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1

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction  

E-print Network

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS - ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity

Sanders, Nathan J.

2

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction  

E-print Network

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS - ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity

Sanders, Nathan J.

3

Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The beetles, or Coleoptera, are so abundant that it is said that one in every five living species on earth is a beetle. This Topic in Depth explores the vast insect order of Coleoptera. From the Zoological Institute at the Russian Academy of Sciences, the first site (1) contains beautiful images and information sections regarding Morphology and Anatomy, Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Distribution, Collections, and Publications. The second (2) site was created by Vratislav Bejsak-Colloredo-Mansfeld (of the University of Sydney) for beetle collectors, researchers, ecologists, entomologists, and others interested in beetles. The site contains links to a Coleoptera Bibliography; Coleoptera Databases and Catalogues; A Glossary of Entomological Terms; Images and Sound Library; and more. The third (3) site presents the Coleopterists Society, an international organization devoted to the study of beetles. The website contains information about the Society, upcoming meetings, prizes and awards, beetle conservation, resources, and news. From the University of Texas in Austin, the fourth (4) website presents Water Beetle World, the Newsletter for aquatic Coleoptera workers. The Newsletter serves as a forum for workers to share publication announcements, images, species checklists, resources, and more. The fifth (5) website presents the Purple Loosestrife Project, which was developed collaboratively by Michigan State University and Michigan Sea Grant Extension. The Project, designed for K-12 teachers and students, as well as other concerned citizens, involves the use of certain beetle species to help control the spread of Purple Loosestrife, and encourage the recovery of native vegetation. From Insecta Inspecta World, a project of the Honors Academy at Thornton Jr. High School in Fremont, CA (reported on in the October 18, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences), the sixth (6) site shares concise information about, and several great images of, Scarab beetles. From the archives of Iowa State University's Entomology Image Gallery, the final (7) site contains a collection of good-quality Coleoptera images including bean leaf beetles, blister beetles, wireworms, flea beetles, corn rootworms, weevils, and ladybird beetles.

4

Thinning of mature lodgepole pine stands increases scolytid bark beetle abundance and diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinning of forests has been used as a management tool for bark beetles; however, its effects have only been studied in a limited number of bark beetle species, and the causes of its effectiveness remain unclear. We sampled the abundance and diversity of secondary bark beetles in mature thinned and unthinned lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., stands (ca.

Trevor D. Hindmarch; Mary L. Reid

2001-01-01

5

Habitat Fragmentation and Burying Beetle Abundance and Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of burying beetle (Nicrophorus marginatus F., N. tomentosus Weber, N. orbicollis Say and N. defodiens Mannerheim) are attracted to small, fresh mouse carcasses in northern Michigan. The number of burying beetles and their success (burial of a carcass) were greater in woodlands than in edge or field habitats. Species diversity was least in open fields as assessed by

Stephen T. Trumbo; Philip L. Bloch

2000-01-01

6

The relative abundance of mountain pine beetle fungal associates through the beetle life cycle in pine trees.  

PubMed

The mountain pine beetle (MPB) is a native bark beetle of western North America that attacks pine tree species, particularly lodgepole pine. It is closely associated with the ophiostomatoid ascomycetes Grosmannia clavigera, Leptographium longiclavatum, Ophiostoma montium, and Ceratocystiopsis sp.1, with which it is symbiotically associated. To develop a better understanding of interactions between beetles, fungi, and host trees, we used target-specific DNA primers with qPCR to assess the changes in fungal associate abundance over the stages of the MPB life cycle that occur in galleries under the bark of pine trees. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified statistically significant changes in the relative abundance of the fungi over the life cycle of the MPB. Univariate analysis of covariance identified a statistically significant increase in the abundance of Ceratocystiopsis sp.1 through the beetle life cycle, and pair-wise analysis showed that this increase occurs after the larval stage. In contrast, the abundance of O. montium and Leptographium species (G. clavigera, L. longiclavatum) did not change significantly through the MPB life cycle. From these results, the only fungus showing a significant increase in relative abundance has not been formally described and has been largely ignored by other MPB studies. Although our results were from only one site, in previous studies we have shown that the fungi described were all present in at least ten sites in British Columbia. We suggest that the role of Ceratocystiopsis sp.1 in the MPB system should be explored, particularly its potential as a source of nutrients for teneral adults. PMID:22735936

Khadempour, Lily; LeMay, Valerie; Jack, David; Bohlmann, Jörg; Breuil, Colette

2012-11-01

7

Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction of spatial effects and genotypic diversity.  

PubMed

Intraspecific variation and genotypic diversity of host-plants can affect the structure of associated arthropod communities and the dynamics of populations. Similarly, neighboring plants can also affect interactions between host-plants and their associated arthropods. However, most studies on the effects of host-plant genotypes have largely ignored the potential effects of neighboring host-plants on arthropod communities. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to ask how spatial effects of neighboring patches, along with genotype identity and genotypic diversity in tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima), affect the abundances of a common goldenrod herbivore (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity. Additionally, there were strong effects of neighboring plots: aphid abundance in a focal plot was positively correlated to aphid abundance in nearby plots, suggesting strong spatial patterning in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity. However, focal plot genotypic diversity mediated the strength of the neighborhood effect (i.e., strong effects for genotype polyculture focal plots and weak effects for genotype monoculture focal plots). Our results show that aphids were directly influenced by host-plant genotype identity while ladybird beetles responded mainly to prey abundance, and suggest that genotypic diversity can influence the effects of spatial processes on the plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:21805301

Genung, Mark A; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Nathan J

2012-01-01

8

Temperature Determines Symbiont Abundance in a Multipartite Bark Beetle-fungus Ectosymbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report evidence that temperature plays a key role in determining the relative abundance of two mutualistic\\u000a fungi associated with an economically and ecologically important bark beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. The symbiotic fungi possess different optimal temperature ranges. These differences determine which fungus is vectored by\\u000a dispersing host beetles as temperatures fluctuate over a season. Grosmannia clavigera is

D. L. Six; B. J. Bentz

2007-01-01

9

Global distribution of microbial abundance and biomass in subseafloor sediment  

PubMed Central

The global geographic distribution of subseafloor sedimentary microbes and the cause(s) of that distribution are largely unexplored. Here, we show that total microbial cell abundance in subseafloor sediment varies between sites by ca. five orders of magnitude. This variation is strongly correlated with mean sedimentation rate and distance from land. Based on these correlations, we estimate global subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance to be 2.9?1029 cells [corresponding to 4.1 petagram (Pg) C and ?0.6% of Earth’s total living biomass]. This estimate of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance is roughly equal to previous estimates of total microbial abundance in seawater and total microbial abundance in soil. It is much lower than previous estimates of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance. In consequence, we estimate Earth’s total number of microbes and total living biomass to be, respectively, 50–78% and 10–45% lower than previous estimates. PMID:22927371

Kallmeyer, Jens; Pockalny, Robert; Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Smith, David C.; D’Hondt, Steven

2012-01-01

10

Global distribution of microbial abundance and biomass in subseafloor sediment.  

PubMed

The global geographic distribution of subseafloor sedimentary microbes and the cause(s) of that distribution are largely unexplored. Here, we show that total microbial cell abundance in subseafloor sediment varies between sites by ca. five orders of magnitude. This variation is strongly correlated with mean sedimentation rate and distance from land. Based on these correlations, we estimate global subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance to be 2.9?10(29) cells [corresponding to 4.1 petagram (Pg) C and ?0.6% of Earth's total living biomass]. This estimate of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance is roughly equal to previous estimates of total microbial abundance in seawater and total microbial abundance in soil. It is much lower than previous estimates of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance. In consequence, we estimate Earth's total number of microbes and total living biomass to be, respectively, 50-78% and 10-45% lower than previous estimates. PMID:22927371

Kallmeyer, Jens; Pockalny, Robert; Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Smith, David C; D'Hondt, Steven

2012-10-01

11

Heterogeneity of forest landscapes and the distribution and abundance of the southern pine beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental and unanswered research question in landscape ecology centers on how the spatial arrangement of ecosystems influences the distribution and abundance of organisms across complex landscape mosaics. In this study our goal was to examine how the southern pine beetle (SPB) perceives and responds to heterogeneity in forest landscape mosaics. The study was based on the use of extant

Robert N. Coulson; Bryan A. McFadden; Paul E. Pulley; Clark N. Lovelady; Jeffrey W. Fitzgerald; Stephen B. Jack

1999-01-01

12

Pesticide treatments affect mountain pine beetle abundance and woodpecker foraging behavior.  

PubMed

In British Columbia, Canada, management efforts used to control mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have included treatment of infested trees with an organic arsenic pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA). Cumulative pesticide applications over a large geographic area have generated concerns about arsenic loading in the environment and potential toxicity to nontarget wildlife. We investigated woodpecker foraging patterns in infested stands with and without MSMA treatment using a combination of tree debarking indices, point count surveys, and radiotelemetry methods in addition to insect flight traps to measure mountain pine beetle emergence. Debarking indices indicated woodpecker foraging of MSMA-treated trees was significantly lower than nontreated trees in all sampling years. However, approximately 40% of MSMA trees had some evidence of foraging. Focal observations of foraging woodpeckers and point count surveys in MSMA treatment areas further confirmed that several species of woodpeckers regularly used MSMA stands during the breeding season. Radio-tagged Hairy (Picoides villosus) and Three-toed (Picoides dorsalis) Woodpeckers spent on average 13% and 23% (range 0-66%) of their time, respectively, in treated stands, despite the fact that these areas only comprised on average 1-2% of their core home range (1 km2). MSMA strongly reduced the emergence of several bark beetle (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) species including the mountain pine beetle, and there was a highly significant positive relationship between Dendroctonus beetle abundance and Three-toed Woodpecker abundance. This study identifies the potential negative impact that forest management practices using pesticides can have on woodpecker populations that depend on bark beetles and their host trees. PMID:18372564

Morrissey, Christy A; Dods, Patti L; Elliott, John E

2008-01-01

13

Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

Newell, P.; King, S.

2009-01-01

14

Diversity, abundance and community network structure in sporocarp-associated beetle communities of the central Appalachian Mountains  

E-print Network

Diversity, abundance and community network structure in sporocarp-associated beetle communities and facultative users of sporocarps and their communities encompass a diversity of nutritional modes (Bruns 1984 and diverse in and on macrofungal sporocarps, their associations with fungi seldom have been described

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

15

Disruption of Ant-Aphid Mutualism in Canopy Enhances the Abundance of Beetles on the Forest Floor  

PubMed Central

Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web. PMID:22558156

Ma, Keming

2012-01-01

16

The role of moose Alces alces L. in boreal forest – the effect on ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) abundance and diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indirect effect of moose Alces alces browsing on ground beetle's abundance and diversity was investigated by pitfall trapping in a mixed coniferous forest in\\u000a Vestfold County (59°19? N, 9°50? E, Norway), during the summer of 2002. Three areas with different browsing pressures, ranging\\u000a from non- to medium- and heavily browsed were chosen and dry weight of bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus

Claudia Melis; Maria Sundby; Reidar Andersen; Arne Moksnes; Bård Pedersen; Eivin Røskaft

2007-01-01

17

Effect of Tillage and Planting Date on Seasonal Abundance and Diversity of Predacious Ground Beetles in Cotton  

PubMed Central

A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the other species. Ground beetle species abundance, diversity, and species richness were significantly higher in conservation tillage plots. This suggests that field conditions arising from the practice of conservation tillage may support higher predacious ground beetle activity than might be observed under field conditions arising from conventional tillage practices. PMID:21062204

Shrestha, R. B.; Parajulee, M. N.

2010-01-01

18

Species-abundance-biomass responses by estuarine macrobenthos to sediment chemical contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrobenthic community responses can be measured through concerted changes in univariate metrics,including species richness, total abundance, and totalbiomass. The classic model of pollution effects onmarine macrobenthic communities recognizes thatspecies\\/abundance\\/biomass (SAB) curves varydistinctively in a nonlinear manner with the magnitudeof organic enrichment. For example, at moderatelevels of organic enrichment, small-bodiedopportunistic species boost the abundance curve, whilespecies richness falls. Ratios among the

C. F. Rakocinski; S. S. Brown; G. R. Gaston; R. W. Heard; W. W. Walker; J. K. Summers

2000-01-01

19

Redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) abundance and perference of Persea spp. in the new world.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a native of Asia, was first discovered in the U.S. near Savannah, Georgia in 2002. RAB is an effective vector of Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, the fungus that causes laure...

20

Abundance and biomass of macrobenthos in the vicinity of Carson Submarine Canyon, northwest Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance, biomass and mean weight of macrofauna in the Carson Canyon region (Lat. 45°30'N, Long. 48°40'W) of the Grand Banks were estimated from 40 quantitative infaunal samples taken at 15 stations in June 1980. In contrast to other areas, there were no significant differences in these values between samples taken in and outside of the canyon. Abundance (\\u000a$$\\\\bar

K. A. Houston; R. L. Haedrich

1984-01-01

21

Occupancy-abundance models for predicting densities of three leaf beetles damaging the multipurpose tree Sesbania sesban in eastern and southern Africa.  

PubMed

Mesoplatys ochroptera Stål, Exosoma and Ootheca spp. seriously damage sesbania, Sesbania sesban (L.) Merril, a multipurpose leguminous tree widely used in tropical agroforestry. This is discouraging farmers from expanding the planting of sesbania in various agroforestry systems in eastern and south-central Africa. Rapid methods are needed for estimation of population densities of these beetles for decision making in pest management. A study was conducted with the objectives of determining the existence of any positive relationship between the occupancy and abundance of Mesoplatys, Exosoma and Ootheca and determining the model that best predicts abundance from occupancy for rapid estimation of population densities. The Poisson model assuming spatial randomness, the negative binomial distribution (NBD) model assuming spatial aggregation, the Nachman model without any distribution assumption, and a General model incorporating spatial variance-abundance and occupancy-abundance relationships were fitted to data on adult M. ochroptera, Exosoma and Ootheca from western Kenya, southern Malawi and eastern Zambia. Very strong variance to abundance relationships were observed in the spatial pattern of all three beetles. The occupancy-abundance relationships were also positive and strong in all beetles. The occupancy and abundance predicted by the four models were closest to the observed at lower densities compared with higher beetle densities. At higher population densities, the NBD and the General model gave better fit for M. ochroptera and Exosoma. For Ootheca populations, the Poisson and NBD models gave better fit at higher population densities. The relationships established here can be used as guide to estimate beetle densities for decision-making in pest management. PMID:16441906

Sileshi, G; Hailu, G; Mafongoya, P L

2006-02-01

22

Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA).  

PubMed

Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 +/- 1949 SD individuals m(-3), but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93-96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m(-3) and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs. PMID:20046854

Heidelberg, Karla B; O'Neil, Keri L; Bythell, John C; Sebens, Kenneth P

2010-01-01

23

Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA)  

PubMed Central

Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 ± 1949 SD individuals m?3, but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93–96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m?3 and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs. PMID:20046854

Heidelberg, Karla B.; O'Neil, Keri L.; Bythell, John C.; Sebens, Kenneth P.

2010-01-01

24

Microzooplankton: Abundance, biomass and contribution to chlorophyll in the Eastern Bering Sea in summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer microzooplankton abundance and biomass were determined for three years, 2008, 2009, and 2010, during a four-year cold period in the eastern Bering Sea. Average microzooplankton densities ranged from 4×103 to 25×103 cells l-1 in the mixed layer. Microzooplankton biomass was 21-25 ?g C l-1 in the mixed layer on the middle shelf (South and North Middle Domains), which has relatively low chlorophyll during summer stratification. However, microzooplankton biomass was about 1/2 that in the less stratified waters near the shelf break, greenbelt, and in the bloom waters in the Pribilof Island Domain. Although phytoplankton biomass was higher in deep chlorophyll maxima (DCM) than in surface waters on the shelf, microzooplankton biomass was generally not elevated in the DCM. High ratios (>1) of microzooplankton biomass to phytoplankton biomass were observed at chlorophyll a concentrations <1 ?g l-1. At times, average microzooplankton biomass was higher than the calculated phytoplankton biomass in the mixed layer in coastal (Inner Domain) and middle shelf (South and North Middle Domain) waters. A confounding factor in comparing microzooplankton and phytoplankton biomass was the contribution of plastid-retaining, mixotrophic, ciliates to chlorophyll a. On average, mixotrophic ciliates comprised 66% of the ciliate biomass, and in the North Middle Domain, on some cruises were estimated to have contributed over 50% of the chlorophyll a in the mixed layer. The 2008-2010 data suggest that extent of stratification, presence of localized blooms, and domain differences all have major influences on coupling of microzooplankton to phytoplankton stocks in summer in the eastern Bering Sea.

Stoecker, Diane K.; Weigel, Alison C.; Stockwell, Dean A.; Lomas, Michael W.

2014-11-01

25

Remarkable Amphibian Biomass and Abundance in an Isolated Wetland: Implications for Wetland  

E-print Network

Remarkable Amphibian Biomass and Abundance in an Isolated Wetland: Implications for Wetland, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154­4004, U.S.A. §Partners in Amphibian and Reptile: Despite the continuing loss of wetland habitats and associated declines in amphibian populations, attempts

Georgia, University of

26

Macroinvertebrate Abundance and Biomass: 2007 Data, BPA-51; Preliminary Report, February 10, 2009..  

SciTech Connect

Four Excel files containing information on the 2007 macroinvertebrate data were initially provided to Statistical Consulting Services (SCS) by EcoAnalysts on 1/27/2009. These data files contained information on abundance and biomass data at the level of taxonomic groups. The data were subsequently reformatted and compiled, and aggregated for analysis by SCS. All descriptions and analyses below relate to this compiled data. Computations were carried out separately for each site over all sample periods. Basic summary information for both the abundance and biomass data is presented in Print Out No.2. The 14 sites varied widely in their minimum, mean, maximum and variance values. The number of observations ranged from 10 to 18. Some large abundance values (abundance > 40,000) were noted for sites KR6 and KR13. A more detailed summary of each site is given in Print Out No.3. Site KR3, for example, had a mean abundance of 6914 with a sample size of 17. The variance was 4591991 and the standard error of the mean was 1643. The skewness value, a measure of symmetry for the frequency distribution, was moderately large at 1.29 indicating an asymmetric distribution. Biomass for KR3 had a mean value of 0.87 g/m{sup 2} with 17 observations. The variance was 0.8872 and the standard error was 0.228 g/m{sup 2}. Skewness for biomass was also high at 1.29. Further examination of the quantiles and frequency plots for abundance and biomass also indicate considerable skewness. The stem and leaf diagram (frequency plot) for abundance in KR3 shows most of the data centered on smaller values with a few very large counts. The distribution for biomass has a similar pattern. Statistical tests for normality are significant for both response variables in KR3, thus, the hypothesis that the data originates from a symmetric normal distribution is rejected. Because sample size estimation and statistical inference assume normally distributed data, a transformation of the data is required prior to further analysis. As was the case for previous years, the natural logarithm was chosen as a transformation to mitigate distributional skewness. Abundance and biomass for the remaining sites were also notably skewed, therefore, these data were also log transformed prior to analysis. Summary information for the transformed data (referred to as L-abun and L-bio for abundance and biomass, respectively) are given in Print Out No.4. For site KR3, the logarithmic transformation reduced skewness value for biomass to -0.66. The distributions of abundance and biomass in the other sites also generally showed improvement as well. Hence, all subsequent statistical analyses reported here will be based on the log transformed data.

Holderman, Charles

2009-02-10

27

Ground penetrating radar measurements show a spatial relationship between coarse root biomass and soil carbon abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In savanna ecosystems, the dynamics of soil organic carbon are complicated by multiple sources of inputs, created by the coexistance of trees and grasses, and by spatial heterogeneity induced by a patchy vegetation structure. A previous study on the spatial pattern of soil carbon abundance on the Kalahari Transect in Southern Africa found that for savannas with sparse woody cover the semivariogram of soil carbon abundance demonstrates periodicity. It is hypothesized that the periodicity is induced by the patchy spatial distribution of canopies and root systems of woody plants. We tested this by mapping the abundance of coarse woody roots with ground penetrating radar. Spatial patterns of soil carbon abundance were measured at our research site in a previous study. The site is on the Botswana portion of the Kalahari Transect, and has deep, homogeneous, sandy soil. We ran the ground penetrating radar over three 20 by 20 meter square plots in two perpendicular directions. We filtered the radar images to remove background noise and applied a Hilbert transform to reduce echoes. In each plot, we also dug 20 root biomass sampling pits. Using the sampling pit data, we were able to verify that there is a log-linear relationship (r2 = 0.80) between radar signal return and coarse root biomass in the upper 50 cm of soil. Semivariograms of coarse root biomass inferred from radar returns showed periodicity at similar spatial scales to the periodicity in soil carbon abundance. Our results suggest that the belowground components of woody plants, which may extend well beyond their canopies, exert a stronger influence on soil carbon cycling than the aboveground components, illustrating a key issue with the common practice of dividing arid and semiarid landscapes into "under canopy" and "inter-canopy" components in analyses of soil biogeochemistry. We were able to show that a relationship exists between ground penetrating radar returns and coarse root biomass for dry, sandy soils. However, the large amount of information needed to determine a predictive relationship suggests that ground penetrating radar may be more useful in investigating spatial patterns of root biomass than as a tool for quantifying absolute biomass abundance.

O'Donnell, F. C.; Gerlein, C.; Bhattachan, A.; Caylor, K. K.

2012-12-01

28

Ground penetrating radar measurements show a spatial relationship between coarse root biomass and soil carbon abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In savanna ecosystems, the dynamics of soil organic carbon are complicated by multiple sources of inputs, created by the coexistance of trees and grasses, and by spatial heterogeneity induced by a patchy vegetation structure. A previous study on the spatial pattern of soil carbon abundance on the Kalahari Transect in Southern Africa found that for savannas with sparse woody cover the semivariogram of soil carbon abundance demonstrates periodicity. It is hypothesized that the periodicity is induced by the patchy spatial distribution of the canopies and root systems of woody plants. We tested this by mapping the abundance of coarse woody roots with ground penetrating radar. Spatial patterns of soil carbon abundance were measured at our research site in a previous study. The site is on the Botswana portion of the Kalahari Transect, and has deep, homogeneous, sandy soil. We ran the ground penetrating radar over three 20 by 20 meter square plots in two perpendicular directions. We filtered the radar images to remove background noise and applied a Hilbert transform to reduce echoes. In each plot, we also dug 20 root biomass sampling pits. Using the sampling pit data, we were able to verify that there is a log-linear relationship (r2 = 0.80) between radar signal return and coarse root biomass in the upper 50 cm of soil. Semivariograms of coarse root biomass inferred from radar returns showed periodicity at similar spatial scales to the periodicity in soil carbon abundance. Our results suggest that the belowground components of woody plants, which may extend well beyond their canopies, exert a stronger influence on soil carbon cycling than the aboveground components, illustrating a key issue with the common practice of dividing arid and semiarid landscapes into "under canopy" and "inter-canopy" components in analyses of soil biogeochemistry. We were able to show that a relationship exists between ground penetrating radar returns and coarse root biomass for dry, sandy soils. However, the large amount of information needed to determine a predictive relationship suggests that ground penetrating radar may be more useful in investigating spatial patterns of root biomass than as a tool for quantifying absolute biomass abundance.

O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Gerlein, C.; Bhattachan, A.

2013-05-01

29

Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada  

PubMed Central

Abstract Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in the guts. These results not only provide evidence of the consumer-resource relations of these beetles but also clarify the relationship between rove beetles, woody debris and fungi. Predominance of yeast-feeding by abundant rove beetles suggests that it may play an important role in their dietary requirements. PMID:24294095

Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F.; Thayer, Margaret K.

2013-01-01

30

Picoplankton abundance and biomass in the East China Sea during autumn and winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Nov. 2006 and Feb. 2007, two investigations were carried out to investigate the abundance, carbon biomass, and distribution of picoplankton (Pico) and its relationship to the hydrological regime in the East China Sea (ECS). Pico consisted of three groups of photosynthetic picoplankton (phPico)— Synechococcus (Syn), Prochlorococcus (Pro) and Picoeukaryotes (PEuk)—and heterotrophic bacteria (HBAC). The average abundance of Pro, PEuk and HBAC was lower in autumn than in winter, but for Syn the opposite trend was observed. Water temperature, salinity, and stability of water column influenced Pico distribution in both seasons. Regression analysis showed distinct positive correlations between HBAC and phPico in both seasons. Syn contributed more to phPico in coastal waters, whereas Pro dominanted in the shelf and slope areas. PEuk was the major contributor to carbon biomass. In the Pico community, HBAC was predominant, both in abundance and in terms of carbon biomass. The phenomenon of subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) was observed ubiquitously in the shelf and slope area, and Pico organisms were the major contributors.

Le, Fengfeng; Ning, Xiuren; Liu, Chenggang; Ni, Xiaobo; Hao, Qiang

2012-02-01

31

Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an savanna.  

PubMed

In the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, we compared the scarab beetle assemblages in the dung of three wild ungulates (African buffalo, a ruminant foregut fermenter; hippopotamus, nonruminant foregut fermenter; and warthog, nonruminant hindgut fermenter). Dung was collected from two sandy-clay soils with different percentage of coarse sand. We aimed at investigating habitat resource selection by dung beetle species within a savanna natural contest with abundant and diverse food availability. Analyses were performed to detect differences for dung beetle assemblages in abundance, diversity, functional groups. Species richness in the three dung types and in the two soil types was similar. However, warthog dung and sandy-rich soil appeared the preferred habitat resources, in terms of abundance and biomass, while hippopotamus dung hosted the lowest values for these parameters. The analysis of functional groups revealed that slow-burying tunnellers held the major role, both in terms of abundance and biomass, and were mainly found in warthog dung. PMID:22182540

Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Ieradi, Michele

2010-12-01

32

Influence of hydrological seasonality on sandbank benthos: algal biomass and shrimp abundance in a large neotropical river  

E-print Network

In this study, I examined the influence of hydrological seasonality on spatiotemporal variation of algal biomass and shrimp abundance on sandbanks of the Cinaruco River in southwestern Venezuela. Seasonal variations of abiotic and biotic variables...

Montoya Ceballos, Jose Vicente

2009-05-15

33

[Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Southern Yellow Sea in winter].  

PubMed

A two cruises investigation on the meiobenthos in the continental shelf of Southern Yellow Sea was made in January 2003 and January 2004. The results showed that the average abundance of meiobenthos was (954.20 +/- 269.47) ind x 10 cm(-2) and ( 1 186.12+/- 486.07) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the biomass was (954.38+/-403.93) microg x10 cm(-2) and (1 120.72+/-487.21 ) mg x 10 cm(-2) in January 2003 and January 2004, respectively, with no significant difference observed. A total of twenty meiobenthic groups were identified. Free-living marine nematodes was the most dominant group in abundance, with a relative dominance of 87% in 2003 and 90% in 2004, followed by benthic harpacticoids copepoda, polychaeta and kinorhyncha. In terms of biomass, the dominant groups were nematoda (34% -38%), polychaeta (25% -33%), ostracoda (9% -22%) and copepoda (8%). 96. 64% of the meiobenthos distributed in the top 0-5 cm of sediment, while 72. 48% of nematode and 89. 46% of copepoda were in the top 0-2 cm of the sediment. Meiobenthos biomass had significant correlation with the sand and silt contents of sediment and the content of Chl-a. The species composition and biodiversity analyses of six representative stations indicated that there were three meiobenthos communities in the study area, i. e. , inshore, cold waters mass, and transitional communities. PMID:17450749

Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-nan; Huang, Yong; Hua, Er

2007-02-01

34

Gradients of abundance and biomass across reserve boundaries in six Mediterranean marine protected areas: Evidence of fish spillover?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered as an effective tool in marine coastal management, and considered able to enhance local fisheries through adult fish spillover. Indirect evidence of fish spillover could be obtained by horizontal gradients in fish abundance. To address this question, the existence of gradients of fish abundance and biomass across marine reserve boundaries was assessed in six

Mireille Harmelin-Vivien; Laurence Le Diréach; Just Bayle-Sempere; Eric Charbonnel; José Antonio García-Charton; Denis Ody; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Olga Reñones; Pablo Sánchez-Jerez; Carlos Valle

2008-01-01

35

Relative importance of phosphorus, fish biomass, and watershed land use as drivers of phytoplankton abundance in shallow lakes.  

PubMed

Phytoplankton abundance in shallow lakes is potentially influenced by ambient phosphorus concentrations, nutrient loading accentuated by human activities in lake watersheds, and abundance of planktivorous and benthivorous fish. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed the relative importance of these factors influencing phytoplankton abundance over large spatial scales. We assessed relative influences of watershed characteristics, total phosphorus concentrations, and fish biomass on phytoplankton abundance in 70 shallow lakes in western Minnesota (USA) during summer 2005 and 2006. Our independent variables included total phosphorus (TP), benthivore biomass, planktivore biomass, summed planktivore and benthivore biomass (summed fish), areal extent of agriculture in the watershed, region (prairie versus parkland lakes), and year. Predictive models containing from one to three independent variables were compared using an information theoretic approach. The most parsimonious model consisted of TP and summed fish, and had over 10,000-fold greater support compared to models using just TP or summed fish, or models comprised of other variables. We also found no evidence that relative importance of predictor variables differed between regions or years, and parameter estimates of TP and summed fish were temporally and spatially consistent. TP and summed fish were only weakly correlated, and the model using both variables was a large improvement over using either variable alone. This indicates these two variables can independently increase phytoplankton abundance, which emphasizes the importance of managing both nutrients and fish when trying to control phytoplankton abundance in shallow lakes. PMID:23978583

Gorman, Matt W; Zimmer, Kyle D; Herwig, Brian R; Hanson, Mark A; Wright, Robert G; Vaughn, Sean R; Younk, Jerry A

2014-01-01

36

Soil Nutrient Content Influences the Abundance of Soil Microbes but Not Plant Biomass at the Small-Scale  

PubMed Central

Small-scale heterogeneity of abiotic and biotic factors is expected to play a crucial role in species coexistence. It is known that plants are able to concentrate their root biomass into areas with high nutrient content and also acquire nutrients via symbiotic microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. At the same time, little is known about the small-scale distribution of soil nutrients, microbes and plant biomass occurring in the same area. We examined small-scale temporal and spatial variation as well as covariation of soil nutrients, microbial biomass (using soil fatty acid biomarker content) and above- and belowground biomass of herbaceous plants in a natural herb-rich boreonemoral spruce forest. The abundance of AM fungi and bacteria decreased during the plant growing season while soil nutrient content rather increased. The abundance of all microbes studied also varied in space and was affected by soil nutrient content. In particular, the abundance of AM fungi was negatively related to soil phosphorus and positively influenced by soil nitrogen content. Neither shoot nor root biomass of herbaceous plants showed any significant relationship with variation in soil nutrient content or the abundance of soil microbes. Our study suggests that plants can compensate for low soil phosphorus concentration via interactions with soil microbes, most probably due to a more efficient symbiosis with AM fungi. This compensation results in relatively constant plant biomass despite variation in soil phosphorous content and in the abundance of AM fungi. Hence, it is crucial to consider both soil nutrient content and the abundance of soil microbes when exploring the mechanisms driving vegetation patterns. PMID:24637633

Koorem, Kadri; Gazol, Antonio; Öpik, Maarja; Moora, Mari; Saks, Ülle; Uibopuu, Annika; Sõber, Virve; Zobel, Martin

2014-01-01

37

Bathymetric patterns of meiofaunal abundance and biomass associated with the Kuril and Ryukyu trenches, western North Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance and biomass of metazoan meiofauna and their relationships with environmental factors [chloroplastic pigment equivalents (CPE) and sediment characteristics] were studied quantitatively around and within the Kuril Trench (560-7090 m) and the Ryukyu Trench (1290-7150 m), which are located in eutrophic and oligotrophic regions, respectively, of the western North Pacific. Faunal abundance and biomass, as well as the CPE content of sediments, were considerably higher in the Kuril region than in the Ryukyu region. In both cases, CPE tended to decrease with water depth, but relatively high values were found in the deepest areas, suggesting that organic matter has accumulated in both trenches. Meiofaunal abundance and biomass were lower than expected from sediment CPE values at hadal stations below 6000 m. Differences in the density and biomass of meiofauna between these two trenches appeared to reflect differences in overall ocean productivity above them. When the analysis was restricted to each region, however, no association was found between the abundance and biomass of meiofauna and food availability. Furthermore, the factors regulating the bathymetric patterns in these meiofaunal parameters appeared to differ between the two trenches.

Itoh, Makoto; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Kitahashi, Tomo; Kojima, Shigeaki; Katagiri, Hideki; Shimanaga, Motohiro

2011-01-01

38

Polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity patterns at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have revealed that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in the North Atlantic Ocean accounts for a large proportion of available bathyal soft-sediment habitat. When comparing the MAR to the continental margins of the North Atlantic, it is apparent that very little is known about the soft-sediment macrofaunal community associated with the MAR. In the present study, as part of the ECOMAR (Ecosystems of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the Sub-Polar Front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone) project, the polychaete component of the MAR macrofaunal community was investigated. A total of 751 polychaete specimens and 133 species were identified from megacorer samples collected at four MAR sites (48-54°N, depth: 2500-2800 m) sampled during the RRS James Cook 48 cruise in the summer of 2010. Polychaetes were the most abundant member of the macrofaunal community, and there was no significant difference in polychaete abundance, biomass and diversity between any of the MAR sites. In addition, the MAR did not appear to provide a physical barrier to the distribution of bathyal polychaetes either side of the ridge.

Shields, Mark A.; Blanco-Perez, Raimundo

2013-12-01

39

Burgeoning Biomass: Creating Efficient and Sustainable Forest Biomass Supply Chains in the Rockies  

E-print Network

1 Burgeoning Biomass: Creating Efficient and Sustainable Forest Biomass Supply Chains and removing beetle- killed trees, produce a byproduct called woody biomass. Also known as "slash, woody biomass can be collected, processed and transported SUMMARY Woody biomass could be used

40

Twenty-eight Years of Stream Invertebrate Abundance, Biomass, and Secondary Production From Three Headwater Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed 28 years of abundance, biomass and secondary production data from 3 headwater streams at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, NC, USA. These data include years of extreme drought and precipitation (78-y record) and 8 years of reduced litter inputs (litter exclusion) and wood removal for one stream. Analysis of functional feeding group (FFG) proportions revealed strong habitat-specific preferences for either mixed substrates or bedrock outcrop habitats, with remarkable between year similarities. For both reference streams and litter reduction streams there was a significant relationship between annual CPOM standing crop and secondary production for the dominant mixed substrate habitats. Habitat-weighted production across reference streams averaged 8.2 g AFDM/m2/y (range = 4.6 to 13.2) versus 1.7 g AFDM/m2/y (range = 0.9 to 3.5) for litter exclusion years. Predator production was strongly correlated (P<0.001) with total secondary production over all years, and based on known bioenergetic efficiencies, indicate the importance of predators in these streams. Our study suggests that trophic interactions, including standing crop of CPOM as a food source, strongly influence secondary production in these headwater streams.

Wallace, J.; Eggert, S. L.; Cross, W. F.; Rosemond, A. D.; Meyer, J. L.

2005-05-01

41

Effect of forest removal on the abundance of the endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test the hypothesis that the decline of the endangered American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) from over 90% of its original range is the result of habitat loss and fragmentation of eastern North America. Forest removal\\u000a at a site in southeastern Oklahoma known to have a significant population of N. americanus gave us a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis. At

J. Curtis Creighton; Robert Bastarache; Mark V. Lomolino; Mark C. Belk

2009-01-01

42

Dung Beetle Community and Functions along a Habitat-Disturbance Gradient in the Amazon: A Rapid Assessment of Ecological Functions Associated to Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

Braga, Rodrigo F.; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

2013-01-01

43

Vertical changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods down to 3000 m in the southern Bering Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods down to 3000 m depth were studied at a single station of the Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea (53°28'N, 177°00'W, depth 3779 m) on the 14th June 2006. Both abundance and biomass of copepods were greatest near the surface layer and decreased with increase in depth. Abundance and biomass of copepods integrated over 0-3000 m were 1,390,000 inds. m -2 and 5056 mg C m -2, respectively. Copepod carcasses occurred throughout the layer, and the carcass:living specimen ratio was the greatest in the oxygen minimum layer (750-100 m, the ratio was 2.3). A total of 72 calanoid copepod species belonging to 34 genera and 15 families occurred in the 0-3000 m water column (Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida and Poecilostomatoida were not identified to species level). Cluster analysis separated calanoid copepod communities into 5 groups (A-E). Each group was separated by depth, and the depth range of each group was at 0-75 m (A), 75-500 m (B), 500-750 m (C), 750-1500 m (D) and 1500-3000 m (E). Copepods were divided into four types based on the feeding pattern: suspension feeders, suspension feeders in diapause, detritivores and carnivores. In terms of abundance the most dominant group was suspension feeders (mainly Cyclopoida) in the epipelagic zone, and detritivores (mainly Poecilostomatoida) were dominant in the meso- and bathypelagic zones. In terms of biomass, suspension feeders in diapause (calanoid copepods Neocalanus spp. and Eucalanus bungii) were the major component (ca. 10-45%), especially in the 250-3000 m depth. These results are compared with the previous studies in the same region and that down to greater depths in the worldwide oceans.

Homma, Tomoe; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

2010-08-01

44

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE, BIOMASS AND FEEDING OF SHORE BIRDS ON SANDY BEACHES IN THE EASTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

McLachlan, A., Woodridge, T., Schramm, M. & Kühn, M. 1980. Seasonal abundance, biomass and feeding of shore birds on sandy beaches in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Ostrich 51:44-52.The numbers of birds on three Eastern Cape sandy beaches were monitored monthly over one year during 1977\\/78. Dominant among 17 species were the Southern Blackbacked Gull Larus dominicanus, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus

A. McLachlan; T. Wooldridge; M. Schramm; M. Kühn

1980-01-01

45

Seasonal variability of plankton blooms in the Ria de Ferrol (NW Spain): II. Plankton abundance, composition and biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance, taxonomic composition and biomass of plankton components were studied in the mostly eutrophic waters of the Ria de Ferrol (Galicia, NW Spain) in contrasting seasons. Three stations arranged in a transect along the main ria axis were sampled during cruises in February, May, July and September 2000. Phytoplankton, bacteria, micro- (40-200 ?m) and mesozooplankton (>200 ?m) compartments were considered. Phytoplankton blooms (>10 3 cel ml -1) and high total plankton biomass (up to 44 g C m -2) was found at all seasons, except in winter when values were <1 g C m -2. Phytoplankton generally accounted for most of total plankton biomass, particularly in late summer, thus driving most of plankton dynamics. The blooming species were always diatoms, either fast-growing, chain-forming species, well adapted to relatively turbulent conditions (e.g. Chaetoceros socialis), or disturbance-tolerant, estuarine adapted species (e.g. Skeletonema costatum). In addition, microflagellates (<10 ?m) reached high abundances, particularly during summer. The influence of shelf waters, where coastal upwelling events are frequent for most of the spring and summer, prevents the establishment of a marked pycnocline and the dominance of dinoflagellates. Microheterotrophs (bacteria, protozoa and larval stages of metazoa) increased their abundance and biomass from winter to late summer, while mesozooplankton peaked in spring and summer. Zooplankton dynamics were characterised by the presence of large numbers of larvae of both planktonic copepods and benthic metazoans, the latter mainly cirripeds and bivalve molluscs. The absence of a definite succession pattern in the mesozooplankton species abundance data, in contrast with phytoplankton data, along with the dominance of estuarine species (e.g. Acartia margalefi), suggest that mesozooplankton communities inside the ria behave differently from communities in shelf waters. Despite its small size and reduced influence of upwelling compared with other Galician rias, the input of shelf waters in the Ria de Ferrol drives massive phytoplankton blooms supporting a rich heterotrophic community.

Bode, Antonio; Álvarez-Ossorio, M. Teresa; González, Nicolás; Lorenzo, Jorge; Rodríguez, Cristina; Varela, Manuel; Varela, Marta M.

2005-04-01

46

Managing forests infested by spruce beetles in south-central Alaska: Effects on nitrogen availability, understory biomass, and spruce regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Alaska, an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) recently infested over one million hectares of spruce (Picea spp.) forest. As a result, land management agencies have applied different treatments to infested forests to minimize fire hazard and economic loss and facilitate forest regeneration. In this study we investigated the effects of high-intensity burning, whole-tree harvest, whole-tree harvest with nitrogen

Lilly F. Goodman; Bruce A. Hungate

2006-01-01

47

Influences of the Tamarisk Leaf Beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on the diet of insectivorous birds along the Dolores River in Southwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of a biologic control agent, the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), on native avifauna in southwestern Colorado, specifically, addressing whether and to what degree birds eat tamarisk leaf beetles. In 2010, we documented avian foraging behavior, characterized the arthropod community, sampled bird diets, and undertook an experiment to determine whether tamarisk leaf beetles are palatable to birds. We observed that tamarisk leaf beetles compose 24.0 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 19.9-27.4 percent) and 35.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 32.4-45.1 percent) of arthropod abundance and biomass in the study area, respectively. Birds ate few tamarisk leaf beetles, despite a superabundance of D. carinulata in the environment. The frequency of occurrence of tamarisk leaf beetles in bird diets was 2.1 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 1.3- 2.9 percent) by abundance and 3.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 2.6-4.2 percent) by biomass. Thus, tamarisk leaf beetles probably do not contribute significantly to the diets of birds in areas where biologic control of tamarisk is being applied.

Puckett, Sarah L.; van Riper, Charles, III

2014-01-01

48

Antarctic sympagic meiofauna in winter: Comparing diversity, abundance and biomass between perennially and seasonally ice-covered regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study of Antarctic sympagic meiofauna in pack ice during late winter compares communities between the perennially ice-covered western Weddell Sea and the seasonally ice-covered southern Indian Ocean. Sympagic meiofauna (proto- and metazoans >20?m) and eggs >20?m were studied in terms of diversity, abundance and carbon biomass, and with respect to vertical distribution. Metazoan meiofauna had significantly higher abundance and biomass in the western Weddell Sea (medians: 31.1×10 3 m -2 and 6.53 mg m -2, respectively) than in the southern Indian Ocean (medians: 1.0×10 3 m -2 and 0.06 mg m -2, respectively). Metazoan diversity was also significantly higher in the western Weddell Sea. Furthermore, the two regions differed significantly in terms of meiofauna community composition, as revealed through multivariate analyses. The overall diversity of sympagic meiofauna was high, and integrated abundance and biomass of total meiofauna were also high in both regions (0.6-178.6×10 3 m -2 and 0.02-89.70 mg m -2, respectively), mostly exceeding values reported earlier from the northern Weddell Sea in winter. We attribute the differences in meiofauna communities between the two regions to the older first-year ice and multi-year ice that is present in the western Weddell Sea, but not in the southern Indian Ocean. Our study indicates the significance of perennially ice-covered regions for the establishment of diverse and abundant meiofauna communities. Furthermore, it highlights the potential importance of sympagic meiofauna for the organic matter pool and trophic interactions in sea ice.

Kramer, Maike; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Meiners, Klaus M.; Kiko, Rainer; Scheltz, Annette; Nicolaus, Marcel; Werner, Iris

2011-05-01

49

Seasonal changes in zooplankton abundance, biomass, size structure and dominant copepods in the Oyashio region analysed by an optical plankton counter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To identify seasonal patterns of change in zooplankton communities, an optical plankton counter (OPC) and microscopic analysis were utilised to characterise zooplankton samples collected from 0 to 150 m and 0 to 500 m in the Oyashio region every one to three months from 2002 to 2007. Based on the OPC measurements, the abundance and biomass of zooplankton peaked in June (0-150 m) or August (150-500 m), depending on the depth stratum. The peak periods of the copepod species that were dominant in terms of abundance and biomass indicated species-specific patterns. Three Neocalanus species (Neocalanus cristatus, Neocalanus flemingeri and Neocalanus plumchrus) exhibited abundance peaks that occurred before their biomass peaks, whereas Eucalanus bungii and Metridia pacifica experienced biomass peaks before their abundance peaks. The abundance peaks corresponded to the recruitment periods of early copepodid stages, whereas the biomass peaks corresponded to the periods when the dominant populations reached the late copepodid stages (C5 or C6). Because the reproduction of Neocalanus spp. occurred in the deep layer (>500 m), their biomass peaks were observed when the major populations reached stage C5 after the abundance peaks of the early copepodid stages. The reproduction of E. bungii and M. pacifica occurred near the surface layer. These species first formed biomass peaks of C6 and later developed abundance peaks of newly recruited early copepodid stages. From the comparison between OPC measurements and microscopic analyses, seasonal changes in zooplankton biomass at depths of 0-150 m were governed primarily by E. bungii and M. pacifica, whereas those at depths of 150-500 m were primarily caused by the three Neocalanus species.

Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Matsuno, Kohei; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Arima, Daichi; Ohgi, Kohei

2014-09-01

50

Spatial-temporal scales of synchrony in marine zooplankton biomass and abundance patterns: A world-wide comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale synchrony in the fluctuations of abundance or biomass of marine fish populations in regions on opposite sides of an ocean basin or in different oceans have been viewed as externally forced by correlated environmental stochasticity (e.g., common external forcing), most often as atmospheric teleconnections of basin-to-global scale atmospheric forcing, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Specific causal mechanisms have been difficult to unequivocally discover, but possible mechanisms include influences on habitat temperatures, productivity operating through bottom-up (trophodynamic) mechanisms or direct climate influence on the fish populations (top-down mechanisms). For small pelagic fishes (sardines and anchovies) in widely separated large marine ecosystems that lack obvious ocean interconnectivity, it has been argued that the teleconnections may be atmospheric, acting on the fishes directly and propagating to the ecosystem from the middle out (wasp-waist species). Zooplankton biomass or abundance time series data from >100 sites world-wide are used to examine the spatial scales of coherent temporal synchrony. If spatially correlated environmental factors (like climate) are important for creating synchrony in fish populations via bottom-up effects (trophic interactions involving fish prey, e.g., zooplankton), then we would expect to observe synchrony in fluctuations of zooplankton biomass/numbers at spatial scales similar to those found for fish species. Zooplankton biomass/abundance have 50% spatial decorrelation scales of ca. 700-1400 km and scales of significant coherence that extend to separation distances of ca. 3000 km. These are also the spatial scales of environmental (sea surface temperature) synchrony from our global analysis. These scales are slightly greater than the 50% decorrelation scales of ca. 150-700 km for recruitment synchrony in Atlantic marine fish and survival and recruitment synchrony of Northeast Pacific salmonids (150-1000 km depending on species). However, the spatial scales of synchrony of annual zooplankton biomass anomalies in the Humboldt Current, California Current and Kuroshio ecosystems of the Pacific are much too small (ca. 2000 km) to be directly causal of the basin-scale (7000-15,000 km) synchrony exhibited by sardine and/or anchovy populations in those ecosystems.

Batchelder, Harold P.; Mackas, David L.; O'Brien, Todd D.

2012-05-01

51

Abundance and Biomass of Scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora melanaster, and Ctenophora, Bolinopsis mikado, with Estimates of Their Feeding Im pact on Zooplankton in Tokyo Bay, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of a scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora melanaster, and a ctenophore, Bolinopsis mikado, in Tokyo Bay was investigated from 1995 to 1997. Aurelia aurita appeared throughout the year with a peak in abundance occurring from spring to summer. The average abundance and biomass during this period for the three successive years was 4.8, 43.8 and 3.2 ind. m

JUNJI KINOSHITA; JURO HIROMI; YOSHIAKI YAMADA

52

Abundance and biomass of scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora melanaster , and Ctenophora, Bolinopsis mikado , with estimates of their feeding impact on zooplankton in Tokyo Bay, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of a scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora melanaster, and a ctenophore, Bolinopsis mikado, in Tokyo Bay was investigated from 1995 to 1997. Aurelia aurita appeared throughout the year with a peak in abundance occurring from spring to summer. The average abundance and biomass\\u000a during this period for the three successive years was 4.8, 43.8 and 3.2 ind. m?2,

Junji Kinoshita; Juro Hiromi; Yoshiaki Yamada

2006-01-01

53

Free-living plathelminthes in sheep-grazed and ungrazed supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea: Abundance, biomass, and their significance in food chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea are marked by high halophyte primary productivity. The environmental factors are strongly fluctuating. Despite these features the metazoan meiofaunal abundance is equal to that found in other littoral habitats. On average 1250 marine metazoans are found per 10 cm 2 in ungrazed and 770 per 10 cm 2 in sheep-grazed supralittoral salt marshes. Nematoda dominate in numerical abundance, Oligochaeta in biomass. Plathelminthes account for 15% of marine metazoans in ungrazed and 5% in grazed salt marshes. Total plathelminth abundance increases with halophyte density, whereas the abundance of diatom-feeding Plathelminthes decreases. In ungrazed marshes on average 104 Plathelminthes are found per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.65 g DW·m -2. In sheep-grazed marshes the average abundance is only 32 individuals per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.1 g DW·m -2. Average individual weight is 3.2 ?g DW or 2.5 ?g AFDW. In grazed salt marshes, 30% of plathelminthes feed on diatoms, 66% are predators, and 4% feed on bacteria (gut analysis). In ungrazed salt marshes only 3% are diatom-feeders, and 90% are predators feeding on Nematoda, Copepoda, Oligochaeta, and smaller Plathelminthes. Presumably plathelminthes are top predators on the salt marsh meiofauna.

Armonies, W.

54

Annual variations in biochemical composition of size fractionated particulate matter and zooplankton abundance and biomass in Mersin Bay, NE Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal changes in biochemical composition of different particle size classes (pico-, nano- and micro-particulate matter) and the zooplankton abundance and biomass were studied in NE Mediterranean between November 2004 and January 2006. Sampling was carried out at monthly intervals from two stations representing coastal and open water characteristics. Dominance of size fractions showed seasonal variations in each biochemical component but on annual average pico size fraction predominated and accounted for ? 40% of the chl-a and particulate organic matter (protein + lipid + carbohydrate) concentrations. At most of the sampling periods protein:carbohydrate ratio was < 1 at the stations revealed that the studied area was under the nutrient limitation, and nutrient deficiency was severe especially for nano size fraction. On annual average, total zooplankton abundance were 4968 ± 3538 and 603 ± 368 ind. m - 3 , and total biomass were 22 ± 19 and 3 ± 1 mg m - 3 at stations 1 and 2, respectively. 200-500 and 112-200 µm size fractions were dominant in zooplankton abundance at both stations. Similarly, 200-500 µm size fraction was dominant in zooplankton biomass at the coastal, whereas > 1000 µm size fraction was at the open station. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton group and determine the distribution of total zooplankton followed by crustacean nauplii, appendicularia, and cladocera.

Y?lmaz, Arife Zenginer; Besiktepe, Sengul

2010-05-01

55

Effects of augmentative releases of eggs and larvae of the ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata, on the abundance of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea, in organic apple orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of augmentative releases of larvae and eggs of the indigenous ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) against the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantagineaPass. (Homoptera: Aphididae), a major pest insect on apple trees, was assessed in field experiments in Switzerland, during 1997. In a first experiment, eggs and larvae were released on 3-year old apple trees infested with

Eric Wyss; Mathias Villiger; Jean-Louis Hemptinne; Heinz Muller-scharer

1999-01-01

56

Abundance in Persea americana of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Vector of Laurel Wilt: A Case of Intra-guild Competition?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus is a pest of plant species in the Lauraceae, including Persea borbonia, P. pallustris, P. americana, and others. Xyleborus glabratus infestation levels in P. borbonia maintain a high proportion compared to other species, such as Xylosandrus crassiuscu...

57

Focus Article Beetle horns and horned beetles  

E-print Network

Focus Article Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current

Moczek, Armin P.

58

Epicauta vittata STRIPED BLISTER BEETLE  

E-print Network

Epicauta vittata STRIPED BLISTER BEETLE Epicauta pennsylvanica BLACK BLISTER BEETLE BLISTER BEETLES spotted essentially unicolorous Epicauta pestifera MARGINED BLISTER BEETLE ubescense Epicauta cinerea cinerea CLEMATIS BLISTER BEETLE Epicauta cinerea maculata SPOTTED BLISTER BEETLE Epicauta fabrici ASH

59

Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution  

PubMed Central

The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future. PMID:24062759

Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

2013-01-01

60

Relative Abundance of Ambrosia Beetles in an Old-Growth Western Hemlock\\/Pacific Silver Fir Forest and Adjacent Harvesting Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiochemical-baited mul- tiple-funnel traps were set out in two new logging areas and in mature forest on northeastern Vancouver Island near Kelsey Bay, British Columbia. The large numbers of ambrosia beetles captured indi- cated that Trypodendron lineatum and Gnathotrichus sulcatus are distributed along logging rights-of-way as well as in the surrounding forest. Results suggest that logs must be removed as

John A. McLean; Scott M. Salom

1989-01-01

61

Abundance and dynamics of filamentous fungi in the complex ambrosia gardens of the primitively eusocial beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).  

PubMed

Insect fungus gardens consist of a community of interacting microorganisms that can have either beneficial or detrimental effects to the farmers. In contrast to fungus-farming ants and termites, the fungal communities of ambrosia beetles and the effects of particular fungal species on the farmers are largely unknown. Here, we used a laboratory rearing technique for studying the filamentous fungal garden community of the ambrosia beetle, Xyleborinus saxesenii, which cultivates fungi in tunnels excavated within dead trees. Raffaelea sulfurea and Fusicolla acetilerea were transmitted in spore-carrying organs by gallery founding females and established first in new gardens. Raffaelea sulfurea had positive effects on egg-laying and larval numbers. Over time, four other fungal species emerged in the gardens. Prevalence of one of them, Paecilomyces variotii, correlated negatively with larval numbers and can be harmful to adults by forming biofilms on their bodies. It also comprised the main portion of garden material removed from galleries by adults. Our data suggest that two mutualistic, several commensalistic and one to two pathogenic filamentous fungi are associated with X. saxesenii. Fungal diversity in gardens of ambrosia beetles appears to be much lower than that in gardens of fungus-culturing ants, which seems to result from essential differences in substrates and behaviours. PMID:23057948

Biedermann, Peter H W; Klepzig, Kier D; Taborsky, Michael; Six, Diana L

2013-03-01

62

Effects of the abundance of spawning sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) on nutrients and algal biomass in forested streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used natural variation in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawner biomass among sites and years in three undisturbed, forested watersheds in interior British Columbia to test the hypotheses that salmon were a major source of particulate organic matter inputs to the streams and that carcass biomass determined stream-water nutrient concentrations and epilithic algal production. Sockeye carcasses were retained at the

N. T. Johnston; E. A. MacIsaac; P. J. Tschaplinski; K. J. Hall

2004-01-01

63

Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Springer, Nathan M.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F.; McCann, Maureen C.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

2014-01-01

64

Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population.  

PubMed

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W; Sykes, Robert W; Babcock, Nicholas C; Dugard, Christopher K; Held, Michael A; Klimek, John F; Shreve, Jacob T; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F; Decker, Stephen R; Turner, Geoffrey B; Mosier, Nathan S; Springer, Nathan M; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

2014-06-27

65

Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: implications for prey fish sustainability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stocking levels of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for Lake Ontario have been highly controversial since the early 1990s, largely because of uncertainties about lakewide abundance and rates of prey consumption. Previous estimates have focused on years before 1995; since then, however, the Lake Ontario ecosystem has undergone substantial changes, and there is new evidence of extensive natural recruitment. Presented here are new abundance estimates of Chinook salmon and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario and a reevaluation of the potential risk of alewife population collapse. We found that Lake Ontario has been supporting, on average (1989–2005), 1.83 × 106 (range, 1.08 × 106 to 3.24 × 106) Chinook salmon of ages 1–4, amounting to a mean annual biomass of 11.33 × 103 metric tons (range, 5.83 × 103 to 23.04 × 103 metric tons). During the same period (1989–2005), the lake supported an alewife biomass of 173.66 × 103 metric tons (range, 62.37 × 103 to 345.49 × 103 metric tons); Chinook salmon of ages 1–4 consumed, on average, 22% (range, 11–44%) of the alewife biomass annually. Because our estimates probably underestimate total consumption and because Chinook salmon are only one of several salmonine species that depend on alewives, predation pressure on the Lake Ontario alewife population may be high enough to raise concerns about long-term stability of this predator–prey system.

Murry, Brent A.; Connerton, Michael J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Stewart, Donald J.; Ringlerd, Neil H.

2010-01-01

66

Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada  

PubMed Central

Abstract Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

Work, Timothy T.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

2013-01-01

67

RNA-sequencing analysis reveals abundant developmental stage-specific and immunity-related genes in the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus.  

PubMed

The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) is a major pest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and other cruciferous crops in Europe. Pesticide-resistant pollen beetle populations are emerging, increasing the economic impact of this species. We isolated total RNA from the larval and adult stages, the latter either naïve or immunized by injection with bacteria and yeast. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was carried out to establish a comprehensive transcriptome catalogue and to screen for developmental stage-specific and immunity-related transcripts. We assembled the transcriptome de novo by combining sequence tags from all developmental stages and treatments. Gene expression data based on normalized read counts revealed several functional gene categories that were differentially expressed between larvae and adults, particularly genes associated with digestion and detoxification that were induced in larvae, and genes associated with reproduction and environmental signalling that were induced in adults. We also identified many genes associated with microbe recognition, immunity-related signalling and defence effectors, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes. Digital gene expression analysis revealed significant differences in the profile of AMPs expressed in larvae, naïve adults and immune-challenged adults, providing insight into the steady-state differences between developmental stages and the complex transcriptional remodelling that occurs following the induction of immunity. Our data provide insight into the adaptive mechanisms used by phytophagous insects and could lead to the development of more effective control strategies for insect pests. PMID:24252113

Vogel, H; Badapanda, C; Knorr, E; Vilcinskas, A

2014-02-01

68

Do cropping system and insecticide use in spring oilseed rape affect the abundance of pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus Fab.) on the crop?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of minimised (MIN – no plough, direct drilling, no pesticides) and standard (STN – plough, standard application of pesticides) cropping systems on the abundance of old (previously overwintered) and new generations of Meligethes aeneus (Fabricius) (Nitidulidae, Coleoptera) was assessed in spring oilseed rape in 2003 – 2005 in Estonia. Old generation M. aeneus were more abundant in STN than in MIN crops, despite the

Eve Veromann; Reelika Kevväi; Anne Luik; Ingrid H. Williams

2008-01-01

69

Investigating the association of fish abundance and biomass with cold-water corals in the deep Northeast Atlantic Ocean using a generalised linear modelling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water corals (CWC) can form complex three-dimensional structures that can support a diverse macro- and megafaunal community. These reef structures provide important biogenic habitats that can act as refuge, feeding, spawning and nursery areas for fish. However, quantitative data assessing the linkage between CWC and fish are scarce. The North Atlantic Ocean is a key region in the worldwide distribution of Lophelia pertusa, which is thought to be the most widespread frame-work forming cold-water coral species in the world. This study examined the relationship between fish and CWC reefs in the northeast Atlantic Ocean by means of video and remotely sensed data from three different CWC communities (Rockall Bank, Hatton Bank and the Belgica Mound Province). Using a tethered camera system, 37 transects were recorded during a period of 8 years. Fish-coral association was investigated using a generalised linear modelling (GLM) approach. Overall, Lepidion eques was the most abundant fish species present (143 ind. ha-1). Other common species were Sigmops bathyphilus (17 ind. ha-1), Synaphobranchus kaupii (15 ind. ha-1), Helicolenus dactylopterus (16 ind. ha-1) and Mora moro (7 ind. ha-1). The highest fish biomass was measured for Lophius piscatorius (26.3 kg ha-1). Other species with a high biomass were Helicolenus dactylopterus (4.3 kg ha-1), Lepidion eques (13.2 kg ha-1) and Mora moro (7.8 kg ha-1). Overall, no significant difference in fish abundance and biomass was found at coral framework habitats compared to non-coral areas. The relationship between fish and coral framework varied among fish species and study site. Fish count and length modelling results showed that terrain variables explain a small proportion of the variation of our data. Depth, coral-framework and terrain rugosity were generally the most important explanatory variables, but this varied with species and study site.

Biber, Matthias F.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Davies, Andrew J.; Bergman, Magda J. N.; van den Beld, Inge M. J.

2014-01-01

70

The effect of inundation frequency on ground beetle communities in a channelized mountain stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under natural conditions, river channels and floodplains are shaped by flow and sediment regime and are one of the most dynamic ecosystems. At present, European river floodplains are among the most endangered landscapes due to human modifications to river systems, including channel regulation and floodplain urbanization, and land use changes in the catchments. Situated in a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic environments, exposed riverine sediments (ERS) play a key role in the functioning of riverine ecosystems. This study aimed to verify whether the bare granular substrate is the only factor responsible for sustaining the biota associated with ERS or the inundation frequency also plays a role, modifying the potential of particular species to colonize these habitats. Ground beetles (Col. Carabidae) were selected as the investigated group of organisms and the study was carried out in Por?bianka, a Polish Carpathian stream flowing through both unconstrained channel sections and sections with varied channelization schemes (rapid hydraulic structures, concrete revetments or rip-rap of various age). In each of the distinguished channel types, four replicates of 10 pitfall traps were established in three rows varying in distance to the mean water level (at three different benches). Almost 7000 individuals belonging to 102 species were collected on 60 plots. Forward selection of redundancy analysis revealed four factors significantly describing the variation in ground beetle species data: bank modification, potential bankfull discharge, frequency of inundation and plant height. Most of the biggest species were ordered at the positive site of first axis having the highest values of periods between floods. Total biomass of ground beetles and mean biomass of individuals differed significantly between sites of various frequency of inundation, whereas the variation in abundance and species richness of ground beetles was independent of the river dynamics. The body size distribution of ground beetles is significantly right skewed on more frequently flooded areas whereas on more stable localities it becomes left skewed. Our results also demonstrated that the presence of ERS does not changes the structure of ground beetle communities if the frequency of inundation of river banks is reduced. This study indicated that not only habitat parameters but also biotic interactions between competing species from a regional pool are important for the conservation of riverine communities. Vulnerable beetles characteristic of riverine habitats are small and usually weak competitors. A reduced frequency of bank inundation creates possibilities for the colonization of ERS by species from surrounding habitats and elimination of the species well adapted to the dynamic flow conditions typifying unmodified stream sections.

Skalski, T.; Kedzior, R.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.

2012-04-01

71

A eld experiment on the effectiveness of spiders and carabid beetles as biocontrol agents in soybean  

E-print Network

A ®eld experiment on the effectiveness of spiders and carabid beetles as biocontrol agents beetles are abundant generalist predators that prey upon insect pests of soybean. A ®eld experiment experiment provides no evidence that spiders and carabid beetles at ambient densities affect soybean yield

Illinois at Chicago, University of

72

Colorado Bark Beetle Cooperative  

E-print Network

Colorado Bark Beetle Cooperative Colorado Bark Beetle Cooperative A Place Based Collaborative to Address the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Bark Beetles on High Altitude Forests #12 included Jackson, Grand, Summit, Eagle, and Routt ­ Expanding counties as beetles move #12;Focus of CBBC

73

A comparative study of the mollusc communities of two oligohaline intertidal marshes: Spatial and temporal distribution of abundance and biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molluscs were collected monthly for a year from two low salinity (0–9‰) intertidal marshes dominated by the macrophytesJuncus roemerianus orSpartina cynosuroides in St. Louis Bay, Mississippi. TheJuncus marsh had lower soil organic matter, higher pH and was more frequently inundated than theSpartina marsh. Eight species of gastropods were abundant and dominated in the higherSpartina marsh, while three bivalve species were

T. Dale Bishop; Courtney T. Hackney

1987-01-01

74

Removal rates of native and exotic dung by dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a fragmented tropical rain forest.  

PubMed

Many studies have evaluated the effect of forest fragmentation on dung beetle assemblage structure. However, few have analyzed how forest fragmentation affects the processes carried out by these insects in tropical forests where their food sources consist mainly of dung produced by native herbivore mammals. With the conversion of forests to pastures, cattle dung has become an exotic alternative and abundant food for dung beetles. This study compares dung removal rates of native (monkey) and exotic (cow) dung in different-sized fragments of tropical rain forests, during the dry and rainy seasons at the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve. Dung removal rates were affected by season, dung type, and the interaction between resource type and season. During the dry season, the removal rates of monkey dung were somewhat similar than during the rainy season, whereas the removal rates of cow dung were much higher during the rainy season. Dung beetle biomass and species richness were almost three times greater in monkey dung than in cow dung. Monkey dung attracted species belonging to the dweller, roller, and tunneler guilds; cow dung attracted mostly tunnelers. Therefore, the use of exotic dung may result in a biased misconception of the rates of dung removal in tropical forest and an underestimation of dung beetle diversity. This study highlights the importance of working with natural tropical forest resources when attempting to identify realistic tendencies concerning processes in natural habitats and those modified by fragmentation and by other human activities. PMID:20388260

Amézquita, Sandra; Favila, Mario E

2010-04-01

75

The influence of forest stand and site characteristics on the composition of exotic dominated ambrosia beetle communities (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

PubMed

Economic and biological consequences are associated with exotic ambrosia beetles and their fungal associates. Despite this, knowledge of ambrosia beetles and their ecological interactions remain poorly understood, especially in the oak-hickory forest region. We examined how forest stand and site characteristics influenced ambrosia beetle habitat use as evaluated by species richness and abundance of ambrosia beetles, both the native component and individual exotic species. We documented the species composition of the ambrosia beetle community, flight activity, and habitat use over a 2-yr period by placing flight traps in regenerating clearcuts and older oak-hickory forest stands differing in topographic aspect. The ambrosia beetle community consisted of 20 species with exotic ambrosia beetle species dominating the community. Similar percentages of exotic ambrosia beetles occurred among the four forest habitats despite differences in stand age and aspect. Stand characteristics, such as stand age and forest structure, influenced ambrosia beetle richness and the abundances of a few exotic ambrosia beetle species and the native ambrosia beetle component. Topographic aspect had little influence on ambrosia beetle abundance or species richness. Older forests typically have more host material than younger forests and our results may be related to the amount of dead wood present. Different forms of forest management may not alter the percent contribution of exotic ambrosia beetles to the ambrosia beetle community. PMID:22546443

Reed, Sharon E; Muzika, R M

2010-10-01

76

Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetle (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge {Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

2004-01-01

77

Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed, but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

2004-01-01

78

Elm Leaf Beetle  

E-print Network

Elm leaf beetles damage all varieties of elm trees. Learn how to identify this insect and understand its biology and life cycle. There are suggestions for controlling elm leaf beetles, as well as a table of insecticides effective against...

Patrick, Carl D.

2002-05-22

79

Sikes Tiger Beetle Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

735 tiger beetle specimens in the post-1980 University of Connecticut Insect Collection are sorted by species and month of collection.Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) 1996-1998 Derek S. Sikes (1999) Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae)1996-1998 Conservation status, Taxonomy and Ecology. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. University of Connecticut. Storrs, CT 06269

Ethel Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

2009-01-10

80

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE)

2004-01-01

81

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in RealPlayer, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University Center for Technology in Ecducation

2004-01-01

82

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Background  

E-print Network

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Background: Metamorphosis is a process the juvenile stage to the adult stage. The Darkling Beetle (Tenebrio molitor) undergoes a complete, or holometabolous, metamorphosis. Adult beetles reproduce sexually and lay

Rose, Michael R.

83

Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (?=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (?=0.50), polychaetes (?=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (?=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves, gastropods and polychaetes) were compared with gray whale and walrus distribution as described by sightings from the 2009 and 2010 aerial survey component of COMIDA. In general, concentrations of walruses and their prey occurred in a swath located south of Hanna Shoal and on the shoal itself although the large differences in sea-ice distribution between the two study years showed that walrus distributions were closely linked to sea-ice location. Other areas within Barrow Canyon and the shelf west of the canyon showed high concentrations of benthic amphipods that were coincident with gray whale sightings as quantified by COMIDA aerial surveys. Overall, data collected on this project indicate that the Northeast Chukchi Sea supports a highly productive and diverse benthic ecosystem that is of significant importance to higher trophic level megafauna.

Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

2014-04-01

84

Semiochemical-MediatedFlight Strategies of Two Invasive Elm Bark Beetles: A Potential Factor in Competitive Displacement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A recent seven-state survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus was not as abundant. Behavioral trials were conducted by hanging sm...

85

Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009)  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the changes of ground beetle assemblages in the last few decades in the Alps, and different responses to climate change of animal populations living above and below the treeline have not been estimated yet. This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites in Italy, the Paneveggio Regional Park. We compared the ground beetle (Carabidae) populations sampled in 1980 in six stands below and above the treeline (1650–2250 m a.s.l.) with those sampled in the same sites almost 30 years later (2008/9). Quantitative data (species richness and abundance) have been compared by means of several diversity indexes and with a new index, the Index of Rank-abundance Change (IRC). Our work shows that species richness and abundance have changed after almost 30 years as a consequence of local extinctions, uphill increment of abundance and uphill shift of distribution range. The overall species number dropped from 36 to 27, while in the sites above the treeline, species richness and abundance changed more than in the forest sites. Two microtherm characteristic species of the pioneer cushion grass mats, Nebria germari and Trechus dolomitanus, became extinct or showed strong abundance reduction. In Nardetum pastures, several hygrophilic species disappeared, and xerophilic zoophytophagous elements raised their population density. In forest ecosystems, the precipitation reduction caused deep soil texture and watering changes, driving a transformation from Sphagnum-rich (peaty) to humus-rich soil, and as a consequence, soil invertebrate biomass strongly increased and thermophilic carabids enriched the species structure. In three decades, Carabid assemblages changed consistently with the hypothesis that climate change is one of the main factors triggering natural environment modifications. Furthermore, the level of human disturbance could enhance the sensitivity of mountain ecosystems to climate change. PMID:24834326

Pizzolotto, Roberto; Gobbi, Mauro; Brandmayr, Pietro

2014-01-01

86

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in ``The Descent of Man''. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by

Rolf G. Beutel; Frank Friedrich; Richard A. B. Leschen

2009-01-01

87

The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

Kramer, David C.

1988-01-01

88

Mealworm to Beetle Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe how a little worm turns into a full-grown beetle. Learners will be surprised to learn that mealworms aren't worms at all--they're the larval stage of a beetle! Use this activity to explain life cycles, practice observation skills, and explore insects.

Zoo, Sacramento

2011-01-01

89

Organizing the beetle files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When biologists set out to organize the family tree for the huge family of beetles, they ended up identifying previously unknown relationships for many of the beetle groups -- somewhat like finding new cousins -- and re-defining the major families, new research shows.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2007-12-20

90

Effects of logging residue removal on ground-active beetles in temperate forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logging residue (“slash”) left on clear-cuttings may affect the microhabitat complexity, and thereby indirectly the beetle (Coleoptera) populations. In three regions (West, North and East) of south and central Sweden, we studied short-term effects of slash removal on species richness and abundance of beetles, collected by pitfall trapping in 16 clear-cuttings (

Bengt Gunnarsson; Karolina Nittérus; Peter Wirdenäs

2004-01-01

91

Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) Community Response to Clear-cutting in the Missouri Ozarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dung beetles (Scarabaeoidea) show a mixed response to forest alteration (Davis et al., 2001; Scheffler, 2005). In some studies, community attributes are negatively affected by anthropogenic forest disturbance, not only reducing beetle abundance and their species richness and diversity (e.g., Colombian Amazon: Howden and Nealis (1975), but also limiting their movement between undisturbed forest patches (Klein, 1989). In other studies,

Alejandro MasÍs; Robert J. Marquis

2007-01-01

92

Refuge habitats modify impact of insecticide disturbance on carabid beetle communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Carabid beetles are polyphagous predators that can act as biological control agents of insect pests and weeds. While current agricultural practices often create a harsh environment, habitat management such as the establishment of within-field refuges has been proposed to enhance carabid beetle abundance and impact. We examined the joint effects of refuge habitats and insecticide application on carabid

Jana C. Lee; Fabian D. Menalled; Douglas A. Landis

2001-01-01

93

Converting Riparian Restoration Waste to Energy: Testing Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Woody Biomass as Fuel for Downdraft Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

: In the course of riparian ecological restoration work, tamarisk biomass is often piled and burned, generating air pollution, or shipped to landfills—a costly alternative. Information on processing and utilizing tamarisk biomass is becoming increasingly valuable in light of the spread of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) as a biological control agent. As beetle populations expand, information on the

Michael Boyle; James Diebold; Tillie Walton; Robb Walt; Jamie Nielsen

2011-01-01

94

Converting Riparian Restoration Waste to Energy: Testing Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Woody Biomass as Fuel for Downdraft Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of riparian ecological restoration work, tamarisk biomass is often piled and burned, generating air pollution, or shipped to landfills—a costly alternative. Information on processing and utilizing tamarisk biomass is becoming increasingly valuable in light of the spread of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) as a biological control agent. As beetle populations expand, information on the properties

Michael Boyle; James Diebold; Tillie Walton; Robb Walt; Jamie Nielsen

2011-01-01

95

Beetles in Textiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 1994 article by Victoria Rivers, Professor of Textiles at University of California (Davis), is about the fascinating and exquisite use of beetle parts, especially iridescent beetle wings, in textiles. Many entomologists will not be familiar with this aspect of the use of insects and will find the article delightful. The article explores how beetles have been used in textiles throughout history in India, New Guinea, Thailand, Burma, and Amazonia. The online article is about 6 standard text pages and includes photographs that, when clicked, provide a larger image.

0002-11-30

96

Virtual Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the "Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle," or Allomyrina dichotoma (family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Dynastinae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view it, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0002-11-30

97

Virtual Scarabaeid Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the shiny green beetle Chrysophora chrysochlora (family Scarabaeidae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view the image, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0002-11-30

98

A conceptual comparison of bioenergy options for using mountain pine beetle infested wood in Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is nearly carbon neutral and can be used for the production of various liquid fuels and chemicals. Decisions on biomass utilization should be based on the most economical and mature route. This study analyzes mountain pine beetle (MPB) killed wood as the feedstock for production of bio-ethanol and bio-oil and compares it with the direct combustion route to produce

Amit Kumar

2009-01-01

99

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries.\\u000a Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works,\\u000a and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle,\\u000a Darwin was impressed by

Rolf G. Beutel; Frank Friedrich; Richard A. B. Leschen

2009-01-01

100

Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductions of two ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis, into North America for aphid biocontrol have been followed by declines in native species. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) between larvae of these two exotic species and larvae of the two most abundant native coccinellids in eastern Washington State, C. transversoguttata and Hippodamia convergens. In pairings between

William E. Snyder; Garrett M. Clevenger; Sanford D. Eigenbrode

2004-01-01

101

Dying pine infested with beetles  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Mountain pine beetle-infested trees turn a striking red color throughout their crown as they're dying. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepo...

102

ARIZONA COOPERATIVE Cypress Bark Beetles  

E-print Network

ARIZONA COOPERATIVE E TENSION Cypress Bark Beetles Revised 12/11AZ1316 Jeff Schalau Cypress bark beetles (Phloeosinus cristatus (LeConte)) are native insects that occur throughout Arizona. They are commonintheVerdeValley,Prescott,Payson,andKingman areas. Under natural conditions, most bark beetles act

Wong, Pak Kin

103

Chemical ecology of bark beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purview of chemical ecology and the recent criticisms of improper application of theory to bark beetle phenomena is briefly discussed. Seven levels of research in chemical ecology are presented as well as their relationship to research on bark beetles. The biology and chemical ecology of several pest bark beetles from North America and Europe are discussed in regard

J. A. Byers

1989-01-01

104

Differences in coprophilous beetle communities structure in Sierra de Minas (Uruguay): a mosaic landscape.  

PubMed

Coprophilous beetles represent an abundant and rich group with critical importance in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Most coprophagous beetles have a stenotopic distribution in relation to vegetation types. Because of this, they are usually very sensitive to environmental changes and are considered well suited as bioindicator organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze variations in coprophilous beetle assemblages in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Coprophilous beetle communities were sampled monthly for 1 year using pitfall traps baited with cow dung, in native xeric upland forests, 15-years-old plantations of Pinus elliottii and pastures in Sierra de Minas, Lavalleja, Uruguay. A total of 7,436 beetles were caught and identified to species or morphospecies level. The most abundant families were Aphodiidae, Scarabaeidae, and Staphylinidae. Differences in species richness, abundance, Shannon index, evenness, and dominance were detected between habitats. Abundances of most frequent families were significantly higher in both kinds of forests. Species richness and diversity of Aphodiidae and Staphylinidae were higher in forests, while Scarabaeidae showed the highest richness and diversity in pine plantations. Species composition significantly differed between habitats. Uroxys terminalis Waterhouse and Ataenius perforatus Harold typified the assemblages in native forests and pine plantations and also discriminated both communities because of their differential pattern of abundance between habitats. Typifying species in pastures were Onthophagus hirculus, Ateuchus robustus (Harold), and Ataenius platensis Blanchard. Habitat type had a strong effect on the coprophilous beetle community structure and composition. PMID:23950086

González-Vainer, Patricia; Morelli, E; Defeo, O

2012-10-01

105

Genomics: an inordinate fondness for beetles.  

PubMed

Beetles are reckoned to make up about one quarter of animal species. Now, the first genome of a beetle--the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a pest and developmental model system alike--has been sequenced. PMID:18522815

Maderspacher, Florian

2008-06-01

106

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Key Background  

E-print Network

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Key Background: Metamorphosis is a process the juvenile stage to the adult stage. The Darkling Beetle (Tenebrio molitor) undergoes a complete, or holometabolous, metamorphosis. Adult beetles reproduce sexually and lay

Rose, Michael R.

107

Pinacate beetle from the Mojave desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The beetle's outer covering helps it survive in the harsh desert environment. These beetles also give off an unpleasant smell to deter predators. Beetles and other insects are eaten in the desert for their water and nutrient content.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

108

Asian Longhorned Beetle and its Host Trees  

E-print Network

Asian Longhorned Beetle and its Host Trees United States Department of Agriculture Forest Beetle and its Host Trees Bruce L. Parker and Margaret Skinner Entomology Research Laboratory University.........................................................................2 Description of the Asian Longhorned Beetle.......................5 Adults

Vermont, University of

109

How Do Beetles Reproduce?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every living thing must be able to reproduce and make offspring. Most of us are familiar with how humans and mammals make babies, but do all creatures reproduce in the same way? Do insects, like the beetle, give birth to little insects? Also in: Français | Español

Jenny Drnevich

110

Flea Beetles Introduction  

E-print Network

plants become available. Depending on species, female beetles lay tiny eggs in the soil, on plant leaves, in leaf petioles or on plant stems. The eggs hatch in about 10 days and the larvae feed on roots, tubers habitat in the garden), floating row covers will offer excellent protection for direct-seeded crops

New Hampshire, University of

111

Waves and Water Beetles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

Tucker, Vance A.

1971-01-01

112

Are stag beetles fungivorous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stag beetle larvae generally feed on decaying wood; however, it was unknown whether they can use wood-rotting fungi alone as food. Here, to clarify this, newly hatched larvae of Dorcus rectus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) were reared for 14 days on artificial diets containing a fixed amount of freeze-dried mycelia of the following fungi: Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, and

Masahiko Tanahashi; Norihisa Matsushita; Katsumi Togashi

2009-01-01

113

Pine Beetle Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

1995-01-01

114

Factors affecting overwinter survival of the American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Silphidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered American burying beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) is relatively abundant at Fort Chaffee Maneuver Training Center in northwestern Arkansas. There is a paucity of basic life-history\\u000a information available, particularly with respect to factors affecting overwintering success. In a field experiment we: (1)\\u000a captured beetles at Fort Chaffee; (2) bred them in captivity; (3) in the fall on Fort Chaffee placed

Gary D. Schnell; Ana E. Hiott; J. Curtis Creighton; Victoria L. Smyth; April Komendat

2008-01-01

115

Phloeophagous and predaceous insects responding to synthetic pheromones of bark beetles inhabiting white spruce stands in the Great Lakes region.  

PubMed

Tree killing and saprophytic bark beetles exert important ecological and economic roles in North American spruce forests. Chemical signaling among bark beetles, and responses by associate insects such as predators and competitors, have significant effects on the population dynamics and ecology of this community. Synthetic pheromones of primary (tree killing) and secondary (saprophytic) bark beetle species and blank controls were tested using multiple funnel and lower stem flight traps in white spruce forests in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Six phloeophagous and four predaceous species were collected with significant attraction by the bark beetles Dryocoetes affaber, Dryocoetes autographus, and Polygraphus rufipennis, and the predatory checkered beetles (Coleoptera: Cleridae) Thanasimus dubius and Enoclerus nigrifrons. In general, trap catches to synthetic lures resembled the species composition obtained by felling trees and collecting emerging beetles in a companion study, although several species showed differing trends. Some cross attraction occurred among bark beetles and between bark beetles and predatory beetles. For example, P. rufipennis was abundant in traps baited with Dryocoetes spp. pheromones. Thanasimus dubius and E. nigrifrons were collected in significant numbers in traps baited with the pheromone of the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis), frontalin plus a-pinene. This is a new observation for E. nigrifrons. Attraction of T. dubius to the pheromones of at least three bark beetle species in the Great Lakes region, as well as to several southern and western species, reflects its role as a habitat specialist and feeding generalist. Several other important predators and competitors commonly obtained in pine forests in this region were not obtained in these spruce stands, either in response to synthetic pheromones of spruce colonizing beetles, or in host material colonized by these beetles. Potential differences in predator prey dynamics between spruce and pine ecosystems in the Great Lakes region are discussed. PMID:12921443

Haberkern, Kirsten E; Raffa, Kenneth F

2003-07-01

116

Biomass energy for Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. Examples include wood, crop wastes, and municipal wastes. Biomass is a significant but largely unrecognized contributor to the energy resources in the state of Mississippi. It may be surprising to many Mississippians that 7% of the energy currently consumed in the state comes from biomass. Since that is twice the contribution of biomass energy on a national level, Mississippi is already a leader in the use of biomass energy. The contribution of this in-state energy source can be significantly increased and in the process provide economic development and further improvement to the quality of life of the citizens of Mississippi. Mississippi should maintain a diversity of energy options, but it is our belief that the state and its residents could collectively and individually benefit from the increased use of the biomass energy resources available within the state. Biomass feedstocks are abundant, and a variety of technologies for utilizing the resource are available. As Mississippi develops its energy plan for the 21st century the following advantages of biomass need to be considered.

Wright, L.L.; Draper, H.; Badger, P.C.; Brooks, R.T. Jr.; Straka, T.J.; Walter, D.K.; Stevens, D.; Hanna, F.; Lee, S.

1989-01-01

117

Influence of bark beetles outbreaks on the carbon balance of western United States forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently bark beetle outbreaks have been increasing in western United States forests due to increases in temperatures and prolonged occurrence of droughts. Bark beetle outbreaks transfer carbon from the live photosynthesizing pools to the dead respiring pool where carbon slowly decomposes into the atmosphere causing landscapes to change from a net sink to source of carbon. Previous studies have usually been conducted at small localized areas, focused only on one or two bark beetle types or encompass a single outbreak event. The literature largely ignores the influence of bark beetle mortality on carbon balance at both local and regional scales by focusing on multiple bark beetles types and events. This study uses a combination of the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model driven by remotely sensed biophysical observations, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) derived post-disturbance biomass regeneration trajectories, and mortality rates obtained from Aerial Detection Survey (ADS) insect outbreak polygons. The synthesis of the carbon cycle based modeling approach and different data products results in characteristic carbon trajectories for Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP), Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration associated with insect outbreaks. This study demonstrates that bark beetle events change landscapes from a sink to source of carbon at a local scale but at a larger regional level the influence of bark beetle outbreaks are not prominent compared to other disturbance agents.

Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.

2011-12-01

118

Beetle Devastates Pine Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The warming climate has made conditions suitable for a massive outbreak of mountain pine beetles, which are now infesting the whitebark pine forests in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). The infestation has other ecological consequences such as devastation of forests in the region; loss of a critical food supply for grizzlies and other wildlife; negative impacts on water and watersheds; deterioration of biodiversity; and decline in the aesthetic value of an iconic ecosystem.

Jessie Logan (Retired Research Entomologist;); Wally MacFarlane (GEO/Graphics, Inc.;)

2010-03-25

119

183BEETLES OF BLOCK ISLAND BEETLES OF BLOCK ISLAND: RARE SPECIES  

E-print Network

183BEETLES OF BLOCK ISLAND BEETLES OF BLOCK ISLAND: RARE SPECIES THAT ONCE OCCURRED ON THE MAINLAND of the Rhode Is- land beetle fauna. In addition to the federally listed American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus americanus), the Island is also home to the only population of the Clay Banks Tiger Beetle (Cicindela

Sikes, Derek S.

120

Biomass Utilization and Technology Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, issues related to biomass energy developed in China, on resources, technology, economy, environment, market, policy and regulation etc., are generally summarized. China is an agricultural country with a huge population and abundant biomass resources and facing increasing greatly energy demand and suffering serious environmental pollution. It is estimated that the total amount of biomass resources in 2001

Yuan Zhenhong; Wu Chuangzhi; Ma Longlong; Jiang Jianchun; Chen Dongmei; Zhu Weidong

121

Department of Entomology ASIAN LADY BEETLE  

E-print Network

Department of Entomology E-214-W ASIAN LADY BEETLE Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologist Household and Structural Black 'M' on thorax is characteristic of the Asian lady beetle Asian lady beetles with various colors and spot patterns. (Photo Credit: John Obermeyer) Lady beetles or `ladybugs' are not always

Ginzel, Matthew

122

Host Acceptance and Larval Competition in the Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Potential Mechanisms for Competitive Displacement between Invasive Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was much more abundant than the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus, in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. This study was initiated to determine whether competitive displacement of S. multistriatus by S. schevyrewi might be mediated by a sequence of behavioral interactions between the

Jana C. Lee; Steven J. Seybold

2010-01-01

123

Host Acceptance and Larval Competition between the Invasive Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Potential Mechanisms for Competitive Displacement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A recent survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was much more abundant than the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus, in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. This study sought to determine whether competitive displacement of S. mul...

124

Wave-making by whirligig beetles (gyrinidae).  

PubMed

Swimming whirligig beetles (Dineutes carolinus) either make no waves at all or make conspicuous circular or vee-shaped patterns of capillary waves. The beetle's swimming speed can be determined from these wave patterns (or lack of them). Capillary waves precede the beetle for several body lengths, and their reflections may help the beetle avoid solid objects by echolocation. The gravity waves produced by a beetle are always longer than the beetle's hull length. Hence the waves do not interact with the hull to impose an upper limit on speed as they do with conventional ships. Although the beetles swim at high speeds, they apparently do not hydroplane. PMID:17815756

Tucker, V A

1969-11-14

125

Heterotrophic succession within dung-inhabiting beetle communities in northern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successional patterns of beetles inhabiting dung pats were examined during May and July 1993 in a mountain area in northern Spain (Picos de Europa). Beetles belonging to six families were caught during the course of succession (30 d). Coprophagous beetles were more abundant in dung pats than predatory beetles (89 and 11 %, respectively). A trophic sequence was observed in relation to age of the dung, coprophagous beetles occurring earlier in the dung than predatory beetles. The pattern was observed on two occasions during the season, though succession proceeded somewhat faster in July than in May. These results suggest that food availability and microclimatic conditions in dung pats appear to determine the successional occurrence of beetle taxa. On the other hand, coprophagous species ( Aphodius) were poorly segregated along the successional axis. Null models failed to support the hypothesis that successional overlap and differences in successional mean occurrence between species could be the result of competition. Successional patterns at the specific level probably reflect differences in behaviour, such as pat location, feeding, mating, egg-laying and larva requirements, rather than competitive replacement.

Menéndez, Rosa; Gutiérrez, David

1999-09-01

126

The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields  

PubMed Central

The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

2013-01-01

127

Influences of Different Large Mammalian Fauna on Dung Beetle Diversity in Beech Forests  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on biological relationships between mammalian species richness and the community structure of dung beetles in cool-temperate forests in the northernmost part of mainland Japan. The composition of beetle assemblages was evaluated at 3 sites in undisturbed beech forests with different mammalian fauna. In spring and summer 2009, beetles were collected at each site using pitfall traps baited with feces from Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata Blyth (Primates: Cercopithecidae); Asiatic black bears, Ursus thibetanus Cuvier (Carnivora: Ursidae); Japanese serows, Capricornis crispus Temminck (Artiodactyla: Bovidae); and cattle. In the present study, 1,862 dung beetles representing 14 species were collected, and most dung beetles possessed the ecological characteristic of selecting specific mammalian feces. The present findings indicated that although species diversity in dung beetle assemblages was not necessarily positively correlated with mammalian species richness in cool-temperate forests, the absence of the macaque population directly resulted in the marked reduction of the beetle abundance, with the loss of the most frequent species, Aphodius eccoptus Bates (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) during spring. PMID:23909510

Enari, Hiroto; Koike, Shinsuke; Sakamaki, Haruka

2013-01-01

128

Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations  

SciTech Connect

Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

Janossy, L.; Bitto, A. [ELTE Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

1995-12-31

129

Effect of trap type, trap position, time of year, and beetle density on captures of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

PubMed

The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont Raffaellea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich, and Aghayeva are responsible for widespread redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., mortality in the southern United States. Effective traps and lures are needed to monitor spread of the beetle and for early detection at ports-of-entry, so we conducted a series of experiments to find the best trap design, color, lure, and trap position for detection of X. glabratus. The best trap and lure combination was then tested at seven sites varying in beetle abundance and at one site throughout the year to see how season and beetle population affected performance. Manuka oil proved to be the most effective lure tested, particularly when considering cost and availability. Traps baited with manuka oil lures releasing 5 mg/d caught as many beetles as those baited with lures releasing 200 mg/d. Distributing manuka oil lures from the top to the bottom of eight-unit funnel traps resulted in similar numbers of X. glabratus as a single lure in the middle. Trap color had little effect on captures in sticky traps or cross-vane traps. Funnel traps caught twice as many beetles as cross-vane traps and three times as many as sticky traps but mean catch per trap was not significantly different. When comparing height, traps 1.5 m above the ground captured 85% of the beetles collected but a few were caught at each height up to 15 m. Funnel trap captures exhibited a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.79) with X. glabratus attack density and they performed well throughout the year. Catching beetles at low densities is important to port of entry monitoring programs where early detection of infestations is essential. Our trials show that multiple funnel traps baited with a single manuka oil lure were effective for capturing X. glabratus even when no infested trees were visible in the area. PMID:21510198

Hanula, James L; Ulyshen, Michael D; Horn, Scott

2011-04-01

130

Impact of Red Deer Cervus elaphus Grazing on Bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus and Composition of Ground Beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Assemblage  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  We studied the role of red deer Cervus elaphus L. as ecosystem modifier in boreal forest (Tingvoll municipality, 62°52? N, 8°20? E, Norway), during early summer of 2001.\\u000a The effect of grazing by red deer on ground beetles (Carabidae) abundance and diversity was investigated across a gradient\\u000a of grazing pressures. We trapped ground beetles by pit-fall traps from three homogeneous winter grazing

Claudia Melis; Astrid Buset; Per Arild Aarrestad; Oddvar Hanssen; Erling L. Meisingset; Reidar Andersen; Arne Moksnes; Eivin Røskaft

2006-01-01

131

Common flea beetles of North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A very nicely illustrated key to 46 flea beetles regularly found in North Dakota. The key is a lucid style key, and the images are carefully produced. A beautiful photo gallery and list of common flea beetles is also included.

0002-11-30

132

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.  

PubMed

Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics--yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms. PMID:19760277

Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

2009-11-01

133

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics—yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms.

Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

2009-11-01

134

Ecology and behavior of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).  

PubMed

The ground beetles from the speciose beetle family Carabidae and, since their emergence in the Tertiary, have populated all habitats except deserts. Our knowledge about carabids is biased toward species living in north-temperate regions. Most carabids are predatory, consume a wide range of food types, and experience food shortages in the field. Feeding on both plant and animal material and scavenging are probably more significant than currently acknowledged. The most important mortality sources are abiotic factors and predators; pathogens and parasites can be important for some developmental stages. Although competition among larvae and adults does occur, the importance of competition as a community organization is not proven. Carabids are abundant in agricultural fields all over the world and may be important natural enemies of agricultural pests. PMID:15012329

Lövei, G L; Sunderland, K D

1996-01-01

135

The ground beetle Pseudophonus rufipes revealed as predator of Ceratitis capitata in citrus orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is a major citrus pest in Spain. Although medfly is being controlled chemically, alternative biorational strategies should be developed, like those based on conservation biological control of polyphagous predators. The ground beetle Pseudophonus rufipes (De Geer) is the most abundant carabid inhabiting the ground of citrus orchards in eastern Spain. However, little is

César Monzó; Beatriz Sabater-Muñoz; Alberto Urbaneja; Pedro Castañera

2011-01-01

136

EVIDENCE FOR CONTACT SEX RECOGNITION PHEROMONE FOR THE ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE, ANOPLOPHORA GLABRIPENNIS (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of long-chain hydrocarbons comprise the cuticular waxes of both sexes of Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) adults. Although for the most part the gas chromatographic profiles are similar for the two sexes, five monounsaturated compounds were consistently more abundant in s...

137

Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

2011-01-01

138

Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a wellstudied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

Paxton, E.H.; Theimer, T.C.; Sogge, M.K.

2011-01-01

139

Beetle-killed and burned pine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Globs of resin on the outside bark of a pine tree indicate that it has been attacked by mountain pine beetles. The trees ooze this resin as a defense mechanism against the beetles. This pine tree has also been burned, probably in a forest fire. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss ...

140

Beetle-killed pine with USGS marker  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This dead pine has been marked by USGS scientists studying the effects of mountain pine beetles on forest ecology. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especi...

141

Blue beetle-killed pine park  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Stripped bark from a dead pine tree reveals the tell-tale blue streaks of a mountain pine beetle attack. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodge...

142

Use of beetles in forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetles (Coleoptera) have been recognised as providing significant entomological evidence in the medico-legal field, particularly with reference to dry human skeletal remains in the later stages of decomposition.The Dermestidae (skin beetles) and Cleridae (bone beetles) have been found as the most common types infesting exposed human remains and providing evidence in estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMI).

Pankaj Kulshrestha; D. K Satpathy

2001-01-01

143

BEETLE RECORDS Late Tertiary and Early Quaternary  

E-print Network

B BEETLE RECORDS Contents Overview Late Tertiary and Early Quaternary Middle Pleistocene of Europe of London, Surrey, UK ª 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. The study of fossil beetles (Coleoptera of the world, most recently to Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Fossil beetle research has led to many

Sheldon, Nathan D.

144

MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS  

E-print Network

MOUNTAIN PINE BEETLE INFESTATION: HYDROLOGICAL IMPACTS by EDI ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS INC. for Ministry of Environment Mountain Pine Beetle Action Team March 2008 #12;This document was produced under contract to the ministry of environment mountain pine beetle action team (MPBAT) by EDI Environmental

Northern British Columbia, University of

145

ORIGINAL PAPER Predicting spatial occurrence of beetles  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Predicting spatial occurrence of beetles and pseudoscorpions in hollow oaks modelled presence/absence per tree of beetles and pseudoscorpions living in tree hollows in relation when using occurrence records up to 1993, with significantly larger underestimates for smaller beetle

146

Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower.(From the Biomass Program's home page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/) The Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database allows the user to choose from more than 150 types of biomass samples. The specialized interface then guides the user through choices within the sample (such as "Ash" as a choice in the "Hardwood" sample and displays tables based on choice of composition properties, structure properties, elemental properties, extractive properties, etc.

147

Dung beetles in an avian-dominated island ecosystem: feeding and trophic ecology.  

PubMed

Globally, dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are linked to many critical ecosystem processes involving the consumption and breakdown of mammal dung. Endemic New Zealand dung beetles (Canthonini) are an anomaly, occurring at high abundance and low diversity on an island archipelago historically lacking terrestrial mammals, except bats, and instead dominated by birds. Have New Zealand's dung beetles evolved to specialise on bird dung or carrion, or have they become broad generalist feeders? We test dietary preferences by analysing nitrogen isotope ratios of wild dung beetles and by performing feeding behaviour observations of captive specimens. We also use nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes to determine if the dung beetle Saphobius edwardsi will consume marine-derived carrion. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated trophic generalism in Saphobius dung beetles and this was supported by behavioural observations where a broad range of food resources were utilised. Alternative food resource use was further illustrated experimentally by nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures of S. edwardsi, where individuals provided with decomposed squid had ?(15)N and ?(13)C values that had shifted toward values associated with marine diet. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of native mammal dung resources, New Zealand dung beetles have evolved a generalist diet of dung and carrion. This may include marine-derived resources, as provided by the seabird colonies present in New Zealand forests before the arrival of humans. This has probably enabled New Zealand dung beetles to persist in indigenous ecosystems despite the decline of native birds and the introduction of many mammal species. PMID:24974270

Stavert, J R; Gaskett, A C; Scott, D J; Beggs, J R

2014-09-01

148

Primate and Dung Beetle Communities in Secondary Growth Rain Forests: Implications for Conservation of Seed Dispersal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation efforts are often aimed at one or a few species. However, habitat sustainability relies on ecological interactions among species, such as seed dispersal. Thus, a community-scale conservation strategy may be more valuable in some settings. We describe communities of primary (primates) and secondary (dung beetles) seed dispersers from 5 sites in the Brazilian Amazon. We estimate community biomass of

Kevina Vulinec; Joanna E. Lambert; David J. Mellow

2006-01-01

149

Biomass utilization  

SciTech Connect

Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).

Coute, W.A. (ed.)

1983-01-01

150

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

ScienceCinema

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

None

2013-05-29

151

Virtual stag beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D image of a stage beetle (Family Lucanidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

152

MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR CUCUMBER BEETLES ON MUSKMELON  

E-print Network

MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR CUCUMBER BEETLES ON MUSKMELON Frankie Lam and Ricky E. Foster) Striped cucumber beetle and (B) Spotted cucum- ber beetle or southern corn rootworm beetle. (Photo credit: Frankie Lam, Purdue University) Striped and spotted cucumber beetles (Figs. 1 A and B) are the most

Ginzel, Matthew

153

Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.  

PubMed

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH??) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

2013-01-01

154

Nitrogen Cycling Responses to Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbance in a High Elevation Whitebark Pine Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

2013-01-01

155

Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

2013-01-01

156

Sources of insect and plant volatiles attractive to cottonwood leaf beetles feeding on hybrid poplar.  

PubMed

The cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta, is the most damaging insect affecting the production of Populus, an important source of sustainable forest products and biomass. Currently, there is no simple method for monitoring C. scripta populations, and nothing is known about potential chemical attractants for trapping. We conducted laboratory assays on sources of attraction to C. scripta adults. In olfactometer trials, beetles were attracted to volatiles released from conspecifics feeding on foliage. There was also significant, but lesser, attraction to odor from unwounded foliage, C. scripta alone, and frass. The latter two results indicate the presence of a pheromone. Wounding of foliage by C. scripta, but not by artificial means, enhanced its attractiveness compared to unwounded foliage, even when C. scripta by-products were removed. In direct comparisons, responses to odor from beetle-wounded foliage were not different from responses to odor from beetles feeding on foliage. We tested the attractiveness of volatiles emitted by adults feeding on foliage in the field using modified boll weevil traps. Results confirm that these volatiles are sufficient to increase trap catches in the field. Color is also important, with yellow baited traps catching more beetles than black baited. We propose that original landing by C. scripta is mediated by host odors and visual cues and that subsequent aggregation is enhanced by chemical cues associated with feeding by conspecifics. This may partially explain clustering in the field and likewise be incorporated into sampling schemes needed for integrated pest management. PMID:17089182

Kendrick, Alexander P; Raffa, Kenneth F

2006-12-01

157

Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ ? a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse, taxonomically and ecologically well-known, efficiently reflect biotic and abiotic conditions, are relevant at multiple spatial scales, and are easy to collect in sufficiently large numbers to allow statistical analyses. The assumption that carabid responses would reflect rare environmental conditions or the responses of rare and threatened species ? crucial information for conservationists and managers ? has not yet been critically evaluated. Even if it holds, the usefulness will be context dependent: species and their populations vary, conditions vary, questions put forward vary, and assessment goals vary. PMID:21738418

Koivula, Matti J.

2011-01-01

158

UNVEILING THE FIRST BEETLE GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, has been sequenced at 7-fold coverage using the whole-genome shotgun approach, generating 1.8 million end-sequences from fragments 3-6 kb in length. A preliminary assembly (Tcas_1.0) has been released by the Human Genome Sequencing Center, Ba...

159

Cerebral extraocular photoreceptors in beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell clusters containing rhabdomeric structures and screening pigments are located in the optic lobes of pupae and adult beetles of Tenebrio molitor and Hylotrupes bajulus. Due to their resemblance with the compound eyes, the cell clusters were called cerebral extraocular photoreceptors (CEPs) and can readily be detected macroscopically as black spots spread between the lamina and medulla. CEPs of T.

Fatima Felisberti; Dora Fix Ventura; Horst Hertel

1997-01-01

160

Raising Beetles in a Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

Hackett, Erla

161

Filial cannibalism in burying beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infanticide is a common phenomenon in many animal groups, but filial cannibalism, the deliberate killing and consumption by parents of their own young, is extremely unusual. The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides Herbst has a limited food supply, in the form of a buried corpse, on which to raise its young. On corpses weighing 10–15 g, clutch size in the lab

J. Bartlett

1987-01-01

162

The dung beetle dance: an orientation behaviour?  

PubMed

An interesting feature of dung beetle behaviour is that once they have formed a piece of dung into a ball, they roll it along a straight path away from the dung pile. This straight-line orientation ensures that the beetles depart along the most direct route, guaranteeing that they will not return to the intense competition (from other beetles) that occurs near the dung pile. Before rolling a new ball away from the dung pile, dung beetles perform a characteristic "dance," in which they climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This dance behaviour can also be observed during the beetles' straight-line departure from the dung pile. The aim of the present study is to investigate the purpose of the dung beetle dance. To do this, we explored the circumstances that elicit dance behaviour in the diurnal ball-rolling dung beetle, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus. Our results reveal that dances are elicited when the beetles lose control of their ball or lose contact with it altogether. We also find that dances can be elicited by both active and passive deviations of course and by changes in visual cues alone. In light of these results, we hypothesise that the dung beetle dance is a visually mediated mechanism that facilitates straight-line orientation in ball-rolling dung beetles by allowing them to 1) establish a roll bearing and 2) return to this chosen bearing after experiencing a disturbance to the roll path. PMID:22279572

Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie

2012-01-01

163

ROOT BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN THE WORLD'S UPLAND FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root biomass based on standard meth...

164

Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona.  

PubMed

Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance. PMID:18767735

Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A

2008-08-01

165

Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).  

SciTech Connect

Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and �¢����trap-shy�¢��� species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

2005-01-01

166

Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).  

SciTech Connect

Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and � ����trap-shy�¢��� species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

2005-01-01

167

Specific detection of the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans DNA in predatory diving beetles.  

PubMed

Floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are associated with periodically flooded wet meadows, marshes, and swamps in floodplains of major rivers worldwide, and their larvae are abundant in the shallow parts of flooded areas. The nuisance caused by the blood-seeking adult female mosquitoes motivates mosquito control. Larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is considered the most environmentally safe method. However, some concern has been raised whether aquatic predatory insects could be indirectly affected by this reduction in a potential vital prey. Top predators in the temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains are diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), and Aedes sticticus and Ae. vexans are the target species for mosquito control. For detailed studies on this aquatic predator-prey system, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of mosquito DNA in the guts of medium-sized diving beetles. Primers were designed for amplifying short mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans, respectively. Primer specificity was confirmed and half-life detectability of Ae. sticticus DNA in diving beetle guts was derived from a feeding and digestion experiment. The Ae. sticticus DNA within diving beetle guts was detected up to 12 h postfeeding, and half-life detectability was estimated to 5.6 h. In addition, field caught diving beetles were screened for Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans DNA and in 14% of the diving beetles one or both mosquito species were detected, showing that these mosquito species are utilized as food by the diving beetles. PMID:24895318

Vinnersten, Thomas Z Persson; Halvarsson, Peter; Lundström, Jan O

2014-06-01

168

Geographic variation in bacterial communities associated with the red turpentine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

Bacterial communities are known to play important roles in insect life histories, yet their consistency or variation across populations is poorly understood. Bacteria associated with the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens LeConte from eight populations, ranging from Wisconsin to Oregon, were evaluated and compared. We used the culture-independent technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to visualize bacterial diversity, or individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs), from individual beetles. One-way analysis of similarities was used to test for differences of bacterial communities between sites. Analysis of community profiles showed that individual beetles on average contained 10 OTUs, with frequency of association from 2 to 100% of beetles. OTU sequences most closely matched beta- and gamma-proteobacteria, and one each matched Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Several OTUs were particularly abundant, most notably an Actinobacterium from 100% and two Proteobacteria from 60% of beetles sampled. Some OTUs were similar to previously described bacteria with known biochemical capabilities and ecological functions, suggesting that some bacterial associates of D. valens may contribute to its ability to exploit a resource low in nutrients and high in defensive compounds. There were significant differences of bacterial communities between sites. The strength of these differences was positively correlated with distance between sites, although additional unexplained factors also contribute to the variation. PMID:20388269

Adams, Aaron S; Adams, Sandye M; Currie, Cameron R; Gillette, Nancy E; Raffa, Kenneth F

2010-04-01

169

USDA Forest Service: Asian Longhorned Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Asian longhorned beetles are an exotic species of insect that have been wreaking havoc on North American trees, particularly maples, alders, birches, elms, horsechestnut, poplars, and willows. This site from the USDA Forest Service had some general information about the beetle (including images), and resources on identifying them and reporting sightings. Check out the "Publications" link for some more extensive tips on identifying the asian longhorned beetle, and controlling its spread.

2008-02-04

170

The Beetles of the Virgin Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided in collaboration by researchers at Montana State and Ohio State universities, this database of the Beetles of the Virgin Islands contains records for over 34,000 specimens of 489 beetle species. The database also offers mapping capabilities for identifying beetle collection locations. Query by Island, Family, or Specimen to find details for each species -- including scientific name, number of specimens in the database, islands where this species has been collected, and collecting methods.

171

Pheromone production in bark beetles.  

PubMed

The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary ?-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

2010-10-01

172

Potential impact of mangrove clearance on biomass and biomass size spectra of nematode along the Sudanese Red Sea coast.  

PubMed

The potential effect of mangrove clearance on nematode assemblage biomass, biomass size spectra (NBSS) and abundance/biomass curves (ABC) was investigated in three sites representing a varying degree of mangrove clearance as well as in three stations established at each sites representing high-, mid- and low-water levels. Results revealed significant differences in sediment and nematode characteristics between the three sites. Although both the cleared and the intact mangrove had comparable biomass values, clear differences in biomass size spectra and abundance biomass curves were observed. The results suggested that the variation in the silt fraction and the food quality positively affected the total biomass. Mangrove clearance has caused a shift from a unimodal to a bimodal biomass size spectrum at all water levels, owing to an increase in smaller-bodied opportunistic non-selective deposit feeding nematodes. The ABC further confirmed the effect of clearance by classifying the cleared mangrove as moderately to grossly disturbed. PMID:25460061

Sabeel, Rasha Adam Osman; Vanreusel, Ann

2015-02-01

173

Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

2013-09-01

174

Differential Consumption of Four Aphid Species by Four Lady Beetle Species  

PubMed Central

The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum. PMID:20578952

Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

2010-01-01

175

An evaluation of British Columbian beetle-killed hybrid spruce for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

The development of bioconversion technologies for production of fuels, chemicals, and power from renewable resources is currently a high priority for developed nations such as the United States, Canada, and the European Union as a way to improve national energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The widespread implementation of such technologies will require a sustainable supply of biomass from forestry and agriculture. Forests are a major source of feedstocks for biofuels production in Canada. Woody biomass includes residues from logging and forest thinning, and from wood processing and pulp production. More recently, damaged wood caused by beetle infestations has become available on a large scale in Western Canada. This study evaluates beetle-killed British Columbian hybrid spruce (HS) (Picea glauca x P. engelmannii) as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. In the past 30 yr, attack by the beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis and associated fungi has resulted in estimated losses of more than three billion board feet in British Columbia alone. Here we describe the chemical and some physical characteristics of both healthy (HHS) and beetle-killed (BKHS) British Columbian HS and evaluate the technical feasibility of using these feedstocks as a source of biomass for bioethanol production. Untreated HHS and BKHS did not differ significantly in chemical composition except for the moisture content, which was significantly lower in BKHS (approx 10%) compared with HHS (approx 18%). However, the yields of carbohydrates in hydrolyzable and fermentable forms were higher at mild pretreatment conditions (H-Factor <1000) for BKHS compared with HHS. At medium (H-Factor 1000-2000) and severe (H-Factor >2000) pretreatment conditions HHS and BKHS behaved similarly. Organosolv pretreated HHS and BKHS demonstrated good ethanol theoretical yields, approx 70 and 80%, respectively. PMID:18478394

Berlin, Alex; Muñoz, Claudio; Gilkes, Neil; Alamouti, Sepideh Massoumi; Chung, Pablo; Kang, Kyu-Young; Maximenko, Vera; Baeza, Jaime; Freer, Juanita; Mendonça, Regis; Saddler, Jack

2007-04-01

176

Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.  

PubMed

Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest. PMID:22127165

Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

2010-08-01

177

Flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) occurring on Amaranthus Retroflexus L. In Erzurum Province, Turkey and their potential as biological control agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Species composition and abundance of flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)associated with Amaranthus retroflexus L. was studied in Erzurum provinces, Turkey, with the aim to find candidates for potential biological control of this weed. Insects were collected by sweeping net and aspirator on plan...

178

Habitat loss decreases predator/prey ratios in a pine-bark beetle Krista L. Ryall and Lenore Fahrig  

E-print Network

of natural habitats, resulting in isolation of remaining habitat fragments. Using a pine-bark beetle in predator abundance and, presumably, enemy-caused mortality may lead to changes in the population dynamics for KLR: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Corner Brook, Newfoundland, A2H 6J3, Canada

179

The influence of weed-cover on the mortality imposed on artificial prey by predatory ground beetles in cereal fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitfall trapping was carried out in a field of winter wheat in the Vale of York to determine the levels of abundance of adult carabid and staphylinid beetles, (which formed the bulk of the natural predator complex) in the field. A point quadrat survey was carried out at the same time to assess the vegetation cover round each trap. Predation

M. R. Speight; J. H. Lawton

1976-01-01

180

An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give

C. Z Wu; H Huang; S. P Zheng; X. L Yin

2002-01-01

181

FUNGUS BEETLES INVADING HOMES Small reddish or black beetles found flying in homes during late summer are often a type of fungus  

E-print Network

FUNGUS BEETLES INVADING HOMES Small reddish or black beetles found flying in homes during late summer are often a type of fungus beetle. Two common species seen are the minute fungus beetles, Family Lathiiridae (also called plaster beetles), and the foreign grain beetle, Ahsverus advena. Newly constructed

Balser, Teri C.

182

Organic Management of Cucumber Beetles in Watermelon and Muskmelon Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Organic methods for managing striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) and spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata) cucumber beetles were examined in the production of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo) using sticky traps to monitor beetle populations. In 2002, the numbers of trapped striped and total (striped + spotted) cucumber beetles were significantly (P £ 0.05) reduced by the combined use

Gary R. Cline; John D. Sedlacek; Steve L. Hillman; Sharon K. Parker; Anthony F. Silvernail

183

An Emerging Triad: Air Pollution, Beetles, and Wildfire  

E-print Network

An Emerging Triad: Air Pollution, Beetles, and Wildfire Tree Signals and Beetle Outbreaks Pacific stressed by drought and air pollution may attract bark beetles, which overwhelm the trees' defense mechanisms. Winter 2010 www.fs.fed.us/psw/ I n the past decade, bark beetles have killed millions of acres

Standiford, Richard B.

184

Special Topics Bark and Ambrosia Beetles ENY 6934 / FOR 6934  

E-print Network

Special Topics ­ Bark and Ambrosia Beetles ENY 6934 / FOR 6934 Credits: 3 Meeting days and times description: A comprehensive review of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae are (and what are not) bark and ambrosia beetles o General bark beetle morphology o Quick overview of non

Watson, Craig A.

185

Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment  

SciTech Connect

Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

Michael Lehman

2008-06-01

186

Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moths...

187

Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moth...

188

Standard methods for small hive beetle research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are parasites and scavengers of honey bee and other social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa, where they are a minor pest only. In contrast, the beetles can be harmful parasites of European honey bee subspecies. Very rapidly after A. tumida established pop...

189

Pulpability of Beetle-Killed Spruce  

E-print Network

Pulpability of Beetle-Killed Spruce United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can quality. Log deterioration had mixed effects on paper properties. Keywords: pulp, spruce, sap rot

Abubakr, Said

190

Pine Bark Beetle Outbreaks and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive shows the extent of the killing of lodgepole pine trees in western Canada. The spread of pine beetle throughout British Columbia has devastated the lodgepole pine forests there. This animation shows the spread of the beetle and the increasing numbers of trees affected from 1999-2008 and predicts the spread up until 2015.

History, American M.

191

Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

192

Bark Beetle Infestation Investigation: Estimation and Pheromones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity investigates how bark beetles can threaten forests by having learners estimate the number of infected trees from a photo. Learners also think about how pheromones could be used to trap the beetles. The activity is written for a kit that can be checked out of a library, but the kit is not necessary.

Shaw, Maisie; Gomez, Maria

2010-01-01

193

Biomass shock pretreatment  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

2014-07-01

194

Response of understory vegetation to variable tree mortality following a mountain pine beetle epidemic in lodgepole pine stands in northern Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the response of understory vegetation beneath monotypic, even-aged stands of lodgepole pine to increasing tree mortality following an epidemic of mountain pine beetles. we hypothesized that understory biomass would increase continually as the tree canopy was reduced and competition with trees for light and soil moisture decreased, but that plant species diversity and heterogeneity would peak at intermediate

William E. Stone; Michael L. Wolfe

1996-01-01

195

Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300

R. A. Werner; E. H. Holsten

1997-01-01

196

SpruceBarkBeetle For more information about the management of spruce bark beetle, contact your nearest office  

E-print Network

SpruceBarkBeetle For more information about the management of spruce bark beetle, contact your Large outbreaks of the spruce bark beetle are very difficult to control. Small infestations can of the spruce bark beetle depends on temperature and elevation. In general, it takes two years to complete

197

Beetles, Birds, & Fire in Western Forests Introduction: The mountain pine beetle is native to Montana, but a recent epidemic has  

E-print Network

Beetles, Birds, & Fire in Western Forests Introduction: The mountain pine beetle is native responses to bark beetle outbreaks are largely unknown, and will have important implications for forest management. Some species, such as the foliage gleaning Yellow-rumped Warbler may decline after beetle

198

Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona.  

PubMed

We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600-1,736 m; middle: 2,058-2,230 m; high: 2,505-2,651 m) for 3 yr (2004-2006) using pheromone-baited Lindgren funnel traps. Trap contents were collected weekly from March to December. We also studied temperature differences among the elevation bands and what role this may play in beetle flight behavior. Bark beetles, regardless of species, showed no consistent elevational trend in abundance among the three bands. The higher abundances of Ips lecontei Swaine, I. calligraphus ponderosae Swaine, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, and D. brevicomis LeConte at low and middle elevations offset the greater abundance of I. knausi Swaine, D. adjunctus Blandford, D. approximatus Dietz, and D. valens LeConte at high elevations. I. pini (Say) and I. latidens LeConte were found in similar numbers across the three bands. Flight periodicity of several species varied among elevation bands. In general, the flight period shortened as elevation increased; flight initiated later and terminated earlier in the year. The timing, number, and magnitude of peaks in flight activity also varied among the elevation bands. These results suggest that abundance and flight seasonality of several bark beetles are related to elevation and the associated temperature differences. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to bark beetle management and population dynamics. PMID:18348801

Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Miller, Andy

2008-02-01

199

Reciprocal interactions between the bark beetle-associated yeast Ogataea pini and host plant phytochemistry.  

PubMed

Here we report the first experiments testing reciprocal effects between the bark beetle-associated yeast, Ogataea pini, and phytochemicals present in tree tissues (Pinus ponderosa). We tested two hypotheses: (i) tree phytochemicals mediate O. pini growth and (ii) O. pini affects chemical composition of plant tissues. We tested six monoterpenes on O. pini biomass growth in vitro and found that most monoterpenes inhibited O. pini growth; however mean O. pini biomass increased 21.5% when treated with myrcene and 75.5% when treated with terpinolene, relative to control. Ogataea pini was grown on phloem tissue ex vivo to determine whether O. pini affected phloem chemistry. Monoterpene concentrations declined in phloem over time, but phloem colonized by O. pini had significantly different concentrations of monoterpenes at two periods than phloem with no yeast. After 7 d, when O. pini was present, concentrations of the monoterpene ?-3-carene was 42.9% lower than uncolonized phloem and concentrations of the monoterpene terpinolene was 345.0% higher than uncolonized phloem. After 15 d phloem colonized by O. pini had 505.4% higher concentrations of ?-pinene than uncolonized phloem. These experiments suggest that O. pini responds to phytochemicals present in host tissues and the presence of O. pini might alter the chemical environment of phloem tissues during the early stages of beetle development. The interactions between O. pini and phytochemicals in pine vascular tissues might have consequences for the bark beetle that vectors O. pini, Dendroctonus brevicomis. PMID:21659459

Davis, Thomas S; Hofstetter, Richard W

2011-01-01

200

Spruce beetles and timber harvest in Alaska: Implications for northern red-backed voles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in structure and function of spruce forests occurred following a recent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) epidemic in the temperate forests of south-central Alaska. To assess the effects of this infestation and the subsequent land management practices used to reduce the risk of catastrophic fire, we measured northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus) abundance over a 10-year period. We established eight

Ellen W. Lance; Susan M. Howell; Brian K. Lance; Shay Howlin; Lowell H. Suring; Michael I. Goldstein

2006-01-01

201

The Comparative Effectiveness of Rodents and Dung Beetles as Local Seed Dispersers in Mediterranean Oak Forests  

PubMed Central

The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications for oak recruitment and community dynamics. PMID:24194872

Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Verdú, José R.; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M.

2013-01-01

202

Survival of the Fittest: Battling Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guided inquiry three-part activity engages learners in thinking about the mechanism of natural selection through data collection and pattern recognition. In this scenario, learners use M&Ms and other simple materials to investigate the mating habits of beetles and whether genetic variations give male beetles advantages against weaker beetles. Learners will collect and calculate data to draw conclusions. The third part of this activity allows learners to model Hardy-Weinberg and selection using an Excel spreadsheet and is recommended for more advanced learners.

2013-07-30

203

Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles  

E-print Network

beetles) 1 ?16 to 1 ?12 inch Round Larva Several months under favorable conditions Fine and powdery; fills larval tunnels Curculionidae (Weevils, snout beetles) 1 ?32 to 1 ?16 inch Round Larva and adult Varies with species Powdery or granular dusts... to several years Variable Tunnels filled with powdery dust often formed in pellets Tunnels packed with fine flourlike dust and granules Coarse and fibery in tunnels Scolytidae (Bark beetles) Less than 1 ?16 inch Round Adult and larva 2 months to 1 year...

Jackman, John A.

2006-03-28

204

Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

2008-08-01

205

Chemical signals synchronize the life cycles of a plant-parasitic nematode and its vector beetle.  

PubMed

The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused severe damage to pine forests in large parts of the world [1-4]. Dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode occurs when the nematode develops into the dispersal fourth larval stage (LIV) upon encountering its insect vector, the Monochamus pine sawyer beetle, inside an infected pine tree [5-9]. Here, we show that LIV formation in B. xylophilus is induced by C16 and C18 fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which are produced abundantly on the body surface of the vector beetle specifically during the late development pupal, emerging adult, and newly eclosed adult stages. The LIV can then enter the tracheal system of the adult beetle for dispersal to a new pine tree. Treatment of B. xylophilus with long-chain FAEEs, or the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, promotes LIV formation, while ?7-dafachronic acid blocks the effects of these chemicals, suggesting a conserved role for the insulin/IGF-1 and DAF-12 pathways in LIV formation. Our work provides a mechanism by which LIV formation in B. xylophilus is specifically coordinated with the life cycle of its vector beetle. Knowledge of the chemical signals that control the LIV developmental decision could be used to interfere with the dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode. PMID:24120638

Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Hao, Haijun; Zhang, Bin; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

2013-10-21

206

Evolutionary assembly of the conifer fauna: distinguishing ancient from recent associations in bark beetles.  

PubMed Central

Several shifts from ancestral conifer feeding to angiosperm feeding have been implicated in the unparalleled diversification of beetle species. The single largest angiosperm-feeding beetle clade occurs in the weevils, and comprises the family Curculionidae and relatives. Most authorities confidently place the bark beetles (Scolytidae) within this radiation of angiosperm feeders. However, some clues indicate that the association between conifers and some scolytids, particularly in the tribe Tomicini, is a very ancient one. For instance, several fragments of Gondwanaland (South America, New Caledonia, Australia and New Guinea) harbour endemic Tomicini specialized on members of the formerly widespread and abundant conifer family Araucariaceae. As a first step towards resolving this seeming paradox, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the beetle family Scolytidae with particularly intensive sampling of conifer-feeding Tomicini and allies. We sequenced and analysed elongation factor 1alpha and nuclear rDNAs 18S and 28S for 45 taxa, using members of the weevil family Cossoninae as an out-group. Our results indicate that conifer feeding is the ancestral host association of scolytids, and that the most basal lineages of scolytids feed on Aramucaria. If scolytids are indeed nested within a great angiosperm-feeding clade, as many authorities have held, then a reversion to conifer feeding in ancestral scolytids appears to have occurred in the Mesozoic, when Araucaria still formed a major component of the woody flora. PMID:11133024

Sequeira, A S; Normark, B B; Farrell, B D

2000-01-01

207

Mountain Pine beetle disturbance and climate effects on subalpine forest carbon cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems in Western North America have experienced an epidemic outbreak of Mountain Pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), reducing net primary productivity and significantly compromising the potential for these ecosystems to sequester atmospheric carbon. Estimates of lost carbon sequestration and trajectories of future carbon uptake as these forests recover, are uncertain due to lack of fundamental knowledge about the carbon cycle processes that are impacted. Furthermore, the effects of this disturbance are informed by their interplay with important climatic drivers of subalpine carbon uptake such as the availability of snowmelt water. To examine some of these carbon cycle processes, we measured soil respiration rates, the 13C/12C of soil respired CO2, extractable soil carbon, and microbial biomass carbon in a chronosequence of plots consisting of lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) that experienced beetle kill or were girdled (simulating beetle kill). The plots are located in the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux and Fraser Experimental Forests of Colorado. The chronosequence extended from approximately 2002 to 2010. In addition, in 2008 and 2009 we amended and removed spring snow on a subset of girdled and control plots to isolate potential snowpack effects on the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration. Soil respiration, extractable carbon, and microbial biomass carbon were higher in control plot soils compared to soils in plots with girdled or beetle killed trees. These differences were greatest between control soils and soils of more recently girdled and beetle killed trees. Over the growing season, we found the 13C/12C ratio of soil respired CO2 was enriched in plots with girdled trees compared to the control plots past the second year of treatment. Finally, ungirdled plots in 2009 responded to spring snow amendments with increased soil respiration rates and a more depleted signature of ?13C. These effects occurred in early summer during the peak of carbon uptake at the Niwot ridge AmeriFlux site, and were not present in the girdled plots. Our results illustrate that the significant contribution of recently fixed autotrophic carbon from root exudates to soil respiration is lost with girdling and beetle kill in lodgepole pines, and that this loss is especially pronounced in the first several years. Additionally, the remaining primarily heterotrophic component of soil respiration demonstrates less sensitivity to early season snowpack moisture.

Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Bowling, D. R.; Monson, R. K.

2010-12-01

208

Mountain pine beetle disturbance effects on soil respiration and nutrient pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonos ponderosae has infested more than 86 million hectares of high elevation forest in the Western U.S.A. While bark beetles are endemic to western forests and important agents of regeneration, the current mountain pine beetle outbreak is larger than any other on record and the resulting tree mortality has significant consequences for nutrient cycling and regional carbon exchange. We established decade-long parallel disturbance chronosequences in two lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado: one composed of mountain pine beetle killed lodgepole stands and one consisting of trees where beetle mortality was simulated by stem girdling. Over the 2010 and 2011 growing season we measured plot level soil respiration fluxes, as well as soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and pools of ammonium, nitrate and inorganic phosphorus. We show that soil respiration sharply declines with gross primary productivity after tree mortality, but rebounds during the next 4 years, then declines again from 6-8 years post-disturbance. Soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and inorganic phosphorous pools follow the pattern observed in soil respiration fluxes across disturbance age classes for both sites, while patterns in total dissolved nitrogen exhibit site specific variation. Levels of detectable soil nitrate were low and did not significantly change across the chronosequence, while soil ammonium increased in a similar pattern with soil moisture in disturbed plots. These patterns in soil respiration and nutrient pools reflect the loss of autotrophic respiration and rhizodeposition immediately after tree mortality, followed by a pulse in soil efflux linked to the decomposition of older, less labile carbon pools. This pulse is likely controlled by the fall rate of litter, coarse woody debris and the relative impact of post-disturbance water availability and soil temperatures on decomposition processes. These patterns also indicate that over nearly a decade after disturbance, because of a decline in new substrate for respiration, the immediate impacts of the current beetle outbreak in North America on carbon release are likely to be lower in magnitude than previous estimates.

Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Brayden, B. H.; Dynes, E.; Monson, R. K.

2011-12-01

209

Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.  

PubMed

The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

2013-06-01

210

Mountain Pine Beetles Colonizing Historical and Naïve Host Trees Are Associated with a Bacterial Community Highly Enriched in Genes Contributing to Terpene Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

Adams, Aaron S.; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandye M.; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H.; Currie, Cameron R.

2013-01-01

211

Micro and Macro-Habitat Associations in Saproxylic Beetles: Implications for Biodiversity Management  

PubMed Central

Restoration of habitats is critically important in preventing full realization of the extinction debt owed as a result of anthropogenic habitat destruction. Although much emphasis has been placed on macrohabitats, suitable microhabitats are also vital for the survival of most species. The aim of this large-scale field experiment was to evaluate the relative importance of manipulated microhabitats, i.e., dead wood substrates of spruce (snags, and logs that were burned, inoculated with wood fungi or shaded) and macrohabitats, i.e., stand types (clear-cuts, mature managed forests, and forest reserves) for species richness, abundance and assemblage composition of all saproxylic and red-listed saproxylic beetles. Beetles were collected in emergence traps in 30 forest stands in 2001, 2003, 2004 and 2006. More individuals emerged from snags and untreated logs than from burned and shaded logs, but species richness did not differ among substrates. Assemblage composition differed among substrates for both all saproxylics and red-listed saproxylic species, mainly attributed to different assemblage composition on snags. This suggests that the practise of leaving snags for conservation purposes should be complemented with log supplementation. Clear-cuts supported fewer species and different assemblages from mature managed forests and reserves. Neither abundance, nor species richness or assemblage composition differed between reserves and mature managed forests. This suggests that managed stands subjected to selective cutting, not clear-felling, maintain sufficient old growth characteristics and continuity to maintain more or less intact assemblages of saproxylic beetles. Thus, alternative management methods, e.g., continuity forestry should be considered for some of these stands to maintain continuity and conservation values. Furthermore, the significantly higher estimated abundance per ha of red-listed beetles in reserves underlines the importance of reserves for maintaining viable populations of rare red-listed species and as source areas for saproxylic species in boreal forest landscapes. PMID:22848432

Hjältén, Joakim; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Pettersson, Roger B.; Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Danell, Kjell; Ball, John P.; Hilszcza?ski, Jacek

2012-01-01

212

Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases.  

PubMed

Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems. PMID:24688645

Koksharov, Mikhail I; Ugarova, Natalia N

2012-01-01

213

Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases  

PubMed Central

Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems. PMID:24688645

Koksharov, Mikhail I.; Ugarova, Natalia N.

2012-01-01

214

Dr. Susan Prichard and Pine Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, scientist Dr. Susan Prichard discusses the impact of pine bark beetles on western forests, including information on how climate change, specifically rising temperatures, is exacerbating the problem.

Climate Central

215

Creosote production from beetle infested timber  

SciTech Connect

Wood-tar creosote accumulation in stove pipes and chimneys following burning of beetle-killed southern pine, green pine, seasoned hardwood totalled 6.21, 3.21, 4.27 and 3.73 lb/ton DM respectively. Tests showed that accumulation depends more on air supply to the stove than type or moisture content of wood burned. It is suggested that beetle-killed pine should not be rejected as a fuelwood on the basis of creosote production.

Allen, J.F.; Maxwell, T.T.

1982-01-01

216

Pennsylvania Energy: Biomass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many potential, renewable sources of biomass energy exist in Pennsylvania, especially on farms. This video profiles various facilities that make biomass energy, including biodiesel fuel. Biomass energy is important to the economy and the food supply.

2006-09-23

217

Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles  

PubMed Central

The characteristic bitter substances of the Cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. These beetles (e.g., Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (Cuc) B on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. Six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to Cuc B than to Cuc E and less responsive to Cuc D, I, and L. Chloroform extracts of 18 species of Cucurbita were developed on thin-layer chromatograms and exposed to diabroticite beetles. The feeding patterns showed pronounced beetle responses to three general Cuc distribution patterns: Cuc B and D as in Cucurbita andreana and C. ecuadorensis; Cuc E and I as in C. okeechobeensis and C. martinezii; and Cuc E glycoside in C. texana. All the diabroticites responded in exactly the same feeding patterns. The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles. PMID:16592849

Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Robert A.; Rhodes, A. M.

1980-01-01

218

The Tight Link: Beetle and Plant Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the evolutionary link between beetle (Coleoptera) and flowering plant (Angiosperm) diversity. In an article published in the July 24, 1998 issue of Science, Harvard University evolutionary entomologist Brian Farrell shed new light on insect-plant evolution when he revealed "a tight link between plant and beetle diversity." Farrell found that the incredible diversity of beetles--a whopping 330,000 species are estimated today--is linked to the rise of the angiosperms some 100,000,000 years ago. According to Farrell, although some beetles maintained their preference for older plant classes such as cycads and conifers, "well over 100,000 new species of beetles arose because of that move to angiosperms." The significance of these findings, says Farrell, "show how moving into a new environment, where there's no competition, can free you for an explosive, adaptive radiation." The nine resources provided offer insights and information on beetle and plant diversity, and several evolutionary resources as well.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

219

Japanese beetles facilitate feeding by green june beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on ripening grapes.  

PubMed

Adult activity of native green June beetles, Cotinis nitida L., and invasive Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman, peaked in late July in Kentucky coincident with later stages of veraison in early- and midseason ripening grape (Vitis spp.) cultivars. Most C. nitida feeding aggregations sampled on clusters of early-ripening grapes in the research vineyard also contained Japanese beetles. Assays showed C. nitida generally are unable to bite into intact ripe grape berries, whereas Japanese beetles readily do so. The beetles' disparate biting ability is likely because of differences in their mandibles, which are sharply pointed and opposable in P. japonica compared with C. nitida mandibles that are bluntly spatulate, do not meet at their tips, and seemingly are only suited for feeding on fruit pulp or other soft food. Japanese beetles were shown to facilitate C. nitida feeding by biting through the skin and providing access to the soft berry pulp. Juice from early- and midseason ripening grape cultivars with relatively high sugar content elicited the greatest feeding by P. japonica. A scenario is suggested wherein Japanese beetles open wound sites and contaminate fruits with yeasts that induce fermentation volatiles that attract C. nitida. Japanese beetles had difficulty biting berries of Sunbelt, a late-ripening cultivar. Phenological resistance, i.e., planting cultivars that ripen after peak flight, could be an effective management strategy. Establishment of P. japonica in grape-growing regions of the southeastern United States will likely elevate the pest status of C. nitida in vineyards. PMID:18419935

Hammons, Derrick L; Kurtural, S Kaan; Potter, Daniel A

2008-04-01

220

Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

221

Colorado Bark Beetle Mitigation Fund Helps Our Future Forests 1.5 Million Acres of Colorado's Forests Affected by Mountain Pine Beetle  

E-print Network

Colorado Bark Beetle Mitigation Fund Helps Our Future Forests 1.5 Million Acres of Colorado's Forests Affected by Mountain Pine Beetle Tree mortality from the current mountain pine beetle (MPB of beetle-killed lodgepole pine and aspen trees paint the landscape on Berthoud Pass. #12;Beetle epidemics

222

Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) diversity, activity density, and community structure in a diversified agroecosystem.  

PubMed

Diversity and abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) can be enhanced in vegetable and field intercropping systems, but the complexity of polycultures precludes the application of generalized assumptions of effects for novel intercropping combinations. In a field experiment conducted at Lacombe and Ellerslie, Alberta, Canada, in 2005 and 2006, we investigated the effects of intercropping canola (Brassica napus L.) with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the diversity and community structure of carabid beetles, and on the activity density responses of individual carabid species. Shannon-Wiener diversity index scores and species evenness increased significantly as the proportion of wheat comprising total crop plant populations increased in one site-year of the study, indicating a positive response to enhanced crop plant species evenness in the intercrops, and in that same site-year, ground beetle communities in intercrops shifted to more closely approximate those in wheat monocultures as the percentage of wheat in the intercrops increased. Individual carabid species activity densities showed differing responses to intercropping, although activity densities of some potential root maggot (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) predators were greater in intercrops with high proportions of wheat than in canola monocultures. The activity density of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), the most abundant species collected, tended to be greater in canola monocultures than high-wheat intercrops or wheat monocultures. We conclude that intercrops of canola and wheat have the potential to enhance populations of some carabid species, therefore possibly exerting increased pressure on some canola insect pests. PMID:22525061

Hummel, J D; Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T

2012-02-01

223

Effects of reforestation practices on Staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Southwestern China forests.  

PubMed

In 2004, Staphylinid beetle (Coleoptera) assemblages were studied via pitfall trapping to examine the effects of reforestation in southwestern China forests. Sites included two 100-yr-old mature forest types (hemlock-spruce forest and birch forest), and three 40-yr-old forest types established after harvesting (spruce plantation, larch plantation, and natural broad-leaved forest). Staphylinid species richness was greater in natural broad-leaved forests than those in hemlock-spruce forests and spruce plantations, but no significant difference was found in abundance among the five forest types. Beetle assemblages from young forest stands were significantly different from those in older forest stands, and some environmental characteristics, i.e., elevation, proportion of broad-leaved trees, and coarse woody debris, significantly affected species abundances. Moreover, some staphylinid species predominantly found only in older forest stands indicate that mature forest specialists might be threatened by loss of habitat. So it is necessary to retain adequate patches of older successional stages for conserving these beetle assemblages. PMID:23339781

Luo, Tian-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

2013-02-01

224

ORIGINAL PAPER Global patterns of epipelagic gelatinous zooplankton biomass  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Global patterns of epipelagic gelatinous zooplankton biomass M. K. S. Lilley · S. E no global synthesis of patterns of gelatinous zooplankton biomass (GZB), an important first step abundance of gelatinous zooplankton did not co- vary with depth. Introduction There is intense interest

Hays, Graeme

225

Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to

K. T. Shanmugam; L. O. Ingram; J. A. Maupin-Furlow; J. F. Preston; H. C. Aldrich

2003-01-01

226

Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

227

My Biomass, Your Biomass, Our Solution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The US is pursuing an array of renewable energy sources to reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass energy and biomass ethanol are key components in the pursuit. The need for biomass feedstock to produce sufficient ethanol to meet any of the numerous stat...

228

Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

1992-03-01

229

Olfactory Cues from Plants Infected by Powdery Mildew Guide Foraging by a Mycophagous Ladybird Beetle  

PubMed Central

Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical “moldy” odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms. PMID:21876772

Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.

2011-01-01

230

Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.  

PubMed

Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms. PMID:21876772

Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

2011-01-01

231

Larger Black Flour Beetle in Southern High Plains Homes  

E-print Network

Larger black flour beetles have invaded homes and other buildings in some Southern High Plains counties in Texas. This publication explains how to identify the beetles, find and eliminate the source, and exclude the insects from the house....

Porter, Patrick; McIntyre, Nancy E.

2007-04-09

232

Volatile emissions from the lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) is a serious, cosmopolitan pest in poultry production facilities, consuming grain, carrying disease organisms, and causing structural damage in poultry house walls. Pheromones have been described for many economically important beetle speci...

233

Drought and Beetle-Killed Piñon Pines in Arizona  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Drought and beetle-killed piñon pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid some surviving trees. Forest drought stress is highly correlated with mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

234

Drought and Beetle-Killed Piñon Pines in Arizona  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Drought and beetle-killed piñon pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid a few surviving trees. Forest drought stress is strongly correlated with tree mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

235

Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution  

PubMed Central

Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their beetle hosts. Instead, frequent host switching is observed. The molecular phylogeny of the Diplogastridae provides a framework for further examinations of the evolution of these associations, for the study of interactions within the ecosystems, and for investigations of diplogastrid genome evolution. PMID:19703296

2009-01-01

236

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

237

Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British\\u000a Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using

Diana L. Six; Z. Wilhelm de Beer; Tuan A. Duong; Allan L. Carroll; Michael J. Wingfield

2011-01-01

238

An overview of hydrogen production from biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production plays a very important role in the development of hydrogen economy. One of the promising hydrogen production approaches is conversion from biomass, which is abundant, clean and renewable. Alternative thermochemical (pyrolysis and gasification) and biological (biophotolysis, water–gas shift reaction and fermentation) processes can be practically applied to produce hydrogen. This paper gives an overview of these technologies for

Meng Ni; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Michael K. H. Leung; K. Sumathy

2006-01-01

239

Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested forest within managed forest landscapes and practice partial harvest of beetle-killed spruce rather than commercial clear-cutting of infested stands in order to sustain breeding bird populations until natural reforestation occurs. Because breeding densities do not always reflect fitness, assessing impacts of a massive natural disturbance should include measuring impacts of changes in vegetation on both reproductive success and predator-prey dynamics.

Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

2007-01-01

240

GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS AND GROUND BEETLES AS NON-TARGET ORGANISMS: DEVELOPING DIETARY TOXICITY ASSAYS FOR LARVAE OF POECILUS CHALCITES (COLEOPTERA: CARABIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We developed a procedure for administering dietary toxins to larvae of Poecilus chalcites, an abundant ground beetle occurring in agricultural systems. A rearing protocol relying on an artificial diet described here was a critical development allowing us to conducted diet-incorporated toxicity assay...

241

Picophytoplankton biomass distribution in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The smallest marine phytoplankton, collectively termed picophytoplankton, have been routinely enumerated by flow cytometry since the late 1980s, during cruises throughout most of the world ocean. We compiled a database of 40 946 data points, with separate abundance entries for Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes. We use average conversion factors for each of the three groups to convert the abundance data to carbon biomass. After gridding with 1° spacing, the database covers 2.4% of the ocean surface area, with the best data coverage in the North Atlantic, the South Pacific and North Indian basins. The average picophytoplankton biomass is 12 ± 22 ?g C l-1 or 1.9 g C m-2. We estimate a total global picophytoplankton biomass of 0.53-0.74 Pg C (17-39% Prochlorococcus, 12-15% Synechococcus and 49-69% picoeukaryotes). Future efforts in this area of research should focus on reporting calibrated cell size, and collecting data in undersampled regions.

Buitenhuis, E. T.; Li, W. K. W.; Vaulot, D.; Lomas, M. W.; Landry, M.; Partensky, F.; Karl, D. M.; Ulloa, O.; Campbell, L.; Jacquet, S.; Lantoine, F.; Chavez, F.; Macias, D.; Gosselin, M.; McManus, G. B.

2012-04-01

242

Species Composition and Community Structure of Dung Beetles Attracted to Dung of Gaur and Elephant in the Moist Forests of South Western Ghats  

PubMed Central

The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats. PMID:20337551

Vinod, K.V.; Sabu, Thomas K.

2007-01-01

243

Preserved mountain pine beetles next to a killed pine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Preserved mature mountain pine beetles are held next to the trunk of a dead pine. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepole, ponderosa, Scotch...

244

Mountain pine beetles/larvae tunneling in bark  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Here, scientists point to a mountain pine beetle (top) and a pine beetle larva (bottom) that have been tunneling in the bark of a killed pine tree. The bluish streaks in the bark are from bluestain fungus. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout we...

245

Rickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle  

E-print Network

bacterium that causes male-killing in an unrelated ladybird beetle species. Low levels of parthenogenesisRickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle EILLEEN T. LAWSON , TIMOTHY A populations of the buprestid leaf-mining beetle, Brachys tessellatus, from central South Carolina, USA, show

Werren, John H.

246

On the origin and evolutionary diversification of beetle horns  

E-print Network

On the origin and evolutionary diversification of beetle horns Douglas J. Emlen* , Laura Corley; and Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 Many scarab beetles produce rigid sequence-based phylog- enies have begun to reconstruct the historical patterns of beetle horn evolution

Alwes, Frederike

247

Rare and Endemic Rhode Island Beetles by Derek S. Sikes  

E-print Network

Rare and Endemic Rhode Island Beetles by Derek S. Sikes RINHewS 5(1):6-7 [April 1998] During the process of compiling a list of beetle species for the forthcoming Invertebrate volume of the RI Natural of these records are beetle species that are technically endemic to Rhode Island, the fourth is a species known

Sikes, Derek S.

248

Ambrosia Fungi: Extent of Specificity to Ambrosia Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments with developing ambrosia beetles and fungi indicate that beetles may feed on more than one species growing in their tunnels. The yeastlike ambrosia propagules in mycangia of beetles arise from conida and ascospores picked up by callow adults during their stay in tunnels.

Lekh R. Batra

1966-01-01

249

Resource partitioning and overlap in three sympatric species of Ips bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  

PubMed

The bark beetles Ips pini, I. perroti, and I. grandicollis are sympatric in pine forests of the north-central United States. They share the same limited phloem resource and often coexist within the same host trees. We tested whether phloem resources are partitioned in time and space by measuring spatial and seasonal colonization of logs. Differences among species in flight phenology, development time, voltinism, and spatial colonization patterns within logs reduce, but do not eliminate, species overlap. The bark beetle species share predation by Thanasimus dubius (Cleridae) and Platysoma cylindrica (Histeridae), which exploit pheromone signals for prey location. We employed pheromone traps to test for chemical communication among bark beetle species. Heterospecific signals tend to be deterrents when they are added to conspecific signals but attractants when they are alone, indicating that the communication system can both reduce and increase species overlap in resource use depending upon relative abundance of the species. Deterrence by heterospecific signals is probably a result of selection for minimizing interspecific competition. However, individuals may sometimes benefit from joining aggregations of other species because of (1) predator swamping, (2) improved success in attacking live trees, and (3) location of suitable, recently dead, trees. These benefits should be greatest for males (which locate and colonize host trees before signalling females) and indeed males tended to be more attracted than females by heterospecific signals. Shared resources, shared predators, and heterospecific pheromone communication all contribute to species interactions in this guild of bark beetles, but predicting whether the removal of one species will tend to increase or decrease the abundance of remaining species remains difficult. Species interactions are likely conditional and coexistence is probably promoted by benefits to rare species of multispecies associations. PMID:24549914

Ayres, B D; Ayres, M P; Abrahamson, M D; Teale, S A

2001-08-01

250

Edge Effects Are Important in Supporting Beetle Biodiversity in a Gravel-Bed River Floodplain  

PubMed Central

Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60–100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February–November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct – yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity. PMID:25545280

Langhans, Simone D.; Tockner, Klement

2014-01-01

251

Biomass treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

2010-10-26

252

MountainPineBeetle For more information about the management of mountain pine beetle, contact your nearest office  

E-print Network

. Natural: Except when woodpeckers and extreme cold eliminate the beetles, trees must be cut, then logs per year. The most common homes the beetles seek are large ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines. 1 crevices and on the ground. Coordinated attacks of several hundred beetles are common. 4. Mating will occur

253

Impact of the Darkling Beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) on Establishment of the Predaceous Beetle Carcinops pumilio (Erichson)  

E-print Network

Impact of the Darkling Beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) on Establishment of the Predaceous Beetle Carcinops pumilio (Erichson) for Musca domestica Control in Caged-Layer Poultry Houses David W), and the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Pan- zer) (Tenebrionidae). Manure samples were collected weekly

Kaufman, Phillip E.

254

Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

2002-05-01

255

Influence of Elevation on Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) Community Structure and Flight Periodicity in Ponderosa Pine Forests of Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined abundance and ßight periodicity of Þve Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600 Ð1,736 m; middle: 2,058 Ð2,230 m; high: 2,505Ð2,651 m) for 3

Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Andy Miller

2008-01-01

256

Dung Beetle and Terrestrial Mammal Diversity in Forests, Indigenous Agroforestry Systems and Plantain Monocultures in Talamanca, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the importance of indigenous agroforestry systems for biodiversity conservation, we compared the abundance,\\u000a species richness and diversity of dung beetles and terrestrial mammals across a gradient of different land use types from\\u000a agricultural monocultures (plantains) to agroforestry systems (cocoa and banana) and forests in the BriBri and Cabcar indigenous\\u000a reserves in Talamanca, Costa Rica. A total

Celia A. Harvey; Jorge Gonzalez; Eduardo Somarriba

2006-01-01

257

Two new water beetles from the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).  

PubMed

Mesoceration hantam sp. nov. and Parhydraena faeni sp. nov., are described from the Hantamsberg plateau, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa. The new species are so far known only from temporary waters on the Hantamsberg summit, where they were both abundant. Sampling in these mountains also revealed an interesting accompanying water beetle fauna, including the northernmost known record of Hydropeplus montanus Omer-Cooper, a species characteristic of mountain fynbos further south in the region. PMID:25543944

Bilton, David T

2014-01-01

258

Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?  

PubMed Central

Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the need for further research into spatial variation in biodiversity–ecosystem function relationships and how the results of such studies are affected by methodological choices. PMID:24772282

Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

2014-01-01

259

Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?  

PubMed

Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the need for further research into spatial variation in biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships and how the results of such studies are affected by methodological choices. PMID:24772282

Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

2014-04-01

260

Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.  

PubMed

The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations. PMID:24468553

Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

2013-12-01

261

Patterns on the iridescent beetle, Chrysina gloriosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brilliant metallic color of a beetle Chrysina gloriosa has been known to occur due to selective reflectance from a cholesteric structure on the exoskeleton. The surface also appears to have hexagonally packed structures. Crystallographic concepts and Voronoi analysis were used to determine the degree of order in different regions of the beetle. Along the hexagons in the Voronoi diagram, many clustered pentagons and heptagons were observed. Due to the surface curvature, the number of pentagons was found to be higher than the number of heptagons. The cells appear yellow in the center surrounded by a green region with a yellow edge. Confocal microscopy was used to image the underlying structure, which was found to consist of concentric arcs on a surface of a shallow cone. The observed structures resemble the defects on a cholesteric phase with a free surface, and provide an interesting explanation of structural color development in beetles, along with inspiration for the design of chiral photonic structures.

Park, Jung Ok; Sharma, Vivek; Crne, Matija; Srinivasarao, Mohan

2009-03-01

262

Developmental constraints in cave beetles.  

PubMed

In insects, whilst variations in life cycles are common, the basic patterns typical for particular groups remain generally conserved. One of the more extreme modifications is found in some subterranean beetles of the tribe Leptodirini, in which the number of larval instars is reduced from the ancestral three to two and ultimately one, which is not active and does not feed. We analysed all available data on the duration and size of the different developmental stages and compared them in a phylogenetic context. The total duration of development was found to be strongly conserved, irrespective of geographical location, habitat type, number of instars and feeding behaviour of the larvae, with a single alteration of the developmental pattern in a clade of cave species in southeast France. We also found a strong correlation of the size of the first instar larva with adult size, again regardless of geographical location, ecology and type of life cycle. Both results suggest the presence of deeply conserved constraints in the timing and energy requirements of larval development. Past focus on more apparent changes, such as the number of larval instars, may mask more deeply conserved ontogenetic patterns in developmental timing. PMID:25354919

Cieslak, Alexandra; Fresneda, Javier; Ribera, Ignacio

2014-10-01

263

Nano-Optics in the Biological World: Beetles, Butterflies, Birds, and Moths Mohan Srinivasarao*  

E-print Network

Nano-Optics in the Biological World: Beetles, Butterflies, Birds, and Moths Mohan Srinivasarao. Color of Beetles 1954 A. Color of Scarabaeid Beetle Exocuticle: Selective Reflection 1954 B. Color Changes in Beetles 1956 C. Diffraction Colors in Beetles and in Burgess Shale Animals 1957 VI. Color

Srinivasarao, Mohan

264

Brown spruce longhorn beetle Tetropium fuscum Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Brown spruce longhorn beetle Tetropium fuscum Michigan State University's invasive species beetle is a wood-boring insect that burrows into coniferous trees. This exotic beetle has been introduced then, the beetle has been target for eradication in the province. The beetle is listed as an exotic

265

Marking small hive beetles with thoracic notching: effects on longevity, flight ability and fecundity  

E-print Network

Marking small hive beetles with thoracic notching: effects on longevity, flight ability beetles (SHB): dusting and thoracic notching. The use of blue and red chalk dusts to mark beetles, respectively. In contrast, notched beetles survived longer (mean=353.6±5.3 days) with the last beetle dying

266

BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

BeetleBase (http://www.bioinformatics.ksu.edu/BeetleBase/) is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software components developed by the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project. This strategy not only reduces the time required to develop the database query tools but also makes the data structure of BeetleBase compatible with that of other model organism databases. BeetleBase will be useful to the Tribolium research community for genome annotation as well as comparative genomics. PMID:17090595

Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S R; Brown, Susan J

2007-01-01

267

Artificial defoliation effect on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration  

SciTech Connect

The impact of artificial defoliation on Populus growth, biomass production, and total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration was examined. Four Populus clones were field planted and artificially defoliated. Assigned defoliation levels (0, 25, 50, or 75%) were applied to leaves of leaf plastochron index 0 through 8 during a 6-d period in a 3-step incremental manner to simulate cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F., larval feeding patterns. Artificial defoliations were timed to coincide with the outbreaks of natural beetle populations in adjacent areas. After 2 growing seasons, trees were measured for height, diameter, and biomass accumulation. Root samples were collected from 0 and 75% defoliation treatments for each clone. Biomass was reduced an average of 33% as defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%. As defoliation level increased from 0 to 75%, a consistent allocation ratio of biomass to 2/3 above and 1/3 below ground components continued in all clones. An overcompensation response occurred in above ground biomass when a defoliation level of 25% was applied. Between 25 and 75% a strong linear trend of decreasing biomass as defoliation increased was indicated. Vitality of the tree, as indicated by total nonstructural carbohydrate content, was affected only slightly by increasing defoliation. 26 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Reichenbacker, R.R.; Hart, E.R.; Schultz, R.C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1996-06-01

268

Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

1997-09-01

269

Application of Bark Beetle Semiochemicals for Quarantine of Bark Beetles in China  

PubMed Central

This article describes the use of bark beetle semiochemicals for quarantine in China. Using traps with two isomeric compounds of ?-pinene, ethanol, trans-verbenol, verbenone, camphene and isononylaldehyde, insects of four families (Scolytidae, Platypodidae, Bostychidae and Cleridae) were trapped, including eight genera of Scolytidae, (Xyleborus, Cryphalus, Polygraphs, Xyloterus, Ips, Dendroctonus, Orthotomicus and Scolytus), totaling 16 species. The present condition of bark beetle quarantine in China is briefly discussed, and the broad research trends are outlined.

Liu, Yong; Dai, Huaguo

2006-01-01

270

A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevi?ius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category and data on their distribution in neighbouring countries is presented. Completion of this study provides evidence that the Lithuanian coleopteran fauna has yet to be completely investigated and it is estimated that approximately 28 % of beetle species remain undiscovered in Lithuania. More than 85% of beetle species expected for Lithuania have been found in the following families: Cerylonidae, Geotrupidae, Haliplidae, Kateridae, Lycidae, Lucanidae, Mycetophagidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae. In families with few species such as Alexiidae, Boridae, Byturidae, Dascilidae, Drilidae, Eucinetidae, Lampyridae, Lymexilidae, Megalopodidae, Nemonychidae, Nosodendridae, Noteridae, Orsodacnidae, Pyrochroidae, Pythidae, Psephenidae, Rhysodidae, Sphaeritidae, Sphaeriusidae, Sphindidae, Stenotrahelidae and Trogidae, all possible species have already been discovered. However in some beetle families such as Aderidae, Bothrideridae, Eucnemidae, Laemoploeidae, Mordellidae, Ptiliidae, Scraptidae and Throscidae less than 50% of all possible species are known. At present the beetle species recorded in Lithuania belong to 92 families, with species from 9 other families such as Agyrtidae, Biphylidae, Deradontidae, Mycteridae, Ochodaeidae, Phleophilidae, Phloeostichidae, Prostomidae, Trachypachidae are expected to be found. A bibliography and a index of subfamily and genus levels are provided. The information published in the monograph will serve to further faunistic and distribution research of beetles and will help to avoid confusion in the identificatation of coleopteran fauna of Lithuania. PMID:22461725

Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamut?, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

2011-01-01

271

Seasonal phenology of the cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois  

PubMed Central

We summarize field data on the species composition and seasonal phenology of the community of cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Data were drawn from field bioassays conducted during 2009 – 2012 that tested attraction of adult beetles of diverse species to a variety of synthetic pheromones and host plant volatiles. A total of 34,086 beetles of 114 species were captured, including 48 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 41 species in the Lamiinae, 19 species in the Lepturinae, two species in the Spondylidinae, and one species each in the Necydalinae, Parandrinae, Prioninae, and the Disteniidae. Most of the best-represented species were attracted to pheromones that were included in field experiments, particularly species that use (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a pheromone component. The species captured, and their patterns of abundance and seasonal phenology were similar to those in an earlier study conducted in Pennsylvania. The most abundant species identified in both studies included the cerambycines Elaphidion mucronatum (Say), Neoclytus a. acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus m. mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Cerambycine species became active in an orderly progression from early spring through late fall, whereas most lamiine species were active in summer and fall, and lepturine species were limited to summer. Potential cross attraction between some cerambycine species that shared pheromone components may have been averted by differences in seasonal activity period, and by minor pheromone components that acted as synergists for conspecifics and/or antagonists for heterospecifics. These results provide quantitative data on the abundance and seasonal phenology of a large number of species. PMID:24683267

Hanks, Lawrence M.; Reagel, Peter F.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wong, Joseph C. H.; Meier, Linnea R.; Silliman, Christina A.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Striman, Becca L.; Robinson, Kenneth P.; Mongold-Diers, Judith A.; Millar, Jocelyn G.

2014-01-01

272

Effects of Chitin and Contact Insecticide Complexes on Rove Beetles in Commercial Orchards  

PubMed Central

A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility. PMID:21870981

Balog, A.; Ferencz, L.; Hartel, T.

2011-01-01

273

Trophic structure stability and extinction dynamics of beetles (Coleoptera) in tropical forest fragments  

PubMed Central

A first analysis of the stability of trophic structure following tropical forest fragmentation was performed in an experimentally fragmented tropical forest landscape in Central Amazonia. A taxonomically and trophically diverse assemblage of 993 species of beetles was sampled from 920 m2 of leaf litter at 46 sites varying in distance from forest edge and fragment area. Beetle density increased significantly towards the forest edge and showed non-linear changes with fragment area, due to the influx of numerous disturbed-area species into 10 ha and 1 ha fragments. There was a marked change in species composition with both decreasing distance from forest edge and decreasing fragment area, but surprisingly this change in composition was not accompanied by a change in species richness. Rarefied species richness did not vary significantly across any of the sites, indicating that local extinctions of deep forest species were balanced by equivalent colonization rates of disturbed-area species. The change in species composition with fragmentation was non-random across trophic groups. Proportions of predator species and xylophage species changed significantly with distance from forest edge, but no area-dependent changes in proportions of species in trophic groups were observed. Trophic structure was also analysed with respect to proportions of abundance in six trophic groups. Proportions of abundance of all trophic groups except xylomycetophages changed markedly with respect to both distance from forest edge and fragment area. Local extinction probabilities calculated for individual beetle species supported theoretical predictions of the differential susceptibility of higher trophic levels to extinction, and of changes in trophic structure following forest fragmentation. To reduce random effects due to sampling error, only abundant species (n = 46) were analysed for extinction probabilities, as defined by absence from samples. Of these common species, 27% had significantly higher probabilities of local extinction following fragmentation. The majority of these species were predators; 42% of all abundant predator species were significantly more likely to be absent from samples in forest fragments than in undisturbed forest. These figures are regarded as minimum estimates for the entire beetle assemblage because rarer species will inevitably have higher extinction probabilities. Absolute loss of biodiversity will affect ecosystem process rates, but the differential loss of species from trophic groups will have an even greater destabilizing effect on food web structure and ecosystem function.

Didham, R. K.

1998-01-01

274

Woody Biomass-Nebraska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video illustrates the advantages of woody biomass as a renewable, carbon-neutral energy source. Woody biomass is underutilized and often overlooked as a renewable fuel, and it can be harvested sustainably and burned cleanly.

the.gov

275

Energy from Biomass.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

1987-01-01

276

78 FR 4812 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle From the Federal List of Endangered and...remove the valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus...remove the valley elderberry longhorn beetle from the List of Endangered and...

2013-01-23

277

Beetle Derby Background: Animals move around their environments in a variety of different ways in a  

E-print Network

Beetle Derby Background: Animals move around their environments in a variety are going to focus on terrestrial (on land) walking, using the Darkling Beetle (Tenebrio molitor). The Darkling Beetle is an insect that has three pairs of legs

Rose, Michael R.

278

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section 301.48-6...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a...

2014-01-01

279

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section 301.48-6...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a...

2013-01-01

280

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section 301.48-6...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a...

2011-01-01

281

77 FR 58469 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...APHIS-2012-0003] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts...rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle regulations by adding portions of Worcester...artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United...

2012-09-21

282

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section 301.48-6...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a...

2010-01-01

283

THE SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE (DIABROTICA UNDECIMPUNCTATA HOWARDI): INTERACTIONS WITH CUCURBITS AND ITS STATUS AS  

E-print Network

THE SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE (DIABROTICA UNDECIMPUNCTATA HOWARDI): INTERACTIONS WITH CUCURBITS 2009 #12;THE SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE (DIABROTICA UNDECIMPUNCTATA HOWARDI): INTERACTIONS WITH CUCURBITS T. Reed Title of Study: THE SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE (DIABROTICA UNDECIMPUNCTATA HOWARDI

Ray, David

284

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section 301.48-6...DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a...

2012-01-01

285

The Beetles Are Coming Jeff Mitton  

E-print Network

a gallery. The female excavates egg chambers at the end of short passageways from the main gallery, and deposits one egg in each chamber. The eggs hatch into larvae that tunnel through the phloem by eating what they pupate. Bark beetles cease activity when temperatures drop below freezing, and can overwinter as larvae

Colorado at Boulder, University of

286

WESTERN CEDAR BARK BEETLES The Situation  

E-print Network

mechanical or chemical treatments directed at infested trees prior to the beetles flying to attack other turn into adults that fly and attack new trees during summer, usually during the months of July through summer weather and dry, warm winters. · Detect and treat infested trees. This can involve either

287

Asian longhorned beetle public service announcement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This public service announcement featuring John Walsh of America's Most Wanted is designed to raise awareness of the Asian Longhorned Beetle. The sound quality and lighting are good. The compression of the video makes the visuals less useable for some purposes.

0002-11-30

288

THE ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF BURYING BEETLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burying beetles conceal small vertebrate carcasses underground and prepare them for consumption by their young. This review places their complex social behavior in an ecological context that focuses on the evolution of biparental care and communal breeding. Both males and females provide extensive parental care, and the major benefit of male assistance is to help defend the brood and carcass

Michelle Pellissier Scott

1998-01-01

289

Cross-scale Drivers of Natural Disturbances Prone to Anthropogenic Amplification: The Dynamics of Bark Beetle Eruptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biome-scale disturbances by eruptive herbivores provide valuable insights into species interactions, ecosystem function, and impacts of global change. We present a conceptual framework using one system as a model, emphasizing interactions across levels of biological hierarchy and spatiotemporal scales. Bark beetles are major natural disturbance agents in western North American forests. However, recent bark beetle population eruptions have exceeded the frequencies, impacts, and ranges documented during the previous 125 years. Extensive host abundance and susceptibility, concentrated beetle density, favorable weather, optimal symbiotic associations, and escape from natural enemies must occur jointly for beetles to surpass a series of thresholds and exert widespread disturbance. Opposing feedbacks determine qualitatively distinct outcomes at junctures at the biochemical through landscape levels. Eruptions occur when key thresholds are surpassed, prior constraints cease to exert influence, and positive feedbacks amplify across scales. These dynamics are bidirectional, as landscape features influence how lower-scale processes are amplified or buffered. Climate change and reduced habitat heterogeneity increase the likelihood that key thresholds will be exceeded, and may cause fundamental regime shifts. Systems in which endogenous feedbacks can dominate after external forces foster the initial breach of thresholds appear particularly sensitive to anthropogenic perturbations.

Kenneth F. Raffa et al (University of Wisconsin;)

2008-06-01

290

Pretreated densified biomass products  

SciTech Connect

A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

2014-03-18

291

BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

292

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover,

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-01-01

293

Biomass energy for Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. Examples include wood, crop wastes, and municipal wastes. Biomass is a significant but largely unrecognized contributor to the energy resources in the state of Mississippi. It may be surprising to many Mississippians that 7% of the energy currently consumed in the state comes from biomass. Since that is twice

L. L. Wright; H. Draper; P. C. Badger; R. T. Jr. Brooks; T. J. Straka; D. K. Walter; D. Stevens; F. Hanna; S. Lee

1989-01-01

294

Quantifying sources of variation in the frequency of fungi associated with spruce beetles: Implications for hypothesis testing and sampling methodology in bark beetle–symbiont relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), causes landscape level mortality to mature spruce (Picea spp.) throughout western and northern North America. As with other bark beetles, this beetle is associated with a variety of fungi, whose ecological functions are largely unknown. It has been proposed that the relative frequencies of specific fungi associated with bark beetles may vary with ecological

Brian H. Aukema; Richard A. Werner; Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Murray K. Clayton; Kenneth F. Raffa

2005-01-01

295

Quantifying sources of variation in the frequency of fungi associated with spruce beetles: Implications for hypothesis testing and sampling methodology in bark beetle-symbiont relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rujpennis (Kirby), causes landscape level mortality to mature spruce (Picea spp.) throughout western and northern North America. As with other bark beetles, this beetle is associated with a variety of fungi, whose ecological functions are largely unknown. It has been proposed that the relative frequencies of specific fungi associated with bark beetles may vary with ecological

Kirsten E. Haberkerna; Barbara L. Illmane; Murray K. Claytonfyg; Kenneth F. Raffaa

296

Small Hive Beetle in California The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, was first properly identified in the U.S. in Florida  

E-print Network

Small Hive Beetle in California The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, was first properly identified in the U.S. in Florida in 1999. Through various beekeeping practices, the beetle spread through hive beetles (SHB) were noted more frequently. A survey is being conducted in California to determine

Ferrara, Katherine W.

297

2/18/09 8:32 PMCurious Cat Science and Engineering Blog beetle Page 1 of 10http://engineering.curiouscatblog.net/tag/beetle/  

E-print Network

2/18/09 8:32 PMCurious Cat Science and Engineering Blog » beetle Page 1 of 10http://engineering.curiouscatblog.net/tag/beetle water webcasts Curious Cat Science and Egineering blog full tag cloud February 7, 2009 Darwin's Beetles surprised to find that many species of beetles are capable of producing not only two, but three different

Emlen, Douglas J.

298

Floral Associations of Cyclocephaline Scarab Beetles  

PubMed Central

The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: 1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, 2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and 3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses, host plant shifts, and mutualisms with angiosperms. PMID:24738782

Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

2013-01-01

299

Numerical Responses of Saproxylic Beetles to Rapid Increases in Dead Wood Availability following Geometrid Moth Outbreaks in Sub-Arctic Mountain Birch Forest  

PubMed Central

Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak. PMID:24911056

Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

2014-01-01

300

Fecundity determines the extinction threshold in a Canadian assemblage of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)  

E-print Network

-1 Fecundity determines the extinction threshold in a Canadian assemblage of longhorned beetles determined the extinction threshold for 12 species of saproxylic (dead wood dependent) longhorned beetles

301

Beetle succession and diversity between clothed sun-exposed and shaded pig carrion in a tropical dry forest landscape in Southern Mexico.  

PubMed

Over a 31-day period, the decomposition process, beetle diversity and succession on clothed pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were studied in open (agricultural land) and shaded habitat (secondary forest) in Southern Mexico. The decomposition process was categorised into five stages: fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. Except for the bloated stage, the elapsed time for each decomposition stage was similar between open and shaded habitats, all carcasses reached an advanced decay stage in seven days, and the fifth stage (remains) was not recorded in any carcass during the time of this study. A total of 6344 beetles, belonging to 130 species and 21 families, were collected during the entire decomposition process, and abundances increased from fresh to advanced decay stages. Staphylinidae, Scarabaeidae and Histeridae were taxonomically and numerically dominant, accounting for 61% of the species richness and 87% of the total abundance. Similar numbers of species (87 and 88 species for open and shaded habitats, respectively), levels of diversity and proportions (open 49%; shaded 48%) of exclusive species were recorded at each habitat. There were significantly distinct beetle communities between habitats and for each stage of decomposition. An indicator species analysis ("IndVal") identified six species associated to open habitats, 10 species to shaded habitats and eight species to advanced decay stages. In addition, 23 beetle species are cited for the first time in the forensic literature. These results showed that open and shaded habitats both provide suitable habitat conditions for the carrion beetle diversity with significant differences in community structure and identity of the species associated to each habitat. This research provides the first empirical evidence of beetle ecological succession and diversity on carrion in Mexican agro-pastoral landscapes. PMID:25447187

Caballero, Ubaldo; León-Cortés, Jorge L

2014-11-01

302

Visual control of cursorial prey pursuit by tiger beetles (Cicindelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target detection poses problems for moving animals, such as tiger beetles, that track targets visually. The pursuer's movements\\u000a degrade target image contrast and induce reafferent image movement that confounds continuous detection of prey. In nature,\\u000a beetles pursue prey discontinuously with several iterations of stop-and-go running. The beetle's dynamics were analyzed by\\u000a filming pursuits of prey or experimenter-controlled dummies. Durations of

C. Gilbert

1997-01-01

303

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with bark beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen-fixingEnterobacter agglomerans andEnterobacter spp. were consistently isolated from the bark beetleDendroctonus terebrans. Large populations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were found with the beetle, although no in situ acetylene reduction was demonstrated. The constant occurrence of nitrogenfixing bacteria withD. terebrans suggests a symbiotic relationship. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were also isolated from the bark beetlesDendroctonus frontalis andIps avulsus.

J. Robert Bridges

1981-01-01

304

Endozoochory by beetles: a novel seed dispersal mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Due in part to biophysical sized-related constraints, insects unlike vertebrates are seldom expected to act as primary seed dispersers via ingestion of fruits and seeds (endozoochory). The Mediterranean parasitic plant Cytinus hypocistis, however, possesses some characteristics that may facilitate endozoochory by beetles. By combining a long-term field study with experimental manipulation, we tested whether C. hypocistis seeds are endozoochorously dispersed by beetles. Methods Field studies were carried out over 4 years on six populations in southern Spain. We recorded the rate of natural fruit consumption by beetles, the extent of beetle movement, beetle behaviour and the relative importance of C. hypocistis fruits in beetle diet. Key Results The tenebrionid beetle Pimelia costata was an important disperser of C. hypocistis seeds, consuming up to 17·5 % of fruits per population. Forty-six per cent of beetles captured in the field consumed C. hypocistis fruits, with up to 31 seeds found in individual beetle frass. An assessment of seeds following passage through the gut of beetles indicated that seeds remained intact and viable and that the proportion of viable seeds from beetle frass was not significantly different from that of seeds collected directly from fruits. Conclusions A novel plant–animal interaction is revealed; endozoochory by beetles may facilitate the dispersal of viable seeds after passage through the gut away from the parent plant to potentially favourable underground sites offering a high probability of germination and establishment success. Such an ecological role has until now been attributed only to vertebrates. Future studies should consider more widely the putative role of fruit and seed ingestion by invertebrates as a dispersal mechanism, particularly for those plant species that possess small seeds. PMID:21303784

de Vega, Clara; Arista, Montserrat; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Herrera, Carlos M.; Talavera, Salvador

2011-01-01

305

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass.  

PubMed

Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70-80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. PMID:20194793

Binder, Joseph B; Raines, Ronald T

2010-03-01

306

Adsorption of lead (Pb) from aqueous solution with Typha angustifolia biomass modified by SOCl 2 activated EDTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemically modified Typha angustifolia biomass (CMTAB) material with abundant carboxyl groups was prepared using thionyl chloride (SOCl2) activated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a modification reagent. The CMTAB was characterized by back titration, elemental analysis, FTIR and SEM. The results show that EDTA is effectively grafted to the biomass matrix and the carboxyl group content of the biomass sharply increases

Wu-Jun Liu; Fan-Xin Zeng; Hong Jiang; Xue-Song Zhang

2011-01-01

307

iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed. PMID:25378303

Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

2015-01-28

308

Formation of Rigid, Non-Flight Forewings (Elytra) of a Beetle Requires Two Major Cuticular Proteins  

PubMed Central

Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings) of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa) and TcCPR18 (20 kDa), which are also present in pronotum and ventral abdominal cuticles. Both are members of the Rebers and Riddiford family of cuticular proteins and contain RR2 motifs. Transcripts for both genes dramatically increase in abundance at the pharate adult stage and then decline quickly thereafter. Injection of specific double-stranded RNAs for each gene into penultimate or last instar larvae had no effect on larval–larval, larval–pupal, or pupal–adult molting. The elytra of the resulting adults, however, were shorter, wrinkled, warped, fenestrated, and less rigid than those from control insects. TcCPR27-deficient insects could not fold their hindwings properly and died prematurely approximately one week after eclosion, probably because of dehydration. TcCPR18-deficient insects exhibited a similar but less dramatic phenotype. Immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of TcCPR27 in the elytral cuticle. These results demonstrate that TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are major structural proteins in the rigid elytral, dorsal thoracic, and ventral abdominal cuticles of the red flour beetle, and that both proteins are required for morphogenesis of the beetle's elytra. PMID:22570623

Arakane, Yasuyuki; Lomakin, Joseph; Gehrke, Stevin H.; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Tomich, John M.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W.; Kramer, Karl J.; Kanost, Michael R.

2012-01-01

309

The carbon isotopic composition of soil respiration in the decade following disturbance by bark beetle or stem girdling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle have caused large-scale tree mortality in western North America, which can lead to fundamental changes in carbon cycling. When a tree is infested, the flow of photosynthate is disrupted. This causes the roots and their symbionts to die, eliminating the autotrophic component of soil respiration. Mycorrhizal fungi are enriched in 13C compared to plant tissues. As the dead fungal biomass is consumed by soil heterotrophs, the ?13C of CO2 in heterotrophic soil respiration may become more enriched as the fungal biomass is consumed. We investigated this response by measuring soil respiration in chronosequences of stem-girdled plots at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site, and beetle-killed plots at the Fraser Experimental Forest, both in Colorado. Stem girdling was used to simulate beetle attack because it kills trees by a similar mechanism. Plots at Niwot Ridge included live trees and 7 years of girdled plots extending back to 2002. Plots at Fraser included live trees and three age classes of beetle-killed trees, within a similar chronosequence. We used manual soil-gas sampling at three depths, during the summers of 2011 and 2012, to determine if there is an isotopic effect associated with disturbance. Consistent with our expectations, in 2011, we found an enrichment in ?13C of approximately 1‰ in the two years following girdling which was absent in subsequent years. Although this pattern was also evident in 2012, the enrichment in ?13C during the same time period was about half that in 2011. At both Niwot and Fraser, in 2011, seasonal mean ?13C decreased by about 1‰ at all depths 3-4 years after disturbance, but returned to values close to control plots in the following 4-6 years. While we found a similar pattern at Fraser in 2012, we measured an enrichment of 1-1.5‰ at the OA interface at Niwot 8-10 years after disturbance, which was not found in 2011. It is possible this is due to the decomposition of woody biomass. At both sites and in both years, seasonal mean ?13C was enriched by about 1‰ at the OA interface compared to the 10 and 30 cm depths, which were similar. Overall, these results lend support to the hypothesis that mycorrhizal biomass is consumed in the first few years following major disturbance to their plant hosts.

Chan, A.; Maurer, G. E.; Bowling, D. R.

2013-12-01

310

Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.  

PubMed

The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

2013-01-01

311

The Leiodid Beetles of Costa Rica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad in Costa Rica provides this visually pleasing Web site on the Leiodidae, authored by S. P. Beck of Carleton University and A. F. Newton of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. A simple drop down menu allows users to access information on leiodid beetle taxonomy, distribution, life history, biogeography, collection methods, and more. Most sections of this Web site contain straightforward text explanations of each topic, although some sections also include links to textbook-style diagrams, such as in the Illustrated Key to the Leodidae of Costa Rica and in Habitus Figures. In all, this Web site offers a brief and well-presented overview of Costa Rica's leiodid beetles.

Newton, Alfred F.

312

The Japanese jewel beetle: a painter's challenge.  

PubMed

Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour visible. Exclusive to nature for millions of years, such jewel-like colouration is only now being introduced to art. Sustained scientific research into nature's iridescent multilayer reflectors has recently led to the development and manufacture of analogous synthetic structures, notably innovative light interference flakes. For the first time this novel technology offers artists the exciting, yet challenging, potential to accurately depict nature's iridescence. Mimicking the Japanese jewel beetle by using paints with embedded flakes, we demonstrate that the resulting painting, just like the model, displays iridescent colours that shift with minute variation of the angle of light and viewing. PMID:24262911

Schenk, Franziska; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

2013-12-01

313

Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution and ecology  

PubMed Central

Many important questions in developmental biology increasingly interface with related questions in other biological disciplines such as evolutionary biology and ecology. In this article, we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range of approaches, from gene function analysis in the laboratory to population ecological and behavioral studies in the field. Specifically, we focus on three key questions at the current interface of developmental biology, evolutionary biology and ecology: (1) the developmental mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of novel, complex traits, (2) the relationship between phenotypic diversification and the diversification of genes and transcriptomes, and (3) the role of behavior as a leader or follower in developmental evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current understanding of key issues, as well as highlight challenges and opportunities for future studies. PMID:23799584

Kijimoto, Teiya; Pespeni, Melissa; Beckers, Oliver; Moczek, Armin P.

2013-01-01

314

Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution and ecology.  

PubMed

Many important questions in developmental biology increasingly interface with related questions in other biological disciplines such as evolutionary biology and ecology. In this article, we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range of approaches, from gene function analysis in the laboratory to population ecological and behavioral studies in the field. Specifically, we focus on three key questions at the current interface of developmental biology, evolutionary biology and ecology: (1) the developmental mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of novel, complex traits, (2) the relationship between phenotypic diversification and the diversification of genes and transcriptomes, and (3) the role of behavior as a leader or follower in developmental evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current understanding of key issues, as well as highlight challenges and opportunities for future studies. PMID:23799584

Kijimoto, Teiya; Pespeni, Melissa; Beckers, Oliver; Moczek, Armin P

2013-01-01

315

Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean.  

PubMed

The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000?m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells?ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells?ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14?pg C?ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 7 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.168. PMID:25290506

Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; Del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

2014-10-01

316

Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle epidemic.  

PubMed

Forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosa) is rapidly transforming western North American landscapes. The rapid and widespread death of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) will likely have cascading effects on biodiversity. One group particularly prone to such declines associated with MPB are ectomycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic organisms that can depend on pine for their survival, and are critical for stand regeneration. We evaluated the indirect effects of MPB on above- (community composition of epigeous sporocarps) and belowground (hyphal abundance) occurrences of ectomycorrhizal fungi across 11 forest stands. Along a gradient of mortality (0-82% pine killed), macromycete community composition changed; this shift was driven by a decrease in the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Both the proportion of species that were ectomycorrhizal and hyphal length in the soil declined with increased MPB-caused pine mortality; < 10% of sporocarp species were ectomycorrhizal in stands with high pine mortality compared with > 70% in stands without MPB attacks. The rapid range expansion of a native insect results not only in the widespread mortality of an ecologically and economically important pine species, but the effect of MPB may also be exacerbated by the concomitant decline of fungi crucial for recovery of these forests. PMID:24933827

Treu, Roland; Karst, Justine; Randall, Morgan; Pec, Gregory J; Cigan, Paul W; Simard, Suzanne W; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cahill, James F

2014-04-01

317

Complex pendulum biomass sensor  

DOEpatents

A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

2007-12-25

318

Loss of flight promotes beetle diversification.  

PubMed

The evolution of flight is a key innovation that may enable the extreme diversification of insects. Nonetheless, many species-rich, winged insect groups contain flightless lineages. The loss of flight may promote allopatric differentiation due to limited dispersal power and may result in a high speciation rate in the flightless lineage. Here we show that loss of flight accelerates allopatric speciation using carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). We demonstrate that flightless species retain higher genetic differentiation among populations and comprise a higher number of genetically distinct lineages than flight-capable species, and that the speciation rate with the flightless state is twice that with the flight-capable state. Moreover, a meta-analysis of 51 beetle species from 15 families reveals higher genetic differentiation among populations in flightless compared with flight-capable species. In beetles, which represent almost one-fourth of all described species, repeated evolution of flightlessness may have contributed to their steady diversification since the Mesozoic era. PMID:22337126

Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Sota, Teiji

2012-01-01

319

Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.  

PubMed

Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use. PMID:25368178

Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

2014-11-18

320

Densities of breeding birds and changes in vegetation in an alaskan boreal forest following a massive disturbance by spruce beetles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined bird and plant communities among forest stands with different levels of spruce mortality following a large outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) in the Copper River Basin, Alaska. Spruce beetles avoided stands with black spruce (Picea mariana) and selectively killed larger diameter white spruce (Picea glauca), thereby altering forest structure and increasing the dominance of black spruce in the region. Alders (Alnus sp.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) were more abundant in areas with heavy spruce mortality, possibly a response to the death of overstory spruce. Grasses and herbaceous plants did not proliferate as has been recorded following outbreaks in more coastal Alaskan forests. Two species closely tied to coniferous habitats, the tree-nesting Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) and the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a major nest predator, were less abundant in forest stands with high spruce mortality than in low-mortality stands. Understory-nesting birds as a group were more abundant in forest stands with high levels of spruce mortality, although the response of individual bird species to tree mortality was variable. Birds breeding in stands with high spruce mortality likely benefited reproductively from lower squirrel densities and a greater abundance of shrubs to conceal nests from predators.

Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.; Ruthrauff, D.R.

2001-01-01

321

Advanced Biomass Gasification Projects  

SciTech Connect

DOE has a major initiative under way to demonstrate two high-efficiency gasification systems for converting biomass into electricity. As this fact sheet explains, the Biomass Power Program is cost-sharing two scale-up projects with industry in Hawaii and Vermont that, if successful, will provide substantial market pull for U.S. biomass technologies, and provide a significant market edge over competing foreign technologies.

Not Available

1997-08-01

322

Distribution and abundance of moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) and its zooplankton food in the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita Linnaeus, 1758) in the Black Sea was determined from plankton samples collected above the anoxic zone (maximum depth 200?m)\\u000a in the summer, winter and spring during 1991–1995. Distribution was patchy. Average biomass ranged from 98 to 380?g?m?2, and abundance varied from 2 to 14 individuals m?2. Biomass and abundance peaked in late spring

E. Mutlu

2001-01-01

323

Functional Roles Affect Diversity-Succession Relationships for Boreal Beetles  

PubMed Central

Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of “functional” groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience. PMID:23977350

Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

2013-01-01

324

Biomass Processing Photolibrary  

DOE Data Explorer

Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

325

Antennal transcriptome analysis of the chemosensory gene families in the tree killing bark beetles, Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)  

PubMed Central

Background The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, and the North American mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are severe pests of coniferous forests. Both bark beetle species utilize aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass-attacks on host trees, while odorants from host and non-host trees modulate the pheromone response. Thus, the bark beetle olfactory sense is of utmost importance for fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfactory detection has been lacking in bark beetles and is limited in Coleoptera. We assembled antennal transcriptomes from next-generation sequencing of I. typographus and D. ponderosae to identify members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. Results Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific GO terms was highly similar in the two species. Transcripts with terms related to olfactory function were found in both species. Focusing on the chemosensory gene families, we identified 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 6 chemosensory proteins (CSP), 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 43 odorant receptors (OR), 6 gustatory receptors (GR), and 7 ionotropic receptors (IR) in I. typographus; and 31 putative OBPs, 11 CSPs, 3 SNMPs, 49 ORs, 2 GRs, and 15 IRs in D. ponderosae. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the cerambycid beetle, Megacyllene caryae, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The most notable result was found among the ORs, for which large bark beetle-specific expansions were found. However, some clades contained receptors from all four beetle species, indicating a degree of conservation among some coleopteran OR lineages. Putative GRs for carbon dioxide and orthologues for the conserved antennal IRs were included in the identified receptor sets. Conclusions The protein families important for chemoreception have now been identified in three coleopteran species (four species for the ORs). Thus, this study allows for improved evolutionary analyses of coleopteran olfaction. Identification of these proteins in two of the most destructive forest pests, sharing many semiochemicals, is especially important as they might represent novel targets for population control. PMID:23517120

2013-01-01

326

Effects of landscape composition and rotation distance on Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) abundance in cultivated potato.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the Colorado potato beetle's, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), relationship to previous potato crops has contributed to the development of a pest management strategy focused upon crop rotation. Previous investigations revealed that potato rotations exceeding 0.4 km were effective in reducing colonization in current season potato. The current study examines the relationship between beetle abundance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and distance from multiple, previous year potato fields in Wisconsin, and integrates information about the influence of natural habitats adjacent to previous season potato. Colorado potato beetle count data were collected in 1998 and 2008 and distance to previous potato, field areas, and landscape classes were estimated using maps from 1997 and 2007. Poisson regression was used to relate counts to combinations of distance and local landscape characteristics calculated for all fields within 1,500 m of sampled potato. In 1998, beetle counts measured in current season potato declined significantly with increasing distance from previous potato fields and field size did not influence these counts. However, there was no relationship between beetle abundance and distance to prior year potatoes in 2008. In both years, increased proportions of surrounding habitats, previously described as preferred for diapause sites (e.g., wooded field boundaries), did not relate significantly to counts. However, grassland habitat was negatively correlated with counts. Results indicate that distance from previous potato remains an important factor to reduce the magnitude of colonization. This analysis further suggests that certain landscape components (e.g., grassland) may influence infestation, which may be useful for refining future integrated pest management programs. PMID:23321104

Huseth, A S; Frost, K E; Knuteson, D L; Wyman, J A; Groves, R L

2012-12-01

327

Influence of Temperature on Spring Flight Initiation for Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for ßight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles, Þve species of Dendroctonus bark beetles, and two genera of bark beetle predators,Enoclerusspp. (Coleoptera:

M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. Mcmillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

2008-01-01

328

A freeze-dried diet to test pathogens of Colorado potato beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado potato beetle is an important pest on potato, eggplant, and tomato. Because Colorado potato beetles develop resistance to insecticides quickly, new methods are needed for control. Bacillus thuringiensis is the only bacterium to successfully control Colorado potato beetle. Until recently, one of the drawbacks to testing bacteria against the Colorado potato beetle has been the lack of an

Phyllis A. W. Martin

2004-01-01

329

new adults were recovered from each of the colonies to which adult beetles were introduced.  

E-print Network

new adults were recovered from each of the colonies to which adult beetles were introduced. These included 483 to 3 623 larvae, 300­1 000 pupae, and 200­500 new adult beetles per infested containment unit. No small hive beetles of any stage were found in the control colony when sacrificed. Beetle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

Climate change and the outbreak ranges of two North American bark beetles  

E-print Network

Climate change and the outbreak ranges of two North American bark beetles David W. Williams pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae undergo regional of outbreak areas for both bark beetle species and the areas of occurrence of the forest types susceptible

Liebhold, Andrew

331

The Rhode Island Beetle Fauna: Past, Present and Future by Derek S. Sikes  

E-print Network

The Rhode Island Beetle Fauna: Past, Present and Future by Derek S. Sikes RINHewS 6(1):8-10 [April beetles... It really almost makes me long to begin collecting again. --Charles Darwin Taxonomists, more so of the Coleoptera, or beetles, I am no exception. During my training in the study of the beetles I was always aware

Sikes, Derek S.

332

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Attraction of Ambrosia and Bark Beetles to  

E-print Network

Beetles to Coast Live Oaks Infected by Phytophthora ramorum1 Brice A. McPherson,2 Nadir Erbilgin,3 David L California forests since the mid-1990s. Bark and ambrosia beetles that normally colonize dead or severely on infected coast live oaks, Q. agrifolia (Nee). The role of these beetles is of interest because once beetles

Standiford, Richard B.

333

SQUASH BEETLE ON CUCURBITS Frankie Lam, Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologists,  

E-print Network

SQUASH BEETLE ON CUCURBITS Frankie Lam, Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologists, Dan Egel to the family of lady beetles (Coccinellidae). Most insects in this family are beneficial, often eating large numbers of pest insects such as aphids. The exceptions are the squash beetle and the Mexican bean beetle

Ginzel, Matthew

334

Mountain pine beetle population sampling: inferences from Lindgren pheromone traps and tree emergence cages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lindgren pheromone traps baited with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)) lure were deployed for three consecutive years in lodgepole pine stands in central Idaho. Mountain pine beetle emergence was also monitored each year using cages on infested trees. Distributions of beetles caught in pheromone traps and emergence cages were compared. Each year, mountain pine beetle

Barbara J. Bentz

2006-01-01

335

Male-specific sesquiterpenes from Phyllotreta flea beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flea beetles in several genera are known to possess male-specific sesquiterpenes, at least some of which serve as aggregation pheromones that attract both sexes. In continuing research on the chemical ecology of Phyllotreta flea beetles, six new male-specific sesquiterpenes were identified, one fro...

336

UNCORRECTED Effects of fire and spruce beetle outbreak legacies  

E-print Network

between fire and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirkby) disturbances in a Colorado sub- alpine influenced by the interactions between fire and insect disturbances. Keywords dendrochronology, Dendroctonus and outbreaks of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus J B I 9 1 2 B Dispatch: 19.5.03 Journal: JBI CE: Hari Journal Name

Veblen, Thomas T.

337

Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had

G. M. Scott; D. W. Bormett; N. R. Sutherland; S. Abubakr; E. Lowell

1996-01-01

338

SEED BEETLES IN ACACIA PODS Prepared by Alistair Barker  

E-print Network

SEED BEETLES IN ACACIA PODS Prepared by Alistair Barker Our research focus on the genetics their known host plants, the Acacias from all over South Africa. These beetles feed on many different host that are found feeding on the seeds of Acacia and other closely related and located legumes. Bruchids complete

339

Department of Entomology JAPANESE BEETLES IN THE URBAN LANDSCAPE  

E-print Network

Department of Entomology E-75-W JAPANESE BEETLES IN THE URBAN LANDSCAPE Timothy J. Gibb and Clifford S. Sadof, Extension Entomologists Landscape & Ornamentals Japanese Beetle: Popillia japonica Newman Annual white grub Metallic Green Bronze White tufts of hair (actual size 1/2") Infestations

Ginzel, Matthew

340

fire & fuels management Spruce Beetle-Induced Changes to Engelmann  

E-print Network

fire & fuels management Spruce Beetle-Induced Changes to Engelmann Spruce Foliage Flammability Wesley G. Page, Michael J. Jenkins, and Justin B. Runyon Intermountain Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm) stands affected by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) represent

341

Rust and Beetle Interactions in Pinus albicaulis Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current mountain pine beetle activity in whitebark pine ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is unprecedented in extent and severity. Dynamics among beetles, white pine blister rust, and climate change are placing this foundation species in a precarious state. Stand- and tree-level data was recorded to quantify how the severity of rust and the presence of an alternate host influence

Nancy Bockino; Daniel B. Tinker

2009-01-01

342

The management of fluid and wave resistances by whirligig beetles.  

PubMed

Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are semi-aquatic insects with a morphology and propulsion system highly adapted to their life at the air-water interface. When swimming on the water surface, beetles are subject to both fluid resistance and wave resistance. The purpose of this study was to analyse swimming speed, leg kinematics and the capillarity waves produced by whirligig beetles on the water surface in a simple environment. Whirligig beetles of the species Gyrinus substriatus were filmed in a large container, with a high-speed camera. Resistance forces were also estimated. These beetles used three types of leg kinematics, differing in the sequence of leg strokes: two for swimming at low speed and one for swimming at high speed. Four main speed patterns were produced by different combinations of these types of leg kinematics, and the minimum speed for the production of surface waves (23 cm s(-1)) corresponded to an upper limit when beetles used low-speed leg kinematics. Each type of leg kinematics produced characteristic capillarity waves, even if the beetles moved at a speed below 23 cm s(-1). Our results indicate that whirligig beetles use low- and high-speed leg kinematics to avoid maximum drag and swim at speed corresponding to low resistances. PMID:19640875

Voise, Jonathan; Casas, Jérôme

2010-02-01

343

The management of fluid and wave resistances by whirligig beetles  

PubMed Central

Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are semi-aquatic insects with a morphology and propulsion system highly adapted to their life at the air–water interface. When swimming on the water surface, beetles are subject to both fluid resistance and wave resistance. The purpose of this study was to analyse swimming speed, leg kinematics and the capillarity waves produced by whirligig beetles on the water surface in a simple environment. Whirligig beetles of the species Gyrinus substriatus were filmed in a large container, with a high-speed camera. Resistance forces were also estimated. These beetles used three types of leg kinematics, differing in the sequence of leg strokes: two for swimming at low speed and one for swimming at high speed. Four main speed patterns were produced by different combinations of these types of leg kinematics, and the minimum speed for the production of surface waves (23 cm s?1) corresponded to an upper limit when beetles used low-speed leg kinematics. Each type of leg kinematics produced characteristic capillarity waves, even if the beetles moved at a speed below 23 cm s?1. Our results indicate that whirligig beetles use low- and high-speed leg kinematics to avoid maximum drag and swim at speed corresponding to low resistances. PMID:19640875

Voise, Jonathan; Casas, Jérôme

2010-01-01

344

Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)

Dockery, Michael

1997-01-01

345

MANAGING STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE POPULATIONS ON CANTALOUPE AND WATERMELON  

E-print Network

MANAGING STRIPED CUCUMBER BEETLE POPULATIONS ON CANTALOUPE AND WATERMELON Ricky E. Foster.e., cucumber, squash, watermelon and cantaloupe). This insect is responsible for more insecticide applications on cantaloupes than any other pest in Indiana. Both the adult beetle and the immature stages (larvae) feed

Ginzel, Matthew

346

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS OF DIATOMS ON 'CLADOPHORA' IN LAKE HURON  

EPA Science Inventory

Rocks bearing Cladophora were collected from May to November 1979 at two locations near Harbor Beach, Michigan, in Lake Huron to document seasonal patterns of epiphytic diatom abundance and diatom proportion of the Cladophora-epiphyte assemblage biomass in an area receiving efflu...

347

Bacterial Abundance Measure bacterial numbers and mass per unit volume.  

E-print Network

.37 1021 l oceans-1 Crude estimate of element fluxes (x: bacterial biomass) · Growth rate: G = xBacterial Abundance Objective · Measure bacterial numbers and mass per unit volume. · Note, we). · Plate (or viable) count (Today). · Direct count. (Thursday). #12;Why do we want to measure bacterial

Vallino, Joseph J.

348

Bacterial Abundance Measure bacterial numbers and mass per unit volume.  

E-print Network

.37 � 1021 l oceans-1 Crude estimate of element fluxes (x: bacterial biomass) · Growth rate: G = µx; µBacterial Abundance Objective · Measure bacterial numbers and mass per unit volume. · Note, we). · Plate (or viable) count (Today). · Direct count. (Thursday). #12;Why do we want to measure bacterial

Vallino, Joseph J.

349

Solar abundance of osmium  

PubMed Central

The abundance parameter, log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance (by numbers of atoms with respect to hydrogen), has been derived for three lines of osmium by a method of spectrum synthesis. An apparent discordance of the derived abundance with that found from the carbonaceous chondrites is probably to be attributed primarily to errors in the f-values, and blending with unknown contributors. PMID:16592314

Jacoby, George; Aller, Lawrence H.

1976-01-01

350

Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

351

A Beetle Stowaway: Who's Drilling Holes in My Tree?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This BioBulletin Web site takes an in-depth look at the Asian longhorn beetle. The site includes text, videos, photographs, and interviews with key scientists. The Introduction explains the threat this alien species and major hardwood pest poses to U.S. trees. Meet the Beetle examines this large and quite spectacular insect, which is native to Japan, Korea, and the Malaysian Peninsula. Beetle Stalking in Brooklyn and Beyond recounts the first infestations of the Asian longhorn beetle and how teams of scientists responded to the problem. Preventing Potential Ecodisaster looks at a nationwide strategy to eradicate the Asian longhorn beetle before it establishes a permanent foothold in the U.S. An Alien Invasion provides an overview of why exotic/introduced/alien/invader species can make trouble.

352

Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

Muths, Erin Louise

1991-01-01

353

BIOSEP: A NEW ETHANOL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR SMALL SCALE RURAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM BIOMASS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research activities on bioethanol have increased substantially as a result of the current concerns with energy security. Inexpensive biomass including forest residues, mill residues, agricultural residues, urban wood wastes and dedicated energy corps that exists in abundance acr...

354

Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes  

E-print Network

promising sustainable energy sources with low carbonyield Introduction Sustainable energy sources are needed tosustainable energy resources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and nuclear power, biomass is the only abundant source

Gao, Xiadi

2013-01-01

355

ASSESSING GROUND BEETLE CONTRIBUTION TO ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: DOES IT MATTER IF THERE ARE MORE GROUND BEETLES?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diversification of the agroecosystem can enhance ecosystem services that beneficial insects provide. Habitat management within a farming system can lead to increased biological control of insect pests. The ground predator assemblage comprised of ground beetles (Coloptera: Carabidae) are not only a s...

356

Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them  

PubMed Central

Summary Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles. Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks. PMID:18698369

Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

2008-01-01

357

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically

Douglas C

2010-01-01

358

Biomass Research Program  

SciTech Connect

INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

2011-01-01

359

Biomass: an energy natural  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology for growing, harvesting, and converting biomass for energy production is still in its infancy. The prospects are good that systematic research will bring rapid improvements. Biomass as a source of energy for the rural areas of the developing world has many advantages including low cost, reduction of waste, environmental improvement, and self-sufficiency. Unfortunately, most areas of the world

1979-01-01

360

Recent infestation of forest stands by spruce beetles does not predict habitat use by little brown bats ( Myotis lucifugus) in southwestern Yukon, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect outbreaks affect forest structure which may have significant effects on the habitat of other animals. Forest-dwelling insectivorous bats are likely affected by associated changes in the abundance of roost trees and insect prey, altered foraging and flying efficiency, and predation risk. We examined the short-term effects (3-13 years post-infestation) of an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) on the

Lea A. Randall; Robert M. R. Barclay; Mary L. Reid; Thomas S. Jung

2011-01-01

361

The solar hafnium abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar Hf abundance is determined using nine Hf ii lines in the photospheric spectrum. The transition probabilities were obtained from lifetime measurements performed by the beam-foil technique. The abundance derived from synthetic spectrum calculations is A(Hf) = 0.88 ± 0.08 in the logarithmic A(H) = 12.00 scale.

T. Andersen; P. Petersen; Ö. Hauge

1976-01-01

362

The Primordial Helium Abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present a brief review on the determination of the primordial helium abundance by unit mass, Yp. I discuss the importance of the primordial helium abundance in: (a) cosmology, (b) testing the standard big bang nucleosynthesis, (c) studying the physical conditions in H II regions, (d) providing the initial conditions for stellar evolution models, and (e) testing the galactic chemical

Manuel Peimbert

2008-01-01

363

Vertical Distribution of Fish Biomass in Lake Superior: Implications for Day Bottom Trawl Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the biases in sampling methodology is essential for understanding the limitations of abundance and biomass estimates of fish populations. Estimates from surveys that rely solely on bottom trawls may be particularly vulnerable to bias if pelagic fish are numerous. We evaluated the variability in the vertical distribution of fish biomass during the U.S. Geological Survey's annual spring bottom

Jason D. Stockwell; Daniel L. Yule; Thomas R. Hrabik; Jean V. Adams; Owen T. Gorman; Beth V. Holbrook

2007-01-01

364

A review on the development and commercialization of biomass gasification technologies in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the fast economic growth, the energy demand in China has increased two-fold in the past three decades. Various energy resources have been exploited and utilized and biomass is one of the energy resources that is abundant and has been widely used in China for a long time. Biomass gasification is an efficient and advanced technology for extracting the energy

Dennis Y. C. Leung; X. L. Yin; C. Z. Wu

2004-01-01

365

The summer zooplankton community at South Georgia: biomass, vertical migration and grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton abundance and biomass were determined during January 1990 at two stations to the north-west of South Georgia using a Longhurst Hardy Plankton Recorder (LHPR). At both shelf and oceanic station sites, zooplankton biomass, (excluding Euphausia superba), was found to be ca. 13 g dry mass m-2. Copepods and small euphausiids dominated the catches. These estimates are over 4 times

P. Ward; A. Atkinson; A. W. A. Murray; A. G. Wood; R. Williams; S. A. Poulet

1995-01-01

366

Barium Abundances in Cepheids  

E-print Network

We derived the barium atmospheric abundances for a large sample of Cepheids, comprising 270 stars. The sample covers a large range of galactocentric distances, from about 4 to 15 kpc, so that it is appropriated to investigate the existence of radial barium abundance gradients in the galactic disc. In fact, this is the first time that such a comprehensive analysis of the distribution of barium abundances in the galactic disc is carried out. As a result, we conclude that the Ba abundance distribution can be characterized by a zero gradient. This result is compared with derived gradients for other elements, and some reasons are briefly discussed for the independence of the barium abundances upon galactocentric distances.

Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Luck, R E; Kovtyukh, V V; Maciel, W J

2012-01-01

367

Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States)

1992-03-01

368

Picophytoplankton biomass distribution in the global ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The smallest marine phytoplankton, collectively termed picophytoplankton, have been routinely enumerated by flow cytometry since the late 1980s during cruises throughout most of the world ocean. We compiled a database of 40 946 data points, with separate abundance entries for Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes. We use average conversion factors for each of the three groups to convert the abundance data to carbon biomass. After gridding with 1° spacing, the database covers 2.4% of the ocean surface area, with the best data coverage in the North Atlantic, the South Pacific and North Indian basins, and at least some data in all other basins. The average picophytoplankton biomass is 12 ± 22 ?g C l-1 or 1.9 g C m-2. We estimate a total global picophytoplankton biomass of 0.53-1.32 Pg C (17-39% Prochlorococcus, 12-15% Synechococcus and 49-69% picoeukaryotes), with an intermediate/best estimate of 0.74 Pg C. Future efforts in this area of research should focus on reporting calibrated cell size and collecting data in undersampled regions. http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777385

Buitenhuis, E. T.; Li, W. K. W.; Vaulot, D.; Lomas, M. W.; Landry, M. R.; Partensky, F.; Karl, D. M.; Ulloa, O.; Campbell, L.; Jacquet, S.; Lantoine, F.; Chavez, F.; Macias, D.; Gosselin, M.; McManus, G. B.

2012-08-01

369

Global patterns and predictions of seafloor biomass using random forests.  

PubMed

A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, was employed to model and predict seafloor standing stocks from surface primary production, water-column integrated and export particulate organic matter (POM), seafloor relief, and bottom water properties. The predictive models explain 63% to 88% of stock variance among the major size groups. Individual and composite maps of predicted global seafloor biomass and abundance are generated for bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna (invertebrates and fishes). Patterns of benthic standing stocks were positive functions of surface primary production and delivery of the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux to the seafloor. At a regional scale, the census maps illustrate that integrated biomass is highest at the poles, on continental margins associated with coastal upwelling and with broad zones associated with equatorial divergence. Lowest values are consistently encountered on the central abyssal plains of major ocean basins The shift of biomass dominance groups with depth is shown to be affected by the decrease in average body size rather than abundance, presumably due to decrease in quantity and quality of food supply. This biomass census and associated maps are vital components of mechanistic deep-sea food web models and global carbon cycling, and as such provide fundamental information that can be incorporated into evidence-based management. PMID:21209928

Wei, Chih-Lin; Rowe, Gilbert T; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas; Caley, M Julian; Soliman, Yousria; Huettmann, Falk; Qu, Fangyuan; Yu, Zishan; Pitcher, C Roland; Haedrich, Richard L; Wicksten, Mary K; Rex, Michael A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Sharma, Jyotsna; Danovaro, Roberto; MacDonald, Ian R; Nunnally, Clifton C; Deming, Jody W; Montagna, Paul; Lévesque, Mélanie; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Ingole, Baban S; Bett, Brian J; Billett, David S M; Yool, Andrew; Bluhm, Bodil A; Iken, Katrin; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

2010-01-01

370

Global Patterns and Predictions of Seafloor Biomass Using Random Forests  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, was employed to model and predict seafloor standing stocks from surface primary production, water-column integrated and export particulate organic matter (POM), seafloor relief, and bottom water properties. The predictive models explain 63% to 88% of stock variance among the major size groups. Individual and composite maps of predicted global seafloor biomass and abundance are generated for bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna (invertebrates and fishes). Patterns of benthic standing stocks were positive functions of surface primary production and delivery of the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux to the seafloor. At a regional scale, the census maps illustrate that integrated biomass is highest at the poles, on continental margins associated with coastal upwelling and with broad zones associated with equatorial divergence. Lowest values are consistently encountered on the central abyssal plains of major ocean basins The shift of biomass dominance groups with depth is shown to be affected by the decrease in average body size rather than abundance, presumably due to decrease in quantity and quality of food supply. This biomass census and associated maps are vital components of mechanistic deep-sea food web models and global carbon cycling, and as such provide fundamental information that can be incorporated into evidence-based management. PMID:21209928

Wei, Chih-Lin; Rowe, Gilbert T.; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas; Caley, M. Julian; Soliman, Yousria; Huettmann, Falk; Qu, Fangyuan; Yu, Zishan; Pitcher, C. Roland; Haedrich, Richard L.; Wicksten, Mary K.; Rex, Michael A.; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Sharma, Jyotsna; Danovaro, Roberto; MacDonald, Ian R.; Nunnally, Clifton C.; Deming, Jody W.; Montagna, Paul; Lévesque, Mélanie; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Ingole, Baban S.; Bett, Brian J.; Billett, David S. M.; Yool, Andrew; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Iken, Katrin; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2010-01-01

371

Larvacean (Chordata, Tunicata) abundance and inferred secondary production off southeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the temporal and vertical variability in larvacean abundance and secondary production on a fixed station off southeast Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2008. Larvacean biomass was derived from length–weight regressions, and growth rates were estimated from an empirical model. We identified eleven larvacean species. Oikopleura longicauda occurred throughout the studied period and was the most abundant species,

Leonardo K. Miyashita; Rubens M. Lopes

2011-01-01

372

Improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficient utilization of all available sugars in lignocellulosic biomass, which is more abundant than available commodity crops and starch, represents one of the most difficult technological challenges for the production of bioethanol. The well-studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has played a...

373

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Predation by Carabid Beetles (Carabidae) on Nematode Infected and Uninfected Slugs in the Field  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita. PMID:24349202

Hatteland, Bjørn Arild; Haukeland, Solveig; Roth, Steffen; Brurberg, May Bente; Vaughan, Ian P.; Symondson, William O. C.

2013-01-01

374

Elucidation and reproduction of the iridescence of a jewel beetle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the structural colors of some beetles originate from multilayer thin-film interference. We investigated such an example, a jewel beetle Chrysochroa fulgidissima, to quantitatively characterize the coloration mechanisms. The essential physical factors of the iridescence were elucidated by careful determinations of the structural parameters, measurements of angle and polarization-dependent reflection spectra, and theoretical modeling of the multilayer system. On the basis of the elucidated coloration mechanisms, we successfully prepared a dielectric thin film structure that reproduces the iridescence of the jewel beetle.

Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi; Iida, Haruhisa; Hariyama, Takahiko

2012-10-01

375

[Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) biomass refinery engineering].  

PubMed

Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) is an abundant and widely distributed Chinese native plant. Sumac fruit contains low content of vegetable oil, as an atypical oil plants hardly being processed through traditional vegetable oil production technologies. Based on our own studies on the characteristics of sumac fruit and branches, we established a novel model of sumac biomass refinery, and constructed the sumac biomass refinery technology system and eco-industrial chain integration. Steam explosion was the key technology, and several components fractionation technologies were integrated in the sumac biomass refinery system. The fractionated components were converted into different products depending on their functional features. Eight products including sumac fruit oil, biodiesel, protein feed, flavonoids, unbleached facial tissue, phenolic resin, biomass briquette and biogas were produced in the refinery. The extracted sumac fruit oil by steam explosion pretreatment was applied for the new food resource of Ministry of Health, and the permit was approved. This research provides a new model for the development of atypical wild plant resources. PMID:25118393

Wang, Lan; Wang, Ning; Li, Tan; Chen, Hongzhang

2014-05-01

376

Phenotypic plasticity in a willow leaf beetle depends on host plant species: release and recognition of beetle odors.  

PubMed

Aggregation behavior of herbivorous insects is mediated by a wide range of biotic and abiotic factors. It has been suggested that aggregation behavior of the blue willow leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima is mediated by both host plant odor and by odor released by the beetles. Previous studies show that the beetles respond to plant odors according to their prior host plant experiences. Here, we analyzed the effect of the host plant species on odor released and perceived by adult P. vulgatissima. The major difference between the odor of beetles feeding on salicin-rich and salicin-poor host plants was the presence of salicylaldehyde in the odor of the former, where both males and females released this compound. Electrophysiological studies showed that the intensity of responses to single components of odor released by beetles was sex specific and dependent on the host plant species with which the beetles were fed. Finally, behavioral studies revealed that males feeding on salicin-rich willows were attracted by salicylaldehyde, whereas females did not respond behaviorally to this compound, despite showing clear antennal responses to it. Finally, the ecological relevance of the influence of a host plant species on the plasticity of beetle odor chemistry, perception, and behavior is discussed. PMID:25537016

Austel, Nadine; Reinecke, Andreas; Björkman, Christer; Hilker, Monika; Meiners, Torsten

2015-02-01

377

Low beta diversity of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) in lowland rainforests of Papua New  

E-print Network

Low beta diversity of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae beetles (Coleoptera, Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) from four tree species: Artocarpus and twigs was sampled for ambrosia beetles from three individuals of the four tree species at each site

378

78 USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. Abstract--Across western North America mountain pine beetle,  

E-print Network

pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), populations are growing beetle have allowed for increased population success in numerous habitats. Of particular concern-elevation whitebark pine for- ests, mountain pine beetles from multiple generations were found killing pines within

379

Populations of southern pine beetle (SPB) are typically substructured into local aggregations, each with tens of thousands of individual beetles. These  

E-print Network

75 5 Abstract Populations of southern pine beetle (SPB) are typically substructured into local aggregations, each with tens of thousands of individual beetles. These aggregations, known as "spots" because the dispersing beetles that form a new population of spots. SPB epidemics rise and fall with interannual

Ayres, Matthew.P.

380

Unilateral range finding in diving beetle larvae.  

PubMed

One of the biggest challenges that predators, such as the larvae of the diving beetle Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), are faced with is to accurately assess the distance of their prey. Most animals derive distance information from disparities of images that are viewed from different angles, from information that is obtained from well-controlled translational movements (motion parallax) or from the image size of known objects. Using a behavioral assay we demonstrated that T. marmoratus larvae continue to accurately strike at artificial prey, even if none of these typical distance estimation cues are available to them. Specifically, we excluded bilateral binocular stereopsis by occlusion, confounded possible motion parallax cues with an artificially moving prey, and excluded the possibility that beetle larvae simply approached their targets based on known prey size by presenting different prey sizes. Despite these constraints, larvae consistently struck our artificial targets from a distance of ~4.5 mm. Based on these findings we conclude that T. marmoratus likely employ an unusual mechanism to accurately determine prey distances, possibly mediated by the object-distance-dependent activation of specific subsets of their many-tiered and peculiarly positioned photoreceptors. PMID:24477608

Bland, Kevin; Revetta, Nicholas P; Stowasser, Annette; Buschbeck, Elke K

2014-02-01

381

Differences in critical thermal maxima and mortality across life stages of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

Thermal limits to activity profoundly affect the abundance and distribution of ectothermic animals. Upper thermal limits to activity are typically reported as the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), the temperature at which activity becomes uncontrolled. Thermolimit respirometry is a new technique that allows CT(max) to be quantified in small animals, such as insects, as the point of spiracular failure by measuring CO(2) release from the animal as temperature increases. Although prior studies have reported a characteristic pattern of CO(2) release for insects during thermolimit respirometry trials, no studies have been carried out to determine the universality of this pattern across development, or at what point death occurs along this pattern. Here, we compared the CT(max) and patterns of CO(2) release among three life stages of a beetle species, Tenebrio molitor, and mapped heat death onto these patterns. Our study is the first to report distinct patterns of CO(2) release in different life stages of an insect species during thermolimit respirometry. Our results show that CT(max) was significantly higher in adult beetles than in either larvae or pupae (P<0.001) and, similarly, death occurred at higher temperatures in adults than in larvae and pupae. We also found that death during heating closely follows CT(max) in these animals, which confirms that measuring the loss of spiracular control with thermolimit respirometry successfully identifies the point of physiological limitation during heat stress. PMID:22675193

Vorhees, Ashley S; Bradley, Timothy J

2012-07-01

382

Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.

Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

383

Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  

PubMed

In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:15257386

Keeling, Christopher I; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

2004-07-01

384

Synthetic attractants for the bark beetle parasitoid Coeloides bostrichorum Giraud (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coeloides bostrichorum Giraud parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attack late larval stages of various bark beetle species breeding in spruce. Volatile compounds collected from Norway spruce (Picea abies) infested by Ips typographus L. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the predominant volatile compounds of fresh Norway spruce, while the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes indicates damaged trees. Between one and eight EAD-active oxygenated monoterpenes were used, in amounts reflecting their natural abundance in spruce trees containing bark beetle larvae, to prepare five synthetic baits which were tested in wind tunnel bioassays. Odour samples collected from spruce logs containing the preferred host stage were attractive, while similar samples from uninfested logs failed to elicit any flight activity. However, when a four- or an eight-component synthetic bait was added to volatiles collected from uninfested spruce logs, this combination was as attractive as volatiles collected from infested spruce logs.

Pettersson, Eva M.; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter

2001-02-01

385

Combustion Systems for Biomass Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is one of humanity's earliest sources of energy. Traditionally, biomass has been utilized through direct combustion, and this process is still widely used in many parts of the world. Biomass thermo-chemical conversion investigations are certainly not the most important options at present; combustion is responsible for over 97% of the world's bio-energy production. Biomass combustion is a series of

Ayhan Demirbas

2007-01-01

386

Biomass pretreatment: Fundamentals toward application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but the biomass must be subjected to

Valery B. Agbor; Nazim Cicek; Richard Sparling; Alex Berlin; David B. Levin

2011-01-01

387

Biofuels from Agricultural Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuels are liquid fuels which can be produced from agricultural biomass. Agriculture-based biofuels include bioethanol, biodiesel, biomethanol, methane, and bio-oil components. Various agricultural residues, such as grain dust, crop residues, and fruit tree residues, are available as the sources of agricultural energy. Bio-energy from biomass, both residues and energy crops, can be converted into modern energy carriers. Bioethanol is derived

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

388

Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Cellulosic Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for fuel ethanol production. However, the lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis because of its structural complexity. Controlled-pH liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of cellulosic feedstock improves its enzymatic digestibility by removing hemicellulose and making the cellulose more accessible to cellulase enzymes. The removed hemicellulose is solubilized in the liquid phase of the pretreated feedstock as oligosaccharides. Formation of monomeric sugars during the LHW pretreatment is minimal. The LHW pretreatment is carried out by cooking the feedstock in process water at temperatures between 160 and 190°C and at a pH of 4-7. No additional chemicals are needed. This chapter presents the detailed procedure of the LHW pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

Kim, Youngmi; Hendrickson, Rick; Mosier, Nathan S.; Ladisch, Michael R.

389

Northeast Regional Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

Lusk, P.D.

1992-12-01

390

Differences in preference and performance of the water lily leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae populations on native and introduced aquatic plants.  

PubMed

Plant invasions represent ecological opportunities for herbivorous insects able to exploit novel host plants. The availability of new hosts and rapid adaptations may lead to host race formation and ultimately speciation. We studied potential host race formation in the water lily leaf beetle, Galerucella nymphaeae, in response to invasion by water chestnut, Trapa natans, in eastern North America. This leaf beetle is well suited for such studies because previous work showed that different herbivore populations follow different "evolutionary pathways" and specialize locally in response to differences in habitat preferences and host plant availability. We compared host preference and performance of G. nymphaeae offspring originating from T. natans and offspring of individuals originating from an ancestral host Nuphar lutea, yellow water lily, on T. natans and three native hosts (N. lutea, Nympheae odorata, and Brasenia schreberi). Regardless of origin (Trapa or Nuphar), adults strongly preferred their native host, N. lutea, over T. natans. Although laboratory survival rates (larva to pupa) were extremely high (80%) regardless of origin or host offered, survival rates in a common garden were greatly reduced, particularly for T. natans (24%) and to a lesser extent on N. lutea (54%), regardless of beetle origin. Larval drowning during more frequent leaf changes when developing on small Trapa leaves seems to be responsible for this difference. Preference of females for N. lutea is beneficial considering the much higher larval survival on the ancestral host. Abundant T. natans where the plant is invasive provides an alternative food source that beetles can use after egg/larval loads on their preferred host reach carrying capacity, but this utilization comes at a cost of high larval mortality. PMID:20021761

Ding, Jianqing; Blossey, Bernd

2009-12-01

391

Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities  

PubMed Central

Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space controls relative species abundance in communities. Here, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of butterfly species in island communities is significantly related to the relative biomasses of their host plants but not to the geographic distance between communities. In the studied communities, the biomass of particular host plant species positively affected the abundance of the butterfly species that used them, and consequently, influenced the relative abundance of the butterfly communities. This indicated that the niche space of butterflies (i.e., the amount of resources) strongly influences butterfly biodiversity patterns. We present this field evidence of the niche-apportionment model that propose that the relative amount of niche space explains the pattern of the relative abundance of the species in communities. PMID:17553963

Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado

2007-01-01

392

Influence of Host Gender on Infection Rate, Density and Distribution of the Parasitic Fungus, Hesperomyces virescens, on the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis  

PubMed Central

Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) is a parasitic fungus that infects lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) via horizontal transmission between adults at overwintering and feeding sites. The differential behavior of male and female hosts could have profound effects on intensity of infection and positioning of fungus on the host's integument. The influence of host gender on infection rate, density and distribution of this parasite on the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was determined at a feeding site. Adult H. axyridis were sampled from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, trees in northern Mississippi, USA, during summer and early fall 2003–2004. Results indicated that the behavior of male or female beetles on pecan trees had only a limited effect on the intensity of infection. When averaged over the entire season, the percentage of H. axyridis infected with H. virescens was not influenced by host gender. In 2003, a seasonal average of 54 and 39% of males and females, respectively, were infected; whereas in 2004, 36 and 41% of male and female beetles, respectively, were infected. The percentage of males infected with H. virescens was correlated with the number of males captured at the site in 2003; infection rate decreased as male abundance increased. Infection rate did not correlate with female abundance in 2003 or male or female abundance in 2004. Host gender had a considerable effect on the density and distribution of the fungus. Hesperomyces virescens mature thalli were denser on male rather than female beetles. Also, thallus density was often greatest on the elytra, meso- and metathorax, and abdomen of males and elytra of females, than on other body parts, in 2003. In 2003 and 2004, approximately 59 and 97% and 67 and 96% of males and females, respectively, had mature thalli distributed on the elytra. Prevalence of H. virescens thalli on the dorsum of H. axyridis females suggests that mating behavior is important in fungal transmission. However, prevalence of thalli on the dorsum of H. axyridis males suggests that behaviors other than mating contribute to the transmission of H. virescens onto male beetles. Spread of H. virescens ascospores from infected to uninfected H. axyridis adults of different generations, at feeding sites, might be vital to maintaining stable populations of the fungus. PMID:20298119

Riddick, E. W.

2006-01-01

393

Three beetles—three concepts. Different defensive strategies of congeneric myrmecophilous beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myrmecophiles, i.e., organisms associated with ants live in a variety of ecological niches in the vicinity or inside ant colonies\\u000a and employ different strategies to survive ant encounters. Because different niches are characterized by different encounter\\u000a rates with host ants, strategies used to avoid ant aggressions should depend on these niches. This hypothesis was studied\\u000a with three rove beetle species

Michael Stoeffler; Till Tolasch; Johannes L. M. Steidle

2011-01-01

394

The clerid beetle, Thanasimus formicarius , is attracted to the pheromone of the ambrosia beetle, Trypodendron lineatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Sticky traps containing (+)-lineatin, the pheromone of the ambrosia beetle,Trypodendron lineatum, attracted the predatorThanasimus formicarius to about the same extent as traps baited with ipslure, the pheromone blend used for mass-trappingIps typographus. The results indicate thatT. lineatum is an important prey forT. formicarius early in the season before the main prey becomes active. Addition ofexo-brevicomin to ipslure and ethanol

B. Å. Tømmerås

1988-01-01

395

The Role of Beetle Marks and Flower Colour on Visitation by Monkey Beetles (Hopliini) in the Greater Cape Floral Region, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims A deviation from the classical beetle pollination syndrome of dull-coloured flowers with an unpleasant scent is found in the Greater Cape Floral Region of South Africa. Here, monkey beetles (Scarabaeidae) visit brightly coloured, odourless flowers with conspicuous dark spots and centres (beetle marks). The role of flower colour and markings in attracting monkey beetles is still poorly understood. Method Artificial model flowers with different marking patterns were used to test the effect of beetle marks on visitation by monkey beetles. To test whether monkey beetles are conditioned to the colour of the local matrix species, model flowers of different colours were placed in populations of three differently coloured species of Iridaceae. Key Results Among all three matrix species the presence of dark markings of some kind (either centres or spots) increased visitation rates but the different matrix species differed in whether the effect was due to a dark centre or to dark spots. Monkey beetles were not conditioned for the colour of the matrix species: model colour was not significant in the Hesperantha vaginata and in the Romulea monadelpha matrices, whereas yellow model flowers were preferred over orange ones in the orange-flowered Sparaxis elegans matrix. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate that beetle marks attract pollinating monkey beetles in the Greater Cape Floral Region. In contrast to plants with the classical beetle pollination syndrome that use floral scent as the most important attractant of pollinating beetles, plants with the monkey beetle pollination syndrome rely on visual signals, and, in some areas at least, monkey beetles favour flowers with dark beetle markings over unmarked flowers. PMID:17951585

Van Kleunen, Mark; Nänni, Ingrid; Donaldson, John S.; Manning, John C.

2007-01-01

396

Two Additional Invasive Scarabaeoid Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) in Hawaii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two species of dynastine scarab beetles are reported for the first time on the island of Hawaii: the Pasadena masked chafer, Cyclocephala pasadenae (Casey)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) and the Temnorhynchus retusus (Fabricius)(Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini). The Pasadena mask...

397

Western larch resistance to Douglas-fir beetle attack.  

E-print Network

??Live western larch, Larix occidentalis Nutt., a tree species resistant to the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, produces the monoterpene 3-carene in higher concentrations compared… (more)

Neal, Tiffany A.

2004-01-01

398

76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the pest's preferred host. PSB has been reported to also occasionally attack other conifers such as fir (Abies spp.) and spruce (Picea spp.) at low levels. During ``shoot feeding,'' young beetles tunnel into the center of pine shoots...

2011-01-10

399

Biologically inspired optics: analog semiconductor model of the beetle exoskeleton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms. For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave structures produce matching reflection spectra. In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.

Buhl, Kaia; Roth, Zachary; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Rumpf, Raymond; Johnson, Eric

2008-08-01

400

New generic synonyms in the Oriental flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The following new synonyms are proposed for the genera of flea beetles from Oriental Region: Pseudocrypta Medvedev, 1996 and Sebaethiella Medvedev, 1993 = Acrocrypta Baly, 1862: 457; Bhutajana Scherer, 1979 = Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836; Burmaltica Scherer, 1969 = Aphthonaltica Heikertinger, 1924; Apht...

401

Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

Beck, Keith

1978-01-01

402

Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

403

How Ants Drop Out: Ant Abundance on Tropical Mountains  

PubMed Central

In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature) and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops. PMID:25098722

Longino, John T.; Branstetter, Michael G.; Colwell, Robert K.

2014-01-01

404

Biomass electrochemical research at SERI  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical processing is being applied to biomass and derived materials to upgrade their energy content thereby generating fuels (or additives) or petrochemical substitutes, or increasing their reactivity and value for a variety of applications of the polymeric materials. The utilization of the following are addressed: (1) lignin polymers, which are not suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion to fuels and chemicals. The approach is to investigate relatively simple lignin derived materials which, in principle, can be produced in large quantities, and serve as models for the behavior of more complex materials. The lignin of choice is derived from an atypical and abundant hardwood such as aspen (Populus tremuloides), which has been pretreated by explosive depressurization (steam explosion) and is ethanol extracted. The aim is to change the degree of polymerization of these materials, and to increase their suitability as a replacement of phenol in phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting resins. In order to understand these processes in complex lignin molecules, synthesized lignin model compounds have been synthesized and their electrochemical reactions are investigated; (2) carboxylic acids, which can be obtained by suppressing the methane formation in anaerobic digestion processes. The approach is to develop new separation methods for the carboxylic acids and innovative ways of electrochemically processing dilute solutions to gaseous and/or water-insoluble products; (3) the upgrading of waste streams from biomass (terrestrial and aquatic) processing, electrochemically or photoelectrochemically. The waste streams under consideration include those from acid hydrolysis, fermentation, and alkaline treatment (e.g., kraft pulping), which contain a variety of polyfunctional carboxylic acids, amenable to electrochemical processing.

Chum, H.L.

1982-06-01

405

Parental care improves offspring survival and growth in burying beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burying beetles (genusNicrophorus) provide elaborate parental care to their offspring. Parental beetles defend a small vertebrate carcass, which constitutes the sole food source for the larvae. They also manipulate the carcass in various ways and directly regurgitate pre-digested carrion to the young. The benefits of carcass manipulation and regurgitation have been the subject of a few small-scale studies that have

ANNE-KATRIN EGGERT; MARTINA REINKING; JOSEF K MÜLLER

1998-01-01

406

Fungi associated with the North American spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi were isolated from individual Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) collected from six populations in Alaska, Colorado, Utah, and Minnesota, U.S.A. In all populations, Leptographium abietinum(Peck) Wingfield was the most commonly isolated mycelial fungus (91-100% of beetles). All beetles in all populations were associated with yeasts and some with only yeasts (0-5%). In one population, Ophiostoma ips (Rumbold) Nannf. was also present

Diana L. Six; Barbara J. Bentz

2003-01-01

407

Invited Invaders: Beetles used sucessfully in biological control of saltcedar  

E-print Network

the right beetle strain that can survive the conditions of the Panhandle?s unique environment. Because of the northern location of the Canadian River, Michels tried to establish beetle species used successfully in Utah, Nevada, and Colorado. He found... to pay more money each year.? Judging from the success of the program in other western states that began before the Texas program, DeLoach predicts ?spectacular and very rapidly increasing success.? Nevada has #16;#20;#24; river miles of almost...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

408

Invited Invaders: Beetles used successfully in biological control of saltcedar  

E-print Network

the right beetle strain that can survive the conditions of the Panhandle?s unique environment. Because of the northern location of the Canadian River, Michels tried to establish beetle species used successfully in Utah, Nevada, and Colorado. He found... to pay more money each year.? Judging from the success of the program in other western states that began before the Texas program, DeLoach predicts ?spectacular and very rapidly increasing success.? Nevada has #16;#20;#24; river miles of almost...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

409

Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

1996-08-01

410

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder\\/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that

Dale B. Gelman; Robert A. Bell; Lynda J. Liska; Jing S. Hu

411

Mycangia of ambrosia beetles host communities of bacteria.  

PubMed

The research field of animal and plant symbioses is advancing from studying interactions between two species to whole communities of associates. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities supports multiplexed sampling for statistically robust tests of hypotheses about symbiotic associations. We focus on ambrosia beetles, the increasingly damaging insects primarily associated with fungal symbionts, which have also been reported to support bacteria. To analyze the diversity, composition, and specificity of the beetles' prokaryotic associates, we combine global sampling, insect anatomy, 454 sequencing of bacterial rDNA, and multivariate statistics to analyze prokaryotic communities in ambrosia beetle mycangia, organs mostly known for transporting symbiotic fungi. We analyze six beetle species that represent three types of mycangia and include several globally distributed species, some with major economic importance (Dendroctonus frontalis, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus bispinatus-ferrugineus, Xyleborus glabratus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus germanus). Ninety-six beetle mycangia yielded 1,546 bacterial phylotypes. Several phylotypes appear to form the core microbiome of the mycangium. Three Mycoplasma (originally thought restricted to vertebrates), two Burkholderiales, and two Pseudomonadales are repeatedly present worldwide in multiple beetle species. However, no bacterial phylotypes were universally present, suggesting that ambrosia beetles are not obligately dependent on bacterial symbionts. The composition of bacterial communities is structured by the host beetle species more than by the locality of origin, which suggests that more bacteria are vertically transmitted than acquired from the environment. The invasive X. glabratus and the globally distributed X. crassiusculus have unique sets of bacteria, different from species native to North America. We conclude that the mycangium hosts in multiple vertically transmitted bacteria such as Mycoplasma, most of which are likely facultative commensals or parasites. PMID:22546962

Hulcr, J; Rountree, N R; Diamond, S E; Stelinski, L L; Fierer, N; Dunn, R R

2012-10-01

412

Protected by Fumigants: Beetle Perfumes in Antimicrobial Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetles share with other eukaryotes an innate immune system that mediates endogenous defense against pathogens. In addition,\\u000a larvae of some taxa produce fluid exocrine secretions that contain antimicrobial compounds. In this paper, we provide evidence\\u000a that larvae of the brassy willow leaf beetle Phratora vitellinae constitutively release volatile glandular secretions that combat pathogens in their microenvironment. We identified salicylaldehyde\\u000a as

Jürgen Gross; Kerstin Schumacher; Henrike Schmidtberg; Andreas Vilcinskas

2008-01-01

413

Predictive models of whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stand-level and tree-level data collected from whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands in central Idaho were used to estimate the probability of attack and mortality of whitebark pine caused by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Logistic regression models were calibrated from reconstructed pre-epidemic stand conditions and post-epidemic mortality levels resulting from a widespread mountain pine beetle outbreak

Dana L. Perkins; David W. Roberts

2003-01-01

414

Fungal Farming in a NonSocial Beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culturing of microbes for food production, called cultivation mutualism, has been well-documented from eusocial and subsocial insects such as ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, but poorly described from solitary, non-social insects. Here we report a fungal farming in a non-social lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae), which entails development of a special female structure for fungal storage\\/inoculation, so-called mycangium,

Wataru Toki; Masahiko Tanahashi; Katsumi Togashi; Takema Fukatsu

2012-01-01

415

Northeast regional biomass program. Retrospective, 1983--1993  

SciTech Connect

Ten years ago, when Congress initiated the Regional Biomass Energy Program, biomass fuel use in the Northeast was limited primarily to the forest products industry and residential wood stoves. An enduring form of energy as old as settlement in the region, residential wood-burning now takes its place beside modern biomass combustion systems in schools and other institutions, industrial cogeneration facilities, and utility-scale power plants. Biomass today represents more than 95 percent of all renewable energy consumed in the Northeast: a little more than one-half quadrillion BTUs yearly, or five percent of the region`s total energy demand. Yet given the region`s abundance of overstocked forests, municipal solid waste and processed wood residues, this represents just a fraction of the energy potential the biomass resource has to offer.This report provides an account of the work of the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) over it`s first ten years. The NRBP has undertaken projects to promote the use of biomass energy and technologies.

Savitt, S.; Morgan, S. [eds.] [Citizens Conservation Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

1995-01-01

416

Environmentally-benign conversion of biomass residues to electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As petroleum resources are finite, it is imperative to use them wisely in energy conversion applications and, at the same time, develop alternative energy sources. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources that can be used to partially replace fossil fuels. Biomass-based fuels can be produced domestically and can reduce dependency on fuel imports. Due to their abundant supply, and given that to an appreciable extent they can be considered carbon-neutral, their use for power generation is of technological interest. However, whereas biomasses can be directly burned in furnaces, such a conventional direct combustion technique is ill-controlled and typically produces considerable amounts of health-hazardous airborne compounds [1,2]. Thus, an alternative technology for biomass utilization is described herein to address increasing energy needs in an environmentally-benign manner. More specifically, a multi-step process/device is presented to accept granulated or pelletized biomass, and generate an easily-identifiable form of energy as a final product. To achieve low emissions of products of incomplete combustion, the biomass is gasified pyrolytically, mixed with air, ignited and, finally, burned in nominally premixed low-emission flames. Combustion is thus indirect, since the biomass is not directly burned, instead its gaseous pyrolyzates are burned upon mixing with air. Thereby, combustion is well-controlled and can be complete. A demonstration device has been constructed to convert the internal energy of plastics into "clean" thermal energy and, eventually to electricity.

Davies, Andrew

417

Nutritional Composition and Protein Quality of the Edible Beetle Holotrichia parallela.  

PubMed

The adult edible beetle Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) represents a traditional food source in China. Based on nutritional analyses, adult H. parallela is high in protein (70%) and minerals and low in fat. H. parallela contained approximately 10% chitin; the corrected protein content was 66%. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were the most abundant fatty acids. Of the total amino acids in H. parallela, 47.4% were essential amino acids. The amino acid scores were 87 and 100, based on the corrected crude and net protein contents, respectively; threonine was the limiting amino acid. In vitro protein digestibility was 78%, and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score was 89 based on the net protein content. Adult H. parallela may be a potential source of proteins and minerals for humans and animals. PMID:25347830

Yang, Qingli; Liu, Shaofang; Sun, Jie; Yu, Lina; Zhang, Chushu; Bi, Jie; Yang, Zhen

2014-01-01

418

Effects of pitfall trap preservative on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.

McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.

2007-01-01

419

Resource shifts in Malagasy dung beetles: contrasting processes revealed by dissimilar spatial genetic patterns  

PubMed Central

The endemic dung beetle subtribe Helictopleurina has 65 species mostly in wet forests in eastern Madagascar. There are no extant native ungulates in Madagascar, but three Helictopleurus species have shifted to the introduced cattle dung in open habitats in the past 1500 years. Helictopleurus neoamplicollis and Helictopleurus marsyas exhibit very limited cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 haplotype diversity and a single haplotype is present across Madagascar, suggesting that these species shifted to cattle dung in a small region followed by rapid range expansion. In contrast, patterns of molecular diversity in Helictopleurus quadripunctatus indicate a gradual diet shift across most of southern Madagascar, consistent with somewhat broader diet in this species. The three cattle dung-using Helictopleurus species have significantly greater geographical ranges than the forest-dwelling species, apparently because the shift to the currently very abundant new resource relaxed interspecific competition that hinders range expansion in the forest species. Ecology Letters (2008) 11: 1208–1215 PMID:18778273

Hanski, Ilkka; Wirta, Helena; Nyman, Toshka; Rahagalala, Pierre

2008-01-01

420

Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.  

PubMed

Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa. PMID:21553309

Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

2011-08-01

421

Broadscale specificity in a bark beetle-fungal symbiosis: a spatio-temporal analysis of the mycangial fungi of the western pine beetle.  

PubMed

Whether and how mutualisms are maintained through ecological and evolutionary time is a seldom studied aspect of bark beetle-fungal symbioses. All bark beetles are associated with fungi and some species have evolved structures for transporting their symbiotic partners. However, the fungal assemblages and specificity in these symbioses are not well known. To determine the distribution of fungi associated with the mycangia of the western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), we collected beetles from across the insect's geographic range including multiple genetically distinct populations. Two fungi, Entomocorticium sp. B and Ceratocystiopsis brevicomi, were isolated from the mycangia of beetles from all locations. Repeated sampling at two sites in Montana found that Entomocorticium sp. B was the most prevalent fungus throughout the beetle's flight season, and that females carrying that fungus were on average larger than females carrying C. brevicomi. We present evidence that throughout the flight season, over broad geographic distances, and among genetically distinct populations of beetle, the western pine beetle is associated with the same two species of fungi. In addition, we provide evidence that one fungal species is associated with larger adult beetles and therefore might provide greater benefit during beetle development. The importance and maintenance of this bark beetle-fungus interaction is discussed. PMID:25004995

Bracewell, Ryan R; Six, Diana L

2014-11-01

422

Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass  

SciTech Connect

Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-11-21

423

Biomass fuels update. TVAs biomass fuels program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equipment was installed and tests were conducted on the ethanol from hardwood project. Location of hardwoods, to improve forest management, and to reduce the cost of harvesting woody biomass was assessed. Substantial underutilized cropland exists in the Valley, and a questionnaire survey was administered to supplement available cropland data. The potential liquid fuel yields and production management practices for alternative starch, sugar, and vegetable oil crops were determined to obtain benchmark data and to evaluate alcohol production from alternative agricultural feedstocks. Workshops were conducted to provide information on production of alcohol.

1982-02-01

424

The function of resilin in beetle wings.  

PubMed Central

This account shows the distribution of elastic elements in hind wings in the scarabaeid Pachnoda marginata and coccinellid Coccinella septempunctata (both Coleoptera). Occurrence of resilin, a rubber-like protein, in some mobile joints together with data on wing unfolding and flight kinematics suggest that resilin in the beetle wing has multiple functions. First, the distribution pattern of resilin in the wing correlates with the particular folding pattern of the wing. Second, our data show that resilin occurs at the places where extra elasticity is needed, for example in wing folds, to prevent material damage during repeated folding and unfolding. Third, resilin provides the wing with elasticity in order to be deformable by aerodynamic forces. This may result in elastic energy storage in the wing. PMID:10983820

Haas, F; Gorb, S; Blickhan, R

2000-01-01

425

Ultrastructure of the compound eye of the diploid female beetle, Xyleborus ferrugineus.  

PubMed

The compound eye of female (diploid) Xyleborus ferrugineus beetles was examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The eye is emarginate, and externally consists of roughly 70-100 facets. Each ommatidium is composed of a thickly biconvex lenslet with about 50 electron dense and rare layers. The lens facet overlies a crystalline cone of the acone type which is roughly hourglass-shaped. Pigment cells envelop the entire ommatidium, and pigment granules also are abundant throughout the cytoplasm of the 8 retinular cells. The rhabdomeres of 2 centrally situated photoreceptor cells effectively fuse into a rhabdom that extends from the base of the crystalline cone deeply into the ommatidium. Six distal peripheral retinular cells encircle the 2 central cells, and their rhabdomeres join laterally to form a rhabdomeric ring around the central rhabdom. The rhabdom and rhabdomeric ring are effectively separated by the cytoplasm of the two central retinular cells which contains the usual organelles and an abundance of shielding pigment granules. Eight axons per ommatidium gather in a tracheae-less fascicle before exiting the eye through the fenestrate basement membrane. No tracheation was observed among the retinular cells. Each Semper cell of each observed crystalline cone contained an abundance of virus-like particles near the cell nucleus. The insect is laboratory reared, and the visual system seems very amenable to photoreceptor investigations. PMID:1203972

Chu, H; Norris, D M; Carlson, S D

1975-12-29

426

Solar abundance of platinum  

PubMed Central

Three lines of neutral platinum, located at ? 2997.98 Å, ? 3064.71 Å, and ? 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

1975-01-01

427

Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

2009-04-01

428

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

429

An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts.  

PubMed

Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3500 species of ambrosia beetles. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusual in that some are plant pathogens that cause significant damage in naïve natural and cultivated ecosystems, and currently threaten avocado production in the United States, Israel and Australia. Most AFC fusaria produce unusual clavate macroconidia that serve as a putative food source for their insect mutualists. AFC symbionts were abundant in the heads of four Euwallacea spp., which suggests that they are transported within and from the natal gallery in mandibular mycangia. In a four-locus phylogenetic analysis, the AFC was resolved in a strongly supported monophyletic group within the previously described Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). Divergence-time estimates place the origin of the AFC in the early Miocene ?21.2 Mya, which coincides with the hypothesized adaptive radiation of the Xyleborini. Two strongly supported clades within the AFC (Clades A and B) were identified that include nine species lineages associated with ambrosia beetles, eight with Euwallacea spp. and one reportedly with Xyleborus ferrugineus, and two lineages with no known beetle association. More derived lineages within the AFC showed fixation of the clavate (club-shaped) macroconidial trait, while basal lineages showed a mix of clavate and more typical fusiform macroconidia. AFC lineages consisted mostly of genetically identical individuals associated with specific insect hosts in defined geographic locations, with at least three interspecific hybridization events inferred based on discordant placement in individual gene genealogies and detection of recombinant loci. Overall, these data are consistent with a strong evolutionary trend toward obligate symbiosis coupled with secondary contact and interspecific hybridization. PMID:23608321

Kasson, Matthew T; O'Donnell, Kerry; Rooney, Alejandro P; Sink, Stacy; Ploetz, Randy C; Ploetz, Jill N; Konkol, Joshua L; Carrillo, Daniel; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Smith, Jason A; Black, Adam W; Hulcr, Jiri; Bateman, Craig; Stefkova, Kristyna; Campbell, Paul R; Geering, Andrew D W; Dann, Elizabeth K; Eskalen, Akif; Mohotti, Keerthi; Short, Dylan P G; Aoki, Takayuki; Fenstermacher, Kristi A; Davis, Donald D; Geiser, David M

2013-07-01

430

Full length article Prescribed fire and mechanical thinning effects on bark beetle caused  

E-print Network

. ponderosae Scolytus ventralis Bark beetles Second order fire effects Fire surrogates a b s t r a c t We by the fir engraver beetle (Scolytus ventralis LeConte) was assessed pre-treatments, one-year post

Stephens, Scott L.

431

LIFE HISTORY OF THE SCAVENGER WATER BEETLE, HYDROUS (HYDROPHILUS) TRIANGULARIS, AND ITS  

E-print Network

LIFE HISTORY OF THE SCAVENGER WATER BEETLE, HYDROUS (HYDROPHILUS) TRIANGULARIS, AND ITS ECONOMIC. In recent revisions of the scavenger water beetles Say's species triangularis has been referred to the genus

432

Do Pine Beetles Fan the Flames in Western Forests? - Duration: 5:18.  

NASA Video Gallery

As mountain pine beetles damage whole regions of Western forests, some worry that the dead trees left behind have created a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? I...

433

NEW NEBRASKA OCCURRENCES OF THE ENDANGERED AMERICAN BURYING BEETLE (COLEOPTERA: SILPHIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new records for the endangered American burying beetle, Nicrophorus americanus Olivier, are reported from the Nebraska Sandhills. Nebraska is one of only four states in the United States where this beetle remains extant.

Brett C. Ratcliffe; Mary Liz Jameson

1992-01-01

434

Molecular evolution and radiation of dung beetles in Madagascar Luisa Orsini*, Helena Koivulehto and Ilkka Hanski  

E-print Network

Molecular evolution and radiation of dung beetles in Madagascar Luisa Orsini*, Helena Koivulehto 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Accepted 19 September 2006 Abstract Madagascar taxonomic levels, making Madagascar one of the hotspots of global biodiversity. Dung beetles, represented

Hanski, Ilkka

435

The Response of Saprotrophic Beetles to Coast Live Oaks Infected With  

E-print Network

419 The Response of Saprotrophic Beetles to Coast Live Oaks Infected With Phytophthora ramorum1 Saprotrophic ambrosia and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) tunnel into the bark overlying cankers caused

Standiford, Richard B.

436

77 FR 40564 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Asian Longhorned Beetle Consumer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Longhorned Beetle Consumer Research Survey AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...notice announces the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...longhorned beetle consumer research survey, contact...

2012-07-10

437

New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

1996-01-01

438

How-To-Do-It. A Beetle, a Bur, and the Potato: An Introduction to Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the interrelation of the potato beetle, the buffalo-bur, and the potato is used as an introduction to ecology. Methods of controlling the beetle and ecological principles illustrated in the interrelationship are discussed. (JN)

Jantzen, Paul G.

1983-01-01

439

The conversion of biomass to ethanol and microbial biomass protein  

E-print Network

The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to two value-added products, microbial biomass protein (MBP) and ethanol, was studied. Bagasse (BAG) was hydrolyzed by Phanarochaete chtysosporium. Excess sugars were utilized by a diazotrophic bacteria...

Reshamwala, Sultan

1994-01-01

440

Minimally refined biomass fuel  

DOEpatents

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1984-01-01

441

Fixed Bed Biomass Gasifier  

SciTech Connect

The report details work performed by Gazogen to develop a novel biomass gasifier for producimg electricity from commercially available hardwood chips. The research conducted by Gazogen under this grant was intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new means of producing electricity from wood chips and other biomass and carbonaceous fuels. The technical feasibility of the technology has been furthered as a result of the DOE grant, and work is expected to continue. The economic feasibility can only be shown when all operational problems have been overocme. The technology could eventually provide a means of producing electricity on a decentralized basis from sustainably cultivated plants or plant by-products.

Carl Bielenberg

2006-03-31

442

Clean fuels from biomass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

Hsu, Y.-Y.

1976-01-01

443

Presence and Diversity of Streptomyces in Dendroctonus and Sympatric Bark Beetle Galleries Across North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have revealed several examples of intimate associations between insects and Actinobacteria, including the Southern\\u000a Pine Beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and the Spruce Beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis. Here, we surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria co-occurring with 10 species of Dendroctonus bark beetles across the United States, using both phylogenetic and community ecology approaches. From these 10 species, and\\u000a 19 other scolytine beetles that

Jiri Hulcr; Aaron S. Adams; Kenneth Raffa; Richard W. Hofstetter; Kier D. Klepzig; Cameron R. Currie

2011-01-01

444

Attack and Reproductive Success of Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Fire-Damaged Lodgepole Pines  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-intensityÞres are known to kill adult and larval bark beetles, but it is unclear how mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) respond to trees that have been damaged bylower-intensityground Þres at the peripheryof burns. We conducted an experiment to determine whether mountain pine beetles preferentiallyattack trees that have been damaged byÞre and to determine how Þre damage affects beetlesÕ reproductive

Ché M. Elkin; Mary L. Reid

2004-01-01

445

Influence of brood hosts on host preferences of bark beetle parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman (SPB) is attacked by several species of hymenopterous parasites1,2 the most common of which also parasitise other bark beetles3-5 including the engraver beetles Ips grandicollis (Eichhoif), I. avulsus (Eichhoff), I. calligraphus (Germar), I. pini (Say); and the eastern juniper bark beetle, Phloeosinus dentatus (Say). The increasing importance of pest management has focused attention

Louis H. Kudon; C. W. Berisford

1980-01-01

446

Identification of sound-producing hydrophilid beetles in underwater recordings using digital signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For this study, a classification program capable of identifying four hydrophilid beetle species from vocalizations in under water hydrophone recordings was created. Within single-species recordings, classification accuracy ranged from 81-98%. Mathematical features, based on the frequency content of exemplar beetle vocalizations, were used to compare hydrophilid vocalizations with new sound data in Matlab(TM) and classify sounds as a beetle species, beetle distress call, or noise.

Rudh, Nissa E.

447

Nebular Abundance Errors  

E-print Network

The errors inherent to the use of the standard "ionization correction factor" ("i_CF") method of calculating nebular conditions and relative abundances of H, He, N, O, Ne, S, and Ar in emission line nebulae have been investigated under conditions typical for planetary nebulae. The photoionization code CLOUDY was used to construct a series of model nebulae with properties spanning the range typical of PNe. Its radial "profiles" of bright, frequently observed optical emission lines were then summed over a variety of "apertures" to generate sets of emission line measurements. These resulting line ratios were processed using the i_CF method to "derive" nebular conditions and abundances. We find that for lines which are summed over the entire nebula the i_CF-derived abundances differ from the input abundances by less than 5% for He and O up to 25% or more for Ne, S, and Ar. For resolved observations, however, the discrepancies are often much larger and are systematically variable with radius. This effect is especially pronounced in low-ionization zones where nitrogen and oxygen are neutral or once-ionized such as in FLIERs, ansae and ionization fronts. We argue that the reports of stellar-enriched N in the FLIERs of several PNe are probably specious.

J. Alexander; B. Balick

1997-05-01

448

Abundances of light elements.  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

Pagel, B E

1993-01-01

449

NSE abundance data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method of calculating nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is presented. Basic equations are carefully solved using arbitrary precision arithmetic. A special interpolation procedure is then used to retrieve all abundances using tabulated results for neutrons and protons, together with basic nuclear data. Proton and neutron abundance tables, basic nuclear data, and partition functions for nuclides used in the calculations are provided. A simple interpolation algorithm using pre-calculated p and n abundances tabulated as functions of kT, ? and Ye is outlined. Unique properties of this method are: (1) ability to pick up out of NSE selected nuclei only, (2) computational time scaling linearly with number of re-calculated abundances, (3) relatively small amount of stored data: only two large tables, (4) slightly faster than solving the NSE equations using traditional Newton-Raphson methods for small networks (few tens of species); superior for huge (800-3000) networks, (5) does not require initial guess; works well on random input, (6) can be tailored to specific application, (7) ability to use third-party NSE solvers to obtain fully compatible tables, and (8) encapsulation of the NSE code for bug-free calculations. A range of applications for this approach is possible: covering tests of traditional NSE Newton-Raphson codes, generating starting values, code-to-code verification, and possible replacement of the old legacy procedures in supernova simulations.

Odrzywolek, Andrzej

2012-07-01

450

Landlessness amidst Abundance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing countries like Uganda are abundantly endowed with natural resources with large chunks of land lying under -utilized. Ironically, landlessness is one of most frequently cited cause of poverty, particularly among the chronically poor. Factors that perpetuate landlessness among the poorest are not well understood. This paper provides insights into the categories of the chronically poor that are most susceptible

Rosetti Nabbumba Nayenga

2003-01-01

451

Distance and Sex Determine Host Plant Choice by Herbivorous Beetles  

PubMed Central

Background Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? Methodology We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis) when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus) with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. Conclusion Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a slightly damaged plant can help males to localize putative mating partners. PMID:23405176

Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin

2013-01-01

452

Effect of Verbenone on Five Species of Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Lodgepole Pine Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response by Þve species of bark beetles to a range of verbenone doses were tested in bioassays using Lindgren funnel traps baited with attractant semiochemicals. The objective was to determine how these bark beetles respond to verbenone, a purported anti-aggregation pheromone of several economically signiÞcant bark beetle species. Catches of Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a species attacking live trees, were

B. Staffan Lindgren; Daniel R. Miller

2002-01-01

453

Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine, the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Say), Ips calligraphus (Germar), Ips latidens (LeConte), Ips knausi Swaine and

José F. Negrón; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

2009-01-01

454

USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-43. 2006 137 Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle  

E-print Network

have become established in North America. The Asian longhorned beetle is a large wood-boring beetle. The emerald ash borer, a wood-boring beetle native to Asia, was detected in 2002 in southeastern Michigan and the emerald ash borer, several of these insects tunnel under tree bark and into wood and are thought to have

455

Monoterpenes influence response of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to attractant-baited traps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wood-boring ambrosia beetles have become increasingly problematic in nursery-grown ornamentals. Reports from Ohio have documented ambrosia beetle attacks on deciduous trees, while anecdotal evidence suggests attacks are not occurring on coniferous evergreens. Since colonization by ambrosia beetles...