this end, we studied species richness - energy relationships and regional versus local factors that influence dung beetle diversity in game reserves along an aridity and trophic resource gradient in the Botswana Kalahari. Dung beetle species richness, alpha diversity, and abundance declined with increasing aridity from northeast to southwest and differed significantly between dung types (pig, elephant, cattle, sheep) and carrion (chicken livers). Patterns of between-study area species richness on ruminant dung (cattle, sheep) differed to other bait types. Patterns of species richness between bait types in two southwest study areas differed from those in four areas to the northeast. Regional species turnover between study areas was higher than local turnover between bait types. Patterns of southwest to northeast species loss showed greater consistency than northeast to southwest losses from larger assemblages. Towards the southwest, similarity to northeast assemblages declined steeply as beta diversity increased. High beta diversity and low similarity at gradsect extremes resulted from two groups of species assemblages showing either northeast or southwest biogeographical centres. The findings are consistent with the energy hypothesis that indicates insect species richness in lower latitudes is indirectly limited by declining water variables, which drive reduced food resources (lower energy availability) represented, here, by restriction of large mammals dropping large dung types to the northeast and dominance of pellet dropping mammals in the arid southwest Kalahari. The influence of theoretical causal mechanisms is discussed.

  14. [Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) of the northwestern slope of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Neis J; García, Héctor; Pulido, Luz A; Ospino, Deibi; Harváez, Juan C

    2009-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles in the middle and lower river basin of the Gaira river, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described. Four sites were selected along an altitudinal gradient of 50-940 m for sampling from June to October, 2004. Dung beetles were captured using modified pitfall traps and manual recollections. We captured 7,872 individuals belonging to 29 species, distributed in 15 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae. Canthon and Onthophagus were the most diverse genera, each represented by six species. The sampled sites shared the following species: Onthophagus acuminatus Harold, O. clypeatus Blanchard, O. marginicollis Harold. Bocatoma was the most diverse site with 23 species; whereas Port Mosquito presented the highest abundance, with 3,262 individuals. Seven species represented 89% of all captures: Canthidium sp., Dichotomius sp., Uroxys sp. 1, Uroxys sp. 2, O. marginicollis, O. clypeatus and O. acuminatus. Of the 29 captured species, 17 belonged to the functional group of diggers and 10 were ball-rollers. We did not observe significant among-site differences in community structure. Abiotic factors such as altitude, temperature and humidity cannot explain observed variation in community structure across sites, indicating other variables such as vegetation cover, density of the vegetation and soil type may play a role in the community structure of these insects. PMID:20098915

  15. Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Keeling, Christopher I; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2004-07-01

    In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:15257386

  16. Differences in preference and performance of the water lily leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae populations on native and introduced aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianqing; Blossey, Bernd

    2009-12-01

    Plant invasions represent ecological opportunities for herbivorous insects able to exploit novel host plants. The availability of new hosts and rapid adaptations may lead to host race formation and ultimately speciation. We studied potential host race formation in the water lily leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae, in response to invasion by water chestnut, Trapa natans, in eastern North America. This leaf beetle is well suited for such studies because previous work showed that different herbivore populations follow different "evolutionary pathways" and specialize locally in response to differences in habitat preferences and host plant availability. We compared host preference and performance of G. nymphaeae offspring originating from T. natans and offspring of individuals originating from an ancestral host Nuphar lutea, yellow water lily, on T. natans and three native hosts (N. lutea, Nympheae odorata, and Brasenia schreberi). Regardless of origin (Trapa or Nuphar), adults strongly preferred their native host, N. lutea, over T. natans. Although laboratory survival rates (larva to pupa) were extremely high (80%) regardless of origin or host offered, survival rates in a common garden were greatly reduced, particularly for T. natans (24%) and to a lesser extent on N. lutea (54%), regardless of beetle origin. Larval drowning during more frequent leaf changes when developing on small Trapa leaves seems to be responsible for this difference. Preference of females for N. lutea is beneficial considering the much higher larval survival on the ancestral host. Abundant T. natans where the plant is invasive provides an alternative food source that beetles can use after egg/larval loads on their preferred host reach carrying capacity, but this utilization comes at a cost of high larval mortality. PMID:20021761

  17. A Tenebrionid beetle’s dataset (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Cheli, Germán H.; Flores, Gustavo E.; Román, Nicolás Martínez; Podestá, Darío; Mazzanti, Renato; Miyashiro, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Natural Protected Area Peninsula Valdés, located in Northeastern Patagonia, is one of the largest conservation units of arid lands in Argentina. Although this area has been in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1999, it has been continually exposed to sheep grazing and cattle farming for more than a century which have had a negative impact on the local environment. Our aim is to describe the first dataset of tenebrionid beetle species living in Peninsula Valdés and their relationship to sheep grazing. The dataset contains 118 records on 11 species and 198 adult individuals collected. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps in the two major environmental units of Peninsula Valdés, taking into account grazing intensities over a three year time frame from 2005–2007. The Data quality was enhanced following the best practices suggested in the literature during the digitalization and geo-referencing processes. Moreover, identification of specimens and current accurate spelling of scientific names were reviewed. Finally, post-validation processes using DarwinTest software were applied. Specimens have been deposited at Entomological Collection of the Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT-CONICET). The dataset is part of the database of this collection and has been published on the internet through GBIF Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT) (http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/14669/). Furthermore, it is the first dataset for tenebrionid beetles of arid Patagonia available in GBIF database, and it is the first one based on a previously designed and standardized sampling to assess the interaction between these beetles and grazing in the area. The main purposes of this dataset are to ensure accessibility to data associated with Tenebrionidae specimens from Peninsula Valdés (Chubut, Argentina), also to contribute to GBIF with primary data about Patagonian tenebrionids and finally, to promote the Entomological Collection of Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT-CONICET) and its associated biodiversity data. For these reasons, we believe that this information will certainly be useful for future faunistic, ecological, conservational and biogeographical studies. PMID:24453546

  18. Abundance, diversity, and seasonal population dynamics of aquatic coleoptera and heteroptera in rice fields: effects of direct seeding management.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koji, Shinsaku; Hidaka, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Recent introduction of modern drainage systems has produced intensely dry conditions in rice farmlands and has degraded habitats for aquatic animals. In this study, we compared water beetle (Coleoptera) and water bug (Heteroptera) communities within rice fields cultivated under different management regimes: V-furrow no-till direct-seeding (DS) and conventional regimes. In DS fields, rice is sown in well-drained fields, and flooding is performed a month later than in conventional rice fields. DS fields are then continuously flooded until harvesting; unlike in conventional fields, where midseason drainage is performed in summer. We observed that DS fields supported higher densities of water beetles and water bugs than conventional fields, probably because of the high compatibility between the flooding period and the reproductive season of the insects. The species richness of water beetles was higher in DS fields than in conventional fields. Overall, DS fields showed higher water beetle and water bug abundance, but the effect was variable for individual species: seven species were more abundant in DS than in conventional fields, whereas two species showed opposite tendencies. Considering the differential responses among species to the management regimes, a mosaic of DS and conventional fields is preferable to either field alone for the conservation of aquatic insects in rice agroecosystems. PMID:24073897

  19. Big dung beetles dig deeper: trait-based consequences for faecal parasite transmission.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nichar; Gómez, Andrés; Oliveira, Trícia Maria F de S; Nichols, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Observational evidence suggests that burial of faeces by dung beetles negatively influences the transmission of directly transmitted gastrointestinal helminths. However, the mechanistic basis for these interactions is poorly characterised, limiting our ability to understand relationships between beetle community composition and helminth transmission. We demonstrate that beetle body size and sex significantly impact tunnel depth, a key variable affecting parasite survival. Additionally, high parasite loads reduce the depth of beetle faeces burial, suggesting that the local prevalence of parasites infecting beetles may impact beetle ecosystem function. Our study represents a first step towards a mechanistic understanding of a potentially epidemiologically relevant ecosystem function. PMID:25496914

  20. Biologically inspired optics: analog semiconductor model of the beetle exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhl, Kaia; Roth, Zachary; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Rumpf, Raymond; Johnson, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms. For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave structures produce matching reflection spectra. In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.

  1. New generic synonyms in the Oriental flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following new synonyms are proposed for the genera of flea beetles from Oriental Region: Pseudocrypta Medvedev, 1996 and Sebaethiella Medvedev, 1993 = Acrocrypta Baly, 1862: 457; Bhutajana Scherer, 1979 = Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836; Burmaltica Scherer, 1969 = Aphthonaltica Heikertinger, 1924; Apht...

  2. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  3. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  4. Dormancy of the Khapra Beetle: Quiescence or Diapause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Burges

    1959-01-01

    THE khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts, is a dermestid pest of stored grain from India, now established in British malt stores. Ecological work in these stores and laboratory experiments have revealed a very interesting life-cycle.

  5. The solar hafnium abundance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Andersen; P. Petersen; Ö. Hauge

    1976-01-01

    The solar Hf abundance is determined using nine Hf ii lines in the photospheric spectrum. The transition probabilities were obtained from lifetime measurements performed by the beam-foil technique. The abundance derived from synthetic spectrum calculations is A(Hf) = 0.88 ± 0.08 in the logarithmic A(H) = 12.00 scale.

  6. Stellar oxygen abundances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy R. King

    1993-01-01

    We address a variety of issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. We first investigate the discrepancy in O abundances of halo stars as derived from the 7774 A O I triplet and other lines and propose a resolution to this discrepancy. Next, possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a

  7. Biomass Gasification in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weijuan Lan; Guanyi Chen; Wenchao Ma; Beibei Yan; Weiyi Li

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the challenges of increasing energy demand, renewable energy plays a significant role in energy strategy nowadays in China. Bioenergy as carbon free energy, is considered one of the most promising renewable energy sources that can supply heat and electricity. The paper introduces characteristics of biomass and related equipment expounds on the direction of research of biomass

  8. Catalyzed gasification of biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Jr. Sealock; R. J. Robertus; L. K. Mudge; D. H. Mitchell; J. L. Cox

    1978-01-01

    Catalyzed biomass gasification studies are being conducted by Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Investigations are being carried out concurrently at the bench and process development unit scales. These studies are designed to test the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gaseous products from biomass by enhancing its reactivity and product specificity through the use of specific catalysts. The program is

  9. Combustion properties of biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M Jenkins; L. L Baxter; T. R Miles

    1998-01-01

    Properties of biomass relevant to combustion are briefly reviewed. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable, especially with respect to inorganic constituents important to the critical problems of fouling and slagging. Alkali and alkaline earth metals, in combination with other fuel elements such as silica and sulfur, and facilitated by the presence of chlorine, are responsible for many

  10. Influence of host gender on infection rate, density and distribution of the parasitic fungus, Hesperomyces virescens, on the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Riddick, E W

    2006-01-01

    Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) is a parasitic fungus that infects lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) via horizontal transmission between adults at overwintering and feeding sites. The differential behavior of male and female hosts could have profound effects on intensity of infection and positioning of fungus on the host's integument. The influence of host gender on infection rate, density and distribution of this parasite on the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was determined at a feeding site. Adult H. axyridis were sampled from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, trees in northern Mississippi, USA, during summer and early fall 2003-2004. Results indicated that the behavior of male or female beetles on pecan trees had only a limited effect on the intensity of infection. When averaged over the entire season, the percentage of H. axyridis infected with H. virescens was not influenced by host gender. In 2003, a seasonal average of 54 and 39% of males and females, respectively, were infected; whereas in 2004, 36 and 41% of male and female beetles, respectively, were infected. The percentage of males infected with H. virescens was correlated with the number of males captured at the site in 2003; infection rate decreased as male abundance increased. Infection rate did not correlate with female abundance in 2003 or male or female abundance in 2004. Host gender had a considerable effect on the density and distribution of the fungus. Hesperomyces virescens mature thalli were denser on male rather than female beetles. Also, thallus density was often greatest on the elytra, meso- and metathorax, and abdomen of males and elytra of females, than on other body parts, in 2003. In 2003 and 2004, approximately 59 and 97% and 67 and 96% of males and females, respectively, had mature thalli distributed on the elytra. Prevalence of H. virescens thalli on the dorsum of H. axyridis females suggests that mating behavior is important in fungal transmission. However, prevalence of thalli on the dorsum of H. axyridis males suggests that behaviors other than mating contribute to the transmission of H. virescens onto male beetles. Spread of H. virescens ascospores from infected to uninfected H. axyridis adults of different generations, at feeding sites, might be vital to maintaining stable populations of the fungus. PMID:20298119

  11. Biomass power in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, D.K. [Zurn/NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity production from biomass fuel has been hailed in recent years as an environmentally acceptable energy source that delivers on its promise of economically viable renewable energy. A Wall Street Journal article from three years ago proclaimed wood to be {open_quotes}moving ahead of costly solar panels and wind turbines as the leading renewable energy alternative to air-fouling fossils fuels and scary nuclear plants.{close_quotes} Biomass fuel largely means wood; about 90% of biomass generated electricity comes from burning waste wood, the remainder from agricultural wastes. Biomass power now faces an uncertain future. The maturing of the cogeneration and independent power plant market, restructuring of the electric industry, and technological advances with power equipment firing other fuels have placed biomass power in a competitive disadvantage with other power sources.

  12. Bryophyte biomass and species richness on the Park Grass Experiment, Rothamsted, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Virtanen; A. E. Johnston; M. J. Crawley; G. R. Edwards

    2000-01-01

    The relationships between bryophyte biomass and species richness and soil pH, nutrient applications and vascular plant biomass and species richness were analyzed for the Park Grass Experiment (Rothamsted, UK). The study examined the abundance of bryophytes in relation to long-term fertilizer and lime application and to fertilizer treatments recently being ceased on some plots. The probability of bryophytes being present

  13. Untwisting the polarization properties of light reflected by scarab beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Luke T.; Finlayson, Ewan D.; Vukusic, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The spectral and angle-dependent optical properties of two scarab beetle species belonging to the genus Chrysina are presented. The species display broadband reflectivity and selectively reflect left-circularly polarized light. We use electron microscopy to detail the left-handed, twisted lamellar structure present in these biological systems and imaging scatterometry to characterize their bidirectional reflectance distribution function. We show that the broadband nature of the beetles' reflectance originates due to the range of pitch dimensions found in the structure.

  14. Modeling cold tolerance in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Régnière; Barbara Bentz

    2007-01-01

    Cold-induced mortality is a key factor driving mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, population dynamics. In this species, the supercooling point (SCP) is representative of mortality induced by acute cold exposure. Mountain pine beetle SCP and associated cold-induced mortality fluctuate throughout a generation, with the highest SCPs prior to and following winter. Using observed SCPs of field-collected D. ponderosae larvae throughout

  15. Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale B. Gelman; Robert A. Bell; Lynda J. Liska; Jing S. Hu

    Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder\\/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that

  16. Predictive models of whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana L. Perkins; David W. Roberts

    2003-01-01

    Stand-level and tree-level data collected from whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands in central Idaho were used to estimate the probability of attack and mortality of whitebark pine caused by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Logistic regression models were calibrated from reconstructed pre-epidemic stand conditions and post-epidemic mortality levels resulting from a widespread mountain pine beetle outbreak

  17. Dung beetle distribution patterns in the Iberian peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Kirk; T. J. Ridsdill-Smith

    1986-01-01

    A canonical variate analysis was used to summarize the distribution pattern of 30 species of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) from 162 sites in the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal) in relation to 4 site variables. The best separation of beetle\\u000a species, obtained using a xerothermic climatic index, was into 3 groups called “mediterranean”, “unrestricted” and “temperate”.\\u000a Little further separation was achieved

  18. Discontinuous gas exchange in dung beetles: patterns and ecological implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances D. Duncan; Marcus J. Byrne

    2000-01-01

    This study correlates a distinctive pattern of external gas exchange, referred to as the discontinuous gas exchange cycle\\u000a (DGC), observed in the laboratory, with habitat associations of five species of telecoprid dung beetles. The beetles were\\u000a chosen from a variety of habitats that would be expected to present different amounts of water stress. All five species exhibited\\u000a DGC. Sisyphus fasciculatus

  19. Larvacean (Chordata, Tunicata) abundance and inferred secondary production off southeastern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo K. Miyashita; Rubens M. Lopes

    2011-01-01

    We studied the temporal and vertical variability in larvacean abundance and secondary production on a fixed station off southeast Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2008. Larvacean biomass was derived from length–weight regressions, and growth rates were estimated from an empirical model. We identified eleven larvacean species. Oikopleura longicauda occurred throughout the studied period and was the most abundant species,

  20. Carabid Beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) as Indicatorsof Hydrological Site Conditions in Floodplain Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerisch, Michael; Schanowski, Arno; Figura, Wolfgang; Gerken, Bernd; Dziock, Frank; Henle, Klaus

    2006-08-01

    The relationship of carabid beetle species occurrence patterns and environmental variables characterising the hydrological regime has been studied at the River Elbe in Central Germany. Both flood duration and groundwater depth had major influence on species assemblages as the ordination of study plots mainly followed a gradient along these two variables. The simultaneous ordination of the plots according to species occurrence and environmental parameters showed a highly significant joint structure with the first two axes of a co-inertia analysis, explaining >98% of the variance. A total of 27 species out of 129 caught fulfilled criteria of fidelity and specificity to the plots of the five clusters revealed by their abiotic conditions and were sufficiently abundant to be suitable indicators for one or a combination of clusters of plots.

  1. Effects of pitfall trap preservative on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.

  2. Comparing fungal band formulations for Asian longhorned beetle biological control.

    PubMed

    Ugine, Todd A; Jenkins, Nina E; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-07-01

    Experiments were conducted with the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium brunneum to determine the feasibility of using agar-based fungal bands versus two new types of oil-formulated fungal bands for Asian longhorned beetle management. We investigated conidial retention and survival on three types of bands attached to trees in New York and Pennsylvania: standard polyester fiber agar-based bands containing fungal cultures, and two types of bands made by soaking either polyester fiber or jute burlap with oil-conidia suspensions. Fungal band formulation did not affect the number or viability of conidia on bands over the 2-month test period, although percentage conidial viability decreased significantly with time for all band types. In a laboratory experiment testing the effect of the three band formulations on conidial acquisition and beetle survival, traditional agar-based fungal bands delivered the most conidia to adult beetles and killed higher percentages of beetles significantly faster (median survival time of 27d) than the two oil-formulated materials (36-37d). We also tested the effect of band formulation on conidial acquisition by adult beetles kept individually in cages with a single band for 24h, and significantly more conidia (3-7times) were acquired by beetles from agar-based bands compared to the two oil formulations. PMID:23628142

  3. Orthologous gene of beetle luciferase in non-luminous click beetle, Agrypnus binodulus (Elateridae), encodes a fatty acyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Iida, Koichiro; Ojika, Makoto; Inouye, Satoshi

    2008-01-15

    A homologous gene of beetle luciferase, AbLL (Agrypnus binodulusluciferase-like gene) was isolated from a Japanese non-luminous click beetle, A. binodulus, and its gene product was characterized. The identity of amino acid sequence deduced from AbLL with the click beetle luciferase from the Jamaican luminous click beetle, Pyrophorus plagiophthalmus, is 55%, which is higher than that between click beetle luciferase and firefly luciferase (approximately 48%). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AbLL places in a clade of beetle luciferases, suggesting that AbLL is an orthologous gene of beetle luciferase. The gene product of AbLL (AbLL) has medium- and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase activity, but not luciferase activity. The fatty acyl-CoA synthetic activity was slightly inhibited in the presence of beetle luciferin, suggesting that AbLL has poor affinity for beetle luciferin. By comparing the amino acid residues of the catalytic domains in beetle luciferases with AbLL, the key substitutions for the luminescence activity in beetle luciferase will be proposed. PMID:17996401

  4. Global patterns and predictions of seafloor biomass using random forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Lin; Rowe, Gilbert T; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas; Caley, M Julian; Soliman, Yousria; Huettmann, Falk; Qu, Fangyuan; Yu, Zishan; Pitcher, C Roland; Haedrich, Richard L; Wicksten, Mary K; Rex, Michael A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Sharma, Jyotsna; Danovaro, Roberto; MacDonald, Ian R; Nunnally, Clifton C; Deming, Jody W; Montagna, Paul; Lévesque, Mélanie; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Ingole, Baban S; Bett, Brian J; Billett, David S M; Yool, Andrew; Bluhm, Bodil A; Iken, Katrin; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, was employed to model and predict seafloor standing stocks from surface primary production, water-column integrated and export particulate organic matter (POM), seafloor relief, and bottom water properties. The predictive models explain 63% to 88% of stock variance among the major size groups. Individual and composite maps of predicted global seafloor biomass and abundance are generated for bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna (invertebrates and fishes). Patterns of benthic standing stocks were positive functions of surface primary production and delivery of the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux to the seafloor. At a regional scale, the census maps illustrate that integrated biomass is highest at the poles, on continental margins associated with coastal upwelling and with broad zones associated with equatorial divergence. Lowest values are consistently encountered on the central abyssal plains of major ocean basins The shift of biomass dominance groups with depth is shown to be affected by the decrease in average body size rather than abundance, presumably due to decrease in quantity and quality of food supply. This biomass census and associated maps are vital components of mechanistic deep-sea food web models and global carbon cycling, and as such provide fundamental information that can be incorporated into evidence-based management. PMID:21209928

  5. The function of resilin in beetle wings.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, F; Gorb, S; Blickhan, R

    2000-01-01

    This account shows the distribution of elastic elements in hind wings in the scarabaeid Pachnoda marginata and coccinellid Coccinella septempunctata (both Coleoptera). Occurrence of resilin, a rubber-like protein, in some mobile joints together with data on wing unfolding and flight kinematics suggest that resilin in the beetle wing has multiple functions. First, the distribution pattern of resilin in the wing correlates with the particular folding pattern of the wing. Second, our data show that resilin occurs at the places where extra elasticity is needed, for example in wing folds, to prevent material damage during repeated folding and unfolding. Third, resilin provides the wing with elasticity in order to be deformable by aerodynamic forces. This may result in elastic energy storage in the wing. PMID:10983820

  6. Pervasive impact of large-scale edge effects on a beetle community

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Robert M.; Didham, Raphael K.

    2008-01-01

    Habitat edges are a ubiquitous feature of modern fragmented landscapes, but a tendency for researchers to restrict sampling designs to relatively small spatial scales means that edge effects are known to influence faunal communities over small spatial scales of only 20–250 m. However, we found striking changes in the abundance and community composition of 769 New Zealand beetle species (?26,000 individuals) across very long edge gradients. We show that almost 90% of species respond significantly to habitat edges and that the abundances of 20% of common species were affected by edges at scales >250 m. Moreover, as many as one in eight common species had edge effects that appeared to penetrate as far as 1 km into habitat patches. Even 1 km inside forest, beetle communities differed in species richness, ?-diversity (spatial turnover), and composition from the deep forest interior. Spatially explicit models of fragmented landscapes have shown that such large-scale edge effects can lead to an 80% reduction in the population size of interior forest species in even very large fragments. Moreover, such large-scale edge effects can drive species that inhabit central habitat core—which are among the most threatened species in fragmented landscapes—to local extinction from habitat fragments and protected areas. In a global analysis of protected areas, we show that kilometer-scale edge effects may compromise the ability of more than three-quarters of the world's forested reserves to conserve the community biostructures that are unique to forest interiors. PMID:18375751

  7. SYNGAS FROM BIOMASS-BASED SLURRY ENTRAINED-FLOW GASIFICATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kolb; Tobias Jakobs; Nikolaos Zarzalis

    At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe a new process - BIOLIQ® - for the production of synthesis gas from biomass is being developed. Straw or other abundant lignocellulosic agricultural by-products are converted to synthesis gas by a two-step process with pyrolysis and subsequent entrained flow gasification. The tar-free synthesis gas can be converted to high value products, such as synfuel or methanol.

  8. Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippa L. Ascough; Craig J. Sturrock; Michael I. Bird

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (C and N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of

  9. Interactions between Population Density of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and Herbicide Rate for Suppression of Solanaceous Weeds

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Chase; Boydston, Rick; Ferguson, Holly; Williams, Martin M.; Zack, Richard; Walsh, Doug

    2008-01-01

    The presence of volunteer potato Solanum tuberosum L., cutleaf nightshade, S. triflorum N., and hairy nightshade, S. physalifolium Rusby (Solanales: Solanaceae), throughout potato crop rotations can diminish the effectiveness of crop rotations designed to control disease and pest problems associated with growing potatoes. In greenhouse bioassays, larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were placed in population densities of 0, 5, 10, and 40 per potato (cv. Russet Burbank) plant and 0, 5, 10, and 15 per cutleaf nightshade and hairy nightshade plant. Plants were treated with different rates of herbicides including fluroxypyr, prometryn, and mesotrione rates, and the physiological response on the potato plants was assessed by weighing shoot biomass 14 days after treatment. Consistently, across all bioassays, rate response functions were shifted as L. decemlineata density increased, such that less herbicide was required to achieve control. For instance, the herbicide rate needed to achieve 90% reduction in potato biomass was reduced from 62 to 0 g fluroxypyr per hectare and 711 to 0 g prometryn per hectare as L. decemlineata density was increased to 40 larvae per plant. Herbivory at higher L. decemlineata population densities and herbicides above certain rates resulted in large reductions in cutleaf and hairy nightshade biomass. Differences in rate response functions among L. decemlineata population densities indicated that L. decemlineata contributed to weed suppression in combination with herbicides. These data suggest that integrated weed management systems targeting volunteer potato, cutleaf nightshade, and hairy nightshade can be more effective when herbicide applications are combined with herbivory by naturally occurring Colorado potato beetles. PMID:20298117

  10. Studies on the biology, seasonal abundance and insecticidal responses of the lady beetle Scymnus cinctus Leconte 

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Paul Worsley

    1971-01-01

    /A) and Toxaphene (0. 50 lb/A) followed by late season applications of EPN, EPN-Methyl Parathion and Methyl Parathion. Foliar insecticides were applied weekly during June. Samples were collected with a "D-Yac" vacuum sampler and the insects were placed in a... Parathion and Methyl Parathion. Generally, the same trend of seasonal pattern occurred under these conditions. Laboratory tests...

  11. Studies on the biology, seasonal abundance and insecticidal responses of the lady beetle Scymnus cinctus Leconte

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Paul Worsley

    1971-01-01

    species in the genus ~Sc nus Kuglann. Unfortunately, he did not differentiate between the species involved but reported on them as a group. Included in the group were ~Sc nus fraternus Leconte, ~Sc nus terminatus Say, ~Sc . nus brullei Nulsay and ~Sc...

  12. How-To-Do-It. A Beetle, a Bur, and the Potato: An Introduction to Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the interrelation of the potato beetle, the buffalo-bur, and the potato is used as an introduction to ecology. Methods of controlling the beetle and ecological principles illustrated in the interrelationship are discussed. (JN)

  13. Host and elevational specificity of parasitic beetles (Amblyopinus Solsky) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Panama.

    E-print Network

    Timm, Robert M.; Ashe, James S.

    1987-02-01

    The literature on staphylinid beetles of the tribe Amblyopinini, all of which are parasitic on Neotropical or Australian mammals, has provided few specifics on the natural history and host relationships of these beetles. ...

  14. Do Pine Beetles Fan the Flames in Western Forests? - Duration: 5 minutes, 18 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    As mountain pine beetles damage whole regions of Western forests, some worry that the dead trees left behind have created a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? I...

  15. INTRAGUILD PREDATION BY COCCINELLID BEETLES ON AN APIDD PARASITOID, LYSIPHLEBUS TESTACEIPES

    E-print Network

    Rosenheim, Jay A.

    Abstract Intraguild predation between generalist predatory insects causes disruption of biological controlPSO INTRAGUILD PREDATION BY COCCINELLID BEETLES ON AN APIDD PARASITOID, LYSIPHLEBUS TESTACEIPES season cotton, generalist preda tory beetles engage in intraguild predation by feeding on parasitic wasp

  16. Predation by and activity patterns of ‘parasitic’ beetles of the genus Amblyopinus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)

    E-print Network

    Ashe, James S.; Timm, Robert M.

    1987-07-01

    This study explores the relationship between staphylinid beetles of the genus Amblyopinus and their small mammal hosts. Previous studies had concluded that these beetles were parasitic and fed directly on blood, skin ...

  17. CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Dose-Dependent Pheromone Responses of Mountain Pine Beetle in

    E-print Network

    Lindgren, Staffan

    of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, to its phero- mones to verbenols is consistent with an optimal attack density hypothesis. KEY WORDS Dendroctonus ponderosae, exo-brevicomin, verbenols, Cleridae THE MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae

  18. harvesting & utilization Mountain Pine Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine for the

    E-print Network

    The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins M ountain pine beetles (MPBs) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) use a number of pine (Pinus) species

  19. LIFE HISTORY OF THE SCAVENGER WATER BEETLE, HYDROUS (HYDROPHILUS) TRIANGULARIS, AND ITS

    E-print Network

    LIFE HISTORY OF THE SCAVENGER WATER BEETLE, HYDROUS (HYDROPHILUS) TRIANGULARIS, AND ITS ECONOMIC. In recent revisions of the scavenger water beetles Say's species triangularis has been referred to the genus

  20. New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

  1. Male morph predicts investment in larval immune function in the dung beetle,

    E-print Network

    Cotter, Sheena

    Male morph predicts investment in larval immune function in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus or production of the sexual trait as resources are diverted to it. Using the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus

  2. Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado

    2007-01-01

    Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space controls relative species abundance in communities. Here, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of butterfly species in island communities is significantly related to the relative biomasses of their host plants but not to the geographic distance between communities. In the studied communities, the biomass of particular host plant species positively affected the abundance of the butterfly species that used them, and consequently, influenced the relative abundance of the butterfly communities. This indicated that the niche space of butterflies (i.e., the amount of resources) strongly influences butterfly biodiversity patterns. We present this field evidence of the niche-apportionment model that propose that the relative amount of niche space explains the pattern of the relative abundance of the species in communities. PMID:17553963

  3. Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Dale B.; Bell, Robert A.; Liska, Lynda J.; Hu, Jing S.

    2001-01-01

    Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that had been fed on potato leaves. Maximum weights of prepupae, newly emerged adults and day 5 – 9 adults were approximately 78, 80 and 82%, respectively, of the weights for comparable stages of control beetles. Mean percent mortality for 1st instars was two to six times higher for artificial diet-fed CPBs than for leaf-fed beetles. However, since pupal mortality was four times higher for control beetles than for beetles reared on artificial diet, mean percent total mortality (newly hatched through the 9 day old adult) was equivalent for leaf-fed beetles and for later generations of potato and Lettuce+Potato diet-fed CPBs. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and fluctuations in mature 4th instar larvae and prepupae were similar in controls and experimental groups. Number of hatchlings produced per adult pair per day (fertility) was approximately eight times greater in control beetles than in later generations of artificial diet-fed beetles, primarily because fewer egg masses were laid per day, percent hatch was lower and cannibalism of eggs was higher in these latter groups. Interestingly, the mean percent hatch, although only 68% of the control value, was 1.5 times greater for beetles reared on diet containing lettuce-leaf powder, and a small percentage of potato leaf powder, than on diet containing only potato leaf powder. Percent hatch was equal for beetles fed on diet containing only lettuce-leaf powder and those fed on potato leaves. Finally, it is noteworthy that the quality of eggs, as judged by the ability of the wasp parasitoid, Edovum puttleri, to parasitize and develop in the eggs, was similar for eggs produced by control beetles and for those produced by beetles fed on potato and Lettuce+Potato diets. The diets and rearing system described here will be useful for providing beetles on a year-round basis for experiments designed to evaluate the effects of potential insect control agents, to investigate the mechanism(s) by which insects become resistant to control agents and for other applied and fundamental studies related to the control of this serious pest. The use of lettuce leaf powder in place of most of the potato leaf powder is especially advantageous because of the much reduced cost and greater availability of lettuce as compared to potato leaves. PMID:15455067

  4. Identification of sound-producing hydrophilid beetles in underwater recordings using digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudh, Nissa E.

    For this study, a classification program capable of identifying four hydrophilid beetle species from vocalizations in under water hydrophone recordings was created. Within single-species recordings, classification accuracy ranged from 81-98%. Mathematical features, based on the frequency content of exemplar beetle vocalizations, were used to compare hydrophilid vocalizations with new sound data in Matlab(TM) and classify sounds as a beetle species, beetle distress call, or noise.

  5. Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Cellulosic Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngmi; Hendrickson, Rick; Mosier, Nathan S.; Ladisch, Michael R.

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for fuel ethanol production. However, the lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis because of its structural complexity. Controlled-pH liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of cellulosic feedstock improves its enzymatic digestibility by removing hemicellulose and making the cellulose more accessible to cellulase enzymes. The removed hemicellulose is solubilized in the liquid phase of the pretreated feedstock as oligosaccharides. Formation of monomeric sugars during the LHW pretreatment is minimal. The LHW pretreatment is carried out by cooking the feedstock in process water at temperatures between 160 and 190°C and at a pH of 4-7. No additional chemicals are needed. This chapter presents the detailed procedure of the LHW pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

  6. Biomass -- A new assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, H.A.

    1999-07-01

    Photo-conversion of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to biomass by plants is the world's basic source of food, fiber, oxygen and fossil fuel; for many people and some industries, biomass combustion supplies a significant amount of the energy they need. Much ingenuity has been applied to developing strategies for recovering energy directly from biomass by cleaning burning, gasification and liquid fuel production; these processes generally have economic or ecological features that keep them out of the main stream of technological development. By contrast, fresh biomass can be digested anaerobically at high conversion, with stimulation, to methane-rich gas and a stabilized organic residue, using technology already at hand. As an example, methane can be produced from sugarcane at a total cost of about $.50/mcf. This process, originally devised to control the level of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere, provides opportunities to contribute to that goal while supplying clean pipeline gas, electricity or petrochemicals.

  7. Countercurrent Saccharification of Biomass 

    E-print Network

    Derner, John David

    2015-04-21

    Our goal was to research and implement a countercurrent system to run enzymatic saccharification of biomass. The project provided clear results to show that this method is more efficient than the batch process that companies currently employ. Excess...

  8. How ants drop out: ant abundance on tropical mountains.

    PubMed

    Longino, John T; Branstetter, Michael G; Colwell, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature) and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops. PMID:25098722

  9. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Luche; Q Falcoz; T Bastien; J P Leninger; K Arabi; O Aubry; A Khacef; J M Cormier; J Lédé

    2012-01-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to

  10. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José F. Negrón; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

    2009-01-01

    Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine, the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Say), Ips calligraphus (Germar), Ips latidens (LeConte), Ips knausi Swaine and

  11. Colorado potato beetle [ Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)] resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in Serbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stankovi?; A. Zabel; M. Kostic; B. Manojlovic; S. Rajkovic

    2004-01-01

    Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), the Colorado potato beetle (potato beetle), is the most destructive potato pest in Serbia. Up to four pesticide treatments are necessary for its control. Insecticide resistance of the potato beetle in Serbia is well-investigated and documented, especially to organophosphates and carbamates. Toxicity of chlorpyriphos (organophosphates) and carbosulfan (carbamates) was investigated by topical application, using adults of the

  12. Interactions of Root Disease and Bark Beetles1 George T. Ferrell J. Richard Parmeter, Jr.

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Interactions of Root Disease and Bark Beetles1 George T. Ferrell J. Richard Parmeter, Jr. 2 Abstract: Associations between root diseases and bark beetles (Scolytidae) constitute some of the most of these pests derives from the following relationships: 1) root diseases predispose trees to bark beetle

  13. A CYBORG BEETLE: INSECT FLIGHT CONTROL THROUGH AN IMPLANTABLE, TETHERLESS MICROSYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Maharbiz, Michel

    A CYBORG BEETLE: INSECT FLIGHT CONTROL THROUGH AN IMPLANTABLE, TETHERLESS MICROSYSTEM Hirotaka Sato flight control microsystem for a cyborg beetle (Fig. 1). The system consists of multiple inserted neural daylight flyer [4]. Figure 1: (a) illustration of cyborg beetle microsystem. (b) photograph of assembled

  14. RADIO-CONTROLLED CYBORG BEETLES: A RADIO-FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR

    E-print Network

    Maharbiz, Michel

    RADIO-CONTROLLED CYBORG BEETLES: A RADIO-FREQUENCY SYSTEM FOR INSECT NEURAL FLIGHT CONTROL H. Sato1, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA ABSTRACT We present the first report of radio control of a cyborg-controlled cyborg Mecynorhina beetle; (a) live beetle platform (Mecynorhina, 4 - 10 g, 4 - 8 cm), (b) RF transmitter

  15. Recalibrated Tree of Leaf Beetles (Chrysomelidae) Indicates Independent Diversification of Angiosperms and Their Insect Herbivores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Gómez-Zurita; Toby Hunt; Fatos Kopliku; Alfried P. Vogler

    2007-01-01

    Background. The great diversity of the ''Phytophaga'' (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles) has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion. Methodology. A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers

  16. A Screening Aid for the Identification of the Banded Elm Bark Beetle*, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    A Screening Aid for the Identification of the Banded Elm Bark Beetle*, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov beetle (BEBB), Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Scolytidae), a bark beetle native to Asia, was found the genus (see key): Members of the genus Scolytus can be distinguished from other North American bark

  17. Identification and Synthesis of a Female-Produced Sex Pheromone for the Cerambycid Beetle Prionus californicus

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    as the Rocky Mountains and Colorado (Linsley 1962). The adults are among the largest longhorned beetlesIdentification and Synthesis of a Female-Produced Sex Pheromone for the Cerambycid Beetle Prionus cerambycid beetle Prionus californicus produce a powerful sex pheromone that attracts males. The pheromone

  18. Action of Busulfan on larval gonads of the Colorado Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Action of Busulfan on larval gonads of the Colorado Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. Continuing to work on control of sexual differentiation in the Colorado beetle, we studied the gonad function and imagos of the Colorado beetle to produce gonads deprived of germ cells and to analyze the role

  19. POPULATION ECOLOGY Population Dynamics of the Colorado Potato Beetle in an

    E-print Network

    POPULATION ECOLOGY Population Dynamics of the Colorado Potato Beetle in an Agroecosystem. Colorado potato beetle immigrated into both crops. The Þrst available crop had the earliest immigration of magnitude. Survivorship varied more between years than between crops. Colorado potato beetle did

  20. Introduction The Colorado potato beetle became a pest when settlers brought potatoes into the Rocky

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    16 Introduction The Colorado potato beetle became a pest when settlers brought potatoes, and now is a serious pest throughout the U.S. and Eastern Canada. The Colorado potato beetle feeds size. Description The larvae of the Colorado potato beetle are up to 1/2" long, hump- backed and shaped

  1. The beetle gut: a hyperdiverse source of novel yeasts Sung-Oui SUH1

    E-print Network

    Pollock, David

    The beetle gut: a hyperdiverse source of novel yeasts Sung-Oui SUH1 , Joseph V. McHUGH2 , David D over 650 yeasts over a three year period from the gut of a variety of beetles and characterized them more species as are currently known worldwide. The beetle gut yeasts occur in 45 independent lineages

  2. PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Colorado Potato Beetle

    E-print Network

    PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera to the suggestion of spatially variable within-Þeld management of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and long-term maintenance of susceptibility. KEY WORDS Colorado potato beetle, global positioning systems

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis resistant colorado potato beetle and transgenic plants: Some operational and ecological implications for deployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Whalon; Joel M. Wierenga

    1994-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle is a severe pest of potatoes in the US. It has developed field resistance to almost every insecticide used against it, and is considered to be a model species for insecticide resistance. We have recently reported the selection of a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) resistant strain of beetle (Bt?R). We have tested this strain and susceptible beetles

  4. ENTOMAPEIRON (P. S.) 2 (2): 17-28 17 New fossil spider beetles

    E-print Network

    Belles, Xavier

    ENTOMAPEIRON (P. S.) 2 (2): 17-28 17 New fossil spider beetles from Baltic amber (Coleoptera Ptinidae) Xavier BELLÉS & Francesco VITALI Summary - Two new fossil spider beetles, Sucinoptinus sucini nov At present, the family Ptinidae (spider beetles) includes about 70 genera and some 700 extant species (BELLÉS

  5. Ophiostoma species associated with bark beetles infesting three Abies species in Nikko, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Yamaoka; Hayato Masuya; Nobuaki Ohtaka; Hideaki Goto; Shigeru Kaneko; Yoshio Kuroda

    2004-01-01

    Ophiostoma species were isolated from bark beetles and Abies mariesii, A. veitchii and A. homolepis attacked by the beetles in Nikko, Tochigi, central Honshu, Japan. One to two Ophiostoma species were frequently isolated from each species of bark beetle. Ophiostoma subalpinum was the most common associate of Cryphalus montanus. Ophiostoma sp. B as well as O. subalpinum was a common

  6. A Tool for Supporting Visual Comparisons of Different Pine-Beetle Management Approaches

    E-print Network

    Carpendale, Sheelagh

    VICO A Tool for Supporting Visual Comparisons of Different Pine-Beetle Management Approaches Angela pine-beetle management approaches is presented. This comparison tool gives the users the possibility year the mountain pine beetle destroys millions of mature mountain pine trees in British Columbia

  7. Detection and characterization of kodamaea ohmeri associated with Small Hive Beetle Aethina tumida infesting honeybee hives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeybee hive infestation by the Small Hive Beetle (SHB) is associated with fermentation of hive materials. Pollen, beetles, and robbing bees (ten of each) were collected from hives infested with SHB in both Florida and Kenya. Plating of homogenized bodies of beetles and bees and comb swabs result...

  8. Bark-carving behavior of the Japanese horned beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihito Hongo

    2006-01-01

    The Japanese horned beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus septentrionalis, usually aggregates at the wounds caused by boring insects on Quercus oak trees to feed on exuding sap. Here, a unique behavior of the beetle, which enables it to independently obtain sap without any activities of other insects, is reported. Beetles carved intact bark of Fraxinus griffithii, where no sap was exuding, using

  9. The influence of light on small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) behavior and trap capture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Murray) is a major pest of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, particularly in the Southeastern United States. We evaluated the small hive beetle’s (SHB) response to different wavelengths of the light spectrum and found that SHB larvae and adults were most att...

  10. Freshwater Biology (1986) 16, 155-159 Diel activity of a boreal water beetle (Dytiscus ahskanus

    E-print Network

    Aiken, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Freshwater Biology (1986) 16, 155-159 Diel activity of a boreal water beetle (Dytiscus ahskanus. Dytiscus alaskanus (J. Balfour Browne) is a common water beetle in Alberta (Larson, 1975) that can reach, grappling, swimming and surfac- ing) in the laboratory. 2. In the field, the number of beetles trapped

  11. CHARACTERIZATIONAND PHENOLOGY OF A PREDACEOUS DIVING BEETLE COMMUNITY IN A CENTRAL ALBERTA LAKE

    E-print Network

    Aiken, Ron

    of water beetles (Dytiscidae) were studied over a Cyear period at George Lake, Alta. There was a pronouncedCHARACTERIZATIONAND PHENOLOGY OF A PREDACEOUS DIVING BEETLE COMMUNITY IN A CENTRAL ALBERTA LAKE R predaceousdiving beetles of the family Dytiscidae have concentratedprin- cipally on taxonomic questions (e

  12. Jcil & Jl (als.): Water Beetles of China Vol. Ill 53 -66 Wien, April 2003 ASPIDYTIDAE

    E-print Network

    Ribera, Ignacio

    JÄcil & Jl (als.): Water Beetles of China Vol. Ill 53 - 66 Wien, April 2003 ASPIDYTIDAE: On the discovery of a new beetle family: detailed morphological analysis, description of a second species, and key and Michael Schiilkc collected two females and a male of a strange dytiscoid adephagan beetle in Shaanxi

  13. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Attraction of Ambrosia and Bark Beetles to

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    beetle tunnels can extend greater than 15 cm into the sapwood, impairing water conduction and potentially Beetles to Coast Live Oaks Infected by Phytophthora ramorum1 Brice A. McPherson,2 Nadir Erbilgin,3 David L California forests since the mid-1990s. Bark and ambrosia beetles that normally colonize dead or severely

  14. The contribution of standing waters to aquatic biodiversity: the case of water beetles in southeastern Iberia

    E-print Network

    Murcia, Universidad de

    The contribution of standing waters to aquatic biodiversity: the case of water beetles area of high aquatic biodiversity, water beetles being one of the most well-known groups contributing the habitats which constitute biodiversity hotspots for this group, explore patterns of water beetle assemblage

  15. Effects of available water on growth and competition of southern pine beetle associated fungi

    E-print Network

    Ayres, Matthew.P.

    Effects of available water on growth and competition of southern pine beetle associated fungi Kier interactions among bark beetle associated fungi are potentially influenced by abiotic factors. Water potential the impact of water potential on competition among three southern pine beetle associated fungi, Ophiostoma

  16. Bark Beetles and Watersheds Workshop: Impacts to the Hydrologic Cycle and Water

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Bark Beetles and Watersheds Workshop: Impacts to the Hydrologic Cycle and Water A. Ray Olpin Assessment Tim Bardsley, Western Water Assessment Utah Liaison Overview of WWA's work on bark beetles and water Eric Gordon, Western Water Assessment 9:30am--The Beetle Epidemic in Utah: Where are We

  17. The contribution of standing waters to aquatic biodiversity: the case of water beetles in southeastern Iberia

    E-print Network

    Murcia, Universidad de

    The contribution of standing waters to aquatic biodiversity: the case of water beetles of the Iberian Peninsula is a recognized area of high aquatic biodiversity, water beetles being one of the most for this group, explore patterns of water beetle assemblage composition, and identify indicator species

  18. Are the endemic water beetles of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands effectively protected?

    E-print Network

    Murcia, Universidad de

    Are the endemic water beetles of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands effectively is occurring particularly rapidly in freshwaters. Here we examine whether endemic water beetles are effectively endemic species of water beetles used in the analysis, only two (Ochthebius ferroi and Ochthebius javieri

  19. Correlates of ball size and rolling speed in the dung beetle Kheper nigroaeneus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Joseph L.

    Correlates of ball size and rolling speed in the dung beetle Kheper nigroaeneus (Coleoptera 1998) Abstract Ball rolling in dung beetles is an energy expensive activity associated with elevated (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). We found that larger beetles produced larger dung balls and rolled them faster

  20. PHYLOGENETIC EVIDENCE FOR AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TUNNELING BEHAVIOR AND THE EVOLUTION OF HORNS IN DUNG BEETLES

    E-print Network

    Emlen, Douglas J.

    IN DUNG BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE: SCARABAEINAE) DOUGLAS J. EMLEN Division of Biological Sciences of Biology, Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY 42101, U.S.A. Abstract Dung beetles employ numerous function as weapons, and horn sizes can be extreme. One widespread pattern within dung beetles

  1. Molecular evolution and radiation of dung beetles in Madagascar Luisa Orsini*, Helena Koivulehto and Ilkka Hanski

    E-print Network

    Hanski, Ilkka

    Molecular evolution and radiation of dung beetles in Madagascar Luisa Orsini*, Helena Koivulehto taxonomic levels, making Madagascar one of the hotspots of global biodiversity. Dung beetles, represented and geographic distribution of dung beetles worldwide. A detailed analysis of sequence composition identified

  2. No fecundity cost of female secondary sexual trait expression in the horned beetle Onthophagus sagittarius

    E-print Network

    Emlen, Douglas J.

    T I O N A R Y B I O L O G Y 1227 Keywords: costs of reproduction; dung beetles; female contest. In the dung beetle Onthophagus sagittarius, there has been an independent evolutionary origin of hornsNo fecundity cost of female secondary sexual trait expression in the horned beetle Onthophagus

  3. Peer Review of Recent Dung Beetle Research Relevant to New Zealand 4 November 2013

    E-print Network

    Sun, Jing

    Peer Review of Recent Dung Beetle Research Relevant to New Zealand 4 November 2013 Pastoral claimed in the ERMA application are applicable to NZ's pastoral production environment (see Dung Beetle Release Strategy Group website). Unfortunately, the dung beetles failed to show a statistically

  4. ECOLOGY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY Indigenous and Exotic Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, Phillip E.

    ECOLOGY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY Indigenous and Exotic Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae://dx.doi.org/10.1603/AN11121 ABSTRACT Dung beetles are important to healthy cattle pasture ecosystems in the reduction of pestiferous ßies. Numerous exotic dung beetles have been accidentally or intentionally

  5. Crowding, sex ratio and horn evolution in a South African beetle community

    E-print Network

    Knell, Rob

    of South African dung beetles. Analysis of data from 14 species using a generalized least-squares model in determining patterns of presence or absence of weaponry in a community of Southern African dung beetles. WeCrowding, sex ratio and horn evolution in a South African beetle community Joanne C. Pomfret

  6. A FREEZE-DRIED DIET TO TEST BACTERIAL PATHOGENS OF COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Colorado potato beetle is an important pest on potato, eggplant and tomato. Because Colorado potato beetles develop resistance to insecticides quickly, new methods are needed for control. Bacillus thuringiensis is the only bacteria to successfully control Colorado potato beetle. Until recently, ...

  7. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  8. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  9. INTRODUCED LEAF BEETLES OF THE MARITIME PROVINCES, 6: THE COMMON ASPARAGUS BEETLE,CRIOCERIS ASPARAGI(LINNAEUS), AND THE TWELVE-SPOTTED ASPARAGUS BEETLE,CRIOCERIS DUODECIMPUNCTATA(LINNAEUS) (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Neatby

    The common asparagus beetle,Crioceris asparagi(Linnaeus) and the twelve-spotted asparagus beetle,Crioceris duodecimpunctata(Linnaeus) are intro- duced Palearctic leaf beetles that feed exclusively on asparagus. The introduction history of these species in North America is reviewed and their dispersal to and distribution in the Maritime Provinces of Canada are described. Both species were first reported in Canada in 1899 in asparagus production areas

  10. Biomass electrochemical research at SERI

    SciTech Connect

    Chum, H.L.

    1982-06-01

    Electrochemical processing is being applied to biomass and derived materials to upgrade their energy content thereby generating fuels (or additives) or petrochemical substitutes, or increasing their reactivity and value for a variety of applications of the polymeric materials. The utilization of the following are addressed: (1) lignin polymers, which are not suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion to fuels and chemicals. The approach is to investigate relatively simple lignin derived materials which, in principle, can be produced in large quantities, and serve as models for the behavior of more complex materials. The lignin of choice is derived from an atypical and abundant hardwood such as aspen (Populus tremuloides), which has been pretreated by explosive depressurization (steam explosion) and is ethanol extracted. The aim is to change the degree of polymerization of these materials, and to increase their suitability as a replacement of phenol in phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting resins. In order to understand these processes in complex lignin molecules, synthesized lignin model compounds have been synthesized and their electrochemical reactions are investigated; (2) carboxylic acids, which can be obtained by suppressing the methane formation in anaerobic digestion processes. The approach is to develop new separation methods for the carboxylic acids and innovative ways of electrochemically processing dilute solutions to gaseous and/or water-insoluble products; (3) the upgrading of waste streams from biomass (terrestrial and aquatic) processing, electrochemically or photoelectrochemically. The waste streams under consideration include those from acid hydrolysis, fermentation, and alkaline treatment (e.g., kraft pulping), which contain a variety of polyfunctional carboxylic acids, amenable to electrochemical processing.

  11. Reduction in fitness of flea beetles which are homozygous for an autosomal gene conferring resistance to defences in Barbarea vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W. De Jong; Jens Kvist Nielsen

    2000-01-01

    Major resistance genes are present in Danish flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum) populations, enabling the beetles to utilize a defended plant, Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata, as a host plant, whereas this plant is unsuitable for beetles lacking the resistance genes. Two lines of beetles carrying a resistance gene have been established which are near-isogenic with a susceptible line. Larval survival of

  12. Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation.

    PubMed

    Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

    2013-02-18

    When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom. PMID:23352694

  13. DNA Barcoding of Japanese Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa. PMID:25636000

  14. Northeast regional biomass program. Retrospective, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Savitt, S.; Morgan, S. [eds.] [Citizens Conservation Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Ten years ago, when Congress initiated the Regional Biomass Energy Program, biomass fuel use in the Northeast was limited primarily to the forest products industry and residential wood stoves. An enduring form of energy as old as settlement in the region, residential wood-burning now takes its place beside modern biomass combustion systems in schools and other institutions, industrial cogeneration facilities, and utility-scale power plants. Biomass today represents more than 95 percent of all renewable energy consumed in the Northeast: a little more than one-half quadrillion BTUs yearly, or five percent of the region`s total energy demand. Yet given the region`s abundance of overstocked forests, municipal solid waste and processed wood residues, this represents just a fraction of the energy potential the biomass resource has to offer.This report provides an account of the work of the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) over it`s first ten years. The NRBP has undertaken projects to promote the use of biomass energy and technologies.

  15. Factors influencing flight capacity of the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Whitehouse, C M; Sykes, J

    2014-02-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most damaging pest of mature pine (Pinaceae) in western North America. Although mountain pine beetles have an obligate dispersal phase during which adults must locate a new host for brood production, dispersal is a poorly understood aspect of its ecology. This flight mill study was designed to test the effects of beetle size, sex, and age on flight capacity. Energy use during flight was assessed through measurements of weight before and after flight and fat content of flown versus control beetles. The mean flight distance achieved by mountain pine beetles varied between 2.12 and 5.95 km over the 23-h bioassay, but the longest total flight of an individual beetle was >24 km. Beetle preflight weight influenced flight initiation, flight distance, and duration. Bigger beetles are more likely to fly and once in flight fly longer and farther than smaller beetles. There was no direct effect of beetle sex on flight capacity. Flight capacity of beetles declined with age postemergence. Although individual flight capacity was variable, flight velocity was relatively constant between 1.55 and 1.93 km/h. Lipids are used to power flight in mountain pine beetles, as lipid content was lower in beetles flown on the flight mills compared with beetles that did not fly. Flight distance was negatively correlated with beetle postflight lipid content. The baseline flight capacity data revealed in this study have implications for understanding the population dynamics of this eruptive forest pest. PMID:24367930

  16. Conidial acquisition and survivorship of adult Asian longhorned beetles exposed to flat versus shaggy agar fungal bands.

    PubMed

    Ugine, Todd A; Jenkins, Nina E; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-07-01

    Fungal bands can deliver lethal conidial doses to adult Asian longhorned beetles. Because higher doses result in shorter survival times, developing a method to deliver more conidia to beetles walking across the fungal bands is desirable. We compared fungal bands made using standard flat material to bands made using a shaggy, textured material. The median survival time of adult beetles exposed to shaggy bands was reduced to 10 d versus 18 d for beetles exposed to flat bands. Beetles climbing across shaggy bands acquired 1.83×10(6) conidia per beetle, which was 14.6 times greater than beetles exposed to flat bands. PMID:23643551

  17. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality. PMID:24801125

  18. How to Make a Beetle Out of Wood: Multi-Elemental Stoichiometry of Wood Decay, Xylophagy and Fungivory

    PubMed Central

    Filipiak, Micha?; Weiner, January

    2014-01-01

    The majority of terrestrial biomass is wood, but the elemental composition of its potential consumers, xylophages, differs hugely from that of wood. This causes a severe nutritional imbalance. We studied the stoichiometric relationships of 11 elements (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na) in three species of pine-xylem-feeding insects, Stictoleptura rubra, Arhopalus rusticus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) and Chalcophora mariana (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), to elucidate their mechanisms of tissue growth and to match their life histories to their dietary constraints. These beetles do not differ from other Coleoptera in their absolute elemental compositions, which are approximately 1000 (N), 100 (P, Cu) and 50 (K, Na) times higher than in dead but undecayed pine wood. This discrepancy diminishes along the wood decay gradient, but the elemental concentrations remain higher by an order of magnitude in beetles than in highly decayed wood. Numerical simulation of the life history of S. rubra shows that feeding on nutrient-poor undecayed wood would extend its development time to implausible values, whereas feeding on highly decomposed wood (heavily infected with fungi) would barely balance its nutritional budget during the long development period of this species. The changes in stoichiometry indicate that the relative change in the nutrient levels in decaying wood cannot be attributed solely to carbon loss resulting from decomposer respiration: the action of fungi substantially enriches the decaying wood with nutritional elements imported from the outside of the system, making it a suitable food for wood-eating invertebrates. PMID:25536334

  19. Can rove beetles (Staphylinidae) be excluded in studies focusing on saproxylic beetles in central European beech forests?

    PubMed

    Parmain, G; Bouget, C; Müller, J; Horak, J; Gossner, M M; Lachat, T; Isacsson, G

    2015-02-01

    Monitoring saproxylic beetle diversity, though challenging, can help identifying relevant conservation sites or key drivers of forest biodiversity, and assessing the impact of forestry practices on biodiversity. Unfortunately, monitoring species assemblages is costly, mainly due to the time spent on identification. Excluding families which are rich in specimens and species but are difficult to identify is a frequent procedure used in ecological entomology to reduce the identification cost. The Staphylinidae (rove beetle) family is both one of the most frequently excluded and one of the most species-rich saproxylic beetle families. Using a large-scale beetle and environmental dataset from 238 beech stands across Europe, we evaluated the effects of staphylinid exclusion on results in ecological forest studies. Simplified staphylinid-excluded assemblages were found to be relevant surrogates for whole assemblages. The species richness and composition of saproxylic beetle assemblages both with and without staphylinids responded congruently to landscape, climatic and stand gradients, even when the assemblages included a high proportion of staphylinid species. At both local and regional scales, the species richness as well as the species composition of staphylinid-included and staphylinid-excluded assemblages were highly positively correlated. Ranking of sites according to their biodiversity level, which either included or excluded Staphylinidae in species richness, also gave congruent results. From our results, species assemblages omitting staphylinids can be taken as efficient surrogates for complete assemblages in large scale biodiversity monitoring studies. PMID:25434278

  20. Polycarboxylates enhance beetle antifreeze protein activity.

    PubMed

    Amornwittawat, Natapol; Wang, Sen; Duman, John G; Wen, Xin

    2008-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) lower the noncolligative freezing point of water in the presence of ice below the ice melting point. The temperature difference between the melting point and the noncolligative freezing point is termed thermal hysteresis (TH). The magnitude of the TH depends on the specific activity and the concentration of AFP, and the concentration of enhancers in the solution. Known enhancers are certain low molecular mass molecules and proteins. Here, we investigated a series of polycarboxylates that enhance the TH activity of an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis (DAFP) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Triethylenetetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexaacetate, the most efficient enhancer identified in this work, can increase the TH of DAFP by nearly 1.5 fold over than that of the published best enhancer, citrate. The Zn(2+) coordinated carboxylate results in loss of the enhancement ability of the carboxylate on antifreeze activity. There is not an additional increase in TH when a weaker enhancer is added to a stronger enhancer solution. These observations suggest that the more carboxylate groups per enhancer molecule the better the efficiency of the enhancer and that the freedom of motion of these molecules is necessary for them to serve as enhancers for AFP. The hydroxyl groups in the enhancer molecules can also positively affect their TH enhancement efficiency, though not as strongly as carboxylate groups. Mechanisms are discussed. PMID:18620083

  1. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group. PMID:21957131

  2. Origin of a haplodiploid beetle lineage

    PubMed Central

    Normark, B. B.; Jordal, B. H.; Farrell, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    The beetle family Scolytidae includes several groups having regular sib-mating and extremely female-biased sex ratios. Two such groups are known to include haplodiploid species: (i) the tribe Xyleborini and (ii) Coccotrypes and related genera within the tribe Dryocoetini. Relationships of these groups have been controversial. We analysed elongation factor 1-? (852 bp) and cytochrome oxidase 1 (1179 bp) sequences for 40 species. The most-parsimonious trees imply a single origin of haplodiploidy uniting Xyleborini (approximately 1200 species) and sib-mating Dryocoetini (approximately 160 species). The sister-group of the haplodiploid clade is the outcrossing genus Dryocoetes. The controversial genus Premnobius is outside the haplodiploid clade. Most haplodiploid scolytids exploit novel resources, ambrosia fungi or seeds, but a few have the ancestral habit of feeding on phloem. Thus, scolytids provide the clearest example of W. D. Hamilton's scenario for the evolution of haplodiploidy (life under bark leading to inbreeding and hence to female-biased sex ratios through haplodiploidy) and now constitute a unique opportunity to study diplodiploid and haplodiploid sister-lineages in a shared ancestral habitat. There is some evidence of sex determination by maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria, which may explain the consistency with which female-biased sex ratios and close inbreeding have been maintained.

  3. Biomass fuels update. TVAs biomass fuels program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    Equipment was installed and tests were conducted on the ethanol from hardwood project. Location of hardwoods, to improve forest management, and to reduce the cost of harvesting woody biomass was assessed. Substantial underutilized cropland exists in the Valley, and a questionnaire survey was administered to supplement available cropland data. The potential liquid fuel yields and production management practices for alternative starch, sugar, and vegetable oil crops were determined to obtain benchmark data and to evaluate alcohol production from alternative agricultural feedstocks. Workshops were conducted to provide information on production of alcohol.

  4. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  5. Optimal foraging for specific nutrients in predatory beetles.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren; Clissold, Fiona J; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that animals should forage to maximize their fitness, which in predators is traditionally assumed equivalent to maximizing energy intake rather than balancing the intake of specific nutrients. We restricted female predatory ground beetles (Anchomenus dorsalis) to one of a range of diets varying in lipid and protein content, and showed that total egg production peaked at a target intake of both nutrients. Other beetles given a choice to feed from two diets differing only in protein and lipid composition selectively ingested nutrient combinations at this target intake. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced diets, beetles balanced the over- and under-ingestion of lipid and protein around a nutrient composition that maximized egg production under those constrained circumstances. Selective foraging for specific nutrients in this predator thus maximizes its reproductive performance. Our findings have implications for predator foraging behaviour and in the structuring of ecological communities. PMID:22237910

  6. Observation and modeling of polarized light from scarab beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrey, Sam; de Silva, Lakshman; Hodgkinson, Ian; Leader, John

    2007-08-01

    The light reflected from scarab beetles illuminated with unpolarized white light is analyzed ellipsometrically and displayed as the sum of an elliptically polarized spectrum Ip and an unpolarized spectrum Iu. A chirped stack of chiral resonators, each with a characteristic Bragg wavelength and partial realignment of birefringent material to a fixed axis, is proposed as a model for simulation of both reflection and polarization spectra. Possible mechanisms that effectively eliminate impedance mismatch at the air-elytron interface and allow some beetles to exhibit nearly perfect circularly polarized reflections are discussed. Results are presented for three representative beetles, Ischiosopha bifasciata, which is shown to be a narrowband left-circular polarizer; Chrysophora chrysochlora, a broadband left-circular polarizer; and Chrysina woodi, an elliptical polarizer. The methods that are developed are applicable to the more general problem of synthesis of reflectors with prescribed reflection and polarization spectra.

  7. Drivers of extinction: the case of Azorean beetles.

    PubMed

    Terzopoulou, Sofia; Rigal, François; Whittaker, Robert J; Borges, Paulo A V; Triantis, Kostas A

    2015-06-01

    Oceanic islands host a disproportionately high fraction of endangered or recently extinct endemic species. We report on species extinctions among endemic Azorean beetles following 97% habitat loss since AD 1440. We infer extinctions from historical and contemporary records and examine the influence of three predictors: geographical range, habitat specialization and body size. Of 55 endemic beetle species investigated (out of 63), seven can be considered extinct. Single-island endemics (SIEs) were more prone to extinction than multi-island endemics. Within SIEs restricted to native habitat, larger species were more extinction-prone. We thus show a hierarchical path to extinction in Azorean beetles: species with small geographical range face extinction first, with the larger bodied ones being the most threatened. Our study provides a clear warning of the impact of habitat loss on island endemic biotas. PMID:26063753

  8. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  9. Combustion of Micropowdered Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geil, Ethan; Thorne, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Combustion of finely powdered biomass has the potential to replace heating oil, which accounts for a significant fraction of US oil consumption, in heating, cooling and local power generation applications. When ground to 30-150 micron powders and dispersed in air, wood and other biomass can undergo deflagrating combustion, as occurs with gaseous and dispersed liquid fuels. Combustion is very nearly complete, and in contrast to sugar/starch or cellulose-derived ethanol, nearly all of the available plant mass is converted to usable energy so the economics are much more promising. We are exploring the fundamental combustion science of biomass powders in this size range. In particular, we are examining how powder size, powder composition (including the fraction of volatile organics) and other parameters affect the combustion regime and the combustion products.

  10. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  11. Global distribution of pteropods representing carbonate functional type biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednaršek, N.; Možina, J.; Vu?kovi?, M.; Vogt, M.; O'Brien, C.; Tarling, G. A.

    2012-05-01

    Pteropods are a group of holoplanktonic gastropods for which global biomass distribution patterns remain poorly resolved. The aim of this study was to collect and synthesize existing pteropod (Gymnosomata, Thecosomata and Pseudothecosomata) abundance and biomass data, in order to evaluate the global distribution of pteropod carbon biomass, with a particular emphasis on its seasonal, temporal and vertical patterns. We collected 25 902 data points from several online databases and a number of scientific articles. The biomass data has been gridded onto a 360 × 180° grid, with a vertical resolution of 33 WOA depth levels. Data has been converted to NetCDF format which can be downloaded from PANGAEA, http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777387. Data were collected between 1951-2010, with sampling depths ranging from 0-1000 m. Pteropod biomass data was either extracted directly or derived through converting abundance to biomass with pteropod specific length to weight conversions. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH) the data were distributed evenly throughout the year, whereas sampling in the Southern Hemisphere was biased towards the austral summer months. 86% of all biomass values were located in the NH, most (42%) within the latitudinal band of 30-50° N. The range of global biomass values spanned over three orders of magnitude, with a mean and median biomass concentration of 8.2 mg C l-1 (SD = 61.4) and 0.25 mg C l-1, respectively for all data points, and with a mean of 9.1 mg C l-1 (SD = 64.8) and a median of 0.25 mg C l-1 for non-zero biomass values. The highest mean and median biomass concentrations were located in the NH between 40-50° S (mean biomass: 68.8 mg C l-1 (SD × 213.4) median biomass: 2.5 mg C l-1) while, in the SH, they were within the 70-80° S latitudinal band (mean: 10.5 mg C l-1 (SD × 38.8) and median: 0.2 mg C l-1). Biomass values were lowest in the equatorial regions. A broad range of biomass concentrations was observed at all depths, with the biomass peak located in the surface layer (0-25 m) and values generally decreasing with depth. However, biomass peaks were located at different depths in different ocean basins: 0-25 m depth in the N Atlantic, 50-100 m in the Pacific, 100-200 m in the Arctic, 200-500 m in the Brazilian region and >500 m in the Indo-Pacific region. Biomass in the NH was relatively invariant over the seasonal cycle, but more seasonally variable in the SH. The collected database provides a valuable tool for modellers for the study of ecosystem processes and global biogeochemical cycles.

  12. Measuring solar abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Reisenfeld, D. B. (Daniel B.); Von Steiger, R. (Rudolf); Vial, J.-C. (Jean-Claude); Bochsler, P.; Chaussidon, M.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Fleck, B.; Heber, V. S.; Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

    2001-01-01

    This is the rapporteur paper of Working Group 2 on Measuring Solar Abundances. The working group presented and discussed the different observations and methods for obtaining the elemental and isotopic composition of the Sun, and critically reviewed their results and the accuracies thereof. Furthermore, a few important yet unanswered questions were identified, and the potential of future missions to provide answers was assessed.

  13. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  14. NSE abundance data

    SciTech Connect

    Odrzywolek, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.odrzywolek@uj.edu.pl

    2012-07-15

    A novel method of calculating nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is presented. Basic equations are carefully solved using arbitrary precision arithmetic. A special interpolation procedure is then used to retrieve all abundances using tabulated results for neutrons and protons, together with basic nuclear data. Proton and neutron abundance tables, basic nuclear data, and partition functions for nuclides used in the calculations are provided. A simple interpolation algorithm using pre-calculated p and n abundances tabulated as functions of kT, {rho} and Y{sub e} is outlined. Unique properties of this method are: (1) ability to pick up out of NSE selected nuclei only, (2) computational time scaling linearly with number of re-calculated abundances, (3) relatively small amount of stored data: only two large tables, (4) slightly faster than solving the NSE equations using traditional Newton-Raphson methods for small networks (few tens of species); superior for huge (800-3000) networks, (5) does not require initial guess; works well on random input, (6) can be tailored to specific application, (7) ability to use third-party NSE solvers to obtain fully compatible tables, and (8) encapsulation of the NSE code for bug-free calculations. A range of applications for this approach is possible: covering tests of traditional NSE Newton-Raphson codes, generating starting values, code-to-code verification, and possible replacement of the old legacy procedures in supernova simulations.

  15. "Reminiscence" in the cold flour beetle (Tenebrio molitor).

    PubMed

    Alloway, T M; Routtenberg, A

    1967-11-01

    Retention of a T-maze task by adults of the species Tenebrio molitor was facilitated by exposure to 1.7 degrees C. The facilitation effect was seen after 1, 3, 4, or 5 days of retention, but is was reversed after 2 days. The increment from day 2 to day 5 was termed "reminiscence." That these effects represented alterations in memory and not nonspecific motivational factors was determined by requiring another group of beetles to reverse their learning of the original task. Since reversal performance was inversely related to relearning, it was concluded that "reminiscence" represented alterations in memory. A multistage memory mechanism in the beetle was postulated. PMID:6054486

  16. November 2011 Model documentation for biomass,

    E-print Network

    Noble, James S.

    1 November 2011 Model documentation for biomass, cellulosic biofuels, renewable of Education, Office of Civil Rights. #12;3 Contents Biomass.....................................................................................................................................................4 Variables in the biomass module

  17. [Sampling optimization for tropical invertebrates: an example using dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Paris, José Rafael; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

    2013-03-01

    The development of efficient sampling protocols is an essential prerequisite to evaluate and identify priority conservation areas. There are f ew protocols for fauna inventory and monitoring in wide geographical scales for the tropics, where the complexity of communities and high biodiversity levels, make the implementation of efficient protocols more difficult. We proposed here a simple strategy to optimize the capture of dung beetles, applied to sampling with baited traps and generalizable to other sampling methods. We analyzed data from eight transects sampled between 2006-2008 withthe aim to develop an uniform sampling design, that allows to confidently estimate species richness, abundance and composition at wide geographical scales. We examined four characteristics of any sampling design that affect the effectiveness of the sampling effort: the number of traps, sampling duration, type and proportion of bait, and spatial arrangement of the traps along transects. We used species accumulation curves, rank-abundance plots, indicator species analysis, and multivariate correlograms. We captured 40 337 individuals (115 species/morphospecies of 23 genera). Most species were attracted by both dung and carrion, but two thirds had greater relative abundance in traps baited with human dung. Different aspects of the sampling design influenced each diversity attribute in different ways. To obtain reliable richness estimates, the number of traps was the most important aspect. Accurate abundance estimates were obtained when the sampling period was increased, while the spatial arrangement of traps was determinant to capture the species composition pattern. An optimum sampling strategy for accurate estimates of richness, abundance and diversity should: (1) set 50-70 traps to maximize the number of species detected, (2) get samples during 48-72 hours and set trap groups along the transect to reliably estimate species abundance, (3) set traps in groups of at least 10 traps to suitably record the local species composition, and (4) separate trap groups by a distance greater than 5-10km to avoid spatial autocorrelation. For the evaluation of other sampling protocols we recommend to, first, identify the elements of sampling design that could affect the sampled effort (the number of traps, sampling duration, type and proportion of bait) and their spatial distribution (spatial arrangement of the traps) and then, to evaluate how they affect richness, abundance and species composition estimates. PMID:23894965

  18. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  19. Clean fuels from biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  20. The conversion of biomass to ethanol and microbial biomass protein 

    E-print Network

    Reshamwala, Sultan

    1994-01-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to two value-added products, microbial biomass protein (MBP) and ethanol, was studied. Bagasse (BAG) was hydrolyzed by Phanarochaete chtysosporium. Excess sugars were utilized by a diazotrophic bacteria...

  1. High-biomass sorghums for biomass biofuel production 

    E-print Network

    Packer, Daniel

    2011-05-09

    High-biomass sorghums are being developed as a dedicated energy crop for biofuels. Their high biomass yields provide large quantities of structural carbohydrates (cellulose, lignin, etc.) for energy production. Sorghum improvement for applications...

  2. Environmental tuning of an insect ensemble: the tenebrionid beetles inhabiting a Mediterranean coastal dune zonation.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Simone; Santoro, Riccardo; Maurizi, Emanuela; Acosta, Alicia T R; Di Giulio, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated insect ensembles, i.e. phylogenetically bounded groups of species that use a similar set of resources within a community. The zonation of dune vegetation makes these ecosystems ideal for the study of insect ensembles in a short space. In this study, we investigated if the tenebrionid beetles forming an ensemble on a dune zonation showed variations in community organization (relative abundances and species diversity) in different but spatially associated biotopes defined by different plant communities. Three biotopes (corresponding to European Commission habitat 2110, 2120 and 2230) of a well-preserved Mediterranean dune were sampled using square plots of 2×2 m at three places. To investigate if there was some association between species and habitat we applied a ?(2) test. Variations in community structure parameters were investigated using Shannon index. The three biotopes host tenebrionid communities with similar species composition and overall abundances, confirming that they form a single ensemble. However, tenebrionid species are differently associated with different biotopes along the zonation, with some species occurring with different proportions among the biotopes. A local selection process can be postulated as a mechanism responsible for these differences. PMID:23199639

  3. Die Biomasse mariner Makrobenthos-Gesellschaften im Einflußbereich der Klärschlammverklappung vor der Elbemündung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlenhardt-Siegel, U.

    1981-12-01

    The macrofauna of a dumping area in the eastern part of the German Bight (North Sea) was investigated in July, August and November, 1978 at five stations situated on a transect including central and peripheral areas of the dumping region. Abundance and biomass (ash free dry weight) of the macrofauna and its variation from July to November were analysed as well as the biomass of different taxa. Molluscs dominated over polychaetes, crustaceans and echinoderms. A positive correlation seemed to exist between mud content and biomass at the peripherally situated stations. In the central sewage sludge area, however, the biomass values were reduced. In late autumn the biomass decreased in the entire area due to the death of Diastylis rathkei, Abra alba and Pectinaria koreni. These species were replaced by the mollusc Nucula turgida and polychaete Nephtys hombergii. In autumn the biomass values also showed a distinct minimum at the central stations.

  4. Biomass estimation across the benthic community in polluted freshwater sediment—A promising endpoint in microcosm studies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Faupel; Kai Ristau; Walter Traunspurger

    2011-01-01

    With respect to the ecological relevance of endpoints, biomass as an endpoint might be promising regarding ecotoxicological assessments of benthic communities. In a freshwater microcosm study the effect of two cadmium (Cd) concentrations (50 and 400mgCdkg?1 dw) on biomass and abundance of a benthic community were investigated over a period of seven months. Specifically, the sensitivity of both endpoints in

  5. Abundance declines of a native forb have nonlinear impacts on grassland invasion resistance.

    PubMed

    Hulvey, Kristin B; Zavaleta, Erika S

    2012-02-01

    The effects of declining plant biodiversity on ecosystem processes are well studied, with most investigations examining the role of species richness declines rather than declines of species abundance. Using grassland mesocosms, we examined how the abundance of a native, resident species, Hemizonia congesta (hayfield tarweed), affected exotic Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) invasion. We found that progressive H. congesta abundance declines had threshold effects on invasion resistance, with initial declines resulting in minor increases in invasion and subsequent declines leading to accelerating increases in invader performance. Reduced invasion resistance was explained by increased resource availability as H. congesta declined. We also found evidence that resident abundance might indirectly affect invasion by mediating invader impact on resident competitors; C. solstitialis disproportionately reduced H. congesta biomass in low-abundance rather than high-abundance populations. H. congesta's direct and indirect effects on invasion resistance illustrate that an individual species' declining abundance can have accelerating, deleterious effects on ecosystem functions of conservation value. PMID:22624319

  6. Switchgrass for biomass energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a native warm-season grass and is the model herbaceous perennial biomass energy feedstock for the USA. More than 75-years of experience confirm that switchgrass will be productive and sustainable on rain-fed marginally-productive cropland east of the 100th meridian....

  7. Sustainable biomass removal rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop non-grain biomass (straw or stover) is a potential bioenergy feedstock suitable for thermochemical (controlled combustion) or fermentation to ethanol platforms. It is critical to prevent soil degradation; thereby, maintain soil's capacity to produce food, feed, fiber and fuel. Overharvest of cr...

  8. Modeling the effects of the mountain pine beetle on snowmelt rates in a subalpine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, D. O.; Molotch, N. P.; Musselman, K. N.; Pugh, E. T.

    2010-12-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Colorado River Basin has resulted in widespread tree mortality in pine stands across the Colorado Plateau. The mountain pine beetle (MPB) infests trees over large areas at a fairly rapid rate, resulting in a loss of nearly all canopy biomass within three to four years. One of the most significant issues resulting from this epidemic is the hydrologic impact of changes in vegetation distribution and forest management practices. In particular, the complex interactions between vegetation and snow largely determine the effects of changing vegetation on water yield, as snow represents the dominant input of water into semi-arid mountain ecosystems. We hypothesize that the affected stands will experience a change in sub-canopy hydrolometeorological fluxes and surface albedo, which will influence snowmelt rates. The result of these impacts on the basin scale hydrology is largely unknown given the complexity of these micro-scale interactions. We have developed a mechanistic approach toward understanding these impacts using distributed hydrologic instrument clusters, hyperspectral snowpack characterization techniques, a detailed distributed snowpack model (SNTHERM), and hemispherical photography. This measurement and modeling approach is able to resolve the spatio-temporal evolution of snowmelt and snowpack characteristics (such as density, grain size, and temperature) at the micro-scale (i.e. < 10 cm) for green, red, and grey phase stages of beetle-related tree mortality. Using SNTHERM, we model the snowpack along a transect between two trees over the course of the melt season (February 28-June 30) under the three stages of mortality to assess changes in snowpack characteristics due to changes in canopy structure. The results of our modeling show that the canopy conditions of red and grey phase stands are associated with earlier dates of isothermal conditions and melt-out; SNTHERM shows the snowpack under the green and red phase canopy conditions reaching isothermal conditions 14 and 19 days (respectively) later than the snowpack under grey phase canopy conditions. Additionally, SNTHERM predicts a grey phase snowpack melt rate approximately 1.5 times greater (0.54 cm per day) than that of the snowpack in green or red phases (0.34 and 0.35 cm per day, respectively) during a period of continuous ablation (May 16-June 30). A loss of canopy not only seems to result in greater melt rates, but also in more homogenous snowpack morphology across the transect (i.e. spatial variability in density, temperature, and grain size is reduced under conditions of progressed canopy mortality compared to the green phase). With the aid of remotely sensed snow and vegetation information, these results will provide the basis for larger scale simulations of the hydrologic impacts of beetle infestation across the Colorado River Basin.

  9. Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential Prepared for: Massachusetts Division of Energy;#12;Executive Summary In Massachusetts, biomass energy has typically meant wood chips derived from the region's extensive forest cover. Yet nationally, biomass energy from dedicated energy crops and from crop residues

  10. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  11. 5, 27912831, 2005 Biomass burning

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    measurements of trace gas and aerosol particle emissions from biomass burning in Amazonia P. Guyon1 , G. Frank1ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction. 2791 #12;ACPD 5, 2791­2831, 2005 Biomass burning emissions P. Guyon et al. Title Page Abstract

  12. Sexual selection affects lifespan and aging in the seed beetle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexei A. Maklakov; Claudia Fricke; Göran Arnqvist

    2007-01-01

    Summary Sexual selection in general, and sexual conflict in particular, should affect the evolution of lifespan and aging. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether removal of sexual selection leads to the evolution of accelerated or decelerated senescence. We subjected replicated popula- tions of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to either of two selection regimes for 35 generations. These regimes either

  13. Redbay ambrosia beetle: basic and applied chemical ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in the U.S. in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. Females of X. glabratus vector a fungal pathogen (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Over...

  14. Inbreeding depression in two seed-feeding beetles, Callosobruchus

    E-print Network

    Fox, Charles W.

    Inbreeding depression in two seed-feeding beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091, USA Abstract Inbreeding depression is well documented in insects but the degree to which inbreeding depression varies among populations within species, and among

  15. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,

  16. A deficiency of the homeotic complex of the beetle Tribolium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    In Drosophila, the establishment of regional commitments along most of the anterior/posterior axis of the developing embryo depends on two clusters of homeotic genes: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and the bithorax complex (BX-C). The red flour beetle has a single complex (HOM-C) representing the homologues of the ANT-C and BX-C in juxtaposition. Beetles trans-heterozygous for two particular HOM-C mutations spontaneously generate a large deficiency, presumably by an exchange within the common region of two overlapping inversions. Genetic and molecular results indicate that this deficiency spans at least the interval between the Deformed and abdominal-A homologues. In deficiency homozygous embryos, all gnathal, thoracic and abdominal segments develop antennal appendages, suggesting that a gene(s) has been deleted that acts to distinguish trunk from head. There is no evidence that beetles have a homologue of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu of similar genomic location and function. On the basis of the genetic tractability, convenient genome size and organization of Tribolium, and its relatively long phylogenetic divergence from Drosophila (>300 million years), we have integrated developmental genetic and molecular analyses of the HOM-C. We isolated about 70 mutations in the complex representing at least six complementation groups. The homeotic phenotypes of adults and lethal embryos lead us to believe that these beetle genes are homologous with the Drosophila genes indicated in Fig. 1 (see text).

  17. Phylogeny and diversification of diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    E-print Network

    Ribera, Ignacio

    Phylogeny and diversification of diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) Ignacio Riberaa, Muenchhausenstrasse 21, D-81247 Mu¨nchen, Germany Accepted 30 July 2007 Abstract Dytiscidae is the most diverse family for the analysis of species diversification in Dytiscidae. We found a positive correlation between the number

  18. Asian longhorn beetle www.forestry.gov.uk/planthealth

    E-print Network

    long, distinctive antennae (up to twice their body length) that have black and white or light blue feeding on leaves, petioles, and tender bark. Signs of late-stage feeding are broken and dead branches, dead tops or completely dead trees. Adult beetles, which can live for up to 30 days, develop through

  19. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Koch; E. C. Burkness; W. D. Hutchison

    The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C.

  20. entomology & pathology Mountain Pine Beetle Voltinism and Life History

    E-print Network

    , Dendroctonus ponderosae, phenology P henology is the study of the timing of life cycle events in relation genetic variation in development time is known to exist among mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations across the western United States. The effect of this variation on geographic

  1. 160 AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGIST Fall 2001 he mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus

    E-print Network

    Powell, James

    160 AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGIST · Fall 2001 T he mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins for this insect, but ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosae Lawson, and lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dou- glas this primary host range, although lodgepole pine ex- tends further north and ponderosa pine extends further

  2. Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Kurz; C. C. Dymond; G. Stinson; G. J. Rampley; E. T. Neilson; A. L. Carroll; T. Ebata; L. Safranyik

    2008-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a native insect of the pine forests of western North America, and its populations periodically erupt into large-scale outbreaks. During outbreaks, the resulting widespread tree mortality reduces forest carbon uptake and increases future emissions from the decay of killed trees. The impacts of insects on forest carbon dynamics, however,

  3. Vitamin Requirement of the American Flour Beetle Tribolium confusum Duval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Rosenthal; T. Reichstein

    1942-01-01

    THE larvæ of the American flour beetle Tribolium confusum Duval can only develop on a diet consisting of protein, carbohydrate, salts, and water if yeast or some other suitable vitamin source is added1. Fröbrich2 found the addition of 5 per cent of dry yeast to a diet of casein, rice starch and Osborne-Mendel salt mixture in a relative humidity of

  4. Efficacy of aerosols for managing the red flour beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management professionals commonly utilize aerosolized liquid applications, also known as fogging, for management of stored-product insects, including the red flour beetle. These applications are part of a potential methyl bromide replacement technology because they could increase the time inte...

  5. Habitat manipulation in potato affects colorado potato beetle dispersal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased vegetational diversity in agricultural fields may alter the movement of pests into or within a field. Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlienata) is a devastating pest of potatoes world-wide that has developed resistance to insecticides, creating a need for alternate management stra...

  6. Physical Contests for Females in the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kipp C. Kruse; Paul V. Switzer

    2007-01-01

    We conducted field observations of physical competition for mates, in which a single male attempts to usurp a female from another male, in male Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae). Physical contests for mates were relatively rare, but when they occurred the challenger male was able to successfully takeover females by dislodging the previously paired resident male in only

  7. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Hyeon Choi; Teiya Kijimoto; Emilie Snell-Rood; Hongseok Tae; Youngik Yang; Armin P Moczek; Justen Andrews

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel

  8. On testing temporal niche differentiation in carabid beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Loreau

    1989-01-01

    It is first shown that den Boer's (1985) claims that competition should be rejected as a factor explaining community structure are not warranted by his tests on temporal niche differentiation in carabid beetles. The power of these tests is so low that they are unlikely to detect even the most extreme pattern of niche differentiation. A major factor that affects

  9. Down and Dirty with Dung Beetles: Innovating Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelk, Joee

    2009-01-01

    A lecturer at the University of Queensland has developed an excellent model to give students an authentic, hands-on experience of ecological research. The first-year university students have been learning about biodiversity as they carry out the task of beetle identification. This partnership gives the students a chance to contribute to an…

  10. Sex Attractant of Female Dermestid Beetle Trogoderma inclusum Le Conte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Otto Rodin; Robert M. Silverstein; Wendell E. Burkholder; John E. Gorman

    1969-01-01

    Two components of the sex attractant of a female dermestid beetle Trogoderma inclusum Le Conte were identified. They are (-)-14-methyl-cis-8-hexadecen-1-ol and (-)-methyl-14-methyl-cis-8-hexadecenoate. Other Trogoderma species also respond to the compounds.

  11. Research Focus Biological pest control in beetle agriculture

    E-print Network

    and Michael J. Wingfield2 1 Department of Plant Sciences, Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has con- sequently been studied extensively flora). The symbiosis between fungus-growing beetles and fungi illustrates clearly that the distinction

  12. Observation and modeling of polarized light from scarab beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam Lowrey; Lakshman de Silva; Ian Hodgkinson; John Leader

    2007-01-01

    The light reflected from scarab beetles illuminated with unpolarized white light is analyzed ellipsometrically and displayed as the sum of an elliptically polarized spectrum Ip and an unpolarized spectrum Iu. A chirped stack of chiral resonators, each with a characteristic Bragg wavelength and partial realignment of birefringent material to a fixed axis, is proposed as a model for simulation of

  13. Gene amplification in the oocytes of dytiscid water beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Gall; Herbert C. Macgregor; Mary Elizabeth Kidston

    1969-01-01

    A conspicuous mass of extrachromosomal DNA (Giardina's body) is found in oogonia and oocytes of Dytiscid water beetles. Since in older oocytes this DNA is associated with numerous nucleoli, it seemed probable that the ovary might contain extra copies of the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). This hypothesis has been confirmed by centrifugation and molecular hybridization studies. —In Dytiscus marginalis

  14. Sperm ultrastructure in the water beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romano Dallai; Bjorn A. Afzelius

    1987-01-01

    The ultrastrucrure of conjugated spermatozoa of some dytiscid beetles was examined in ultrathin sections and freeze?fracture replicas. Whereas spermatozoa of Melanodytes pustulatus are conjugated pairwise, those of Colymbetes fuscus are conjugated in larger groups. Other members of the same subfamily (Colymbetinae) may have single or multiple spermatozoa. Features seen in the ultrathin section that were found to characterize spermatozoa from

  15. Droplets on patterned substrates: water off a beetle's back

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dupuis; J. M. Yeomans

    2006-01-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann model to describe the spreading of droplets on chemically and topologically patterned substrates. As an example, we consider the process by which a Namibian beetle captures water on its back which is hydrophobic but covered by peaks with hydrophilic tops.

  16. The genome of the mustard leaf beetle encodes two active xylanases originally acquired from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Pauchet, Yannick; Heckel, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The primary plant cell wall comprises the most abundant polysaccharides on the Earth and represents a rich source of energy for organisms which have evolved the ability to digest them. Enzymes able to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides are widely distributed in micro-organisms but are generally absent in animals, although their presence in insects, especially phytophagous beetles from the superfamilies Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea, has recently begun to be appreciated. The observed patchy distribution of endogenous genes encoding these enzymes in animals has raised questions about their evolutionary origins. Recent evidence suggests that endogenous plant cell wall degrading enzymes-encoding genes have been acquired by animals through a mechanism known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). HGT describes how genetic material is moved by means other than vertical inheritance from a parent to an offspring. Here, we provide evidence that the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae, possesses in its genome genes encoding active xylanases from the glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11). We also provide evidence that these genes were originally acquired by P. cochleariae from a species of gammaproteobacteria through HGT. This represents the first example of the presence of genes from the GH11 family in animals. PMID:23698014

  17. Leaf beetle (chrysomelidae: coleoptera) assemblages in a mosaic of natural and altered areas in the brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, M; De Marco, P

    2015-06-01

    In landscape mosaics, species may use different vegetation types or be restricted to a single vegetation type or land-use feature highlighting the importance of the interaction of species requirements and environmental heterogeneity. In these systems, the determination of the overall pattern of ?-diversity can indicate the importance of the environmental heterogeneity on diversity patterns. Here, we evaluate leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as habitat quality bioindicators in a system with varying intensities of human impacts and different phyto-physiognomies (from open field to forests). We collected 1117 leaf beetles belonging to 245 species, of which 12 species and 5 genus were considered possible bioindicators based on IndVal measures. Higher species richness was observed in forests and regenerating fields, and habitats with lower species richness included pastures, mines, and veredas. Natural fields, regenerating fields, natural cerrado, and forest had higher values of ?-diversity. Bioindicator systems that include not only species richness and abundance but also assemblage composition are needed to allow for a better understanding of Chrysomelidae response to environmental disturbance. PMID:26013268

  18. Specialization of midgut cells for synthesis of male isoprenoid pheromone components in two scolytid beetles, Dendroctonus jeffreyi and Ips pini.

    PubMed

    Nardi, J B; Young, A Gilg; Ujhelyi, E; Tittiger, C; Lehane, M J; Blomquist, G J

    2002-08-01

    Endodermal or midgut cells have only recently been recognized as the site of pheromone synthesis in bark beetles. Midgut cells are not only specialized for digestion, but they have also been recruited to form isoprenoid compounds that function as pheromone components in Ips pini and Dendroctonus jeffreyi. Male bark beetle midgut cells are competent to produce isoprenoid pheromones after feeding or stimulation by juvenile hormone (JH) III. Competent midgut cells share many ultrastructural features with cells that do not secrete isoprenoid pheromone, but they are distinguished from these by abundant and highly ordered arrays of smooth endoplasmic reticula. During secretion, both midgut cells that produce pheromone and cells that do not are characterized by the presence of apical extrusions (apocrine secretion) rather than the presence of vesicles that fuse with the apical membrane and undergo exocytosis (eccrine secretion). Pheromone-producing cells of the midgut do not represent a population of cells that are distinct from cells involved in digestion. All, or most, midgut cells of male I. pini and D. jeffreyi can secrete pheromones as well as digestive enzymes. PMID:12176306

  19. Negative dietary eVects of Colorado potato beetle eggs for the larvae of native and introduced ladybird beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Snyderand; Garrett M. Clevenger

    2004-01-01

    Aphidophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are attracted to and feed heavily on aphids, but many species will also feed opportunistically on other prey that they encounter. In potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Washington State, USA, coccin- ellids feed on both green peach aphids (\\

  20. Cofermentation of Glucose, Xylose, and Cellobiose by the Beetle-Associated Yeast Spathaspora passalidarum

    PubMed Central

    Long, Tanya M.; Su, Yi-Kai; Headman, Jennifer; Higbee, Alan; Willis, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    Fermentation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars from biomass could resolve food-versus-fuel conflicts inherent in the bioconversion of grains. However, the inability to coferment glucose and xylose is a major challenge to the economical use of lignocellulose as a feedstock. Simultaneous cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose is problematic for most microbes because glucose represses utilization of the other saccharides. Surprisingly, the ascomycetous, beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum, which ferments xylose and cellobiose natively, can also coferment these two sugars in the presence of 30 g/liter glucose. S. passalidarum simultaneously assimilates glucose and xylose aerobically, it simultaneously coferments glucose, cellobiose, and xylose with an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g, and it has a specific ethanol production rate on xylose more than 3 times that of the corresponding rate on glucose. Moreover, an adapted strain of S. passalidarum produced 39 g/liter ethanol with a yield of 0.37 g/g sugars from a hardwood hydrolysate. Metabolome analysis of S. passalidarum before onset and during the fermentations of glucose and xylose showed that the flux of glycolytic intermediates is significantly higher on xylose than on glucose. The high affinity of its xylose reductase activities for NADH and xylose combined with allosteric activation of glycolysis probably accounts in part for its unusual capacities. These features make S. passalidarum very attractive for studying regulatory mechanisms enabling bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials by yeasts. PMID:22636012