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1

Ground Covers Influence the Abundance and Behavior of Japanese Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground covers were tested for 3 consecutive yr for their effect on Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), abundance and behavior in a blueberry planting. Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), pe- rennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and bare ground were compared within row-middles for their effect on abundance of adult female beetles, female beetle behavior

Zsofia Szendrei; Rufus Isaacs

2006-01-01

2

Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The beetles, or Coleoptera, are so abundant that it is said that one in every five living species on earth is a beetle. This Topic in Depth explores the vast insect order of Coleoptera. From the Zoological Institute at the Russian Academy of Sciences, the first site (1) contains beautiful images and information sections regarding Morphology and Anatomy, Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Distribution, Collections, and Publications. The second (2) site was created by Vratislav Bejsak-Colloredo-Mansfeld (of the University of Sydney) for beetle collectors, researchers, ecologists, entomologists, and others interested in beetles. The site contains links to a Coleoptera Bibliography; Coleoptera Databases and Catalogues; A Glossary of Entomological Terms; Images and Sound Library; and more. The third (3) site presents the Coleopterists Society, an international organization devoted to the study of beetles. The website contains information about the Society, upcoming meetings, prizes and awards, beetle conservation, resources, and news. From the University of Texas in Austin, the fourth (4) website presents Water Beetle World, the Newsletter for aquatic Coleoptera workers. The Newsletter serves as a forum for workers to share publication announcements, images, species checklists, resources, and more. The fifth (5) website presents the Purple Loosestrife Project, which was developed collaboratively by Michigan State University and Michigan Sea Grant Extension. The Project, designed for K-12 teachers and students, as well as other concerned citizens, involves the use of certain beetle species to help control the spread of Purple Loosestrife, and encourage the recovery of native vegetation. From Insecta Inspecta World, a project of the Honors Academy at Thornton Jr. High School in Fremont, CA (reported on in the October 18, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences), the sixth (6) site shares concise information about, and several great images of, Scarab beetles. From the archives of Iowa State University's Entomology Image Gallery, the final (7) site contains a collection of good-quality Coleoptera images including bean leaf beetles, blister beetles, wireworms, flea beetles, corn rootworms, weevils, and ladybird beetles.

3

Studies on the biology, seasonal abundance and insecticidal responses of the lady beetle Scymnus cinctus Leconte  

E-print Network

STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGY@ SEASOI'1AL ABUNDANCE AND INSECTICIDAL RESPONSES OF ThE IADY BEETLE SCYNNUS CINCTUS LRUONTE A Thesis by Paul Norsley Jackson Submitted to the Gradus, te College of Texas AAN University in partial fulfillnent... of the requirements for the degree of EASTER OF SCIENCE August l971 Najor Subject: Entomology STUDIES ON THE BIOIDGY, SFASONAL ABUNDANCE AND INSECTICIDAL RESPONSES OF THE IADY BEETLE SCYNNVS CINCTUS LECONTE A Thesis Paul Worsley Jackson Approved as to style...

Jackson, Paul Worsley

2012-06-07

4

Temperature Determines Symbiont Abundance in a Multipartite Bark Beetle-fungus Ectosymbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report evidence that temperature plays a key role in determining the relative abundance of two mutualistic\\u000a fungi associated with an economically and ecologically important bark beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. The symbiotic fungi possess different optimal temperature ranges. These differences determine which fungus is vectored by\\u000a dispersing host beetles as temperatures fluctuate over a season. Grosmannia clavigera is

D. L. Six; B. J. Bentz

2007-01-01

5

Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction of spatial effects and genotypic diversity.  

PubMed

Intraspecific variation and genotypic diversity of host-plants can affect the structure of associated arthropod communities and the dynamics of populations. Similarly, neighboring plants can also affect interactions between host-plants and their associated arthropods. However, most studies on the effects of host-plant genotypes have largely ignored the potential effects of neighboring host-plants on arthropod communities. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to ask how spatial effects of neighboring patches, along with genotype identity and genotypic diversity in tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima), affect the abundances of a common goldenrod herbivore (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity. Additionally, there were strong effects of neighboring plots: aphid abundance in a focal plot was positively correlated to aphid abundance in nearby plots, suggesting strong spatial patterning in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity. However, focal plot genotypic diversity mediated the strength of the neighborhood effect (i.e., strong effects for genotype polyculture focal plots and weak effects for genotype monoculture focal plots). Our results show that aphids were directly influenced by host-plant genotype identity while ladybird beetles responded mainly to prey abundance, and suggest that genotypic diversity can influence the effects of spatial processes on the plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:21805301

Genung, Mark A; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Nathan J

2012-01-01

6

Diversity, abundance and community network structure in sporocarp-associated beetle communities of the central Appalachian Mountains.  

PubMed

Although arthropods are abundant and diverse in and on macrofungal sporocarps, their associations with fungi seldom have been described at a community level. We examined sporocarp-associated beetle communities in two primary sites in the Appalachian Mountains and foothills, assessing beetle diversity and abundance in relation to study site, sampling season (early vs. late summer), and sporocarp characteristics such as taxonomic position, dry mass and age. From 758 sporocarps representing >180 species we recovered 15404 adult beetles representing 72 species and 15 families, primarily Staphylinidae (> 98% of individuals and of 64% morphospecies). The probability of sporocarp colonization by beetles, beetle abundance and diversity differed among fungal species and were positively associated with sporocarp dry mass. Sporocarp age was positively correlated with beetle diversity and abundance (as measured in a focal species, Megacollybia platyphylla, Tricholomataceae), and its effects were independent of dry mass. Many beetle species were generalists, visiting a wide breadth of fungi in both the Agaricales and Polyporales; however, several beetle taxa showed evidence of specialization on particular fungal hosts. Host association data were used to examine the structure underlying sporocarp-beetle associations. Here we present the first evidence of nested community structure in the sporocarp-beetle interaction network. PMID:20648747

Epps, Mary Jane; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2010-01-01

7

Pesticide treatments affect mountain pine beetle abundance and woodpecker foraging behavior.  

PubMed

In British Columbia, Canada, management efforts used to control mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have included treatment of infested trees with an organic arsenic pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA). Cumulative pesticide applications over a large geographic area have generated concerns about arsenic loading in the environment and potential toxicity to nontarget wildlife. We investigated woodpecker foraging patterns in infested stands with and without MSMA treatment using a combination of tree debarking indices, point count surveys, and radiotelemetry methods in addition to insect flight traps to measure mountain pine beetle emergence. Debarking indices indicated woodpecker foraging of MSMA-treated trees was significantly lower than nontreated trees in all sampling years. However, approximately 40% of MSMA trees had some evidence of foraging. Focal observations of foraging woodpeckers and point count surveys in MSMA treatment areas further confirmed that several species of woodpeckers regularly used MSMA stands during the breeding season. Radio-tagged Hairy (Picoides villosus) and Three-toed (Picoides dorsalis) Woodpeckers spent on average 13% and 23% (range 0-66%) of their time, respectively, in treated stands, despite the fact that these areas only comprised on average 1-2% of their core home range (1 km2). MSMA strongly reduced the emergence of several bark beetle (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) species including the mountain pine beetle, and there was a highly significant positive relationship between Dendroctonus beetle abundance and Three-toed Woodpecker abundance. This study identifies the potential negative impact that forest management practices using pesticides can have on woodpecker populations that depend on bark beetles and their host trees. PMID:18372564

Morrissey, Christy A; Dods, Patti L; Elliott, John E

2008-01-01

8

Global distribution of microbial abundance and biomass in subseafloor sediment.  

PubMed

The global geographic distribution of subseafloor sedimentary microbes and the cause(s) of that distribution are largely unexplored. Here, we show that total microbial cell abundance in subseafloor sediment varies between sites by ca. five orders of magnitude. This variation is strongly correlated with mean sedimentation rate and distance from land. Based on these correlations, we estimate global subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance to be 2.9?10(29) cells [corresponding to 4.1 petagram (Pg) C and ?0.6% of Earth's total living biomass]. This estimate of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance is roughly equal to previous estimates of total microbial abundance in seawater and total microbial abundance in soil. It is much lower than previous estimates of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance. In consequence, we estimate Earth's total number of microbes and total living biomass to be, respectively, 50-78% and 10-45% lower than previous estimates. PMID:22927371

Kallmeyer, Jens; Pockalny, Robert; Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Smith, David C; D'Hondt, Steven

2012-10-01

9

Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

Newell, P.; King, S.

2009-01-01

10

Habitat selection determines abundance, richness and species composition of beetles in aquatic communities  

PubMed Central

Distribution and abundance patterns at the community and metacommunity scale can result from two distinct mechanisms. Random dispersal followed by non-random, site-specific mortality (species sorting) is the dominant paradigm in community ecology, while habitat selection provides an alternative, largely unexplored, mechanism with different demographic consequences. Rather than differential mortality, habitat selection involves redistribution of individuals among habitat patches based on perceived rather than realized fitness, with perceptions driven by past selection. In particular, habitat preferences based on species composition can create distinct patterns of positive and negative covariance among species, generating more complex linkages among communities than with random dispersal models. In our experiments, the mere presence of predatory fishes, in the absence of any mortality, reduced abundance and species richness of aquatic beetles by up to 80% in comparison with the results from fishless controls. Beetle species' shared habitat preferences generated distinct patterns of species richness, species composition and total abundance, matching large-scale field patterns previously ascribed to random dispersal and differential mortality. Our results indicate that landscape-level patterns of distribution and species diversity can be driven to a large extent by habitat selection behaviour, a critical, but largely overlooked, mechanism of community and metacommunity assembly. PMID:17148209

Binckley, Christopher A; Resetarits, William J

2005-01-01

11

Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass, to a depth of 350 m, has a mean of 8.4 ?g C L-1, median of 0.2 ?g C L-1 and a standard deviation of 63.5 ?g C L-1. The global annual average estimate of macrozooplankton biomass in the top 350 m, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid-latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted by the lack of information on the size of the organism and/or the absence of taxonomic information. Distribution patterns of global macrozooplankton biomass and statistical information about biomass concentrations may be used to validate biogeochemical and plankton functional type models. Macrozooplankton abundance and biomass dataset doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.777398.

Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

2013-07-01

12

Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass has a mean of 8.4 ?g C l-1, median of 0.15 ?g C l-1 and a standard deviation of 63.46 ?g C l-1. The global annual average estimate of epipelagic macrozooplankton, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. Biomass is highest in the tropics, decreasing in the sub-tropics and increasing slightly towards the poles. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted in the most part by the lack of information on the size of the organism and/or the absence of taxonomic information. Distribution patterns of global macrozooplankton biomass and statistical information about biomass concentrations may be used to validate biogeochemical models and Plankton Functional Type models. Original dataset http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777398 Gridded dataset http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777398

Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

2012-04-01

13

Abundance, diversity and seasonal succession of dytiscid and noterid beetles (Coleoptera: Adephaga) in two marshes of the Eastern Po Plain (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dytiscid (plus Noteridae) communities of two neighbouring marshes (A and B) in the Eastern plain of the Po river (Italy) was investigated. The two marshes showed similar surface area, plant species and abundance, quantity of detritus, exposure and depth variations. Physical and chemical variables of the two habitats were similar. Phenology curves based on larval and adult water beetles

Giampaolo Bosi

2001-01-01

14

Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA)  

PubMed Central

Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 ± 1949 SD individuals m?3, but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93–96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m?3 and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs. PMID:20046854

Heidelberg, Karla B.; O'Neil, Keri L.; Bythell, John C.; Sebens, Kenneth P.

2010-01-01

15

A global diatom database abundance, biovolume and biomass in the world ocean  

E-print Network

A global diatom database ­ abundance, biovolume and biomass in the world ocean Leblanc1 K LOG, F- 62930 Wimereux, France.} [8]{Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University, Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02- 141 Warszawa, Poland} [11]{Department

Boyer, Edmond

16

Macroinvertebrate Abundance and Biomass: 2007 Data, BPA-51; Preliminary Report, February 10, 2009..  

SciTech Connect

Four Excel files containing information on the 2007 macroinvertebrate data were initially provided to Statistical Consulting Services (SCS) by EcoAnalysts on 1/27/2009. These data files contained information on abundance and biomass data at the level of taxonomic groups. The data were subsequently reformatted and compiled, and aggregated for analysis by SCS. All descriptions and analyses below relate to this compiled data. Computations were carried out separately for each site over all sample periods. Basic summary information for both the abundance and biomass data is presented in Print Out No.2. The 14 sites varied widely in their minimum, mean, maximum and variance values. The number of observations ranged from 10 to 18. Some large abundance values (abundance > 40,000) were noted for sites KR6 and KR13. A more detailed summary of each site is given in Print Out No.3. Site KR3, for example, had a mean abundance of 6914 with a sample size of 17. The variance was 4591991 and the standard error of the mean was 1643. The skewness value, a measure of symmetry for the frequency distribution, was moderately large at 1.29 indicating an asymmetric distribution. Biomass for KR3 had a mean value of 0.87 g/m{sup 2} with 17 observations. The variance was 0.8872 and the standard error was 0.228 g/m{sup 2}. Skewness for biomass was also high at 1.29. Further examination of the quantiles and frequency plots for abundance and biomass also indicate considerable skewness. The stem and leaf diagram (frequency plot) for abundance in KR3 shows most of the data centered on smaller values with a few very large counts. The distribution for biomass has a similar pattern. Statistical tests for normality are significant for both response variables in KR3, thus, the hypothesis that the data originates from a symmetric normal distribution is rejected. Because sample size estimation and statistical inference assume normally distributed data, a transformation of the data is required prior to further analysis. As was the case for previous years, the natural logarithm was chosen as a transformation to mitigate distributional skewness. Abundance and biomass for the remaining sites were also notably skewed, therefore, these data were also log transformed prior to analysis. Summary information for the transformed data (referred to as L-abun and L-bio for abundance and biomass, respectively) are given in Print Out No.4. For site KR3, the logarithmic transformation reduced skewness value for biomass to -0.66. The distributions of abundance and biomass in the other sites also generally showed improvement as well. Hence, all subsequent statistical analyses reported here will be based on the log transformed data.

Holderman, Charles

2009-02-10

17

Microbial abundance and biomass in sediments of the Texas-Louisiana shelf  

E-print Network

MICROBIAL ABUNDANCF. AND BIOMASS IN SEDIMENTS OF THF. TEXAS-LOUISIANA SHELF A Thesis by MARTA ELIZABETH CRUZ-KAEGI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfiument of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Oceanography MICROBIAL ABUNDANCE AND BIOMASS IN SEDIMENTS OF THE TEXAS-LOUISIANA SHELF A Thesis by MARTA ELIZABETH CRUZ-KAEGI Approved as to style and content by: I $7& Gilberl T. Rowe (Chair...

Cruz-Kaegi, Marta Elizabeth

2012-06-07

18

Ground penetrating radar measurements show a spatial relationship between coarse root biomass and soil carbon abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In savanna ecosystems, the dynamics of soil organic carbon are complicated by multiple sources of inputs, created by the coexistance of trees and grasses, and by spatial heterogeneity induced by a patchy vegetation structure. A previous study on the spatial pattern of soil carbon abundance on the Kalahari Transect in Southern Africa found that for savannas with sparse woody cover the semivariogram of soil carbon abundance demonstrates periodicity. It is hypothesized that the periodicity is induced by the patchy spatial distribution of the canopies and root systems of woody plants. We tested this by mapping the abundance of coarse woody roots with ground penetrating radar. Spatial patterns of soil carbon abundance were measured at our research site in a previous study. The site is on the Botswana portion of the Kalahari Transect, and has deep, homogeneous, sandy soil. We ran the ground penetrating radar over three 20 by 20 meter square plots in two perpendicular directions. We filtered the radar images to remove background noise and applied a Hilbert transform to reduce echoes. In each plot, we also dug 20 root biomass sampling pits. Using the sampling pit data, we were able to verify that there is a log-linear relationship (r2 = 0.80) between radar signal return and coarse root biomass in the upper 50 cm of soil. Semivariograms of coarse root biomass inferred from radar returns showed periodicity at similar spatial scales to the periodicity in soil carbon abundance. Our results suggest that the belowground components of woody plants, which may extend well beyond their canopies, exert a stronger influence on soil carbon cycling than the aboveground components, illustrating a key issue with the common practice of dividing arid and semiarid landscapes into "under canopy" and "inter-canopy" components in analyses of soil biogeochemistry. We were able to show that a relationship exists between ground penetrating radar returns and coarse root biomass for dry, sandy soils. However, the large amount of information needed to determine a predictive relationship suggests that ground penetrating radar may be more useful in investigating spatial patterns of root biomass than as a tool for quantifying absolute biomass abundance.

O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Gerlein, C.; Bhattachan, A.

2013-05-01

19

Effects of deforestation on diversity, biomass and function of dung beetles on the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dung beetles play a major role in nutrient cycling in the tropics. While a number of studies have indicated decreasing diversity of dung beetles as a result of deforestation, scant information exists on the implications of this for decomposition. This study compares dung beetle assemblages at forest and deforested sites on the eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes and examines

Finbarr G. Horgan

2005-01-01

20

Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine N2 fixing microorganisms, termed diazotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen (N2) to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences primary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abundances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes) and N2 fixation rates. Biomass conversion factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is limited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geometric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (52-73) Tg N yr-1 and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 2.1 (1.4-3.1) Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (43-150) Tg C from nifH-based abundances. Reporting the arithmetic mean and one standard error instead, these three global estimates are 140 ± 9.2 Tg N yr-1, 18 ± 1.8 Tg C and 590 ± 70 Tg C, respectively. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about ±70%. It was recently established that the most commonly applied method used to measure N2 fixation has underestimated the true rates. As a result, one can expect that future rate measurements will shift the mean N2 fixation rate upward and may result in significantly higher estimates for the global N2 fixation. The evolving database can nevertheless be used to study spatial and temporal distributions and variations of marine N2 fixation, to validate geochemical estimates and to parameterize and validate biogeochemical models, keeping in mind that future rate measurements may rise in the future. The database is stored in PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.774851).

Luo, Y.-W.; Doney, S. C.; Anderson, L. A.; Benavides, M.; Berman-Frank, I.; Bode, A.; Bonnet, S.; Boström, K. H.; Böttjer, D.; Capone, D. G.; Carpenter, E. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Church, M. J.; Dore, J. E.; Falcón, L. I.; Fernández, A.; Foster, R. A.; Furuya, K.; Gómez, F.; Gundersen, K.; Hynes, A. M.; Karl, D. M.; Kitajima, S.; Langlois, R. J.; LaRoche, J.; Letelier, R. M.; Marañón, E.; McGillicuddy, D. J., Jr.; Moisander, P. H.; Moore, C. M.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.; Mulholland, M. R.; Needoba, J. A.; Orcutt, K. M.; Poulton, A. J.; Rahav, E.; Raimbault, P.; Rees, A. P.; Riemann, L.; Shiozaki, T.; Subramaniam, A.; Tyrrell, T.; Turk-Kubo, K. A.; Varela, M.; Villareal, T. A.; Webb, E. A.; White, A. E.; Wu, J.; Zehr, J. P.

2012-08-01

21

Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: abundances, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine N2 fixing microorganisms, termed diazotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen (N2) to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences primary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abundances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes) and N2 fixation rates. Biomass conversion factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is limited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Lower mean N2 fixation rate was found in the North Atlantic Ocean than the Pacific Ocean. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geometric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (53-73) Tg N yr-1 and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 4.7 (2.3-9.6) Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (40-200) Tg C from nifH-based abundances. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about ±70%. This evolving database can be used to study spatial and temporal distributions and variations of marine N2 fixation, to validate geochemical estimates and to parameterize and validate biogeochemical models. The database is stored in PANGAEA (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.774851).

Luo, Y.-W.; Doney, S. C.; Anderson, L. A.; Benavides, M.; Bode, A.; Bonnet, S.; Boström, K. H.; Böttjer, D.; Capone, D. G.; Carpenter, E. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Church, M. J.; Dore, J. E.; Falcón, L. I.; Fernández, A.; Foster, R. A.; Furuya, K.; Gómez, F.; Gundersen, K.; Hynes, A. M.; Karl, D. M.; Kitajima, S.; Langlois, R. J.; Laroche, J.; Letelier, R. M.; Marañón, E.; McGillicuddy, D. J., Jr.; Moisander, P. H.; Moore, C. M.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.; Mulholland, M. R.; Needoba, J. A.; Orcutt, K. M.; Poulton, A. J.; Raimbault, P.; Rees, A. P.; Riemann, L.; Shiozaki, T.; Subramaniam, A.; Tyrrell, T.; Turk-Kubo, K. A.; Varela, M.; Villareal, T. A.; Webb, E. A.; White, A. E.; Wu, J.; Zehr, J. P.

2012-02-01

22

[Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Southern Yellow Sea in winter].  

PubMed

A two cruises investigation on the meiobenthos in the continental shelf of Southern Yellow Sea was made in January 2003 and January 2004. The results showed that the average abundance of meiobenthos was (954.20 +/- 269.47) ind x 10 cm(-2) and ( 1 186.12+/- 486.07) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the biomass was (954.38+/-403.93) microg x10 cm(-2) and (1 120.72+/-487.21 ) mg x 10 cm(-2) in January 2003 and January 2004, respectively, with no significant difference observed. A total of twenty meiobenthic groups were identified. Free-living marine nematodes was the most dominant group in abundance, with a relative dominance of 87% in 2003 and 90% in 2004, followed by benthic harpacticoids copepoda, polychaeta and kinorhyncha. In terms of biomass, the dominant groups were nematoda (34% -38%), polychaeta (25% -33%), ostracoda (9% -22%) and copepoda (8%). 96. 64% of the meiobenthos distributed in the top 0-5 cm of sediment, while 72. 48% of nematode and 89. 46% of copepoda were in the top 0-2 cm of the sediment. Meiobenthos biomass had significant correlation with the sand and silt contents of sediment and the content of Chl-a. The species composition and biodiversity analyses of six representative stations indicated that there were three meiobenthos communities in the study area, i. e. , inshore, cold waters mass, and transitional communities. PMID:17450749

Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-nan; Huang, Yong; Hua, Er

2007-02-01

23

Heterogeneity of macrozoobenthic assemblages within a Zostera noltii seagrass bed: diversity, abundance, biomass and structuring factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrobenthic fauna community of a 70-km 2Zostera noltii seagrass bed (Arcachon bay, France) was studied by sampling 49 stations systematically. A total of 126 taxa were identified. Cluster Analysis based on ?2 distance showed that in this apparently homogeneous habitat, four distinct macrobenthic communities could be identified. Multiple Discriminant Analysis highlighted the major contribution of the overlying water mass as a forcing variable, and, to a lesser extent, of tidal level and Z. noltii's below-ground parts. Seven stations did not constitute any conspicuous group, and were characterized by a low biomass of leaf (<28 g DW m -2), considered as the lowest value to constitute a Z. noltii community. Less than 24% of the seagrass bed was situated in more oceanic waters and at a quite low tidal level. In this relatively stable environment, the macrofauna community was characterized by a high species richness (mean = 39) and a moderate density and high biomass (12?638 individuals m -2 and 25 g AFDW m -2, respectively). Annelids dominated, particularly the oligochaetes. When physical constraints increased (emersion or brackish water conditions), diversity decreased, abundance and biomass increased. The seagrass bed (55%) was flooded with highly fluctuating waters in term of temperature and salinity, here species richness was low (mean = 27) but abundance and biomass were high (24?384 individuals m -2 and 28 g AFDW m -2, respectively), with a dominance of molluscs. The meadow (7%) was in external waters but at a higher tidal level (2.4 m vs 1.8 m above medium low tide level). This community was characterized by the particularly high density (41?826 individuals m -2) and dominance of oligochaetes (79% of total abundance). Species richness was high (mean = 37) here. A fourth community, extending over 12% of the meadow was dominated by the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae but could not be linked to a specific forcing variable. This study confirmed the almost complete replacement of the native clam Ruditapes decussatus by the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum since its introduction in the 1980s.

Blanchet, Hugues; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Lucas, Aurélien; Chardy, Pierre

2004-09-01

24

Soil Nutrient Content Influences the Abundance of Soil Microbes but Not Plant Biomass at the Small-Scale  

PubMed Central

Small-scale heterogeneity of abiotic and biotic factors is expected to play a crucial role in species coexistence. It is known that plants are able to concentrate their root biomass into areas with high nutrient content and also acquire nutrients via symbiotic microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. At the same time, little is known about the small-scale distribution of soil nutrients, microbes and plant biomass occurring in the same area. We examined small-scale temporal and spatial variation as well as covariation of soil nutrients, microbial biomass (using soil fatty acid biomarker content) and above- and belowground biomass of herbaceous plants in a natural herb-rich boreonemoral spruce forest. The abundance of AM fungi and bacteria decreased during the plant growing season while soil nutrient content rather increased. The abundance of all microbes studied also varied in space and was affected by soil nutrient content. In particular, the abundance of AM fungi was negatively related to soil phosphorus and positively influenced by soil nitrogen content. Neither shoot nor root biomass of herbaceous plants showed any significant relationship with variation in soil nutrient content or the abundance of soil microbes. Our study suggests that plants can compensate for low soil phosphorus concentration via interactions with soil microbes, most probably due to a more efficient symbiosis with AM fungi. This compensation results in relatively constant plant biomass despite variation in soil phosphorous content and in the abundance of AM fungi. Hence, it is crucial to consider both soil nutrient content and the abundance of soil microbes when exploring the mechanisms driving vegetation patterns. PMID:24637633

Koorem, Kadri; Gazol, Antonio; Opik, Maarja; Moora, Mari; Saks, Ulle; Uibopuu, Annika; Sober, Virve; Zobel, Martin

2014-01-01

25

Bathymetric patterns of meiofaunal abundance and biomass associated with the Kuril and Ryukyu trenches, western North Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance and biomass of metazoan meiofauna and their relationships with environmental factors [chloroplastic pigment equivalents (CPE) and sediment characteristics] were studied quantitatively around and within the Kuril Trench (560-7090 m) and the Ryukyu Trench (1290-7150 m), which are located in eutrophic and oligotrophic regions, respectively, of the western North Pacific. Faunal abundance and biomass, as well as the CPE content of sediments, were considerably higher in the Kuril region than in the Ryukyu region. In both cases, CPE tended to decrease with water depth, but relatively high values were found in the deepest areas, suggesting that organic matter has accumulated in both trenches. Meiofaunal abundance and biomass were lower than expected from sediment CPE values at hadal stations below 6000 m. Differences in the density and biomass of meiofauna between these two trenches appeared to reflect differences in overall ocean productivity above them. When the analysis was restricted to each region, however, no association was found between the abundance and biomass of meiofauna and food availability. Furthermore, the factors regulating the bathymetric patterns in these meiofaunal parameters appeared to differ between the two trenches.

Itoh, Makoto; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Kitahashi, Tomo; Kojima, Shigeaki; Katagiri, Hideki; Shimanaga, Motohiro

2011-01-01

26

Dung Beetle Community and Functions along a Habitat-Disturbance Gradient in the Amazon: A Rapid Assessment of Ecological Functions Associated to Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

Braga, Rodrigo F.; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

2013-01-01

27

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE, BIOMASS AND FEEDING OF SHORE BIRDS ON SANDY BEACHES IN THE EASTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

McLachlan, A., Woodridge, T., Schramm, M. & Kühn, M. 1980. Seasonal abundance, biomass and feeding of shore birds on sandy beaches in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Ostrich 51:44-52.The numbers of birds on three Eastern Cape sandy beaches were monitored monthly over one year during 1977\\/78. Dominant among 17 species were the Southern Blackbacked Gull Larus dominicanus, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus

A. McLachlan; T. Wooldridge; M. Schramm; M. Kühn

1980-01-01

28

Woodpeckers increase in abundance but maintain fecundity in response to an outbreak of mountain pine bark beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many temperate woodpecker species are thought to be highly conservative in their fecundity with little response to fluctuations in availability of resources. In a 15-year field study in interior British Columbia, we evaluated responses in abundance and fecundity of six species of resident and migrant woodpeckers (downy woodpecker [Picoides pubescens], hairy woodpecker [Picoides villosus], American three-toed woodpecker [Picoides dorsalis], pileated

Amanda B. Edworthy; Mark C. Drever; Kathy Martin

2011-01-01

29

Impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on abundance and species richness of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on the abundance and species richness of carabids were studied in the Bükk National Park in Hungary, central Eu- rope. Pitfall catches from recently established (5 yr old), young (15 yr after planting), middle-aged (30 yr after planting), old Norway spruce Picea abies plantation (50 yr after planting), and a native submontane beech

Z. Elek; T. Magura; B. Tóthmérész

2001-01-01

30

Influences of the Tamarisk Leaf Beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on the diet of insectivorous birds along the Dolores River in Southwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of a biologic control agent, the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), on native avifauna in southwestern Colorado, specifically, addressing whether and to what degree birds eat tamarisk leaf beetles. In 2010, we documented avian foraging behavior, characterized the arthropod community, sampled bird diets, and undertook an experiment to determine whether tamarisk leaf beetles are palatable to birds. We observed that tamarisk leaf beetles compose 24.0 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 19.9-27.4 percent) and 35.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 32.4-45.1 percent) of arthropod abundance and biomass in the study area, respectively. Birds ate few tamarisk leaf beetles, despite a superabundance of D. carinulata in the environment. The frequency of occurrence of tamarisk leaf beetles in bird diets was 2.1 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 1.3- 2.9 percent) by abundance and 3.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 2.6-4.2 percent) by biomass. Thus, tamarisk leaf beetles probably do not contribute significantly to the diets of birds in areas where biologic control of tamarisk is being applied.

Puckett, Sarah L.; van Riper, Charles, III

2014-01-01

31

Temporal changes of abundance, biomass and production of copepod community in a shallow temperate estuary (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study reports on temporal changes of abundance, biomass and secondary production of the copepod community of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Zooplankton sampling and hydrological measurements (salinity, temperature, chlorophyll a and nutrients concentrations) were conducted at four occasions (June 2000, September 2000, December 2000 and March 2001), at 6 sampling stations and during ebb and flood. The contribution of copepods (from nauplius to adults) to the total abundance and biomass of the zooplankton community of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) was equal to 63.6% and 62.0%, respectively (annual average). The estimate of nauplius abundance given by two zooplankton nets with different meshes was significantly different ( P < 0.001) with the 64 ?m net collecting 13.9 times more than the 125 ?m one. No significant differences were found for copepodites and adults. The abundance of all development stages (except adults) was positively correlated ( P < 0.05) with salinity and temperature. The seasonal patterns of abundance and biomass were similar to those found in other temperate coastal waters. Mean daily secondary production rate (mean ± SE) estimated by the Huntley and Lopez growth model [Huntley, M.E., Lopez, M.D.G., 1992. Temperature-dependent production of marine copepods: a global synthesis. American Naturalist 140, 201-242] was 22% higher than the value given by the application of the Hirst and Bunker model [Hirst, A.G., Bunker, A.J., 2003. Growth of marine planktonic copepods: global rates and patterns in relation to chlorophyll a, temperature, and body weight. Limnology and Oceanography 48, 1988-2010]: 3.71 ± 0.540 and 2.90 ± 0.422 mg C m -3 d -1, respectively.

Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Morgado, Fernando; Pereira, Fábio; Queiroga, Henrique

2007-08-01

32

Composition, abundance, biomass, and production of macrofauna in a New England estuary: comparisons among eelgrass meadows and other nursery habitats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative suction sampling was used to characterize and compare the species composition, abundance, biomass, and secondary production of macrofauna inhabiting intertidal mudflat and sandflat, eelgrass meadow, and saltmarshpool habitats in the Nauset Marsh complex, Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA). Species richness and abundance were often greatest in eelgrass habitat, as was macroinvertebrate biomass and production. Most striking was the five to fifteen times greater rate of annual macrofaunal production in eelgrass habitat than elsewhere, with values ranging from approximately 23139 g AFDW m super(2) yr super(1). The marsh pool containing widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) supported surprisingly low numbers of macroinvertebrates, probably due to stressfully low dissolved oxygen levels at night during the summer. Two species of macroinvertebrates, blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and to a lesser extent bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), used eelgrass as 'nursery habitat.' Calculations showed that macroinvertebrate production is proportionally much greater than the amount of primary production attributable to eelgrass in the Nauset Marsh system, and that dramatic changes at all trophic levels could be expected if large changes in seagrass abundance should occur. This work further underscores the extraordinarily large impact that seagrass can have on both the structure and function of estuarine ecosystems.

Heck, K.L., Jr.; Able, K.W.; Roman, C.T.; Fahay, M.P.

1995-01-01

33

Ambrosia beetle habitat use, host use, and influence on early wood colonizing microbes in an oak-hickory forest .  

E-print Network

??Knowledge of how exotic ambrosia beetles influence microbe communities and how forest characteristics affect ambrosia beetle abundance will improve policy and management decision. This study… (more)

Reed, Sharon E., 1977-

2010-01-01

34

Spatial-temporal scales of synchrony in marine zooplankton biomass and abundance patterns: A world-wide comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale synchrony in the fluctuations of abundance or biomass of marine fish populations in regions on opposite sides of an ocean basin or in different oceans have been viewed as externally forced by correlated environmental stochasticity (e.g., common external forcing), most often as atmospheric teleconnections of basin-to-global scale atmospheric forcing, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Specific causal mechanisms have been difficult to unequivocally discover, but possible mechanisms include influences on habitat temperatures, productivity operating through bottom-up (trophodynamic) mechanisms or direct climate influence on the fish populations (top-down mechanisms). For small pelagic fishes (sardines and anchovies) in widely separated large marine ecosystems that lack obvious ocean interconnectivity, it has been argued that the teleconnections may be atmospheric, acting on the fishes directly and propagating to the ecosystem from the middle out (wasp-waist species). Zooplankton biomass or abundance time series data from >100 sites world-wide are used to examine the spatial scales of coherent temporal synchrony. If spatially correlated environmental factors (like climate) are important for creating synchrony in fish populations via bottom-up effects (trophic interactions involving fish prey, e.g., zooplankton), then we would expect to observe synchrony in fluctuations of zooplankton biomass/numbers at spatial scales similar to those found for fish species. Zooplankton biomass/abundance have 50% spatial decorrelation scales of ca. 700-1400 km and scales of significant coherence that extend to separation distances of ca. 3000 km. These are also the spatial scales of environmental (sea surface temperature) synchrony from our global analysis. These scales are slightly greater than the 50% decorrelation scales of ca. 150-700 km for recruitment synchrony in Atlantic marine fish and survival and recruitment synchrony of Northeast Pacific salmonids (150-1000 km depending on species). However, the spatial scales of synchrony of annual zooplankton biomass anomalies in the Humboldt Current, California Current and Kuroshio ecosystems of the Pacific are much too small (ca. 2000 km) to be directly causal of the basin-scale (7000-15,000 km) synchrony exhibited by sardine and/or anchovy populations in those ecosystems.

Batchelder, Harold P.; Mackas, David L.; O'Brien, Todd D.

2012-05-01

35

13C and 15N natural abundance of the soil microbial biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool in the study of soil organic matter formation. It is often observed that more decomposed soil organic matter is 13C, and especially 15N-enriched relative to fresh litter and recent organic matter. We investigated whether this shift in isotope composition relates to the isotope composition of the microbial biomass, an important source for soil

Paul Dijkstra; Ayaka Ishizu; Richard Doucett; Stephen C. Hart; Egbert Schwartz; Oleg V. Menyailo; Bruce A. Hungate

2006-01-01

36

Abundance and biomass responses of microbial food web components to hydrology and environmental gradients within a floodplain of the River Danube.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships of time-dependent hydrological variability and selected microbial food web components. Samples were collected monthly from the Kopa?ki Rit floodplain in Croatia, over a period of 19 months, for analysis of bacterioplankton abundance, cell size and biomass; abundance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and nanophytoplankton; and concentration of chlorophyll a. Similar hydrological variability at different times of the year enabled partition of seasonal effects from hydrological changes on microbial community properties. The results suggested that, unlike some other studies investigating sites with different connectivity, bacterioplankton abundance, and phytoplankton abundance and biomass increased during lentic conditions. At increasing water level, nanophytoplankton showed lower sensitivity to disturbance in comparison with total phytoplankton biomass: this could prolong autotrophic conditions within the floodplain. Bacterioplankton biomass, unlike phytoplankton, was not impacted by hydrology. The bacterial biomass less affected by hydrological changes can be an important additional food component for the floodplain food web. The results also suggested a mechanism controlling bacterial cell size independent of hydrology, as bacterial cell size was significantly decreased as nanoflagellate abundance increased. Hydrology, regardless of seasonal sucession, has the potential to structure microbial food webs, supporting microbial development during lentic conditions. Conversely, other components appear unaffected by hydrology or may be more strongly controlled by biotic interactions. This research, therefore, adds to understanding on microbial food web interactions in the context of flood and flow pulses in river-floodplain ecosystems. PMID:22327270

Palijan, Goran

2012-07-01

37

Biomass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, part of a site about the future of energy, introduces students to the use of biomass as an energy source. Biomass is defined, and students are presented with examples of biomass sources that can supply energy. Information is also provided about the benefits, limitations, and geographical considerations of using biomass. A sidebar offers links to other articles and information on the site that relate to biomass as an energy source. Three of these articles discuss the use of oak hulls, recycled French fry grease, and burnt switch grass as fuel. The article also provides annotated links to external materials about topics such as ethanol, biomass statistics, and the storage of excess carbon dioxide at the bottom of the ocean.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

38

Abundance and dynamics of filamentous fungi in the complex ambrosia gardens of the primitively eusocial beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).  

PubMed

Insect fungus gardens consist of a community of interacting microorganisms that can have either beneficial or detrimental effects to the farmers. In contrast to fungus-farming ants and termites, the fungal communities of ambrosia beetles and the effects of particular fungal species on the farmers are largely unknown. Here, we used a laboratory rearing technique for studying the filamentous fungal garden community of the ambrosia beetle, Xyleborinus saxesenii, which cultivates fungi in tunnels excavated within dead trees. Raffaelea sulfurea and Fusicolla acetilerea were transmitted in spore-carrying organs by gallery founding females and established first in new gardens. Raffaelea sulfurea had positive effects on egg-laying and larval numbers. Over time, four other fungal species emerged in the gardens. Prevalence of one of them, Paecilomyces variotii, correlated negatively with larval numbers and can be harmful to adults by forming biofilms on their bodies. It also comprised the main portion of garden material removed from galleries by adults. Our data suggest that two mutualistic, several commensalistic and one to two pathogenic filamentous fungi are associated with X. saxesenii. Fungal diversity in gardens of ambrosia beetles appears to be much lower than that in gardens of fungus-culturing ants, which seems to result from essential differences in substrates and behaviours. PMID:23057948

Biedermann, Peter H W; Klepzig, Kier D; Taborsky, Michael; Six, Diana L

2013-03-01

39

Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution  

PubMed Central

The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future. PMID:24062759

Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

2013-01-01

40

Influence of hydrological seasonality on sandbank benthos: algal biomass and shrimp abundance in a large neotropical river  

E-print Network

in the Cinaruco were driven by the hydrological regime. During the highwater periods, river sites in the main channel and lagoon sites were similar in water physicochemical variables and algal biomass. In contrast, physicochemical variables and algal biomass...

Montoya Ceballos, Jose Vicente

2009-05-15

41

Interannual and seasonal variation of the population structure, abundance, and biomass of the arctic copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of multiyear observations of the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the population structure, abundance, and biomass of the arctic calanoids copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea are presented. The spring season represents the most crucial period for the population’s seasonal dynamics. During the spring, the maximal abundance, biomass, and contribution of C. glacialis to the total zooplankton biomass is observed. The interannual variability of the abundance is closely related to the timing of the spring warming of the upper water column and the respective shifts of the onset of reproduction and the offspring development. The development of a new generation to the overwintering copepodite stage IV is usually completed three to four weeks later in the cold years compared to the warm ones. Our multiyear observations suggest that C. glacialis could be more tolerant of Arctic warming than it is usually believed. The high abundance of the C. glacialis population in the White Sea indicates that this arctic species is able to cope with the seasonal surface warming and should continue to do so, being provided with the cold water “refuge” in the deep sea.

Pertsova, N. M.; Kosobokova, K. N.

2010-08-01

42

Annual variations in biochemical composition of size fractionated particulate matter and zooplankton abundance and biomass in Mersin Bay, NE Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal changes in biochemical composition of different particle size classes (pico-, nano- and micro-particulate matter) and the zooplankton abundance and biomass were studied in NE Mediterranean between November 2004 and January 2006. Sampling was carried out at monthly intervals from two stations representing coastal and open water characteristics. Dominance of size fractions showed seasonal variations in each biochemical component but on annual average pico size fraction predominated and accounted for ? 40% of the chl-a and particulate organic matter (protein + lipid + carbohydrate) concentrations. At most of the sampling periods protein:carbohydrate ratio was < 1 at the stations revealed that the studied area was under the nutrient limitation, and nutrient deficiency was severe especially for nano size fraction. On annual average, total zooplankton abundance were 4968 ± 3538 and 603 ± 368 ind. m - 3 , and total biomass were 22 ± 19 and 3 ± 1 mg m - 3 at stations 1 and 2, respectively. 200-500 and 112-200 µm size fractions were dominant in zooplankton abundance at both stations. Similarly, 200-500 µm size fraction was dominant in zooplankton biomass at the coastal, whereas > 1000 µm size fraction was at the open station. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton group and determine the distribution of total zooplankton followed by crustacean nauplii, appendicularia, and cladocera.

Y?lmaz, Arife Zenginer; Besiktepe, Sengul

2010-05-01

43

RNA-sequencing analysis reveals abundant developmental stage-specific and immunity-related genes in the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus.  

PubMed

The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) is a major pest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and other cruciferous crops in Europe. Pesticide-resistant pollen beetle populations are emerging, increasing the economic impact of this species. We isolated total RNA from the larval and adult stages, the latter either naïve or immunized by injection with bacteria and yeast. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was carried out to establish a comprehensive transcriptome catalogue and to screen for developmental stage-specific and immunity-related transcripts. We assembled the transcriptome de novo by combining sequence tags from all developmental stages and treatments. Gene expression data based on normalized read counts revealed several functional gene categories that were differentially expressed between larvae and adults, particularly genes associated with digestion and detoxification that were induced in larvae, and genes associated with reproduction and environmental signalling that were induced in adults. We also identified many genes associated with microbe recognition, immunity-related signalling and defence effectors, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes. Digital gene expression analysis revealed significant differences in the profile of AMPs expressed in larvae, naïve adults and immune-challenged adults, providing insight into the steady-state differences between developmental stages and the complex transcriptional remodelling that occurs following the induction of immunity. Our data provide insight into the adaptive mechanisms used by phytophagous insects and could lead to the development of more effective control strategies for insect pests. PMID:24252113

Vogel, H; Badapanda, C; Knorr, E; Vilcinskas, A

2014-02-01

44

Effects of the abundance of spawning sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) on nutrients and algal biomass in forested streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used natural variation in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawner biomass among sites and years in three undisturbed, forested watersheds in interior British Columbia to test the hypotheses that salmon were a major source of particulate organic matter inputs to the streams and that carcass biomass determined stream-water nutrient concentrations and epilithic algal production. Sockeye carcasses were retained at the

N. T. Johnston; E. A. MacIsaac; P. J. Tschaplinski; K. J. Hall

2004-01-01

45

Predaceous Ground Beetles  

E-print Network

Predaceous Ground Beetles Caterpillar Hunters and Bombardier Beetles Rick Minzenmayer, Extension Agent-IPM Chris Sansone, Extension Entomologist Texas Cooperative Extension genus Calosoma, a brightly colored ground beetle. Some species are called...Predaceous Ground Beetles Caterpillar Hunters and Bombardier Beetles Rick Minzenmayer, Extension Agent-IPM Chris Sansone, Extension Entomologist Texas Cooperative Extension genus Calosoma, a brightly colored ground beetle. Some species are called...

Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

2003-06-30

46

Striped Cucumber Beetle Introduction  

E-print Network

Striped Cucumber Beetle Introduction The Striped Cucumber Beetle (SCB), Acalymma vittattum (Fab for chemical control. Chemical control Hundreds of products are registered to control SCB. Organic gardeners

New Hampshire, University of

47

Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada.  

PubMed

Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus(Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

Work, Timothy T; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

2013-01-01

48

Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

2014-01-01

49

Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: implications for prey fish sustainability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stocking levels of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for Lake Ontario have been highly controversial since the early 1990s, largely because of uncertainties about lakewide abundance and rates of prey consumption. Previous estimates have focused on years before 1995; since then, however, the Lake Ontario ecosystem has undergone substantial changes, and there is new evidence of extensive natural recruitment. Presented here are new abundance estimates of Chinook salmon and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario and a reevaluation of the potential risk of alewife population collapse. We found that Lake Ontario has been supporting, on average (1989–2005), 1.83 × 106 (range, 1.08 × 106 to 3.24 × 106) Chinook salmon of ages 1–4, amounting to a mean annual biomass of 11.33 × 103 metric tons (range, 5.83 × 103 to 23.04 × 103 metric tons). During the same period (1989–2005), the lake supported an alewife biomass of 173.66 × 103 metric tons (range, 62.37 × 103 to 345.49 × 103 metric tons); Chinook salmon of ages 1–4 consumed, on average, 22% (range, 11–44%) of the alewife biomass annually. Because our estimates probably underestimate total consumption and because Chinook salmon are only one of several salmonine species that depend on alewives, predation pressure on the Lake Ontario alewife population may be high enough to raise concerns about long-term stability of this predator–prey system.

Murry, Brent A.; Connerton, Michael J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Stewart, Donald J.; Ringlerd, Neil H.

2010-01-01

50

Effects of soil tillage and management of crop residues on soil properties: abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms, soil structure and nutrient evolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The living soil is represented by soil biota that interacts with aboveground biota and with the abiotic environment, soil structure, soil reaction, organic matter, nutrient contents, aso. Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is an important issue to conciliate soil quality and agricultural productivity. Earthworms are key actors in soil structure formation through the production of casts and the incorporation of soil organic matter in the soil. Research is still needed about the interactive effects of various tillage and crop residue management practices on earthworm populations and physical and chemical properties of soil. To investigate the impacts of two tillage management systems and two cropping systems on earthworm populations, soil structure evolution and nutrient dynamics, we carried out a three years study in an experimental field. The aims of this experimentation, were to assess the effects of the tillage systems (ploughing versus reduced tillage) and the availability of crop residues (export versus no export) on (i) the abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms, on the soil structure and on the temporal variation of water extractable nutrients and organic carbon. The first results show that tillage management did significantly affect earthworm abundance and biomass. However, crop residue management did not affect abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms. Regarding soil physical properties, the tillage affected the compaction profiles within the top 30cm. The analysis of nutrient and organic carbon dynamics show divergent trends (decrease of calcium and magnesium, increase of hot water extractable carbon and phosphorus…) but no clear effect of the studied factors could be identified. The question of the initial soil variability raised as a crucial point in the discussion.

lemtiri, Aboulkacem

2013-04-01

51

Movement patterns of Cetonia beetles (Scarabaeidae) among flowering Viburnum opulus (Caprifoliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement patterns of flower-visiting Cetonia (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) were studied in central Sweden over 4 years, providing the first quantitative study of beetle pollination behaviour conducted in a temperate zone. The beetles were marked individually and tracked throughout their visits to Viburnum opulus L. (Caprifoliaceae), a partly beetle-pollinated shrub displaying large umbel-like, creamy-white blossoms. Beetle abundance differed greatly between study

Roger Englund

1993-01-01

52

Investigating the association of fish abundance and biomass with cold-water corals in the deep Northeast Atlantic Ocean using a generalised linear modelling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water corals (CWC) can form complex three-dimensional structures that can support a diverse macro- and megafaunal community. These reef structures provide important biogenic habitats that can act as refuge, feeding, spawning and nursery areas for fish. However, quantitative data assessing the linkage between CWC and fish are scarce. The North Atlantic Ocean is a key region in the worldwide distribution of Lophelia pertusa, which is thought to be the most widespread frame-work forming cold-water coral species in the world. This study examined the relationship between fish and CWC reefs in the northeast Atlantic Ocean by means of video and remotely sensed data from three different CWC communities (Rockall Bank, Hatton Bank and the Belgica Mound Province). Using a tethered camera system, 37 transects were recorded during a period of 8 years. Fish-coral association was investigated using a generalised linear modelling (GLM) approach. Overall, Lepidion eques was the most abundant fish species present (143 ind. ha-1). Other common species were Sigmops bathyphilus (17 ind. ha-1), Synaphobranchus kaupii (15 ind. ha-1), Helicolenus dactylopterus (16 ind. ha-1) and Mora moro (7 ind. ha-1). The highest fish biomass was measured for Lophius piscatorius (26.3 kg ha-1). Other species with a high biomass were Helicolenus dactylopterus (4.3 kg ha-1), Lepidion eques (13.2 kg ha-1) and Mora moro (7.8 kg ha-1). Overall, no significant difference in fish abundance and biomass was found at coral framework habitats compared to non-coral areas. The relationship between fish and coral framework varied among fish species and study site. Fish count and length modelling results showed that terrain variables explain a small proportion of the variation of our data. Depth, coral-framework and terrain rugosity were generally the most important explanatory variables, but this varied with species and study site.

Biber, Matthias F.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Davies, Andrew J.; Bergman, Magda J. N.; van den Beld, Inge M. J.

2014-01-01

53

The influence of forest stand and site characteristics on the composition of exotic dominated ambrosia beetle communities (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

PubMed

Economic and biological consequences are associated with exotic ambrosia beetles and their fungal associates. Despite this, knowledge of ambrosia beetles and their ecological interactions remain poorly understood, especially in the oak-hickory forest region. We examined how forest stand and site characteristics influenced ambrosia beetle habitat use as evaluated by species richness and abundance of ambrosia beetles, both the native component and individual exotic species. We documented the species composition of the ambrosia beetle community, flight activity, and habitat use over a 2-yr period by placing flight traps in regenerating clearcuts and older oak-hickory forest stands differing in topographic aspect. The ambrosia beetle community consisted of 20 species with exotic ambrosia beetle species dominating the community. Similar percentages of exotic ambrosia beetles occurred among the four forest habitats despite differences in stand age and aspect. Stand characteristics, such as stand age and forest structure, influenced ambrosia beetle richness and the abundances of a few exotic ambrosia beetle species and the native ambrosia beetle component. Topographic aspect had little influence on ambrosia beetle abundance or species richness. Older forests typically have more host material than younger forests and our results may be related to the amount of dead wood present. Different forms of forest management may not alter the percent contribution of exotic ambrosia beetles to the ambrosia beetle community. PMID:22546443

Reed, Sharon E; Muzika, R M

2010-10-01

54

A comparative study of the mollusc communities of two oligohaline intertidal marshes: Spatial and temporal distribution of abundance and biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molluscs were collected monthly for a year from two low salinity (0–9‰) intertidal marshes dominated by the macrophytesJuncus roemerianus orSpartina cynosuroides in St. Louis Bay, Mississippi. TheJuncus marsh had lower soil organic matter, higher pH and was more frequently inundated than theSpartina marsh. Eight species of gastropods were abundant and dominated in the higherSpartina marsh, while three bivalve species were

T. Dale Bishop; Courtney T. Hackney

1987-01-01

55

Elm Leaf Beetle  

E-print Network

Elm leaf beetles damage all varieties of elm trees. Learn how to identify this insect and understand its biology and life cycle. There are suggestions for controlling elm leaf beetles, as well as a table of insecticides effective against...

Patrick, Carl D.

2002-05-22

56

Spatial variation in abundance, size and orientation of juvenile corals related to the biomass of parrotfishes on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  

PubMed

For species with complex life histories such as scleractinian corals, processes occurring early in life can greatly influence the number of individuals entering the adult population. A plethora of studies have examined settlement patterns of coral larvae, mostly on artificial substrata, and the composition of adult corals across multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, relatively few studies have examined the spatial distribution of small (?50 mm diameter) sexually immature corals on natural reef substrata. We, therefore, quantified the variation in the abundance, composition and size of juvenile corals (?50 mm diameter) among 27 sites, nine reefs, and three latitudes spanning over 1000 km on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Overall, 2801 juveniles were recorded with a mean density of 6.9 (±0.3 SE) ind.m(-2), with Acropora, Pocillopora, and Porites accounting for 84.1% of all juvenile corals surveyed. Size-class structure, orientation on the substrate and taxonomic composition of juvenile corals varied significantly among latitudinal sectors. The abundance of juvenile corals varied both within (6-13 ind.m(-2)) and among reefs (2.8-11.1 ind.m(-2)) but was fairly similar among latitudes (6.1-8.2 ind.m(-2)), despite marked latitudinal variation in larval supply and settlement rates previously found at this scale. Furthermore, the density of juvenile corals was negatively correlated with the biomass of scraping and excavating parrotfishes across all sites, revealing a potentially important role of parrotfishes in determining distribution patterns of juvenile corals on the Great Barrier Reef. While numerous studies have advocated the importance of parrotfishes for clearing space on the substrate to facilitate coral settlement, our results suggest that at high biomass they may have a detrimental effect on juvenile coral assemblages. There is, however, a clear need to directly quantify rates of mortality and growth of juvenile corals to understand the relative importance of these mechanisms in shaping juvenile, and consequently adult, coral assemblages. PMID:23469067

Trapon, Melanie L; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S

2013-01-01

57

Sikes Tiger Beetle Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

735 tiger beetle specimens in the post-1980 University of Connecticut Insect Collection are sorted by species and month of collection.Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) 1996-1998 Derek S. Sikes (1999) Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae)1996-1998 Conservation status, Taxonomy and Ecology. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. University of Connecticut. Storrs, CT 06269

Ethel Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2009-01-10

58

Mountain Pine Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan has students working in small groups to research the Mountain Pine Beetle in Colorado and other inter-mountain Western states. Students identify the factors that control pine beetle population and research how warmer winters and decreasing spring snowpack allow the population of pine beetles to expand.

Barker, Melissa; Moulton, Jim; Keith, Barbara; Manning, Cheryl; Learnmoreaboutclimate, University of Colorado, Boulder

59

Comparative water relations of adult and juvenile tortoise beetles: differences among sympatric species.  

PubMed

Relative abundance of two sympatric tortoise beetles varies between drought and 'wet' years. Differing abilities to conserve water may influence beetle survival in changing environments. Cuticular permeability (CP), percentage of total body water (%TBW), rate of water loss and percentage of body lipid content were determined for five juvenile stages and female and male adults of two sympatric species of chrysomelid beetles, the golden tortoise beetle, Charidotella bicolor (F.) and the mottled tortoise beetle, Deloyala guttata (Olivier). There were significant differences in %TBW and lipid content among juvenile stages. Second instars had the greatest difference in CP (37.98 and 11.13 microgcm(-2)h(-1)mmHg(-1) for golden and mottled tortoise beetles, respectively). Mottled tortoise beetles had lower CP and greater %TBW compared with golden tortoise beetles, suggesting that they can conserve a greater amount of water and may tolerate drier environmental conditions. This study suggests that juvenile response to environmental water stress may differentially affect the survival of early instars and thus affect the relative abundance of adult beetles in the field. This is supported by the low relative abundance of golden tortoise beetle larvae in a drought year and the higher abundance in two 'wet' years. PMID:12890552

Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Appel, Arthur G; Eubanks, Micky D

2003-08-01

60

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

61

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in RealPlayer, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Ecducation, Johns H.; Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

62

Methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene abundance correlates with activity measurements of methanogenic H? /CO? -enriched anaerobic biomass.  

PubMed

Biologically produced methane (CH?) from anaerobic digesters is a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, but digester failure can be a serious problem. Monitoring the microbial community within the digester could provide valuable information about process stability because this technology is dependent upon the metabolic processes of microorganisms. A healthy methanogenic community is critical for digester function and CH? production. Methanogens can be surveyed and monitored using genes and transcripts of mcrA, which encodes the ? subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase - the enzyme that catalyses the final step in methanogenesis. Using clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared the diversity and abundance of mcrA genes and transcripts in four different methanogenic hydrogen/CO? enrichment cultures to function, as measured by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays using H? /CO? . The mcrA gene copy number significantly correlated with CH? production rates using H? /CO? , while correlations between mcrA transcript number and SMA were not significant. The DNA and cDNA clone libraries from all enrichments were distinctive but community diversity also did not correlate with SMA. Although hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated these enrichments, the results indicate that this methodology should be applicable to monitoring other methanogenic communities in anaerobic digesters. Ultimately, this could lead to the engineering of digester microbial communities to produce more CH? for use as renewable fuel. PMID:24320083

Morris, Rachel; Schauer-Gimenez, Anne; Bhattad, Ujwal; Kearney, Colleen; Struble, Craig A; Zitomer, Daniel; Maki, James S

2014-01-01

63

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Background  

E-print Network

the juvenile stage to the adult stage. The Darkling Beetle (Tenebrio molitor) undergoes eggs, each of which contains a beetle embryo. Beetle larvae, called mealworms, hatch out of the eggs. The larvae grow for several months, periodically

Rose, Michael R.

64

Bark beetle effects on fuel profiles across a range of stand structures in Douglas-fir forests of Greater Yellowstone.  

PubMed

Consequences of bark beetle outbreaks for forest wildfire potential are receiving heightened attention, but little research has considered ecosystems with mixed-severity fire regimes. Such forests are widespread, variable in stand structure, and often fuel limited, suggesting that beetle outbreaks could substantially alter fire potentials. We studied canopy and surface fuels in interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii v. glauca) forests in Greater Yellowstone, Wyoming, USA, to determine how fuel characteristics varied with time since outbreak of the Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae). We sampled five stands in each of four outbreak stages, validated for pre-outbreak similarity: green (undisturbed), red (1-3 yr), gray (4-14 yr), and silver (25-30 yr). General linear models were used to compare variation in fuel profiles associated with outbreak to variation associated with the range of stand structures (dense mesic forest to open xeric parkland) characteristic of interior Douglas-fir forest. Beetle outbreak killed 38-83% of basal area within stands, generating a mix of live trees and snags over several years. Canopy fuel load and bulk density began declining in the red stage via needle drop and decreased by approximately 50% by the silver stage. The dead portion of available canopy fuels peaked in the red stage at 41%. After accounting for background variation, there was little effect of beetle outbreak on surface fuels, with differences mainly in herbaceous biomass (50% greater in red stands) and coarse woody fuels (doubled in silver stands). Within-stand spatial heterogeneity of fuels increased with time since outbreak, and surface-to-crown continuity decreased and remained low because of slow/sparse regeneration. Collectively, results suggest reduced fire potentials in post-outbreak stands, particularly for crown fire after the red stage, although abundant coarse fuels in silver stands may increase burn residence time and heat release. Outbreak effects on fuels were comparable to background variation in stand structure. The net effect of beetle outbreak was to shift the structure of mnsic closed-canopy stands toward that of parklands, and to shift xeric parklands toward very sparse woodlands. This study highlights the importance of evaluating outbreak effects in the context of the wide structural variation inherent to many forest types in the absence of beetle disturbance. PMID:23495632

Donato, Daniel C; Harvey, Brian J; Romme, William H; Simard, Martin; Turner, Monica G

2013-01-01

65

Organizing the beetle files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When biologists set out to organize the family tree for the huge family of beetles, they ended up identifying previously unknown relationships for many of the beetle groups -- somewhat like finding new cousins -- and re-defining the major families, new research shows.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2007-12-20

66

The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

Kramer, David C.

1988-01-01

67

Spider BeetleS American spider beetle, Mezium americanum  

E-print Network

adult is from 1.5 to 3.5 millimeters in length and has a dark reddish-brown to black, shiny, globular beenreportedtofeedandreproduceonawidevarietyoffoodstuffs, including almonds, animal skins, beans, books, bones, brushes, cacao, cereals, chocolate powder,rye,seeds,silk,stuffedbirds,textilefabrics,variousspices, wheat, and wool. Spider beetles prefer to forage at night or in dark locations and are consequently

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

68

Comparative water relations of adult and juvenile tortoise beetles: differences among sympatric species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative abundance of two sympatric tortoise beetles varies between drought and ‘wet’ years. Differing abilities to conserve water may influence beetle survival in changing environments. Cuticular permeability (CP), percentage of total body water (%TBW), rate of water loss and percentage of body lipid content were determined for five juvenile stages and female and male adults of two sympatric species of

Helen M Hull-Sanders; Arthur G Appel; Micky D Eubanks

2003-01-01

69

Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (?=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (?=0.50), polychaetes (?=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (?=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves, gastropods and polychaetes) were compared with gray whale and walrus distribution as described by sightings from the 2009 and 2010 aerial survey component of COMIDA. In general, concentrations of walruses and their prey occurred in a swath located south of Hanna Shoal and on the shoal itself although the large differences in sea-ice distribution between the two study years showed that walrus distributions were closely linked to sea-ice location. Other areas within Barrow Canyon and the shelf west of the canyon showed high concentrations of benthic amphipods that were coincident with gray whale sightings as quantified by COMIDA aerial surveys. Overall, data collected on this project indicate that the Northeast Chukchi Sea supports a highly productive and diverse benthic ecosystem that is of significant importance to higher trophic level megafauna.

Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

2014-04-01

70

Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009)  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the changes of ground beetle assemblages in the last few decades in the Alps, and different responses to climate change of animal populations living above and below the treeline have not been estimated yet. This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites in Italy, the Paneveggio Regional Park. We compared the ground beetle (Carabidae) populations sampled in 1980 in six stands below and above the treeline (1650–2250 m a.s.l.) with those sampled in the same sites almost 30 years later (2008/9). Quantitative data (species richness and abundance) have been compared by means of several diversity indexes and with a new index, the Index of Rank-abundance Change (IRC). Our work shows that species richness and abundance have changed after almost 30 years as a consequence of local extinctions, uphill increment of abundance and uphill shift of distribution range. The overall species number dropped from 36 to 27, while in the sites above the treeline, species richness and abundance changed more than in the forest sites. Two microtherm characteristic species of the pioneer cushion grass mats, Nebria germari and Trechus dolomitanus, became extinct or showed strong abundance reduction. In Nardetum pastures, several hygrophilic species disappeared, and xerophilic zoophytophagous elements raised their population density. In forest ecosystems, the precipitation reduction caused deep soil texture and watering changes, driving a transformation from Sphagnum-rich (peaty) to humus-rich soil, and as a consequence, soil invertebrate biomass strongly increased and thermophilic carabids enriched the species structure. In three decades, Carabid assemblages changed consistently with the hypothesis that climate change is one of the main factors triggering natural environment modifications. Furthermore, the level of human disturbance could enhance the sensitivity of mountain ecosystems to climate change. PMID:24834326

Pizzolotto, Roberto; Gobbi, Mauro; Brandmayr, Pietro

2014-01-01

71

Beetles in Textiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 1994 article by Victoria Rivers, Professor of Textiles at University of California (Davis), is about the fascinating and exquisite use of beetle parts, especially iridescent beetle wings, in textiles. Many entomologists will not be familiar with this aspect of the use of insects and will find the article delightful. The article explores how beetles have been used in textiles throughout history in India, New Guinea, Thailand, Burma, and Amazonia. The online article is about 6 standard text pages and includes photographs that, when clicked, provide a larger image.

0002-11-30

72

Variations in dung beetles assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) within two rain forest habitats in French Guiana.  

PubMed

The structure of dung beetle communities inhabiting tropical forests are known to be sensitive to many kinds of environmental changes such as microclimate related to vegetation structure. I examined Scarabaeinae assemblages in two sites of undisturbed high forest and two sites of low forest forming a transitional zone with the open habitat of an inselberg in French Guiana. Sampling was made with pitfall and flight interception traps during 2003 and 2004. The driest and warmest conditions characterized the low forest sites. Across two years we obtained 2 927 individuals from 61 species with pitfall traps and 1 431 individuals from 85 species with flight interception traps. Greater species richness and abundance characterized all sites sampled with pitfall traps during 2003 more than 2004. In 2003 no differences were detected among sites by rarefaction analyses. In 2004 the species richest high forest site was significantly different from one of the low forest sites. For both years Clench model asymptotes for species richness were greater in high forest than in low forest sites. For both years, mean per-trap species richness, abundance and biomass among high forest sites were similar and higher than in low forest sites, especially where the lowest humidity and the highest temperature were recorded. Within the two low forest sites, species richness and abundance recorded during the second year, decreased with distance to edge. Different dominant roller species characterized the pitfall samples in one site of low forest and in other sites. Small variations in microclimatic conditions correlated to canopy height and openness likely affected dung beetle assemblages but soil depth and the presence of large mammals providing dung resource may also play a significant role. PMID:23885587

Feer, François

2013-06-01

73

PURDUE EXTENSION Granulate Ambrosia Beetle  

E-print Network

PURDUE EXTENSION CAPS-2-W PEST ALERT Granulate Ambrosia Beetle Xylosandrus crassiusculus settings. The granulate ambrosia beetle comes from China and it spreads by natural distribution and through, it was first discovered in Indiana in Jackson County. In 2007, granulate ambrosia beetle occurs in 41 counties

Ginzel, Matthew

74

Purdue extension Granulate Ambrosia Beetle  

E-print Network

Purdue extension CAPS-2-W PEST ALERT Granulate Ambrosia Beetle Xylosandrus crassiusculus settings. The granulate ambrosia beetle comes from China and it spreads by natural distribution and through, it was first discovered in Indiana in Jackson County. In 2007, granulate ambrosia beetle occurs in 43 counties

Ginzel, Matthew

75

Chemical ecology of bark beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purview of chemical ecology and the recent criticisms of improper application of theory to bark beetle phenomena is briefly discussed. Seven levels of research in chemical ecology are presented as well as their relationship to research on bark beetles. The biology and chemical ecology of several pest bark beetles from North America and Europe are discussed in regard

J. A. Byers

1989-01-01

76

Effects of organic farming, fencing and vegetation origin on spiders and beetles within shelterbelts on dairy farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spiders and beetles provide important ecosystem services in agriculture; however, optimum strategies to promote their density and diversity on dairy farms have received little attention. This study aimed to quantify the effects of farming practice (conventional vs. organic), fencing (fenced vs. unfenced) and plant species origin (exotic vs. native) on the abundance and diversity of spiders and beetles within shelterbelts

Y Fukuda; H Moller; B Burns

2011-01-01

77

Conifer introductions decrease richness and alter composition of litter-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) in Carpathian oak forests  

E-print Network

containing introduced non-native tree species. We compared the composition, richness, and abundance of litter) managed stands with introduced tree species. We collected beetle adults using a dry sieve method from: Litter-dwelling beetles; Species richness; Community composition; Introduced tree species; Conifers

Hui, Bowen

78

Waves and Water Beetles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

Tucker, Vance A.

1971-01-01

79

Pine Beetle Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

1995-01-01

80

Colorado Bark Beetle Cooperative  

E-print Network

Infrastructure, Economic Vitality #12;History of the CBBC · Organized in 2005 as a municipal, county, state altitude Lodgepole Pine forests on the western and northern slopes of ColoradoColorado ­ Initial counties included Jackson, Grand, Summit, Eagle, and Routt ­ Expanding counties as beetles move #12;Focus of CBBC

81

How Do Beetles Reproduce?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every living thing must be able to reproduce and make offspring. Most of us are familiar with how humans and mammals make babies, but do all creatures reproduce in the same way? Do insects, like the beetle, give birth to little insects? Also in: Français | Español

Drnevich, Jenny

2009-07-02

82

Pinacate beetle from the Mojave desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The beetle's outer covering helps it survive in the harsh desert environment. These beetles also give off an unpleasant smell to deter predators. Beetles and other insects are eaten in the desert for their water and nutrient content.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

83

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Key Background  

E-print Network

the juvenile stage to the adult stage. The Darkling Beetle (Tenebrio molitor) undergoes eggs, each of which contains a beetle embryo. Beetle larvae, called mealworms, hatch out of the eggs. The larvae grow for several months, periodically

Rose, Michael R.

84

Lakewide Estimates of Alewife Biomass and Chinook Salmon Abundance and Consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: Implications for Prey Fish Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stocking levels of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for Lake Ontario have been highly controversial since the early 1990s, largely because of uncertainties about lakewide abundance and rates of prey consumption. Previous estimates have focused on years before 1995; since then, however, the Lake Ontario ecosystem has undergone substantial changes, and there is new evidence of extensive natural recruitment. Presented here

Brent A. Murry; Michael J. Connerton; Robert OGorman; Donald J. Stewart; Neil H. Ringler

2010-01-01

85

Contrasting diversity dynamics of phoretic mites and beetles associated with vertebrate carrion.  

PubMed

Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We examined and compared the changes in abundance, species richness and composition of mite and beetle assemblages sampled at kangaroo carcasses in a grassy eucalypt woodland at four different times over a 6-month period. We found that the majority of mites were phoretic, with the mesostigmatid genera Uroseius (Uropodidae), Macrocheles (Macrochelidae) and Parasitus (Parasitidae) the most abundant taxa (excluding astigmatid mites). Abundance and richness patterns of mites and beetles were very different, with mites reaching peak abundance and richness at weeks 6 and 12, and beetles at weeks 1 and 6. Both mites and beetles showed clear successional patterns via changes in species presence and relative abundance. Our study shows that mesostigmatid mite assemblages have a delay in peak abundance and richness relative to beetle assemblages. This suggests that differences in dispersal and reproductive traits of arthropods may contribute to the contrasting diversity dynamics of carrion arthropod communities, and further highlights the role of carrion as a driver of diversity and heterogeneity in ecosystems. PMID:24292438

Barton, Philip S; Weaver, Haylee J; Manning, Adrian D

2014-05-01

86

BIOFUELS FROM BIOMASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is the most abundant, renewable unexplored source of energy. It is organic in nature, basically comprising cellulosic in nature and hemicellulosic matter found in the bio-degradable material from energy crops , agricultural and forest wastes , industrial, consumer and animal wastes . Energy reach compounds, otherwise known as bio-fuels, are prepared from the bio-mass by three important processes, physical,

R. K. Singh; S. Misra

87

In Praise of Dung Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute radio program explores how dung beetles detect dung and what they do with the dung after they have buried it. A researcher explains that one way that beetles track down dung is to fly behind groups of monkeys. Beetles often perform an important ecosystem function--seed dispersal--when they bury monkey dung. Rain forest sounds, including that of a dung beetle flying, are in the background of this archived Pulse of the Planet program. A transcript is also provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.

2007-01-24

88

Utility of Ground Beetle Species in Field Tests of Potential Nontarget Effects of Bt Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), including their distribution, diet breadth, and importance as generalist predators, make them candidates for evaluating potential unintended effects of transgenic crops. The abundance and composition of carabids collected from pitfall traps placed in hybrid dent corn were used to determine which species are consistently present and abundant in Iowa carabid communities and to test

Miriam D. Lopez; Jarrad R. Prasifka; Denny J. Bruck; Leslie C. Lewis

2005-01-01

89

Beetle Devastates Pine Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The warming climate has made conditions suitable for a massive outbreak of mountain pine beetles, which are now infesting the whitebark pine forests in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). The infestation has other ecological consequences such as devastation of forests in the region; loss of a critical food supply for grizzlies and other wildlife; negative impacts on water and watersheds; deterioration of biodiversity; and decline in the aesthetic value of an iconic ecosystem.

Jessie Logan (Retired Research Entomologist;); Wally MacFarlane (GEO/Graphics, Inc.;)

2010-03-25

90

Introduction Midpoint Rule Study Statistical Method Study Estimating Pest Abundance for High Aggregation  

E-print Network

of the pest abundance can lead to the failure to take action when it is needed. Figure: Coconut Hispine Beetle http://www.malaeng.com/blog/?s=coconut+hispine · An outbreak of the Coconut Hispine Beetle in South-east Asia destroyed 16 % of coconut trees in Cambodia.(1) · Had no action been taken in Vietnam, $1 billion

91

Intraguild Predation and Native Lady Beetle Decline  

PubMed Central

Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild predation by both native and exotic predators may contribute to native coccinellid decline, and that landscape structure interacts with local predator communities to shape the specific outcomes of predator-predator interactions. PMID:21931606

Gardiner, Mary M.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Landis, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

92

Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.  

PubMed

Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild predation by both native and exotic predators may contribute to native coccinellid decline, and that landscape structure interacts with local predator communities to shape the specific outcomes of predator-predator interactions. PMID:21931606

Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

2011-01-01

93

Potential of yellow sticky traps for lady beetle survey in cotton.  

PubMed

A 2-yr study was conducted to investigate the potential of using yellow sticky traps to survey lady beetles in cotton and to quantify seasonal activity patterns. The performance of sticky traps was compared with that of a 2-cycle vacuum sampler. The most common lady beetle species captured by sticky traps and vacuum sampler in cotton were Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville and Scymnus loewii Mulsant. Sticky traps captured significantly more of both species of lady beetles, had greater capture efficiency, and more effectively detected lady beetles compared with the vacuum sampler. These data indicate that the sticky trap can be a valuable tool in monitoring lady beetle populations in cotton. In the second part of this study, a year-round survey of lady beetle populations in the periphery of a cotton farm using sticky traps showed that lady beetles remained active throughout the year in the Texas Rolling Plains, but the activity was influenced by winter severity. Over a 2-yr period, H. convergens, S. loewii, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) comprised 89.6, 8.2, 1.9, and 0.3% of the specimens, respectively. Sticky trap captures were affected by year, trap height, and cropping season. Traps placed at 0.75 m above ground captured significantly more (80%) lady beetles than traps placed at 1.50 m (20%) above ground; traps at 0.75 m above ground also detected the rarer species while the traps at 1.50 m above ground detected only the abundant species. Trap captures were higher during the noncotton season (November to April) compared with the cotton season (May to October). A significant positive correlation between cotton aphid abundance during the growing season and H. convergens abundance during the following noncotton season was also detected, indicating a significant movement of H. convergens from cotton to the periphery of the farm to seek refuge after cotton termination. PMID:12650368

Parajulee, M N; Slosser, J E

2003-02-01

94

Local and Regional Effects on Community Structure of Dung Beetles in a Mainland-Island Scenario  

PubMed Central

Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers. PMID:25356729

da Silva, Pedro Giovani; Hernandez, Malva Isabel Medina

2014-01-01

95

Host Acceptance and Larval Competition in the Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Potential Mechanisms for Competitive Displacement between Invasive Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was much more abundant than the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus, in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. This study was initiated to determine whether competitive displacement of S. multistriatus by S. schevyrewi might be mediated by a sequence of behavioral interactions between the

Jana C. Lee; Steven J. Seybold

2010-01-01

96

Methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene abundance correlates with activity measurements of methanogenic H2/CO2-enriched anaerobic biomass  

PubMed Central

Biologically produced methane (CH4) from anaerobic digesters is a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, but digester failure can be a serious problem. Monitoring the microbial community within the digester could provide valuable information about process stability because this technology is dependent upon the metabolic processes of microorganisms. A healthy methanogenic community is critical for digester function and CH4 production. Methanogens can be surveyed and monitored using genes and transcripts of mcrA, which encodes the ? subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase – the enzyme that catalyses the final step in methanogenesis. Using clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared the diversity and abundance of mcrA genes and transcripts in four different methanogenic hydrogen/CO2 enrichment cultures to function, as measured by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays using H2/CO2. The mcrA gene copy number significantly correlated with CH4 production rates using H2/CO2, while correlations between mcrA transcript number and SMA were not significant. The DNA and cDNA clone libraries from all enrichments were distinctive but community diversity also did not correlate with SMA. Although hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated these enrichments, the results indicate that this methodology should be applicable to monitoring other methanogenic communities in anaerobic digesters. Ultimately, this could lead to the engineering of digester microbial communities to produce more CH4 for use as renewable fuel. PMID:24320083

Morris, Rachel; Schauer-Gimenez, Anne; Bhattad, Ujwal; Kearney, Colleen; Struble, Craig A; Zitomer, Daniel; Maki, James S

2014-01-01

97

MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR CUCUMBER BEETLES ON MUSKMELON  

E-print Network

) Striped cucumber beetle and (B) Spotted cucum- ber beetle or southern corn rootworm beetle. (Photo credit of cucumber beetles on muskmelon. · Using black plastic mulch can maintain higher soil tem- peratures

Ginzel, Matthew

98

Influences of Different Large Mammalian Fauna on Dung Beetle Diversity in Beech Forests  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on biological relationships between mammalian species richness and the community structure of dung beetles in cool-temperate forests in the northernmost part of mainland Japan. The composition of beetle assemblages was evaluated at 3 sites in undisturbed beech forests with different mammalian fauna. In spring and summer 2009, beetles were collected at each site using pitfall traps baited with feces from Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata Blyth (Primates: Cercopithecidae); Asiatic black bears, Ursus thibetanus Cuvier (Carnivora: Ursidae); Japanese serows, Capricornis crispus Temminck (Artiodactyla: Bovidae); and cattle. In the present study, 1,862 dung beetles representing 14 species were collected, and most dung beetles possessed the ecological characteristic of selecting specific mammalian feces. The present findings indicated that although species diversity in dung beetle assemblages was not necessarily positively correlated with mammalian species richness in cool-temperate forests, the absence of the macaque population directly resulted in the marked reduction of the beetle abundance, with the loss of the most frequent species, Aphodius eccoptus Bates (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) during spring. PMID:23909510

Enari, Hiroto; Koike, Shinsuke; Sakamaki, Haruka

2013-01-01

99

Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations  

SciTech Connect

Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

Janossy, L.; Bitto, A. [ELTE Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

1995-12-31

100

Effect of trap type, trap position, time of year, and beetle density on captures of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

PubMed

The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont Raffaellea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich, and Aghayeva are responsible for widespread redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., mortality in the southern United States. Effective traps and lures are needed to monitor spread of the beetle and for early detection at ports-of-entry, so we conducted a series of experiments to find the best trap design, color, lure, and trap position for detection of X. glabratus. The best trap and lure combination was then tested at seven sites varying in beetle abundance and at one site throughout the year to see how season and beetle population affected performance. Manuka oil proved to be the most effective lure tested, particularly when considering cost and availability. Traps baited with manuka oil lures releasing 5 mg/d caught as many beetles as those baited with lures releasing 200 mg/d. Distributing manuka oil lures from the top to the bottom of eight-unit funnel traps resulted in similar numbers of X. glabratus as a single lure in the middle. Trap color had little effect on captures in sticky traps or cross-vane traps. Funnel traps caught twice as many beetles as cross-vane traps and three times as many as sticky traps but mean catch per trap was not significantly different. When comparing height, traps 1.5 m above the ground captured 85% of the beetles collected but a few were caught at each height up to 15 m. Funnel trap captures exhibited a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.79) with X. glabratus attack density and they performed well throughout the year. Catching beetles at low densities is important to port of entry monitoring programs where early detection of infestations is essential. Our trials show that multiple funnel traps baited with a single manuka oil lure were effective for capturing X. glabratus even when no infested trees were visible in the area. PMID:21510198

Hanula, James L; Ulyshen, Michael D; Horn, Scott

2011-04-01

101

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics—yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms.

Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

2009-11-01

102

Impact of Red Deer Cervus elaphus Grazing on Bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and Composition of Ground Beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Assemblage  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  We studied the role of red deer Cervus elaphus L. as ecosystem modifier in boreal forest (Tingvoll municipality, 62°52? N, 8°20? E, Norway), during early summer of 2001.\\u000a The effect of grazing by red deer on ground beetles (Carabidae) abundance and diversity was investigated across a gradient\\u000a of grazing pressures. We trapped ground beetles by pit-fall traps from three homogeneous winter grazing

Claudia Melis; Astrid Buset; Per Arild Aarrestad; Oddvar Hanssen; Erling L. Meisingset; Reidar Andersen; Arne Moksnes; Eivin Røskaft

2006-01-01

103

The Army's Remote-Controlled Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Technology Review discusses the new technology of controlling insects using cybernetic implants. It includes several pictures of a beetle with implanted equipment that researchers use to direct the movements of the beetle.

2009-11-30

104

Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles  

E-print Network

Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

Jackman, John A.

2006-03-28

105

Red Turpentine Beetle: Innocuous Native Becomes  

E-print Network

Corresponding author Keywords Dendroctonus valens, invasive species, invasiveness, IPM, Leptographium, pines Abstract The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae variations that are inherited as a unit INTRODUCTION The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens Le

106

WESTERN CEDAR BARK BEETLES The Situation  

E-print Network

(vector of Dutch elm disease). They are relatively unaggressive and require trees stressed by drought-known mountain pine beetle and ips beetles (found in pines and spruce)and the lesser European elm bark beetle or areas of reddish foliage called "flags". This is relatively unimportant to the tree's overall health

107

Use of beetles in forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetles (Coleoptera) have been recognised as providing significant entomological evidence in the medico-legal field, particularly with reference to dry human skeletal remains in the later stages of decomposition.The Dermestidae (skin beetles) and Cleridae (bone beetles) have been found as the most common types infesting exposed human remains and providing evidence in estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMI).

Pankaj Kulshrestha; D. K Satpathy

2001-01-01

108

Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the zooplankton community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer zooplankton community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the zooplankton community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the zooplankton composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from the middle shelf indicates that the warmer conditions in 2004 are part of a trend rather than an expression of interannual variability. These results suggest that if climate on the Bering Sea shelf continues to warm, the zooplankton community may shift from large to small taxa which could strongly impact apex predators and the economies they support.

Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.

2008-08-01

109

Ecology and behavior of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).  

PubMed

The ground beetles from the speciose beetle family Carabidae and, since their emergence in the Tertiary, have populated all habitats except deserts. Our knowledge about carabids is biased toward species living in north-temperate regions. Most carabids are predatory, consume a wide range of food types, and experience food shortages in the field. Feeding on both plant and animal material and scavenging are probably more significant than currently acknowledged. The most important mortality sources are abiotic factors and predators; pathogens and parasites can be important for some developmental stages. Although competition among larvae and adults does occur, the importance of competition as a community organization is not proven. Carabids are abundant in agricultural fields all over the world and may be important natural enemies of agricultural pests. PMID:15012329

Lövei, G L; Sunderland, K D

1996-01-01

110

Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

2011-01-01

111

Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a wellstudied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

Paxton, E.H.; Theimer, T.C.; Sogge, M.K.

2011-01-01

112

Ultrastructure of pheromone-detecting sensillum placodeum of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newmann (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pheromone-detecting sensilla placodea are significantly more numerous than other sensory structures in the antennae of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Their abundance in males is nearly twice of that in females, showing a clear sexual dimorphism. Externally, they have a tortoise shell-like round cuticular plate containing a few polygonal plates separated by narrow ridges. Internally, they house

J.-Y. Kim; W. S. Leal

2000-01-01

113

Bark beetle community structure under four ponderosa pine forest stand conditions in northern Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona to explore if the species assemblages and relative abundance differ between managed and unmanaged stands. Four stand conditions were assessed: (1) unmanaged stands with high tree density, (2) thinned stands, (3) thinned and burned (with prescribed fire) stands and (4) stands that had been

Guillermo Sánchez-Mart??nez; Michael R. Wagner

2002-01-01

114

Differential responses among natural enemies and prey to bark beetle pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predators that exploit prey pheromones may select for relatively subtle chemical changes that confer partial escape yet retain intraspecific functionality. Parallel experiments conducted with a transcontinentally distributed bark beetle, Ips pini, demonstrated that the most abundant predators in California and Wisconsin were more attracted to prey from distant sources than to those from local sources. Conversely, local I. pini populations

K. F. Raffa; D. L. Dahlsten

1995-01-01

115

A eld experiment on the effectiveness of spiders and carabid beetles as biocontrol agents in soybean  

E-print Network

in soybean Patchanee Vichitbandha*² and David H. Wise* *Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, S beetles are abundant generalist predators that prey upon insect pests of soybean. A ®eld experiment was conducted to determine the impact of spi- ders and carabids on soybean yield. Prior to planting, three 7 3 7

Illinois at Chicago, University of

116

Rev. col. (Terre Vie), suppt. 10, 2008. SAMPLING SAPROXYLIC BEETLES WITH WINDOW FLIGHT TRAPS  

E-print Network

beetles, by comparing (i) cross-vanes or single-plane WFT (shape effect), (ii) black or transparent CWFT of sampling methods. Trap shape had a significant and strong effect on the abundance and species richness that low cross-vanes window traps yield more species-rich and individual-rich samples than canopy traps

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Dung beetles in an avian-dominated island ecosystem: feeding and trophic ecology.  

PubMed

Globally, dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are linked to many critical ecosystem processes involving the consumption and breakdown of mammal dung. Endemic New Zealand dung beetles (Canthonini) are an anomaly, occurring at high abundance and low diversity on an island archipelago historically lacking terrestrial mammals, except bats, and instead dominated by birds. Have New Zealand's dung beetles evolved to specialise on bird dung or carrion, or have they become broad generalist feeders? We test dietary preferences by analysing nitrogen isotope ratios of wild dung beetles and by performing feeding behaviour observations of captive specimens. We also use nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes to determine if the dung beetle Saphobius edwardsi will consume marine-derived carrion. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated trophic generalism in Saphobius dung beetles and this was supported by behavioural observations where a broad range of food resources were utilised. Alternative food resource use was further illustrated experimentally by nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures of S. edwardsi, where individuals provided with decomposed squid had ?(15)N and ?(13)C values that had shifted toward values associated with marine diet. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of native mammal dung resources, New Zealand dung beetles have evolved a generalist diet of dung and carrion. This may include marine-derived resources, as provided by the seabird colonies present in New Zealand forests before the arrival of humans. This has probably enabled New Zealand dung beetles to persist in indigenous ecosystems despite the decline of native birds and the introduction of many mammal species. PMID:24974270

Stavert, J R; Gaskett, A C; Scott, D J; Beggs, J R

2014-09-01

118

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

ScienceCinema

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

None

2013-05-29

119

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass  

E-print Network

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels of biomass into monosaccharides. Add- ing water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic

Raines, Ronald T.

120

Biomass Utilization and Technology Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, issues related to biomass energy developed in China, on resources, technology, economy, environment, market, policy and regulation etc., are generally summarized. China is an agricultural country with a huge population and abundant biomass resources and facing increasing greatly energy demand and suffering serious environmental pollution. It is estimated that the total amount of biomass resources in 2001

Yuan Zhenhong; Wu Chuangzhi; Ma Longlong; Jiang Jianchun; Chen Dongmei; Zhu Weidong

121

The incidence and use of Oryctes virus for control of rhinoceros beetle in oil palm plantations in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, has emerged as a serious pest of oil palm since the prohibition of burning as a method for maintaining estate hygiene in the 1990s. The abundance of beetles is surprising given that the Malay peninsula was the site of first discovery of the Oryctes virus, which has been used to effect good as a biological control agent in other regions. A survey of adult beetles was carried out throughout Malaysia using pheromone traps. Captured beetles were examined for presence of virus using both visual/microscopic examination and PCR detection methods. The survey indicated that Oryctes virus was common in Malaysia among the adult beetles. Viral DNA analysis was carried out after restriction with HindIII enzyme and indicated at least three distinct viral genotypes. Bioassays were used to compare the viral strains and demonstrate that one strain (type B) is the most virulent against both larvae and adults of the beetle. Virus type B has been cultured and released into healthy populations where another strain (type A) forms the natural background. Capture and examination of beetles from the release site and surrounding area has shown that the spread and persistence of the applied virus strain is accompanied by a reduction in palm frond damage. PMID:16039309

Ramle, M; Wahid, M B; Norman, K; Glare, T R; Jackson, T A

2005-05-01

122

Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.  

PubMed

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH??) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

2013-01-01

123

Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

2013-01-01

124

Nitrogen Cycling Responses to Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbance in a High Elevation Whitebark Pine Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

2013-01-01

125

Raising Beetles in a Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

Hackett, Erla

126

Pastoral Practices to Reverse Shrub Encroachment of Sub-Alpine Grasslands: Dung Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) Respond More Quickly Than Vegetation  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of grassland enhanced, by using appropriate pastoral practices. PMID:24358277

Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

2013-01-01

127

Pastoral practices to reverse shrub encroachment of sub-alpine grasslands: dung beetles (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea) respond more quickly than vegetation.  

PubMed

In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of grassland enhanced, by using appropriate pastoral practices. PMID:24358277

Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

2013-01-01

128

Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.  

PubMed

The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest. PMID:22182536

Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

2010-12-01

129

Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ ? a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse, taxonomically and ecologically well-known, efficiently reflect biotic and abiotic conditions, are relevant at multiple spatial scales, and are easy to collect in sufficiently large numbers to allow statistical analyses. The assumption that carabid responses would reflect rare environmental conditions or the responses of rare and threatened species ? crucial information for conservationists and managers ? has not yet been critically evaluated. Even if it holds, the usefulness will be context dependent: species and their populations vary, conditions vary, questions put forward vary, and assessment goals vary. PMID:21738418

Koivula, Matti J.

2011-01-01

130

Corn flea beetle 1/16"pinach flea beetle 3/16"S VEGETABLE INSECT IDENTIFICATION  

E-print Network

. Weedy gardens are also attractive to ovipositing beetles. LEAFHOPPERS Many genera and species, Family: Michigan State University) JAPANESE BEETLE Popilia japonica, Family Scarabaeidae Japanese beetle adult Comments: Damage can be reduced by keeping gardens free of weeds before and after vegetables are planted

Ginzel, Matthew

131

Inundative release of Aphthona spp. flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a biological "herbicide" on leafy spurge in riparian areas.  

PubMed

Inundative releases of beneficial insects are frequently used to suppress pest insects but not commonly attempted as a method of weed biological control because of the difficulty in obtaining the required large numbers of insects. The successful establishment of a flea beetle complex, mixed Aphthona lacertosa (Rosenhauer) and Aphthona nigriscutus Foundras (87 and 13%, respectively), for the control of leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula L., provided an easily collectable source of these natural enemies that enabled us to attempt inundative release as a possible leafy spurge control method in a sensitive riparian ecological zone where chemical control is restricted. Our target weed populations were small isolated patches of leafy spurge along three streams in southwestern, central, and northeastern Idaho. This study assessed leafy spurge and associated vegetation responses to inundative releases of 10 and 50 beetles per spurge flowering stem over two consecutive years. Releasing 10 beetles per flowering stem had inconclusive effects on spurge biomass, crown, stem, and seedling density. Alternatively, releasing 50 beetles per flowering stem resulted in a reduction of biomass, crown and stem density in the range of 60-80% at all three study sites, and about an approximately 60% reduction of seedling density at one site, compared with untreated plots. In contrast to leafy spurge, associated vegetation did not conclusively respond to beetle release, indicating that it may take more than two years for desired riparian vegetation to respond to reductions in leafy spurge competition. PMID:20429434

Progar, R A; Markin, G; Milan, J; Barbouletos, T; Rinella, M J

2010-04-01

132

USDA Forest Service: Asian Longhorned Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Asian longhorned beetles are an exotic species of insect that have been wreaking havoc on North American trees, particularly maples, alders, birches, elms, horsechestnut, poplars, and willows. This site from the USDA Forest Service had some general information about the beetle (including images), and resources on identifying them and reporting sightings. Check out the "Publications" link for some more extensive tips on identifying the asian longhorned beetle, and controlling its spread.

2008-02-04

133

Pheromone production in bark beetles.  

PubMed

The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary ?-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

2010-10-01

134

Geographic variation in bacterial communities associated with the red turpentine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

Bacterial communities are known to play important roles in insect life histories, yet their consistency or variation across populations is poorly understood. Bacteria associated with the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens LeConte from eight populations, ranging from Wisconsin to Oregon, were evaluated and compared. We used the culture-independent technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to visualize bacterial diversity, or individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs), from individual beetles. One-way analysis of similarities was used to test for differences of bacterial communities between sites. Analysis of community profiles showed that individual beetles on average contained 10 OTUs, with frequency of association from 2 to 100% of beetles. OTU sequences most closely matched beta- and gamma-proteobacteria, and one each matched Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Several OTUs were particularly abundant, most notably an Actinobacterium from 100% and two Proteobacteria from 60% of beetles sampled. Some OTUs were similar to previously described bacteria with known biochemical capabilities and ecological functions, suggesting that some bacterial associates of D. valens may contribute to its ability to exploit a resource low in nutrients and high in defensive compounds. There were significant differences of bacterial communities between sites. The strength of these differences was positively correlated with distance between sites, although additional unexplained factors also contribute to the variation. PMID:20388269

Adams, Aaron S; Adams, Sandye M; Currie, Cameron R; Gillette, Nancy E; Raffa, Kenneth F

2010-04-01

135

BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...

136

Biomass electrochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research objectives are to select the most relevant biomass-derived substrates which can benefit from electrochemical processing, improving the economics of fuel production from biomass sources. Electrochemical processing is being applied to biomass and derived materials to (1) upgrade their energy content, thereby generating fuels and fuel additives (octane or cetane boosters); (2) generate petrochemical substitutes from renewable resources; (3)

Chum

1983-01-01

137

Biomass pretreatment  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

2013-05-21

138

Simulate Natural Selection With Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simulation activity, students experiment with a population of M&M candies or paper dot "beetles" to test how well each color is adapted to survive on a field of colorful wrapping paper or fabric. Students act as predators and see that camouflaged beetles survive predation preferentially. Students reflect on how the activity could be modified to better simulate the process of predation-based natural selection. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "Origin of Species," part of the unit, "Losing Biodiversity," in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

139

Differential Consumption of Four Aphid Species by Four Lady Beetle Species  

PubMed Central

The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum. PMID:20578952

Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

2010-01-01

140

Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species.  

PubMed

The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum. PMID:20578952

Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

2010-01-01

141

Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

2013-09-01

142

Ips Engraver Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Pine bark beetles are frequent pests of stressed pines ( Pinus spp.) in the southern United States. The five most common southern pine bark beetle species include three in the genus Ips (the six-spined engraver, I. calligraphus (Germar); the southern pine engraver, I. grandicollis (Eichhoff); and the small southern pine engraver, I. avulsus (Eichhoff)) (Fig. 1), and two species

Jeffrey M. Eickwort; Albert E. Mayfield III; John L. Foltz

143

Feeding behavior of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior of adult leaf beetles (41 species from 18 genera and 8 subfamilies) was studied for the first time. Beetles\\u000a of the genera Chrysolina, Chrysomela, Cryptocephalus, Galeruca, Gastrophysa, Labidostomis, Leptinotarsa, Timarcha, and Cassida stigmatica gnaw a leaf from the edge, whereas the representatives of Donacia, Galerucella, Lema, Lilioceris, Oulema, Phyllobrotica, Plagiodera, Zeugophora, Hypocassida, and most species of Cassida

A. O. Bie?kowski

2010-01-01

144

Pulpability of Beetle-Killed Spruce  

E-print Network

the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood canPulpability of Beetle-Killed Spruce United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest- rated wood required the same or slightly less refining energy to achieve a certain level of freeness

Abubakr, Said

145

Pine Bark Beetle Outbreaks and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive shows the extent of the killing of lodgepole pine trees in western Canada. The spread of pine beetle throughout British Columbia has devastated the lodgepole pine forests there. This animation shows the spread of the beetle and the increasing numbers of trees affected from 1999-2008 and predicts the spread up until 2015.

History, American M.

146

Special Topics Bark and Ambrosia Beetles ENY 6934 / FOR 6934  

E-print Network

Special Topics ­ Bark and Ambrosia Beetles ENY 6934 / FOR 6934 Credits: 3 Meeting days and times description: A comprehensive review of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae are (and what are not) bark and ambrosia beetles o General bark beetle morphology o Quick overview of non

Watson, Craig A.

147

THE EVOLUTION OF AGRICULTURE IN BEETLES (CURCULIONIDAE: SCOLYTINAE AND PLATYPODINAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetles in the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae are unusual in that they burrow as adults inside trees for feeding and oviposition. Some of these beetles are known as ambrosia beetles for their obligate mutualisms with asexual fungi—known as ambrosia fungi—that are derived from plant pathogens in the ascomycete group known as the ophiostomatoid fungi. Other beetles in these subfamilies

Brian D. Farrell; Andrea S. Sequeira; Brian C. O'Meara; Benjamin B. Normark; Jeffrey H. Chung; Bjarte H. Jordal

2001-01-01

148

Japanese beetle management 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa  

E-print Network

Chafer European Chafer Asiatic Garden Oriental Black Ataenius #12;Japanese beetle management 2011 ICMJapanese beetle management 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa Japanese beetle biology and management #12;Japanese beetle management 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa Outline · ID, life cycle, biology

Jurenka, Russell A.

149

Association of wildfire with tree health and numbers of pine bark beetles, reproduction weevils and their associates in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires burned over 200,000ha of forest lands in Florida from April to July 1998. This unique disturbance event provided a valuable opportunity to study the interactions of summer wildfires with the activity of pine feeding insects and their associates in the southeastern United States. We compared tree mortality with abundance of bark and ambrosia beetles, reproduction weevils and wood borers

James L. Hanula; James R. Meeker; Daniel R. Miller; Edward L. Barnard

2002-01-01

150

SpruceBarkBeetle For more information about the management of spruce bark beetle, contact your nearest office  

E-print Network

been killed by the spruce bark beetle are very dry and can be a severe fire hazard. Wood products canSpruceBarkBeetle For more information about the management of spruce bark beetle, contact your Large outbreaks of the spruce bark beetle are very difficult to control. Small infestations can

151

The comparative effectiveness of rodents and dung beetles as local seed dispersers in Mediterranean oak forests.  

PubMed

The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications for oak recruitment and community dynamics. PMID:24194872

Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Verdú, José R; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M

2013-01-01

152

The Comparative Effectiveness of Rodents and Dung Beetles as Local Seed Dispersers in Mediterranean Oak Forests  

PubMed Central

The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications for oak recruitment and community dynamics. PMID:24194872

Perez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Verdu, Jose R.; Numa, Catherine; Maranon, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M.

2013-01-01

153

Optimising Bait for Pitfall Trapping of Amazonian Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)  

PubMed Central

The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology. PMID:24023675

Marsh, Charles J.; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M.

2013-01-01

154

How do beetle assemblages respond to cyclonic disturbance of a fragmented tropical rainforest landscape?  

PubMed

There are surprisingly few studies documenting effects of tropical cyclones (including hurricanes and typhoons) on rainforest animals, and especially insects, considering that many tropical forests are frequently affected by cyclonic disturbance. Consequently, we sampled a beetle assemblage inhabiting 18 upland rainforest sites in a fragmented landscape in north-eastern Queensland, Australia, using a standardised sampling protocol in 2002 and again 12 months after the passage of Severe Tropical Cyclone Larry (March 2006). The spatial configuration of sites allowed us to test if the effects of a cyclone and those from fragmentation interact. From all insect samples we extracted 12,568 beetles of 382 species from ten families. Beetle species composition was significantly different pre-and post-cyclone although the magnitude of faunal change was not large with 205 species, representing 96% of all individuals, present in both sampling events. Sites with the greatest changes to structure had the greatest changes in species composition. At the site level, increases in woody debris and wood-feeding beetle (Scolytinae) counts were significantly correlated but changes in the percent of ground vegetation were not mirrored by changes in the abundance of foliage-feeding beetles (Chrysomelidae). The overall direction of beetle assemblage change was consistent with increasing aridity, presumably caused by the loss of canopy cover. Sites with the greatest canopy loss had the strongest changes in the proportion of species previously identified in the pre-cyclone study as preferring arid or moist rainforest environments. The magnitude of fragmentation effects was virtually unaltered by the passage of Cyclone Larry. We postulate that in the short-term the effects of cyclonic disturbance and forest fragmentation both reduce the extent of moist, interior habitat. PMID:19597849

Grimbacher, Peter S; Stork, Nigel E

2009-09-01

155

Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona.  

PubMed

We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600-1,736 m; middle: 2,058-2,230 m; high: 2,505-2,651 m) for 3 yr (2004-2006) using pheromone-baited Lindgren funnel traps. Trap contents were collected weekly from March to December. We also studied temperature differences among the elevation bands and what role this may play in beetle flight behavior. Bark beetles, regardless of species, showed no consistent elevational trend in abundance among the three bands. The higher abundances of Ips lecontei Swaine, I. calligraphus ponderosae Swaine, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, and D. brevicomis LeConte at low and middle elevations offset the greater abundance of I. knausi Swaine, D. adjunctus Blandford, D. approximatus Dietz, and D. valens LeConte at high elevations. I. pini (Say) and I. latidens LeConte were found in similar numbers across the three bands. Flight periodicity of several species varied among elevation bands. In general, the flight period shortened as elevation increased; flight initiated later and terminated earlier in the year. The timing, number, and magnitude of peaks in flight activity also varied among the elevation bands. These results suggest that abundance and flight seasonality of several bark beetles are related to elevation and the associated temperature differences. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to bark beetle management and population dynamics. PMID:18348801

Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Miller, Andy

2008-02-01

156

Experimental Beetle Metapopulations Respond Positively to Dynamic Landscapes and Reduced Connectivity  

PubMed Central

Interactive effects of multiple environmental factors on metapopulation dynamics have received scant attention. We designed a laboratory study to test hypotheses regarding interactive effects of factors affecting the metapopulation dynamics of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Within a four-patch landscape we modified resource level (constant and diminishing), patch connectivity (high and low) and patch configuration (static and dynamic) to conduct a 23 factorial experiment, consisting of 8 metapopulations, each with 3 replicates. For comparison, two control populations consisting of isolated and static subpopulations were provided with resources at constant or diminishing levels. Longitudinal data from 22 tri-weekly counts of beetle abundance were analyzed using Bayesian Poisson generalized linear mixed models to estimate additive and interactive effects of factors affecting abundance. Constant resource levels, low connectivity and dynamic patches yielded greater levels of adult beetle abundance. For a given resource level, frequency of colonization exceeded extinction in landscapes with dynamic patches when connectivity was low, thereby promoting greater patch occupancy. Negative density dependence of pupae on adults occurred and was stronger in landscapes with low connectivity and constant resources; these metapopulations also demonstrated greatest stability. Metapopulations in control landscapes went extinct quickly, denoting lower persistence than comparable landscapes with low connectivity. When landscape carrying capacity was constant, habitat destruction coupled with low connectivity created asynchronous local dynamics and refugia within which cannibalism of pupae was reduced. Increasing connectivity may be counter-productive and habitat destruction/recreation may be beneficial to species in some contexts. PMID:22509314

Govindan, Byju N.; Swihart, Robert K.

2012-01-01

157

Manufacture of Prebiotics from Biomass Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass from plant material is the most abundant and widespread renewable raw material for sustainable development, and can be employed as a source of polymeric and oligomeric carbohydrates. When ingested as a part of the diet, some biomass polysaccharides and/or their oligomeric hydrolysis products are selectively fermented in the colon, causing prebiotic effects.

Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Moure, Andrés; Alonso, José Luis; Domínguez, Herminia; Parajó, Juan Carlos

158

Reciprocal interactions between the bark beetle-associated yeast Ogataea pini and host plant phytochemistry.  

PubMed

Here we report the first experiments testing reciprocal effects between the bark beetle-associated yeast, Ogataea pini, and phytochemicals present in tree tissues (Pinus ponderosa). We tested two hypotheses: (i) tree phytochemicals mediate O. pini growth and (ii) O. pini affects chemical composition of plant tissues. We tested six monoterpenes on O. pini biomass growth in vitro and found that most monoterpenes inhibited O. pini growth; however mean O. pini biomass increased 21.5% when treated with myrcene and 75.5% when treated with terpinolene, relative to control. Ogataea pini was grown on phloem tissue ex vivo to determine whether O. pini affected phloem chemistry. Monoterpene concentrations declined in phloem over time, but phloem colonized by O. pini had significantly different concentrations of monoterpenes at two periods than phloem with no yeast. After 7 d, when O. pini was present, concentrations of the monoterpene ?-3-carene was 42.9% lower than uncolonized phloem and concentrations of the monoterpene terpinolene was 345.0% higher than uncolonized phloem. After 15 d phloem colonized by O. pini had 505.4% higher concentrations of ?-pinene than uncolonized phloem. These experiments suggest that O. pini responds to phytochemicals present in host tissues and the presence of O. pini might alter the chemical environment of phloem tissues during the early stages of beetle development. The interactions between O. pini and phytochemicals in pine vascular tissues might have consequences for the bark beetle that vectors O. pini, Dendroctonus brevicomis. PMID:21659459

Davis, Thomas S; Hofstetter, Richard W

2011-01-01

159

Lunar orientation in a beetle.  

PubMed Central

Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects. PMID:15101694

Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J.; Scholtz, Clarke H.; Warrant, Eric J.

2004-01-01

160

Pollination by flies, bees, and beetles of Nuphar ozarkana and N. advena (Nymphaeaceae).  

PubMed

Nuphar comprises 13 species of aquatic perennials distributed in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The European species N. lutea and N. pumila in Norway, the Netherlands, and Germany are pollinated by bees and flies, including apparent Nuphar specialists. This contrasts with reports of predominant beetle pollination in American N. advena and N. polysepala. We studied pollination in N. ozarkana in Missouri and N. advena in Texas to assess whether (1) there is evidence of pollinator shifts associated with floral-morphological differences between Old World and New World species as hypothesized by Padgett, Les, and Crow (American Journal of Botany 86: 1316-1324. 1999) and (2) whether beetle pollination characterizes American species of Nuphar. Ninety-seven and 67% of flower visits in the two species were by sweat bees, especially Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) nelumbonis. Syrphid fly species visiting both species were Paragus sp., Chalcosyrphus metallicus, and Toxomerus geminatus. The long-horned leaf beetle Donacia piscatrix was common on leaves and stems of N. ozarkana but rarely visited flowers. Fifteen percent of visits to N. advena flowers were by D. piscatrix and D. texana. The beetles' role as pollinators was investigated experimentally by placing floating mesh cages that excluded flies and bees over N. advena buds about to open and adding beetles. Beetles visited 40% of the flowers in cages, and flowers that received visits had 69% seed set, likely due to beetle-mediated geitonogamy of 1st-d flowers. Experimentally outcrossed 1st-d flowers had 62% seed set, and open-pollinated flowers 76%; 2nd-d selfed or outcrossed flowers had low seed sets (9 and 12%, respectively). Flowers are strongly protogynous and do not self spontaneously. Flowers shielded from pollinators set no seeds. A comparison of pollinator spectra in the two Old World and three New World Nuphar species studied so far suggests that the relative contribution of flies, bees, and beetles to pollen transfer in any one population depends more on these insects' relative abundances (and in the case of Donacia, presence) and alternative food sources than on stamen length differences between Old World and New World pond-lilies. PMID:10860920

Lippok, B; Gardine, A A; Williamson, P S; Renner, S S

2000-06-01

161

Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles.  

PubMed

Introductions of two ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis, into North America for aphid biocontrol have been followed by declines in native species. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) between larvae of these two exotic species and larvae of the two most abundant native coccinellids in eastern Washington State, C. transversoguttata and Hippodamia convergens. In pairings between the two native species in laboratory microcosms containing pea ( Pisum sativum) plants, neither native had a clear advantage over the other in IGP. When the natives were paired with either Harmonia axyridis or C. septempunctata, the natives were more frequently the victims than perpetrators of IGP. In contrast, in pairings between the exotic species, neither had an IGP advantage, although overall rates of IGP between these two species were very high. Adding alternative prey (aphids) to microcosms did not alter the frequency and patterns of relative IGP among the coccinellid species. In observations of encounters between larvae, the introduced H. axyridis frequently survived multiple encounters with the native C. transversoguttata, whereas the native rarely survived a single encounter with H. axyridis. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species face increased IGP following invasion by C. septempunctata and H. axyridis, which may be contributing to the speed with which these exotic ladybird beetles displace the natives following invasion. PMID:15179586

Snyder, William E; Clevenger, Garrett M; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

2004-08-01

162

Frass analysis of diets of aphidophagous lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Utah alfalfa fields.  

PubMed

Aphidophagous lady beetles enhance their foraging success in natural settings by consuming other types of food in addition to aphids. Frass analysis was used to examine natural diets of female lady beetles in fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in northern Utah. The first (spring) alfalfa crop was censused in 2004 and 2005 to determine the diet of female adults of the introduced Coccinella septempunctata L., and two native species, C. transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Hippodamia convergens Guerin. The proportion of females of the three lady beetle species that fed on pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] and alfalfa weevil larvae [Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), an abundant alternative prey] increased from early to late season during the first crop. A corresponding seasonal decrease occurred in the proportion of females consuming other types of arthropods (e.g., thrips and collembolans) and nonarthropod food (pollen and fungal spores). Overall, frass analysis indicated that the diets of C. septempunctata and the two native species in alfalfa were similar in their inclusion of a broad variety of foods. The study shows that frass analysis can provide a good overview of the diets of lady beetles in natural settings. PMID:20388290

Davidson, L Nicole; Evans, Edward W

2010-04-01

163

Evolutionary assembly of the conifer fauna: distinguishing ancient from recent associations in bark beetles.  

PubMed Central

Several shifts from ancestral conifer feeding to angiosperm feeding have been implicated in the unparalleled diversification of beetle species. The single largest angiosperm-feeding beetle clade occurs in the weevils, and comprises the family Curculionidae and relatives. Most authorities confidently place the bark beetles (Scolytidae) within this radiation of angiosperm feeders. However, some clues indicate that the association between conifers and some scolytids, particularly in the tribe Tomicini, is a very ancient one. For instance, several fragments of Gondwanaland (South America, New Caledonia, Australia and New Guinea) harbour endemic Tomicini specialized on members of the formerly widespread and abundant conifer family Araucariaceae. As a first step towards resolving this seeming paradox, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the beetle family Scolytidae with particularly intensive sampling of conifer-feeding Tomicini and allies. We sequenced and analysed elongation factor 1alpha and nuclear rDNAs 18S and 28S for 45 taxa, using members of the weevil family Cossoninae as an out-group. Our results indicate that conifer feeding is the ancestral host association of scolytids, and that the most basal lineages of scolytids feed on Aramucaria. If scolytids are indeed nested within a great angiosperm-feeding clade, as many authorities have held, then a reversion to conifer feeding in ancestral scolytids appears to have occurred in the Mesozoic, when Araucaria still formed a major component of the woody flora. PMID:11133024

Sequeira, A S; Normark, B B; Farrell, B D

2000-01-01

164

Assessing Estimators of Snow Leopard Abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secretive nature of snow leopards (Uncia uncia) makes them difficult to monitor, yet conservation efforts require accurate and precise methods to estimate abundance. We assessed accuracy of Snow Leopard Information Management System (SLIMS) sign surveys by comparing them with 4 methods for estimating snow leopard abundance: predator:prey biomass ratios, capture-recapture density estimation, photo-capture rate, and individual identification through genetic

Kyle P. McCarthy; Todd K. Fuller; Ma Ming; Thomas M. McCarthy; Lisette Waits; Kubanych Jumabaev

2008-01-01

165

Dr. Susan Prichard and Pine Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, scientist Dr. Susan Prichard discusses the impact of pine bark beetles on western forests, including information on how climate change, specifically rising temperatures, is exacerbating the problem.

Central, Climate

166

Micro and Macro-Habitat Associations in Saproxylic Beetles: Implications for Biodiversity Management  

PubMed Central

Restoration of habitats is critically important in preventing full realization of the extinction debt owed as a result of anthropogenic habitat destruction. Although much emphasis has been placed on macrohabitats, suitable microhabitats are also vital for the survival of most species. The aim of this large-scale field experiment was to evaluate the relative importance of manipulated microhabitats, i.e., dead wood substrates of spruce (snags, and logs that were burned, inoculated with wood fungi or shaded) and macrohabitats, i.e., stand types (clear-cuts, mature managed forests, and forest reserves) for species richness, abundance and assemblage composition of all saproxylic and red-listed saproxylic beetles. Beetles were collected in emergence traps in 30 forest stands in 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2006. More individuals emerged from snags and untreated logs than from burned and shaded logs, but species richness did not differ among substrates. Assemblage composition differed among substrates for both all saproxylics and red-listed saproxylic species, mainly attributed to different assemblage composition on snags. This suggests that the practise of leaving snags for conservation purposes should be complemented with log supplementation. Clear-cuts supported fewer species and different assemblages from mature managed forests and reserves. Neither abundance, nor species richness or assemblage composition differed between reserves and mature managed forests. This suggests that managed stands subjected to selective cutting, not clear-felling, maintain sufficient old growth characteristics and continuity to maintain more or less intact assemblages of saproxylic beetles. Thus, alternative management methods, e.g., continuity forestry should be considered for some of these stands to maintain continuity and conservation values. Furthermore, the significantly higher estimated abundance per ha of red-listed beetles in reserves underlines the importance of reserves for maintaining viable populations of rare red-listed species and as source areas for saproxylic species in boreal forest landscapes. PMID:22848432

Hjalten, Joakim; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Pettersson, Roger B.; Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Danell, Kjell; Ball, John P.; Hilszczanski, Jacek

2012-01-01

167

Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion  

E-print Network

Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion Rajiv Bharadwaj such as cellulases and hemicellulases is a limiting and costly step in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Lignocellulosic (LC) biomass is an abundant and potentially carbon-neutral resource for production of biofuels

Singh, Anup

168

Factors affecting biomass allocation in the riverine macrophyte Justicia americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effects of hydrologic disturbance, abundance of root parasites, and ambient physicochemical conditions on total biomass, biomass allocation, and architecture of the emergent macrophyte Justicia americana (L.) Vahl. (Acanthanceae) were investigated in six south-central Alabama streams, USA. Justicia total biomass was negatively related to shading by riparian vegetation, which accounted for 45 and 31% of the total variation at

Ken M. Fritz; Margaret A. Evans; Jack W. Feminella

2004-01-01

169

ROOT BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN THE WORLD'S UPLAND FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root biomass based on standard meth...

170

Creosote production from beetle infested timber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood-tar creosote accumulation in stove pipes and chimneys following burning of beetle-killed southern pine, green pine, seasoned hardwood totalled 6.21, 3.21, 4.27 and 3.73 lb\\/ton DM respectively. Tests showed that accumulation depends more on air supply to the stove than type or moisture content of wood burned. It is suggested that beetle-killed pine should not be rejected as a fuelwood

J. F. Allen; T. T. Maxwell

1982-01-01

171

Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

172

Mountain pine beetle disturbance effects on soil respiration and nutrient pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonos ponderosae has infested more than 86 million hectares of high elevation forest in the Western U.S.A. While bark beetles are endemic to western forests and important agents of regeneration, the current mountain pine beetle outbreak is larger than any other on record and the resulting tree mortality has significant consequences for nutrient cycling and regional carbon exchange. We established decade-long parallel disturbance chronosequences in two lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado: one composed of mountain pine beetle killed lodgepole stands and one consisting of trees where beetle mortality was simulated by stem girdling. Over the 2010 and 2011 growing season we measured plot level soil respiration fluxes, as well as soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and pools of ammonium, nitrate and inorganic phosphorus. We show that soil respiration sharply declines with gross primary productivity after tree mortality, but rebounds during the next 4 years, then declines again from 6-8 years post-disturbance. Soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and inorganic phosphorous pools follow the pattern observed in soil respiration fluxes across disturbance age classes for both sites, while patterns in total dissolved nitrogen exhibit site specific variation. Levels of detectable soil nitrate were low and did not significantly change across the chronosequence, while soil ammonium increased in a similar pattern with soil moisture in disturbed plots. These patterns in soil respiration and nutrient pools reflect the loss of autotrophic respiration and rhizodeposition immediately after tree mortality, followed by a pulse in soil efflux linked to the decomposition of older, less labile carbon pools. This pulse is likely controlled by the fall rate of litter, coarse woody debris and the relative impact of post-disturbance water availability and soil temperatures on decomposition processes. These patterns also indicate that over nearly a decade after disturbance, because of a decline in new substrate for respiration, the immediate impacts of the current beetle outbreak in North America on carbon release are likely to be lower in magnitude than previous estimates.

Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Brayden, B. H.; Dynes, E.; Monson, R. K.

2011-12-01

173

Chiral escape of bark beetles from predators responding to a bark beetle pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of predatory beetles that locate their prey, Ips pini, by responding to its aggregation pheromone have different chiral preferences to ispdienol than does the herbivore. This suggests that chiral disparity may provide some escape for bark beetles from predation, and that geographic variation in herbivore communication systems may be partially due to predator — imposed selection pressures. These

Kenneth F. Raffa; Kier D. Klepzig

1989-01-01

174

Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution  

PubMed Central

Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their beetle hosts. Instead, frequent host switching is observed. The molecular phylogeny of the Diplogastridae provides a framework for further examinations of the evolution of these associations, for the study of interactions within the ecosystems, and for investigations of diplogastrid genome evolution. PMID:19703296

2009-01-01

175

A STRUCTURED THRESHOLD MODEL FOR MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE OUTBREAK  

E-print Network

, initial beetle attack density and host vigor (as measured by wood production per unit of leaf area) Data for spruce bark beetles at- tacking norway spruce from Mulock and Christiansen (1986). The axes

Linder, Tamás

176

Do Pine Beetles Fan the Flames in Western Forests?  

NASA Video Gallery

As mountain pine beetles damage whole regions of Western forests, some worry that the dead trees left behind have created a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? I...

177

Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.  

PubMed

Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms. PMID:21876772

Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

2011-01-01

178

Olfactory Cues from Plants Infected by Powdery Mildew Guide Foraging by a Mycophagous Ladybird Beetle  

PubMed Central

Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical “moldy” odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms. PMID:21876772

Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.

2011-01-01

179

Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British\\u000a Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using

Diana L. Six; Z. Wilhelm de Beer; Tuan A. Duong; Allan L. Carroll; Michael J. Wingfield

2011-01-01

180

Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).  

PubMed

The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently. PMID:22263651

Shostak, Allen W

2012-06-01

181

Microbial symbiotes of the ambrosia beetle Xyloterinus politus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progression in the understanding of the microecology of ambrosia beetles and their associated microorganisms is briefly reviewed. Between the 1840s and the early 1960s the concept of one ambrosial fungus per ambrosia beetle was emphasized. Some subsequent research has supported the view that each ambrosia beetle plus several associated microorganisms constitute a highly co-evolved symbiotic community. It was hypothesized in

J. O. Haanstad; D. M. Norris

1985-01-01

182

Chemical Ecology of Bark Beetles in a Complex Olfactory Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scolytidae (bark and ambrosia beetles) comprise a taxonomic group of at least 6000 species that, although appearing similar, may differ widely in their ecology and biochemical adaptations to host trees. Bark beetle species that feed on phloem (a relatively thin layer just under the corky bark) are usually restricted to one or a few host species, whereas ambrosia beetle

J. A. Byers

183

Willow hybridization differentially affects preference and performance of herbivorous beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the preferences and performances of five beetle species (four chrysomelids and one scarab) on two species of willows (Salix sericea and S. eriocephala) and their interspecific hybrids. Beetle species differed markedly in their responses. In preference assays, two chrysomelid beetle species (Calligrapha multipunctata bigsbyana and Plagiodera versicolora) preferred hybrids, two chrysomelids (Chrysomela scriptaand Ch. Knabi) preferred hybrids and

Colin M. Orians; Cynthia H. Huang; Alexander Wild; Katherine A. Dorfman; Pamela Zee; Minh Tam T. Dao; Robert S. Fritz

1997-01-01

184

Biomass energy  

SciTech Connect

This book offers a broad, interdisciplinary approach to assessing the factors that are key determinants to the use of biomass energies, stressing their limitations, complexities, uncertainties, links, and consequences. Considers photosynthesis, energy costs of nutrients, problems with monoculture, and the energy analysis of intensive tree plantations. Subjects are examined in terms of environmental and economic impact. Emphasizes the use and abuse of biomass energies in China, India, and Brazil. Topics include forests, trees for energy, crop residues, fuel crops, aquatic plants, and animal and human wastes. Recommended for environmental engineers and planners, and those involved in ecology, systematics, and forestry.

Smil, V.

1983-01-01

185

Polymorphism in a flea beetle for the ability to use an atypical host plant  

PubMed Central

The flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) is polymorphic for its ability to use Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. (Brassicaceae) as a host plant. The genetic factors influencing this ability show both sex-linked and autosomal inheritance. Evidence was found for the presence of major genes such as those found in earlier studies, but also of genes with a smaller effect which have not previously been found. Although the ability to survive on B. vulgaris exists in most populations in eastern Denmark, it is usually at a low frequency. Beetles collected on B. vulgaris, however, usually produced larvae that survived on this plant. The inheritance and the abundance of the ability to use B. vulgaris are discussed in the context of the evolution of the interaction between P. nemorum and its atypical host plant.

Jong, P. W. de; Nielsen, J. K.

1999-01-01

186

Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested forest within managed forest landscapes and practice partial harvest of beetle-killed spruce rather than commercial clear-cutting of infested stands in order to sustain breeding bird populations until natural reforestation occurs. Because breeding densities do not always reflect fitness, assessing impacts of a massive natural disturbance should include measuring impacts of changes in vegetation on both reproductive success and predator-prey dynamics.

Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

2007-01-01

187

Species Composition and Community Structure of Dung Beetles Attracted to Dung of Gaur and Elephant in the Moist Forests of South Western Ghats  

PubMed Central

The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats. PMID:20337551

Vinod, K.V.; Sabu, Thomas K.

2007-01-01

188

Resource partitioning and overlap in three sympatric species of Ips bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  

PubMed

The bark beetles Ips pini, I. perroti, and I. grandicollis are sympatric in pine forests of the north-central United States. They share the same limited phloem resource and often coexist within the same host trees. We tested whether phloem resources are partitioned in time and space by measuring spatial and seasonal colonization of logs. Differences among species in flight phenology, development time, voltinism, and spatial colonization patterns within logs reduce, but do not eliminate, species overlap. The bark beetle species share predation by Thanasimus dubius (Cleridae) and Platysoma cylindrica (Histeridae), which exploit pheromone signals for prey location. We employed pheromone traps to test for chemical communication among bark beetle species. Heterospecific signals tend to be deterrents when they are added to conspecific signals but attractants when they are alone, indicating that the communication system can both reduce and increase species overlap in resource use depending upon relative abundance of the species. Deterrence by heterospecific signals is probably a result of selection for minimizing interspecific competition. However, individuals may sometimes benefit from joining aggregations of other species because of (1) predator swamping, (2) improved success in attacking live trees, and (3) location of suitable, recently dead, trees. These benefits should be greatest for males (which locate and colonize host trees before signalling females) and indeed males tended to be more attracted than females by heterospecific signals. Shared resources, shared predators, and heterospecific pheromone communication all contribute to species interactions in this guild of bark beetles, but predicting whether the removal of one species will tend to increase or decrease the abundance of remaining species remains difficult. Species interactions are likely conditional and coexistence is probably promoted by benefits to rare species of multispecies associations. PMID:24549914

Ayres, B D; Ayres, M P; Abrahamson, M D; Teale, S A

2001-08-01

189

Biomass, Condition of Western Lake Erie Dreissenids Primary Investigator: Thomas Nalepa -NOAA GLERL (Emeritus)  

E-print Network

Biomass, Condition of Western Lake Erie Dreissenids Primary Investigator: Thomas Nalepa - NOAA of dreissenid biomass but there are no current, accurate estimates of biomass in this portion of the lake. Biomass is calculated from abundances, size- frequencies, and length-weights. The goal of this project

190

Developmental constraints in cave beetles.  

PubMed

In insects, whilst variations in life cycles are common, the basic patterns typical for particular groups remain generally conserved. One of the more extreme modifications is found in some subterranean beetles of the tribe Leptodirini, in which the number of larval instars is reduced from the ancestral three to two and ultimately one, which is not active and does not feed. We analysed all available data on the duration and size of the different developmental stages and compared them in a phylogenetic context. The total duration of development was found to be strongly conserved, irrespective of geographical location, habitat type, number of instars and feeding behaviour of the larvae, with a single alteration of the developmental pattern in a clade of cave species in southeast France. We also found a strong correlation of the size of the first instar larva with adult size, again regardless of geographical location, ecology and type of life cycle. Both results suggest the presence of deeply conserved constraints in the timing and energy requirements of larval development. Past focus on more apparent changes, such as the number of larval instars, may mask more deeply conserved ontogenetic patterns in developmental timing. PMID:25354919

Cieslak, Alexandra; Fresneda, Javier; Ribera, Ignacio

2014-10-01

191

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for  

E-print Network

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for transportation fuel Concept developed at RISÃ? and DTU Anne Belinda Thomsen (RISÃ?) Birgitte K. Ahring (DTU) #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass: Biogas #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Pre-treatment Step Biomass is macerated The biomass is cut in small

192

Abundance and distribution of paralarval cephalopods in relation to mesoscale hydrographic features in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

, but greater mantle length of some of the more abundant taxa was often correlated with increasing depth of capture indicating ontogenetic descent. Paralarval cephalopods showed a positive correlation with zooplankton biomass; this biomass was assumed to be a...

Cady, Robert B

2012-06-07

193

Cardioinhibitory properties of potato glycoalkaloids in beetles.  

PubMed

The semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to evaluate the effect of glycoalkaloids extracted from potato leaves on the heart contractile activity of three beetle species Zophobas atratus, Tenebrio molitor and Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The dose-response curves indicated species specific action of tested substances. Application of glycoalkaloids on the continuously perfused Z. atratus heart inhibited progressively frequency contractions; higher concentrations exerted short and reversible cardiac arrests. In the rest two beetle species tested glycoalkaloids caused no cardiotropic effect. In vivo bioassay with 1 day old Z. atratus pupae showed that the extract induces a negative inotropic effect on the heart. PMID:20024528

Marciniak, Pawe?; Adamski, Zbigniew; Bednarz, Pawe?; Slocinska, Malgorzata; Ziemnicki, Kazimierz; Lelario, Filomena; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A

2010-02-01

194

Attraction of Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Damaged and Chemically Induced Potato Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmated adult female Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were attracted to damaged and chemically treated potato plants in an olfactometer. Significantly more beetles moved upwind to potato plants with damage from larval Colorado potato beetle compared with undamaged plants. More beetles moved upwind toward potato plants treated with regurgitant from Colorado potato beetle larvae or cabbage looper larvae, Trichoplusia

PETER J. LANDOLT; J. H. TUMLINSON; D. H. ALBORN

195

Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

1997-09-01

196

Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?  

PubMed

Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the need for further research into spatial variation in biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships and how the results of such studies are affected by methodological choices. PMID:24772282

Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

2014-04-01

197

Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.  

PubMed

The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations. PMID:24468553

Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

2013-12-01

198

Influence of Elevation on Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) Community Structure and Flight Periodicity in Ponderosa Pine Forests of Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined abundance and ßight periodicity of Þve Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600 Ð1,736 m; middle: 2,058 Ð2,230 m; high: 2,505Ð2,651 m) for 3

Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Andy Miller

2008-01-01

199

A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera).  

PubMed

This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevi?ius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category and data on their distribution in neighbouring countries is presented. Completion of this study provides evidence that the Lithuanian coleopteran fauna has yet to be completely investigated and it is estimated that approximately 28 % of beetle species remain undiscovered in Lithuania. More than 85% of beetle species expected for Lithuania have been found in the following families: Cerylonidae, Geotrupidae, Haliplidae, Kateridae, Lycidae, Lucanidae, Mycetophagidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae. In families with few species such as Alexiidae, Boridae, Byturidae, Dascilidae, Drilidae, Eucinetidae, Lampyridae, Lymexilidae, Megalopodidae, Nemonychidae, Nosodendridae, Noteridae, Orsodacnidae, Pyrochroidae, Pythidae, Psephenidae, Rhysodidae, Sphaeritidae, Sphaeriusidae, Sphindidae, Stenotrahelidae and Trogidae, all possible species have already been discovered. However in some beetle families such as Aderidae, Bothrideridae, Eucnemidae, Laemoploeidae, Mordellidae, Ptiliidae, Scraptidae and Throscidae less than 50% of all possible species are known. At present the beetle species recorded in Lithuania belong to 92 families, with species from 9 other families such as Agyrtidae, Biphylidae, Deradontidae, Mycteridae, Ochodaeidae, Phleophilidae, Phloeostichidae, Prostomidae, Trachypachidae are expected to be found.A bibliography and a index of subfamily and genus levels are provided. The information published in the monograph will serve to further faunistic and distribution research of beetles and will help to avoid confusion in the identificatation of coleopteran fauna of Lithuania. PMID:22461725

Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamut?, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

2011-01-01

200

A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevi?ius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category and data on their distribution in neighbouring countries is presented. Completion of this study provides evidence that the Lithuanian coleopteran fauna has yet to be completely investigated and it is estimated that approximately 28 % of beetle species remain undiscovered in Lithuania. More than 85% of beetle species expected for Lithuania have been found in the following families: Cerylonidae, Geotrupidae, Haliplidae, Kateridae, Lycidae, Lucanidae, Mycetophagidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae. In families with few species such as Alexiidae, Boridae, Byturidae, Dascilidae, Drilidae, Eucinetidae, Lampyridae, Lymexilidae, Megalopodidae, Nemonychidae, Nosodendridae, Noteridae, Orsodacnidae, Pyrochroidae, Pythidae, Psephenidae, Rhysodidae, Sphaeritidae, Sphaeriusidae, Sphindidae, Stenotrahelidae and Trogidae, all possible species have already been discovered. However in some beetle families such as Aderidae, Bothrideridae, Eucnemidae, Laemoploeidae, Mordellidae, Ptiliidae, Scraptidae and Throscidae less than 50% of all possible species are known. At present the beetle species recorded in Lithuania belong to 92 families, with species from 9 other families such as Agyrtidae, Biphylidae, Deradontidae, Mycteridae, Ochodaeidae, Phleophilidae, Phloeostichidae, Prostomidae, Trachypachidae are expected to be found. A bibliography and a index of subfamily and genus levels are provided. The information published in the monograph will serve to further faunistic and distribution research of beetles and will help to avoid confusion in the identificatation of coleopteran fauna of Lithuania. PMID:22461725

Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamut?, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

2011-01-01

201

Application of Bark Beetle Semiochemicals for Quarantine of Bark Beetles in China  

PubMed Central

This article describes the use of bark beetle semiochemicals for quarantine in China. Using traps with two isomeric compounds of ?-pinene, ethanol, trans-verbenol, verbenone, camphene and isononylaldehyde, insects of four families (Scolytidae, Platypodidae, Bostychidae and Cleridae) were trapped, including eight genera of Scolytidae, (Xyleborus, Cryphalus, Polygraphs, Xyloterus, Ips, Dendroctonus, Orthotomicus and Scolytus), totaling 16 species. The present condition of bark beetle quarantine in China is briefly discussed, and the broad research trends are outlined.

Liu, Yong; Dai, Huaguo

2006-01-01

202

Pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and biomass components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass pyrolysis studies were conducted using both a thermogravimetric analyser and a packed-bed pyrolyser. Each kind of biomass has a characteristic pyrolysis behaviour which is explained based on its individual component characteristics. Studies on isolated biomass components as well as synthetic biomass show that the interactions among the components are not of as much significance as the composition of the

K. Raveendran; Anuradda Ganesh; Kartic C. Khilar

1996-01-01

203

Seasonal phenology of the cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois  

PubMed Central

We summarize field data on the species composition and seasonal phenology of the community of cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Data were drawn from field bioassays conducted during 2009 – 2012 that tested attraction of adult beetles of diverse species to a variety of synthetic pheromones and host plant volatiles. A total of 34,086 beetles of 114 species were captured, including 48 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 41 species in the Lamiinae, 19 species in the Lepturinae, two species in the Spondylidinae, and one species each in the Necydalinae, Parandrinae, Prioninae, and the Disteniidae. Most of the best-represented species were attracted to pheromones that were included in field experiments, particularly species that use (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a pheromone component. The species captured, and their patterns of abundance and seasonal phenology were similar to those in an earlier study conducted in Pennsylvania. The most abundant species identified in both studies included the cerambycines Elaphidion mucronatum (Say), Neoclytus a. acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus m. mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Cerambycine species became active in an orderly progression from early spring through late fall, whereas most lamiine species were active in summer and fall, and lepturine species were limited to summer. Potential cross attraction between some cerambycine species that shared pheromone components may have been averted by differences in seasonal activity period, and by minor pheromone components that acted as synergists for conspecifics and/or antagonists for heterospecifics. These results provide quantitative data on the abundance and seasonal phenology of a large number of species. PMID:24683267

Hanks, Lawrence M.; Reagel, Peter F.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wong, Joseph C. H.; Meier, Linnea R.; Silliman, Christina A.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Striman, Becca L.; Robinson, Kenneth P.; Mongold-Diers, Judith A.; Millar, Jocelyn G.

2014-01-01

204

Shield Defense of a Larval Tortoise Beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the folivorous tortoise beetle, Plagiometriona clavata, carry shields formed from feces and exuviae above their bodies. We used an ecologically relevant predatory ant, Formica subsericea, in a bioassay to determine if shields functioned as simple barriers, as previous studies indicated, or whether they were chemical defenses. Shields were necessary for larval survival; shield removal rendered larvae vulnerable. Shields

Fredric V. Vencl; Timothy C. Morton; Ralph O. Mumma; Jack C. Schultz

1999-01-01

205

Cave beetle genetics: geology and gene flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of four species of obligate cave-dwelling carabid beetles, occurring in two plateau karsts, was examined using gel electrophoresis of proteins. Geological features, in particular streams and rivers, appear to be strong barriers to gene flow in both karst regions. Additional genetic differentiation among populations, which is not obviously related to geological features, occurs in both plateaus. As

Thomas C Kane; Thomas C Barr; William J Badaracca

1992-01-01

206

Asian longhorned beetle public service announcement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This public service announcement featuring John Walsh of America's Most Wanted is designed to raise awareness of the Asian Longhorned Beetle. The sound quality and lighting are good. The compression of the video makes the visuals less useable for some purposes.

0002-11-30

207

Brilliant Whiteness in Ultrathin Beetle Scales  

E-print Network

Brilliant Whiteness in Ultrathin Beetle Scales Pete Vukusic,1 * Benny Hallam,2 Joe Noyes1 T he. Archetypal brilliant whiteness that is not augmented by fluores- cence, such as whiteness from snow or milk or kaolin crystal inclusions and optical brightening agents (blue fluorescing dyes) are added to paper

Exeter, University of

208

Tenlined June Beetle Impacts California Almond Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grubs of the tenlined June beetle, Polyphylla decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), have re-emerged as a problem in almond orchards in the sandy regions of the San Joaquin Valley. The 2 nd and 3 rd instar grubs are commonly found attacking almond roots. Thousands of almond trees have been removed because of root injury, which leads to reduced shoot growth,

Marshall W. Johnson; Mark W. Freeman; Richard Coviello

209

Effects of Chitin and Contact Insecticide Complexes on Rove Beetles in Commercial Orchards  

PubMed Central

A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility. PMID:21870981

Balog, A.; Ferencz, L.; Hartel, T.

2011-01-01

210

The Response of Saprotrophic Beetles to Coast Live Oaks Infected With  

E-print Network

B. Standiford2 Key words: sudden oak death, bark and ambrosia beetles, attraction Abstract Saprotrophic ambrosia and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) tunnel into the bark overlying cankers caused, ambrosia beetles, particularly Monarthrum spp., require sound, undecayed wood, and the development

Standiford, Richard B.

211

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section 301.48-6...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a...

2010-01-01

212

77 FR 58469 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2012-0003] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts...rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle regulations by adding portions of Worcester...artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United...

2012-09-21

213

Decarboxylative Arylation of Amino Acids via Photoredox Catalysis: A One-Step Conversion of Biomass to Drug  

E-print Network

Decarboxylative Arylation of Amino Acids via Photoredox Catalysis: A One-Step Conversion of Biomass. This method offers rapid entry to prevalent benzylic amine architectures from an abundant biomass the worldwide abundance of biomass6 that incorporates carboxylate functionality (e.g., amino acids, -hydroxy

MacMillan, David W. C.

214

Remote sensing and GIS studies on the spatial distribution and management of Japanese beetle adults and grubs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are rapidly developing technologies that offer new opportunities and potentially more effective methods for detecting and monitoring insect pests, as well as understanding their spatial dynamics. These technologies (coupled with traditional trapping) were investigated for their use in managing Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) adults and grubs and studying their spatial distribution and dynamics. Japanese beetle grubs are important root-feeding pests of turfgrass in the Midwest and eastern United States. No non-invasive methods exist to detect grub infestations before unsightly damage has occurred. Studies were conducted to determine whether remote sensing could be used to detect the pre-visible symptoms of simulated and natural grub damage in turfgrass. Simulated grub damage was detected with surface temperature measurements (but not with spectrometer data) before significant visual differences were found. Plots infested with grubs were distinguished from uninfested plots using spectrometer data 10--16 days before significant differences in visual ratings were found. Results using multispectral imagery were mixed. Currently, Japanese beetles are not established in the western United States. There is great concern over their inadvertent transportation into Pacific costal states via cargo transport planes. Beetles may fly onboard cargo planes while they are loaded or unloaded and be accidentally transported to the western states. A study was initiated to evaluate trapping as a method to reliably detect Japanese beetle hotspots near cargo terminals at the Indianapolis International Airport and to assess the spatial variability of the population around the airport. The potential influence of land use on beetle abundance was also assessed, using a GIS. Baited Japanese beetle traps were placed around the perimeter of the airport and emptied daily. Location-dependent variation in trap catch was found. Seasonal average trap catches were highly correlated from year to year, by location. A mark-release-recapture study showed that Japanese beetles frequently flew up to 500m during a day, but could travel up to 700m. Using a GIS, a spatially explicit map of land use and trap location was created. Agricultural land within 500m of the traps was generally positively correlated with trap catch.

Hamilton, Randy M.

215

A quarter of a century succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages in remnant habitats in an urbanized matrix (Coleoptera, Carabidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied the long-term (23–24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2–3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4–1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our sampled areas are among some of the last remnants of the original oak savanna habitats in central Minnesota, we hypothesize that conservation of these sites may be critical to maintaining epigaeic beetle assemblages under increased urbanization pressure. PMID:22371681

Gandhi, Kamal J.K.; Epstein, Marc E.; Koehle, Jessica J.; Purrington, Foster F.

2011-01-01

216

Floral Associations of Cyclocephaline Scarab Beetles  

PubMed Central

The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: 1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, 2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and 3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses, host plant shifts, and mutualisms with angiosperms. PMID:24738782

Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

2013-01-01

217

Acetophenone as an anti-attractant for the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus Brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  

PubMed

Host location and colonization by bark beetles is dependent upon the relative and absolute amounts of attractant and antiattractant compounds available. Many investigations have lead to use of antiattractants for the management of these pests and have been especially focused on verbenone. However, recent studies have identified new antiattractants for several species of bark beetles. We report results of recent investigations of the response of western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, to two recently identified antiattractants, acetophenone, and fenchyl alcohol, with verbenone as a standard of comparison, in northern California. Release of both acetophenone and verbenone resulted in significantly lower trap catches of D. brevicomis in aggregation pheromone-baited traps, while fenchyl alcohol was inactive. Acetophenone was the only antiattractant that did not reduce numbers of the most abundant predator of D. brevicomis, Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim), responding to the attractant pheromone of its prey. Aggregation pheromone-baited traps with acetophenone also had the highest predator/prey ratio. Our results suggest that acetophenone may be part of the intra- and interspecific interactions among sympatric species of bark beetles and may have application in their control. PMID:17318432

Erbilgin, N; Gillette, N E; Mori, S R; Stein, J D; Owen, D R; Wood, D L

2007-04-01

218

Cross-scale Drivers of Natural Disturbances Prone to Anthropogenic Amplification: The Dynamics of Bark Beetle Eruptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biome-scale disturbances by eruptive herbivores provide valuable insights into species interactions, ecosystem function, and impacts of global change. We present a conceptual framework using one system as a model, emphasizing interactions across levels of biological hierarchy and spatiotemporal scales. Bark beetles are major natural disturbance agents in western North American forests. However, recent bark beetle population eruptions have exceeded the frequencies, impacts, and ranges documented during the previous 125 years. Extensive host abundance and susceptibility, concentrated beetle density, favorable weather, optimal symbiotic associations, and escape from natural enemies must occur jointly for beetles to surpass a series of thresholds and exert widespread disturbance. Opposing feedbacks determine qualitatively distinct outcomes at junctures at the biochemical through landscape levels. Eruptions occur when key thresholds are surpassed, prior constraints cease to exert influence, and positive feedbacks amplify across scales. These dynamics are bidirectional, as landscape features influence how lower-scale processes are amplified or buffered. Climate change and reduced habitat heterogeneity increase the likelihood that key thresholds will be exceeded, and may cause fundamental regime shifts. Systems in which endogenous feedbacks can dominate after external forces foster the initial breach of thresholds appear particularly sensitive to anthropogenic perturbations.

Kenneth F. Raffa et al (University of Wisconsin;)

2008-06-01

219

Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark

R. W. Stark; P. R. Miller; F. W. Jr. Cobb; D. L. Wood; J. R. Jr. Parmeter

1968-01-01

220

Aggregation pheromone of the cereal leaf beetle: field evaluation and emission from males in the laboratory.  

PubMed

The previously identified, male-specific compound of the cereal leaf beetle (CLB, Chrysomelidae; Oulema melanopus), (E)-8-hydroxy-6-methyl-6-octen-3-one, was studied further with respect to field activity and emission rate from male beetles. In a 5-week field experiment in Oregon, the compound was shown to function as an aggregation pheromone in attracting male and female CLBs migrating from overwintering sites in spring. Traps baited with the synthetic compound (500 microg per rubber septum) caught 3.3 times more CLBs than control traps. Lower doses of the pheromone (50 and 150 microg) were less attractive than the 500 microg dose. One relatively abundant, volatile compound from the host plant (oats), (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, that elicited responses from beetle antennae was not attractive, either by itself or as a synergist of the pheromone. Both sexes were captured about equally for all treatments. We also measured daily pheromone emission by male beetles in the laboratory. Individual males feeding on oat seedlings under greenhouse conditions emitted as much as 6 microg per day, which is about 500 times higher than had been previously observed under incubator conditions. The pheromone emission rate was at least five times higher during the day than at night, and in one male, emission spanned a period of 28 d. The release rate of synthetic pheromone from the 500 microg septa was very similar to the maximum from single males; thus, future experiments should evaluate even higher doses. The field results indicate that the pheromone has potential as a monitoring tool for early detection of CLBs as they move from their overwintering sites into newly planted cereal crops in spring. PMID:14584683

Rao, Sujaya; Cossé, Allard A; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Bartelt, Robert J

2003-09-01

221

Numerical Responses of Saproxylic Beetles to Rapid Increases in Dead Wood Availability following Geometrid Moth Outbreaks in Sub-Arctic Mountain Birch Forest  

PubMed Central

Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak. PMID:24911056

Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

2014-01-01

222

Endozoochory by beetles: a novel seed dispersal mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Due in part to biophysical sized-related constraints, insects unlike vertebrates are seldom expected to act as primary seed dispersers via ingestion of fruits and seeds (endozoochory). The Mediterranean parasitic plant Cytinus hypocistis, however, possesses some characteristics that may facilitate endozoochory by beetles. By combining a long-term field study with experimental manipulation, we tested whether C. hypocistis seeds are endozoochorously dispersed by beetles. Methods Field studies were carried out over 4 years on six populations in southern Spain. We recorded the rate of natural fruit consumption by beetles, the extent of beetle movement, beetle behaviour and the relative importance of C. hypocistis fruits in beetle diet. Key Results The tenebrionid beetle Pimelia costata was an important disperser of C. hypocistis seeds, consuming up to 17·5 % of fruits per population. Forty-six per cent of beetles captured in the field consumed C. hypocistis fruits, with up to 31 seeds found in individual beetle frass. An assessment of seeds following passage through the gut of beetles indicated that seeds remained intact and viable and that the proportion of viable seeds from beetle frass was not significantly different from that of seeds collected directly from fruits. Conclusions A novel plant–animal interaction is revealed; endozoochory by beetles may facilitate the dispersal of viable seeds after passage through the gut away from the parent plant to potentially favourable underground sites offering a high probability of germination and establishment success. Such an ecological role has until now been attributed only to vertebrates. Future studies should consider more widely the putative role of fruit and seed ingestion by invertebrates as a dispersal mechanism, particularly for those plant species that possess small seeds. PMID:21303784

de Vega, Clara; Arista, Montserrat; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Herrera, Carlos M.; Talavera, Salvador

2011-01-01

223

Visual control of cursorial prey pursuit by tiger beetles (Cicindelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target detection poses problems for moving animals, such as tiger beetles, that track targets visually. The pursuer's movements\\u000a degrade target image contrast and induce reafferent image movement that confounds continuous detection of prey. In nature,\\u000a beetles pursue prey discontinuously with several iterations of stop-and-go running. The beetle's dynamics were analyzed by\\u000a filming pursuits of prey or experimenter-controlled dummies. Durations of

C. Gilbert

1997-01-01

224

Susceptibility of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.  

PubMed

We investigated differential susceptibility of lady beetles to entomopathogenic nematodes, for two reasons: (1) to estimate potential nontarget effects on natural lady beetle populations, (2) to compare the susceptibility of exotic versus native lady beetle species. We hypothesize that successful establishment of some exotically introduced arthropods may be due, in part, to a lower susceptibility relative to competing native species. In laboratory studies, we compared the pathogenicity, virulence, and reproductive capacity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae among two native (Coleomegilla maculata and Olla v-nigrum) and two successfully established exotic (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata) lady beetles, and a known susceptible lepidopteran host, Agrotis ipsilon. After 1 and 2 days of exposure to either nematode species, mortality of A. ipsilon was higher than in all lady beetles. Thus, we predict that nematode field applications would have significantly less impact on lady beetle populations than on a susceptible target pest. Additionally, the impact of soil-applied nematodes may be lower on lady beetles than on soil-dwelling hosts because the former spends relatively less time on the soil. Exotic lady beetles were less susceptible to nematode infection than native species. Reproductive capacity data also indicated lower host suitability in H. axyridis, but not in C. septempunctata. Overall, the hypothesis that low susceptibility to pathogens in certain exotic lady beetles may have contributed to competitive establishment was supported (especially for H. axyridis). Additional studies incorporating different hosts and pathogens from various geographic locations will be required to further address the hypothesis. PMID:15913642

Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E

2005-06-01

225

Pennsylvania Energy: Biomass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many potential, renewable sources of biomass energy exist in Pennsylvania, especially on farms. This video profiles various facilities that make biomass energy, including biodiesel fuel. Biomass energy is important to the economy and the food supply.

Wpsu

2006-09-23

226

Root biomass allocation in the world's upland forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating\\u000a their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root\\u000a biomass based on standard methods are much less common. The goal of this work was to determine if a reliable method to estimate\\u000a root

Michael A. Cairns; Sandra Brown; Eileen H. Helmer; Greg A. Baumgardner

1997-01-01

227

Toxicity of Diatomaceous Earth to Red Flour Beetles and Confused Flour Beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetles, Tribo- lium confusum (DuVal), were exposed for 8—72 h to diatomaceous earth (Protect-It) at 22, 27, and 328C and 40, 57, and 75% RH (9 combinations). Insects were exposed to the diatomaceous earth at 0.5 mg\\/cm2 on filter paper inside plastic petri dishes. After exposure, beetles were held for 1

Frank H. Arthur

2000-01-01

228

Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

2009-01-01

229

The Leiodid Beetles of Costa Rica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad in Costa Rica provides this visually pleasing Web site on the Leiodidae, authored by S. P. Beck of Carleton University and A. F. Newton of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. A simple drop down menu allows users to access information on leiodid beetle taxonomy, distribution, life history, biogeography, collection methods, and more. Most sections of this Web site contain straightforward text explanations of each topic, although some sections also include links to textbook-style diagrams, such as in the Illustrated Key to the Leodidae of Costa Rica and in Habitus Figures. In all, this Web site offers a brief and well-presented overview of Costa Rica's leiodid beetles.

Newton, Alfred F.; Peck, Stewart B.

230

Impact of the Darkling Beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) on Establishment of the Predaceous Beetle Carcinops pumilio (Erichson)  

E-print Network

numerous dis- eases: Newcastle disease, avian influenza, infectious bursal disease, Marek's disease; Despins et al., 1994). In addition to their potential to spread disease, darkling beetles also cause

Kaufman, Phillip E.

231

Formation of Rigid, Non-Flight Forewings (Elytra) of a Beetle Requires Two Major Cuticular Proteins  

PubMed Central

Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings) of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa) and TcCPR18 (20 kDa), which are also present in pronotum and ventral abdominal cuticles. Both are members of the Rebers and Riddiford family of cuticular proteins and contain RR2 motifs. Transcripts for both genes dramatically increase in abundance at the pharate adult stage and then decline quickly thereafter. Injection of specific double-stranded RNAs for each gene into penultimate or last instar larvae had no effect on larval–larval, larval–pupal, or pupal–adult molting. The elytra of the resulting adults, however, were shorter, wrinkled, warped, fenestrated, and less rigid than those from control insects. TcCPR27-deficient insects could not fold their hindwings properly and died prematurely approximately one week after eclosion, probably because of dehydration. TcCPR18-deficient insects exhibited a similar but less dramatic phenotype. Immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of TcCPR27 in the elytral cuticle. These results demonstrate that TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are major structural proteins in the rigid elytral, dorsal thoracic, and ventral abdominal cuticles of the red flour beetle, and that both proteins are required for morphogenesis of the beetle's elytra. PMID:22570623

Arakane, Yasuyuki; Lomakin, Joseph; Gehrke, Stevin H.; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Tomich, John M.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W.; Kramer, Karl J.; Kanost, Michael R.

2012-01-01

232

Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution and ecology  

PubMed Central

Many important questions in developmental biology increasingly interface with related questions in other biological disciplines such as evolutionary biology and ecology. In this article, we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range of approaches, from gene function analysis in the laboratory to population ecological and behavioral studies in the field. Specifically, we focus on three key questions at the current interface of developmental biology, evolutionary biology and ecology: (1) the developmental mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of novel, complex traits, (2) the relationship between phenotypic diversification and the diversification of genes and transcriptomes, and (3) the role of behavior as a leader or follower in developmental evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current understanding of key issues, as well as highlight challenges and opportunities for future studies. PMID:23799584

Kijimoto, Teiya; Pespeni, Melissa; Beckers, Oliver; Moczek, Armin P.

2013-01-01

233

An overview of hydrogen production from biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production plays a very important role in the development of hydrogen economy. One of the promising hydrogen production approaches is conversion from biomass, which is abundant, clean and renewable. Alternative thermochemical (pyrolysis and gasification) and biological (biophotolysis, water–gas shift reaction and fermentation) processes can be practically applied to produce hydrogen. This paper gives an overview of these technologies for

Meng Ni; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Michael K. H. Leung; K. Sumathy

2006-01-01

234

Influence of recent bark beetle outbreak on fire severity and postfire tree regeneration in montane Douglas-fir forests.  

PubMed

Understanding how disturbances interact to shape ecosystems is a key challenge in ecology. In forests of western North America, the degree to which recent bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fires may be linked (e.g., outbreak severity affects fire severity) and/ or whether these two disturbances produce compound effects on postfire succession is of widespread interest. These interactions remain unresolved, largely because field data from actual wildfires following beetle outbreaks are lacking. We studied the 2008 Gunbarrel Fire, which burned 27 200 ha in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests that experienced a bark beetle outbreak 4-13 years prefire ("gray stage," after trees have died and needles have dropped), to determine whether outbreak severity influenced subsequent fire severity and postfire tree regeneration. In 85 sample plots we recorded prefire stand structure and outbreak severity; multiple measures of canopy and forest-floor fire severity; and postfire tree seedling density. Prefire outbreak severity was not related to any measure of fire severity except for mean bole scorch, which declined slightly with increasing outbreak severity. Instead, fire severity varied with topography and burning conditions (proxy for weather at time of fire). Postfire Douglas-fir regeneration was low, with tree seedlings absent in 65% of plots. Tree seedlings were abundant in plots of low fire severity that also had experienced low outbreak severity (mean = 1690 seedlings/ha), suggesting a dual filter on tree regeneration. Although bark beetles and fire collectively reduced live basal area to < 5% and increased snag density to > 2000% of pre-outbreak levels, the lack of relationship between beetle outbreak and fire severity suggests that these disturbances were not linked. Nonetheless, effects on postfire tree regeneration suggest compound disturbance interactions that contribute to the structural heterogeneity characteristic of mid/lower montane forests. PMID:24400499

Harvey, Brian J; Donato, Daniel C; Romme, William H; Turner, Monica G

2013-11-01

235

Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.  

PubMed

The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

2013-01-01

236

Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass.  

PubMed

Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180 degrees. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use-in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster-the inclination compass. PMID:18404256

Vácha, Martin; Drstková, Dana; P?zová, Tereza

2008-08-01

237

Loss of flight promotes beetle diversification  

PubMed Central

The evolution of flight is a key innovation that may enable the extreme diversification of insects. Nonetheless, many species-rich, winged insect groups contain flightless lineages. The loss of flight may promote allopatric differentiation due to limited dispersal power and may result in a high speciation rate in the flightless lineage. Here we show that loss of flight accelerates allopatric speciation using carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). We demonstrate that flightless species retain higher genetic differentiation among populations and comprise a higher number of genetically distinct lineages than flight-capable species, and that the speciation rate with the flightless state is twice that with the flight-capable state. Moreover, a meta-analysis of 51 beetle species from 15 families reveals higher genetic differentiation among populations in flightless compared with flight-capable species. In beetles, which represent almost one-fourth of all described species, repeated evolution of flightlessness may have contributed to their steady diversification since the Mesozoic era. PMID:22337126

Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Sota, Teiji

2012-01-01

238

Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.  

PubMed

Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use. PMID:25368178

Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

2014-11-18

239

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

240

Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region) and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions) as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys. PMID:22735139

Segura, M O; Fonseca-Gessner, A A; Spies, M R; Siegloch, A E

2012-05-01

241

The Solar Argon Abundance  

E-print Network

The solar argon abundance cannot be directly derived by spectroscopic observations of the solar photosphere. The solar Ar abundance is evaluated from solar wind measurements, nucleosynthetic arguments, observations of B stars, HII regions, planetary nebulae, and noble gas abundances measured in Jupiter's atmosphere. These data lead to a recommended argon abundance of N(Ar) = 91,200(+/-)23,700 (on a scale where Si = 10^6 atoms). The recommended abundance for the solar photosphere (on a scale where log N(H) = 12) is A(Ar)photo = 6.50(+/-)0.10, and taking element settling into account, the solar system (protosolar) abundance is A(Ar)solsys = 6.57(+/-)0.10.

Katharina Lodders

2007-10-24

242

Estimates of cetacean abundance, biomass, and population density are  

E-print Network

be affected by anthropogenic sound (e.g., sonar, ship noise, and seismic surveys) and cli- mate change., 1997). Large whales also die from ship strikes (Carretta et al., 2006). West coast cetaceans may of cetaceans along the U.S. west coast were estimated from ship surveys conducted in the summer and fall

243

Bird abundance and species richness on Florida lakes: influence of trophic status, lake morphology, and aquatic macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 46 Florida lakes were used to examine relationships between bird abundance (numbers and biomass) and species richness, and lake trophic status, lake morphology and aquatic macrophyte abundance. Average annual bird numbers ranged from 7 to 800 birds km-2 and bird biomass ranged from 1 to 465 kg km-2. Total species richness ranged from 1 to 30 species per

Mark V. Hoyer; Daniel E. Canfield

1994-01-01

244

Artificial defoliation effect on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration  

SciTech Connect

The impact of artificial defoliation on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was examined. Four Populus clones were field planted and artificially defoliated. Assigned defoliation levels (0, 25, 50, or 75%) were applied to leaves of leaf plastochron index 0 through 8 during a 6-d period in a 3-step incremental manner to simulate cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., larval feeding patterns. Artificial defoliations were timed to coincide with the outbreaks of natural beetle populations in adjacent areas. After 2 growing seasons, trees were measured for height, diameter, and biomass accumulation. Root samples were collected from 0 and 75% defoliation treatments for each clone. Biomass was reduced an average of 33% as defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%. As defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%, a consistent allocation ratio of biomass to 2/3 above and 1/3 below ground components continued in all clones. An overcompensation response occurred in above ground biomass when a defoliation level of 25% was applied. Between 25 and 75% a strong linear trend of decreasing biomass as defoliation increased was indicated. Vitality of the tree, as indicated by total nonstructural carbohydrate content, was affected only slightly by increasing defoliation. 26 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Reichenbacker, R.R.; Hart, E.R.; Schultz, R.C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1996-06-01

245

Can biomass time series be reliably assessed from CPUE time series data Francis Lalo1  

E-print Network

1 Can biomass time series be reliably assessed from CPUE time series data only? Francis Laloë1 to abundance. This means (i) that catchability is constant and (ii) that all the biomass is catchable. If so, relative variations in CPUE indicate the same relative variations in biomass. Myers and Worm consider

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

246

ERDC/TN APCRP-EA-24 Comparison of Three Biomass Sampling  

E-print Network

ERDC/TN APCRP-EA-24 July 2010 Comparison of Three Biomass Sampling Techniques on Submersed Aquatic R. Spickard2 PURPOSE: Quantifying biomass to measure aquatic plant abundance can be costly and labor intensive. This technical note compares several alternate, less exhaustive techniques for biomass sampling

US Army Corps of Engineers

247

Model Analysis of Spatial Patterns in Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mountain pine beetle [MPB,Dendroctonus ponderosaeHopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)] is an aggressive bark beetle, one that typically needs to kill host trees in order to successfully reproduce. This ecological adaptation has resulted in an organism that is both economically important and ecologically significant. Even though significant resources have been expended on MPB research, and a great deal of knowledge exists regarding

Jesse A. Logan; Peter White; Barbara J. Bentz; James A. Powell

1998-01-01

248

Chemical defense: Aquatic beetle (Dineutes hornii) vs. fish (Micropterus salmoides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Departments of * Neurobiology and Behavior and Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 Contributed by Thomas Eisner, July 19, 2000 Captive largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) reject the gyrinid beetle, Dineutes hornii. They also reject edible items (mealworms) treated by topical addition of the norsesquiterpene gyrinidal, the principal component of the defensive secretion of the beetle. The bass'

Thomas Eisner; Daniel J. Aneshansley

2000-01-01

249

Larger Black Flour Beetle in Southern High Plains Homes  

E-print Network

E-443 04/07 Larger Black Flour Beetle in Southern High Plains Homes Patrick Porter and Nancy E. Mc&M University System; and Associate Professor, Texas Tech University arger black flour beetles are not really large, not always black and not just found in flour. They are only about 1 /4 inch long, are dark Texas

McIntyre, Nancy E.

250

Origin of a haplodiploid beetle lineage Benjamin B. Normark1*  

E-print Network

Origin of a haplodiploid beetle lineage Benjamin B. Normark1* , Bjarte H. Jordal1,2 and Brian D Department of Zoology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 41 N-5007 Bergen, Norway The beetle family Scolytidae exploit novel resources, ambrosia fungi or seeds, but a few have the ancestral habit of feeding on phloem

Farrell, Brian D.

251

Rust and Beetle Interactions in Pinus albicaulis Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current mountain pine beetle activity in whitebark pine ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is unprecedented in extent and severity. Dynamics among beetles, white pine blister rust, and climate change are placing this foundation species in a precarious state. Stand- and tree-level data was recorded to quantify how the severity of rust and the presence of an alternate host influence

Nancy Bockino; Daniel B. Tinker

2009-01-01

252

Prairie dog engineering indirectly affects beetle movement behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that landscape structure influences animal movement and population structure. In this study, we show an indirect interaction between beetles and prairie dogs due to prairie dog ecosystem engineering. Gunnison's prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni Hollister) towns have more bare ground and are structurally less complex than adjacent unmodified grasslands. This results in bare ground facilitating beetle movement.

R. K. Bangert; C. N. Slobodchikoff

2004-01-01

253

Are bark beetle outbreaks less synchronous than forest Lepidoptera outbreaks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of intraspecific spatial synchrony across multiple epidemic insect species can be useful for generating hypotheses about major determinants of population patterns at larger scales. The present study compares patterns of spatial synchrony in outbreaks of six epidemic bark beetle species in North America and Europe. Spatial synchrony among populations of the Eurasian spruce bark beetle Ips typographus was significantly

Bjørn Økland; Andrew M. Liebhold; Ottar N. Bjørnstad; Nadir Erbilgin; Paal Krokene

2005-01-01

254

Are bark beetle outbreaks less synchronous than forest Lepidoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of intraspecific spatial synchrony across multiple epidemic insect species can be useful for generating hypotheses about major determinants of population patterns at larger scales. The present study compares patterns of spatial synchrony in outbreaks of six epidemic bark beetle species in North America and Europe. Spatial synchrony among populations of the Eurasian spruce bark beetle Ips typographus was signif-

Bjørn Økland; Andrew M. Liebhold; Ottar N. Bjørnstad; Nadir Erbilgin; Paal Krokene

255

Southern Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Brood Adults: Reverse Emergence1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) brood adults from the inner surface of removed Pinus taeda L. bark is described. It is well known that bark beetles normally emerge through the outer bark. The parent adults bore the so- called \\

JOHN C. MOSER

1983-01-01

256

Investigating the effectiveness of Mountain Pine Beetle mitigation strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a broad range of mitigation strategies associated with the management of Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). We consider: methods that are currently utilised or have been proposed for controlling beetle populations; the manner in which the effectiveness of these approaches is monitored and assessed; and the role that remotely sensed data may play in a large-area monitoring

Nicholas C. Coops; Joleen A. Timko; Michael A. Wulder; Joanne C. White; Stephanie M. Ortlepp

2008-01-01

257

Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)

Dockery, Michael

1997-01-01

258

Beetles (Coleoptera) in polar deserts of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of five expeditions to the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, four beetle species were found: Micralymma brevilingue (Staphylinidae), Chrysolina subsulcata, Ch. septentrionalis (Chrysomelidae), and Dienerella filum (Latridiidae). The zonal plant communities do not contain beetles at all. All the species found prefer intrazonal habitats,\\u000a where the snowless season is prolonged. Only M. brevilingue is common enough in various biotopes

O. L. Makarova; A. O. Bie?kowski; V. I. Bulavintsev; A. V. Sokolov

2007-01-01

259

Potential parasitoid attractants, volatile composition throughout a bark beetle attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hymenopteran parasitoids prey on mature bark beetle larvae (Scolytidae), concealed under the bark of conifers. According to previous results, certain oxygenated monoterpenes are crucial in host location. However, synthetic baits tested in laboratory bioassays are not quite as attractive to the parasitoids as the natural volatile bouquet from conifers containing susceptible bark beetle larvae. The aim of the current

Eva M. Pettersson; Wilhelm Boland

2003-01-01

260

Research Focus Biological pest control in beetle agriculture  

E-print Network

with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics. The complexity of mutualistic interactions). However, it is becoming increasingly evident that the distinction between mutualistic and parasitic inter

261

Asian longhorn beetle www.forestry.gov.uk/planthealth  

E-print Network

beetles are large (roughly 20­40 mm long), shiny, with black and white markings. The beetles have very long, distinctive antennae (up to twice their body length) that have black and white or light blue are circular `exit' holes, around 10 mm in diameter, which are found in the main trunk () or branches

262

The carbon isotopic composition of soil respiration in the decade following disturbance by bark beetle or stem girdling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle have caused large-scale tree mortality in western North America, which can lead to fundamental changes in carbon cycling. When a tree is infested, the flow of photosynthate is disrupted. This causes the roots and their symbionts to die, eliminating the autotrophic component of soil respiration. Mycorrhizal fungi are enriched in 13C compared to plant tissues. As the dead fungal biomass is consumed by soil heterotrophs, the ?13C of CO2 in heterotrophic soil respiration may become more enriched as the fungal biomass is consumed. We investigated this response by measuring soil respiration in chronosequences of stem-girdled plots at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site, and beetle-killed plots at the Fraser Experimental Forest, both in Colorado. Stem girdling was used to simulate beetle attack because it kills trees by a similar mechanism. Plots at Niwot Ridge included live trees and 7 years of girdled plots extending back to 2002. Plots at Fraser included live trees and three age classes of beetle-killed trees, within a similar chronosequence. We used manual soil-gas sampling at three depths, during the summers of 2011 and 2012, to determine if there is an isotopic effect associated with disturbance. Consistent with our expectations, in 2011, we found an enrichment in ?13C of approximately 1‰ in the two years following girdling which was absent in subsequent years. Although this pattern was also evident in 2012, the enrichment in ?13C during the same time period was about half that in 2011. At both Niwot and Fraser, in 2011, seasonal mean ?13C decreased by about 1‰ at all depths 3-4 years after disturbance, but returned to values close to control plots in the following 4-6 years. While we found a similar pattern at Fraser in 2012, we measured an enrichment of 1-1.5‰ at the OA interface at Niwot 8-10 years after disturbance, which was not found in 2011. It is possible this is due to the decomposition of woody biomass. At both sites and in both years, seasonal mean ?13C was enriched by about 1‰ at the OA interface compared to the 10 and 30 cm depths, which were similar. Overall, these results lend support to the hypothesis that mycorrhizal biomass is consumed in the first few years following major disturbance to their plant hosts.

Chan, A.; Maurer, G. E.; Bowling, D. R.

2013-12-01

263

USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-43. 2006 137 Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle  

E-print Network

the potential for serious impacts on forest resources. Granulate Ambrosia Beetle _________________________________________ The granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus), also known as the Asian ambrosia beetle, was firstUSDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-43. 2006 137 Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle and Emerald

264

Influence of Temperature on Spring Flight Initiation for Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for ßight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles, Þve species of Dendroctonus bark beetles, and two genera of bark beetle predators,Enoclerusspp. (Coleoptera:

M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. Mcmillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

2008-01-01

265

Confinement of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida ) by Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we quantify small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybee (A.m. capensis Esch., an African subspecies) behaviours that are associated with beetle confinement in an effort to understand why Cape bees can withstand large beetle infestations. Four observation hives were each inoculated with 25 beetles and were observed for 11-17 days. Data collected included guard bee

James D. Ellis; Randall Hepburn; Patti J. Elzen

2004-01-01

266

Biomass treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

2010-10-26

267

Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory  

E-print Network

Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory Multi-scale,multi-mode imaging tools to understand the recalcitrant nature of biomass feedstocks and the performance of techniques to deconstruct biomass NREL, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. The Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (BSCL

268

Antennal transcriptome analysis of the chemosensory gene families in the tree killing bark beetles, Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)  

PubMed Central

Background The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, and the North American mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are severe pests of coniferous forests. Both bark beetle species utilize aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass-attacks on host trees, while odorants from host and non-host trees modulate the pheromone response. Thus, the bark beetle olfactory sense is of utmost importance for fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfactory detection has been lacking in bark beetles and is limited in Coleoptera. We assembled antennal transcriptomes from next-generation sequencing of I. typographus and D. ponderosae to identify members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. Results Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific GO terms was highly similar in the two species. Transcripts with terms related to olfactory function were found in both species. Focusing on the chemosensory gene families, we identified 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 6 chemosensory proteins (CSP), 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 43 odorant receptors (OR), 6 gustatory receptors (GR), and 7 ionotropic receptors (IR) in I. typographus; and 31 putative OBPs, 11 CSPs, 3 SNMPs, 49 ORs, 2 GRs, and 15 IRs in D. ponderosae. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the cerambycid beetle, Megacyllene caryae, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The most notable result was found among the ORs, for which large bark beetle-specific expansions were found. However, some clades contained receptors from all four beetle species, indicating a degree of conservation among some coleopteran OR lineages. Putative GRs for carbon dioxide and orthologues for the conserved antennal IRs were included in the identified receptor sets. Conclusions The protein families important for chemoreception have now been identified in three coleopteran species (four species for the ORs). Thus, this study allows for improved evolutionary analyses of coleopteran olfaction. Identification of these proteins in two of the most destructive forest pests, sharing many semiochemicals, is especially important as they might represent novel targets for population control. PMID:23517120

2013-01-01

269

Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

Muths, Erin Louise

1991-01-01

270

Genetics, development and composition of the insect head – A beetle’s view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many questions regarding evolution and ontogeny of the insect head remain open. Likewise, the genetic basis of insect head development is poorly understood. Recently, the investigation of gene expression data and the analysis of patterning gene function have revived interest in insect head development. Here, we argue that the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a well suited model organism

Nico Posnien; Johannes B. Schinko; Sebastian Kittelmann; Gregor Bucher

2010-01-01

271

Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them.  

PubMed

Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles.Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks. PMID:18698369

Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B; Aneshansley, Daniel J; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

2008-01-01

272

Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them  

PubMed Central

Summary Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles. Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks. PMID:18698369

Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

2008-01-01

273

INTRODUCED LEAF BEETLES OF THE MARITIME PROVINCES, 2: THE CEREAL LEAF BEETLE OULEMA MELANOPUS (LINNAEUS) (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voucher specimens of the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (Linnaeus), from the Maritime Provinces of Canada were examined. This important cereal pest is newly recorded from Prince Edward Island. Most populations established in the Maritime Provinces of Canada probably originated from southern Ontario where O. melanopus was first discovered about 1965. Historical information demonstrates that the beetle spread northeastward by

LAURENT LESAGE; ERHARD JOHN DOBESBERGER; CHRISTOPHER G. MAJKA

274

Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential  

E-print Network

Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential Michael Schaetzel Undergraduate ? Environmental Studies ? University of Kansas L O C A T S I O N BIOMASS ENERGY POTENTIAL o According to DOE, Biomass has the potential to provide 14% of... the nation’s power o Currently 1% of national power supply o Carbon neutral? combustion of biomass is part of the natural carbon cycle o Improved crop residue management has potential to benefit environment, producers, and economy Biomass Btu...

Schaetzel, Michael

2010-11-18

275

The Primordial Helium Abundance  

E-print Network

I present a brief review on the determination of the primordial helium abundance by unit mass, Yp. I discuss the importance of the primordial helium abundance in: (a) cosmology, (b) testing the standard big bang nucleosynthesis, (c) studying the physical conditions in H II regions, (d) providing the initial conditions for stellar evolution models, and (e) testing the galactic chemical evolution models.

Manuel Peimbert

2008-11-18

276

Transgenic resistance of Bulgarian potato cultivars to the Colorado potato beetle based on Bt technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, is the most destructive insect pest of potatoes. When the population of beetles is high, plants can be completely defoliated\\u000a and commercial potato production is nearly impossible without control of the beetle. The beetles have shown a tremendous ability\\u000a to develop resistance against insecticides. Previously, a biotechnology approach to control Colarado potato beetle based

Ivanka Kamenova; Rossitza Batchvarova; Stanislaw Flasinski; Lidia Dimitrova; Petya Christova; Slavcho Slavov; Atanas Atanassov; Plamen Kalushkov; Wojciech Kaniewski

2008-01-01

277

U.S. Department of Energy: Biomass Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the U.S. Department of Energy, this website presents information about the Biomass Program, whose mission is to work with U.S. industry to transform "abundant biomass resources into clean, affordable, and domestically produced biofuels, biopower, and high-value bioproducts." Visitors can download the Biomass Program Multi-Year Program Plan which outlines "the Department of Energy's strategy for research, development, and deployment of various biomass technologies from 2007 through 2017." Information here is specifically tailored for industry, researchers, policymakers, consumers, or students.

2007-12-26

278

How selection structures species abundance distributions  

PubMed Central

How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in large bodied species in guilds where habitat structure provides protection from predators, but not in those guilds associated with open habitats and where safety in numbers is a mechanism for reducing predation risk. We further demonstrate that while there is temporal turnover in the abundances and identities of species that comprise these guilds, guild rank order is conserved across our 30-year time series. These results demonstrate that ecological communities are not randomly assembled but can be decomposed into guilds where capacity is predictably allocated among species. PMID:22787020

Magurran, Anne E.; Henderson, Peter A.

2012-01-01

279

Recent infestation of forest stands by spruce beetles does not predict habitat use by little brown bats ( Myotis lucifugus) in southwestern Yukon, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect outbreaks affect forest structure which may have significant effects on the habitat of other animals. Forest-dwelling insectivorous bats are likely affected by associated changes in the abundance of roost trees and insect prey, altered foraging and flying efficiency, and predation risk. We examined the short-term effects (3-13 years post-infestation) of an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) on the

Lea A. Randall; Robert M. R. Barclay; Mary L. Reid; Thomas S. Jung

2011-01-01

280

Predatory beetles facilitate plant growth by driving earthworms to lower soil layers.  

PubMed

Theory suggests that predators of soil-improving, plant-facilitating detritivores (e.g. earthworms) should suppress plant growth via a negative tri-trophic cascade, but the empirical evidence is still largely lacking. We tested this prediction in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau by manipulating predatory beetles (presence/absence) and quantifying (i) direct effects on the density and behaviour of earthworms; and (ii) indirect effects on soil properties and above-ground plant biomass. In the absence of predators, earthworms improved soil properties, but did not significantly affect plant biomass. Surprisingly, the presence of predators strengthened the positive effect of earthworms on soil properties leading to the emergence of a positive indirect effect of predators on plant biomass. We attribute this counterintuitive result to: (i) the inability of predators to suppress overall earthworm density; and (ii) the predator-induced earthworm habitat shift from the upper to lower soil layer that enhanced their soil-modifying, plant-facilitating, effects. Our results reveal that plant-level consequences of predators as transmitted through detritivores can hinge on behaviour-mediated indirect interactions that have the potential to overturn predictions based solely on trophic interactions. This work calls for a closer examination of the effects of predators in detritus food webs and the development of spatially explicit theory capable of predicting the occurrence and consequences of predator-induced detritivore behavioural shifts. PMID:23419174

Zhao, Chuan; Griffin, John N; Wu, Xinwei; Sun, Shucun

2013-07-01

281

Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

China is suffering from a sustained shortage of crude oil supply, making fuel ethanol and other biofuels alternative solutions for this issue. However, taking into account the country's large population and dwindling arable land due to rapid urbanization, it is apparent that current fuel ethanol production from grain-based feedstocks is not sustainable, and lignocellulosic biomass, particularly agricultural residues that are abundantly available in China, is the only choice for China to further expand its fuel ethanol production, provided economically viable processes can be developed. In this chapter, cutting edge progress in bioethanol is reviewed, with a focus on the understanding of the molecular structure of the feedstock, leading pretreatment technologies, enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose component and strategies for the co-fermentation of the C5 and C6 sugars with engineered microorganisms. Finally, process integration and optimization is addressed with a case study on the COFCO Corporation's pilot plant, and challenges and perspectives for commercial production of bioethanol are highlighted. PMID:22138971

Zhao, Xin-Qing; Zi, Li-Han; Bai, Feng-Wu; Lin, Hai-Long; Hao, Xiao-Ming; Yue, Guo-Jun; Ho, Nancy W Y

2012-01-01

282

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS OF DIATOMS ON 'CLADOPHORA' IN LAKE HURON  

EPA Science Inventory

Rocks bearing Cladophora were collected from May to November 1979 at two locations near Harbor Beach, Michigan, in Lake Huron to document seasonal patterns of epiphytic diatom abundance and diatom proportion of the Cladophora-epiphyte assemblage biomass in an area receiving efflu...

283

Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Developmental Plasticity in Horned Beetles  

PubMed Central

All developmental plasticity arises through epigenetic mechanisms. In this paper we focus on the nature, origins, and consequences of these mechanisms with a focus on horned beetles, an emerging model system in evolutionary developmental genetics. Specifically, we introduce the biological significance of developmental plasticity and summarize the most important facets of horned beetle biology. We then compare and contrast the epigenetic regulation of plasticity in horned beetles to that of other organisms and discuss how epigenetic mechanisms have facilitated innovation and diversification within and among taxa. We close by highlighting opportunities for future studies on the epigenetic regulation of plastic development in these and other organisms. PMID:22567393

Valena, Sophie; Moczek, Armin P.

2012-01-01

284

Abundance, diversity, and seasonal population dynamics of aquatic coleoptera and heteroptera in rice fields: effects of direct seeding management.  

PubMed

Recent introduction of modern drainage systems has produced intensely dry conditions in rice farmlands and has degraded habitats for aquatic animals. In this study, we compared water beetle (Coleoptera) and water bug (Heteroptera) communities within rice fields cultivated under different management regimes: V-furrow no-till direct-seeding (DS) and conventional regimes. In DS fields, rice is sown in well-drained fields, and flooding is performed a month later than in conventional rice fields. DS fields are then continuously flooded until harvesting; unlike in conventional fields, where midseason drainage is performed in summer. We observed that DS fields supported higher densities of water beetles and water bugs than conventional fields, probably because of the high compatibility between the flooding period and the reproductive season of the insects. The species richness of water beetles was higher in DS fields than in conventional fields. Overall, DS fields showed higher water beetle and water bug abundance, but the effect was variable for individual species: seven species were more abundant in DS than in conventional fields, whereas two species showed opposite tendencies. Considering the differential responses among species to the management regimes, a mosaic of DS and conventional fields is preferable to either field alone for the conservation of aquatic insects in rice agroecosystems. PMID:24073897

Watanabe, Kohei; Koji, Shinsaku; Hidaka, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Koji

2013-10-01

285

Unilateral range finding in diving beetle larvae.  

PubMed

One of the biggest challenges that predators, such as the larvae of the diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), are faced with is to accurately assess the distance of their prey. Most animals derive distance information from disparities of images that are viewed from different angles, from information that is obtained from well-controlled translational movements (motion parallax) or from the image size of known objects. Using a behavioral assay we demonstrated that T. marmoratus larvae continue to accurately strike at artificial prey, even if none of these typical distance estimation cues are available to them. Specifically, we excluded bilateral binocular stereopsis by occlusion, confounded possible motion parallax cues with an artificially moving prey, and excluded the possibility that beetle larvae simply approached their targets based on known prey size by presenting different prey sizes. Despite these constraints, larvae consistently struck our artificial targets from a distance of ~4.5 mm. Based on these findings we conclude that T. marmoratus likely employ an unusual mechanism to accurately determine prey distances, possibly mediated by the object-distance-dependent activation of specific subsets of their many-tiered and peculiarly positioned photoreceptors. PMID:24477608

Bland, Kevin; Revetta, Nicholas P; Stowasser, Annette; Buschbeck, Elke K

2014-02-01

286

Dew condensation on desert beetle skin.  

PubMed

Some tenebrionind beetles inhabiting the Namib desert are known for using their body to collect water droplets from wind-blown fogs. We aim to determine whether dew water collection is also possible for desert insects. For this purpose, we investigated the infra-red emissivity, and the wetting and structural properties, of the surface of the elytra of a preserved specimen of Physasterna cribripes (Tenebrionidæ) beetle, where the macro-structure appears as a series of "bumps", with "valleys" between them. Dew formation experiments were carried out in a condensation chamber. The surface properties (infra-red emissivity, wetting properties) were dominated by the wax at the elytra surface and, to a lower extent, its micro-structure. We performed scanning electron microscope on histological sections and determined the infra-red emissivity using a scanning pyrometer. The emissivity measured (0.95±0.07 between 8-14?m) was close to the black body value. Dew formation occurred on the insect's elytra, which can be explained by these surface properties. From the surface coverage of the condensed drops it was found that dew forms primarily in the valleys between the bumps. The difference in droplet nucleation rate between bumps and valleys can be attributed to the hexagonal microstructure on the surface of the valleys, whereas the surface of the bumps is smooth. The drops can slide when they reach a critical size, and be collected at the insect's mouth. PMID:25403836

Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Mongruel, A; Medici, M-G; Baquero, E; Parker, A R; Milimouk-Melnytchuk, I; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D

2014-11-01

287

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Predation by Carabid Beetles (Carabidae) on Nematode Infected and Uninfected Slugs in the Field  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita. PMID:24349202

Hatteland, Bj?rn Arild; Haukeland, Solveig; Roth, Steffen; Brurberg, May Bente; Vaughan, Ian P.; Symondson, William O. C.

2013-01-01

288

Spatiotemporal analysis of predation by carabid beetles (Carabidae) on nematode infected and uninfected slugs in the field.  

PubMed

The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita. PMID:24349202

Hatteland, Bjørn Arild; Haukeland, Solveig; Roth, Steffen; Brurberg, May Bente; Vaughan, Ian P; Symondson, William O C

2013-01-01

289

Woody Biomass-Nebraska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video illustrates the advantages of woody biomass as a renewable, carbon-neutral energy source. Woody biomass is underutilized and often overlooked as a renewable fuel, and it can be harvested sustainably and burned cleanly.

The.gov; Foundation, Pbs

290

Energy from Biomass.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

1987-01-01

291

An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes  

PubMed Central

Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor), egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola) activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i) untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii) egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii) feeding, (iv) artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v) methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans) and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant) database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction, transport and primary metabolism. Conclusion Here we present a dataset for a large-scale study of the mechanisms of plant defense against insect eggs in a co-evolved, natural ecological plant–insect system. The EST database analysis provided here is a first step in elucidating the transcriptional responses of elm to elm leaf beetle infestation, and adds further to our knowledge on insect egg-induced transcriptomic changes in plants. The sequences identified in our comparative analysis give many hints about novel defense mechanisms directed towards eggs. PMID:22702658

2012-01-01

292

Confinement Behavior of Cape Honey Bees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.) in Relation to Population Densities of Small Hive Beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified the effects of increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) populations on guarding behavior of Cape honey bees (Apis mellifera capensis, an African subspecies). We found more confinement sites (prisons) at the higher (50 beetles per colony) rather than lower (25 beetles per colony) beetle density. The number of beetles per prison did not change with beetle density.

Randall Hepburn; Patti J. Elzen

2004-01-01

293

Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.  

PubMed

The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

2010-01-01

294

Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  

PubMed

In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:15257386

Keeling, Christopher I; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

2004-07-01

295

Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.

Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

296

Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction of spatial effects and genotypic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific variation and genotypic diversity of host-plants can affect the structure of associated arthropod communities\\u000a and the dynamics of populations. Similarly, neighboring plants can also affect interactions between host-plants and their\\u000a associated arthropods. However, most studies on the effects of host-plant genotypes have largely ignored the potential effects\\u000a of neighboring host-plants on arthropod communities. In this study, we used a

Mark A. GenungGregory; Gregory M. Crutsinger; Joseph K. BaileyJennifer; Jennifer A. Schweitzer; Nathan J. Sanders

297

AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding  

E-print Network

AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding Guide 2010 The Forestry Commission and the Humber Rural Partnership (co-ordinated by East Riding of Yorkshire Council) have jointly produced a biomass funding guide fuel prices continue to rise, and the emerging biomass sector is well-placed to make a significant

298

BECON, Biomass Energy CONversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How is biomass transformed into a usable fuel? This article, part of a series about the future of energy, discusses the BECON (Biomass Energy CONversion) facility, located in the state of Iowa. Here students read about methods used to produce alternative fuels from biomass. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

299

Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech  

E-print Network

Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in North ­ This study is part of a larger project aimed at quantifying the biomass and biomass increment been developed to estimate the biomass and biomass increment of coarse, small and fine roots of trees

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

The clerid beetle, Thanasimus formicarius , is attracted to the pheromone of the ambrosia beetle, Trypodendron lineatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Sticky traps containing (+)-lineatin, the pheromone of the ambrosia beetle,Trypodendron lineatum, attracted the predatorThanasimus formicarius to about the same extent as traps baited with ipslure, the pheromone blend used for mass-trappingIps typographus. The results indicate thatT. lineatum is an important prey forT. formicarius early in the season before the main prey becomes active. Addition ofexo-brevicomin to ipslure and ethanol

B. Å. Tømmerås

1988-01-01

301

Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida , populations II: Dispersal of small hive beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small hive beetles (= SHB), Aethina tumida, are parasites and scavengers of honeybee colonies and actively disperse for host finding. We investigated the re-infestation\\u000a levels of SHB-free colonies within ten infested apiaries in South Africa, Australia and the USA. Re-infestation of 95% of\\u000a the colonies indicates a high SHB exchange between colonies. Colony position and queen status had no influence

Sebastian Spiewok; Michael Duncan; Robert Spooner-Hart; Jeff S. Pettis; Peter Neumann

2008-01-01

302

Anther Cap Retention Prevents Self-pollination by Elaterid Beetles in the South African Orchid Eulophia foliosa  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Pollination by insects that spend long periods visiting many flowers on a plant may impose a higher risk of facilitated self-pollination. Orchids and asclepiads are particularly at risk as their pollen is packaged as pollinia and so can be deposited on self-stigmas en masse. Many orchids and asclepiads have adaptations to limit self-deposition of pollinia, including gradual reconfiguration of pollinaria following removal. Here an unusual mechanism—anther cap retention—that appears to prevent self-pollination in the South African orchid Eulophia foliosa is examined. • Methods Visits to inflorescences in the field were observed and pollinators collected. Visitation rates to transplanted inflorescences were compared between a site where putative pollinators were abundant and a site where they were rare. Anther cap retention times were determined for removed pollinaria and atmospheric vapour pressure deficit was recorded concurrently. Anther cap anatomy was examined using light microscopy. • Key Results Eulophia foliosa is pollinated almost exclusively by Cardiophorus obliquemaculatus (Elateridae) beetles, which remain on the deceptive inflorescences for on average 301 s (n = 18). The anther cap that covers the pollinarium is retained for an average of 512 s (n = 24) after pollinarium removal by beetles. In all populations measured, anther cap dimensions are greater than those of the stigmatic cavity, thus precluding the deposition of self-pollinia until after the anther cap has dropped. An anatomical investigation of this mechanism suggests that differential water loss from regions of the anther cap results in opening of the anther cap flaps. This is supported by observations that as atmospheric vapour pressure deficits increased, the duration of anther cap retention was reduced. • Conclusions Flowers of E. foliosa are specialized for pollination by elaterid beetles. Retention of anther caps for a period exceeding average visit times by beetles to inflorescences appears to prevent facilitated self-pollination in E. foliosa effectively. PMID:16373371

PETER, CRAIG I.; JOHNSON, STEVEN D.

2006-01-01

303

Differences in preference and performance of the water lily leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae populations on native and introduced aquatic plants.  

PubMed

Plant invasions represent ecological opportunities for herbivorous insects able to exploit novel host plants. The availability of new hosts and rapid adaptations may lead to host race formation and ultimately speciation. We studied potential host race formation in the water lily leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae, in response to invasion by water chestnut, Trapa natans, in eastern North America. This leaf beetle is well suited for such studies because previous work showed that different herbivore populations follow different "evolutionary pathways" and specialize locally in response to differences in habitat preferences and host plant availability. We compared host preference and performance of G. nymphaeae offspring originating from T. natans and offspring of individuals originating from an ancestral host Nuphar lutea, yellow water lily, on T. natans and three native hosts (N. lutea, Nympheae odorata, and Brasenia schreberi). Regardless of origin (Trapa or Nuphar), adults strongly preferred their native host, N. lutea, over T. natans. Although laboratory survival rates (larva to pupa) were extremely high (80%) regardless of origin or host offered, survival rates in a common garden were greatly reduced, particularly for T. natans (24%) and to a lesser extent on N. lutea (54%), regardless of beetle origin. Larval drowning during more frequent leaf changes when developing on small Trapa leaves seems to be responsible for this difference. Preference of females for N. lutea is beneficial considering the much higher larval survival on the ancestral host. Abundant T. natans where the plant is invasive provides an alternative food source that beetles can use after egg/larval loads on their preferred host reach carrying capacity, but this utilization comes at a cost of high larval mortality. PMID:20021761

Ding, Jianqing; Blossey, Bernd

2009-12-01

304

Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

Beck, Keith

1978-01-01

305

Western larch resistance to Douglas-fir beetle attack.  

E-print Network

??Live western larch, Larix occidentalis Nutt., a tree species resistant to the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, produces the monoterpene 3-carene in higher concentrations compared… (more)

Neal, Tiffany A.

2004-01-01

306

Mycangia of ambrosia beetles host communities of bacteria.  

PubMed

The research field of animal and plant symbioses is advancing from studying interactions between two species to whole communities of associates. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities supports multiplexed sampling for statistically robust tests of hypotheses about symbiotic associations. We focus on ambrosia beetles, the increasingly damaging insects primarily associated with fungal symbionts, which have also been reported to support bacteria. To analyze the diversity, composition, and specificity of the beetles' prokaryotic associates, we combine global sampling, insect anatomy, 454 sequencing of bacterial rDNA, and multivariate statistics to analyze prokaryotic communities in ambrosia beetle mycangia, organs mostly known for transporting symbiotic fungi. We analyze six beetle species that represent three types of mycangia and include several globally distributed species, some with major economic importance (Dendroctonus frontalis, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus bispinatus-ferrugineus, Xyleborus glabratus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus germanus). Ninety-six beetle mycangia yielded 1,546 bacterial phylotypes. Several phylotypes appear to form the core microbiome of the mycangium. Three Mycoplasma (originally thought restricted to vertebrates), two Burkholderiales, and two Pseudomonadales are repeatedly present worldwide in multiple beetle species. However, no bacterial phylotypes were universally present, suggesting that ambrosia beetles are not obligately dependent on bacterial symbionts. The composition of bacterial communities is structured by the host beetle species more than by the locality of origin, which suggests that more bacteria are vertically transmitted than acquired from the environment. The invasive X. glabratus and the globally distributed X. crassiusculus have unique sets of bacteria, different from species native to North America. We conclude that the mycangium hosts in multiple vertically transmitted bacteria such as Mycoplasma, most of which are likely facultative commensals or parasites. PMID:22546962

Hulcr, J; Rountree, N R; Diamond, S E; Stelinski, L L; Fierer, N; Dunn, R R

2012-10-01

307

Ambrosia beetles and their associated fungi: research trends and techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

General characteristics of ambrosia fungus-beetle mutualism are described and recent trends for innovative research briefly\\u000a indicated. Techniques to locate, collect, transport, maintain, isolate, and study fungi and beetles in the field and in vitro\\u000a are reviewed in detail. A synthetic basal medium for growing ambrosia fungi is described; this should enable researchers to\\u000a investigate nutrition and enzymology of both the

L R Batra

1985-01-01

308

Predictive models of whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stand-level and tree-level data collected from whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands in central Idaho were used to estimate the probability of attack and mortality of whitebark pine caused by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Logistic regression models were calibrated from reconstructed pre-epidemic stand conditions and post-epidemic mortality levels resulting from a widespread mountain pine beetle outbreak

Dana L. Perkins; David W. Roberts

2003-01-01

309

Behavior of the western pine beetle during host colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

After living ponderosa pines were baited with either female-infested bolts or synthetic pheromones,Dendroctonus brevicomis were caught on sticky screens throughout trapping periods of 15–46 days; however, large numbers of beetles were trapped during only a small portion (5–10 days) of these trapping periods. The most attractive portions of trees attacked contained 3–6 beetles dm2, in galleries ca. 2 cm long.

William D. Bedard; Kenneth Q. Lindahl; Paul E. Tilden; David L. Wood

1985-01-01

310

Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

1996-08-01

311

Competitive Interactions among Symbiotic Fungi of the Southern Pine Beetle  

PubMed Central

The southern pine beetle, a damaging pest of conifers, is intimately linked to three symbiotic fungi. Two fungi, Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus and Entomocorticium sp. A, are transported within specialized structures (mycangia) in the beetle exoskeleton and are mutualists of the beetle. A third fungus, Ophiostoma minus, is transported externally on the beetle exoskeleton (phoretically) and is an antagonist of the beetle. This study examined competitive interactions among these three fungi. The results of de Wit replacement series and primary and secondary resource capture assays with these fungi provide strong evidence for differential competition between the phoretic and mycangial fungi. O. minus was the most able to capture both uncolonized and colonized resources. Entomocorticium sp. A and C. ranaculosus, although equal to one another in competitive abilities, differed in their ability to compete with O. minus. Entomocorticium sp. A was able to maintain space free of O. minus to a much greater degree than was C. ranaculosus. The outcome of such competitive interactions may have significant impacts on the biology of this ecologically and economically important beetle. PMID:16535518

Klepzig, K. D.; Wilkens, R. T.

1997-01-01

312

Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability  

SciTech Connect

If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

2013-01-01

313

Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability  

SciTech Connect

If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

2013-01-01

314

The function of resilin in beetle wings.  

PubMed

This account shows the distribution of elastic elements in hind wings in the scarabaeid Pachnoda marginata and coccinellid Coccinella septempunctata (both Coleoptera). Occurrence of resilin, a rubber-like protein, in some mobile joints together with data on wing unfolding and flight kinematics suggest that resilin in the beetle wing has multiple functions. First, the distribution pattern of resilin in the wing correlates with the particular folding pattern of the wing. Second, our data show that resilin occurs at the places where extra elasticity is needed, for example in wing folds, to prevent material damage during repeated folding and unfolding. Third, resilin provides the wing with elasticity in order to be deformable by aerodynamic forces. This may result in elastic energy storage in the wing. PMID:10983820

Haas, F; Gorb, S; Blickhan, R

2000-07-22

315

The function of resilin in beetle wings.  

PubMed Central

This account shows the distribution of elastic elements in hind wings in the scarabaeid Pachnoda marginata and coccinellid Coccinella septempunctata (both Coleoptera). Occurrence of resilin, a rubber-like protein, in some mobile joints together with data on wing unfolding and flight kinematics suggest that resilin in the beetle wing has multiple functions. First, the distribution pattern of resilin in the wing correlates with the particular folding pattern of the wing. Second, our data show that resilin occurs at the places where extra elasticity is needed, for example in wing folds, to prevent material damage during repeated folding and unfolding. Third, resilin provides the wing with elasticity in order to be deformable by aerodynamic forces. This may result in elastic energy storage in the wing. PMID:10983820

Haas, F; Gorb, S; Blickhan, R

2000-01-01

316

Broadscale Specificity in a Bark Beetle-Fungal Symbiosis: a Spatio-temporal Analysis of the Mycangial Fungi of the Western Pine Beetle.  

PubMed

Whether and how mutualisms are maintained through ecological and evolutionary time is a seldom studied aspect of bark beetle-fungal symbioses. All bark beetles are associated with fungi and some species have evolved structures for transporting their symbiotic partners. However, the fungal assemblages and specificity in these symbioses are not well known. To determine the distribution of fungi associated with the mycangia of the western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), we collected beetles from across the insect's geographic range including multiple genetically distinct populations. Two fungi, Entomocorticium sp. B and Ceratocystiopsis brevicomi, were isolated from the mycangia of beetles from all locations. Repeated sampling at two sites in Montana found that Entomocorticium sp. B was the most prevalent fungus throughout the beetle's flight season, and that females carrying that fungus were on average larger than females carrying C. brevicomi. We present evidence that throughout the flight season, over broad geographic distances, and among genetically distinct populations of beetle, the western pine beetle is associated with the same two species of fungi. In addition, we provide evidence that one fungal species is associated with larger adult beetles and therefore might provide greater benefit during beetle development. The importance and maintenance of this bark beetle-fungus interaction is discussed. PMID:25004995

Bracewell, Ryan R; Six, Diana L

2014-11-01

317

Nutritional Composition and Protein Quality of the Edible Beetle Holotrichia parallela.  

PubMed

The adult edible beetle Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) represents a traditional food source in China. Based on nutritional analyses, adult H. parallela is high in protein (70%) and minerals and low in fat. H. parallela contained approximately 10% chitin; the corrected protein content was 66%. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were the most abundant fatty acids. Of the total amino acids in H. parallela, 47.4% were essential amino acids. The amino acid scores were 87 and 100, based on the corrected crude and net protein contents, respectively; threonine was the limiting amino acid. In vitro protein digestibility was 78%, and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score was 89 based on the net protein content. Adult H. parallela may be a potential source of proteins and minerals for humans and animals. PMID:25347830

Yang, Qingli; Liu, Shaofang; Sun, Jie; Yu, Lina; Zhang, Chushu; Bi, Jie; Yang, Zhen

2014-01-01

318

Resource shifts in Malagasy dung beetles: contrasting processes revealed by dissimilar spatial genetic patterns  

PubMed Central

The endemic dung beetle subtribe Helictopleurina has 65 species mostly in wet forests in eastern Madagascar. There are no extant native ungulates in Madagascar, but three Helictopleurus species have shifted to the introduced cattle dung in open habitats in the past 1500 years. Helictopleurus neoamplicollis and Helictopleurus marsyas exhibit very limited cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 haplotype diversity and a single haplotype is present across Madagascar, suggesting that these species shifted to cattle dung in a small region followed by rapid range expansion. In contrast, patterns of molecular diversity in Helictopleurus quadripunctatus indicate a gradual diet shift across most of southern Madagascar, consistent with somewhat broader diet in this species. The three cattle dung-using Helictopleurus species have significantly greater geographical ranges than the forest-dwelling species, apparently because the shift to the currently very abundant new resource relaxed interspecific competition that hinders range expansion in the forest species. Ecology Letters (2008) 11: 1208–1215 PMID:18778273

Hanski, Ilkka; Wirta, Helena; Nyman, Toshka; Rahagalala, Pierre

2008-01-01

319

Field responses of the western pine beetle1 and one of its predators to host- and beetle-produced compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of the western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brev-icomis LeConte) andTemnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim) to candidate attractants—exo- andendo-brevicomm, frontalin,trans-verbenol, ver-benone, and ponderosa pine turpentine and its major monoterpene components—were quantified by counts of beetles on traps baited with the various attractants, singly and in combinations released simultaneously. Combinations ofexo-brevicomin and frontalin plus a monoterpene or turpentine were the most attractive toD.

William D. Bedard; David L. Wood; Paul E. Tilden; Kenneth Q. Lindahl; Robert M. Silverstein; J. Otto Rodin

1980-01-01

320

A culture-based study of the bacterial communities within the guts of nine longicorn beetle species and their exo-enzyme producing properties for degrading xylan and pectin.  

PubMed

In this study, bacterial communities within the guts of several longicorn beetles were investigated by a culture-dependent method. A total of 142 bacterial strains were isolated from nine species of longicorn beetle, including adults and larvae. A comparison of their partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that most of the bacteria constituting the gut communities can typically be found in soil, plants and the intestines of animals, and approximately 10% were proposed as unreported. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the bacterial species comprised 7 phyla, and approximately half were Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were the second most populous group (19%), followed by Firmicutes (13%) and Alphaproteobacteria (11%). Betaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Acidobacteria were minor constituents. The taxonomic compositions of the isolates were variable according to the species of longicorn beetle. Particularly, an abundance of Actinobacteria existed in Moechotypa diphysis and Mesosa hirsute, which eat broadleaf trees; however, no Actinobacteria were isolated from Corymbia rubra and Monochamus alternatus, which are needle-leaf eaters. Considerable proportions of xylanase and pectinase producing bacteria in the guts of the longicorn beetles implied that the bacteria may play an important role in the digestion of woody diets. Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the dominant xylanase producers in the guts of the beetles. PMID:17978798

Park, Doo-Sang; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Won-Jin; Kim, Hyangmi; Park, Ho-Yong; Bae, Kyung Sook

2007-10-01

321

Decomposition rate of carrion is dependent on composition not abundance of the assemblages of insect scavengers.  

PubMed

Environmental factors and biodiversity affect ecosystem processes. As environmental change modifies also biodiversity it is unclear whether direct effects of environmental factors on ecosystem processes are more important than indirect effects mediated by changes in biodiversity. High-quality resources like carrion occur as heterogeneous pulses of energy and nutrients. Consequently, the distribution of scavenging insects is related to resource availability. Therefore, carrion decomposition represents a suitable process from which to unravel direct effects of environmental change from indirect biodiversity-related effects on ecosystem processes. During three field seasons in 2010 we exposed traps baited with small-mammal carrion at 21 sites along a temperature gradient to explore the insect carrion fauna and decomposition rate in the Bohemian Forest, Germany. The abundance component of beetle and fly assemblages decreased with decreasing temperature. Independently, the composition component of both taxa changed with temperature and season. The change in the composition component of beetles depicted a loss of larger species at higher temperatures. Decomposition rate did not change directly along the temperature gradient but was directly influenced by season. The composition component of beetles, and to a small extent of flies, but not their abundance component, directly affected carrion decomposition. Consequently, lower decomposition rates at lower temperatures can be explained by the absence of larger beetle species. Thus, we predict that future environmental change will modify carrion fauna composition and thereby indirectly decomposition rate. Moreover, reorganizations of the insect carrion composition will directly translate into modified decomposition rates, with potential consequences for nutrient availability and carbon storage. PMID:24859425

Farwig, Nina; Brandl, Roland; Siemann, Stefen; Wiener, Franziska; Müller, Jörg

2014-08-01

322

NSE abundance data  

SciTech Connect

A novel method of calculating nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is presented. Basic equations are carefully solved using arbitrary precision arithmetic. A special interpolation procedure is then used to retrieve all abundances using tabulated results for neutrons and protons, together with basic nuclear data. Proton and neutron abundance tables, basic nuclear data, and partition functions for nuclides used in the calculations are provided. A simple interpolation algorithm using pre-calculated p and n abundances tabulated as functions of kT, {rho} and Y{sub e} is outlined. Unique properties of this method are: (1) ability to pick up out of NSE selected nuclei only, (2) computational time scaling linearly with number of re-calculated abundances, (3) relatively small amount of stored data: only two large tables, (4) slightly faster than solving the NSE equations using traditional Newton-Raphson methods for small networks (few tens of species); superior for huge (800-3000) networks, (5) does not require initial guess; works well on random input, (6) can be tailored to specific application, (7) ability to use third-party NSE solvers to obtain fully compatible tables, and (8) encapsulation of the NSE code for bug-free calculations. A range of applications for this approach is possible: covering tests of traditional NSE Newton-Raphson codes, generating starting values, code-to-code verification, and possible replacement of the old legacy procedures in supernova simulations.

Odrzywolek, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.odrzywolek@uj.edu.pl

2012-07-15

323

Abundances of light elements.  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

Pagel, B E

1993-01-01

324

Measuring solar abundances  

SciTech Connect

This is the rapporteur paper of Working Group 2 on Measuring Solar Abundances. The working group presented and discussed the different observations and methods for obtaining the elemental and isotopic composition of the Sun, and critically reviewed their results and the accuracies thereof. Furthermore, a few important yet unanswered questions were identified, and the potential of future missions to provide answers was assessed.

Reisenfeld, D. B. (Daniel B.); Von Steiger, R. (Rudolf); Vial, J.-C. (Jean-Claude); Bochsler, P.; Chaussidon, M.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Fleck, B.; Heber, V. S.; Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

2001-01-01

325

NSE abundance data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method of calculating nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is presented. Basic equations are carefully solved using arbitrary precision arithmetic. A special interpolation procedure is then used to retrieve all abundances using tabulated results for neutrons and protons, together with basic nuclear data. Proton and neutron abundance tables, basic nuclear data, and partition functions for nuclides used in the calculations are provided. A simple interpolation algorithm using pre-calculated p and n abundances tabulated as functions of kT, ? and Ye is outlined. Unique properties of this method are: (1) ability to pick up out of NSE selected nuclei only, (2) computational time scaling linearly with number of re-calculated abundances, (3) relatively small amount of stored data: only two large tables, (4) slightly faster than solving the NSE equations using traditional Newton-Raphson methods for small networks (few tens of species); superior for huge (800-3000) networks, (5) does not require initial guess; works well on random input, (6) can be tailored to specific application, (7) ability to use third-party NSE solvers to obtain fully compatible tables, and (8) encapsulation of the NSE code for bug-free calculations. A range of applications for this approach is possible: covering tests of traditional NSE Newton-Raphson codes, generating starting values, code-to-code verification, and possible replacement of the old legacy procedures in supernova simulations.

Odrzywolek, Andrzej

2012-07-01

326

Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities  

PubMed Central

Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space controls relative species abundance in communities. Here, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of butterfly species in island communities is significantly related to the relative biomasses of their host plants but not to the geographic distance between communities. In the studied communities, the biomass of particular host plant species positively affected the abundance of the butterfly species that used them, and consequently, influenced the relative abundance of the butterfly communities. This indicated that the niche space of butterflies (i.e., the amount of resources) strongly influences butterfly biodiversity patterns. We present this field evidence of the niche-apportionment model that propose that the relative amount of niche space explains the pattern of the relative abundance of the species in communities. PMID:17553963

Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado

2007-01-01

327

Different types of response to selection for sex ratio in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum  

E-print Network

Different types of response to selection for sex ratio in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum of the flour bettle Tribolium castaneum, as well as to a synthetic population assembled from beetles collected

Boyer, Edmond

328

New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

1996-01-01

329

How-To-Do-It. A Beetle, a Bur, and the Potato: An Introduction to Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the interrelation of the potato beetle, the buffalo-bur, and the potato is used as an introduction to ecology. Methods of controlling the beetle and ecological principles illustrated in the interrelationship are discussed. (JN)

Jantzen, Paul G.

1983-01-01

330

Predation by and activity patterns of ‘parasitic’ beetles of the genus Amblyopinus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae)  

E-print Network

This study explores the relationship between staphylinid beetles of the genus Amblyopinus and their small mammal hosts. Previous studies had concluded that these beetles were parasitic and fed directly on blood, skin ...

Ashe, James S.; Timm, Robert M.

1987-07-01

331

77 FR 40564 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Asian Longhorned Beetle Consumer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Longhorned Beetle Consumer Research Survey AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...longhorned beetle consumer research survey, contact...

2012-07-10

332

Incidence and population dynamics of the leaf beetle Gonioctena olivacea in dynamic habitats  

E-print Network

of the leaf beetle Gonioctena olivacea in a system of dynamic patches of the host plant Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius. The incidence of the beetle was most strongly affected by patch area, whereas connectivity, patch

Biedermann, Robert

333

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

PubMed Central

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that had been fed on potato leaves. Maximum weights of prepupae, newly emerged adults and day 5 – 9 adults were approximately 78, 80 and 82%, respectively, of the weights for comparable stages of control beetles. Mean percent mortality for 1st instars was two to six times higher for artificial diet-fed CPBs than for leaf-fed beetles. However, since pupal mortality was four times higher for control beetles than for beetles reared on artificial diet, mean percent total mortality (newly hatched through the 9 day old adult) was equivalent for leaf-fed beetles and for later generations of potato and Lettuce+Potato diet-fed CPBs. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and fluctuations in mature 4th instar larvae and prepupae were similar in controls and experimental groups. Number of hatchlings produced per adult pair per day (fertility) was approximately eight times greater in control beetles than in later generations of artificial diet-fed beetles, primarily because fewer egg masses were laid per day, percent hatch was lower and cannibalism of eggs was higher in these latter groups. Interestingly, the mean percent hatch, although only 68% of the control value, was 1.5 times greater for beetles reared on diet containing lettuce-leaf powder, and a small percentage of potato leaf powder, than on diet containing only potato leaf powder. Percent hatch was equal for beetles fed on diet containing only lettuce-leaf powder and those fed on potato leaves. Finally, it is noteworthy that the quality of eggs, as judged by the ability of the wasp parasitoid, Edovum puttleri, to parasitize and develop in the eggs, was similar for eggs produced by control beetles and for those produced by beetles fed on potato and Lettuce+Potato diets. The diets and rearing system described here will be useful for providing beetles on a year-round basis for experiments designed to evaluate the effects of potential insect control agents, to investigate the mechanism(s) by which insects become resistant to control agents and for other applied and fundamental studies related to the control of this serious pest. The use of lettuce leaf powder in place of most of the potato leaf powder is especially advantageous because of the much reduced cost and greater availability of lettuce as compared to potato leaves. PMID:15455067

Gelman, Dale B.; Bell, Robert A.; Liska, Lynda J.; Hu, Jing S.

2001-01-01

334

An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts.  

PubMed

Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3500 species of ambrosia beetles. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusual in that some are plant pathogens that cause significant damage in naïve natural and cultivated ecosystems, and currently threaten avocado production in the United States, Israel and Australia. Most AFC fusaria produce unusual clavate macroconidia that serve as a putative food source for their insect mutualists. AFC symbionts were abundant in the heads of four Euwallacea spp., which suggests that they are transported within and from the natal gallery in mandibular mycangia. In a four-locus phylogenetic analysis, the AFC was resolved in a strongly supported monophyletic group within the previously described Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). Divergence-time estimates place the origin of the AFC in the early Miocene ?21.2 Mya, which coincides with the hypothesized adaptive radiation of the Xyleborini. Two strongly supported clades within the AFC (Clades A and B) were identified that include nine species lineages associated with ambrosia beetles, eight with Euwallacea spp. and one reportedly with Xyleborus ferrugineus, and two lineages with no known beetle association. More derived lineages within the AFC showed fixation of the clavate (club-shaped) macroconidial trait, while basal lineages showed a mix of clavate and more typical fusiform macroconidia. AFC lineages consisted mostly of genetically identical individuals associated with specific insect hosts in defined geographic locations, with at least three interspecific hybridization events inferred based on discordant placement in individual gene genealogies and detection of recombinant loci. Overall, these data are consistent with a strong evolutionary trend toward obligate symbiosis coupled with secondary contact and interspecific hybridization. PMID:23608321

Kasson, Matthew T; O'Donnell, Kerry; Rooney, Alejandro P; Sink, Stacy; Ploetz, Randy C; Ploetz, Jill N; Konkol, Joshua L; Carrillo, Daniel; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Smith, Jason A; Black, Adam W; Hulcr, Jiri; Bateman, Craig; Stefkova, Kristyna; Campbell, Paul R; Geering, Andrew D W; Dann, Elizabeth K; Eskalen, Akif; Mohotti, Keerthi; Short, Dylan P G; Aoki, Takayuki; Fenstermacher, Kristi A; Davis, Donald D; Geiser, David M

2013-07-01

335

Influence of brood hosts on host preferences of bark beetle parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman (SPB) is attacked by several species of hymenopterous parasites1,2 the most common of which also parasitise other bark beetles3-5 including the engraver beetles Ips grandicollis (Eichhoif), I. avulsus (Eichhoff), I. calligraphus (Germar), I. pini (Say); and the eastern juniper bark beetle, Phloeosinus dentatus (Say). The increasing importance of pest management has focused attention

Louis H. Kudon; C. W. Berisford

1980-01-01

336

Interactions between population density of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and herbicide rate for suppression of solanaceous weeds.  

PubMed

The presence of volunteer potato Solanum tuberosum L., cutleaf nightshade, S. triflorum N., and hairy nightshade, S. physalifolium Rusby (Solanales: Solanaceae), throughout potato crop rotations can diminish the effectiveness of crop rotations designed to control disease and pest problems associated with growing potatoes. In greenhouse bioassays, larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were placed in population densities of 0, 5, 10, and 40 per potato (cv. Russet Burbank) plant and 0, 5, 10, and 15 per cutleaf nightshade and hairy nightshade plant. Plants were treated with different rates of herbicides including fluroxypyr, prometryn, and mesotrione rates, and the physiological response on the potato plants was assessed by weighing shoot biomass 14 days after treatment. Consistently, across all bioassays, rate response functions were shifted as L. decemlineata density increased, such that less herbicide was required to achieve control. For instance, the herbicide rate needed to achieve 90% reduction in potato biomass was reduced from 62 to 0 g fluroxypyr per hectare and 711 to 0 g prometryn per hectare as L. decemlineata density was increased to 40 larvae per plant. Herbivory at higher L. decemlineata population densities and herbicides above certain rates resulted in large reductions in cutleaf and hairy nightshade biomass. Differences in rate response functions among L. decemlineata population densities indicated that L. decemlineata contributed to weed suppression in combination with herbicides. These data suggest that integrated weed management systems targeting volunteer potato, cutleaf nightshade, and hairy nightshade can be more effective when herbicide applications are combined with herbivory by naturally occurring Colorado potato beetles. PMID:20298117

Metzger, Chase; Boydston, Rick; Ferguson, Holly; Williams, Martin M; Zack, Richard; Walsh, Doug

2008-01-01

337

Interactions between Population Density of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and Herbicide Rate for Suppression of Solanaceous Weeds  

PubMed Central

The presence of volunteer potato Solanum tuberosum L., cutleaf nightshade, S. triflorum N., and hairy nightshade, S. physalifolium Rusby (Solanales: Solanaceae), throughout potato crop rotations can diminish the effectiveness of crop rotations designed to control disease and pest problems associated with growing potatoes. In greenhouse bioassays, larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were placed in population densities of 0, 5, 10, and 40 per potato (cv. Russet Burbank) plant and 0, 5, 10, and 15 per cutleaf nightshade and hairy nightshade plant. Plants were treated with different rates of herbicides including fluroxypyr, prometryn, and mesotrione rates, and the physiological response on the potato plants was assessed by weighing shoot biomass 14 days after treatment. Consistently, across all bioassays, rate response functions were shifted as L. decemlineata density increased, such that less herbicide was required to achieve control. For instance, the herbicide rate needed to achieve 90% reduction in potato biomass was reduced from 62 to 0 g fluroxypyr per hectare and 711 to 0 g prometryn per hectare as L. decemlineata density was increased to 40 larvae per plant. Herbivory at higher L. decemlineata population densities and herbicides above certain rates resulted in large reductions in cutleaf and hairy nightshade biomass. Differences in rate response functions among L. decemlineata population densities indicated that L. decemlineata contributed to weed suppression in combination with herbicides. These data suggest that integrated weed management systems targeting volunteer potato, cutleaf nightshade, and hairy nightshade can be more effective when herbicide applications are combined with herbivory by naturally occurring Colorado potato beetles. PMID:20298117

Metzger, Chase; Boydston, Rick; Ferguson, Holly; Williams, Martin M.; Zack, Richard; Walsh, Doug

2008-01-01

338

Inexpensive trap for monitoring the green June beetle.  

PubMed

Green June beetle, Cotinis nitida (L.), is an important pest of grapes, peaches, blackberries, blueberries, apples, and pears. Currently, there is no inexpensive, commercially available lure or trap that could serve monitoring green June beetle adults. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize an inexpensive bottle trap baited with isopropanol to attract and capture green June beetle adults. Bottle traps baited with 8 mm diameter cotton wicked dispensers emitted from 9 to 43 ml isopropanol in 48 h and maintained that alcohol at a fairly constant concentration compared with the prototypical bottle trap with large surface evaporation of isopropanol poured into the bottom of the trap. Over 5 d, the isopropanol in the wicked dispensers remained at the same stable concentration of 45-44.5%, whereas isopropanol concentration in the bottom of prototypical traps dropped from 45% to approximately 11% after 24 h and to 0.2% by 48 h. Bottle traps with isopropanol dispensers and cotton wicks of 4, 6, or 8 mm in diameter caught significantly more green June beetles than did prototypical bottle traps with no dispensers. Isopropanol concentrations of 45.5, 66, and 91% attracted more green June beetle adults than the lower concentrations. Significantly more green June beetle adults were attracted to traps with dispensers set at 1.3 m height than those at lower heights, and traps topped with a blue, orange, or white band captured more green June beetle adults than those with bands of other colors. The optimized bottle trap is made from recycled transparent polyethylene terephthalate beverage bottle (710-ml; 24 oz.) with a blue, orange, or white band, baited with an 8 mm cotton wick dispenser of 45.5% isopropanol and hung at a height of 1.3 m. Cost and uses for this trap are discussed. PMID:23356073

Cowell, Brian; Reut, Michal; Johnson, Donn T; Czokajlo, Darek; Kim, Soo-Hoon Samuel; Lewis, Barbara A; Pszczolkowski, Maciej A

2012-12-01

339

Distance and Sex Determine Host Plant Choice by Herbivorous Beetles  

PubMed Central

Background Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? Methodology We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis) when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus) with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. Conclusion Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a slightly damaged plant can help males to localize putative mating partners. PMID:23405176

Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin

2013-01-01

340

Thermophilic biogasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect

Secondary sewage effluent- and fresh-water-grown water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes), Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), and a hyacinth-grass-municipal solid waste-sludge (biomass-waste) blend were used as test feeds to develop a fast thermophilic biomass- digestion process. For the pure biomass feeds thermophilic digestion has no apparent advantage over mesophilic digestion, but the reverse is true for the biomass-waste blend. Alkaline pretreatment of the feed improved thermophilic digester performance substantially. For a given plant feed load, the reactor volume, culture-heating requirements, and CH4 production rate for thermophilic digestion of the pretreated biomass-waste feed were 18,46, and 135% of those for conventional mesophilic digestion. For a biomass-waste feed the respective volatile solids reduction and energy recovery efficiencies were 46 and 49% for thermophilic and 36 and 43% for mesophilic digestions.

Ghosh, S.; Klass, D.L.; Edwards, V.H.; Christopher, R.W.

1980-01-01

341

Complex pendulum biomass sensor  

DOEpatents

A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

2007-12-25

342

Automated stellar abundance analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of Milky Way high-resolution spectroscopic surveys has brought our attention to the importance of precise chemical abundance measurements to disentangle the stellar population puzzle of the Galaxy. Moreover, automated stellar parameters are the bedrock of Galactic spectroscopic surveys science. They allow a rapid and homogeneous processing of extensive data sets, necessary for an efficient scientific return. In this review, I discuss the different parametrization techniques, focusing on the automated determination of individual element abundances. Each of them has its optimal application conditions that mainly depend on the computation time constraints, the spectral resolution, the wavelength domain, the data signal-to-noise ratio and parameter degeneracy problems. The main algorithms in the literature are also reviewed.

Recio-Blanco, Alejandra

2014-01-01

343

Quantitative analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids sequestered from diverse host plants in Longitarsus flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Several species of the flea beetles genus Longitarsus are able to sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from their host plants. In five Longitarsus species we compare the concentration of PAs present in their host plants belonging to the Asteraceae or Boraginaceae with\\u000a those found in the beetles. To get an estimate of the intrapopulation variability, three samples of five beetles

Wolf Haberer; Susanne Dobler

1999-01-01

344

Evolution of Corn Oil Sensitivity in the Flour Beetle Program in Applied Mathematics  

E-print Network

Evolution of Corn Oil Sensitivity in the Flour Beetle R. C. Rael Program in Applied Mathematics in a population of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum using evolutionary game methods that model pop- ulation in the flour beetle. We adapt an existing model of the ecological dynamics of T. castaneum into an evolutionary

Cushing, Jim. M.

345

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium Ethanol Attracts Scolytid Beetles to  

E-print Network

to black colored exudate referred to as "bleeding." Bark and ambrosia beetles are often attracted and ambrosia beetle attacks were counted within the area of treated bark. In control logs, the number. ramorum cankers on Q. agrifolia, and the attraction of bark and ambrosia beetles commonly associated

Standiford, Richard B.

346

Larval helpers and age polyethism in ambrosia beetles Peter H. W. Biedermann1  

E-print Network

Larval helpers and age polyethism in ambrosia beetles Peter H. W. Biedermann1 and Michael Taborsky). A unique yet hardly studied holome- tabolous group of insects is the ambrosia beetles. Along with one tribe of ants and one subfamily of termites, wood-dwelling ambrosia beetles are the only insect lineage

Richner, Heinz

347

Colorado potato beetle [ Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)] resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), the Colorado potato beetle (potato beetle), is the most destructive potato pest in Serbia. Up to four pesticide treatments are necessary for its control. Insecticide resistance of the potato beetle in Serbia is well-investigated and documented, especially to organophosphates and carbamates. Toxicity of chlorpyriphos (organophosphates) and carbosulfan (carbamates) was investigated by topical application, using adults of the

S. Stankovi?; A. Zabel; M. Kostic; B. Manojlovic; S. Rajkovic

2004-01-01

348

Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine, the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Say), Ips calligraphus (Germar), Ips latidens (LeConte), Ips knausi Swaine and

José F. Negrón; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

2009-01-01

349

Effect of Verbenone on Five Species of Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Lodgepole Pine Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response by Þve species of bark beetles to a range of verbenone doses were tested in bioassays using Lindgren funnel traps baited with attractant semiochemicals. The objective was to determine how these bark beetles respond to verbenone, a purported anti-aggregation pheromone of several economically signiÞcant bark beetle species. Catches of Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a species attacking live trees, were

B. Staffan Lindgren; Daniel R. Miller

2002-01-01

350

Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the major bark beetles and associated fungi colonizing subcortical tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in the Great Lakes region. Trees were felled at one northwestern Wisconsin site in a preliminary study in 1997 and at 10 sites throughout northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1998. Fungal isolations were made from beetles colonizing felled trees, beetles

Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa

2002-01-01

351

Full length article Prescribed fire and mechanical thinning effects on bark beetle caused  

E-print Network

Full length article Prescribed fire and mechanical thinning effects on bark beetle caused tree. ponderosae Scolytus ventralis Bark beetles Second order fire effects Fire surrogates a b s t r a c t We assessed tree mortality caused by bark beetles in a mixed-conifer forest in the central Sierra Nevada

Stephens, Scott L.

352

Selective sequestration of iridoid glycosides from their host plants in Longitarsus flea beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated in eight species of the flea beetles genus Longitarsus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) whether the beetles take up iridoid glycosides from their host plants of the Lamiaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Five of the beetle species, L. australis, L. lewisii, L. melanocephalus, L. nigrofasciatus, and L. tabidus, could be shown to sequester iridoid glycosides in concentrations between 0.40 and 1.55% of

Gunther Willinger; Susanne Dobler

2001-01-01

353

Social encapsulation of the small hive beetle ( Aethina tumida Murray) by European honeybees ( Apis mellifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary European and African subspecies of honeybees ( Apis mellifera L.) utilize social encapsulation to contain the small hive beetle ( Aethina tumida Murray), a honeybee colony scavenger. Using social encapsulation, African honeybees successfully limit beetle reproduction that can devastate host colonies. In sharp contrast, European honeybees often fail to contain beetles, possibly because their social encapsulation skills may be

J. D. Ellis; H. R. Hepburn; A. M. Ellis; P. J. Elzen

2003-01-01

354

Some Observations on the Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida Murray in Russian Honey Bee Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of Russian honey bees to adult small hive beetles (SHB) and their effect on colony survival were compared with Italian honey bees. In a study conducted near Titusville, FL using observation hives, both stocks removed significantly more dead beetles (Russian = 67%, Italian = 57%) than live beetles (Russian = 13%, Italian = 0). Russian honey bees also

LILIA I. DE GUZMAN; THOMAS E. RINDERER; AMANDA M. FRAKE; HUBERT TUBBS; PATTI J. ELZEN; DAVID WESTERVELT

355

A Screening Aid for the Identification of the Banded Elm Bark Beetle*, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov  

E-print Network

A Screening Aid for the Identification of the Banded Elm Bark Beetle*, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov beetle (BEBB), Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Scolytidae), a bark beetle native to Asia, was found the genus (see key): Members of the genus Scolytus can be distinguished from other North American bark

Ginzel, Matthew

356

Distribution and attack behaviour of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, recently introduced to China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was found for the first time in China in Yangcheng and Xinshui counties, Shanxi province in 1998, and in Hebei province in 1999. The beetle mostly attacks the oil pine Pinus tabulaeformis Carriére. By 2003 the beetle was found in 85 counties of three provinces in north China and the area

B. GAO; X. WEN; H. GUAN; M. KNÍŽEK

357

Nano-Optics in the Biological World: Beetles, Butterflies, Birds, and Moths Mohan Srinivasarao*  

E-print Network

Changes in Beetles 1956 C. Diffraction Colors in Beetles and in Burgess Shale Animals 1957 VI. Color, it is not surprising to find that colors produced in nature by a variety of creatures have attracted the attention by animals, like butterflies and beetles, and what that color means to them. This gets us into the realm

Srinivasarao, Mohan

358

Polyols and polyurethanes from the liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Polyurethanes (PUs), produced from the condensation polymerizations between polyols and isocyanates, are one of the most versatile polymer families. Currently, both polyols and isocyanates are largely petroleum derived. Recently, there have been extensive research interests in developing bio-based polyols and PUs from renewable resources. As the world's most abundant renewable biomass, lignocellulosic biomass is rich in hydroxyl groups and has potential as a feedstock to produce bio-based polyols and PUs. Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted to liquid polyols for PU applications through acid- or base-catalyzed atmospheric liquefaction processes using polyhydric alcohols as liquefaction solvents. Biomass liquefaction-derived polyols can be used to prepare various PU products, such as foams, films and adhesives. The properties of biomass liquefaction-derived polyols and PUs depend on various factors, such as feedstock characteristics, liquefaction conditions, and PU formulations. PMID:24357542

Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Li, Yebo

2014-01-01

359

Biomass Processing Photolibrary  

DOE Data Explorer

Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

360

Modeling Fish Biomass Structure at Near Pristine Coral Reefs and Degradation by Fishing  

E-print Network

Until recently, the only examples of inverted biomass pyramids have been in freshwater and marine planktonic communities. In 2002 and 2008 investigators documented inverted biomass pyramids for nearly pristine coral reef ecosystems within the NW Hawaiian islands and the Line Islands, where apex predator abundance comprises up to 85 % of the fish biomass. We build a new refuge based predator-prey model to study the fish biomass structure at coral reefs and investigate the effect of fishing on biomass pyramids. Utilizing realistic life history parameters of coral reef fish, our model exhibits a stable inverted biomass pyramid. Since the predators and prey are not well mixed, our model does not incorporate homogeneous mixing and the inverted biomass pyramid is a consequence of the refuge. Understanding predator-prey dynamics in nearly pristine conditions provides a more realistic historical framework for comparison with fished reefs. Finally, we show that fishing transforms the inverted biomass pyramid to be bottom heavy. 1

Abhinav Singh; Hao Wang; Wendy Morrison; Howard Weiss

361

BIOSEP: A NEW ETHANOL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR SMALL SCALE RURAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM BIOMASS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research activities on bioethanol have increased substantially as a result of the current concerns with energy security. Inexpensive biomass including forest residues, mill residues, agricultural residues, urban wood wastes and dedicated energy corps that exists in abundance acr...

362

Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

363

Beetles' choice--proline for energy output: control by AKHs.  

PubMed

Many beetle species use proline and carbohydrates in a varying ratio to power flight. The degree of contribution of either fuel varies widely between species. In contrast, dung beetle species investigated, thus far, do not have any carbohydrate reserves and rely completely on proline to power energy-costly activities such as flight and, probably, walking and ball-rolling. While the fruit beetle, Pachnoda sinuata, uses proline and carbohydrates equally during flight, proline is solely oxidised during endothermic pre-flight warm-up, as well as during flight after prolonged starvation. Thus, proline seems to be the essential fuel for activity in beetles, even in flightless ones and in those that use proline in combination with carbohydrates; the latter can be completely substituted by proline in certain circumstances. It is apparent from the rapid decline of energy substrates in flight muscles and haemolymph after the onset of flight that mobilisation of stored fuels of the fat body is necessary for prolonged flight periods. This task is performed by AKH-type neuropeptides. In beetles, like in other insects, these peptides mobilise glycogen via activation of glycogen phosphorylase. They also stimulate proline synthesis from alanine and acetyl-CoA in the fat body. Acetyl-CoA is derived from the beta-oxidation of fatty acids and we propose that the neuropeptides activate triacylglycerol lipase. PMID:11997215

Gäde, Gerd; Auerswald, Lutz

2002-05-01

364

Mountain pine beetle infestation impacted by water availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation pattern and landscape structure intersect to exert strong control over ecohydrological dynamics at the watershed scale. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance (e.g. fire, disease etc.) depend on the spatial pattern and form of environmental change. Here we investigate this intersection at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana with a focus on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic currently affecting the Rocky Mountains. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with a leaf-level spectral library of local vegetation. We used this spectral library to determine optimal vegetation indices for differentiating stages of beetle infestation within the 37 km2 TCEF watershed. These indices formed the basis of a three-component mixing model to quantify the extent and magnitude of beetle infestation across the TCEF watershed. We compared disturbance patterns to spatially distributed topography and vegetation variables derived from a LiDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) of TCEF. We determined that certain landscape characteristics (low vegetation density, south facing slopes, steep slopes, locations with small contributing areas, and locations with lower values of the topographic wetness index (TWI)) were significantly more likely to exhibit the effects of beetle infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality across space and time provide a context for assessing landscape susceptibility to initial mountain pine beetle infestation via feedbacks between biodiversity and hydrological patterns and further research into understanding how outbreak (i.e. landscape scale infestation) patterns may affect watershed ecohydrology via altered water and biogeochemical cycles.

Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B.; Emanuel, R.

2012-04-01

365

Seasonality and Lure Preference of Bark Beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and Associates in a Northern Arizona Ponderosa Pine Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona have historically experienced limited bark beetle-caused tree mortality, and little is known about the bark beetle community in these forests. Our objectives were to describe the ßight seasonality and lure preference of bark beetles and their associates in these forests. We monitored bark beetle populations for 24 consecutive months in 2002 and 2003 using

M. L. Gaylord; T. E. Kolb; K. F. Wallin; M. R. Wagner

2006-01-01

366

Reduction in fitness of flea beetles which are homozygous for an autosomal gene conferring resistance to defences in Barbarea vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major resistance genes are present in Danish flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum) populations, enabling the beetles to utilize a defended plant, Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata, as a host plant, whereas this plant is unsuitable for beetles lacking the resistance genes. Two lines of beetles carrying a resistance gene have been established which are near-isogenic with a susceptible line. Larval survival of

Peter W. De Jong; Jens Kvist Nielsen

2000-01-01

367

Species composition, seasonal activity, and semiochemical response of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in northeastern Ohio.  

PubMed

In 2007, we surveyed the alien and endemic scolytine (bark and ambrosia beetles) fauna of northeastern Ohio, and for the most abundant species, we characterized their seasonal activity and response to three semiochemical baits. In total ,5,339 scolytine beetles represented by 47 species and 29 genera were caught in Lindgren funnel traps. Three species constituted 57% of the total catch, including Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), Tomicus piniperda (L.), and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratzeburg). Of the total captured, 32% of the species and approximately 60% of the individuals were exotic, suggesting that exotic species numerically dominate the scolytine fauna in some urban areas. More native and exotic species were caught in traps baited with ethanol alone than in traps baited with other lures. However, significantly more individuals, especially of T. piniperda, D. autographus, Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch), and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), and species were caught in traps baited with ethanol plus alpha-pinene than in traps baited with ethanol alone or the exotic Ips lure. This suggests that among these baits, the ethanol plus alpha-pinene baits may be useful in maximizing scolytine beetle catches of these species within this region. Species diversity and richness for both native and exotic beetles was greatest in traps baited with ethanol alone. The period of peak trap capture varied depending upon species: X. germanus was most abundant in traps in mid-May and early-August; T. piniperda in mid-May; D. autographus in early June, mid-July, and mid-September; Anisandrus sayi Hopkins and G. materiarius in mid-May, mid-July, and early September; and I. grandicollis in early April, mid-July, and late September. PMID:20857727

Gandhi, Kamal J K; Cognato, Anthony I; Lightle, Danielle M; Mosley, Bryson J; Nielsen, David G; Herms, Daniel A

2010-08-01

368

Biomass Research Program  

SciTech Connect

INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

2011-01-01

369

Biomass - Investigating Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity students generate their own biomass gases by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best by their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

Benson, Eric E.; Highfill, Melissa; Development, Us D.

370

Biomass Research Program  

ScienceCinema

INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

2013-05-28

371

Combustion properties of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of biomass relevant to combustion are briefly reviewed. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable, especially with respect to inorganic constituents important to the critical problems of fouling and slagging. Alkali and alkaline earth metals, in combination with other fuel elements such as silica and sulfur, and facilitated by the presence of chlorine, are responsible for many

B. M Jenkins; L. L Baxter; T. R Miles

1998-01-01

372

Catalyzed gasification of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalyzed biomass gasification studies are being conducted by Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Investigations are being carried out concurrently at the bench and process development unit scales. These studies are designed to test the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gaseous products from biomass by enhancing its reactivity and product specificity through the use of specific catalysts. The program is

L. J. Jr. Sealock; R. J. Robertus; L. K. Mudge; D. H. Mitchell; J. L. Cox

1978-01-01

373

Pyrearinus termitilluminans larval click beetle luciferase: active site properties, structure and function relationships and comparison with other beetle luciferases.  

PubMed

Several beetle luciferases have been cloned and sequenced. However, most studies on structure and function relationships and bioanalytical applications were done with firefly luciferases, which are pH sensitive. Several years ago we cloned Pyrearinus termitilluminans larval click beetle luciferase, which displays the most blue-shifted bioluminescence among beetle luciferases and is pH insensitive. This enzyme was expressed in E. coli, purified, and its properties investigated. This luciferase shows slower luminescence kinetics, K(M) values comparable to other beetle luciferases and high catalytic constant. Fluorescence studies with 8-anilino-1-naphtalene-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS) and modeling studies suggest that the luciferin binding site of this luciferase is very hydrophobic, supporting the solvent and orientation polarizability effects as determining mechanisms for bioluminescence colors. Although pH insensitive in the range between pH 6-8, at pH 10 this luciferase displays a remarkable red-shift and broadening of the bioluminescence spectrum. Modeling studies suggest that the residue C312 may play an important role in bioluminescence color modulation. Compared to other beetle luciferases, Pyrearinus termitilluminans luciferase also displays higher thermostability and sustained luminescence in a bacterial cell environment, which makes this luciferase particularly suitable for in vivo cell analysis and bioimaging. PMID:20024173

Silva Neto, A J; Scorsato, V; Arnoldi, F G C; Viviani, V R

2009-12-01

374

Modernizing biomass energy  

E-print Network

Biomass accounts for an estimated one-third of all energy used in developing countries today. Most of this biomass is used inefficiently and with significant pollutant emissions by the more than 2 billion people who cook using direct combustion of biomass. Contrasting today’s use of biomass energy, several recent major assessments of future global energy supply show much larger roles for biomass energy by the middle of the 21st century as part of a global strategy for reducing CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. When biomass is grown renewably (i.e., at the same average rate at which it is used for energy), little or no net emissions of CO 2 result. Most energy analysts are surprised by visions of such large biomass contributions to energy supply because biomass ranks near the bottom of the list of preferred energy carriers today. However, if biomass can be modernized, i.e. converted cost-competitively into more convenient forms such as gases,liquids,or electricity,then much more significant use of biomass is conceivable. This paper discusses modernizing biomass energy within the context of climate change mitigation. The paper begins by defining modernization, and reviewing its advantages and disadvantages. It then addresses agricultural, environmental, and socioeconomic implications of biomass energy modernization for developing countries. Examples of modernization in the context of electricity production and cooking are provided. Finally, challenges to modernization are noted, along with some suggestions for addressing the challenges. Note: Globally, photosynthesis stores energy in biomass at a rate that is roughly ten times the present rate of total global energy use. Some 40 to 50 exajoules (EJ) per year (1018 joules/year) of photosynthetic production (less than 2 % of the total) is used for energy today (Hall et al. 1993; Reddy et al. 1997; Nakicenovic et al. 1998). For comparison, total global energy use is around 450 EJ/year. The precise biomass contribution is uncertain because the majority of it is used non-commercially in rural areas of developing countries.

Eric D. Larson

375

The original colours of fossil beetles  

PubMed Central

Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group. PMID:21957131

McNamara, Maria E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Orr, Patrick J.; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

2012-01-01

376

Potential effects on grassland birds of converting marginal cropland to switchgrass biomass production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat loss is a major reason for the decline of grassland birds in North America. Five habitats (pastures, hayfields, rowcrop fields, small-grain fields, Conservation Reserve Program fields) compose most of the habitat used by grassland birds in the Midwest United States. Growing and harvesting switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a biomass fuel would create another habitat for grassland birds. Bird abundance information from studies conducted in Iowa and adjacent states and land-use data for the Rathbun Lake Watershed in southern Iowa were used in a Geographic Information System to model the potential effects on bird abundances of converting rowcrop fields to biomass production. Abundances of bird species that are management priorities increased in both biomass scenarios. Common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) abundance in the watershed also increased greatly in both scenarios. Other species (e.g., homed lark [Eremophila alpestris], killdeer [Charadrius vociferous]) were more abundant in the existing land use than in the biomass scenarios, and conversion of fields from rowcrop to biomass production could be detrimental to these species. In general, biomass fields will provide habitat for grassland birds that are management priorities, but future monitoring of birds in such fields is needed as conversion of rowcrop fields to biomass production continues. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Murray, L.D.; Best, L.B.; Jacobsen, T.J.; Braster, M.L.

2003-01-01

377

Behavior of the western pine beetle during host colonization.  

PubMed

After living ponderosa pines were baited with either female-infested bolts or synthetic pheromones,Dendroctonus brevicomis were caught on sticky screens throughout trapping periods of 15-46 days; however, large numbers of beetles were trapped during only a small portion (5-10 days) of these trapping periods. The most attractive portions of trees attacked contained 3-6 beetles dm(2), in galleries ca. 2 cm long. Catch increased following addition of males to female-infested bolts, supporting the hypothesis that male-produced frontalin is an attractive pheromone of the western pine beetle. Catch at bolts removed from trees under attack was strongly dependent upon levels of boring activity. We found no evidence of interruption of the response to attractants during host colonization. PMID:24310387

Bedard, W D; Lindahl, K Q; Tilden, P E; Wood, D L

1985-09-01

378

The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

2010-03-01

379

Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy  

E-print Network

Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy 2nd Semester for the Master Programme REMA/EUREC Course 2008/2009 University of Zaragoza Specialisation Provider: Biomass Energy #12;Specialisation Biomass Energy, University of Zaragoza Modul: Introduction and Basic Concepts

Damm, Werner

380

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY to treatment prescriptions and anticipated outputs of sawlogs and biomass fuel? How many individual operations biomass fuel removed. Typically in plantations. 50% No harvest treatment

381

The scent of a partner: ambrosia beetles are attracted to volatiles from their fungal symbionts.  

PubMed

Invasive fungus-growing ambrosia beetles are an emerging threat to forest ecosystems and fruit industries, but management tools are lacking. Here we explored the potential of beetle symbionts-ambrosia fungi-as a source of attractants. Our focus was the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, and its symbiotic fungus, Raffaelea lauricola, which are devastating lauraceous hosts in the southeastern United States. We also tested three additional co-occurring beetle species and their symbionts. Each beetle species was consistently attracted to the odors of its symbiotic fungal species, occasionally also to symbionts of other species, but never to non-symbiotic Trichoderma. We further confirmed attraction to ethanol (positive control) in some species. Thus, ambrosia fungi produce volatiles attractive to their vector beetles, which may have potential as novel lures for ambrosia beetle management. PMID:22161224

Hulcr, Jiri; Mann, Rajinder; Stelinski, Lukasz L

2011-12-01

382

Invited Invaders: Beetles used successfully in biological control of saltcedar  

E-print Network

beetles.? During the past two years, Knutson collected about #21;#21;#24;,#24;#24;#24; beetles from the Big Spring area and distributed them throughout West Texas, from Big Bend National Park on the Rio Grande as far north as White River Lake near... the river ecosystem closer to what it used to be.? Late last summer, this program, called one of the most successful biological control programs for invasive weeds in the United States, hit a potential bump in the road in the Rio Grande area of Texas...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

383

Invited Invaders: Beetles used sucessfully in biological control of saltcedar  

E-print Network

beetles.? During the past two years, Knutson collected about #21;#21;#24;,#24;#24;#24; beetles from the Big Spring area and distributed them throughout West Texas, from Big Bend National Park on the Rio Grande as far north as White River Lake near... the river ecosystem closer to what it used to be.? Late last summer, this program, called one of the most successful biological control programs for invasive weeds in the United States, hit a potential bump in the road in the Rio Grande area of Texas...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

384

A method for reconstructing climate from fossil beetle assemblages.  

PubMed Central

Fossil beetle remains have been used to reconstruct temperatures. One method by which these reconstructions are made--the Mutual Climatic Range method--is based on the overlap of the observed modern climatic ranges of the beetles present in a fossil sample. A limitation of this method is that it does not exploit variations in the rate of occurrence of a species within its climatic range. We present an alternative method that uses observed variations in this rate in modern data for climate reconstruction. The method is shown to perform well in an experiment using modern data from North America. PMID:15306361

Huppert, Amit; Solow, Andrew R.

2004-01-01

385

A method for reconstructing climate from fossil beetle assemblages.  

PubMed

Fossil beetle remains have been used to reconstruct temperatures. One method by which these reconstructions are made--the Mutual Climatic Range method--is based on the overlap of the observed modern climatic ranges of the beetles present in a fossil sample. A limitation of this method is that it does not exploit variations in the rate of occurrence of a species within its climatic range. We present an alternative method that uses observed variations in this rate in modern data for climate reconstruction. The method is shown to perform well in an experiment using modern data from North America. PMID:15306361

Huppert, Amit; Solow, Andrew R

2004-06-01

386

Larger Black Flour Beetle in Southern High Plains Homes  

E-print Network

Tech University arger black flour beetles are not really large, not always black and not just found in flour. They are only about 1 ?4 inch long, are dark Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Agriculture to learn more about it. During... Tech University arger black flour beetles are not really large, not always black and not just found in flour. They are only about 1 ?4 inch long, are dark Texas A&M University and the Texas Department of Agriculture to learn more about it. During...

Porter, Patrick; McIntyre, Nancy E.

2007-04-09

387

Harrington, T. C. 2005. Ecology and evolution of mycophagous bark beetles and their fungal partners. Pages 257-291 In: Ecological and  

E-print Network

of xylomycetophagous (wood and fungal feeding) ambrosia beetles from phloeophagous bark beetles (Farrell et al. 2001). Mycophagy appears to have evolved many times in the bark beetles, as it has in the xylem-feeding ambrosia beetles and ambrosia beetles in the way they carry their fungal symbionts, the range of fungi that have

Harrington, Thomas C.

388

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY .................................................................................... 33 3.3 BIOMASS POWER PLANT OPERATION MODELS AND DATA

389

Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY and continuously between the earth's biomass and atmosphere. From a greenhouse gas perspective, forest treatments

390

Global patterns and predictions of seafloor biomass using random forests.  

PubMed

A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, was employed to model and predict seafloor standing stocks from surface primary production, water-column integrated and export particulate organic matter (POM), seafloor relief, and bottom water properties. The predictive models explain 63% to 88% of stock variance among the major size groups. Individual and composite maps of predicted global seafloor biomass and abundance are generated for bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna (invertebrates and fishes). Patterns of benthic standing stocks were positive functions of surface primary production and delivery of the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux to the seafloor. At a regional scale, the census maps illustrate that integrated biomass is highest at the poles, on continental margins associated with coastal upwelling and with broad zones associated with equatorial divergence. Lowest values are consistently encountered on the central abyssal plains of major ocean basins The shift of biomass dominance groups with depth is shown to be affected by the decrease in average body size rather than abundance, presumably due to decrease in quantity and quality of food supply. This biomass census and associated maps are vital components of mechanistic deep-sea food web models and global carbon cycling, and as such provide fundamental information that can be incorporated into evidence-based management. PMID:21209928

Wei, Chih-Lin; Rowe, Gilbert T; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas; Caley, M Julian; Soliman, Yousria; Huettmann, Falk; Qu, Fangyuan; Yu, Zishan; Pitcher, C Roland; Haedrich, Richard L; Wicksten, Mary K; Rex, Michael A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Sharma, Jyotsna; Danovaro, Roberto; MacDonald, Ian R; Nunnally, Clifton C; Deming, Jody W; Montagna, Paul; Lévesque, Mélanie; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Ingole, Baban S; Bett, Brian J; Billett, David S M; Yool, Andrew; Bluhm, Bodil A; Iken, Katrin; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

2010-01-01

391

Global Patterns and Predictions of Seafloor Biomass Using Random Forests  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, was employed to model and predict seafloor standing stocks from surface primary production, water-column integrated and export particulate organic matter (POM), seafloor relief, and bottom water properties. The predictive models explain 63% to 88% of stock variance among the major size groups. Individual and composite maps of predicted global seafloor biomass and abundance are generated for bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna (invertebrates and fishes). Patterns of benthic standing stocks were positive functions of surface primary production and delivery of the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux to the seafloor. At a regional scale, the census maps illustrate that integrated biomass is highest at the poles, on continental margins associated with coastal upwelling and with broad zones associated with equatorial divergence. Lowest values are consistently encountered on the central abyssal plains of major ocean basins The shift of biomass dominance groups with depth is shown to be affected by the decrease in average body size rather than abundance, presumably due to decrease in quantity and quality of food supply. This biomass census and associated maps are vital components of mechanistic deep-sea food web models and global carbon cycling, and as such provide fundamental information that can be incorporated into evidence-based management. PMID:21209928

Wei, Chih-Lin; Rowe, Gilbert T.; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas; Caley, M. Julian; Soliman, Yousria; Huettmann, Falk; Qu, Fangyuan; Yu, Zishan; Pitcher, C. Roland; Haedrich, Richard L.; Wicksten, Mary K.; Rex, Michael A.; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Sharma, Jyotsna; Danovaro, Roberto; MacDonald, Ian R.; Nunnally, Clifton C.; Deming, Jody W.; Montagna, Paul; Levesque, Melanie; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Ingole, Baban S.; Bett, Brian J.; Billett, David S. M.; Yool, Andrew; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Iken, Katrin; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2010-01-01

392

Investigation of growth responses in saprophytic fungi to charred biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a study testing the response of two saprophytic white-rot fungi species, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Coriolus versicolor, to charred biomass (charcoal) as a growth substrate. We used a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental abundance measurements, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (C and N) to investigate fungal colonisation of control and incubated samples of

Philippa L. Ascough; Craig J. Sturrock; Michael I. Bird

2010-01-01

393

Hydropyrolysis of biomass  

SciTech Connect

The pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass was investigated. Experimental runs using the biomass (Poplar wood sawdust) were performed using a tubular reactor of dimensions 1 inch inside diameter and 8 feet long heated at a temperature of 800 C and pressures between 450 and 750 psig. At low heat-up rate the reaction precedes in two steps. First pyrolysis takes place at temperatures of 300 to 400 c and subsequent hydropyrolysis takes place at 700 C and above. This is also confirmed by pressurized thermogravimetric analysis (PTGA). Under conditions of rapid heat-up at higher temperatures and higher hydrogen pressure gasification and hydrogasification of biomass is especially effective in producing carbon monoxide and methane. An overall conversion of 88 to 90 wt % of biomass was obtained. This value is in agreement with the previous work of flash pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass for rapid heat-up and short residence time. Initial rates of biomass conversion indicate that the rate increases significantly with increase in hydrogen pressure. At 800 C and 755 psig the initial rate of biomass conversion to gases is 0.92 1/min.

Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.

1992-01-01

394

Competitive release leads to range expansion and rampant speciation in malagasy dung beetles.  

PubMed

Competition is often thought to promote ecological diversification and thereby to facilitate the coexistence of competitors during evolutionary radiations. At large spatial scales, species may also coexist by having allopatric distributions, which raises the question about the role of range expansion in the proliferation of species during radiations. Here, we integrate a well-sampled (50 out of 74 species) and timed phylogeny of Nanos and Apotolamprus dung beetles (Canthonini) in Madagascar with data on species' geographical ranges, abundances, and body sizes. There is an overall decline in lineage accumulation through time since the colonization of northern Madagascar in the mid Miocene (24-13 Ma). A clade of 24 extant Nanos species (clade L) originating 6.0 Ma exhibits an increase in speciation rate, which is associated with a significant increase in body size and strikingly allopatric distributions of the species. Large body size typically confers a competitive advantage in dung beetles, which is here reflected by strong numerical dominance of clade L species in local communities. We suggest that the "key innovation" of large body size has allowed range expansion due to competitive release, which has created extensive opportunities for allopatric speciation and differentiation along environmental gradients. Most theories to explain diversification patterns in Madagascar rely on allopatric modes of speciation, but they fail to explain how ancestral species became widespread in the first place. The mechanism proposed here, involving range expansion following competitive release via a "key innovation", may have operated in other Malagasy taxa with large numbers of species with small geographic ranges. [biodiversity hotspot; competition; Madagascar; microendemism; radiation.]. PMID:24578226

Miraldo, Andreia; Hanski, Ilkka A

2014-07-01

395

WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials Biomass production potentials  

E-print Network

WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 1 Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren #12;WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 2 Report Biomass production potentials in central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

396

Abundance declines of a native forb have nonlinear impacts on grassland invasion resistance.  

PubMed

The effects of declining plant biodiversity on ecosystem processes are well studied, with most investigations examining the role of species richness declines rather than declines of species abundance. Using grassland mesocosms, we examined how the abundance of a native, resident species, Hemizonia congesta (hayfield tarweed), affected exotic Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) invasion. We found that progressive H. congesta abundance declines had threshold effects on invasion resistance, with initial declines resulting in minor increases in invasion and subsequent declines leading to accelerating increases in invader performance. Reduced invasion resistance was explained by increased resource availability as H. congesta declined. We also found evidence that resident abundance might indirectly affect invasion by mediating invader impact on resident competitors; C. solstitialis disproportionately reduced H. congesta biomass in low-abundance rather than high-abundance populations. H. congesta's direct and indirect effects on invasion resistance illustrate that an individual species' declining abundance can have accelerating, deleterious effects on ecosystem functions of conservation value. PMID:22624319

Hulvey, Kristin B; Zavaleta, Erika S

2012-02-01

397

[Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) biomass refinery engineering].  

PubMed

Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) is an abundant and widely distributed Chinese native plant. Sumac fruit contains low content of vegetable oil, as an atypical oil plants hardly being processed through traditional vegetable oil production technologies. Based on our own studies on the characteristics of sumac fruit and branches, we established a novel model of sumac biomass refinery, and constructed the sumac biomass refinery technology system and eco-industrial chain integration. Steam explosion was the key technology, and several components fractionation technologies were integrated in the sumac biomass refinery system. The fractionated components were converted into different products depending on their functional features. Eight products including sumac fruit oil, biodiesel, protein feed, flavonoids, unbleached facial tissue, phenolic resin, biomass briquette and biogas were produced in the refinery. The extracted sumac fruit oil by steam explosion pretreatment was applied for the new food resource of Ministry of Health, and the permit was approved. This research provides a new model for the development of atypical wild plant resources. PMID:25118393

Wang, Lan; Wang, Ning; Li, Tan; Chen, Hongzhang

2014-05-01

398

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus to volatiles from host pines and conspecifics.  

PubMed

The bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus is endemic to northwestern Mexico where it kills immature pines?beetle-derived oxygenated monoterpenes fenchyl alcohol, myrtenal, cis-verbenol, trans-verbenol, verbenone, and myrtenol. These monoterpenes were quantified from pre-emerged D. rhizophagus adults forced to attack host tissue in the laboratory, and from individuals dissected from naturally-attacked hosts at different stages of colonization. In both bioassays, myrtenol and trans-verbenol were the most abundant volatiles, and trans-verbenol was the only one produced in significantly greater quantities by females than males in a naturally-colonized host. Two field experiments were performed to evaluate behavioral responses of D. rhizophagus to antennally-active monoterpenes. Results show that 3-carene was significantly attractive either alone or in a ternary (1:1:1) combination with ?-pinene and ?-pinene, whereas neither ?-pinene nor ?-pinene alone were attractive. None of the beetle-associated oxygenated monoterpenes enhanced the attractiveness of the ternary mixture of monoterpenes, while verbenone either alone or combined with the other five oxygenated terpenes reduced D. rhizophagus attraction to the ternary mixture. The results suggest that attraction of D. rhizophagus to the host tree P. arizonica is mediated especially by 3-carene. There was no conclusive evidence for an aggregation or sex attractant pheromone. PMID:22544334

Cano-Ramírez, Claudia; Armendáriz-Toledano, Francisco; Macías-Sámano, Jorge E; Sullivan, Brian T; Zúñiga, Gerardo

2012-05-01

399

Maize Benefits the Predatory Beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to Provide Potential to Enhance Biological Control for Aphids in Cotton  

PubMed Central

Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The ?13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton. PMID:22984499

Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

2012-01-01

400

Inbreeding depression in two seed-feeding beetles, Callosobruchus  

E-print Network

Inbreeding depression in two seed-feeding beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091, USA Abstract Inbreeding depression is well documented in insects but the degree to which inbreeding depression varies among populations within species, and among

Fox, Charles W.

401

Microorganism Mediated Reproductive Isolation in Flour Beetles (Genus Tribolium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive isolation is induced by microorganisms in diverse geographic strains of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The incompatibility between populations is due to nongenetic cytoplasmically inherited factors. Males of infected strains produce no progeny when crossed with females of noninfected strains; however, they produce ``normal'' numbers of progeny when crossed with infected females. Males from noninfected strains show

Michael J. Wade; Lori Stevens

1985-01-01

402

76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...prevent the spread of PSB, a pest of pine trees, into noninfested areas of the United...pine and especially affects weak and dying trees. The beetle has been found in a variety...causing stunted and distorted growth in host trees. Large infestations of PSB typically...

2011-01-10

403

An old adaptive radiation of forest dung beetles in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive radiations of mammals have contributed to the exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism in Madagascar. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the endemic dung beetle tribe Helictopleurini (Scarabaeidae) and its relationship to the widely distributed Oniticellini and Onthophagini. Helictopleurini species are dependent on mammals for their resources. We date the single origin of the tribe at 37

Helena Wirta; Luisa Orsini; Ilkka Hanski

2008-01-01

404

Complex emergence patterns in a bark beetle predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence pattern of Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), a common predator of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was studied under field conditions across different seasons. A simple statistical model was then developed to characterize the emergence data, using the truncated geometric distribution. Data are also presented on the mortality of T. dubius eggs at various

John D. Reeve

2000-01-01

405

A deficiency of the homeotic complex of the beetle Tribolium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Drosophila, the establishment of regional commitments along most of the anterior/posterior axis of the developing embryo depends on two clusters of homeotic genes: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and the bithorax complex (BX-C). The red flour beetle has a single complex (HOM-C) representing the homologues of the ANT-C and BX-C in juxtaposition. Beetles trans-heterozygous for two particular HOM-C mutations spontaneously generate a large deficiency, presumably by an exchange within the common region of two overlapping inversions. Genetic and molecular results indicate that this deficiency spans at least the interval between the Deformed and abdominal-A homologues. In deficiency homozygous embryos, all gnathal, thoracic and abdominal segments develop antennal appendages, suggesting that a gene(s) has been deleted that acts to distinguish trunk from head. There is no evidence that beetles have a homologue of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu of similar genomic location and function. On the basis of the genetic tractability, convenient genome size and organization of Tribolium, and its relatively long phylogenetic divergence from Drosophila (>300 million years), we have integrated developmental genetic and molecular analyses of the HOM-C. We isolated about 70 mutations in the complex representing at least six complementation groups. The homeotic phenotypes of adults and lethal embryos lead us to believe that these beetle genes are homologous with the Drosophila genes indicated in Fig. 1 (see text).

Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1991-01-01

406

Drought induces spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks across northwestern Colorado.  

PubMed

This study examines influences of climate variability on spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak across northwestern Colorado during the period 1650 2011 CE. Periods of broad-scale outbreak reconstructed using documentary records and tree rings were dated to 1843-1860, 1882-1889, 1931-1957, and 2004-2010. Periods of outbreak were compared with seasonal temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and indices of ocean-atmosphere oscillation that include the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Classification trees showed that outbreaks can be predicted most successfully from above average annual AMO values and above average summer VPD values, indicators of drought across Colorado. Notably, we find that spruce beetle outbreaks appear to be predicted best by interannual to multidecadal variability in drought, not by temperature alone. This finding may imply that spruce beetle outbreaks are triggered by decreases in host tree defenses, which are hypothesized to occur with drought stress. Given the persistence of the AMO, the shift to a positive AMO phase in the late 1990s is likely to promote continued spruce beetle disturbance. PMID:24933812

Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Eisenhart, Karen S; Jarvis, Daniel; Kulakowski, Dominik

2014-04-01

407

Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles  

PubMed Central

Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency. PMID:22593097

Johansson, L. Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T.; Hedenstrom, Anders

2012-01-01

408

Antimicrobial strategies in burying beetles breeding on carrion  

PubMed Central

Rich and ephemeral resources, such as carrion, are a source of intense interspecific competition among animal scavengers and microbial decomposers. Janzen [Janzen DH (1977) Am Nat 111:691–713] hypothesized that microbes should be selected to defend such resources by rendering them unpalatable or toxic to animals, and that animals should evolve counterstrategies of avoidance or detoxification. Despite the ubiquity of animal-microbe competition, there are few tests of Janzen's hypothesis, in particular with respect to antimicrobial strategies in animals. Here, we use the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, a species that obligately breeds on carcasses of small vertebrates, to investigate the role of parental care and avoidance as antimicrobial strategies. We manipulated competition between beetle larvae and microbes by providing beetles with either fresh carcasses or old ones that had reached advanced putrefaction. We found evidence for a strong detrimental effect of microbial competition on beetle reproductive success and larval growth. We also found that parental care can largely compensate for these negative effects, and that when given a choice between old and fresh carcasses, parents tended to choose to rear their broods on the latter. We conclude that parental care and carcass avoidance can function as antimicrobial strategies in this species. Our findings extend the range of behavioral counterstrategies used by animals during competition with microbes, and generalize the work of Janzen to include competition between microbes and insects that rely on carrion as an obligate resource for breeding and not just as an opportunistic meal. PMID:19001269

Rozen, D. E.; Engelmoer, D. J. P.; Smiseth, P. T.

2008-01-01

409

Male-Specific Sesquiterpenes from Phyllotreta and Aphthona Flea Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was previously reported that males of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae, feeding on host foliage are attractive to both males and females in the field. Based on this evidence for an aggregation pheromone, volatiles were collected from male and female P. cruciferae feeding on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and analyzed. For comparison, volatiles were also collected from males and

Robert J. Bartelt; Allard A. Cossé; Bruce W. Zilkowski; David Weisleder; Frank A. Momany

2001-01-01

410

EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. RESULTS: We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA

Teiya Kijimoto; James Costello; Zuojian Tang; Armin P Moczek; Justen Andrews

2009-01-01

411

PLANTINSECT INTERACTIONS Longevity and Fecundity of Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica)  

E-print Network

3), another anthropogenic gaseous pollutant, beetles in the laboratory were fed soybean leaves grown with increased burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests that act as carbon sinks (Ehhalt et al. 2001. Atmospheric levels of O3, a gaseous pollutant, have been increasing as well (Ehhalt et al. 2001). Whereas O3

DeLucia, Evan H.

412

Down and Dirty with Dung Beetles: Innovating Teaching and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lecturer at the University of Queensland has developed an excellent model to give students an authentic, hands-on experience of ecological research. The first-year university students have been learning about biodiversity as they carry out the task of beetle identification. This partnership gives the students a chance to contribute to an…

Kelk, Joee

2009-01-01

413

PREVENTION OF RED TURPENTINE BEETLE ATTACK BY SERVIMOL AND DRAGNET  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single application of Sevimol (carbaryl) to the basal 6 to 7 feet of Pinus radiata trees significantly reduced infestations of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, and protected trees for up to 98 days. In another field study, a single application of Dragnet (permethrin) also significantly reduced infestations of D. valens and protected trees for up to 147 days.

Pavel Svihra

1995-01-01

414

"Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are naturally more eye-catching…

Kan, Da

2004-01-01

415

PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR VALLEY ELDERBERRY LONGHORN BEETLE MITIGATION1  

E-print Network

cuttings, the transplanting of mature plants, if successful, can also translocate VELB larvae within stems to the new site. Successful trans- planting of mature elderberry plants when the plants are dormant of the family Cerambycidae. Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) shrubs are the beetle's exclusive host plant. The valley

Standiford, Richard B.

416

Capella: Structure and Abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. (8) EUVE line ratios indicating low optical depth place limits on the extent to which the X-ray lines are optically, thick. While the brightest lines may be marginally thick, the ASCA spectrum is not of sufficient resolution to determine the optical depth in these lines.

Brickhouse, Nancy S.

1999-01-01

417

Substituting fossil fuels with biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacing fossil fuels with sustainably-produced biomass reduces net CO2 emissions. We express the efficiency of this substitution in reduced emissions per unit of used land or biomass. The substitution costs are calculated as the cost difference between a continued use of fossil fuels at current prices and a use of biomass. The biomass technologies are assumed to be implemented when

Leif Gustavsson; Per Svenningsson

1996-01-01

418

BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND  

E-print Network

BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12; #12;© Crown copyright 2007 ISBN: 978 0 7559 6506 9 Scottish% recyclable. #12;A BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12;#12;1 CONTENTS FOREWORD 3 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 2. INTRODUCTION 9 3. WIDER CONTEXT 13 4. SCOTLAND'S ROLE IN THE UK BIOMASS STRATEGY 17 5. BIOMASS HEATING 23 6

419

Northeast Regional Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

Lusk, P.D.

1992-12-01

420

Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment  

SciTech Connect

This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

Skelton, J.C.

1981-11-01

421

Juvenile Hormone Regulates Extreme Mandible Growth in Male Stag Beetles  

PubMed Central

The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects. PMID:21731659

Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J.; Miura, Toru

2011-01-01

422

Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.  

PubMed

The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects. PMID:21731659

Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

2011-01-01

423

Physical properties of solid biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international biomass market is growing, and is expected to be a large-scale trading market in the long term future. The demand within the European Union, however, cannot be met by local supply. Therefore, a large-scale biomass bulk terminal for both solid and liquid biomass and liquid biofuels is required to accommodate the biomass flows.The capacity for the large-scale biomass

M. R. Wu; D. L. Schott; G. Lodewijks

2011-01-01