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1

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction  

E-print Network

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS - ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity

Sanders, Nathan J.

2

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction  

E-print Network

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS - ORIGINAL PAPER Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity

Sanders, Nathan J.

3

Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The beetles, or Coleoptera, are so abundant that it is said that one in every five living species on earth is a beetle. This Topic in Depth explores the vast insect order of Coleoptera. From the Zoological Institute at the Russian Academy of Sciences, the first site (1) contains beautiful images and information sections regarding Morphology and Anatomy, Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Distribution, Collections, and Publications. The second (2) site was created by Vratislav Bejsak-Colloredo-Mansfeld (of the University of Sydney) for beetle collectors, researchers, ecologists, entomologists, and others interested in beetles. The site contains links to a Coleoptera Bibliography; Coleoptera Databases and Catalogues; A Glossary of Entomological Terms; Images and Sound Library; and more. The third (3) site presents the Coleopterists Society, an international organization devoted to the study of beetles. The website contains information about the Society, upcoming meetings, prizes and awards, beetle conservation, resources, and news. From the University of Texas in Austin, the fourth (4) website presents Water Beetle World, the Newsletter for aquatic Coleoptera workers. The Newsletter serves as a forum for workers to share publication announcements, images, species checklists, resources, and more. The fifth (5) website presents the Purple Loosestrife Project, which was developed collaboratively by Michigan State University and Michigan Sea Grant Extension. The Project, designed for K-12 teachers and students, as well as other concerned citizens, involves the use of certain beetle species to help control the spread of Purple Loosestrife, and encourage the recovery of native vegetation. From Insecta Inspecta World, a project of the Honors Academy at Thornton Jr. High School in Fremont, CA (reported on in the October 18, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences), the sixth (6) site shares concise information about, and several great images of, Scarab beetles. From the archives of Iowa State University's Entomology Image Gallery, the final (7) site contains a collection of good-quality Coleoptera images including bean leaf beetles, blister beetles, wireworms, flea beetles, corn rootworms, weevils, and ladybird beetles.

4

Thinning of mature lodgepole pine stands increases scolytid bark beetle abundance and diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinning of forests has been used as a management tool for bark beetles; however, its effects have only been studied in a limited number of bark beetle species, and the causes of its effectiveness remain unclear. We sampled the abundance and diversity of secondary bark beetles in mature thinned and unthinned lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., stands (ca.

Trevor D. Hindmarch; Mary L. Reid

2001-01-01

5

The relative abundance of mountain pine beetle fungal associates through the beetle life cycle in pine trees.  

PubMed

The mountain pine beetle (MPB) is a native bark beetle of western North America that attacks pine tree species, particularly lodgepole pine. It is closely associated with the ophiostomatoid ascomycetes Grosmannia clavigera, Leptographium longiclavatum, Ophiostoma montium, and Ceratocystiopsis sp.1, with which it is symbiotically associated. To develop a better understanding of interactions between beetles, fungi, and host trees, we used target-specific DNA primers with qPCR to assess the changes in fungal associate abundance over the stages of the MPB life cycle that occur in galleries under the bark of pine trees. Multivariate analysis of covariance identified statistically significant changes in the relative abundance of the fungi over the life cycle of the MPB. Univariate analysis of covariance identified a statistically significant increase in the abundance of Ceratocystiopsis sp.1 through the beetle life cycle, and pair-wise analysis showed that this increase occurs after the larval stage. In contrast, the abundance of O. montium and Leptographium species (G. clavigera, L. longiclavatum) did not change significantly through the MPB life cycle. From these results, the only fungus showing a significant increase in relative abundance has not been formally described and has been largely ignored by other MPB studies. Although our results were from only one site, in previous studies we have shown that the fungi described were all present in at least ten sites in British Columbia. We suggest that the role of Ceratocystiopsis sp.1 in the MPB system should be explored, particularly its potential as a source of nutrients for teneral adults. PMID:22735936

Khadempour, Lily; LeMay, Valerie; Jack, David; Bohlmann, Jörg; Breuil, Colette

2012-11-01

6

Aphid and ladybird beetle abundance depend on the interaction of spatial effects and genotypic diversity.  

PubMed

Intraspecific variation and genotypic diversity of host-plants can affect the structure of associated arthropod communities and the dynamics of populations. Similarly, neighboring plants can also affect interactions between host-plants and their associated arthropods. However, most studies on the effects of host-plant genotypes have largely ignored the potential effects of neighboring host-plants on arthropod communities. In this study, we used a common garden experiment to ask how spatial effects of neighboring patches, along with genotype identity and genotypic diversity in tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima), affect the abundances of a common goldenrod herbivore (Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum) and their dominant predator (Harmonia axyridis, a ladybird beetle). Aphid abundance varied 80-fold among genotypes, while ladybird beetle abundance was not affected by genotype identity. Additionally, there were strong effects of neighboring plots: aphid abundance in a focal plot was positively correlated to aphid abundance in nearby plots, suggesting strong spatial patterning in the abundance of aphids. Neither aphid nor ladybird beetle abundance was affected by genotypic diversity. However, focal plot genotypic diversity mediated the strength of the neighborhood effect (i.e., strong effects for genotype polyculture focal plots and weak effects for genotype monoculture focal plots). Our results show that aphids were directly influenced by host-plant genotype identity while ladybird beetles responded mainly to prey abundance, and suggest that genotypic diversity can influence the effects of spatial processes on the plant-herbivore interactions. PMID:21805301

Genung, Mark A; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Sanders, Nathan J

2012-01-01

7

Global distribution of microbial abundance and biomass in subseafloor sediment  

PubMed Central

The global geographic distribution of subseafloor sedimentary microbes and the cause(s) of that distribution are largely unexplored. Here, we show that total microbial cell abundance in subseafloor sediment varies between sites by ca. five orders of magnitude. This variation is strongly correlated with mean sedimentation rate and distance from land. Based on these correlations, we estimate global subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance to be 2.9?1029 cells [corresponding to 4.1 petagram (Pg) C and ?0.6% of Earth’s total living biomass]. This estimate of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance is roughly equal to previous estimates of total microbial abundance in seawater and total microbial abundance in soil. It is much lower than previous estimates of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance. In consequence, we estimate Earth’s total number of microbes and total living biomass to be, respectively, 50–78% and 10–45% lower than previous estimates. PMID:22927371

Kallmeyer, Jens; Pockalny, Robert; Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Smith, David C.; D’Hondt, Steven

2012-01-01

8

Pesticide treatments affect mountain pine beetle abundance and woodpecker foraging behavior.  

PubMed

In British Columbia, Canada, management efforts used to control mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have included treatment of infested trees with an organic arsenic pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA). Cumulative pesticide applications over a large geographic area have generated concerns about arsenic loading in the environment and potential toxicity to nontarget wildlife. We investigated woodpecker foraging patterns in infested stands with and without MSMA treatment using a combination of tree debarking indices, point count surveys, and radiotelemetry methods in addition to insect flight traps to measure mountain pine beetle emergence. Debarking indices indicated woodpecker foraging of MSMA-treated trees was significantly lower than nontreated trees in all sampling years. However, approximately 40% of MSMA trees had some evidence of foraging. Focal observations of foraging woodpeckers and point count surveys in MSMA treatment areas further confirmed that several species of woodpeckers regularly used MSMA stands during the breeding season. Radio-tagged Hairy (Picoides villosus) and Three-toed (Picoides dorsalis) Woodpeckers spent on average 13% and 23% (range 0-66%) of their time, respectively, in treated stands, despite the fact that these areas only comprised on average 1-2% of their core home range (1 km2). MSMA strongly reduced the emergence of several bark beetle (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) species including the mountain pine beetle, and there was a highly significant positive relationship between Dendroctonus beetle abundance and Three-toed Woodpecker abundance. This study identifies the potential negative impact that forest management practices using pesticides can have on woodpecker populations that depend on bark beetles and their host trees. PMID:18372564

Morrissey, Christy A; Dods, Patti L; Elliott, John E

2008-01-01

9

Temperature determines symbiont abundance in a multipartite bark beetle-fungus ectosymbiosis.  

PubMed

In this study, we report evidence that temperature plays a key role in determining the relative abundance of two mutualistic fungi associated with an economically and ecologically important bark beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. The symbiotic fungi possess different optimal temperature ranges. These differences determine which fungus is vectored by dispersing host beetles as temperatures fluctuate over a season. Grosmannia clavigera is the predominant fungus carried by dispersing beetles during cool periods but decreases in prevalence as daily maximum temperatures approach 25 degrees C, and becomes extremely rare when temperatures reach or exceed 32 degrees C. In contrast, Ophiostoma montium increases in prevalence as temperatures approach 25 degrees C, and becomes the predominant symbiont dispersed when temperatures reach or exceed 32 degrees C. The possession of different optimal growth temperatures may facilitate the stable coexistence of the two fungi by supporting growth of each fungus at different times, minimizing direct competition. Furthermore, the beetle may reduce its risk of being left aposymbiotic by exploiting not one, but two symbionts, whose combined growth optima span a wide range of environmental conditions. The possession of multiple symbionts with different temperature tolerances may allow the beetle to occupy highly variable habitats over a wide geographic range. Such temperature-driven symbiont shifts are likely to have major consequences for both the host and its symbionts under current temperature regimes and those predicted to occur because of climate change. PMID:17264992

Six, D L; Bentz, B J

2007-07-01

10

Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

Newell, P.; King, S.

2009-01-01

11

Effects of bark beetle outbreaks on species composition, biomass, and nutrient distribution in a mixed deciduous forest  

SciTech Connect

The increment of forest biomass and nutrient content on Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee, from 1967 to 1983 was interrupted by two bark beetle outbreaks. An outbreak of the southern pine beetle in the early 1970s and an outbreak of the hickory borer in the late 1970s, early 1980s killed a number of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and hickory (Carya spp.) respectively. Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) growth increased over this 16-year period, especially in response to the mortality of shortleaf pine. The net result of these events was little change in total biomass but a substantial shift in species composition (from pine to yellow-poplar) in the Pine forest type over this period. No species has yet responded to the mortality of hickory. Due to the shift in species composition in the Pine type, calcium and magnesium accumulation rates in biomass increased but foliage biomass decreased over the inventory period. There was little change in foliage biomass or nutrient content in other forest types. The beetle attacks, combined with apparently natural self-thinning, caused a large increase in standing dead biomass and in nutrient return via tree fall. This increased rate of return will substantially alter forest floor nutrient content and availability, especially with regard to calcium and nitrogen.

Johnson, D.W.; Henderson, G.S.; Harris, W.F.

1987-01-01

12

SPECIES-ABUNDANCE-BIOMASS RESPONSES BY ESTUARINE MACROBENTHOS TO SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION.  

EPA Science Inventory

Macrobenthic community responses can be measured through concerted changes in univariate metrics, including species richness, total abundance, and total biomass. The classic model of pollution effects on marine macroinvertebrate communities recognizes that species/abundance/bioma...

13

Disruption of ant-aphid mutualism in canopy enhances the abundance of beetles on the forest floor.  

PubMed

Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web. PMID:22558156

Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

2012-01-01

14

Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eastern South Dakota on alfalfa and soybean relative to tillage, fertilization, and yield.  

PubMed

Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without added nitrogen (N). Populations were also sampled early and late season in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Beetles were present in alfalfa by late May and most were reproductively active within a week, but their presence in alfalfa did not always precede soybean emergence. Most beetles taken from alfalfa in late fall were teneral; all were previtellogenic and unmated. Reproductively active beetles were detected in soybeans as soon as seedlings emerged. A partial second generation apparently occurred each year. First-generation beetles started to emerge in soybean fields during the first or third week of July but, whether emergence started early or late, most beetles emerging after July seemingly failed to mature their eggs and started leaving soybeans within several weeks of eclosion. This pattern suggested that any second generation arose from only the earliest emerging beetles of the first generation, with later emerging individuals having to overwinter before reproducing. Thus, any factors delaying emergence of the first generation, such as delayed soybean planting, could potentially limit its reproductive capacity through winter mortality. Cumulative seasonal beetle counts were lower in N-treated subplots and in ridge-tilled compared with chisel-tilled plots. Soybean grain yield increased with decreases in peak abundance of first-generation beetles and with N fertilization. PMID:20550786

Hammack, Leslie; Pikul, Joseph L; West, Mark S

2010-06-01

15

Micronekton abundance and biomass in Hawaiian waters as influenced by seamounts, eddies, and the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micronekton abundance, biomass, and community composition was determined from 58 Cobb trawl samples taken from 2005 to 2008 at several locations in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. The results indicated a strong influence of the lunar illumination on micronekton abundance and biomass. This effect was evident in shallow night tows and probably was the result of lunar light affecting the nighttime depths of migrating species. The abundance and biomass of micronekton is remarkably consistent between years and areas in Hawaiian waters after the affects of moon phase are accounted for. Micronekton, principally migratory myctophids, were reduced over the summit of Cross Seamount but not Finch Seamount that has a summit below the daytime depth of most migrators. However, during a new moon, micronekton abundance over Cross seamount was similar to surrounding areas either because of altered migration patterns or because predators such as tunas cannot forage as effectively at night without lunar illumination. Species belonging to the Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary layer community were found to vary in presence and abundance between years at Cross Seamount suggesting that a consistent seamount associated fauna does not exist. Sparse sampling of a cyclonic mid-ocean eddy suggested very high micronekton abundance and biomass both in shallow waters at night but also at depth during the day. Although preliminary, these results suggest that eddies may aggregate the micronekton which probably feed on the enhanced secondary productivity.

Drazen, Jeffrey C.; De Forest, Lisa G.; Domokos, Reka

2011-05-01

16

Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

17

Use of Droplet Digital PCR for Estimation of Fish Abundance and Biomass in Environmental DNA Surveys  

PubMed Central

An environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis method has been recently developed to estimate the distribution of aquatic animals by quantifying the number of target DNA copies with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). A new quantitative PCR technology, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), partitions PCR reactions into thousands of droplets and detects the amplification in each droplet, thereby allowing direct quantification of target DNA. We evaluated the quantification accuracy of qPCR and ddPCR to estimate species abundance and biomass by using eDNA in mesocosm experiments involving different numbers of common carp. We found that ddPCR quantified the concentration of carp eDNA along with carp abundance and biomass more accurately than qPCR, especially at low eDNA concentrations. In addition, errors in the analysis were smaller in ddPCR than in qPCR. Thus, ddPCR is better suited to measure eDNA concentration in water, and it provides more accurate results for the abundance and biomass of the target species than qPCR. We also found that the relationship between carp abundance and eDNA concentration was stronger than that between biomass and eDNA by using both ddPCR and qPCR; this suggests that abundance can be better estimated by the analysis of eDNA for species with fewer variations in body mass. PMID:25799582

Doi, Hideyuki; Uchii, Kimiko; Takahara, Teruhiko; Matsuhashi, Saeko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Minamoto, Toshifumi

2015-01-01

18

Biomass and abundance biases in European standard gillnet sampling.  

PubMed

The European Standard EN 14757 recommends gillnet mesh sizes that range from 5 to 55mm (knot-to-knot) for the standard monitoring of fish assemblages and suggests adding gillnets with larger mesh sizes if necessary. Our research showed that the recommended range of mesh sizes did not provide a representative picture of fish sizes for larger species that commonly occur in continental Europe. We developed a novel, large mesh gillnet which consists of mesh sizes 70, 90, 110 and 135mm (knot to knot, 10m panels) and assessed its added value for monitoring purposes. From selectivity curves obtained by sampling with single mesh size gillnets (11 mesh sizes 6 - 55mm) and large mesh gillnets, we identified the threshold length of bream (Abramis brama) above which this widespread large species was underestimated by European standard gillnet catches. We tested the European Standard gillnet by comparing its size composition with that obtained during concurrent pelagic trawling and purse seining in a cyprinid-dominated reservoir and found that the European Standard underestimated fish larger than 292mm by 26 times. The inclusion of large mesh gillnets in the sampling design removed this underestimation. We analysed the length-age relationship of bream in the ?ímov Reservoir, and concluded that catches of bream larger than 292mm and older than five years were seriously underrepresented in European Standard gillnet catches. The ?ímov Reservoir is a typical cyprinid-dominated water body where the biomass of bream > 292mm formed 70% of the pelagic trawl and purse seine catch. The species-specific relationships between the large mesh gillnet catch and European Standard catch suggested that the presence of carp (Cyprinus carpio), European catfish (Silurus glanis), tench (Tinca tinca) or bream warrants the use of both gillnet types. We suggest extending the gillnet series in the European Standard to avoid misinterpretation of fish community biomass estimates. PMID:25793776

Šmejkal, Marek; Ricard, Daniel; Prchalová, Marie; ?íha, Milan; Muška, Milan; Blabolil, Petr; ?ech, Martin; Vašek, Mojmír; J?za, Tomáš; Monteoliva Herreras, Agustín; Encina, Lourdes; Peterka, Ji?í; Kube?ka, Jan

2015-01-01

19

Biomass and Abundance Biases in European Standard Gillnet Sampling  

PubMed Central

The European Standard EN 14757 recommends gillnet mesh sizes that range from 5 to 55mm (knot-to-knot) for the standard monitoring of fish assemblages and suggests adding gillnets with larger mesh sizes if necessary. Our research showed that the recommended range of mesh sizes did not provide a representative picture of fish sizes for larger species that commonly occur in continental Europe. We developed a novel, large mesh gillnet which consists of mesh sizes 70, 90, 110 and 135mm (knot to knot, 10m panels) and assessed its added value for monitoring purposes. From selectivity curves obtained by sampling with single mesh size gillnets (11 mesh sizes 6 – 55mm) and large mesh gillnets, we identified the threshold length of bream (Abramis brama) above which this widespread large species was underestimated by European standard gillnet catches. We tested the European Standard gillnet by comparing its size composition with that obtained during concurrent pelagic trawling and purse seining in a cyprinid-dominated reservoir and found that the European Standard underestimated fish larger than 292mm by 26 times. The inclusion of large mesh gillnets in the sampling design removed this underestimation. We analysed the length-age relationship of bream in the ?ímov Reservoir, and concluded that catches of bream larger than 292mm and older than five years were seriously underrepresented in European Standard gillnet catches. The ?ímov Reservoir is a typical cyprinid-dominated water body where the biomass of bream > 292mm formed 70% of the pelagic trawl and purse seine catch. The species-specific relationships between the large mesh gillnet catch and European Standard catch suggested that the presence of carp (Cyprinus carpio), European catfish (Silurus glanis), tench (Tinca tinca) or bream warrants the use of both gillnet types. We suggest extending the gillnet series in the European Standard to avoid misinterpretation of fish community biomass estimates. PMID:25793776

Prchalová, Marie; ?íha, Milan; Muška, Milan; Blabolil, Petr; ?ech, Martin; Vašek, Mojmír; J?za, Tomáš; Monteoliva Herreras, Agustín; Encina, Lourdes; Peterka, Ji?í; Kube?ka, Jan

2015-01-01

20

Phytoplankton community metrics based on absolute and relative abundance and biomass: implications for multivariate analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton and water samples were collected at 12 locations along the temperate lowland Rideau River, Ontario, Canada.\\u000a The stations were visited twice a month from May to September 1998, 1999, and 2000. Phytoplankton communities were quantified\\u000a based on cell abundance, entity abundance (colonies, filaments or free-living cells) and biomass (converted from biovolume\\u000a estimates based on cell shape and biometry), and

Isabelle Lavoie; Paul B. Hamilton; Michel Poulin

21

Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA)  

PubMed Central

Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 ± 1949 SD individuals m?3, but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93–96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m?3 and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs. PMID:20046854

Heidelberg, Karla B.; O'Neil, Keri L.; Bythell, John C.; Sebens, Kenneth P.

2010-01-01

22

Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA).  

PubMed

Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 +/- 1949 SD individuals m(-3), but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93-96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m(-3) and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs. PMID:20046854

Heidelberg, Karla B; O'Neil, Keri L; Bythell, John C; Sebens, Kenneth P

2010-01-01

23

Microzooplankton: Abundance, biomass and contribution to chlorophyll in the Eastern Bering Sea in summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer microzooplankton abundance and biomass were determined for three years, 2008, 2009, and 2010, during a four-year cold period in the eastern Bering Sea. Average microzooplankton densities ranged from 4×103 to 25×103 cells l-1 in the mixed layer. Microzooplankton biomass was 21-25 ?g C l-1 in the mixed layer on the middle shelf (South and North Middle Domains), which has relatively low chlorophyll during summer stratification. However, microzooplankton biomass was about 1/2 that in the less stratified waters near the shelf break, greenbelt, and in the bloom waters in the Pribilof Island Domain. Although phytoplankton biomass was higher in deep chlorophyll maxima (DCM) than in surface waters on the shelf, microzooplankton biomass was generally not elevated in the DCM. High ratios (>1) of microzooplankton biomass to phytoplankton biomass were observed at chlorophyll a concentrations <1 ?g l-1. At times, average microzooplankton biomass was higher than the calculated phytoplankton biomass in the mixed layer in coastal (Inner Domain) and middle shelf (South and North Middle Domain) waters. A confounding factor in comparing microzooplankton and phytoplankton biomass was the contribution of plastid-retaining, mixotrophic, ciliates to chlorophyll a. On average, mixotrophic ciliates comprised 66% of the ciliate biomass, and in the North Middle Domain, on some cruises were estimated to have contributed over 50% of the chlorophyll a in the mixed layer. The 2008-2010 data suggest that extent of stratification, presence of localized blooms, and domain differences all have major influences on coupling of microzooplankton to phytoplankton stocks in summer in the eastern Bering Sea.

Stoecker, Diane K.; Weigel, Alison C.; Stockwell, Dean A.; Lomas, Michael W.

2014-11-01

24

Remarkable Amphibian Biomass and Abundance in an Isolated Wetland: Implications for Wetland  

E-print Network

Remarkable Amphibian Biomass and Abundance in an Isolated Wetland: Implications for Wetland, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154­4004, U.S.A. §Partners in Amphibian and Reptile: Despite the continuing loss of wetland habitats and associated declines in amphibian populations, attempts

Georgia, University of

25

A global diatom database abundance, biovolume and biomass in the world ocean  

E-print Network

A global diatom database ­ abundance, biovolume and biomass in the world ocean Leblanc1 K for Life Sciences Ecophysiology of Plants, PO Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen, the Netherlands} [18]{Plymouth published or unpublished datasets regarding diatom distribution in the world ocean. The data obtained

Boyer, Edmond

26

Macroinvertebrate Abundance and Biomass: 2007 Data, BPA-51; Preliminary Report, February 10, 2009..  

SciTech Connect

Four Excel files containing information on the 2007 macroinvertebrate data were initially provided to Statistical Consulting Services (SCS) by EcoAnalysts on 1/27/2009. These data files contained information on abundance and biomass data at the level of taxonomic groups. The data were subsequently reformatted and compiled, and aggregated for analysis by SCS. All descriptions and analyses below relate to this compiled data. Computations were carried out separately for each site over all sample periods. Basic summary information for both the abundance and biomass data is presented in Print Out No.2. The 14 sites varied widely in their minimum, mean, maximum and variance values. The number of observations ranged from 10 to 18. Some large abundance values (abundance > 40,000) were noted for sites KR6 and KR13. A more detailed summary of each site is given in Print Out No.3. Site KR3, for example, had a mean abundance of 6914 with a sample size of 17. The variance was 4591991 and the standard error of the mean was 1643. The skewness value, a measure of symmetry for the frequency distribution, was moderately large at 1.29 indicating an asymmetric distribution. Biomass for KR3 had a mean value of 0.87 g/m{sup 2} with 17 observations. The variance was 0.8872 and the standard error was 0.228 g/m{sup 2}. Skewness for biomass was also high at 1.29. Further examination of the quantiles and frequency plots for abundance and biomass also indicate considerable skewness. The stem and leaf diagram (frequency plot) for abundance in KR3 shows most of the data centered on smaller values with a few very large counts. The distribution for biomass has a similar pattern. Statistical tests for normality are significant for both response variables in KR3, thus, the hypothesis that the data originates from a symmetric normal distribution is rejected. Because sample size estimation and statistical inference assume normally distributed data, a transformation of the data is required prior to further analysis. As was the case for previous years, the natural logarithm was chosen as a transformation to mitigate distributional skewness. Abundance and biomass for the remaining sites were also notably skewed, therefore, these data were also log transformed prior to analysis. Summary information for the transformed data (referred to as L-abun and L-bio for abundance and biomass, respectively) are given in Print Out No.4. For site KR3, the logarithmic transformation reduced skewness value for biomass to -0.66. The distributions of abundance and biomass in the other sites also generally showed improvement as well. Hence, all subsequent statistical analyses reported here will be based on the log transformed data.

Holderman, Charles

2009-02-10

27

Phenology and Abundance of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Eastern South Dakota on Alfalfa and Soybean Relative to Tillage, Fertilization and Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenology and abundance of bean leaf beetles, Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), were examined throughout two eastern South Dakota growing seasons in relation to grain yields in chisel- and ridge-tilled soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grown in 2-yr rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) with and without a...

28

Studies on the biology, seasonal abundance and insecticidal responses of the lady beetle Scymnus cinctus Leconte  

E-print Network

- age life cycle of 17. 98 days. The first and second larval instars consumed about two aphids per day and the third and fourth larval instars consumed five to eight aphids per day. The adults also were effective aphid predators and consumed from four... to six aphids per day during an adult life which averaged 30 days. Seasonal studies were conducted on the Texas A&N farm near College Station, Texas. ~Sc nus lady beetles have long been known to play an important role in the natural control of cotton...

Jackson, Paul Worsley

1971-01-01

29

Ground penetrating radar measurements show a spatial relationship between coarse root biomass and soil carbon abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In savanna ecosystems, the dynamics of soil organic carbon are complicated by multiple sources of inputs, created by the coexistance of trees and grasses, and by spatial heterogeneity induced by a patchy vegetation structure. A previous study on the spatial pattern of soil carbon abundance on the Kalahari Transect in Southern Africa found that for savannas with sparse woody cover the semivariogram of soil carbon abundance demonstrates periodicity. It is hypothesized that the periodicity is induced by the patchy spatial distribution of the canopies and root systems of woody plants. We tested this by mapping the abundance of coarse woody roots with ground penetrating radar. Spatial patterns of soil carbon abundance were measured at our research site in a previous study. The site is on the Botswana portion of the Kalahari Transect, and has deep, homogeneous, sandy soil. We ran the ground penetrating radar over three 20 by 20 meter square plots in two perpendicular directions. We filtered the radar images to remove background noise and applied a Hilbert transform to reduce echoes. In each plot, we also dug 20 root biomass sampling pits. Using the sampling pit data, we were able to verify that there is a log-linear relationship (r2 = 0.80) between radar signal return and coarse root biomass in the upper 50 cm of soil. Semivariograms of coarse root biomass inferred from radar returns showed periodicity at similar spatial scales to the periodicity in soil carbon abundance. Our results suggest that the belowground components of woody plants, which may extend well beyond their canopies, exert a stronger influence on soil carbon cycling than the aboveground components, illustrating a key issue with the common practice of dividing arid and semiarid landscapes into "under canopy" and "inter-canopy" components in analyses of soil biogeochemistry. We were able to show that a relationship exists between ground penetrating radar returns and coarse root biomass for dry, sandy soils. However, the large amount of information needed to determine a predictive relationship suggests that ground penetrating radar may be more useful in investigating spatial patterns of root biomass than as a tool for quantifying absolute biomass abundance.

O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Gerlein, C.; Bhattachan, A.

2013-05-01

30

Relationships between Plant Diversity and the Abundance and ?-Diversity of Predatory Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Mature Asian Temperate Forest Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and ?-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle ?-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid ?-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems. PMID:24376582

Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

2013-01-01

31

Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada  

PubMed Central

Abstract Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in the guts. These results not only provide evidence of the consumer-resource relations of these beetles but also clarify the relationship between rove beetles, woody debris and fungi. Predominance of yeast-feeding by abundant rove beetles suggests that it may play an important role in their dietary requirements. PMID:24294095

Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F.; Thayer, Margaret K.

2013-01-01

32

Hydrodynamic control of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in northern Svalbard waters (79-81°N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variation in mesozooplankton biomass, abundance and species composition in relation to oceanography was studied in different climatic regimes (warm Atlantic vs. cold Arctic) in northern Svalbard waters. Relationships between the zooplankton community and various environmental factors (salinity, temperature, sampling depth, bottom depth, sea-ice concentrations, algal biomass and bloom stage) were established using multivariate statistics. Our study demonstrated that variability in the physical environment around Svalbard had measurable effect on the pelagic ecosystem. Differences in bottom depth and temperature-salinity best explained more than 40% of the horizontal variability in mesozooplankton biomass (DM m -2) after adjusting for seasonal variability. Salinity and temperature also explained much (21% and 15%, respectively) of the variability in mesozooplankton vertical distribution (ind. m -3) in August. Algal bloom stage, chlorophyll- a biomass, and depth stratum accounted for additional 17% of the overall variability structuring vertical zooplankton distribution. Three main zooplankton communities were identified, including Atlantic species Fritillaria borealis, Oithona atlantica, Calanus finmarchicus, Themisto abyssorum and Aglantha digitale; Arctic species Calanus glacialis, Gammarus wilkitzkii, Mertensia ovum and Sagitta elegans; and deeper-water inhabitants Paraeuchaeta spp., Spinocalanus spp., Aetideopsis minor, Mormonilla minor, Scolecithricella minor, Gaetanus ( Gaidius) tenuispinus, Ostracoda, Scaphocalanus brevicornis and Triconia borealis. Zooplankton biomasses in Atlantic- and Arctic-dominated water masses were similar, but biological "hot-spots" were associated with Arctic communities.

Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Søreide, Janne E.; Kwasniewski, Slawek; Sundfjord, Arild; Hop, Haakon; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Nøst Hegseth, Else

2008-10-01

33

Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an savanna.  

PubMed

In the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, we compared the scarab beetle assemblages in the dung of three wild ungulates (African buffalo, a ruminant foregut fermenter; hippopotamus, nonruminant foregut fermenter; and warthog, nonruminant hindgut fermenter). Dung was collected from two sandy-clay soils with different percentage of coarse sand. We aimed at investigating habitat resource selection by dung beetle species within a savanna natural contest with abundant and diverse food availability. Analyses were performed to detect differences for dung beetle assemblages in abundance, diversity, functional groups. Species richness in the three dung types and in the two soil types was similar. However, warthog dung and sandy-rich soil appeared the preferred habitat resources, in terms of abundance and biomass, while hippopotamus dung hosted the lowest values for these parameters. The analysis of functional groups revealed that slow-burying tunnellers held the major role, both in terms of abundance and biomass, and were mainly found in warthog dung. PMID:22182540

Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Ieradi, Michele

2010-12-01

34

Influence of hydrological seasonality on sandbank benthos: algal biomass and shrimp abundance in a large neotropical river  

E-print Network

In this study, I examined the influence of hydrological seasonality on spatiotemporal variation of algal biomass and shrimp abundance on sandbanks of the Cinaruco River in southwestern Venezuela. Seasonal variations of abiotic and biotic variables...

Montoya Ceballos, Jose Vicente

2009-05-15

35

Differences in bark beetle ( Ips typographus and Pityogenes chalcographus) abundance in a strict spruce reserve and the surrounding spruce forests of Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent windthrow in the strict reserves of spruce in the Kopaonik National Park provides much material favorable for the\\u000a development of Ips typographus (L.) and Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). Therefore it was assumed that the abundance of these bark beetles in the reserves was high\\u000a and that they dispersed to the surrounding spruce forests. To verify this opinion, their

Cedomir Markovic; Aleksandar Stojanovic

2010-01-01

36

Bacterial abundance, biomass and production during spring blooms in the northern Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate importance of bacterioplankton in the Barents Sea, we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of bacterial abundance, biomass and production in relation to spring-bloom stages. During three cruises in 2003-2005, 12 stations were investigated. Average bacterial abundance (±S.D.) in the photic zone was 3.6±3.0×10 5 cells ml -1, corresponding to 7.1±6.1 mg C m -3. Bacterial production in the photic zone was measured using dual labelling technique with 3H-thymidine and 14C-leucine, resulting in average production rates (±S.D.) of 1.5±1.0 and 6.9±4.8 mg C m -3 d -1, respectively. In spite of low water temperature, the bacterial community was well developed and active. Similarity analysis of stations resulted in four distinct spring-bloom stages, covering pre- early-, late- and post-bloom stages. In the photic zone, bacterial biomass on average corresponded to 6±2% of phytoplankton biomass. Highest integrated bacterial biomass was observed at mid- to late-bloom stages. Average bacterial production equalled 32±6% (±S.E., n=24) of particulate primary production. The bacterial production to primary production ratio tended to increase at late-bloom stages. The observed bacterial activity illustrates the importance of the bacterial pathway for channelling carbon from DOC through the microbial food web back into the classical food web, which previously has not been adequately considered in plankton ecosystem models of the Barents Sea.

Sturluson, Maria; Gissel Nielsen, Torkel; Wassmann, Paul

2008-10-01

37

Remarkable amphibian biomass and abundance in an isolated wetland: implications for wetland conservation.  

PubMed

Despite the continuing loss of wetland habitats and associated declines in amphibian populations, attempts to translate wetland losses into measurable losses to ecosystems have been lacking. We estimated the potential productivity from the amphibian community that would be compromised by the loss of a single isolated wetland that has been protected from most industrial, agricultural, and urban impacts for the past 54 years. We used a continuous drift fence at Ellenton Bay, a 10-ha freshwater wetland on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina (U.S.A.), to sample all amphibians for 1 year following a prolonged drought. Despite intensive agricultural use of the land surrounding Ellenton Bay prior to 1951, we documented 24 species and remarkably high numbers and biomass of juvenile amphibians (>360,000 individuals; >1,400 kg) produced during one breeding season. Anurans (17 species) were more abundant than salamanders (7 species), comprising 96.4% of individual captures. Most (95.9%) of the amphibian biomass came from 232095 individuals of a single species of anuran (southern leopard frog[Rana sphenocephala]). Our results revealed the resilience of an amphibian community to natural stressors and historical habitat alteration and the potential magnitude of biomass and energy transfer from isolated wetlands to surrounding terrestrial habitat. We attributed the postdrought success of amphibians to a combination of adult longevity (often >5 years), a reduction in predator abundance, and an abundance of larval food resources. Likewise, the increase of forest cover around Ellenton Bay from <20% in 1951 to >60% in 2001 probably contributed to the long-term persistence of amphibians at this site. Our findings provide an optimistic counterpoint to the issue of the global decline of biological diversity by demonstrating that conservation efforts can mitigate historical habitat degradation. PMID:17002763

Gibbons, J Whitfield; Winne, Christopher T; Scott, David E; Willson, John D; Glaudas, Xavier; Andrews, Kimberly M; Todd, Brian D; Fedewa, Luke A; Wilkinson, Lucas; Tsaliagos, Ria N; Harper, Steven J; Greene, Judith L; Tuberville, Tracey D; Metts, Brian S; Dorcas, Michael E; Nestor, John P; Young, Cameron A; Akre, Tom; Reed, Robert N; Buhlmann, Kurt A; Norman, Jason; Croshaw, Dean A; Hagen, Cris; Rothermel, Betsie B

2006-10-01

38

Soil Nutrient Content Influences the Abundance of Soil Microbes but Not Plant Biomass at the Small-Scale  

PubMed Central

Small-scale heterogeneity of abiotic and biotic factors is expected to play a crucial role in species coexistence. It is known that plants are able to concentrate their root biomass into areas with high nutrient content and also acquire nutrients via symbiotic microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. At the same time, little is known about the small-scale distribution of soil nutrients, microbes and plant biomass occurring in the same area. We examined small-scale temporal and spatial variation as well as covariation of soil nutrients, microbial biomass (using soil fatty acid biomarker content) and above- and belowground biomass of herbaceous plants in a natural herb-rich boreonemoral spruce forest. The abundance of AM fungi and bacteria decreased during the plant growing season while soil nutrient content rather increased. The abundance of all microbes studied also varied in space and was affected by soil nutrient content. In particular, the abundance of AM fungi was negatively related to soil phosphorus and positively influenced by soil nitrogen content. Neither shoot nor root biomass of herbaceous plants showed any significant relationship with variation in soil nutrient content or the abundance of soil microbes. Our study suggests that plants can compensate for low soil phosphorus concentration via interactions with soil microbes, most probably due to a more efficient symbiosis with AM fungi. This compensation results in relatively constant plant biomass despite variation in soil phosphorous content and in the abundance of AM fungi. Hence, it is crucial to consider both soil nutrient content and the abundance of soil microbes when exploring the mechanisms driving vegetation patterns. PMID:24637633

Koorem, Kadri; Gazol, Antonio; Öpik, Maarja; Moora, Mari; Saks, Ülle; Uibopuu, Annika; Sõber, Virve; Zobel, Martin

2014-01-01

39

[Abundance and biomass of planktonic ciliates in the shelf of East China Sea in spring and autumn].  

PubMed

An investigation was made on the abundance and biomass of planktonic ciliates in the shelf of East China Sea in May (spring) and November (autumn), 2011. The abundance of the ciliates in spring and autumn was averagely (614 +/- 861) and (934 +/- 809) ind x L(-1), and the biomass was averagely (1.70 +/- 3.91) and (0.93 +/- 0.99) microg C x L(-1), respectively. The high abundance and biomass in spring were found in coastal and offshore areas, and those in autumn were in offshore only. In the two seasons, the ciliates tended to accumulate in the waters upper layer, and sometimes flocked in the bottom. In the spring, aloricate ciliate species were larger than those in the autumn. Tintinnids occupied (26.9% +/- 34.3)% and (44.9% +/- 25.2)% of the total ciliates abundance in spring and autumn, respectively. In taxonomy, 52 tintinnid species of 27 genera were identified. The most dominant species were Tintinnidium primitivum, Stenosemella oliva, and Tintinnopsis tubulosoides in spring, and Tintinnidium primitivum, Stenosemella parvicollis, and Tintinnopsis nana in autumn. The ciliates abundance showed significant positive correlations with water temperature and Chl a concentration, the tintinnids abundance showed significant negative correlation with water salinity, and the tintinnids community was significantly related to water temperature. PMID:24380353

Yu, Ying; Zhang, Wu-chang; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Cheng-gang; Feng, Mei-ping; Li, Hai-bo; Zhao, Yuan; Xiao, Tian

2013-08-01

40

Diversity, abundance and community network structure in sporocarp-associated beetle communities of the central Appalachian Mountains  

E-print Network

'Connell and Bolger 1997), whereas Diptera (flies) and Coleoptera (beetles) dominate insect communities (Paviour or parasitoids that seek out sporocarps for prey or hosts, yielding a distinct and multitrophic community (Ashe, nutritional content and chemical composition, each of which may shape the arthropod community (Bruns 1984, O

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

41

Dung Beetle Community and Functions along a Habitat-Disturbance Gradient in the Amazon: A Rapid Assessment of Ecological Functions Associated to Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

Braga, Rodrigo F.; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

2013-01-01

42

Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.  

PubMed

Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

Braga, Rodrigo F; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

2013-01-01

43

Vertical changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods down to 3000 m in the southern Bering Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical changes in abundance, biomass and community structure of copepods down to 3000 m depth were studied at a single station of the Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea (53°28'N, 177°00'W, depth 3779 m) on the 14th June 2006. Both abundance and biomass of copepods were greatest near the surface layer and decreased with increase in depth. Abundance and biomass of copepods integrated over 0-3000 m were 1,390,000 inds. m -2 and 5056 mg C m -2, respectively. Copepod carcasses occurred throughout the layer, and the carcass:living specimen ratio was the greatest in the oxygen minimum layer (750-100 m, the ratio was 2.3). A total of 72 calanoid copepod species belonging to 34 genera and 15 families occurred in the 0-3000 m water column (Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida and Poecilostomatoida were not identified to species level). Cluster analysis separated calanoid copepod communities into 5 groups (A-E). Each group was separated by depth, and the depth range of each group was at 0-75 m (A), 75-500 m (B), 500-750 m (C), 750-1500 m (D) and 1500-3000 m (E). Copepods were divided into four types based on the feeding pattern: suspension feeders, suspension feeders in diapause, detritivores and carnivores. In terms of abundance the most dominant group was suspension feeders (mainly Cyclopoida) in the epipelagic zone, and detritivores (mainly Poecilostomatoida) were dominant in the meso- and bathypelagic zones. In terms of biomass, suspension feeders in diapause (calanoid copepods Neocalanus spp. and Eucalanus bungii) were the major component (ca. 10-45%), especially in the 250-3000 m depth. These results are compared with the previous studies in the same region and that down to greater depths in the worldwide oceans.

Homma, Tomoe; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

2010-08-01

44

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE, BIOMASS AND FEEDING OF SHORE BIRDS ON SANDY BEACHES IN THE EASTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

McLachlan, A., Woodridge, T., Schramm, M. & Kühn, M. 1980. Seasonal abundance, biomass and feeding of shore birds on sandy beaches in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Ostrich 51:44-52.The numbers of birds on three Eastern Cape sandy beaches were monitored monthly over one year during 1977\\/78. Dominant among 17 species were the Southern Blackbacked Gull Larus dominicanus, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus

A. McLachlan; T. Wooldridge; M. Schramm; M. Kühn

1980-01-01

45

Large spatial scale variability in bathyal macrobenthos abundance, biomass, ?- and ?-diversity along the Mediterranean continental margin.  

PubMed

The large-scale deep-sea biodiversity distribution of the benthic fauna was explored in the Mediterranean Sea, which can be seen as a miniature model of the oceans of the world. Within the framework of the BIOFUN project ("Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Contrasting Southern European Deep-sea Environments: from viruses to megafauna"), we investigated the large spatial scale variability (over >1,000 km) of the bathyal macrofauna communities that inhabit the Mediterranean basin, and their relationships with the environmental variables. The macrofauna abundance, biomass, community structure and functional diversity were analysed and the ?-diversity and ?-diversity were estimated across six selected slope areas at different longitudes and along three main depths. The macrobenthic standing stock and ?-diversity were lower in the deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean basin, compared to the western and central basins. The macrofaunal standing stock and diversity decreased significantly from the upper bathyal to the lower bathyal slope stations. The major changes in the community composition of the higher taxa and in the trophic (functional) structure occurred at different longitudes, rather than at increasing water depth. For the ?-diversity, very high dissimilarities emerged at all levels: (i) between basins; (ii) between slopes within the same basin; and (iii) between stations at different depths; this therefore demonstrates the high macrofaunal diversity of the Mediterranean basins at large spatial scales. Overall, the food sources (i.e., quantity and quality) that characterised the west, central and eastern Mediterranean basins, as well as sediment grain size, appear to influence the macrobenthic standing stock and the biodiversity along the different slope areas. PMID:25225909

Baldrighi, Elisa; Lavaleye, Marc; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Manini, Elena

2014-01-01

46

Large Spatial Scale Variability in Bathyal Macrobenthos Abundance, Biomass, ?- and ?-Diversity along the Mediterranean Continental Margin  

PubMed Central

The large-scale deep-sea biodiversity distribution of the benthic fauna was explored in the Mediterranean Sea, which can be seen as a miniature model of the oceans of the world. Within the framework of the BIOFUN project (“Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Contrasting Southern European Deep-sea Environments: from viruses to megafauna”), we investigated the large spatial scale variability (over >1,000 km) of the bathyal macrofauna communities that inhabit the Mediterranean basin, and their relationships with the environmental variables. The macrofauna abundance, biomass, community structure and functional diversity were analysed and the ?-diversity and ?-diversity were estimated across six selected slope areas at different longitudes and along three main depths. The macrobenthic standing stock and ?-diversity were lower in the deep-sea sediments of the eastern Mediterranean basin, compared to the western and central basins. The macrofaunal standing stock and diversity decreased significantly from the upper bathyal to the lower bathyal slope stations. The major changes in the community composition of the higher taxa and in the trophic (functional) structure occurred at different longitudes, rather than at increasing water depth. For the ?-diversity, very high dissimilarities emerged at all levels: (i) between basins; (ii) between slopes within the same basin; and (iii) between stations at different depths; this therefore demonstrates the high macrofaunal diversity of the Mediterranean basins at large spatial scales. Overall, the food sources (i.e., quantity and quality) that characterised the west, central and eastern Mediterranean basins, as well as sediment grain size, appear to influence the macrobenthic standing stock and the biodiversity along the different slope areas. PMID:25225909

Baldrighi, Elisa; Lavaleye, Marc; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Manini, Elena

2014-01-01

47

Managing forests infested by spruce beetles in south-central Alaska: Effects on nitrogen availability, understory biomass, and spruce regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Alaska, an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) recently infested over one million hectares of spruce (Picea spp.) forest. As a result, land management agencies have applied different treatments to infested forests to minimize fire hazard and economic loss and facilitate forest regeneration. In this study we investigated the effects of high-intensity burning, whole-tree harvest, whole-tree harvest with nitrogen

Lilly F. Goodman; Bruce A. Hungate

2006-01-01

48

Seasonal occurrence and relative abundance of aphids on potato plants with classical and transgenic characters of resistance to Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).  

PubMed

The seasonal abundance and dynamics of potato-infesting aphids were studied in two seasons, on potato Solanum tuberosum L. with various types of transgenic and classical resistance to primary pests, especially the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). The lines tested were the NewLeaf potato, a transgenic expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis CryIIIA toxin (BTT); NYL 235-4 a parental line derived from S. berthaultii (NYL) with a high density of glandular trichomes; and a transgenic line expressing oryzacystatln I (OCI), a proteinase inhibitor gene from rice; potatoes from two commercial cultivars, Superior and Kennebec, served as controls. Over the two seasons, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and, to a lesser extent, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) were by far the most abundant aphids observed in the experimental plots. M. persicae was observed relatively late in the season, and was most abundant on the Kennebec-OCI potato. Macrosiphum euphorbiae was more regular over seasons, and its highest densities were observed on the NYL 235-4 line. The population of M. euphorbiae showed markedly different patterns on the five lines studied, which was clearly related to potato plant phenology. Density of M. euphorbiae was observed on the NYL 235-4 line, in late July and early August. PMID:15759424

Ashouri, A

2004-01-01

49

Temporal changes of abundance, biomass and production of copepod community in a shallow temperate estuary (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study reports on temporal changes of abundance, biomass and secondary production of the copepod community of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). Zooplankton sampling and hydrological measurements (salinity, temperature, chlorophyll a and nutrients concentrations) were conducted at four occasions (June 2000, September 2000, December 2000 and March 2001), at 6 sampling stations and during ebb and flood. The contribution of copepods (from nauplius to adults) to the total abundance and biomass of the zooplankton community of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) was equal to 63.6% and 62.0%, respectively (annual average). The estimate of nauplius abundance given by two zooplankton nets with different meshes was significantly different ( P < 0.001) with the 64 ?m net collecting 13.9 times more than the 125 ?m one. No significant differences were found for copepodites and adults. The abundance of all development stages (except adults) was positively correlated ( P < 0.05) with salinity and temperature. The seasonal patterns of abundance and biomass were similar to those found in other temperate coastal waters. Mean daily secondary production rate (mean ± SE) estimated by the Huntley and Lopez growth model [Huntley, M.E., Lopez, M.D.G., 1992. Temperature-dependent production of marine copepods: a global synthesis. American Naturalist 140, 201-242] was 22% higher than the value given by the application of the Hirst and Bunker model [Hirst, A.G., Bunker, A.J., 2003. Growth of marine planktonic copepods: global rates and patterns in relation to chlorophyll a, temperature, and body weight. Limnology and Oceanography 48, 1988-2010]: 3.71 ± 0.540 and 2.90 ± 0.422 mg C m -3 d -1, respectively.

Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Morgado, Fernando; Pereira, Fábio; Queiroga, Henrique

2007-08-01

50

Influences of the Tamarisk Leaf Beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on the diet of insectivorous birds along the Dolores River in Southwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of a biologic control agent, the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), on native avifauna in southwestern Colorado, specifically, addressing whether and to what degree birds eat tamarisk leaf beetles. In 2010, we documented avian foraging behavior, characterized the arthropod community, sampled bird diets, and undertook an experiment to determine whether tamarisk leaf beetles are palatable to birds. We observed that tamarisk leaf beetles compose 24.0 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 19.9-27.4 percent) and 35.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 32.4-45.1 percent) of arthropod abundance and biomass in the study area, respectively. Birds ate few tamarisk leaf beetles, despite a superabundance of D. carinulata in the environment. The frequency of occurrence of tamarisk leaf beetles in bird diets was 2.1 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 1.3- 2.9 percent) by abundance and 3.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 2.6-4.2 percent) by biomass. Thus, tamarisk leaf beetles probably do not contribute significantly to the diets of birds in areas where biologic control of tamarisk is being applied.

Puckett, Sarah L.; van Riper, Charles, III

2014-01-01

51

Biomass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, part of a site about the future of energy, introduces students to the use of biomass as an energy source. Biomass is defined, and students are presented with examples of biomass sources that can supply energy. Information is also provided about the benefits, limitations, and geographical considerations of using biomass. A sidebar offers links to other articles and information on the site that relate to biomass as an energy source. Three of these articles discuss the use of oak hulls, recycled French fry grease, and burnt switch grass as fuel. The article also provides annotated links to external materials about topics such as ethanol, biomass statistics, and the storage of excess carbon dioxide at the bottom of the ocean.

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

52

Seasonal changes in zooplankton abundance, biomass, size structure and dominant copepods in the Oyashio region analysed by an optical plankton counter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To identify seasonal patterns of change in zooplankton communities, an optical plankton counter (OPC) and microscopic analysis were utilised to characterise zooplankton samples collected from 0 to 150 m and 0 to 500 m in the Oyashio region every one to three months from 2002 to 2007. Based on the OPC measurements, the abundance and biomass of zooplankton peaked in June (0-150 m) or August (150-500 m), depending on the depth stratum. The peak periods of the copepod species that were dominant in terms of abundance and biomass indicated species-specific patterns. Three Neocalanus species (Neocalanus cristatus, Neocalanus flemingeri and Neocalanus plumchrus) exhibited abundance peaks that occurred before their biomass peaks, whereas Eucalanus bungii and Metridia pacifica experienced biomass peaks before their abundance peaks. The abundance peaks corresponded to the recruitment periods of early copepodid stages, whereas the biomass peaks corresponded to the periods when the dominant populations reached the late copepodid stages (C5 or C6). Because the reproduction of Neocalanus spp. occurred in the deep layer (>500 m), their biomass peaks were observed when the major populations reached stage C5 after the abundance peaks of the early copepodid stages. The reproduction of E. bungii and M. pacifica occurred near the surface layer. These species first formed biomass peaks of C6 and later developed abundance peaks of newly recruited early copepodid stages. From the comparison between OPC measurements and microscopic analyses, seasonal changes in zooplankton biomass at depths of 0-150 m were governed primarily by E. bungii and M. pacifica, whereas those at depths of 150-500 m were primarily caused by the three Neocalanus species.

Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Matsuno, Kohei; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Arima, Daichi; Ohgi, Kohei

2014-09-01

53

Spatial-temporal scales of synchrony in marine zooplankton biomass and abundance patterns: A world-wide comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale synchrony in the fluctuations of abundance or biomass of marine fish populations in regions on opposite sides of an ocean basin or in different oceans have been viewed as externally forced by correlated environmental stochasticity (e.g., common external forcing), most often as atmospheric teleconnections of basin-to-global scale atmospheric forcing, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Specific causal mechanisms have been difficult to unequivocally discover, but possible mechanisms include influences on habitat temperatures, productivity operating through bottom-up (trophodynamic) mechanisms or direct climate influence on the fish populations (top-down mechanisms). For small pelagic fishes (sardines and anchovies) in widely separated large marine ecosystems that lack obvious ocean interconnectivity, it has been argued that the teleconnections may be atmospheric, acting on the fishes directly and propagating to the ecosystem from the middle out (wasp-waist species). Zooplankton biomass or abundance time series data from >100 sites world-wide are used to examine the spatial scales of coherent temporal synchrony. If spatially correlated environmental factors (like climate) are important for creating synchrony in fish populations via bottom-up effects (trophic interactions involving fish prey, e.g., zooplankton), then we would expect to observe synchrony in fluctuations of zooplankton biomass/numbers at spatial scales similar to those found for fish species. Zooplankton biomass/abundance have 50% spatial decorrelation scales of ca. 700-1400 km and scales of significant coherence that extend to separation distances of ca. 3000 km. These are also the spatial scales of environmental (sea surface temperature) synchrony from our global analysis. These scales are slightly greater than the 50% decorrelation scales of ca. 150-700 km for recruitment synchrony in Atlantic marine fish and survival and recruitment synchrony of Northeast Pacific salmonids (150-1000 km depending on species). However, the spatial scales of synchrony of annual zooplankton biomass anomalies in the Humboldt Current, California Current and Kuroshio ecosystems of the Pacific are much too small (ca. 2000 km) to be directly causal of the basin-scale (7000-15,000 km) synchrony exhibited by sardine and/or anchovy populations in those ecosystems.

Batchelder, Harold P.; Mackas, David L.; O'Brien, Todd D.

2012-05-01

54

Microbial abundance and biomass in sediments of the Texas-Louisiana shelf  

E-print Network

) b Anahuac Channel (AC) Goose Creek (GC) Kemah (K) Pelican Island (PI) field trip field trip field trip field trip field trip field trip Nov. , 1990 Aug. , 1991 Nov. , 1990 Nov. , 1990 Aug. , 1991 Aug. , 1991 29 41 29' 41 29' 45 29... in Trinity Bay as opposed to Pelican Island and Goose Creek (Fig. I and 5). On the transect off the coast of Galveston thc mean bacterial biomass was 9. 3 + 4. 9 g C m 2 to 7 cm sedimeni. depth. The highest biomass was found at 200 m water depth (Station...

Cruz-Kaegi, Marta Elizabeth

1992-01-01

55

Abundance and Biomass of Scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora melanaster, and Ctenophora, Bolinopsis mikado, with Estimates of Their Feeding Im pact on Zooplankton in Tokyo Bay, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of a scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora melanaster, and a ctenophore, Bolinopsis mikado, in Tokyo Bay was investigated from 1995 to 1997. Aurelia aurita appeared throughout the year with a peak in abundance occurring from spring to summer. The average abundance and biomass during this period for the three successive years was 4.8, 43.8 and 3.2 ind. m

JUNJI KINOSHITA; JURO HIROMI; YOSHIAKI YAMADA

56

Abundance and biomass of scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora melanaster , and Ctenophora, Bolinopsis mikado , with estimates of their feeding impact on zooplankton in Tokyo Bay, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of a scyphomedusae, Aurelia aurita and Chrysaora melanaster, and a ctenophore, Bolinopsis mikado, in Tokyo Bay was investigated from 1995 to 1997. Aurelia aurita appeared throughout the year with a peak in abundance occurring from spring to summer. The average abundance and biomass\\u000a during this period for the three successive years was 4.8, 43.8 and 3.2 ind. m?2,

Junji Kinoshita; Juro Hiromi; Yoshiaki Yamada

2006-01-01

57

Woodpeckers increase in abundance but maintain fecundity in response to an outbreak of mountain pine bark beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many temperate woodpecker species are thought to be highly conservative in their fecundity with little response to fluctuations in availability of resources. In a 15-year field study in interior British Columbia, we evaluated responses in abundance and fecundity of six species of resident and migrant woodpeckers (downy woodpecker [Picoides pubescens], hairy woodpecker [Picoides villosus], American three-toed woodpecker [Picoides dorsalis], pileated

Amanda B. Edworthy; Mark C. Drever; Kathy Martin

2011-01-01

58

Scale-Dependence of Processes Structuring Dung Beetle Metacommunities Using Functional Diversity and Community Deconstruction Approaches  

PubMed Central

Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The ?-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to ?-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean ?- and ?-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution and functional organization of Scarabaeinae beetles. We conclude that functional diversity may be used as a complementary approach to traditional measures, and that community deconstruction allows sufficient disentangling of responses of different trait-based groups. PMID:25822150

da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

2015-01-01

59

[Effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in Huangfuchuan watershed, Inner Mongolia of North China].  

PubMed

By using pitfall trap method, and taking the croplands and natural grasslands under different soil and water loss control measures as sampling plots, an investigation was conducted on the dung beetle assemblages in the Huangfuchuan watershed of Inner Mongolia from September 2007 to September 2008, aimed to understand the effects of different soil and water loss control measures on the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed. A total of 6169 dung beetles were captured, belonging to 15 species, 5 genus, and 2 families. The dominant species were Aphodius rectus and Onthophagus gibbulus, accounting for 66. 54% and 13. 26% of the total captured beetles, respectively. A lack of the species suitable for living in woodland habitats was the basic feature of the dung beetle assemblages. As compared with the control, all test soil and water loss control measures did not cause an obvious increase of species richness, biomass, and abundance of the dung beetle assemblages. The biomass and species richness of the assemblages as well as the abundance of the functional groups II and III had a significant negative correlation with the average tree (grass) height. Under the effects of long-term agricultural cultivation and the lack of large herbivores, the species richness and abundance of the functional group I (larger paracoprids and telocoprids) were lower than those of the functional groups II (relatively smaller paracoprids) and II (endocoprids), the main components of the dung beetle assemblages in the watershed. The faeces of the residents and livestock in the study region provided abundant foods for the dung beetle assemblages, inducing the relatively high abundance and spices richness of the assemblages occurred in the croplands nearby the villages. Our results suggested that natural grasslands were the suitable habitats for the dung beetles in Huangfuchuan watershed. At regional scale, to popularize the successful experiences of comprehensive soil and water loss control, preserve natural grasslands, and feed appropriate number of livestock (especially larger herbivores) could be the effective approaches for maintaining the diversity of dung beetles and the ecosystem functions. PMID:23755495

Liu, Wei; Wang, Run-Run; Liu, Xin-Min

2013-03-01

60

Free-living plathelminthes in sheep-grazed and ungrazed supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea: Abundance, biomass, and their significance in food chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea are marked by high halophyte primary productivity. The environmental factors are strongly fluctuating. Despite these features the metazoan meiofaunal abundance is equal to that found in other littoral habitats. On average 1250 marine metazoans are found per 10 cm 2 in ungrazed and 770 per 10 cm 2 in sheep-grazed supralittoral salt marshes. Nematoda dominate in numerical abundance, Oligochaeta in biomass. Plathelminthes account for 15% of marine metazoans in ungrazed and 5% in grazed salt marshes. Total plathelminth abundance increases with halophyte density, whereas the abundance of diatom-feeding Plathelminthes decreases. In ungrazed marshes on average 104 Plathelminthes are found per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.65 g DW·m -2. In sheep-grazed marshes the average abundance is only 32 individuals per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.1 g DW·m -2. Average individual weight is 3.2 ?g DW or 2.5 ?g AFDW. In grazed salt marshes, 30% of plathelminthes feed on diatoms, 66% are predators, and 4% feed on bacteria (gut analysis). In ungrazed salt marshes only 3% are diatom-feeders, and 90% are predators feeding on Nematoda, Copepoda, Oligochaeta, and smaller Plathelminthes. Presumably plathelminthes are top predators on the salt marsh meiofauna.

Armonies, W.

61

Effects of augmentative releases of eggs and larvae of the ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata, on the abundance of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea, in organic apple orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of augmentative releases of larvae and eggs of the indigenous ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) against the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantagineaPass. (Homoptera: Aphididae), a major pest insect on apple trees, was assessed in field experiments in Switzerland, during 1997. In a first experiment, eggs and larvae were released on 3-year old apple trees infested with

Eric Wyss; Mathias Villiger; Jean-Louis Hemptinne; Heinz Muller-scharer

1999-01-01

62

Abundance in Persea americana of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Vector of Laurel Wilt: A Case of Intra-guild Competition?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus is a pest of plant species in the Lauraceae, including Persea borbonia, P. pallustris, P. americana, and others. Xyleborus glabratus infestation levels in P. borbonia maintain a high proportion compared to other species, such as Xylosandrus crassiuscu...

63

Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution  

PubMed Central

The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future. PMID:24062759

Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

2013-01-01

64

Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver- sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat- tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran. Methods: According to the field study all

G Mowlavi; E Mikaeili; I Mobedi; EB Kia; L Masoomi; H Vatandoost

2008-01-01

65

Effects of the abundance of spawning sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) on nutrients and algal biomass in forested streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used natural variation in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) spawner biomass among sites and years in three undisturbed, forested watersheds in interior British Columbia to test the hypotheses that salmon were a major source of particulate organic matter inputs to the streams and that carcass biomass determined stream-water nutrient concentrations and epilithic algal production. Sockeye carcasses were retained at the

N. T. Johnston; E. A. MacIsaac; P. J. Tschaplinski; K. J. Hall

2004-01-01

66

Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population.  

PubMed

Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yield was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282-member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. These results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass. PMID:24972714

Penning, Bryan W; Sykes, Robert W; Babcock, Nicholas C; Dugard, Christopher K; Held, Michael A; Klimek, John F; Shreve, Jacob T; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F; Decker, Stephen R; Turner, Geoffrey B; Mosier, Nathan S; Springer, Nathan M; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Weil, Clifford F; McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

2014-06-27

67

Initial responses of rove and ground beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Carabidae) to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada  

PubMed Central

Abstract Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498

Work, Timothy T.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian

2013-01-01

68

Investigating the association of fish abundance and biomass with cold-water corals in the deep Northeast Atlantic Ocean using a generalised linear modelling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold-water corals (CWC) can form complex three-dimensional structures that can support a diverse macro- and megafaunal community. These reef structures provide important biogenic habitats that can act as refuge, feeding, spawning and nursery areas for fish. However, quantitative data assessing the linkage between CWC and fish are scarce. The North Atlantic Ocean is a key region in the worldwide distribution of Lophelia pertusa, which is thought to be the most widespread frame-work forming cold-water coral species in the world. This study examined the relationship between fish and CWC reefs in the northeast Atlantic Ocean by means of video and remotely sensed data from three different CWC communities (Rockall Bank, Hatton Bank and the Belgica Mound Province). Using a tethered camera system, 37 transects were recorded during a period of 8 years. Fish-coral association was investigated using a generalised linear modelling (GLM) approach. Overall, Lepidion eques was the most abundant fish species present (143 ind. ha-1). Other common species were Sigmops bathyphilus (17 ind. ha-1), Synaphobranchus kaupii (15 ind. ha-1), Helicolenus dactylopterus (16 ind. ha-1) and Mora moro (7 ind. ha-1). The highest fish biomass was measured for Lophius piscatorius (26.3 kg ha-1). Other species with a high biomass were Helicolenus dactylopterus (4.3 kg ha-1), Lepidion eques (13.2 kg ha-1) and Mora moro (7.8 kg ha-1). Overall, no significant difference in fish abundance and biomass was found at coral framework habitats compared to non-coral areas. The relationship between fish and coral framework varied among fish species and study site. Fish count and length modelling results showed that terrain variables explain a small proportion of the variation of our data. Depth, coral-framework and terrain rugosity were generally the most important explanatory variables, but this varied with species and study site.

Biber, Matthias F.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Davies, Andrew J.; Bergman, Magda J. N.; van den Beld, Inge M. J.

2014-01-01

69

Predicting live and dead tree basal area of bark beetle affected forests from discrete-return lidar  

E-print Network

Predicting live and dead tree basal area of bark beetle affected forests from discrete-return lidar. Bark beetle outbreaks have killed large numbers of trees across North America in recent years. Lidar standing biomass in beetle-affected forests using lidar alone has not been demonstrated. We developed

70

Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

71

Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetle (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge {Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

2004-01-01

72

Temporal dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and two species of flea beetles (Aphthona spp.) used as biological control agents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of this study was to evaluate the biological control program of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a large natural area, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, western North Dakota, USA. Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis have been released at more than 1800 points in the 18,600-ha South Unit of the park beginning in 1989; most releases have occurred since 1994. We established permanent vegetation plots throughout the infested area of the park and determined stem counts and biomass of leafy spurge and abundance of the two flea beetle species at these plots each year from 1999 to 2001. Both biomass and stem counts declined over the 3 years of the study. Both species of flea beetle are well established within the park and have expanded into areas where they were not released. A. nigriscutis was more abundant than A. lacertosa in the grassland areas we surveyed, but in all other habitats abundances were similar. Using structural equation models, only A. lacertosa could be shown to have a significant effect on counts of mature stems of leafy spurge. A. nigriscutis numbers were positively correlated with stem counts of mature stems. Previous year's stem counts had the greatest influence on change in stem counts over each 2-year time step examined with structural equation models.

Larson, D.L.; Grace, J.B.

2004-01-01

73

The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles.  

PubMed

Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. PMID:25788597

Smith, Dena M; Marcot, Jonathan D

2015-04-22

74

Elm Leaf Beetle  

E-print Network

Elm leaf beetles damage all varieties of elm trees. Learn how to identify this insect and understand its biology and life cycle. There are suggestions for controlling elm leaf beetles, as well as a table of insecticides effective against...

Patrick, Carl D.

2002-05-22

75

Importance of variation in water-types for water beetle fauna (Coleoptera) in Korenburgerveen, a bog remnant in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of restoration of raised bogs on fauna are largely unknown. Here first results are presented concerning adult water beetles in Korenburgerveen, a Dutch bog remnant. A high water beetle diversity was found including rare and characteristic species. Variation in species composition and abundance could be linked to variation in water-types suggesting that for water beetles presence of variation in

Wilco C. E. P. Verberk; Gert-Jan A. van Duinen; Theo M. J. Peeters; Hans Esselink

2001-01-01

76

Sikes Tiger Beetle Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

735 tiger beetle specimens in the post-1980 University of Connecticut Insect Collection are sorted by species and month of collection.Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) 1996-1998 Derek S. Sikes (1999) Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae)1996-1998 Conservation status, Taxonomy and Ecology. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. University of Connecticut. Storrs, CT 06269

Ethel Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

2009-01-10

77

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in RealPlayer, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University Center for Technology in Ecducation

2004-01-01

78

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE)

2004-01-01

79

Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): Functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.  

PubMed

Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra. PMID:25499796

Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

2015-03-01

80

The Effect of the Landscape Matrix on the Distribution of Dung and Carrion Beetles in a Fragmented Tropical Rain Forest  

PubMed Central

Understanding the response of species to anthropogenic landscape modification is essential to design effective conservation programs. Recently, insects have been used in empirical studies to evaluate the impact of habitat modification and landscape fragmentation on biological diversity because they are often affected rapidly by changes in land use. In this study, the use of the landscape matrix by dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve was analyzed. Fragments of tropical rain forest, forest-pasture edges, pastures, isolated trees, living fences (trees connected with barbed wire) and barbed wire fences were studied both near and far from forest fragments. Forest fragments had the highest abundance values, but pastures had the highest dung and carrion beetle biomass. Habitat specificity was high for the beetles in the most dissimilar habitats. Forest fragments and forest-pasture edges had and shared the highest number of species, but they shared only two species with pastures, barbed wire fences and isolated trees. Only one forest species was found within living fences far from the forest fragments. However, approximately 37% of the forest species were caught within living fences near the forest fragments. Therefore, forest-pasture edges function as hard edges and prevent movement among forest fragments, but living fences seem to act as continuous habitat corridors when connected to forest fragments, allowing forest beetles to move between the fragments. Further studies are necessary to determine the minimum width of living fences necessary to provide good corridors for these beetles and other species. PMID:20673066

Díaz, Alfonso; Galante, Eduardo; Favila, Mario E.

2010-01-01

81

Carpet beetles, which belong to the family of beetles known as dermes-  

E-print Network

on fabrics but seek out pollen and nectar. They are attracted to sunlight, and you'll often find them feeding on the flowers of crape myrtle, spiraea, buck- wheat, and other plants that produce abundant pollen. However, you beetles search out spider webs or bee, wasp, or bird nests as places to lay their eggs. The nests and webs

Ishida, Yuko

82

Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (?=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (?=0.50), polychaetes (?=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (?=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves, gastropods and polychaetes) were compared with gray whale and walrus distribution as described by sightings from the 2009 and 2010 aerial survey component of COMIDA. In general, concentrations of walruses and their prey occurred in a swath located south of Hanna Shoal and on the shoal itself although the large differences in sea-ice distribution between the two study years showed that walrus distributions were closely linked to sea-ice location. Other areas within Barrow Canyon and the shelf west of the canyon showed high concentrations of benthic amphipods that were coincident with gray whale sightings as quantified by COMIDA aerial surveys. Overall, data collected on this project indicate that the Northeast Chukchi Sea supports a highly productive and diverse benthic ecosystem that is of significant importance to higher trophic level megafauna.

Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

2014-04-01

83

The economic importance and control of the adult blister beetle Psalydolytta fusca Olivier (Coleoptera: Meloidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psalydolytta fusca is the most serious pest of pearl millet among ten meloid species feeding on millet spikes in The Gambia. It occurs countrywide with distinct ‘hot spot’ areas. The average abundance varies from 0·lb2 to 2·lb4 beetles per millet hill, but maxima of 30 beetles per hill have been recorded. Screen?house experiments showed a destruction capacity per beetle of

Ole Zethner; Alida A. Laurense

1988-01-01

84

Evaluation of Funnel Traps for Characterizing the Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Communities in Ponderosa Pine Forests of North-Central Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure

Christopher J. Hayes; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold

2008-01-01

85

Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009).  

PubMed

Very little is known about the changes of ground beetle assemblages in the last few decades in the Alps, and different responses to climate change of animal populations living above and below the treeline have not been estimated yet. This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites in Italy, the Paneveggio Regional Park. We compared the ground beetle (Carabidae) populations sampled in 1980 in six stands below and above the treeline (1650-2250 m a.s.l.) with those sampled in the same sites almost 30 years later (2008/9). Quantitative data (species richness and abundance) have been compared by means of several diversity indexes and with a new index, the Index of Rank-abundance Change (IRC). Our work shows that species richness and abundance have changed after almost 30 years as a consequence of local extinctions, uphill increment of abundance and uphill shift of distribution range. The overall species number dropped from 36 to 27, while in the sites above the treeline, species richness and abundance changed more than in the forest sites. Two microtherm characteristic species of the pioneer cushion grass mats, Nebria germari and Trechus dolomitanus, became extinct or showed strong abundance reduction. In Nardetum pastures, several hygrophilic species disappeared, and xerophilic zoophytophagous elements raised their population density. In forest ecosystems, the precipitation reduction caused deep soil texture and watering changes, driving a transformation from Sphagnum-rich (peaty) to humus-rich soil, and as a consequence, soil invertebrate biomass strongly increased and thermophilic carabids enriched the species structure. In three decades, Carabid assemblages changed consistently with the hypothesis that climate change is one of the main factors triggering natural environment modifications. Furthermore, the level of human disturbance could enhance the sensitivity of mountain ecosystems to climate change. PMID:24834326

Pizzolotto, Roberto; Gobbi, Mauro; Brandmayr, Pietro

2014-04-01

86

Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009)  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the changes of ground beetle assemblages in the last few decades in the Alps, and different responses to climate change of animal populations living above and below the treeline have not been estimated yet. This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites in Italy, the Paneveggio Regional Park. We compared the ground beetle (Carabidae) populations sampled in 1980 in six stands below and above the treeline (1650–2250 m a.s.l.) with those sampled in the same sites almost 30 years later (2008/9). Quantitative data (species richness and abundance) have been compared by means of several diversity indexes and with a new index, the Index of Rank-abundance Change (IRC). Our work shows that species richness and abundance have changed after almost 30 years as a consequence of local extinctions, uphill increment of abundance and uphill shift of distribution range. The overall species number dropped from 36 to 27, while in the sites above the treeline, species richness and abundance changed more than in the forest sites. Two microtherm characteristic species of the pioneer cushion grass mats, Nebria germari and Trechus dolomitanus, became extinct or showed strong abundance reduction. In Nardetum pastures, several hygrophilic species disappeared, and xerophilic zoophytophagous elements raised their population density. In forest ecosystems, the precipitation reduction caused deep soil texture and watering changes, driving a transformation from Sphagnum-rich (peaty) to humus-rich soil, and as a consequence, soil invertebrate biomass strongly increased and thermophilic carabids enriched the species structure. In three decades, Carabid assemblages changed consistently with the hypothesis that climate change is one of the main factors triggering natural environment modifications. Furthermore, the level of human disturbance could enhance the sensitivity of mountain ecosystems to climate change. PMID:24834326

Pizzolotto, Roberto; Gobbi, Mauro; Brandmayr, Pietro

2014-01-01

87

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in ``The Descent of Man''. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by

Rolf G. Beutel; Frank Friedrich; Richard A. B. Leschen

2009-01-01

88

Staphylinid beetles as bioindicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Staphylinidae is one of the largest beetle families and is distributed worldwide in almost all types of ecosystems. The morpho-ecological characteristics of staphylinid beetle adults and developmental stages are summarized, and features pertaining to their potential use as bioindicators are highlighted. Methods of study and practical examples are given for the application of staphylinids as bioindicators both in

Jaroslav Bohac

1999-01-01

89

Predaceous Ground Beetles  

E-print Network

and are attracted to lights at night. E-185 5-03 As their name implies, most ground beetles dwell on the ground. However, some species will climb bushes or trees to feed on caterpil- lars, and some species feed on snails and slugs. Ground beetles can consume...

Sansone, Chris; Minzenmayer, Rick

2003-06-30

90

Carabid Beetles as Parasitoids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The parasitoid habit is uncommon in beetles; only 11 beetle families include parasitoid species. Three tribes of 76 in the Carabidae are known to have species in which larvae are pupal ectoparasitoids: Brachinini, Peleciini, and Lebiini. The first larval instar is the free-living, host-finding stage...

91

Mealworm to Beetle Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe how a little worm turns into a full-grown beetle. Learners will be surprised to learn that mealworms aren't worms at all--they're the larval stage of a beetle! Use this activity to explain life cycles, practice observation skills, and explore insects.

Sacramento Zoo

2011-01-01

92

Ambrosia beetle fungiculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ambrosia beetle fungiculture, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3,500 species of ambrosia beetles, represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. This presentation focuses on the discovery of a clade within the filamentous fungus Fusarium that is associ...

93

Spider BeetleS American spider beetle, Mezium americanum  

E-print Network

, warehouses, and attics that contain bird, rodent, or bat droppings. deScriptionS The American spider beetle, herbarium specimens, hops, leather, maize, nutmeg, old wood in houses, paprika, rye bread in the pantry, the real infestation could be in a rodent nest under the floor, in bat droppings in the attic

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

94

Variations in dung beetles assemblages (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) within two rain forest habitats in French Guiana.  

PubMed

The structure of dung beetle communities inhabiting tropical forests are known to be sensitive to many kinds of environmental changes such as microclimate related to vegetation structure. I examined Scarabaeinae assemblages in two sites of undisturbed high forest and two sites of low forest forming a transitional zone with the open habitat of an inselberg in French Guiana. Sampling was made with pitfall and flight interception traps during 2003 and 2004. The driest and warmest conditions characterized the low forest sites. Across two years we obtained 2 927 individuals from 61 species with pitfall traps and 1 431 individuals from 85 species with flight interception traps. Greater species richness and abundance characterized all sites sampled with pitfall traps during 2003 more than 2004. In 2003 no differences were detected among sites by rarefaction analyses. In 2004 the species richest high forest site was significantly different from one of the low forest sites. For both years Clench model asymptotes for species richness were greater in high forest than in low forest sites. For both years, mean per-trap species richness, abundance and biomass among high forest sites were similar and higher than in low forest sites, especially where the lowest humidity and the highest temperature were recorded. Within the two low forest sites, species richness and abundance recorded during the second year, decreased with distance to edge. Different dominant roller species characterized the pitfall samples in one site of low forest and in other sites. Small variations in microclimatic conditions correlated to canopy height and openness likely affected dung beetle assemblages but soil depth and the presence of large mammals providing dung resource may also play a significant role. PMID:23885587

Feer, François

2013-06-01

95

Virtual Scarabaeid Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the shiny green beetle Chrysophora chrysochlora (family Scarabaeidae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view the image, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0000-00-00

96

Virtual Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the "Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle," or Allomyrina dichotoma (family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Dynastinae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view it, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0000-00-00

97

Striped Cucumber Beetle Introduction  

E-print Network

. This insect is also responsible for the spread of plant diseases such as bacterial wilt and cucumber mosaic. Cantaloupe and muskmelons are especially vulnerable to bacterial wilt spread by the beetles. Description

New Hampshire, University of

98

Biomasses, catch rates and abundances of demersal fishes, particularly predators of prawns, in a tropical bay in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demersal fish fauna of Albatross Bay, in the eastern Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia, was sampled on seven cruises from August 1986 to November 1988, using a random stratified trawl survey. Four depth zones between 7 and 45 m were sampled during both day and night. The mean biomass of fish from all seven cruises was 297 kg ha-1

S. J. M. Blaber; D. T. Brewer; J. P. Salini; J. Kerr

1990-01-01

99

Do birds and beetles show similar responses to urbanization?  

PubMed

To date, the vast majority of studies in urban areas have been carried out on birds, yet it is not known whether the responses of birds to urbanization are congruent with those of other taxa. In this paper, we compared the responses of breeding birds and carabid beetles to urbanization, specifically asking whether the emerging generalizations of the effects of extreme levels of urbanization on birds (declines in total species richness and the richness of specialist species, increases in total abundance and the abundances of native generalist and introduced species, and community simplification, including increasing similarity) could also be applied to ground beetles. We also directly tested for congruence between birds and ground beetles using correlations between variables describing bird and beetle community structure and correlations between bird and beetle distance matrices describing community dissimilarity between pairs of sampling locations. Breeding bird and carabid beetle community data were collected in Ottawa, Ontario, and Gatineau, Quebec, Canada, in two groups of sites: developed sites representing the predictor variable within-site housing density, and forested sites adjacent to development representing the predictor variable neighboring housing density (each site was 0.25 km2). Breeding birds and carabid beetles do not respond similarly to increasing within-site housing density but do exhibit some similar responses to increasing neighboring housing density. Birds displayed strong declines in diversity, compositional changes, and community simplification in response to increasing within-site housing density. Forest and introduced species of birds and beetles responded similarly to increasing housing density within a site, but responses of overall diversity and open-habitat species richness and patterns of community simplification differed between birds and beetles. Increasing neighboring housing density resulted in increases in the abundances of introduced birds and introduced beetles and similar patterns of community simplification in both taxa. To better understand and mitigate the effects of urbanization on biodiversity, we suggest that, in addition to the responses of birds, future research should focus on the responses of other taxa in the urban matrix. PMID:21939062

Gagné, Sara A; Fahrig, Lenore

2011-09-01

100

Abundance and biomass of the gut-living microorganisms (bacteria, protozoa and fungi) in the irregular sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Spatangoida: Echinodermata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microorganisms associated with the gut contents of the irregular sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant) include non-filamentous and filamentous bacteria, zoosporic fungi and protozoa. The numbers of microorganisms decrease\\u000a through the gut segments, except for the two caeca. In the anoxic anterior caecum, the microbial biomass increases to 5% of\\u000a the total particulate organic carbon (POC) compared to 2% of

M. S. Thorsen

1999-01-01

101

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries.\\u000a Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works,\\u000a and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle,\\u000a Darwin was impressed by

Rolf G. Beutel; Frank Friedrich; Richard A. B. Leschen

2009-01-01

102

Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductions of two ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis, into North America for aphid biocontrol have been followed by declines in native species. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) between larvae of these two exotic species and larvae of the two most abundant native coccinellids in eastern Washington State, C. transversoguttata and Hippodamia convergens. In pairings between

William E. Snyder; Garrett M. Clevenger; Sanford D. Eigenbrode

2004-01-01

103

Lady beetles of South Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lady beetles are one of the most familiar groups of beneficial insects. Farmers and gardeners appreciate them for devouring insect pests. Both adult lady beetles and caterpillar-like juveniles eat pests. Lady beetles are recognizable by their red and orange colors that contrast with black spots and...

104

Dying pine infested with beetles  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Mountain pine beetle-infested trees turn a striking red color throughout their crown as they're dying. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepo...

105

Differences in coprophilous beetle communities structure in Sierra de Minas (Uruguay): a mosaic landscape.  

PubMed

Coprophilous beetles represent an abundant and rich group with critical importance in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Most coprophagous beetles have a stenotopic distribution in relation to vegetation types. Because of this, they are usually very sensitive to environmental changes and are considered well suited as bioindicator organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze variations in coprophilous beetle assemblages in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Coprophilous beetle communities were sampled monthly for 1 year using pitfall traps baited with cow dung, in native xeric upland forests, 15-years-old plantations of Pinus elliottii and pastures in Sierra de Minas, Lavalleja, Uruguay. A total of 7,436 beetles were caught and identified to species or morphospecies level. The most abundant families were Aphodiidae, Scarabaeidae, and Staphylinidae. Differences in species richness, abundance, Shannon index, evenness, and dominance were detected between habitats. Abundances of most frequent families were significantly higher in both kinds of forests. Species richness and diversity of Aphodiidae and Staphylinidae were higher in forests, while Scarabaeidae showed the highest richness and diversity in pine plantations. Species composition significantly differed between habitats. Uroxys terminalis Waterhouse and Ataenius perforatus Harold typified the assemblages in native forests and pine plantations and also discriminated both communities because of their differential pattern of abundance between habitats. Typifying species in pastures were Onthophagus hirculus, Ateuchus robustus (Harold), and Ataenius platensis Blanchard. Habitat type had a strong effect on the coprophilous beetle community structure and composition. PMID:23950086

González-Vainer, Patricia; Morelli, E; Defeo, O

2012-10-01

106

The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types in Sabah, Malaysia.  

PubMed

The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types (primary forest, logged forest, acacia plantation and oil palm plantation) in Sabah, Malaysia was investigated using three different methods based on habitat levels (Winkler sampling, flight-interception-trapping and mist-blowing). The overall diversity was extremely high, with 1711 species recorded from only 8028 individuals and 81 families (115 family and subfamily groups). Different degrees of environmental changes had varying effects on the beetle species richness and abundance, with oil palm plantation assemblage being most severely affected, followed by acacia plantation and then logged forest. A few species became numerically dominant in the oil palm plantation. In terms of beetle species composition, the acacia fauna showed much similarity with the logged forest fauna, and the oil palm fauna was very different from the rest. The effects of environmental variables (number of plant species, sapling and tree densities, amount of leaf litter, ground cover, canopy cover, soil pH and compaction) on the beetle assemblage were also investigated. Leaf litter correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of subterranean beetles. Plant species richness, tree and sapling densities correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of understorey beetles while ground cover correlated only with the species richness and abundance of these beetles. Canopy cover correlated only with arboreal beetles. In trophic structure, predators represented more than 40% of the species and individuals. Environmental changes affected the trophic structure with proportionally more herbivores (abundance) but fewer predators (species richness and abundance) in the oil palm plantation. Biodiversity, conservation and practical aspects of pest management were also highlighted in this study. PMID:11107250

Chung, A Y; Eggleton, P; Speight, M R; Hammond, P M; Chey, V K

2000-12-01

107

Resource distribution and its effect on the mating system of a longhorned beetle, Perarthrus linsleyi (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults of Perarthrus linsleyi feed on flowers of creosote bush, Larrea tridentata. Mating also occurs on the flowers and foliage of this plant. This food resource is widely and evenly distributed in space, and is usually abundant. The spatial distribution of the beetles bore no relationship to the spatial distribution of flowers among creosote bushes, nor were female beetles distributed

S. K. Goldsmith

1987-01-01

108

Conifer introductions decrease richness and alter composition of litter-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera) in Carpathian oak forests  

E-print Network

containing introduced non-native tree species. We compared the composition, richness, and abundance of litter) managed stands with introduced tree species. We collected beetle adults using a dry sieve method from: Litter-dwelling beetles; Species richness; Community composition; Introduced tree species; Conifers

Hui, Bowen

109

WESTERN CEDAR BARK BEETLES The Situation  

E-print Network

indicate the beetles have left the red tree to attack a green one). Control and Management Options · KeepWESTERN CEDAR BARK BEETLES The Situation Cedar bark beetles in the genus Phloeosinus (pronounced about cedar bark beetles comes from the latter situations. The Beetle These tiny reddish-brown to black

110

Waves and Water Beetles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

Tucker, Vance A.

1971-01-01

111

How Do Beetles Reproduce?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every living thing must be able to reproduce and make offspring. Most of us are familiar with how humans and mammals make babies, but do all creatures reproduce in the same way? Do insects, like the beetle, give birth to little insects? Also in: Français | Español

Jenny Drnevich

112

Colorado potato beetle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Colorado potato beetle (CPB) shifted to the potato crop from native solanaceous weeds in the American West in 1859, and has been a serious pest ever since. CPB is a highly fecund leaf-feeder on potato and eggplant, and often tomatoes, with one to several generations per year. It is the most importa...

113

Colorado Bark Beetle Cooperative  

E-print Network

to Address the Environmental, Social and Economic Impacts of Bark Beetles on High Altitude Forests #12 and federal intergovernmental cooperative · USDA Forest Service, Bureau of Land· USDA Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Colorado State Forest Service, & Northwest Colorado Council

114

Phloeophagous and predaceous insects responding to synthetic pheromones of bark beetles inhabiting white spruce stands in the Great Lakes region.  

PubMed

Tree killing and saprophytic bark beetles exert important ecological and economic roles in North American spruce forests. Chemical signaling among bark beetles, and responses by associate insects such as predators and competitors, have significant effects on the population dynamics and ecology of this community. Synthetic pheromones of primary (tree killing) and secondary (saprophytic) bark beetle species and blank controls were tested using multiple funnel and lower stem flight traps in white spruce forests in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Six phloeophagous and four predaceous species were collected with significant attraction by the bark beetles Dryocoetes affaber, Dryocoetes autographus, and Polygraphus rufipennis, and the predatory checkered beetles (Coleoptera: Cleridae) Thanasimus dubius and Enoclerus nigrifrons. In general, trap catches to synthetic lures resembled the species composition obtained by felling trees and collecting emerging beetles in a companion study, although several species showed differing trends. Some cross attraction occurred among bark beetles and between bark beetles and predatory beetles. For example, P. rufipennis was abundant in traps baited with Dryocoetes spp. pheromones. Thanasimus dubius and E. nigrifrons were collected in significant numbers in traps baited with the pheromone of the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis), frontalin plus a-pinene. This is a new observation for E. nigrifrons. Attraction of T. dubius to the pheromones of at least three bark beetle species in the Great Lakes region, as well as to several southern and western species, reflects its role as a habitat specialist and feeding generalist. Several other important predators and competitors commonly obtained in pine forests in this region were not obtained in these spruce stands, either in response to synthetic pheromones of spruce colonizing beetles, or in host material colonized by these beetles. Potential differences in predator prey dynamics between spruce and pine ecosystems in the Great Lakes region are discussed. PMID:12921443

Haberkern, Kirsten E; Raffa, Kenneth F

2003-07-01

115

In Praise of Dung Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute radio program explores how dung beetles detect dung and what they do with the dung after they have buried it. A researcher explains that one way that beetles track down dung is to fly behind groups of monkeys. Beetles often perform an important ecosystem function--seed dispersal--when they bury monkey dung. Rain forest sounds, including that of a dung beetle flying, are in the background of this archived Pulse of the Planet program. A transcript is also provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Pulse of the Planet

2007-01-24

116

Euphausiid distribution along the Western Antarctic Peninsula—Part A: Development of robust multi-frequency acoustic techniques to identify euphausiid aggregations and quantify euphausiid size, abundance, and biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods were refined and tested for identifying the aggregations of Antarctic euphausiids ( Euphausia spp.) and then estimating euphausiid size, abundance, and biomass, based on multi-frequency acoustic survey data. A threshold level of volume backscattering strength for distinguishing euphausiid aggregations from other zooplankton was derived on the basis of published measurements of euphausiid visual acuity and estimates of the minimum density of animals over which an individual can maintain visual contact with its nearest neighbor. Differences in mean volume backscattering strength at 120 and 43 kHz further served to distinguish euphausiids from other sources of scattering. An inversion method was then developed to estimate simultaneously the mean length and density of euphausiids in these acoustically identified aggregations based on measurements of mean volume backscattering strength at four frequencies (43, 120, 200, and 420 kHz). The methods were tested at certain locations within an acoustically surveyed continental shelf region in and around Marguerite Bay, west of the Antarctic Peninsula, where independent evidence was also available from net and video systems. Inversion results at these test sites were similar to net samples for estimated length, but acoustic estimates of euphausiid density exceeded those from nets by one to two orders of magnitude, likely due primarily to avoidance and to a lesser extent to differences in the volumes sampled by the two systems. In a companion study, these methods were applied to the full acoustic survey data in order to examine the distribution of euphausiids in relation to aspects of the physical and biological environment [Lawson, G.L., Wiebe, P.H., Ashjian, C.J., Stanton, T.K., 2008. Euphausiid distribution along the Western Antarctic Peninsula—Part B: Distribution of euphausiid aggregations and biomass, and associations with environmental features. Deep-Sea Research II, this issue [doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.11.014

Lawson, Gareth L.; Wiebe, Peter H.; Stanton, Timothy K.; Ashjian, Carin J.

2008-02-01

117

Bark-beetle pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two major yeasts isolated from the southern pine beetle,Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, areHansenula holstii Wickerham andPichia pinus (Hoist) Phaff; a third yeast,P. bovis van Uden et do Carmo-Sousa, has been isolated far less frequently. The main volatile metabolites produced by these yeasts are isoamyl alcohol, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-phenylethyl acetate.We have found that certain of these compounds, particularly the

J. M. Brand; J. Schultz; S. J. Barras; L. J. Edson; T. L. Payne; R. L. Hedden

1977-01-01

118

The Beetle Reference Manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the electrical specifications, operating conditions and port definitions of the readout chip Beetle 1.2. The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and fulfils the requirements of the silicon vertex detector (VELO, VETO), the silicon tracker and the RICH detector in case of multi-anode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers and shapers. The

D. Baumeister; S. Lochner; M. Schmelling; N. Smale; U. Trunk; H. Verkooijen

119

Beetle Devastates Pine Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The warming climate has made conditions suitable for a massive outbreak of mountain pine beetles, which are now infesting the whitebark pine forests in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). The infestation has other ecological consequences such as devastation of forests in the region; loss of a critical food supply for grizzlies and other wildlife; negative impacts on water and watersheds; deterioration of biodiversity; and decline in the aesthetic value of an iconic ecosystem.

Jessie Logan (Retired Research Entomologist; )

2010-03-25

120

Local and regional effects on community structure of dung beetles in a mainland-island scenario.  

PubMed

Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers. PMID:25356729

da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

2014-01-01

121

Local and Regional Effects on Community Structure of Dung Beetles in a Mainland-Island Scenario  

PubMed Central

Understanding the ecological mechanisms driving beta diversity is a major goal of community ecology. Metacommunity theory brings new ways of thinking about the structure of local communities, including processes occurring at different spatial scales. In addition to new theories, new methods have been developed which allow the partitioning of individual and shared contributions of environmental and spatial effects, as well as identification of species and sites that have importance in the generation of beta diversity along ecological gradients. We analyzed the spatial distribution of dung beetle communities in areas of Atlantic Forest in a mainland-island scenario in southern Brazil, with the objective of identifying the mechanisms driving composition, abundance and biomass at three spatial scales (mainland-island, areas and sites). We sampled 20 sites across four large areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. The distribution of our sampling sites was hierarchical and areas are isolated. We used standardized protocols to assess environmental heterogeneity and sample dung beetles. We used spatial eigenfunctions analysis to generate the spatial patterns of sampling points. Environmental heterogeneity showed strong variation among sites and a mild increase with increasing spatial scale. The analysis of diversity partitioning showed an increase in beta diversity with increasing spatial scale. Variation partitioning based on environmental and spatial variables suggests that environmental heterogeneity is the most important driver of beta diversity at the local scale. The spatial effects were significant only at larger spatial scales. Our study presents a case where environmental heterogeneity seems to be the main factor structuring communities at smaller scales, while spatial effects are more important at larger scales. The increase in beta diversity that occurs at larger scales seems to be the result of limitation in species dispersal ability due to habitat fragmentation and the presence of geographical barriers. PMID:25356729

da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

2014-01-01

122

Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.  

PubMed

Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild predation by both native and exotic predators may contribute to native coccinellid decline, and that landscape structure interacts with local predator communities to shape the specific outcomes of predator-predator interactions. PMID:21931606

Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

2011-01-01

123

Intraguild Predation and Native Lady Beetle Decline  

PubMed Central

Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild predation by both native and exotic predators may contribute to native coccinellid decline, and that landscape structure interacts with local predator communities to shape the specific outcomes of predator-predator interactions. PMID:21931606

Gardiner, Mary M.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Landis, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

124

Biomass conversion potential in the Southeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biomass production and conversion potential of the southeastern U.S., with its large forest land and wood residue, long coastal areas, abundance of water, large amounts of readily collectable agricultural, urban and industrial waste materials, longer rainfall and fertile soil, is examined. Various types of biomass production and conversion methods, including terrestrial and silvicultural biomass as well as herbaceous, aquatic

H. Saha

1978-01-01

125

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Background  

E-print Network

are big enough, they enter the pupa stage. Beetles do not eat or move while in the pupa stage, which lasts up to 18 days. When the organism emerges from the pupa stage, it is the adult form of the Darkling Beetle and will live

Rose, Michael R.

126

ARIZONA COOPERATIVE Cypress Bark Beetles  

E-print Network

in Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), Leyland cypress (Cupressocyparis leylandii), eastern red cedar as natural thinning agents that remove dying, overcrowded, and unhealthy trees. Cypress bark beetles seldom cause mortality in healthy, vigorous trees. However, when host trees are drought stressed, bark beetle

Wong, Pak Kin

127

Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

128

Potential of yellow sticky traps for lady beetle survey in cotton.  

PubMed

A 2-yr study was conducted to investigate the potential of using yellow sticky traps to survey lady beetles in cotton and to quantify seasonal activity patterns. The performance of sticky traps was compared with that of a 2-cycle vacuum sampler. The most common lady beetle species captured by sticky traps and vacuum sampler in cotton were Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville and Scymnus loewii Mulsant. Sticky traps captured significantly more of both species of lady beetles, had greater capture efficiency, and more effectively detected lady beetles compared with the vacuum sampler. These data indicate that the sticky trap can be a valuable tool in monitoring lady beetle populations in cotton. In the second part of this study, a year-round survey of lady beetle populations in the periphery of a cotton farm using sticky traps showed that lady beetles remained active throughout the year in the Texas Rolling Plains, but the activity was influenced by winter severity. Over a 2-yr period, H. convergens, S. loewii, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) comprised 89.6, 8.2, 1.9, and 0.3% of the specimens, respectively. Sticky trap captures were affected by year, trap height, and cropping season. Traps placed at 0.75 m above ground captured significantly more (80%) lady beetles than traps placed at 1.50 m (20%) above ground; traps at 0.75 m above ground also detected the rarer species while the traps at 1.50 m above ground detected only the abundant species. Trap captures were higher during the noncotton season (November to April) compared with the cotton season (May to October). A significant positive correlation between cotton aphid abundance during the growing season and H. convergens abundance during the following noncotton season was also detected, indicating a significant movement of H. convergens from cotton to the periphery of the farm to seek refuge after cotton termination. PMID:12650368

Parajulee, M N; Slosser, J E

2003-02-01

129

Host Acceptance and Larval Competition in the Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Potential Mechanisms for Competitive Displacement between Invasive Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was much more abundant than the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus, in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. This study was initiated to determine whether competitive displacement of S. multistriatus by S. schevyrewi might be mediated by a sequence of behavioral interactions between the

Jana C. Lee; Steven J. Seybold

2010-01-01

130

Host Acceptance and Larval Competition between the Invasive Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Potential Mechanisms for Competitive Displacement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A recent survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was much more abundant than the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus, in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. This study sought to determine whether competitive displacement of S. mul...

131

Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung). PMID:23644804

Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

2013-02-01

132

Evidence for behavioral attractiveness of methoxylated aromatics in a dynastid scarab beetle-pollinated araceae.  

PubMed

Many plants attract their pollinators with floral scents, and these olfactory signals are especially important at night, when visual signals become inefficient. Dynastid scarab beetles are a speciose group of night-active pollinators, and several plants pollinated by these insects have methoxylated aromatic compounds in their scents. However, there is a large gap in our knowledge regarding the compounds responsible for beetle attraction. We used chemical analytical analyses to determine temporal patterns of scent emission and the composition of scent released from inflorescences of Philodendron selloum. The attractiveness of the main components in the scent to the dynastid scarab beetle Erioscelis emarginata, the exclusive pollinator of this plant, was assessed in field biotests. The amount of scent increased rapidly in the evening, and large amounts of scent were released during the activity time of the beetle pollinators. Inflorescences emitted a high number of compounds of different biosynthetic origin, among them both uncommon and also widespread flower scents. Methoxylated aromatic compounds dominated the scent, and 4-methoxystyrene, the most abundant compound, attracted E. emarginata beetles. Other compounds, such as (Z)-jasmone and possibly also the methoxylated aromatic compound 3,4-dimethoxystyrene increased the attractiveness of 4-methoxystyrene. Methoxylated aromatics, which are known from other dynastid pollinated plants as well, are important signals in many scarab beetles in a different context (e.g., pheromones), thus suggesting that these plants exploit pre-existing preferences of the beetles for attracting this group of insects as pollinators. PMID:23143663

Dötterl, Stefan; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Silberbauer-Gottsberger, Ilse; Gottsberger, Gerhard

2012-12-01

133

Heterotrophic succession within dung-inhabiting beetle communities in northern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successional patterns of beetles inhabiting dung pats were examined during May and July 1993 in a mountain area in northern Spain (Picos de Europa). Beetles belonging to six families were caught during the course of succession (30 d). Coprophagous beetles were more abundant in dung pats than predatory beetles (89 and 11 %, respectively). A trophic sequence was observed in relation to age of the dung, coprophagous beetles occurring earlier in the dung than predatory beetles. The pattern was observed on two occasions during the season, though succession proceeded somewhat faster in July than in May. These results suggest that food availability and microclimatic conditions in dung pats appear to determine the successional occurrence of beetle taxa. On the other hand, coprophagous species ( Aphodius) were poorly segregated along the successional axis. Null models failed to support the hypothesis that successional overlap and differences in successional mean occurrence between species could be the result of competition. Successional patterns at the specific level probably reflect differences in behaviour, such as pat location, feeding, mating, egg-laying and larva requirements, rather than competitive replacement.

Menéndez, Rosa; Gutiérrez, David

1999-09-01

134

The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields  

PubMed Central

The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

2013-01-01

135

[Ecological description of the ground beetle population (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in northern taiga meadows of Arkhangel'sk Region].  

PubMed

Species composition and ecological structure of ground beetle population was studied in northern taiga meadows of the Arkhangelsk Region. Meadows in the northern forest zone proved to harbor 91 ground beetle species. Carabid complexes formed in the intrazonal biocenoses of the northern forest zone can be as rich as the topical groups of the family in the southern forest zone by the number of species and ecological diversity. Ecological properties of the fauna and ground beetle population proved similar in different parts of the forest zone. The proportion of stenobiotic meadow species proved to decrease while that of ecologically plastic ones increased from south to north. The proportion of the genus Harpalus decreased in the ground beetle population while the number of Amara species remained unaltered and their abundance increased. The changes in the species composition caused no transformation of the ecological structure of ground beetle population since they are limited to a single life form or guild. PMID:17022481

Filippov, B Iu; Zezin, I S

2006-01-01

136

Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the zooplankton community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer zooplankton community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the zooplankton community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the zooplankton composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from the middle shelf indicates that the warmer conditions in 2004 are part of a trend rather than an expression of interannual variability. These results suggest that if climate on the Bering Sea shelf continues to warm, the zooplankton community may shift from large to small taxa which could strongly impact apex predators and the economies they support.

Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.

2008-08-01

137

Global diversity of water beetles (Coleoptera) in freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global diversity of True Water Beetles, False Water Beetles and Phytophilous Water Beetles (sensu Jäch, 1998a. In Jäch\\u000a & Ji (eds), Water Beetles of China, Vol. II. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Österreich and Wiener Coleopterologenverein,\\u000a Wien: 25–42.) is assessed. Facultative Water Beetles, Parasitic Water Beetles and Shore Beetles (sensu Jäch, 1998a. In Jäch\\u000a & Ji (eds), Water Beetles of China,

M. A. Jäch; M. Balke

2008-01-01

138

Biomass production in Florida  

SciTech Connect

Florida posseses climatic, land, and water resources favorable for abundant biomass production. Therefore, a statewide program has been initiated to determine adapted species for the available array of production sites. Plant resources under investigation include woody, aquatic, grasses, hydrocarbon, and root crop species. The goal is to produce a continuous stream of biomass for the various biofuel conversion options. Preliminary yields from energy cropping experiments range from about 10 to nearly 90 metric tons per hectare per year, depending on the crop and the production systems employed. (Refs. 15).

Smith, W.H.; Dowd, M.L.

1981-08-01

139

Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations  

SciTech Connect

Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

Janossy, L.; Bitto, A. [ELTE Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

1995-12-31

140

Biomass pretreatment  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

2013-05-21

141

BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The biomass utilization task consists of the evaluation of a biomass conversion technology including research and development initiatives. The project is expected to provide information on co-control of pollutants, as well as, to prove the feasibility of biomass conversion techn...

142

Effect of trap type, trap position, time of year, and beetle density on captures of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

PubMed

The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont Raffaellea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich, and Aghayeva are responsible for widespread redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., mortality in the southern United States. Effective traps and lures are needed to monitor spread of the beetle and for early detection at ports-of-entry, so we conducted a series of experiments to find the best trap design, color, lure, and trap position for detection of X. glabratus. The best trap and lure combination was then tested at seven sites varying in beetle abundance and at one site throughout the year to see how season and beetle population affected performance. Manuka oil proved to be the most effective lure tested, particularly when considering cost and availability. Traps baited with manuka oil lures releasing 5 mg/d caught as many beetles as those baited with lures releasing 200 mg/d. Distributing manuka oil lures from the top to the bottom of eight-unit funnel traps resulted in similar numbers of X. glabratus as a single lure in the middle. Trap color had little effect on captures in sticky traps or cross-vane traps. Funnel traps caught twice as many beetles as cross-vane traps and three times as many as sticky traps but mean catch per trap was not significantly different. When comparing height, traps 1.5 m above the ground captured 85% of the beetles collected but a few were caught at each height up to 15 m. Funnel trap captures exhibited a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.79) with X. glabratus attack density and they performed well throughout the year. Catching beetles at low densities is important to port of entry monitoring programs where early detection of infestations is essential. Our trials show that multiple funnel traps baited with a single manuka oil lure were effective for capturing X. glabratus even when no infested trees were visible in the area. PMID:21510198

Hanula, James L; Ulyshen, Michael D; Horn, Scott

2011-04-01

143

Longer-term effects of selective thinning on carabid beetles and spiders in the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Within late-successional forests of the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon, abundances of carabid beetles (Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) from pitfall traps were compared between stands thinned 16-41 years prior and nearby unthinned stands. Species richness of both taxa were moderate for coniferous forests of this region, with 12 carabid beetle species and >120 spider species collected. No differences in total abundance or species richness were found between stand types for carabid beetles, although abundances of four of the six most common species differed significantly. Pterostichus setosus, the most abundant species collected, was significantly more abundant in unthinned stands, while Omus cazieri, P. lama, and Carabus taedatus were more numerous in thinned stands. In contrast, both total spider abundance and species richness were significantly higher in thinned stands. Hunting spiders within the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae, and the funnel web-building Dictynidae were captured more often in thinned stands while sheet web spiders within Linyphiidae and Hahniidae were more abundant in unthinned stands. The forest floor within unthinned stands was structurally more diverse than in thinned stands, but this did not lead to greater overall abundance or diversity of either carabid beetles or spiders.

Peck, R.; Niwa, C.G.

2005-01-01

144

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.  

PubMed

Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics--yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms. PMID:19760277

Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

2009-11-01

145

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics—yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms.

Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

2009-11-01

146

Common flea beetles of North Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A very nicely illustrated key to 46 flea beetles regularly found in North Dakota. The key is a lucid style key, and the images are carefully produced. A beautiful photo gallery and list of common flea beetles is also included.

0000-00-00

147

Bark beetle community structure under four ponderosa pine forest stand conditions in northern Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona to explore if the species assemblages and relative abundance differ between managed and unmanaged stands. Four stand conditions were assessed: (1) unmanaged stands with high tree density, (2) thinned stands, (3) thinned and burned (with prescribed fire) stands and (4) stands that had been

Guillermo Sánchez-Mart??nez; Michael R. Wagner

2002-01-01

148

EVIDENCE FOR CONTACT SEX RECOGNITION PHEROMONE FOR THE ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE, ANOPLOPHORA GLABRIPENNIS (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of long-chain hydrocarbons comprise the cuticular waxes of both sexes of Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) adults. Although for the most part the gas chromatographic profiles are similar for the two sexes, five monounsaturated compounds were consistently more abundant in s...

149

Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

2011-01-01

150

POWDERPOST BEETLES Gary W. Bennett, Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

) availableasemulsifiableconcentrates(EC)thatcanbediluted by mixing with water according to label directions. Control powderpost beetlesPOWDERPOST BEETLES Gary W. Bennett, Extension Entomologist Department of Entomology Household & Structural E-73-W PURDUE EXTENSION Powderpost beetles are second only to termites as de- stroyers of seasoned

Ginzel, Matthew

151

Bean leaf beetle management in soybean  

E-print Network

Bean leaf beetle management in soybean Erin W. Hodgson Department of Entomology Iowa State concerned about BPMV #12;Bean leaf beetle threshold for 1st generation adults (per 20 sweeps) Control $7 $8 for bivoltine or multivoltine regions · Use counts to help manage 2nd/3rd generations #12;Bean leaf beetle

Jurenka, Russell A.

152

Bean leaf beetle biology in soybean  

E-print Network

Bean leaf beetle biology in soybean Erin W. Hodgson Department of Entomology Iowa State University September 2009 #12;Outline · Description · Life cycle · Biology · Damage #12;Bean leaf beetle (BLB) · Cerotoma trifurcata ­ leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) · 5 mm long, oval shape · Typically dark

Jurenka, Russell A.

153

Beetle-killed and burned pine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Globs of resin on the outside bark of a pine tree indicate that it has been attacked by mountain pine beetles. The trees ooze this resin as a defense mechanism against the beetles. This pine tree has also been burned, probably in a forest fire. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss ...

154

Beetle-killed pine with USGS marker  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This dead pine has been marked by USGS scientists studying the effects of mountain pine beetles on forest ecology. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especi...

155

Blue beetle-killed pine park  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Stripped bark from a dead pine tree reveals the tell-tale blue streaks of a mountain pine beetle attack. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodge...

156

Optimization of biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

With sufficient territory and abundant biomass resources Spain appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. This paper addresses biomass fuelled generation of electricity in the specific aspect of finding the best location and the supply area

P. Reche López; M. Gómez González; N. Ruiz Reyes; F. Jurado

2008-01-01

157

Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower.(From the Biomass Program's home page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/) The Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database allows the user to choose from more than 150 types of biomass samples. The specialized interface then guides the user through choices within the sample (such as "Ash" as a choice in the "Hardwood" sample and displays tables based on choice of composition properties, structure properties, elemental properties, extractive properties, etc.

158

Primate and Dung Beetle Communities in Secondary Growth Rain Forests: Implications for Conservation of Seed Dispersal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation efforts are often aimed at one or a few species. However, habitat sustainability relies on ecological interactions among species, such as seed dispersal. Thus, a community-scale conservation strategy may be more valuable in some settings. We describe communities of primary (primates) and secondary (dung beetles) seed dispersers from 5 sites in the Brazilian Amazon. We estimate community biomass of

Kevina Vulinec; Joanna E. Lambert; David J. Mellow

2006-01-01

159

Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.  

SciTech Connect

For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

2004-05-13

160

Virtual stag beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D image of a stage beetle (Family Lucanidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the Â?HelpÂ? page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0000-00-00

161

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

SciTech Connect

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

None

2010-01-01

162

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

ScienceCinema

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

None

2013-05-29

163

Nitrogen Cycling Responses to Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbance in a High Elevation Whitebark Pine Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

2013-01-01

164

Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

2013-01-01

165

Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.  

PubMed

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH??) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

2013-01-01

166

Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ ? a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse, taxonomically and ecologically well-known, efficiently reflect biotic and abiotic conditions, are relevant at multiple spatial scales, and are easy to collect in sufficiently large numbers to allow statistical analyses. The assumption that carabid responses would reflect rare environmental conditions or the responses of rare and threatened species ? crucial information for conservationists and managers ? has not yet been critically evaluated. Even if it holds, the usefulness will be context dependent: species and their populations vary, conditions vary, questions put forward vary, and assessment goals vary. PMID:21738418

Koivula, Matti J.

2011-01-01

167

The Dung Beetle Dance: An Orientation Behaviour?  

PubMed Central

An interesting feature of dung beetle behaviour is that once they have formed a piece of dung into a ball, they roll it along a straight path away from the dung pile. This straight-line orientation ensures that the beetles depart along the most direct route, guaranteeing that they will not return to the intense competition (from other beetles) that occurs near the dung pile. Before rolling a new ball away from the dung pile, dung beetles perform a characteristic “dance,” in which they climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This dance behaviour can also be observed during the beetles' straight-line departure from the dung pile. The aim of the present study is to investigate the purpose of the dung beetle dance. To do this, we explored the circumstances that elicit dance behaviour in the diurnal ball-rolling dung beetle, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus. Our results reveal that dances are elicited when the beetles lose control of their ball or lose contact with it altogether. We also find that dances can be elicited by both active and passive deviations of course and by changes in visual cues alone. In light of these results, we hypothesise that the dung beetle dance is a visually mediated mechanism that facilitates straight-line orientation in ball-rolling dung beetles by allowing them to 1) establish a roll bearing and 2) return to this chosen bearing after experiencing a disturbance to the roll path. PMID:22279572

Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J.; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric J.; Dacke, Marie

2012-01-01

168

Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion  

E-print Network

Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion Rajiv Bharadwaj such as cellulases and hemicellulases is a limiting and costly step in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Lignocellulosic (LC) biomass is an abundant and potentially carbon-neutral resource for production of biofuels

Singh, Anup

169

ROOT BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN THE WORLD'S UPLAND FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root biomass based on standard meth...

170

Pastoral practices to reverse shrub encroachment of sub-alpine grasslands: dung beetles (coleoptera, scarabaeoidea) respond more quickly than vegetation.  

PubMed

In recent decades, pastoral abandonment has produced profound ecological changes in the Alps. In particular, the reduction in grazing has led to extensive shrub encroachment of semi-natural grasslands, which may represent a threat to open habitat biodiversity. To reverse shrub encroachment, we assessed short-term effects of two different pastoral practices on vegetation and dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea). Strategic placement of mineral mix supplements (MMS) and arrangement of temporary night camp areas (TNCA) for cattle were carried out during summer 2011 in the Val Troncea Natural Park, north-western Italian Alps. In 2012, one year after treatment, a reduction in shrub cover and an increase in bare ground cover around MMS sites was detected. A more intense effect was detected within TNCA through increases in forage pastoral value, and in the cover and height of the herbaceous layer. Immediately after treatment, changes in dung beetle diversity (total abundance, species richness, Shannon diversity, taxonomic and functional diversity) showed a limited disturbance effect caused by high cattle density. In contrast, dung beetle diversity significantly increased one year later both at MMS and TNCA sites, with a stronger effect within TNCA. Multivariate Regression Trees and associated Indicator Value analyses showed that some ecologically relevant dung beetle species preferred areas deprived of shrub vegetation. Our main conclusions are: i) TNCA are more effective than MMS in terms of changes to vegetation and dung beetles, ii) dung beetles respond more quickly than vegetation to pastoral practices, and iii) the main driver of the rapid response by dung beetles is the removal of shrubs. The resulting increase in dung beetle abundance and diversity, which are largely responsible for grassland ecosystem functioning, may have a positive effect on meso-eutrophic grassland restoration. Shrub encroachment in the Alps may therefore be reversed, and restoration of grassland enhanced, by using appropriate pastoral practices. PMID:24358277

Tocco, Claudia; Probo, Massimiliano; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero; Negro, Matteo; Nervo, Beatrice; Rolando, Antonio; Palestrini, Claudia

2013-01-01

171

Biomass Conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In its simplest terms, biomass is all the plant matter found on our planet. Biomass is produced directly by photosynthesis,\\u000a the fundamental engine of life on earth. Plant photosynthesis uses energy from the sun to combine carbon dioxide from the\\u000a atmosphere with water to produce organic plant matter. More inclusive definitions are possible. For example, animal products\\u000a and waste can

Stephen R. Decker; John Sheehan; David C. Dayton; Joseph J. Bozell; William S. Adney; Bonnie Hames; Steven R. Thomas; Richard L. Bain; Stefan Czernik; Min Zhang; Michael E. Himmel

2007-01-01

172

Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

173

Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).  

SciTech Connect

Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and �¢����trap-shy�¢��� species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

2005-01-01

174

Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).  

SciTech Connect

Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and � ����trap-shy�¢��� species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

2005-01-01

175

Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona.  

PubMed

Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance. PMID:18767735

Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A

2008-08-01

176

Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.  

PubMed

Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed. PMID:2189910

Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

1990-05-01

177

The ground beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Kenyir water catchment, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

An assemblage of beetle specimens from family Carabidae (ground beetles) was carried out at Kenyir water catchment as an indicator to measure disturbance. The samplings were conducted from 30th July to 1st August 2007 at limestone forest of Teluk Bewah and the dipterocarp forest of Sungai Cicir. 28 individuals from 13 species were collected from Teluk Bewah whereas 54 individuals from ten species was sampled from Sungai Cicir. The carabids were more specious (Simpson Diversity index: 0.97) and more abundant (Margalef index: 5.35) at Teluk Bewah compared to Sungai Cicir (Simpson Diversity index, 0.72: Margalefindex, 2.22). Light trapping was most efficient assembling 97.56% of ground beetles compared to Malaise trap, pitfall and net sweeping. This is the first record of beetle assemblage at Kenyir water catchment, Malaysia. New records for Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia are Abacetus sp. 1, Abacetus sp. 2, Acupalpus rectifrotis, Aephnidius adelioides, Dischissus notulatus, Dolichoctis sp., Dolichoctis sp. 2, Dolichoctis straitus, Ophinoea bimaculata, Perigona sp., Pheropsophus piciccollis, Pheropsophus occipitalis, Stenolophus quinquepustulatus, Stenolophus smaragdulus, Stenolophus sp., Tachys coracinus, Casnoidea sp., Orthogonius sp. Seven species coded as Cara C, Cara J, Cara M, Cara N, Cara O, Cara R and Cara S were unidentified and are probably new species to be described in another report. There is moderately high diversity (Simpson Diversity index: 0.846) of Carabidae indicating that ecotourism does not affect diversity of ground beetle at Kenyir Lake. PMID:19205267

Abdullah, Fauziah; Sina, Ibnu; Fauzee, Fatmahjihan

2008-11-01

178

The Beetles of the Virgin Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided in collaboration by researchers at Montana State and Ohio State universities, this database of the Beetles of the Virgin Islands contains records for over 34,000 specimens of 489 beetle species. The database also offers mapping capabilities for identifying beetle collection locations. Query by Island, Family, or Specimen to find details for each species -- including scientific name, number of specimens in the database, islands where this species has been collected, and collecting methods.

179

USDA Forest Service: Asian Longhorned Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Asian longhorned beetles are an exotic species of insect that have been wreaking havoc on North American trees, particularly maples, alders, birches, elms, horsechestnut, poplars, and willows. This site from the USDA Forest Service had some general information about the beetle (including images), and resources on identifying them and reporting sightings. Check out the "Publications" link for some more extensive tips on identifying the asian longhorned beetle, and controlling its spread.

180

Bacterial Protection of Beetle-Fungus Mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-microbe symbioses play a critical role in the evolution of biological diversity and complexity. In a notably intricate system, southern pine beetles use symbiotic fungi to help overcome host-tree defenses and to provide nutrition for their larvae. We show that this beetle-fungal mutualism is chemically mediated by a bacterially produced polyunsaturated peroxide. The molecule's selective toxicity toward the beetle's fungal

Jarrod J. Scott; Dong-Chan Oh; M. Cetin Yuceer; Kier D. Klepzig; Jon Clardy; Cameron R. Currie

2008-01-01

181

Predators Feeding on the Colorado Potato Beetle in Insecticide-Free Plots and Insecticide-Treated Commercial Potato Fields in Eastern North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies in insecticide-free research plots and insecticide-treated commercial potato fields were conducted to determine the identity and seasonal abundance of the predators feeding on the Colorado potato beetle,Leptinotarsa decemlineata(Say) in eastern North Carolina. Taxa were classified as predaceous on Colorado potato beetle eggs or larvae only if they were observed to feed on them in the field or to

Angelika Hilbeck; George G. Kennedy

1996-01-01

182

Pheromone production in bark beetles.  

PubMed

The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary ?-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

2010-10-01

183

Potential impact of mangrove clearance on biomass and biomass size spectra of nematode along the Sudanese Red Sea coast.  

PubMed

The potential effect of mangrove clearance on nematode assemblage biomass, biomass size spectra (NBSS) and abundance/biomass curves (ABC) was investigated in three sites representing a varying degree of mangrove clearance as well as in three stations established at each sites representing high-, mid- and low-water levels. Results revealed significant differences in sediment and nematode characteristics between the three sites. Although both the cleared and the intact mangrove had comparable biomass values, clear differences in biomass size spectra and abundance biomass curves were observed. The results suggested that the variation in the silt fraction and the food quality positively affected the total biomass. Mangrove clearance has caused a shift from a unimodal to a bimodal biomass size spectrum at all water levels, owing to an increase in smaller-bodied opportunistic non-selective deposit feeding nematodes. The ABC further confirmed the effect of clearance by classifying the cleared mangrove as moderately to grossly disturbed. PMID:25460061

Sabeel, Rasha Adam Osman; Vanreusel, Ann

2015-02-01

184

Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

2013-09-01

185

Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

2013-01-01

186

Sampling scarab beetles in tropical forests: the effect of light source and night sampling periods.  

PubMed

Light traps have been used widely to sample insect abundance and diversity, but their performance for sampling scarab beetles in tropical forests based on light source type and sampling hours throughout the night has not been evaluated. The efficiency of mercury-vapour lamps, cool white light and ultraviolet light sources in attracting Dynastinae, Melolonthinae and Rutelinae scarab beetles, and the most adequate period of the night to carry out the sampling was tested in different forest areas of Costa Rica. Our results showed that light source wavelengths and hours of sampling influenced scarab beetle catches. No significant differences were observed in trap performance between the ultraviolet light and mercury-vapour traps, whereas these two methods caught significantly more species richness and abundance than cool white light traps. Species composition also varied between methods. Large differences appear between catches in the sampling period, with the first five hours of the night being more effective than the last five hours. Because of their high efficiency and logistic advantages, we recommend ultraviolet light traps deployed during the first hours of the night as the best sampling method for biodiversity studies of those scarab beetles in tropical forests. PMID:22208730

García-López, Alejandra; Micó, Estefanía; Zumbado, Manuel A; Galante, Eduardo

2011-01-01

187

Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species.  

PubMed

The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum. PMID:20578952

Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

2010-01-01

188

Differential Consumption of Four Aphid Species by Four Lady Beetle Species  

PubMed Central

The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum. PMID:20578952

Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

2010-01-01

189

Sampling Scarab Beetles in Tropical Forests: The Effect of Light Source and Night Sampling Periods  

PubMed Central

Light traps have been used widely to sample insect abundance and diversity, but their performance for sampling scarab beetles in tropical forests based on light source type and sampling hours throughout the night has not been evaluated. The efficiency of mercury-vapour lamps, cool white light and ultraviolet light sources in attracting Dynastinae, Melolonthinae and Rutelinae scarab beetles, and the most adequate period of the night to carry out the sampling was tested in different forest areas of Costa Rica. Our results showed that light source wavelengths and hours of sampling influenced scarab beetle catches. No significant differences were observed in trap performance between the ultraviolet light and mercury-vapour traps, whereas these two methods caught significantly more species richness and abundance than cool white light traps. Species composition also varied between methods. Large differences appear between catches in the sampling period, with the first five hours of the night being more effective than the last five hours. Because of their high efficiency and logistic advantages, we recommend ultraviolet light traps deployed during the first hours of the night as the best sampling method for biodiversity studies of those scarab beetles in tropical forests. PMID:22208730

García-López, Alejandra; Micó, Estefanía; Zumbado, Manuel A.; Galante, Eduardo

2011-01-01

190

Simulate Natural Selection With Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simulation activity, students experiment with a population of M&M candies or paper dot "beetles" to test how well each color is adapted to survive on a field of colorful wrapping paper or fabric. Students act as predators and see that camouflaged beetles survive predation preferentially. Students reflect on how the activity could be modified to better simulate the process of predation-based natural selection. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "Origin of Species," part of the unit, "Losing Biodiversity," in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

191

An evaluation of British Columbian beetle-killed hybrid spruce for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

The development of bioconversion technologies for production of fuels, chemicals, and power from renewable resources is currently a high priority for developed nations such as the United States, Canada, and the European Union as a way to improve national energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The widespread implementation of such technologies will require a sustainable supply of biomass from forestry and agriculture. Forests are a major source of feedstocks for biofuels production in Canada. Woody biomass includes residues from logging and forest thinning, and from wood processing and pulp production. More recently, damaged wood caused by beetle infestations has become available on a large scale in Western Canada. This study evaluates beetle-killed British Columbian hybrid spruce (HS) (Picea glauca x P. engelmannii) as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. In the past 30 yr, attack by the beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis and associated fungi has resulted in estimated losses of more than three billion board feet in British Columbia alone. Here we describe the chemical and some physical characteristics of both healthy (HHS) and beetle-killed (BKHS) British Columbian HS and evaluate the technical feasibility of using these feedstocks as a source of biomass for bioethanol production. Untreated HHS and BKHS did not differ significantly in chemical composition except for the moisture content, which was significantly lower in BKHS (approx 10%) compared with HHS (approx 18%). However, the yields of carbohydrates in hydrolyzable and fermentable forms were higher at mild pretreatment conditions (H-Factor <1000) for BKHS compared with HHS. At medium (H-Factor 1000-2000) and severe (H-Factor >2000) pretreatment conditions HHS and BKHS behaved similarly. Organosolv pretreated HHS and BKHS demonstrated good ethanol theoretical yields, approx 70 and 80%, respectively. PMID:18478394

Berlin, Alex; Muñoz, Claudio; Gilkes, Neil; Alamouti, Sepideh Massoumi; Chung, Pablo; Kang, Kyu-Young; Maximenko, Vera; Baeza, Jaime; Freer, Juanita; Mendonça, Regis; Saddler, Jack

2007-04-01

192

Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.  

PubMed

Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest. PMID:22127165

Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

2010-08-01

193

SURVEY OF THE ROOT-FEEDING BEETLES DIAPREPES ABBREVIATUS AND PHYLLOPHAGA VANDINEI ON SOME TROPICAL FRUIT TREES IN PUERTO RICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cone emergence traps were used to monitor the abundance of the root-feeding beetles Diaprepes abbreviatus and Phyllophaga vandinei in the soil surrounding young trees of sapodilla (Manilkara zapota), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota), and lychee (Litchi chinensis) at var...

194

Association of wildfire with tree health and numbers of pine bark beetles, reproduction weevils and their associates in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires burned over 200,000ha of forest lands in Florida from April to July 1998. This unique disturbance event provided a valuable opportunity to study the interactions of summer wildfires with the activity of pine feeding insects and their associates in the southeastern United States. We compared tree mortality with abundance of bark and ambrosia beetles, reproduction weevils and wood borers

James L. Hanula; James R. Meeker; Daniel R. Miller; Edward L. Barnard

2002-01-01

195

Flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) occurring on Amaranthus Retroflexus L. In Erzurum Province, Turkey and their potential as biological control agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Species composition and abundance of flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)associated with Amaranthus retroflexus L. was studied in Erzurum provinces, Turkey, with the aim to find candidates for potential biological control of this weed. Insects were collected by sweeping net and aspirator on plan...

196

Large woody debris and salmonid habitat in the Anchor River basin, Alaska, following an extensive spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A widespread and intense spruce beetle outbreak has killed most of the mature white spruce trees across many watersheds in south-central Alaska. To investigate the potential habitat impacts in a salmon stream, we characterized the current abundance and species composition of large woody debris (LWD...

197

Succession of ground-dwelling beetle assemblages after fire in three habitat types in the Andean forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this was reflected by beetle diversity. PMID:20575740

Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G

2010-01-01

198

Succession of Ground-Dwelling Beetle Assemblages After Fire in Three Habitat Types in the Andean Forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina  

PubMed Central

Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this was reflected by beetle diversity. PMID:20575740

Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.

2010-01-01

199

BIOMASS CONVERSION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in the use of various lignocellulosic biomass for production of fuel ethanol and other value-added fermentation products has increased in recent years. In this presentation, our research dealing with the development of an efficient pretreatment technology and novel microbial enzymes for us...

200

Japanese beetle management 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa  

E-print Network

Conference, Ames Iowa Complete metamorphosis or life cycle Larva (white grub) Adult (scarab beetle) Egg PupaJapanese beetle management 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa Japanese beetle biology and management #12;Japanese beetle management 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa Outline · ID, life cycle, biology

Jurenka, Russell A.

201

Quantitative assessment of the nematode fauna present on Geotrupes dung beetles reveals species-rich communities with a heterogeneous distribution.  

PubMed

Pristionchus spp. nematodes exhibit several traits that might serve as pre-adaptations to parasitism. Under harsh environmental conditions, these nematodes can arrest development and form dauer larvae. In addition, they have been shown to live in necromenic association with a range of beetles, including dung beetles ( Geotrupes stercorosus ) on which, for example, Pristionchus entomophagus is commonly found. It has been argued that the formation of dauer larvae and the association with invertebrates represent intermediate steps towards parasitism. To better understand necromenic associations, and to gain information on Pristionchus spp. abundance and the general species composition on dung beetles, we extracted all the nematode fauna present on 114 individuals of G. stercorosus. By direct sequencing using the 18S SSU, we provide a barcode for all nematodes isolated from the beetle samples. In total, 5,002 dauer-stage nematodes were sequenced, which included Pristionchus spp., Koerneria spp. (Diplogastridae), Pelodera spp. (Rhabditidae), and Strongyloidea as well as Spirurida. Intensities of infection varied from over 1,000 nematodes isolated from a single G. stercorosus to none, with Pelodera spp. being the most abundant group isolated. This study presents the first quantitative data on the Pristionchus spp. infection of beetles. PMID:20557197

Weller, Andreas M; Mayer, Werner E; Rae, Robbie; Sommer, Ralf J

2010-06-01

202

Book review: Methods for catching beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

203

Colorado's Forests and the Pine Beetle Epidemic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features CU Boulder Professor Jeff Mitton and his research team, who study the effects of mountain pine beetle infestations on the forest ecology in the Rocky Mountains. They explain the pine beetle life cycle and how they attack trees. An outlook into the future is also provided.

Office of University Outreach at the University of Colorado Boulder

204

Darkling Beetle Life Cycle Key Background  

E-print Network

are big enough, they enter the pupa stage. Beetles do not eat or move while in the pupa stage, which lasts up to 18 days. When the organism emerges from the pupa stage, it is the adult form of the Darkling Beetle and will live

Rose, Michael R.

205

Standard methods for small hive beetle research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are parasites and scavengers of honey bee and other social bee colonies native to sub-Saharan Africa, where they are a minor pest only. In contrast, the beetles can be harmful parasites of European honey bee subspecies. Very rapidly after A. tumida established pop...

206

The Beetles Are Coming Jeff Mitton  

E-print Network

are dotted with mycangia, shallow pits that carry blue stain fungi. As the beetles dig their galleries growing in the galleries. The fungi penetrate the wood, staining it a drab blue. Beetles have evolved mutualistic relationships with microbes and blue stain fungi to kill trees. Microbes in the gut transform

Colorado at Boulder, University of

207

Pine Bark Beetle Outbreaks and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive shows the extent of the killing of lodgepole pine trees in western Canada. The spread of pine beetle throughout British Columbia has devastated the lodgepole pine forests there. This animation shows the spread of the beetle and the increasing numbers of trees affected from 1999-2008 and predicts the spread up until 2015.

American Museum of Natural History

208

Bark Beetle Infestation Investigation: Estimation and Pheromones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity investigates how bark beetles can threaten forests by having learners estimate the number of infected trees from a photo. Learners also think about how pheromones could be used to trap the beetles. The activity is written for a kit that can be checked out of a library, but the kit is not necessary.

Maisie Shaw

2010-01-01

209

A segmental analysis of the beetle antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - A segmental analysis of the beetle antenna - Number of antennal articles in adult and larval Coleoptera is surveyed. Eleven articles must be credited to the ground-plan of the adult beetle antenna, and three, or possibly four, to the larval one. A new model is presented, aiming at explaining, in terms of segmentation process, the origin of the

Alessandro MINELLI

210

Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

211

Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) feeding ecology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moth...

212

Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass  

SciTech Connect

Lignocellulosic biomass includes agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste (MSW), fiber resulting from grain operations, waste cellulosics (e.g. paper and pulp operations), and energy crops. Taken together, these materials represent one of the most abundant renewable resources on earth. The conversion of even a small portion of this resource to ethanol could substantially reduce current gasoline consumption and dependence on petroleum. Lignocellulosic materials are composed of three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose polymers can be hydrolyzed into their component sugars, primarily glucose and xylose, respectively, which can then be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol and fuel additives from ethanol have properties useful for dealing with urban air pollution. In addition, using renewable lignocellulosic resources for ethanol production can reduce the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thereby aid in the prevention of global warming. Moreover, producing ethanol from an abundant domestic lignocellulosic resource will provide new opportunities for agriculture. In an overall process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, the biomass is first pretreated by mechanical and chemical processes. An acid-based pretreatment process is one method that can be used to hydrolyze the hemicellulose to xylose. To hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose, processes based on the use of acids or cellulase enzyme can then be used. For enzymatic processes, the rate and yield of glucose from cellulose depends on the characteristics of the cellulose enzymes, which are synthesized by cellulolytic microorganisms such as fungi or bacteria. A variety of microorganisms can be used to ferment xylose and glucose to ethanol. 178 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.

Schell, D.J.; McMillian, J.D.; Philippidis, G.P. [and others

1992-12-31

213

Biomass shock pretreatment  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

2014-07-01

214

Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment  

SciTech Connect

Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

Michael Lehman

2008-06-01

215

Response of understory vegetation to variable tree mortality following a mountain pine beetle epidemic in lodgepole pine stands in northern Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the response of understory vegetation beneath monotypic, even-aged stands of lodgepole pine to increasing tree mortality following an epidemic of mountain pine beetles. we hypothesized that understory biomass would increase continually as the tree canopy was reduced and competition with trees for light and soil moisture decreased, but that plant species diversity and heterogeneity would peak at intermediate

William E. Stone; Michael L. Wolfe

1996-01-01

216

Beetles, Birds, & Fire in Western Forests Introduction: The mountain pine beetle is native to Montana, but a recent epidemic has  

E-print Network

Beetles, Birds, & Fire in Western Forests Introduction: The mountain pine beetle is native responses to bark beetle outbreaks are largely unknown, and will have important implications for forest on the avian response to the mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Helena National Forest will provide valuable

217

SpruceBarkBeetle For more information about the management of spruce bark beetle, contact your nearest office  

E-print Network

SpruceBarkBeetle For more information about the management of spruce bark beetle, contact your Large outbreaks of the spruce bark beetle are very difficult to control. Small infestations can of the spruce bark beetle depends on temperature and elevation. In general, it takes two years to complete

218

Reciprocal interactions between the bark beetle-associated yeast Ogataea pini and host plant phytochemistry.  

PubMed

Here we report the first experiments testing reciprocal effects between the bark beetle-associated yeast, Ogataea pini, and phytochemicals present in tree tissues (Pinus ponderosa). We tested two hypotheses: (i) tree phytochemicals mediate O. pini growth and (ii) O. pini affects chemical composition of plant tissues. We tested six monoterpenes on O. pini biomass growth in vitro and found that most monoterpenes inhibited O. pini growth; however mean O. pini biomass increased 21.5% when treated with myrcene and 75.5% when treated with terpinolene, relative to control. Ogataea pini was grown on phloem tissue ex vivo to determine whether O. pini affected phloem chemistry. Monoterpene concentrations declined in phloem over time, but phloem colonized by O. pini had significantly different concentrations of monoterpenes at two periods than phloem with no yeast. After 7 d, when O. pini was present, concentrations of the monoterpene ?-3-carene was 42.9% lower than uncolonized phloem and concentrations of the monoterpene terpinolene was 345.0% higher than uncolonized phloem. After 15 d phloem colonized by O. pini had 505.4% higher concentrations of ?-pinene than uncolonized phloem. These experiments suggest that O. pini responds to phytochemicals present in host tissues and the presence of O. pini might alter the chemical environment of phloem tissues during the early stages of beetle development. The interactions between O. pini and phytochemicals in pine vascular tissues might have consequences for the bark beetle that vectors O. pini, Dendroctonus brevicomis. PMID:21659459

Davis, Thomas S; Hofstetter, Richard W

2011-01-01

219

Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona.  

PubMed

We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600-1,736 m; middle: 2,058-2,230 m; high: 2,505-2,651 m) for 3 yr (2004-2006) using pheromone-baited Lindgren funnel traps. Trap contents were collected weekly from March to December. We also studied temperature differences among the elevation bands and what role this may play in beetle flight behavior. Bark beetles, regardless of species, showed no consistent elevational trend in abundance among the three bands. The higher abundances of Ips lecontei Swaine, I. calligraphus ponderosae Swaine, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, and D. brevicomis LeConte at low and middle elevations offset the greater abundance of I. knausi Swaine, D. adjunctus Blandford, D. approximatus Dietz, and D. valens LeConte at high elevations. I. pini (Say) and I. latidens LeConte were found in similar numbers across the three bands. Flight periodicity of several species varied among elevation bands. In general, the flight period shortened as elevation increased; flight initiated later and terminated earlier in the year. The timing, number, and magnitude of peaks in flight activity also varied among the elevation bands. These results suggest that abundance and flight seasonality of several bark beetles are related to elevation and the associated temperature differences. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to bark beetle management and population dynamics. PMID:18348801

Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Miller, Andy

2008-02-01

220

Formation of Rigid, Non-Flight Forewings (Elytra) of a Beetle Requires Two Major Cuticular Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings) of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa) and TcCPR18 (20 kDa), which are

Yasuyuki Arakane; Joseph Lomakin; Stevin H. Gehrke; Yasuaki Hiromasa; John M. Tomich; Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan; Richard W. Beeman; Karl J. Kramer; Michael R. Kanost

2012-01-01

221

The Comparative Effectiveness of Rodents and Dung Beetles as Local Seed Dispersers in Mediterranean Oak Forests  

PubMed Central

The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications for oak recruitment and community dynamics. PMID:24194872

Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Verdú, José R.; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M.

2013-01-01

222

Optimising Bait for Pitfall Trapping of Amazonian Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)  

PubMed Central

The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology. PMID:24023675

Marsh, Charles J.; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M.

2013-01-01

223

The comparative effectiveness of rodents and dung beetles as local seed dispersers in Mediterranean oak forests.  

PubMed

The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications for oak recruitment and community dynamics. PMID:24194872

Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Verdú, José R; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M

2013-01-01

224

Changes in soil biogeochemistry following disturbance by girdling and mountain pine beetles in subalpine forests.  

PubMed

A recent unprecedented epidemic of beetle-induced tree mortality has occurred in the lodgepole pine forests of Western North America. Here, we present the results of studies in two subalpine forests in the Rocky Mountains, one that experienced natural pine beetle disturbance and one that experienced simulated disturbance imposed through bole girdling. We assessed changes to soil microclimate and biogeochemical pools in plots representing different post-disturbance chronosequences. High plot tree mortality, whether due to girdling or beetle infestation, caused similar alterations in soil nutrient pools. During the first 4 years after disturbance, sharp declines were observed in the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (45-51 %), microbial biomass carbon concentration (33-39 %), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentration (31-42 %), and inorganic phosphorus (PO4 (3-)) concentration (53-55 %). Five to six years after disturbance, concentrations of DOC, DON, and PO4 (3-) recovered to 71-140 % of those measured in undisturbed plots. Recovery was coincident with observed increases in litter depth and the sublitter, soil O-horizon. During the 4 years following disturbance, soil ammonium, but not nitrate, increased to 2-3 times the levels measured in undisturbed plots. Microbial biomass N increased in plots where increased ammonium was available. Our results show that previously observed declines in soil respiration following beetle-induced disturbance are accompanied by losses in key soil nutrients. Recovery of the soil nutrient pool occurs only after several years following disturbance, and is correlated with progressive mineralization of dead tree litter. PMID:25676101

Trahan, Nicole A; Dynes, Emily L; Pugh, Evan; Moore, David J P; Monson, Russell K

2015-04-01

225

Survival of the Fittest: Battling Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guided inquiry three-part activity engages learners in thinking about the mechanism of natural selection through data collection and pattern recognition. In this scenario, learners use M&Ms and other simple materials to investigate the mating habits of beetles and whether genetic variations give male beetles advantages against weaker beetles. Learners will collect and calculate data to draw conclusions. The third part of this activity allows learners to model Hardy-Weinberg and selection using an Excel spreadsheet and is recommended for more advanced learners.

Mary Colvard

2010-01-01

226

Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles  

E-print Network

ranges from very ?ne to coarse, depending on the species. Sometimes an infestation is indicated by the presence of wood-boring beetle adults. Adult beetles that emerge in con?ned structures are attracted to lights or windows and may accumu- late... on the wood. These chewing sounds are most often heard during quiet times at night. of the larvae and the emergence of adults can weaken wood and may destroy its appearance. Wood-boring beetles come from at least 12 insect families and vary greatly...

Jackman, John A.

2006-03-28

227

Lunar orientation in a beetle.  

PubMed Central

Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects. PMID:15101694

Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J.; Scholtz, Clarke H.; Warrant, Eric J.

2004-01-01

228

Mountain Pine beetle disturbance and climate effects on subalpine forest carbon cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems in Western North America have experienced an epidemic outbreak of Mountain Pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), reducing net primary productivity and significantly compromising the potential for these ecosystems to sequester atmospheric carbon. Estimates of lost carbon sequestration and trajectories of future carbon uptake as these forests recover, are uncertain due to lack of fundamental knowledge about the carbon cycle processes that are impacted. Furthermore, the effects of this disturbance are informed by their interplay with important climatic drivers of subalpine carbon uptake such as the availability of snowmelt water. To examine some of these carbon cycle processes, we measured soil respiration rates, the 13C/12C of soil respired CO2, extractable soil carbon, and microbial biomass carbon in a chronosequence of plots consisting of lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) that experienced beetle kill or were girdled (simulating beetle kill). The plots are located in the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux and Fraser Experimental Forests of Colorado. The chronosequence extended from approximately 2002 to 2010. In addition, in 2008 and 2009 we amended and removed spring snow on a subset of girdled and control plots to isolate potential snowpack effects on the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration. Soil respiration, extractable carbon, and microbial biomass carbon were higher in control plot soils compared to soils in plots with girdled or beetle killed trees. These differences were greatest between control soils and soils of more recently girdled and beetle killed trees. Over the growing season, we found the 13C/12C ratio of soil respired CO2 was enriched in plots with girdled trees compared to the control plots past the second year of treatment. Finally, ungirdled plots in 2009 responded to spring snow amendments with increased soil respiration rates and a more depleted signature of ?13C. These effects occurred in early summer during the peak of carbon uptake at the Niwot ridge AmeriFlux site, and were not present in the girdled plots. Our results illustrate that the significant contribution of recently fixed autotrophic carbon from root exudates to soil respiration is lost with girdling and beetle kill in lodgepole pines, and that this loss is especially pronounced in the first several years. Additionally, the remaining primarily heterotrophic component of soil respiration demonstrates less sensitivity to early season snowpack moisture.

Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Bowling, D. R.; Monson, R. K.

2010-12-01

229

Mountain pine beetle disturbance effects on soil respiration and nutrient pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonos ponderosae has infested more than 86 million hectares of high elevation forest in the Western U.S.A. While bark beetles are endemic to western forests and important agents of regeneration, the current mountain pine beetle outbreak is larger than any other on record and the resulting tree mortality has significant consequences for nutrient cycling and regional carbon exchange. We established decade-long parallel disturbance chronosequences in two lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado: one composed of mountain pine beetle killed lodgepole stands and one consisting of trees where beetle mortality was simulated by stem girdling. Over the 2010 and 2011 growing season we measured plot level soil respiration fluxes, as well as soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and pools of ammonium, nitrate and inorganic phosphorus. We show that soil respiration sharply declines with gross primary productivity after tree mortality, but rebounds during the next 4 years, then declines again from 6-8 years post-disturbance. Soil extractable dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and inorganic phosphorous pools follow the pattern observed in soil respiration fluxes across disturbance age classes for both sites, while patterns in total dissolved nitrogen exhibit site specific variation. Levels of detectable soil nitrate were low and did not significantly change across the chronosequence, while soil ammonium increased in a similar pattern with soil moisture in disturbed plots. These patterns in soil respiration and nutrient pools reflect the loss of autotrophic respiration and rhizodeposition immediately after tree mortality, followed by a pulse in soil efflux linked to the decomposition of older, less labile carbon pools. This pulse is likely controlled by the fall rate of litter, coarse woody debris and the relative impact of post-disturbance water availability and soil temperatures on decomposition processes. These patterns also indicate that over nearly a decade after disturbance, because of a decline in new substrate for respiration, the immediate impacts of the current beetle outbreak in North America on carbon release are likely to be lower in magnitude than previous estimates.

Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Brayden, B. H.; Dynes, E.; Monson, R. K.

2011-12-01

230

Frass analysis of diets of aphidophagous lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Utah alfalfa fields.  

PubMed

Aphidophagous lady beetles enhance their foraging success in natural settings by consuming other types of food in addition to aphids. Frass analysis was used to examine natural diets of female lady beetles in fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in northern Utah. The first (spring) alfalfa crop was censused in 2004 and 2005 to determine the diet of female adults of the introduced Coccinella septempunctata L., and two native species, C. transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Hippodamia convergens Guerin. The proportion of females of the three lady beetle species that fed on pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] and alfalfa weevil larvae [Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), an abundant alternative prey] increased from early to late season during the first crop. A corresponding seasonal decrease occurred in the proportion of females consuming other types of arthropods (e.g., thrips and collembolans) and nonarthropod food (pollen and fungal spores). Overall, frass analysis indicated that the diets of C. septempunctata and the two native species in alfalfa were similar in their inclusion of a broad variety of foods. The study shows that frass analysis can provide a good overview of the diets of lady beetles in natural settings. PMID:20388290

Davidson, L Nicole; Evans, Edward W

2010-04-01

231

Evolutionary assembly of the conifer fauna: distinguishing ancient from recent associations in bark beetles.  

PubMed Central

Several shifts from ancestral conifer feeding to angiosperm feeding have been implicated in the unparalleled diversification of beetle species. The single largest angiosperm-feeding beetle clade occurs in the weevils, and comprises the family Curculionidae and relatives. Most authorities confidently place the bark beetles (Scolytidae) within this radiation of angiosperm feeders. However, some clues indicate that the association between conifers and some scolytids, particularly in the tribe Tomicini, is a very ancient one. For instance, several fragments of Gondwanaland (South America, New Caledonia, Australia and New Guinea) harbour endemic Tomicini specialized on members of the formerly widespread and abundant conifer family Araucariaceae. As a first step towards resolving this seeming paradox, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the beetle family Scolytidae with particularly intensive sampling of conifer-feeding Tomicini and allies. We sequenced and analysed elongation factor 1alpha and nuclear rDNAs 18S and 28S for 45 taxa, using members of the weevil family Cossoninae as an out-group. Our results indicate that conifer feeding is the ancestral host association of scolytids, and that the most basal lineages of scolytids feed on Aramucaria. If scolytids are indeed nested within a great angiosperm-feeding clade, as many authorities have held, then a reversion to conifer feeding in ancestral scolytids appears to have occurred in the Mesozoic, when Araucaria still formed a major component of the woody flora. PMID:11133024

Sequeira, A S; Normark, B B; Farrell, B D

2000-01-01

232

Chemical signals synchronize the life cycles of a plant-parasitic nematode and its vector beetle.  

PubMed

The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused severe damage to pine forests in large parts of the world [1-4]. Dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode occurs when the nematode develops into the dispersal fourth larval stage (LIV) upon encountering its insect vector, the Monochamus pine sawyer beetle, inside an infected pine tree [5-9]. Here, we show that LIV formation in B. xylophilus is induced by C16 and C18 fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which are produced abundantly on the body surface of the vector beetle specifically during the late development pupal, emerging adult, and newly eclosed adult stages. The LIV can then enter the tracheal system of the adult beetle for dispersal to a new pine tree. Treatment of B. xylophilus with long-chain FAEEs, or the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, promotes LIV formation, while ?7-dafachronic acid blocks the effects of these chemicals, suggesting a conserved role for the insulin/IGF-1 and DAF-12 pathways in LIV formation. Our work provides a mechanism by which LIV formation in B. xylophilus is specifically coordinated with the life cycle of its vector beetle. Knowledge of the chemical signals that control the LIV developmental decision could be used to interfere with the dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode. PMID:24120638

Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Hao, Haijun; Zhang, Bin; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

2013-10-21

233

Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

2008-08-01

234

Wildfires in bamboo-dominated Amazonian forest: impacts on above-ground biomass and biodiversity.  

PubMed

Fire has become an increasingly important disturbance event in south-western Amazonia. We conducted the first assessment of the ecological impacts of these wildfires in 2008, sampling forest structure and biodiversity along twelve 500 m transects in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Acre, Brazil. Six transects were placed in unburned forests and six were in forests that burned during a series of forest fires that occurred from August to October 2005. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) calculations, based on Landsat reflectance data, indicate that all transects were similar prior to the fires. We sampled understorey and canopy vegetation, birds using both mist nets and point counts, coprophagous dung beetles and the leaf-litter ant fauna. Fire had limited influence upon either faunal or floral species richness or community structure responses, and stems <10 cm DBH were the only group to show highly significant (p = 0.001) community turnover in burned forests. Mean aboveground live biomass was statistically indistinguishable in the unburned and burned plots, although there was a significant increase in the total abundance of dead stems in burned plots. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that wildfires had much less effect upon forest structure and biodiversity in these south-western Amazonian forests than in central and eastern Amazonia, where most fire research has been undertaken to date. We discuss potential reasons for the apparent greater resilience of our study plots to wildfire, examining the role of fire intensity, bamboo dominance, background rates of disturbance, landscape and soil conditions. PMID:22428035

Barlow, Jos; Silveira, Juliana M; Mestre, Luiz A M; Andrade, Rafael B; Camacho D'Andrea, Gabriela; Louzada, Julio; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Numata, Izaya; Lacau, Sébastien; Cochrane, Mark A

2012-01-01

235

Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles.  

PubMed

Introductions of two ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis, into North America for aphid biocontrol have been followed by declines in native species. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) between larvae of these two exotic species and larvae of the two most abundant native coccinellids in eastern Washington State, C. transversoguttata and Hippodamia convergens. In pairings between the two native species in laboratory microcosms containing pea ( Pisum sativum) plants, neither native had a clear advantage over the other in IGP. When the natives were paired with either Harmonia axyridis or C. septempunctata, the natives were more frequently the victims than perpetrators of IGP. In contrast, in pairings between the exotic species, neither had an IGP advantage, although overall rates of IGP between these two species were very high. Adding alternative prey (aphids) to microcosms did not alter the frequency and patterns of relative IGP among the coccinellid species. In observations of encounters between larvae, the introduced H. axyridis frequently survived multiple encounters with the native C. transversoguttata, whereas the native rarely survived a single encounter with H. axyridis. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species face increased IGP following invasion by C. septempunctata and H. axyridis, which may be contributing to the speed with which these exotic ladybird beetles displace the natives following invasion. PMID:15179586

Snyder, William E; Clevenger, Garrett M; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

2004-08-01

236

Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.  

PubMed

The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

2013-06-01

237

Mountain Pine Beetles Colonizing Historical and Naïve Host Trees Are Associated with a Bacterial Community Highly Enriched in Genes Contributing to Terpene Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

Adams, Aaron S.; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandye M.; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H.; Currie, Cameron R.

2013-01-01

238

Combustion of Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, combustion properties of biomass fuels in boiler power systems are briefly reviewed. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the combustion of biomass fuels are presented. Biomass is an attractive renewable fuel in utility boilers. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable. Ash composition for the biomass is fundamentally different from ash composition for

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

239

Landscape patterns of species-level association between ground-beetles and overstory trees in boreal forests of western Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Spatial associations between species of trees and ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) involve many indirect ecological processes, likely reflecting the function of numerous forest ecosystem components. Describing and quantifying these associations at the landscape scale is basic to the development of a surrogate-based framework for biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this study, we used a systematic sampling grid covering 84 km2 of boreal mixedwood forest to characterize the ground-beetle assemblage associated with each tree species occurring on this landscape. Projecting the distribution of relative basal area of each tree species on the beetle ordination diagram suggests that the carabid community is structured by the same environmental factors that affects the distribution of trees, or perhaps even by trees per se. Interestingly beetle species are associated with tree species of the same rank order of abundance on this landscape, suggesting that conservation of less abundant trees will concomitantly foster conservation of less abundant beetle species. Landscape patterns of association described here are based on characteristics that can be directly linked to provincial forest inventories, providing a basis that is already available for use of tree species as biodiversity surrogates in boreal forest land management. PMID:22371676

Bergeron, J. A. Colin; Spence, John R.; Volney, W. Jan A.

2011-01-01

240

Polarisation vision: beetles see circularly polarised light.  

PubMed

It has long been known that the iridescent cuticle of many scarab beetles reflects circularly polarised light. It now turns out that scarabs can also see this light, potentially using it as a covert visual signal. PMID:20656207

Warrant, Eric J

2010-07-27

241

Dr. Susan Prichard and Pine Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, scientist Dr. Susan Prichard discusses the impact of pine bark beetles on western forests, including information on how climate change, specifically rising temperatures, is exacerbating the problem.

Climate Central

242

Trap trees for elm bark beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

European elm bark beetles,Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh.), were strongly attracted to American elms,Ulmus americana L., baited with theS. multistriatus attractant, multilure, or killed by injection of the arboricide, cacodylic acid; a combination of the two treatments was most attractive. Comparisons of beetle catches on sticky bands affixed to the trees with samples of bark from the same trees showed that the

Gerald N. Lanier; Alan H. Jones

1985-01-01

243

CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION  

E-print Network

Contractors' Meeting Biomass Energy Systems Branch Berkeley,The Department of Energy's Biomass Liquefaction Testand energy balances, was not possible. One important question remaining unanswered was whether aqueous biomass

Ergun, Sabri

2013-01-01

244

Pennsylvania Energy: Biomass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many potential, renewable sources of biomass energy exist in Pennsylvania, especially on farms. This video profiles various facilities that make biomass energy, including biodiesel fuel. Biomass energy is important to the economy and the food supply.

2006-09-23

245

Volatile secretions and epicuticular hydrocarbons of the beetle Ulomoides dermestoides.  

PubMed

Many species of tenebrionids produce and secrete a defensive volatile blend containing mainly benzoquinones and alkenes. In this study we characterized the volatile organic compounds (VOC) of the beetle Ulomoides dermestoides (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (CGC-MS) analysis was used to identify methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (MBQ), ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (EBQ), 1-tridecene (C(13:1)), and 1-pentadecene (C(15:1)), representing more than 90% of the volatile blend. We also used CGC-MS to analyze the epicuticular hydrocarbons of U. dermestoides. Saturated, unsaturated, and branched structures with chain lengths ranging from 13 to 43 carbons were detected. n-pentacosane (C(25:0)) and 9,11-pentacosadiene (9,11-C(25:2)) were the most abundant components, representing more than 40% of the cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:19689928

Villaverde, M Luciana; Girotti, Juan R; Mijailovsky, Sergio J; Pedrini, Nicolás; Juárez, M Patricia

2009-12-01

246

The Tight Link: Beetle and Plant Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In The News focuses on the evolutionary link between beetle (Coleoptera) and flowering plant (Angiosperm) diversity. In an article published in the July 24, 1998 issue of Science, Harvard University evolutionary entomologist Brian Farrell shed new light on insect-plant evolution when he revealed "a tight link between plant and beetle diversity." Farrell found that the incredible diversity of beetles--a whopping 330,000 species are estimated today--is linked to the rise of the angiosperms some 100,000,000 years ago. According to Farrell, although some beetles maintained their preference for older plant classes such as cycads and conifers, "well over 100,000 new species of beetles arose because of that move to angiosperms." The significance of these findings, says Farrell, "show how moving into a new environment, where there's no competition, can free you for an explosive, adaptive radiation." The nine resources provided offer insights and information on beetle and plant diversity, and several evolutionary resources as well.

Payne, Laura X.

1998-01-01

247

Assessment of species diversity from species abundance distributions at different localities  

E-print Network

by analysing similarities of communities of rare and endangered species of oak-living beetles in southAssessment of species diversity from species abundance distributions at different localities for Conservation Biology, Dept of Mathematical Sciences, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, NOÁ7491

Engen, Steinar

248

ABUNDANCE OF COCCINELLIDS (COLEOPTERA) IN FIELD-CROP AND GRASS HABITATS IN EASTERN SOUTH DAKOTA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A rich fauna of coccinellids occurs in eastern South Dakota, but the abundance of some species has declined in association with the establishment of an exotic lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, in the mid-1980s. In this study, coccinellids were sampled within field-crop and grass-plot habitats...

249

Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

250

Mechanical shear and tensile properties of selected biomass stems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lignocellulosic biomass, such as big bluestem, corn stalk, intermediate wheat grass and switchgrass stem are abundant and dominant species in the Midwest region of US. There is a need to understand the mechanical properties for these crops for better handling and processing of the biomass feedstocks...

251

Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

252

Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to

K. T. Shanmugam; L. O. Ingram; J. A. Maupin-Furlow; J. F. Preston; H. C. Aldrich

2003-01-01

253

FUNGUS BEETLES INVADING HOMES Small reddish or black beetles found flying in homes during late summer are often a type of fungus  

E-print Network

not fly under normal conditions. They will be concentrated in areas of high humidity. Fungus beetles feedFUNGUS BEETLES INVADING HOMES Small reddish or black beetles found flying in homes during late summer are often a type of fungus beetle. Two common species seen are the minute fungus beetles, Family

Balser, Teri C.

254

Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

1992-03-01

255

My Biomass, Your Biomass, Our Solution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The US is pursuing an array of renewable energy sources to reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass energy and biomass ethanol are key components in the pursuit. The need for biomass feedstock to produce sufficient ethanol to meet any of the numerous stat...

256

Larger Black Flour Beetle in Southern High Plains Homes  

E-print Network

Larger black flour beetles have invaded homes and other buildings in some Southern High Plains counties in Texas. This publication explains how to identify the beetles, find and eliminate the source, and exclude the insects from the house....

Porter, Patrick; McIntyre, Nancy E.

2007-04-09

257

Drought and Beetle-Killed Piñon Pines in Arizona  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Drought and beetle-killed piñon pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid some surviving trees. Forest drought stress is highly correlated with mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

258

Drought and Beetle-Killed Piñon Pines in Arizona  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Drought and beetle-killed piñon pines in Walnut Canyon National Monument near Flagstaff, Arizona, amid a few surviving trees. Forest drought stress is strongly correlated with tree mortality from poor growth, bark beetle outbreaks, and high-severity fire....

259

Volatile emissions from the lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) is a serious, cosmopolitan pest in poultry production facilities, consuming grain, carrying disease organisms, and causing structural damage in poultry house walls. Pheromones have been described for many economically important beetle speci...

260

Olfactory Cues from Plants Infected by Powdery Mildew Guide Foraging by a Mycophagous Ladybird Beetle  

PubMed Central

Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical “moldy” odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms. PMID:21876772

Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.

2011-01-01

261

Diversity of Beetle Genes Encoding Novel Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Plant cell walls are a heterogeneous mixture of polysaccharides and proteins that require a range of different enzymes to degrade them. Plant cell walls are also the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the planet. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are therefore important in a wide range of biotechnological processes from the production of biofuels and food to waste processing. However, despite the fact that the last common ancestor of all deuterostomes was inferred to be able to digest, or even synthesize, cellulose using endogenous genes, all model insects whose complete genomes have been sequenced lack genes encoding such enzymes. To establish if the apparent “disappearance” of PCWDEs from insects is simply a sampling problem, we used 454 mediated pyrosequencing to scan the gut transcriptomes of beetles that feed on a variety of plant derived diets. By sequencing the transcriptome of five beetles, and surveying publicly available ESTs, we describe 167 new beetle PCWDEs belonging to eight different enzyme families. This survey proves that these enzymes are not only present in non-model insects but that the multigene families that encode them are apparently undergoing complex birth-death dynamics. This reinforces the observation that insects themselves, and not just their microbial symbionts, are a rich source of PCWDEs. Further it emphasises that the apparent absence of genes encoding PCWDEs from model organisms is indeed simply a sampling artefact. Given the huge diversity of beetles alive today, and the diversity of their lifestyles and diets, we predict that beetle guts will emerge as an important new source of enzymes for use in biotechnology. PMID:21179425

Pauchet, Yannick; Wilkinson, Paul; Chauhan, Ritika; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

2010-01-01

262

Olfactory cues from plants infected by powdery mildew guide foraging by a mycophagous ladybird beetle.  

PubMed

Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical "moldy" odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms. PMID:21876772

Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

2011-01-01

263

Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution  

PubMed Central

Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their beetle hosts. Instead, frequent host switching is observed. The molecular phylogeny of the Diplogastridae provides a framework for further examinations of the evolution of these associations, for the study of interactions within the ecosystems, and for investigations of diplogastrid genome evolution. PMID:19703296

2009-01-01

264

Composition and distribution of ground-dwelling beetles among oak fragments and surrounding pine plantations in a temperate forest of North China.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared ground-dwelling beetle assemblages (Coleoptera) from a range of different oak fragments and surrounding conifer plantations to evaluate effects of forest size and surrounding matrix habitat in a temperate forest of north China. During 2000, beetles were sampled via pitfall traps within two large oak fragments (ca. 2.0-4.0 ha), two small oak fragments (ca. 0.2-0.4 ha) and two surrounding matrices dominated by pine plantations (>4 ha) in two sites of different aspects. Overall, no significantly negative effects from forest patch size and the surrounding matrix habitat were detected in total species number and abundance of ground-dwelling beetles. However, compared with small oak patches or pine plantations, more species were associated with an affinity for at least one large oak patch of the two aspects. Multivariate regression trees showed that the habitat type better determined the beetle assemblage structure than patch size and aspect, indicating a strong impact of the surrounding matrix. Linear mixed models indicated that species richness and abundance of all ground-dwelling beetles or beetle families showed different responses to the selected environmental variables. Our results suggest that more disturbed sites are significantly poorer in oak forest specialists, which are usually more abundant in large oak fragments and decrease in abundance or disappear in small fragments and surrounding matrix habitats. Thus, it is necessary to preserve a minimum size of forest patch to create conditions characteristic for forest interior, rather than the more difficult task of increasing habitat connectivity. PMID:23956010

Yu, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

2014-02-01

265

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

266

Dung beetle assemblage structure in Tswalu Kalahari Reserve: responses to a mosaic of landscape types, vegetation communities, and dung types.  

PubMed

Tswalu Kalahari Reserve is a private game reserve covering 1,020 km(2) in the Northern Cape, South Africa. It has been created from a number of reclaimed farms and restocked with large indigenous mammals. Two surveys were conducted to inventory the dung beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) and determine their spatial patterns and food type associations. The spatial survey used pig dung-baited pitfall traps to examine dung beetle distribution across three main landscape types (plains, dunes, hills) comprising six principal vegetation communities. The food study examined their relative associations with carrion and four different dung types within a single vegetation community. A total of 70 species was recorded. Because the food association study was spatially restricted and conducted under drought conditions, abundance and species richness (47 species) were much lower than in the spatial study (64 species), which was conducted after substantial rainfall. Principal spatial differences in species abundance structure of assemblages were between the sandy southwest plains and dunes; the sandy northern dune fields and plains; and the rocky hills. Forty species analyzed in the food association study showed clear distributional biases to carrion or the dung of elephant (monogastric herbivore), pig (omnivore), cattle and sheep (ruminant herbivores), or pig and cattle. The results (1) show how dung beetle assemblage structure is locally diversified across the heterogeneous landscape of the reserve and (2) indicate how the different dung types dropped by a diverse assemblage of indigenous mammals may variously favor different species of dung beetles. PMID:20550793

Davis, Adrian L V; Scholtz, Clarke H; Kryger, Ute; Deschodt, Christian M; Strümpher, Werner P

2010-06-01

267

Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).  

PubMed

The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently. PMID:22263651

Shostak, Allen W

2012-06-01

268

How Habitat Change and Rainfall Affect Dung Beetle Diversity in Caatinga, a Brazilian Semi-Arid Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate how dung beetle communities respond to both environment and rainfall in the Caatinga, a semi-arid ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. The communities were sampled monthly from May 2006 to April 2007 using pitfall traps baited with human feces in two environments denominated “land use area” and “undisturbed area.” Abundance and species richness were compared between the two environments and two seasons (dry and wet season) using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error distribution. Diversity was compared between the two environments (land use area and undisturbed area) and seasons (dry and wet) using the Two-Way ANOVA test. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was performed on the resemblance matrix of Bray-Curtis distances (with 1000 random restarts) to determine whether disturbance affected the abundance and species composition of the dung beetle communities. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine whether rainfall was correlated with abundance and species richness. A total of 1097 specimens belonging to 13 species were collected. The most abundant and frequent species was Dichotomius geminatus Arrow (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The environment exerted an influence over abundance. Abundance and diversity were affected by season, with an increase in abundance at the beginning of the wet season. The correlation coefficient values were high and significant for abundance and species richness, which were both correlated to rainfall. In conclusion, the restriction of species to some environments demonstrates the need to preserve these areas in order to avoid possible local extinction. Therefore, in extremely seasonable environments, such as the Caatinga, seasonal variation strongly affects dung beetle communities. PMID:22224924

Liberal, Carolina Nunes; de Farias, Ângela Maria Isidro; Meiado, Marcos Vinicius; Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.; Iannuzzi, Luciana

2011-01-01

269

How habitat change and rainfall affect dung beetle diversity in Caatinga, a Brazilian semi-arid ecosystem.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate how dung beetle communities respond to both environment and rainfall in the Caatinga, a semi-arid ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. The communities were sampled monthly from May 2006 to April 2007 using pitfall traps baited with human feces in two environments denominated "land use area" and "undisturbed area." Abundance and species richness were compared between the two environments and two seasons (dry and wet season) using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error distribution. Diversity was compared between the two environments (land use area and undisturbed area) and seasons (dry and wet) using the Two-Way ANOVA test. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was performed on the resemblance matrix of Bray-Curtis distances (with 1000 random restarts) to determine whether disturbance affected the abundance and species composition of the dung beetle communities. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine whether rainfall was correlated with abundance and species richness. A total of 1097 specimens belonging to 13 species were collected. The most abundant and frequent species was Dichotomius geminatus Arrow (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The environment exerted an influence over abundance. Abundance and diversity were affected by season, with an increase in abundance at the beginning of the wet season. The correlation coefficient values were high and significant for abundance and species richness, which were both correlated to rainfall. In conclusion, the restriction of species to some environments demonstrates the need to preserve these areas in order to avoid possible local extinction. Therefore, in extremely seasonable environments, such as the Caatinga, seasonal variation strongly affects dung beetle communities. PMID:22224924

Liberal, Carolina Nunes; de Farias, Ângela Maria Isidro; Meiado, Marcos Vinicius; Filgueiras, Bruno K C; Iannuzzi, Luciana

2011-01-01

270

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass  

E-print Network

of conventional crude oil is 2 Ã? 1022 J (1). Hence, in only one decade, Earth's plants can renew in the form 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which

Raines, Ronald T.

271

Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British\\u000a Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using

Diana L. Six; Z. Wilhelm de Beer; Tuan A. Duong; Allan L. Carroll; Michael J. Wingfield

2011-01-01

272

Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested forest within managed forest landscapes and practice partial harvest of beetle-killed spruce rather than commercial clear-cutting of infested stands in order to sustain breeding bird populations until natural reforestation occurs. Because breeding densities do not always reflect fitness, assessing impacts of a massive natural disturbance should include measuring impacts of changes in vegetation on both reproductive success and predator-prey dynamics.

Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

2007-01-01

273

Impact of the Darkling Beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) on Establishment of the Predaceous Beetle Carcinops pumilio (Erichson)  

E-print Network

., 1988). Unlike the hister beetle, the darkling beetle, A. dia- perinus, is a common pest of chicken several other infectious agents including Salmonella, Aspergillus spp., Esche- richia coli, Bacillus spp

Kaufman, Phillip E.

274

GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS AND GROUND BEETLES AS NON-TARGET ORGANISMS: DEVELOPING DIETARY TOXICITY ASSAYS FOR LARVAE OF POECILUS CHALCITES (COLEOPTERA: CARABIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We developed a procedure for administering dietary toxins to larvae of Poecilus chalcites, an abundant ground beetle occurring in agricultural systems. A rearing protocol relying on an artificial diet described here was a critical development allowing us to conducted diet-incorporated toxicity assay...

275

Microbial symbiotes of the ambrosia beetle Xyloterinus politus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progression in the understanding of the microecology of ambrosia beetles and their associated microorganisms is briefly reviewed. Between the 1840s and the early 1960s the concept of one ambrosial fungus per ambrosia beetle was emphasized. Some subsequent research has supported the view that each ambrosia beetle plus several associated microorganisms constitute a highly co-evolved symbiotic community. It was hypothesized in

J. O. Haanstad; D. M. Norris

1985-01-01

276

On the origin and evolutionary diversification of beetle horns  

E-print Network

; and Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 Many scarab beetles produce rigidOn the origin and evolutionary diversification of beetle horns Douglas J. Emlen* , Laura Corley sequence-based phylog- enies have begun to reconstruct the historical patterns of beetle horn evolution

Alwes, Frederike

277

An Emerging Triad: Air Pollution, Beetles, and Wildfire  

E-print Network

to bark beetle signaling by looking at resin production of Jeffrey pine trees in six similarly aged stands stressed by drought and air pollution may attract bark beetles, which overwhelm the trees' defense mechanisms. Winter 2010 www.fs.fed.us/psw/ I n the past decade, bark beetles have killed millions of acres

Standiford, Richard B.

278

Special Topics Bark and Ambrosia Beetles ENY 6934 / FOR 6934  

E-print Network

identification afternoon: o Important bark beetles of the Western U.S. o Biology and ecology of the coffee berrySpecial Topics ­ Bark and Ambrosia Beetles ENY 6934 / FOR 6934 Credits: 3 Meeting days and times description: A comprehensive review of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae

Watson, Craig A.

279

Differential susceptibility of lady beetles to Beauveria bassiana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known regarding differential susceptibility of lady beetles species to entomopathogens, and how these entomopathogens affect lady beetle populations in the field. Previously, we found that a native North American lady beetle species, Olla v-nigrum, was commonly infected by Beauveria bassi...

280

Willow hybridization differentially affects preference and performance of herbivorous beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the preferences and performances of five beetle species (four chrysomelids and one scarab) on two species of willows (Salix sericea and S. eriocephala) and their interspecific hybrids. Beetle species differed markedly in their responses. In preference assays, two chrysomelid beetle species (Calligrapha multipunctata bigsbyana and Plagiodera versicolora) preferred hybrids, two chrysomelids (Chrysomela scriptaand Ch. Knabi) preferred hybrids and

Colin M. Orians; Cynthia H. Huang; Alexander Wild; Katherine A. Dorfman; Pamela Zee; Minh Tam T. Dao; Robert S. Fritz

1997-01-01

281

Preserved mountain pine beetles next to a killed pine  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Preserved mature mountain pine beetles are held next to the trunk of a dead pine. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout western North America. The beetles lay eggs and develop in the bark of mountain trees, especially lodgepole, ponderosa, Scotch...

282

Mountain pine beetles/larvae tunneling in bark  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Here, scientists point to a mountain pine beetle (top) and a pine beetle larva (bottom) that have been tunneling in the bark of a killed pine tree. The bluish streaks in the bark are from bluestain fungus. Mountain pine beetle outbreaks can result in the loss of millions of pine trees throughout we...

283

Rickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle  

E-print Network

bacterium that causes male-killing in an unrelated ladybird beetle species. Low levels of parthenogenesisRickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle EILLEEN T. LAWSON , TIMOTHY A populations of the buprestid leaf-mining beetle, Brachys tessellatus, from central South Carolina, USA, show

Werren, John H.

284

Edge effects are important in supporting beetle biodiversity in a gravel-bed river floodplain.  

PubMed

Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60-100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February-November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct--yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity. PMID:25545280

Langhans, Simone D; Tockner, Klement

2014-01-01

285

Edge Effects Are Important in Supporting Beetle Biodiversity in a Gravel-Bed River Floodplain  

PubMed Central

Understanding complex, dynamic, and diverse ecosystems is essential for developing sound management and conservation strategies. Gravel-bed river floodplains are composed of an interlinked mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial habitats hosting a diverse, specialized, and endangered fauna. Therefore, they serve as excellent models to investigate the biodiversity of multiple ecotones and related edge effects. In this study, we investigated the abundance, composition, richness, and conservation status of beetle assemblages at varying sediment depth (0, 0.1, 0.6 and 1.1 m), distance from the channel (1, 5, 20, and 60–100 m, and 5 m within the riparian forest), and time of the year (February–November) across a 200 m-wide gravel bar at the near-natural Tagliamento River (Italy), to detect edge effects in four floodplain ecotones: aquatic-terrestrial, forest-active floodplain, sediment-air, and sediment-groundwater. We used conventional pitfall traps and novel tube traps to sample beetles comparably on the sediment surface and within the unsaturated sediments. We found a total of 308 beetle species (including 87 of conservation concern) that showed multiple, significant positive edge effects across the floodplain ecotones, mainly driven by spatial heterogeneity: Total and red list beetle abundance and richness peaked on the sediment surface, at channel margins, and at the edge of the riparian forest. All ecotones possessed edge/habitat specialists. Most red list species occurred on the sediment surface, including five species previously considered extinct – yet two of these species occurred in higher densities in the unsaturated sediments. Conservation and management efforts along gravel-bed rivers must therefore promote a dynamic flow and sediment regime to create and maintain habitat heterogeneity and ecotone diversity, which support a unique and high biodiversity. PMID:25545280

Langhans, Simone D.; Tockner, Klement

2014-01-01

286

Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential  

E-print Network

Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential Michael Schaetzel Undergraduate ? Environmental Studies ? University of Kansas L O C A T S I O N BIOMASS ENERGY POTENTIAL o According to DOE, Biomass has the potential to provide 14% of... dtioRegiona a erna ve energy crop production oCRP land integration o Commercial distribution of bricked Biomass ...

Schaetzel, Michael

2010-11-18

287

Biomass treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

2010-10-26

288

Disruption by conophthorin of the kairomonal response of sawyer beetles to bark beetle pheromones.  

PubMed

Antennally active nonhost angiosperm bark volatiles were tested for their ability to reduce the response of three common species of coniferophagous wood-boring Cerambycidae to attractant-baited multiple funnel traps in the southern interior of British Columbia. Of the nonhost volatiles tested, only conophthorin was behaviorally active, disrupting the attraction of sawyer beetles, Monochamus spp., to traps baited with the host volatiles alpha-pinene and ethanol and the bark beetle pheromones ipsenol and ipsdienol. Conophthorin did not affect the attraction of sawyer beetles to the host kairomones alpha-pinene and ethanol in the absence of bark beetle pheromones, nor did it have any behavioral effect on adults of Xylotrechus longitarsis, which were not attracted to bark beetle pheromones. These results indicate that conophthorin does not act as a general repellent for coniferophagous Cerambycidae, as it seems to do for many species of Scolytidae, but has the specific activity of disrupting the kairomonal response of sawyer beetles to bark beetle pheromones. PMID:14584679

Morewood, W D; Simmonds, K E; Gries, R; Allison, J D; Borden, J H

2003-09-01

289

MountainPineBeetle For more information about the management of mountain pine beetle, contact your nearest office  

E-print Network

. Natural: Except when woodpeckers and extreme cold eliminate the beetles, trees must be cut, then logs per year. The most common homes the beetles seek are large ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines. 1 crevices and on the ground. Coordinated attacks of several hundred beetles are common. 4. Mating will occur

290

Butanol production from renewable biomass by clostridia.  

PubMed

Global energy crisis and limited supply of petroleum fuels have rekindled the worldwide focus towards development of a sustainable technology for alternative fuel production. Utilization of abundant renewable biomass offers an excellent opportunity for the development of an economical biofuel production process at a scale sufficiently large to have an impact on sustainability and security objectives. Additionally, several environmental benefits have also been linked with the utilization of renewable biomass. Butanol is considered to be superior to ethanol due to its higher energy content and less hygroscopy. This has led to an increased research interest in butanol production from renewable biomass in recent years. In this paper, we review the various aspects of utilizing renewable biomass for clostridial butanol production. Focus is given on various alternative substrates that have been used for butanol production and on fermentation strategies recently reported to improve butanol production. PMID:22939593

Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Lee, Sang Yup

2012-11-01

291

Thermal and water relations of desert beetles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical problems that living organisms have to contend with in hot deserts are primarily extremes of temperature, low humidity, shortage or absence of free water, and the environmental factors that accentuate these - such as strong winds, sand-storms, lack of shade, rocky and impenetrable soils. Climatic factors are particularly important to smaller animals such as arthropods on account of their relatively enormous surface to volume ratios. Nevertheless, beetles (especially Tenebrionidae and, to a lesser extent, Chrysomelidae) are among the most successful animals of the desert, and are often the only ones to be seen abroad during the day. Similar physical problems are experienced by insects in all terrestrial biomes, but they are much enhanced in the desert. Although climatic extremes are often avoided by burrowing habits coupled with circadian and seasonal activity rhythms, as well as reproductive phenology, several species of desert beetle are nevertheless able to withstand thermal extremes that would rapidly cause the death of most other arthropods including insects. The reactions of desert beetles to heat are largely behavioural whilst their responses to water shortage are primarily physiological. The effects of coloration are not discussed. In addition to markedly low rates of transpiration, desert beetles can also withstand a considerable reduction in the water content of their tissues. The study of desert beetles is important because it illustrates many of the solutions evolved by arthropods to the problems engendered, in an extreme form, by life in all terrestrial environments.

Cloudsley-Thompson, J.

2001-11-01

292

U.S. Department of Energy: Biomass Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the U.S. Department of Energy, this website presents information about the Biomass Program, whose mission is to work with U.S. industry to transform "abundant biomass resources into clean, affordable, and domestically produced biofuels, biopower, and high-value bioproducts." Visitors can download the Biomass Program Multi-Year Program Plan which outlines "the Department of Energy's strategy for research, development, and deployment of various biomass technologies from 2007 through 2017." Information here is specifically tailored for industry, researchers, policymakers, consumers, or students.

293

Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).  

PubMed

A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed. PMID:21738430

Putchkov, Alexander

2011-01-01

294

Patterns on the iridescent beetle, Chrysina gloriosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The brilliant metallic color of a beetle Chrysina gloriosa has been known to occur due to selective reflectance from a cholesteric structure on the exoskeleton. The surface also appears to have hexagonally packed structures. Crystallographic concepts and Voronoi analysis were used to determine the degree of order in different regions of the beetle. Along the hexagons in the Voronoi diagram, many clustered pentagons and heptagons were observed. Due to the surface curvature, the number of pentagons was found to be higher than the number of heptagons. The cells appear yellow in the center surrounded by a green region with a yellow edge. Confocal microscopy was used to image the underlying structure, which was found to consist of concentric arcs on a surface of a shallow cone. The observed structures resemble the defects on a cholesteric phase with a free surface, and provide an interesting explanation of structural color development in beetles, along with inspiration for the design of chiral photonic structures.

Park, Jung Ok; Sharma, Vivek; Crne, Matija; Srinivasarao, Mohan

2009-03-01

295

Bacterial protection of beetle-fungus mutualism.  

PubMed

Host-microbe symbioses play a critical role in the evolution of biological diversity and complexity. In a notably intricate system, southern pine beetles use symbiotic fungi to help overcome host-tree defenses and to provide nutrition for their larvae. We show that this beetle-fungal mutualism is chemically mediated by a bacterially produced polyunsaturated peroxide. The molecule's selective toxicity toward the beetle's fungal antagonist, combined with the prevalence and localization of its bacterial source, indicates an insect-microbe association that is both mutualistic and coevolved. This unexpected finding in a well-studied system indicates that mutualistic associations between insects and antibiotic-producing bacteria are more common than currently recognized and that identifying their small-molecule mediators can provide a powerful search strategy for therapeutically useful antimicrobial compounds. PMID:18832638

Scott, Jarrod J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Yuceer, M Cetin; Klepzig, Kier D; Clardy, Jon; Currie, Cameron R

2008-10-01

296

Two new water beetles from the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).  

PubMed

Mesoceration hantam sp. nov. and Parhydraena faeni sp. nov., are described from the Hantamsberg plateau, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa. The new species are so far known only from temporary waters on the Hantamsberg summit, where they were both abundant. Sampling in these mountains also revealed an interesting accompanying water beetle fauna, including the northernmost known record of Hydropeplus montanus Omer-Cooper, a species characteristic of mountain fynbos further south in the region. PMID:25543944

Bilton, David T

2014-01-01

297

Influence of Elevation on Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) Community Structure and Flight Periodicity in Ponderosa Pine Forests of Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined abundance and ßight periodicity of Þve Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600 Ð1,736 m; middle: 2,058 Ð2,230 m; high: 2,505Ð2,651 m) for 3

Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Andy Miller

2008-01-01

298

What window traps can tell us: effect of placement, forest openness and beetle reproduction in retention trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of flight interception traps (window traps) has been criticized for catching too many species without affinity to\\u000a the immediate surroundings. We study aspen retention trees left for conservation reasons in a boreal forest in south-eastern\\u000a Norway, and investigate how placement of window traps affects the beetle species assemblage, abundance of habitat specialists,\\u000a saproxylic species and vagrant species. We

Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson; Tone Birkemoe

2009-01-01

299

Dung Beetle and Terrestrial Mammal Diversity in Forests, Indigenous Agroforestry Systems and Plantain Monocultures in Talamanca, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the importance of indigenous agroforestry systems for biodiversity conservation, we compared the abundance,\\u000a species richness and diversity of dung beetles and terrestrial mammals across a gradient of different land use types from\\u000a agricultural monocultures (plantains) to agroforestry systems (cocoa and banana) and forests in the BriBri and Cabcar indigenous\\u000a reserves in Talamanca, Costa Rica. A total

Celia A. Harvey; Jorge Gonzalez; Eduardo Somarriba

2006-01-01

300

Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?  

PubMed

Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the need for further research into spatial variation in biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships and how the results of such studies are affected by methodological choices. PMID:24772282

Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

2014-04-01

301

Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?  

PubMed Central

Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the need for further research into spatial variation in biodiversity–ecosystem function relationships and how the results of such studies are affected by methodological choices. PMID:24772282

Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

2014-01-01

302

BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

BeetleBase (http://www.bioinformatics.ksu.edu/BeetleBase/) is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software components developed by the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project. This strategy not only reduces the time required to develop the database query tools but also makes the data structure of BeetleBase compatible with that of other model organism databases. BeetleBase will be useful to the Tribolium research community for genome annotation as well as comparative genomics. PMID:17090595

Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S R; Brown, Susan J

2007-01-01

303

Errata to Activity: The Impact of Climate Change on the Mountain Pine Beetle and Westerns Forests  

E-print Network

Focus Question(s): · How have climate changes impacted the mountain pine beetle (bark beetle Pine Beetle Forest Insect & Disease Leaflet 2" and "Western U.S. Bark Beetles and Climate Change" (seeErrata to Activity: The Impact of Climate Change on the Mountain Pine Beetle and Westerns Forests

304

Attraction of Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Damaged and Chemically Induced Potato Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmated adult female Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), were attracted to damaged and chemically treated potato plants in an olfactometer. Significantly more beetles moved upwind to potato plants with damage from larval Colorado potato beetle compared with undamaged plants. More beetles moved upwind toward potato plants treated with regurgitant from Colorado potato beetle larvae or cabbage looper larvae, Trichoplusia

PETER J. LANDOLT; J. H. TUMLINSON; D. H. ALBORN

305

SQUASH BEETLE ON CUCURBITS Frankie Lam, Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologists,  

E-print Network

numbers of pest insects such as aphids. The exceptions are the squash beetle and the Mexican bean beetle. The squash beetle is an occasional pest on cucurbits, and the Mexican bean beetle is a common pest on beansSQUASH BEETLE ON CUCURBITS Frankie Lam, Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologists, Dan Egel

Ginzel, Matthew

306

Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

1997-09-01

307

Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle?s joint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS. The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle’s joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3°). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

Dai, Zhendong; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2004-01-01

308

Application of Bark Beetle Semiochemicals for Quarantine of Bark Beetles in China  

PubMed Central

This article describes the use of bark beetle semiochemicals for quarantine in China. Using traps with two isomeric compounds of ?-pinene, ethanol, trans-verbenol, verbenone, camphene and isononylaldehyde, insects of four families (Scolytidae, Platypodidae, Bostychidae and Cleridae) were trapped, including eight genera of Scolytidae, (Xyleborus, Cryphalus, Polygraphs, Xyloterus, Ips, Dendroctonus, Orthotomicus and Scolytus), totaling 16 species. The present condition of bark beetle quarantine in China is briefly discussed, and the broad research trends are outlined.

Liu, Yong; Dai, Huaguo

2006-01-01

309

A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera).  

PubMed

This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevi?ius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category and data on their distribution in neighbouring countries is presented. Completion of this study provides evidence that the Lithuanian coleopteran fauna has yet to be completely investigated and it is estimated that approximately 28 % of beetle species remain undiscovered in Lithuania. More than 85% of beetle species expected for Lithuania have been found in the following families: Cerylonidae, Geotrupidae, Haliplidae, Kateridae, Lycidae, Lucanidae, Mycetophagidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae. In families with few species such as Alexiidae, Boridae, Byturidae, Dascilidae, Drilidae, Eucinetidae, Lampyridae, Lymexilidae, Megalopodidae, Nemonychidae, Nosodendridae, Noteridae, Orsodacnidae, Pyrochroidae, Pythidae, Psephenidae, Rhysodidae, Sphaeritidae, Sphaeriusidae, Sphindidae, Stenotrahelidae and Trogidae, all possible species have already been discovered. However in some beetle families such as Aderidae, Bothrideridae, Eucnemidae, Laemoploeidae, Mordellidae, Ptiliidae, Scraptidae and Throscidae less than 50% of all possible species are known. At present the beetle species recorded in Lithuania belong to 92 families, with species from 9 other families such as Agyrtidae, Biphylidae, Deradontidae, Mycteridae, Ochodaeidae, Phleophilidae, Phloeostichidae, Prostomidae, Trachypachidae are expected to be found.A bibliography and a index of subfamily and genus levels are provided. The information published in the monograph will serve to further faunistic and distribution research of beetles and will help to avoid confusion in the identificatation of coleopteran fauna of Lithuania. PMID:22461725

Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamut?, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

2011-01-01

310

A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevi?ius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category and data on their distribution in neighbouring countries is presented. Completion of this study provides evidence that the Lithuanian coleopteran fauna has yet to be completely investigated and it is estimated that approximately 28 % of beetle species remain undiscovered in Lithuania. More than 85% of beetle species expected for Lithuania have been found in the following families: Cerylonidae, Geotrupidae, Haliplidae, Kateridae, Lycidae, Lucanidae, Mycetophagidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae. In families with few species such as Alexiidae, Boridae, Byturidae, Dascilidae, Drilidae, Eucinetidae, Lampyridae, Lymexilidae, Megalopodidae, Nemonychidae, Nosodendridae, Noteridae, Orsodacnidae, Pyrochroidae, Pythidae, Psephenidae, Rhysodidae, Sphaeritidae, Sphaeriusidae, Sphindidae, Stenotrahelidae and Trogidae, all possible species have already been discovered. However in some beetle families such as Aderidae, Bothrideridae, Eucnemidae, Laemoploeidae, Mordellidae, Ptiliidae, Scraptidae and Throscidae less than 50% of all possible species are known. At present the beetle species recorded in Lithuania belong to 92 families, with species from 9 other families such as Agyrtidae, Biphylidae, Deradontidae, Mycteridae, Ochodaeidae, Phleophilidae, Phloeostichidae, Prostomidae, Trachypachidae are expected to be found. A bibliography and a index of subfamily and genus levels are provided. The information published in the monograph will serve to further faunistic and distribution research of beetles and will help to avoid confusion in the identificatation of coleopteran fauna of Lithuania. PMID:22461725

Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamut?, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

2011-01-01

311

Effects of hay management and native species sowing on grassland community structure, biomass, and restoration  

E-print Network

abundance within the experimental plots. These species are Eupatorium atltissimum (perennial forb), Sorghas- trum nutans (C4 perennial grass), and Verbena stricta (annual forb). Vegetation sampling In 2001–2006, we sampled aboveground standing crop biomass... abundances.—We evaluated patterns of abun- dance over time and in response to experimental treatments for select species and species groupings. We evaluated biomass responses of the most abundant non- sown and sown species (all perennial grasses...

Foster, Bryan L.; Kindscher, Kelly; Houseman, Greg R.; Murphy, Cheryl A.

2009-10-01

312

Seasonal phenology of the cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois.  

PubMed

We summarize field data on the species composition and seasonal phenology of the community of cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Data were drawn from field bioassays conducted during 2009 - 2012 that tested attraction of adult beetles of diverse species to a variety of synthetic pheromones and host plant volatiles. A total of 34,086 beetles of 114 species were captured, including 48 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 41 species in the Lamiinae, 19 species in the Lepturinae, two species in the Spondylidinae, and one species each in the Necydalinae, Parandrinae, Prioninae, and the Disteniidae. Most of the best-represented species were attracted to pheromones that were included in field experiments, particularly species that use (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a pheromone component. The species captured, and their patterns of abundance and seasonal phenology were similar to those in an earlier study conducted in Pennsylvania. The most abundant species identified in both studies included the cerambycines Elaphidion mucronatum (Say), Neoclytus a. acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus m. mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Cerambycine species became active in an orderly progression from early spring through late fall, whereas most lamiine species were active in summer and fall, and lepturine species were limited to summer. Potential cross attraction between some cerambycine species that shared pheromone components may have been averted by differences in seasonal activity period, and by minor pheromone components that acted as synergists for conspecifics and/or antagonists for heterospecifics. These results provide quantitative data on the abundance and seasonal phenology of a large number of species. PMID:24683267

Hanks, Lawrence M; Reagel, Peter F; Mitchell, Robert F; Wong, Joseph C H; Meier, Linnea R; Silliman, Christina A; Graham, Elizabeth E; Striman, Becca L; Robinson, Kenneth P; Mongold-Diers, Judith A; Millar, Jocelyn G

2014-01-01

313

Seasonal phenology of the cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois  

PubMed Central

We summarize field data on the species composition and seasonal phenology of the community of cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Data were drawn from field bioassays conducted during 2009 – 2012 that tested attraction of adult beetles of diverse species to a variety of synthetic pheromones and host plant volatiles. A total of 34,086 beetles of 114 species were captured, including 48 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 41 species in the Lamiinae, 19 species in the Lepturinae, two species in the Spondylidinae, and one species each in the Necydalinae, Parandrinae, Prioninae, and the Disteniidae. Most of the best-represented species were attracted to pheromones that were included in field experiments, particularly species that use (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as a pheromone component. The species captured, and their patterns of abundance and seasonal phenology were similar to those in an earlier study conducted in Pennsylvania. The most abundant species identified in both studies included the cerambycines Elaphidion mucronatum (Say), Neoclytus a. acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus m. mucronatus (F.), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Cerambycine species became active in an orderly progression from early spring through late fall, whereas most lamiine species were active in summer and fall, and lepturine species were limited to summer. Potential cross attraction between some cerambycine species that shared pheromone components may have been averted by differences in seasonal activity period, and by minor pheromone components that acted as synergists for conspecifics and/or antagonists for heterospecifics. These results provide quantitative data on the abundance and seasonal phenology of a large number of species. PMID:24683267

Hanks, Lawrence M.; Reagel, Peter F.; Mitchell, Robert F.; Wong, Joseph C. H.; Meier, Linnea R.; Silliman, Christina A.; Graham, Elizabeth E.; Striman, Becca L.; Robinson, Kenneth P.; Mongold-Diers, Judith A.; Millar, Jocelyn G.

2014-01-01

314

Effects of Chitin and Contact Insecticide Complexes on Rove Beetles in Commercial Orchards  

PubMed Central

A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility. PMID:21870981

Balog, A.; Ferencz, L.; Hartel, T.

2011-01-01

315

Ecology of root-feeding beetles and their associated fungi on longleaf pine in Georgia.  

PubMed

Root-feeding beetles, particularly of the curculionid subfamilies Scolytinae and Molytinae, are known to be effective vectors of Ophiostomatoid fungi. Infestation by these insects and subsequent infection by the Ophiostomatoid fungi may play an important role in accelerating symptom progression in pine declines. To examine the relationship between beetles and fungi in longleaf pine stands, root-feeding curculionids were collected in pitfall traps baited with ethanol and turpentine for 62 wk, and Ophiostomatoid fungi were isolated from their body surfaces. The most abundant root-feeding beetles captured were Hylastes tenuis, H. salebrosus, Pachylobius picivorus, Hylobius pales, and Dendroctonus terebrans. The number of insects captured peaked in spring and fall, although peaks for different insect taxa did not coincide. The most frequently isolated fungi were Grosmannia huntii, Leptographium procerum, L. terebrantis, and L. serpens. Other Ophiostomatoid fungi recovered included Ophiostoma spp. and Pesotum spp. Insect infestation data suggest that Hylastes spp. share an ecological niche, as do Hb. pales and P. picivorus, because the ratios of their fungal symbionts were similar. The fungi associated with D. terebrans suggest that it did not share habitat with the other principle vectors. PMID:20388270

Zanzot, James W; Matusick, George; Eckhardt, Lori G

2010-04-01

316

Culturable aerobic and facultative bacteria from the gut of the polyphagic dung beetle Thorectes lusitanicus.  

PubMed

Unlike other dung beetles, the Iberian geotrupid, Thorectes lusitanicus, exhibits polyphagous behavior; for example, it is able to eat acorns, fungi, fruits, and carrion in addition to the dung of different mammals. This adaptation to digest a wider diet has physiological and developmental advantages and requires key changes in the composition and diversity of the beetle's gut microbiota. In this study, we isolated aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant microbiota amenable to grow in culture from the gut contents of T. lusitanicus and resolved isolate identity to the species level by sequencing 16S rRNA gene fragments. Using BLAST similarity searches and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses, we were able to reveal that the analyzed fraction (culturable, aerobic, facultative anaerobic, and aerotolerant) of beetle gut microbiota is dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Among Proteobacteria, members of the order Enterobacteriales (Gammaproteobacteria) were the most abundant. The main functions associated with the bacteria found in the gut of T. lusitanicus would likely include nitrogen fixation, denitrification, detoxification, and diverse defensive roles against pathogens. PMID:24339348

Hernández, Noemi; Escudero, José A; Millán, Álvaro San; González-Zorn, Bruno; Lobo, Jorge M; Verdú, José R; Suárez, Mónica

2015-04-01

317

Area burned in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks.  

PubMed

In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km(2) of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase area burned and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed areas burned on areas infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the area burned in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed area and expected area burned in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of area burned during the 2002-2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the annual area burned in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541

Hart, Sarah J; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T; Chapman, Teresa B

2015-04-01

318

Energy from Biomass.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

1987-01-01

319

Biomass energy development  

SciTech Connect

This book describes strategies to develop biomass energy; capture and use waste when possible; select and improve plant species as energy crops adaptable to both terrestrial and aquatic environments; advance both biological and thermochemical conversion technologies to produce needed fuel forms (solids, liquids, or gases); and adapt these to compatible utilization options. More specifically, some topics include: characteristics of industrial wood energy users; research on short-rotation woody crops in the South; biomass production and nutrient removal by leucaena in colder subtropics; biomass programs of the Southern Agricultural Energy Center; biomass production from herbaceous plants; marine biomass production; harvesting systems for aquatic biomass; thermochemical processes for bioenergy production; utilization of biomass fuel for production of electric power; gas cleaning systems for small scale gasifiers; prediction of methane yields from biomass; methane production and utilization at fuel alcohol production facilities; ethanol fermentations; production of ethanol from wood by acid hydrolysis and fermentation; and material and energy balances for processing high fiber sugarcane.

Smith, W.H.

1986-01-01

320

Woody Biomass-Nebraska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video illustrates the advantages of woody biomass as a renewable, carbon-neutral energy source. Woody biomass is underutilized and often overlooked as a renewable fuel, and it can be harvested sustainably and burned cleanly.

the.gov

321

A quarter of a century succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages in remnant habitats in an urbanized matrix (Coleoptera, Carabidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied the long-term (23–24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2–3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4–1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our sampled areas are among some of the last remnants of the original oak savanna habitats in central Minnesota, we hypothesize that conservation of these sites may be critical to maintaining epigaeic beetle assemblages under increased urbanization pressure. PMID:22371681

Gandhi, Kamal J.K.; Epstein, Marc E.; Koehle, Jessica J.; Purrington, Foster F.

2011-01-01

322

Research on Asian longhorned beetle in Canada  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An established population of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis) (Motschulsky) was discovered in 2003 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Given the enormous risk that ALB posses to the expansive forests of southern Canada and northern U.S. and the urgent need to eradicate ALB, as ...

323

Systematics of Fusaria associated with Ambrosia beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here, I summarize research efforts directed at characterizing ambrosia beetle-associated fusaria, including the species responsible for avocado wilt in Israel (Mendel et al., Phytoparasitica 2012) and branch dieback in California (Eskalen et al., Pl. Dis. 2012). Our multilocus molecular phylogenetic...

324

Mexican bean beetles mate successfully in diapause  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that male Mexican bean beetles in diapause contain mature sperm, which is probably produced, at least in part, during early adulthood when they can be distinguished from non-diapause males. Diapause males will mate with both diapause and nondiapause females. Diapause females do not contain mature eggs but they will mate. The sperm carried by diapause females can

Fritz Taylor

1984-01-01

325

Asian longhorned beetle public service announcement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This public service announcement featuring John Walsh of America's Most Wanted is designed to raise awareness of the Asian Longhorned Beetle. The sound quality and lighting are good. The compression of the video makes the visuals less useable for some purposes.

0000-00-00

326

Female-coerced monogamy in burying beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive interests of the sexes often do not coincide, and this fundamental conflict is believed to underlie a variety of sex-specific behavioral adaptations. Sexual conflict in burying beetles arises when a male and female secure a carcass that can support more offspring than a single female can produce. In such a situation, any male attracting a second female sires

Anne-Katrin Eggert; Scott K. Sakaluk

1995-01-01

327

THE ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF BURYING BEETLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burying beetles conceal small vertebrate carcasses underground and prepare them for consumption by their young. This review places their complex social behavior in an ecological context that focuses on the evolution of biparental care and communal breeding. Both males and females provide extensive parental care, and the major benefit of male assistance is to help defend the brood and carcass

Michelle Pellissier Scott

1998-01-01

328

Pulpability of Beetle-Killed Spruce  

E-print Network

stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Penin- sula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, and marital

Abubakr, Said

329

ATTRACTING VOLTILES FOR THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemicals responsible for attraction of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to its host plant and conspecifics have long been sought, since Mc Indoo in 1926 [1] demonstrated the general attractiveness of potato plant volatiles to adult CP...

330

Differential Importance of Beetle Species Pollinating Dieffenbachia Longispatha (Araceae) Author(s): Helen J. Young  

E-print Network

by scarab beetles (Cyclo- cephala spp. and Erioscelis sp.) at the La Selva Biological Station, Costa RicaDifferential Importance of Beetle Species Pollinating Dieffenbachia Longispatha (Araceae) Author OF BEETLE SPECIES POLLINATING DIEFFENBACHIA LONGISPATHA (ARACEAE)' HELENJ. YOUNG' Departmentof Ecologyand

Thomson, James D.

331

Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mutualism between xyleborine beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) represents one of 11 known independent evolutionary origins of fungiculture by ambrosia beetles. Female Euwallacea beetles transport fusarial symb...

332

Pretreated densified biomass products  

DOEpatents

A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

2014-03-18

333

Cross-scale Drivers of Natural Disturbances Prone to Anthropogenic Amplification: The Dynamics of Bark Beetle Eruptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biome-scale disturbances by eruptive herbivores provide valuable insights into species interactions, ecosystem function, and impacts of global change. We present a conceptual framework using one system as a model, emphasizing interactions across levels of biological hierarchy and spatiotemporal scales. Bark beetles are major natural disturbance agents in western North American forests. However, recent bark beetle population eruptions have exceeded the frequencies, impacts, and ranges documented during the previous 125 years. Extensive host abundance and susceptibility, concentrated beetle density, favorable weather, optimal symbiotic associations, and escape from natural enemies must occur jointly for beetles to surpass a series of thresholds and exert widespread disturbance. Opposing feedbacks determine qualitatively distinct outcomes at junctures at the biochemical through landscape levels. Eruptions occur when key thresholds are surpassed, prior constraints cease to exert influence, and positive feedbacks amplify across scales. These dynamics are bidirectional, as landscape features influence how lower-scale processes are amplified or buffered. Climate change and reduced habitat heterogeneity increase the likelihood that key thresholds will be exceeded, and may cause fundamental regime shifts. Systems in which endogenous feedbacks can dominate after external forces foster the initial breach of thresholds appear particularly sensitive to anthropogenic perturbations.

Kenneth F. Raffa et al (University of Wisconsin; )

2008-06-01

334

BECON, Biomass Energy CONversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How is biomass transformed into a usable fuel? This article, part of a series about the future of energy, discusses the BECON (Biomass Energy CONversion) facility, located in the state of Iowa. Here students read about methods used to produce alternative fuels from biomass. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

335

AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding  

E-print Network

at developing the local and regional biomass/energy crop sector, by increasing the awareness and takeAVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding Guide 2010 The Forestry Commission and the Humber Rural Partnership (co-ordinated by East Riding of Yorkshire Council) have jointly produced a biomass funding guide

336

BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

337

Biomass gasifier combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is directed to a biomass gasifier combustor which operates by gasification and combustion of the biomass to produce a clean effluent gas which can be used directly for grain drying or other applications where thermal energy is required. The biomass gasifier combustor burns crop residue clean enough so that the combustion gases can be used directly for

1985-01-01

338

Biomass gasifier combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is directed to a biomass gasifier combustor which operates by gasification and combustion of the biomass to produce a clean effluent gas which can be used directly for grain drying or other applications where thermal energy is required. This biomass gasifier combustor burns crop residue clean enough so that the combustion gases can be used directly for

F. A. Payne; I. J. Ross

1982-01-01

339

Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.  

PubMed

The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses, host plant shifts, and mutualisms with angiosperms. PMID:24738782

Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

2013-01-01

340

Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark

R. W. Stark; P. R. Miller; F. W. Jr. Cobb; D. L. Wood; J. R. Jr. Parmeter

1968-01-01

341

Numerical Responses of Saproxylic Beetles to Rapid Increases in Dead Wood Availability following Geometrid Moth Outbreaks in Sub-Arctic Mountain Birch Forest  

PubMed Central

Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak. PMID:24911056

Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

2014-01-01

342

Beetle succession and diversity between clothed sun-exposed and shaded pig carrion in a tropical dry forest landscape in Southern Mexico.  

PubMed

Over a 31-day period, the decomposition process, beetle diversity and succession on clothed pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were studied in open (agricultural land) and shaded habitat (secondary forest) in Southern Mexico. The decomposition process was categorised into five stages: fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. Except for the bloated stage, the elapsed time for each decomposition stage was similar between open and shaded habitats, all carcasses reached an advanced decay stage in seven days, and the fifth stage (remains) was not recorded in any carcass during the time of this study. A total of 6344 beetles, belonging to 130 species and 21 families, were collected during the entire decomposition process, and abundances increased from fresh to advanced decay stages. Staphylinidae, Scarabaeidae and Histeridae were taxonomically and numerically dominant, accounting for 61% of the species richness and 87% of the total abundance. Similar numbers of species (87 and 88 species for open and shaded habitats, respectively), levels of diversity and proportions (open 49%; shaded 48%) of exclusive species were recorded at each habitat. There were significantly distinct beetle communities between habitats and for each stage of decomposition. An indicator species analysis ("IndVal") identified six species associated to open habitats, 10 species to shaded habitats and eight species to advanced decay stages. In addition, 23 beetle species are cited for the first time in the forensic literature. These results showed that open and shaded habitats both provide suitable habitat conditions for the carrion beetle diversity with significant differences in community structure and identity of the species associated to each habitat. This research provides the first empirical evidence of beetle ecological succession and diversity on carrion in Mexican agro-pastoral landscapes. PMID:25447187

Caballero, Ubaldo; León-Cortés, Jorge L

2014-11-01

343

Estimates of cetacean abundance, biomass, and population density are  

E-print Network

be affected by anthropogenic sound (e.g., sonar, ship noise, and seismic surveys) and cli- mate change., 1997). Large whales also die from ship strikes (Carretta et al., 2006). West coast cetaceans may of cetaceans along the U.S. west coast were estimated from ship surveys conducted in the summer and fall

344

Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability  

SciTech Connect

If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

2013-01-01

345

Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability  

SciTech Connect

If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

2013-01-01

346

Endozoochory by beetles: a novel seed dispersal mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Due in part to biophysical sized-related constraints, insects unlike vertebrates are seldom expected to act as primary seed dispersers via ingestion of fruits and seeds (endozoochory). The Mediterranean parasitic plant Cytinus hypocistis, however, possesses some characteristics that may facilitate endozoochory by beetles. By combining a long-term field study with experimental manipulation, we tested whether C. hypocistis seeds are endozoochorously dispersed by beetles. Methods Field studies were carried out over 4 years on six populations in southern Spain. We recorded the rate of natural fruit consumption by beetles, the extent of beetle movement, beetle behaviour and the relative importance of C. hypocistis fruits in beetle diet. Key Results The tenebrionid beetle Pimelia costata was an important disperser of C. hypocistis seeds, consuming up to 17·5 % of fruits per population. Forty-six per cent of beetles captured in the field consumed C. hypocistis fruits, with up to 31 seeds found in individual beetle frass. An assessment of seeds following passage through the gut of beetles indicated that seeds remained intact and viable and that the proportion of viable seeds from beetle frass was not significantly different from that of seeds collected directly from fruits. Conclusions A novel plant–animal interaction is revealed; endozoochory by beetles may facilitate the dispersal of viable seeds after passage through the gut away from the parent plant to potentially favourable underground sites offering a high probability of germination and establishment success. Such an ecological role has until now been attributed only to vertebrates. Future studies should consider more widely the putative role of fruit and seed ingestion by invertebrates as a dispersal mechanism, particularly for those plant species that possess small seeds. PMID:21303784

de Vega, Clara; Arista, Montserrat; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Herrera, Carlos M.; Talavera, Salvador

2011-01-01

347

Invited Invaders: Beetles used successfully in biological control of saltcedar  

E-print Network

10 tx H2O Winter 2011 Story by Kathy Wythe InvitedInvaders Beetles used successfully in biological control of saltcedar Winter 2011 tx H2O 11 ] Scientists in Texas are using the saltcedar beetle to control invasive saltcedar trees.... No species of saltcedar or its close relative, athel tree, are native to North or South America. Photo by Jerry Michels, Texas AgriLife Research. Beetles used successfully in biological control of saltcedar They are tiny. #22;ey are hungry...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

348

Invited Invaders: Beetles used sucessfully in biological control of saltcedar  

E-print Network

10 tx H2O Winter 2011 Story by Kathy Wythe InvitedInvaders Beetles used successfully in biological control of saltcedar Winter 2011 tx H2O 11 ] Scientists in Texas are using the saltcedar beetle to control invasive saltcedar trees.... No species of saltcedar or its close relative, athel tree, are native to North or South America. Photo by Jerry Michels, Texas AgriLife Research. Beetles used successfully in biological control of saltcedar They are tiny. #22;ey are hungry...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01

349

Antennal responses of four species of tree-killing bark beetles(Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to volatiles collected from beetles, andtheir host and nonhost conifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Host selection in tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is mediated by a complex of semiochemical cues. Using gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric analyses, we conducted a comparative study of the electrophysiological responses of four species of tree-killing bark beetles, the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, Hopkins, the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae Hopkins, the spruce beetle, D. rufipennis

Deepa S. Pureswaran; Regine Gries; John H. Borden

2004-01-01

350

Structure of Caribbean coral reef communities across a large gradient of fish biomass.  

PubMed

The collapse of Caribbean coral reefs has been attributed in part to historic overfishing, but whether fish assemblages can recover and how such recovery might affect the benthic reef community has not been tested across appropriate scales. We surveyed the biomass of reef communities across a range in fish abundance from 14 to 593 g m(-2), a gradient exceeding that of any previously reported for coral reefs. Increased fish biomass was correlated with an increased proportion of apex predators, which were abundant only inside large marine reserves. Increased herbivorous fish biomass was correlated with a decrease in fleshy algal biomass but corals have not yet recovered. PMID:17040324

Newman, Marah J H; Paredes, Gustavo A; Sala, Enric; Jackson, Jeremy B C

2006-11-01

351

Executive summary of some employment and earning implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their abundant forest and agricultural biomass resources, New England and the Cornbelt are likely to grow considerably in the development of biomass energy systems during the next decade or two. Observations of 189 specific biomass-related operations suggest that substantial employment and earnings could be generated by this activity. Forty thousand or more permanent jobs might be created in

S. E. Bell; R. M. Gove; J. R. Little

1981-01-01

352

Colorado potato beetle toxins revisited: evidence the beetle does not sequester host plant glycoalkaloids.  

PubMed

The Colorado potato beetle feeds only on glycoalkaloid-laden solanaceous plants, appears to be toxic to predators, and has aposematic coloration, suggesting the beetle may sequester alkaloids from its host plants. This study tested 4th instars and adults, as well as isolated hemolymph and excrement, to determine if the beetles sequester, metabolize, or excrete alkaloids ingested from their host plants. HPLC analysis showed: that neither the larvae nor the adults sequestered either solanine or chaconine from potato foliage; that any alkaloids in the beetles were at concentrations well below 1 ppm; and that alkaloids were found in the excrement of larvae at approximately the same concentrations as in foliage. Analysis of alkaloids in the remains of fed-upon leaflet halves plus excreta during 24 hr feeding by 4th instars, as compared to alkaloids in the uneaten halves of the leaflets, showed that equal amounts of alkaloids were excreted as were ingested. The aposematic coloration probably warns of a previously-identified toxic dipeptide instead of a plant-derived alkaloid, as the Colorado potato beetle appears to excrete, rather than sequester or metabolize, the alkaloids from its host plants. PMID:15260230

Armer, Christine A

2004-04-01

353

iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum  

PubMed Central

The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex ‘search for morphological defects’ or a ‘quick search’ for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed. PMID:25378303

Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

2015-01-01

354

Susceptibility of lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.  

PubMed

We investigated differential susceptibility of lady beetles to entomopathogenic nematodes, for two reasons: (1) to estimate potential nontarget effects on natural lady beetle populations, (2) to compare the susceptibility of exotic versus native lady beetle species. We hypothesize that successful establishment of some exotically introduced arthropods may be due, in part, to a lower susceptibility relative to competing native species. In laboratory studies, we compared the pathogenicity, virulence, and reproductive capacity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae among two native (Coleomegilla maculata and Olla v-nigrum) and two successfully established exotic (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata) lady beetles, and a known susceptible lepidopteran host, Agrotis ipsilon. After 1 and 2 days of exposure to either nematode species, mortality of A. ipsilon was higher than in all lady beetles. Thus, we predict that nematode field applications would have significantly less impact on lady beetle populations than on a susceptible target pest. Additionally, the impact of soil-applied nematodes may be lower on lady beetles than on soil-dwelling hosts because the former spends relatively less time on the soil. Exotic lady beetles were less susceptible to nematode infection than native species. Reproductive capacity data also indicated lower host suitability in H. axyridis, but not in C. septempunctata. Overall, the hypothesis that low susceptibility to pathogens in certain exotic lady beetles may have contributed to competitive establishment was supported (especially for H. axyridis). Additional studies incorporating different hosts and pathogens from various geographic locations will be required to further address the hypothesis. PMID:15913642

Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E

2005-06-01

355

Study of the dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) community at two sites: Atlantic forest and clear-cut, Pernambuco, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) community structure at two sites in the Charles Darwin Ecological Refuge in Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil. Dung beetles were collected in 2006 using monthly samples from 48 pitfall traps baited with human dung and bovine carrion. The dung beetle communities from the study sites were compared in terms of abundance, species richness, and diversity (Shannon index). Seasonality was analyzed by Spearman correlation between rainfall data and community parameters. In total, 2,560 individuals belonging to 40 species, 16 genera, and 6 tribes were collected. Species richness was higher for the clear-cut area compared with the forest habitat. Estimators of species richness suggested a total richness of 42-47 species in the entire study area. A positive correlation was observed between monthly rainfall and total abundance of individuals for the clear-cut area but not for the forest habitat. This study contributes to a better understanding of Scarabaeinae ecology in the Atlantic rainforest of northeastern Brazil. PMID:20388264

Silva, F A B; Costa, C M Q; Moura, R C; Farias, A I

2010-04-01

356

Ground and rove beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) are affected by mulches and weeds in highbush blueberries.  

PubMed

Biological control of insects by predators may be indirectly influenced by management practices that change the invertebrate community in agroecosystems. In this study we examined effects that mulching and weeding have on predatory beetles (Carabidae and Staphylinidae) and their potential prey in a highbush blueberry field. We compared beetle communities in unweeded control plots to those that were weeded and/or received a single application of compost or pine needle mulch. Compost mulch and weeding significantly affected the carabid community while the staphylinid community responded to compost and pine needle mulches. Effects because of mulch tended to intensify in the year after mulch application for both families. Estimates of species richness and diversity for Carabidae and Staphylinidae were similar in all plot types, but rarefaction curves suggested higher Carabidae richness in unmulched plots despite fewer individuals captured. Carnivorous Carabidae, dominated by Pterostichus melanarius, were most frequently captured in compost plots both years, and omnivores were most frequently captured in unweeded compost. Density of millipedes, the most abundant potential prey, was generally greater in mulched plots, whereas seasonal abundance of small earthworms varied among mulch types. Our results have potential implications for biological control in mulched highbush blueberries depending on beetle consumption rates for key pests and how rates are affected by alternative prey. PMID:23068165

Renkema, J M; Lynch, D H; Cutler, G C; Mackenzie, K; Walde, S J

2012-10-01

357

Ethanol production from olive cake biomass substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inexpensive production of sugars from lignocellulose is an essential step for the use of biomass to produce fuel ethanol.\\u000a Olive cake is an abundant by-product of the olive oil industry and represents a potentially significant lignocellulosic source\\u000a for bioethanol production in the Mediterranean basin. Furthermore, converting olive cake to ethanol could add further value\\u000a to olive production. In the

Abdelghani El Asli; Abdel-Illah Qatibi

2009-01-01

358

The carbon isotopic composition of soil respiration in the decade following disturbance by bark beetle or stem girdling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle have caused large-scale tree mortality in western North America, which can lead to fundamental changes in carbon cycling. When a tree is infested, the flow of photosynthate is disrupted. This causes the roots and their symbionts to die, eliminating the autotrophic component of soil respiration. Mycorrhizal fungi are enriched in 13C compared to plant tissues. As the dead fungal biomass is consumed by soil heterotrophs, the ?13C of CO2 in heterotrophic soil respiration may become more enriched as the fungal biomass is consumed. We investigated this response by measuring soil respiration in chronosequences of stem-girdled plots at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site, and beetle-killed plots at the Fraser Experimental Forest, both in Colorado. Stem girdling was used to simulate beetle attack because it kills trees by a similar mechanism. Plots at Niwot Ridge included live trees and 7 years of girdled plots extending back to 2002. Plots at Fraser included live trees and three age classes of beetle-killed trees, within a similar chronosequence. We used manual soil-gas sampling at three depths, during the summers of 2011 and 2012, to determine if there is an isotopic effect associated with disturbance. Consistent with our expectations, in 2011, we found an enrichment in ?13C of approximately 1‰ in the two years following girdling which was absent in subsequent years. Although this pattern was also evident in 2012, the enrichment in ?13C during the same time period was about half that in 2011. At both Niwot and Fraser, in 2011, seasonal mean ?13C decreased by about 1‰ at all depths 3-4 years after disturbance, but returned to values close to control plots in the following 4-6 years. While we found a similar pattern at Fraser in 2012, we measured an enrichment of 1-1.5‰ at the OA interface at Niwot 8-10 years after disturbance, which was not found in 2011. It is possible this is due to the decomposition of woody biomass. At both sites and in both years, seasonal mean ?13C was enriched by about 1‰ at the OA interface compared to the 10 and 30 cm depths, which were similar. Overall, these results lend support to the hypothesis that mycorrhizal biomass is consumed in the first few years following major disturbance to their plant hosts.

Chan, A.; Maurer, G. E.; Bowling, D. R.

2013-12-01

359

Formation of Rigid, Non-Flight Forewings (Elytra) of a Beetle Requires Two Major Cuticular Proteins  

PubMed Central

Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings) of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa) and TcCPR18 (20 kDa), which are also present in pronotum and ventral abdominal cuticles. Both are members of the Rebers and Riddiford family of cuticular proteins and contain RR2 motifs. Transcripts for both genes dramatically increase in abundance at the pharate adult stage and then decline quickly thereafter. Injection of specific double-stranded RNAs for each gene into penultimate or last instar larvae had no effect on larval–larval, larval–pupal, or pupal–adult molting. The elytra of the resulting adults, however, were shorter, wrinkled, warped, fenestrated, and less rigid than those from control insects. TcCPR27-deficient insects could not fold their hindwings properly and died prematurely approximately one week after eclosion, probably because of dehydration. TcCPR18-deficient insects exhibited a similar but less dramatic phenotype. Immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of TcCPR27 in the elytral cuticle. These results demonstrate that TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are major structural proteins in the rigid elytral, dorsal thoracic, and ventral abdominal cuticles of the red flour beetle, and that both proteins are required for morphogenesis of the beetle's elytra. PMID:22570623

Arakane, Yasuyuki; Lomakin, Joseph; Gehrke, Stevin H.; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Tomich, John M.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W.; Kramer, Karl J.; Kanost, Michael R.

2012-01-01

360

Formation of rigid, non-flight forewings (elytra) of a beetle requires two major cuticular proteins.  

PubMed

Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings) of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa) and TcCPR18 (20 kDa), which are also present in pronotum and ventral abdominal cuticles. Both are members of the Rebers and Riddiford family of cuticular proteins and contain RR2 motifs. Transcripts for both genes dramatically increase in abundance at the pharate adult stage and then decline quickly thereafter. Injection of specific double-stranded RNAs for each gene into penultimate or last instar larvae had no effect on larval-larval, larval-pupal, or pupal-adult molting. The elytra of the resulting adults, however, were shorter, wrinkled, warped, fenestrated, and less rigid than those from control insects. TcCPR27-deficient insects could not fold their hindwings properly and died prematurely approximately one week after eclosion, probably because of dehydration. TcCPR18-deficient insects exhibited a similar but less dramatic phenotype. Immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of TcCPR27 in the elytral cuticle. These results demonstrate that TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are major structural proteins in the rigid elytral, dorsal thoracic, and ventral abdominal cuticles of the red flour beetle, and that both proteins are required for morphogenesis of the beetle's elytra. PMID:22570623

Arakane, Yasuyuki; Lomakin, Joseph; Gehrke, Stevin H; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Tomich, John M; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kramer, Karl J; Kanost, Michael R

2012-01-01

361

Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) and associated beetle species in mature managed and old-growth boreal forests in southern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the assemblages of bark beetles and associated beetle species among mature and overmature managed, and old-growth Picea abies (L.) Karst. dominated mesic forests in southern Finland. We established 10, 11 and 9 sample plots in these categories, respectively, within an area of 35×80km. We took the beetle samples by 10 window-flight traps in each 1ha plot (total number

Petri Martikainen; Juha Siitonen; Lauri Kaila; Pekka Punttila; Josef Rauh

1999-01-01

362

Toxicity of Diatomaceous Earth to Red Flour Beetles and Confused Flour Beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Effects of Temperature and Relative Humidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetles, Tribo- lium confusum (DuVal), were exposed for 8—72 h to diatomaceous earth (Protect-It) at 22, 27, and 328C and 40, 57, and 75% RH (9 combinations). Insects were exposed to the diatomaceous earth at 0.5 mg\\/cm2 on filter paper inside plastic petri dishes. After exposure, beetles were held for 1

Frank H. Arthur

2000-01-01

363

Influence of recent bark beetle outbreak on fire severity and postfire tree regeneration in montane Douglas-fir forests.  

PubMed

Understanding how disturbances interact to shape ecosystems is a key challenge in ecology. In forests of western North America, the degree to which recent bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fires may be linked (e.g., outbreak severity affects fire severity) and/ or whether these two disturbances produce compound effects on postfire succession is of widespread interest. These interactions remain unresolved, largely because field data from actual wildfires following beetle outbreaks are lacking. We studied the 2008 Gunbarrel Fire, which burned 27 200 ha in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests that experienced a bark beetle outbreak 4-13 years prefire ("gray stage," after trees have died and needles have dropped), to determine whether outbreak severity influenced subsequent fire severity and postfire tree regeneration. In 85 sample plots we recorded prefire stand structure and outbreak severity; multiple measures of canopy and forest-floor fire severity; and postfire tree seedling density. Prefire outbreak severity was not related to any measure of fire severity except for mean bole scorch, which declined slightly with increasing outbreak severity. Instead, fire severity varied with topography and burning conditions (proxy for weather at time of fire). Postfire Douglas-fir regeneration was low, with tree seedlings absent in 65% of plots. Tree seedlings were abundant in plots of low fire severity that also had experienced low outbreak severity (mean = 1690 seedlings/ha), suggesting a dual filter on tree regeneration. Although bark beetles and fire collectively reduced live basal area to < 5% and increased snag density to > 2000% of pre-outbreak levels, the lack of relationship between beetle outbreak and fire severity suggests that these disturbances were not linked. Nonetheless, effects on postfire tree regeneration suggest compound disturbance interactions that contribute to the structural heterogeneity characteristic of mid/lower montane forests. PMID:24400499

Harvey, Brian J; Donato, Daniel C; Romme, William H; Turner, Monica G

2013-11-01

364

Suitability of some southern and western pines as hosts for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  

PubMed

The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.), is an exotic pest that has become established in North America. Discovered in Ohio in 1992, it has since been found in at least 13 states and parts of Canada. The beetle can cause significant growth loss in pines, and it represents a potential threat to trees in areas where it has not yet become established. To evaluate this threat to native pines, field and laboratory tests were conducted on several common and important southern and western species to determine whether they are acceptable hosts for T. piniperda. Comparisons with Pinus sylvestris L., Scots pine, a preferred natural host for the beetle, were made where possible. Measurements of beetle attack success on southern pine billets showed that Pinus taeda L., Pinus echinata Miller, Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelmann, Pinus palustris Miller, and Pinus virginiana Miller (loblolly, shortleaf, slash, longleaf, and Virginia pine, respectively) and two western pines, Pinus ponderosa Lawson and Pinus contorta Douglas (ponderosa and lodgepole pine, respectively), were acceptable for breeding material, but brood production was highly variable. Among the southern pines, P. taeda and P. echinata were susceptible to shoot feeding by T. piniperda, whereas P. elliottii was highly resistant and P. palustris seemed to be virtually immune. Shoot feeding tests on the western pines were conducted only in the laboratory, but there was moderate-to-good survival of adults feeding on both species. It seems that if T. piniperda is introduced into the south and west it will likely establish and may cause some damage to native pines. P. taeda may be affected more than other southern pines because it is the most abundant species, it is readily attacked for brood production, which can result in moderately large broods, and the beetle survives well during maturation feeding on P. taeda shoots. PMID:15154468

Eager, T A; Berisford, C W; Dalusky, M J; Nielsen, D G; Brewer, J W; Hilty, S J; Haack, R A

2004-04-01

365

Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.  

PubMed

The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

2013-01-01

366

Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the observed abundance dispersion exceeds the measurement uncertainties and that many pairs of elements show significant correlations when plotting [X1/H] vs. [X2/H]. Our tentative conclusions are that either NGC 6752 is not chemically homogeneous at the ~=0.03 dex level or the abundance variations and correlations signify star-to-star He abundance variations.

Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge; Norris, John E.

2015-03-01

367

Biomass cogeneration: A business assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomass cogeneration was reviewed. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

Skelton, J. C.

1981-11-01

368

The Leiodid Beetles of Costa Rica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad in Costa Rica provides this visually pleasing Web site on the Leiodidae, authored by S. P. Beck of Carleton University and A. F. Newton of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. A simple drop down menu allows users to access information on leiodid beetle taxonomy, distribution, life history, biogeography, collection methods, and more. Most sections of this Web site contain straightforward text explanations of each topic, although some sections also include links to textbook-style diagrams, such as in the Illustrated Key to the Leodidae of Costa Rica and in Habitus Figures. In all, this Web site offers a brief and well-presented overview of Costa Rica's leiodid beetles.

Newton, Alfred F.

369

Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution and ecology  

PubMed Central

Many important questions in developmental biology increasingly interface with related questions in other biological disciplines such as evolutionary biology and ecology. In this article, we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range of approaches, from gene function analysis in the laboratory to population ecological and behavioral studies in the field. Specifically, we focus on three key questions at the current interface of developmental biology, evolutionary biology and ecology: (1) the developmental mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of novel, complex traits, (2) the relationship between phenotypic diversification and the diversification of genes and transcriptomes, and (3) the role of behavior as a leader or follower in developmental evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current understanding of key issues, as well as highlight challenges and opportunities for future studies. PMID:23799584

Kijimoto, Teiya; Pespeni, Melissa; Beckers, Oliver; Moczek, Armin P.

2013-01-01

370

Water capture by a desert beetle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some beetles in the Namib Desert collect drinking water from fog-laden wind on their backs. We show here that these large droplets form by virtue of the insect's bumpy surface, which consists of alternating hydrophobic, wax-coated and hydrophilic, non-waxy regions. The design of this fog-collecting structure can be reproduced cheaply on a commercial scale and may find application in water-trapping tent and building coverings, for example, or in water condensers and engines.

Parker, Andrew R.; Lawrence, Chris R.

2001-11-01

371

Patterns of movement of radioactive carabid beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking of individual 192Ir-labeled ground beetles released in the field revealed that both the day-active and night-active species studied showed periods of small distances covered per day in random directions, alternating with periods of directed movement with large distances covered per day. This pattern occurred not only in the reproductive period but outside the breeding season as well in juvenile

M. A. Baars

1979-01-01

372

Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean.  

PubMed

The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000?m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells?ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells?ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14?pg C?ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web. PMID:25290506

Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

2015-03-01

373

Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle epidemic.  

PubMed

Forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosa) is rapidly transforming western North American landscapes. The rapid and widespread death of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) will likely have cascading effects on biodiversity. One group particularly prone to such declines associated with MPB are ectomycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic organisms that can depend on pine for their survival, and are critical for stand regeneration. We evaluated the indirect effects of MPB on above- (community composition of epigeous sporocarps) and belowground (hyphal abundance) occurrences of ectomycorrhizal fungi across 11 forest stands. Along a gradient of mortality (0-82% pine killed), macromycete community composition changed; this shift was driven by a decrease in the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Both the proportion of species that were ectomycorrhizal and hyphal length in the soil declined with increased MPB-caused pine mortality; < 10% of sporocarp species were ectomycorrhizal in stands with high pine mortality compared with > 70% in stands without MPB attacks. The rapid range expansion of a native insect results not only in the widespread mortality of an ecologically and economically important pine species, but the effect of MPB may also be exacerbated by the concomitant decline of fungi crucial for recovery of these forests. PMID:24933827

Treu, Roland; Karst, Justine; Randall, Morgan; Pec, Gregory J; Cigan, Paul W; Simard, Suzanne W; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cahill, James F

2014-04-01

374

Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.  

PubMed

Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use. PMID:25368178

Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

2014-11-18

375

Innate olfactory preferences in dung beetles.  

PubMed

The effects of insect larval diet on adult olfactory responses to host-plant or food volatiles are still debated. The induction of adult host preferences has been studied in insects with diverse ecologies, including parasitoids, flower-visitors and phytophagous species. We investigated this question for the first time in a coprophagous insect species. Larvae of the French scarab dung beetle Agrilinus constans were reared on four different artificial substrates containing dung from cattle, horse, sheep or wild boar, and responses of imagos to dung volatiles were then behaviourally tested in an olfactometer. We also reported the first analysis of the composition of different mammal dung volatiles. We showed that adult beetles were more attracted to cattle and sheep dung odours, and that larval feeding experience had no effect on the adult olfactory responses to dung volatiles. A second experiment showed that the presence of other insects inside the dung resource affects the process of dung selection by adults. We identified 64 chemical compounds from dung emissions, and showed that dung volatiles clearly differed among different mammal species, allowing olfactory discrimination by dung beetles. Our results suggest that resource selection in coprophagous insects may be based on innate olfactory preferences. Further experiments should examine whether Agrilinus adults can learn new dung odours, and whether larval diet may influence the behaviour of adults in other coprophagous species. PMID:20802120

Dormont, Laurent; Jay-Robert, Pierre; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Rapior, Sylvie; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre

2010-09-15

376

Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; P?žová, Tereza

2008-08-01

377

Loss of flight promotes beetle diversification  

PubMed Central

The evolution of flight is a key innovation that may enable the extreme diversification of insects. Nonetheless, many species-rich, winged insect groups contain flightless lineages. The loss of flight may promote allopatric differentiation due to limited dispersal power and may result in a high speciation rate in the flightless lineage. Here we show that loss of flight accelerates allopatric speciation using carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae). We demonstrate that flightless species retain higher genetic differentiation among populations and comprise a higher number of genetically distinct lineages than flight-capable species, and that the speciation rate with the flightless state is twice that with the flight-capable state. Moreover, a meta-analysis of 51 beetle species from 15 families reveals higher genetic differentiation among populations in flightless compared with flight-capable species. In beetles, which represent almost one-fourth of all described species, repeated evolution of flightlessness may have contributed to their steady diversification since the Mesozoic era. PMID:22337126

Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Sota, Teiji

2012-01-01

378

Complex pendulum biomass sensor  

DOEpatents

A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

2007-12-25

379

Densities of breeding birds and changes in vegetation in an alaskan boreal forest following a massive disturbance by spruce beetles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined bird and plant communities among forest stands with different levels of spruce mortality following a large outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) in the Copper River Basin, Alaska. Spruce beetles avoided stands with black spruce (Picea mariana) and selectively killed larger diameter white spruce (Picea glauca), thereby altering forest structure and increasing the dominance of black spruce in the region. Alders (Alnus sp.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) were more abundant in areas with heavy spruce mortality, possibly a response to the death of overstory spruce. Grasses and herbaceous plants did not proliferate as has been recorded following outbreaks in more coastal Alaskan forests. Two species closely tied to coniferous habitats, the tree-nesting Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) and the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a major nest predator, were less abundant in forest stands with high spruce mortality than in low-mortality stands. Understory-nesting birds as a group were more abundant in forest stands with high levels of spruce mortality, although the response of individual bird species to tree mortality was variable. Birds breeding in stands with high spruce mortality likely benefited reproductively from lower squirrel densities and a greater abundance of shrubs to conceal nests from predators.

Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.; Ruthrauff, D.R.

2001-01-01

380

Characterisation and tissue distribution of the PISCF allatostatin receptor in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

The insect PISCF/allatostatins (ASTs) are pleiotropic peptides that are involved in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, are myoinhibitory on the gut and the heart, and suppress feeding in various insects, but their roles in beetles are poorly understood. To provide further insight into the significance of PISCF/ASTs in beetles, the PISCF/AST receptor from Tribolium castaneum has been characterised and its tissue distribution determined. The biological activity of the T. castaneum PISCF/AST (Trica-AS) was also investigated. The Trica-AS receptor shows high sequence homology to other insect PISCF/AST receptors, which are related to the mammalian somatostatin/opioid receptors, a family of G protein-coupled receptors. The Trica-AS receptor was activated in a dose-dependent manner by both Trica-AS and T. castaneum allatostatin double C (Trica-ASTCC) as well as Manduca sexta-allatostatin (Manse-AS). Other allatoregulatory peptides (a FLG/AST, a MIP/AST and an allatotropin) and somatostatin(14) were inactive on this receptor. Receptor transcript levels in tissues, determined by qRT-PCR, were highest in the head and the gut, with variable amounts in the fat body and reproductive organs. There were measurable differences in receptor levels of the head, fat body and reproductive organs between males and females. There was also a widespread distribution of Trica-AS in various tissues of T. castaneum. The Trica-AS peptide precursor was most abundant in the head and there was a significant difference between levels in the heads and reproductive organs of males and females. Whole mount immunocytochemistry localised Trica-AS in the median and lateral neurosecretory cells of the brain, in the corpus cardiacum and throughout the ventral nerve cord. The peptide was also present in midgut neurosecretory cells, but no immunostaining was detected in the reproductive organs or Malpighian tubules. The widespread distribution of both Trica-AS and its receptor suggest this peptide may have multiple roles in beetles. However, Trica-AS had no effect on the spontaneous contractions of the gut or ovaries of T. castaneum but this peptide did stimulate the release of proteases from the anterior midgut of another beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The activation of the Trica-AS receptor by Trica-ASTCC implies a physiological role for this peptide in beetles, which remains to be identified. PMID:23085356

Audsley, Neil; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Weaver, Robert; Dani, Paulina; Matthews, June; Down, Rachel; Vuerinckx, Kristel; Kim, Young-Joon; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

2013-01-01

381

Biomass Processing Photolibrary  

DOE Data Explorer

Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

382

Engine fuels from biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sources of biomass fuels for engines are compared to other synfuels. Biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid engine fuels by the same processes utilized for coal conversion such as gasification, direct liquefaction, and indirect liquefaction. Alternatively, biomass can be converted into liquid fuels by fermentation to methane or ethanol. The quantities of biomass derived engine fuels potentially available in the next decade are relatively small, and the anticipated costs are significantly greater than for liquid engine fuels made from coal or oil shale.

Parker, H. W.

1981-01-01

383

Biomass energy potential in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of biomass energy potential including biomass residue and forestry biomass in Thailand was carried out taking into account the amount of biomass residue which has already been used and the possibility of biomass energy plantation in accordance with the National Plan of the Thai Government. According to this estimation, 65 PJ can be derived from agricultural and forestry waste

Shin-ya Yokoyama; Tomoko Ogi; Anan Nalampoon

2000-01-01

384

Antennal transcriptome analysis of the chemosensory gene families in the tree killing bark beetles, Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)  

PubMed Central

Background The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, and the North American mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are severe pests of coniferous forests. Both bark beetle species utilize aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass-attacks on host trees, while odorants from host and non-host trees modulate the pheromone response. Thus, the bark beetle olfactory sense is of utmost importance for fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfactory detection has been lacking in bark beetles and is limited in Coleoptera. We assembled antennal transcriptomes from next-generation sequencing of I. typographus and D. ponderosae to identify members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. Results Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific GO terms was highly similar in the two species. Transcripts with terms related to olfactory function were found in both species. Focusing on the chemosensory gene families, we identified 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 6 chemosensory proteins (CSP), 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 43 odorant receptors (OR), 6 gustatory receptors (GR), and 7 ionotropic receptors (IR) in I. typographus; and 31 putative OBPs, 11 CSPs, 3 SNMPs, 49 ORs, 2 GRs, and 15 IRs in D. ponderosae. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the cerambycid beetle, Megacyllene caryae, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The most notable result was found among the ORs, for which large bark beetle-specific expansions were found. However, some clades contained receptors from all four beetle species, indicating a degree of conservation among some coleopteran OR lineages. Putative GRs for carbon dioxide and orthologues for the conserved antennal IRs were included in the identified receptor sets. Conclusions The protein families important for chemoreception have now been identified in three coleopteran species (four species for the ORs). Thus, this study allows for improved evolutionary analyses of coleopteran olfaction. Identification of these proteins in two of the most destructive forest pests, sharing many semiochemicals, is especially important as they might represent novel targets for population control. PMID:23517120

2013-01-01

385

Chirality-induced polarization effects in the cuticle of scarab beetles: 100 years after Michelson  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred years ago Michelson discovered circular polarization in reflection from beetles. Today a novel Mueller-matrix ellipsometry setup allows unprecedented detailed characterization of the beetles' polarization properties. A formalism based on elliptical polarization for description of reflection from scarab beetles is here proposed and examples are given on four beetles of different character: Coptomia laevis – a simple dielectric mirror;

Hans Arwin; Roger Magnusson; Jan Landin; Kenneth Järrendahl

2012-01-01

386

Phylogeny of Hydradephagan Water Beetles Inferred from 18S rRNA Sequences  

E-print Network

Phylogeny of Hydradephagan Water Beetles Inferred from 18S rRNA Sequences Ignacio Ribera,1 James E (burrowing water beetles, 270 species), Halipli- dae (crawling water beetles, 220 species), and two mo- cies). Diving beetles spend most of their life cycle in the water, with only the pupae terrestrial

Ribera, Ignacio

387

Influence of Temperature on Spring Flight Initiation for Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for ßight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles, Þve species of Dendroctonus bark beetles, and two genera of bark beetle predators,Enoclerusspp. (Coleoptera:

M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. Mcmillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

2008-01-01

388

Microbial Populations and Hypothesized Function within the Guts of Two Ground Beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract of beneficial ground beetles may contribute to the beetles’ fitness and ability to control plant and insect pests. Using tRFLP analysis (16S rRNA gene) of bacteria populations in the guts of ground beetles, we have found that individual beetles from the same...

389

Responses to air flow and airborne plant odour in the Colorado beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorado beetles moved upwind in a wind tunnel. Odour from leaves of potato, nightshade, tomato and bittersweet enhanced the response. The response disappeared after four antennal segments had been amputated. The odour from meadow grass and dandelion repelled the beetles. Beetles 2–3 weeks emerged but not newly emerged beetles were slightly attracted by celerey. In the same wind tunnel, the

J. Wilde; K. Hille Ris Lambers-Suverkropp; A. Tol

1969-01-01

390

COMMON SOYBEAN INSECTS 1. BEAN LEAF BEETLE, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster). The adult  

E-print Network

E-85 COMMON SOYBEAN INSECTS 1. BEAN LEAF BEETLE, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster). The adult beetle. However, color and markings can vary greatly. For control, see E-51 and E-77. 2. MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant. The Mexican bean beetle is a pest of garden beans but will also attack soy

Ginzel, Matthew

391

SEED BEETLES IN ACACIA PODS Prepared by Alistair Barker  

E-print Network

SEED BEETLES IN ACACIA PODS Prepared by Alistair Barker Our research focus on the genetics their known host plants, the Acacias from all over South Africa. These beetles feed on many different host that are found feeding on the seeds of Acacia and other closely related and located legumes. Bruchids complete

392

Cantharidin Poisoning due to Blister Beetle Ingestion in Children  

PubMed Central

Cantharidin is an intoxicant found in beetles in the Meloidae (Coleoptera) family. Ingestion may result in haematemesis, impaired level of consciousness, electrolyte disturbance, haematurea and renal impairment. Here, we report two paediatric cases of meloid beetle ingestion resulting in cantharidin poisoning and the clinical presentation of the ensuing intoxication. PMID:21509239

Al-Binali, Ali M.; Shabana, Medhat; Al-Fifi, Suliman; Dawood, Sami; Shehri, Amer A.; Al-Barki, Ahmed

2010-01-01

393

Attractants for the Green June Beetle, Cotinis nitida (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate lures for adult green June beetles, Cotinis nitida (L.), for future use in a mass trapping program. Volatile organic compounds collected from head space of green June beetles feeding on fermenting ripe apple, the natural lure that elicits feeding...

394

entomology & pathology Landscape Dynamics of Mountain Pine Beetles  

E-print Network

entomology & pathology Landscape Dynamics of Mountain Pine Beetles John E. Lundquist and Robin M. Reich The magnitude and urgency of current mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States ecosystems. This paper reviews some of the aspects of the spatial dynamics and landscape ecology of this bark

395

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

E-print Network

environments. It has demonstrated resistance to all classes of insecticides used against it. Like all beetlesARTICLES The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum Tribolium Genome Sequencing Consortium* Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model

Graur, Dan

396

An experimentally induced host shift in a seed beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many insects use a fairly well-defined set of host plants, but are occasionally observed on an atyp- ical host. The seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) has rarely been reported to attack lentil, which is distantly related to its usual legume hosts. An initial assay of an Asian beetle population revealed that none of the 100 larvae entering

Frank J. Messina; Michelle Mendenhall; Jake C. Jones

2009-01-01

397

The management of fluid and wave resistances by whirligig beetles  

PubMed Central

Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are semi-aquatic insects with a morphology and propulsion system highly adapted to their life at the air–water interface. When swimming on the water surface, beetles are subject to both fluid resistance and wave resistance. The purpose of this study was to analyse swimming speed, leg kinematics and the capillarity waves produced by whirligig beetles on the water surface in a simple environment. Whirligig beetles of the species Gyrinus substriatus were filmed in a large container, with a high-speed camera. Resistance forces were also estimated. These beetles used three types of leg kinematics, differing in the sequence of leg strokes: two for swimming at low speed and one for swimming at high speed. Four main speed patterns were produced by different combinations of these types of leg kinematics, and the minimum speed for the production of surface waves (23 cm s?1) corresponded to an upper limit when beetles used low-speed leg kinematics. Each type of leg kinematics produced characteristic capillarity waves, even if the beetles moved at a speed below 23 cm s?1. Our results indicate that whirligig beetles use low- and high-speed leg kinematics to avoid maximum drag and swim at speed corresponding to low resistances. PMID:19640875

Voise, Jonathan; Casas, Jérôme

2010-01-01

398

Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. Application of volatile oils led in most cases to a reduced number of eggs on treated

Sara J Boeke; Cécile Barnaud; Joop JA van Loon; Dansou K Kossou; Arnold van Huis; Marcel Dicke

2004-01-01

399

FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Blending Synthetic Pheromones of Cerambycid Beetles to Develop  

E-print Network

FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Blending Synthetic Pheromones of Cerambycid Beetles to Develop Trap Lures pheromones to determine whether such blends could be used as effective trap lures for detecting and monitoring multiple species simultaneously. Pheromone-baited traps captured 1,358 cerambycid beetles of which

Hanks, Lawrence M.

400

Investigating the effectiveness of Mountain Pine Beetle mitigation strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a broad range of mitigation strategies associated with the management of Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). We consider: methods that are currently utilised or have been proposed for controlling beetle populations; the manner in which the effectiveness of these approaches is monitored and assessed; and the role that remotely sensed data may play in a large-area monitoring

Nicholas C. Coops; Joleen A. Timko; Michael A. Wulder; Joanne C. White; Stephanie M. Ortlepp

2008-01-01

401

Southern Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Brood Adults: Reverse Emergence1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) brood adults from the inner surface of removed Pinus taeda L. bark is described. It is well known that bark beetles normally emerge through the outer bark. The parent adults bore the so- called \\

JOHN C. MOSER

1983-01-01

402

Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

403

UNCORRECTED Effects of fire and spruce beetle outbreak legacies  

E-print Network

between fire and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirkby) disturbances in a Colorado sub- alpine influenced by the interactions between fire and insect disturbances. Keywords dendrochronology, Dendroctonus and outbreaks of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus J B I 9 1 2 B Dispatch: 19.5.03 Journal: JBI CE: Hari Journal Name

Veblen, Thomas T.

404

Beetles (Coleoptera) in polar deserts of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of five expeditions to the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, four beetle species were found: Micralymma brevilingue (Staphylinidae), Chrysolina subsulcata, Ch. septentrionalis (Chrysomelidae), and Dienerella filum (Latridiidae). The zonal plant communities do not contain beetles at all. All the species found prefer intrazonal habitats,\\u000a where the snowless season is prolonged. Only M. brevilingue is common enough in various biotopes

O. L. Makarova; A. O. Bie?kowski; V. I. Bulavintsev; A. V. Sokolov

2007-01-01

405

Bark Beetle-Fungal Symbiosis: Context Dependency in Complex Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent thinking in symbiosis research has emphasized a holistic consideration of these complex interactions. Bark beetles and their associated microbes are one group which has previously not been addressed in this manner. We review the study of symbiotic interactions among bark beetles and microbes in light of this thinking. We describe the considerable progress already made, examine areas where further

K. D. KLEPZIGl; D. L. SIX

406

Defensive alkaloid in blood of Mexican bean beetle ( Epilachna varivestis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The blood of the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis) contains a homotropane alkaloid, euphococcinine (1). The beetles ‘reflex bleed’ when disturbed, thereby deploying the alkaloid, which is provenly deterrent to spiders and ants. Newly emerged adults lack the alkaloid, but the compound builds up to deterrent levels in their blood within days. Eggs and larvae ofEpilachna are devoid of

T. Eisner; M. Goetz; D. Aneshansley; G. Ferstandig-Arnold; J. Meinwald

1986-01-01

407

A culture method for darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Darkling beetles, Blapstinus spp., have become a serious pest of Cucurbitaceae crops, especially in California. A culture method was sought to provide large numbers (> 500) of adult beetles of known age and sex that could be used for laboratory testing when needed. A method previously developed for ...

408

Effectsofparentalbodyconditionandsizeonreproductive success in a tenebrionid beetle with biparental care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beetle Parastizopus armaticeps (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) inhabits the Kalahari desert of southern Africa, constructs breeding burrows after rainfall, and shows extensive biparental care. Previous work has shown that it is predominantly male size, not female size, that determines breeding success; however, in the field these beetles show size assortative mating. This might obscure or override effects of female size on

DIK H EG; NNE E. R ASA

409

fire & fuels management Spruce Beetle-Induced Changes to Engelmann  

E-print Network

fire & fuels management Spruce Beetle-Induced Changes to Engelmann Spruce Foliage Flammability Wesley G. Page, Michael J. Jenkins, and Justin B. Runyon Intermountain Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm) stands affected by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) represent

410

Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DeGuzman, L.I.& A.M. Frake. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles - The life history of small hive beetles (SHB) kept in an incubator (34ºC) and at room temperature (24-28ºC) was compared. Six slides of eggs, obtained using the glass slide technique, were placed individually in rear...

411

Rust and Beetle Interactions in Pinus albicaulis Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current mountain pine beetle activity in whitebark pine ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is unprecedented in extent and severity. Dynamics among beetles, white pine blister rust, and climate change are placing this foundation species in a precarious state. Stand- and tree-level data was recorded to quantify how the severity of rust and the presence of an alternate host influence

Nancy Bockino; Daniel B. Tinker

2009-01-01

412

Effects of landscape composition and rotation distance on Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) abundance in cultivated potato.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the Colorado potato beetle's, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), relationship to previous potato crops has contributed to the development of a pest management strategy focused upon crop rotation. Previous investigations revealed that potato rotations exceeding 0.4 km were effective in reducing colonization in current season potato. The current study examines the relationship between beetle abundance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and distance from multiple, previous year potato fields in Wisconsin, and integrates information about the influence of natural habitats adjacent to previous season potato. Colorado potato beetle count data were collected in 1998 and 2008 and distance to previous potato, field areas, and landscape classes were estimated using maps from 1997 and 2007. Poisson regression was used to relate counts to combinations of distance and local landscape characteristics calculated for all fields within 1,500 m of sampled potato. In 1998, beetle counts measured in current season potato declined significantly with increasing distance from previous potato fields and field size did not influence these counts. However, there was no relationship between beetle abundance and distance to prior year potatoes in 2008. In both years, increased proportions of surrounding habitats, previously described as preferred for diapause sites (e.g., wooded field boundaries), did not relate significantly to counts. However, grassland habitat was negatively correlated with counts. Results indicate that distance from previous potato remains an important factor to reduce the magnitude of colonization. This analysis further suggests that certain landscape components (e.g., grassland) may influence infestation, which may be useful for refining future integrated pest management programs. PMID:23321104

Huseth, A S; Frost, K E; Knuteson, D L; Wyman, J A; Groves, R L

2012-12-01

413

The Solar Argon Abundance  

E-print Network

The solar argon abundance cannot be directly derived by spectroscopic observations of the solar photosphere. The solar Ar abundance is evaluated from solar wind measurements, nucleosynthetic arguments, observations of B stars, HII regions, planetary nebulae, and noble gas abundances measured in Jupiter's atmosphere. These data lead to a recommended argon abundance of N(Ar) = 91,200(+/-)23,700 (on a scale where Si = 10^6 atoms). The recommended abundance for the solar photosphere (on a scale where log N(H) = 12) is A(Ar)photo = 6.50(+/-)0.10, and taking element settling into account, the solar system (protosolar) abundance is A(Ar)solsys = 6.57(+/-)0.10.

Katharina Lodders

2007-10-24

414

Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

Muths, Erin Louise

1991-01-01

415

A Beetle Stowaway: Who's Drilling Holes in My Tree?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This BioBulletin Web site takes an in-depth look at the Asian longhorn beetle. The site includes text, videos, photographs, and interviews with key scientists. The Introduction explains the threat this alien species and major hardwood pest poses to U.S. trees. Meet the Beetle examines this large and quite spectacular insect, which is native to Japan, Korea, and the Malaysian Peninsula. Beetle Stalking in Brooklyn and Beyond recounts the first infestations of the Asian longhorn beetle and how teams of scientists responded to the problem. Preventing Potential Ecodisaster looks at a nationwide strategy to eradicate the Asian longhorn beetle before it establishes a permanent foothold in the U.S. An Alien Invasion provides an overview of why exotic/introduced/alien/invader species can make trouble.

416

Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

417

BIOSEP: A NEW ETHANOL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR SMALL SCALE RURAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM BIOMASS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research activities on bioethanol have increased substantially as a result of the current concerns with energy security. Inexpensive biomass including forest residues, mill residues, agricultural residues, urban wood wastes and dedicated energy corps that exists in abundance acr...

418

Agra, arboreal beetles of Neotropical forests: pusilla group and piranha group systematics... 1 Agra, arboreal beetles of Neotropical forests  

E-print Network

Agra, arboreal beetles of Neotropical forests: pusilla group and piranha group systematics... 1 Agra, arboreal beetles of Neotropical forests: pusilla group and piranha group systematics and notes and piranha group systematics and notes on their ways of life (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini, Agrina). Zoo

Erwin, Terry

419

INTRODUCED LADY BEETLES (COLEOPTERA; COCCINELLIDAE): BENEFICIAL AGENTS OR ALIEN INVADERS? INTRODUCED LADY BEETLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lady beetles (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae) are valued for their role in the suppression of many plant pests. They are common predators in natural ecosystems, as well as cultivated gardens, orchards, rangelands and agricultural fields. These beneficial insects can be utilized in a number of ways: Indig...

420

Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them  

PubMed Central

Summary Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles. Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks. PMID:18698369

Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

2008-01-01

421

Biomass Research Program  

ScienceCinema

INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

2013-05-28

422

Biomass management and energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of managing biomass specifically for the conservation or production of energy can become a significant factor in the global management of atmopsheric CO2 over the next century. This paper evaluates the global potential for: (1) conserving energy by using trees and wood for shading, shelterbelts, windbreaks, and construction material; and (2) increasing the use of biomass and improving

R. Neil Sampson; Lynn L. Wright; Jack K. Winjum; John D. Kinsman; John Benneman; Ernst Kürsten; J. M. O. Scurlock

1993-01-01

423

Biomass Conversion Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the dominant biomass conversion technology consists of the combustion of biomass as fuelwood, as field and forest residues, or as process residues, such as bagasse and black liquor. Many of the combustion processes in use today have poor environmental characteristics and low efficiency. This is especially true of cookstoves in developing countries; they are a major cause of respiratory

Ralph P. Overend

424

Progress in biomass conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reviews the long-range potential of biomass. It also discusses how biomass could replace petroleum and natural gas through different processes and under different circumstances, and at what price and to what extent. It provides a comparison with alternative resources, including coal and petroleum, and taking into consideration such problems as corrosion and erosion....These papers provide a demonstration of

D. A. Tillman; E. C. Jahn

1984-01-01

425

Biomass Research Program  

SciTech Connect

INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

2011-01-01

426

Biomass - Investigating Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity students generate their own biomass gases by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best by their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

Eric Eric Benson

427

Biomass Gasification in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the challenges of increasing energy demand, renewable energy plays a significant role in energy strategy nowadays in China. Bioenergy as carbon free energy, is considered one of the most promising renewable energy sources that can supply heat and electricity. The paper introduces characteristics of biomass and related equipment expounds on the direction of research of biomass

Weijuan Lan; Guanyi Chen; Wenchao Ma; Beibei Yan; Weiyi Li

2011-01-01

428

Combustion properties of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of biomass relevant to combustion are briefly reviewed. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable, especially with respect to inorganic constituents important to the critical problems of fouling and slagging. Alkali and alkaline earth metals, in combination with other fuel elements such as silica and sulfur, and facilitated by the presence of chlorine, are responsible for many

B. M Jenkins; L. L Baxter; T. R Miles

1998-01-01

429

Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy  

E-print Network

Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy 2nd Semester for the Master Energy #12;Specialisation Biomass Energy, University of Zaragoza Modul: Introduction and Basic Concepts aspects required to understand all the aspects involved in biomass use for energy generation, mainly heat

Damm, Werner

430

Potential effects on grassland birds of converting marginal cropland to switchgrass biomass production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat loss is a major reason for the decline of grassland birds in North America. Five habitats (pastures, hayfields, rowcrop fields, small-grain fields, Conservation Reserve Program fields) compose most of the habitat used by grassland birds in the Midwest United States. Growing and harvesting switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a biomass fuel would create another habitat for grassland birds. Bird abundance information from studies conducted in Iowa and adjacent states and land-use data for the Rathbun Lake Watershed in southern Iowa were used in a Geographic Information System to model the potential effects on bird abundances of converting rowcrop fields to biomass production. Abundances of bird species that are management priorities increased in both biomass scenarios. Common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) abundance in the watershed also increased greatly in both scenarios. Other species (e.g., homed lark [Eremophila alpestris], killdeer [Charadrius vociferous]) were more abundant in the existing land use than in the biomass scenarios, and conversion of fields from rowcrop to biomass production could be detrimental to these species. In general, biomass fields will provide habitat for grassland birds that are management priorities, but future monitoring of birds in such fields is needed as conversion of rowcrop fields to biomass production continues. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Murray, L.D.; Best, L.B.; Jacobsen, T.J.; Braster, M.L.

2003-01-01

431

Vertical Distribution of Fish Biomass in Lake Superior: Implications for Day Bottom Trawl Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the biases in sampling methodology is essential for understanding the limitations of abundance and biomass estimates of fish populations. Estimates from surveys that rely solely on bottom trawls may be particularly vulnerable to bias if pelagic fish are numerous. We evaluated the variability in the vertical distribution of fish biomass during the U.S. Geological Survey's annual spring bottom

Jason D. Stockwell; Daniel L. Yule; Thomas R. Hrabik; Jean V. Adams; Owen T. Gorman; Beth V. Holbrook

2007-01-01

432

Bryophyte biomass and species richness on the Park Grass Experiment, Rothamsted, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between bryophyte biomass and species richness and soil pH, nutrient applications and vascular plant biomass and species richness were analyzed for the Park Grass Experiment (Rothamsted, UK). The study examined the abundance of bryophytes in relation to long-term fertilizer and lime application and to fertilizer treatments recently being ceased on some plots. The probability of bryophytes being present

R. Virtanen; A. E. Johnston; M. J. Crawley; G. R. Edwards

2000-01-01

433

Some employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their abundant forest and agricultural biomass resources, New England and the Cornbelt are likely to grow considerably in the development of biomass energy systems during the next decade or two. Forty thousand or more permanent jobs might be created in New England's wood energy industry by the end of the century. If alcohol-fuel use continues to grow, even

W. Stevenson; S. E. Bell; L. M. Blair; R. M. Gove; J. R. Little

1981-01-01

434

Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States)

1992-03-01

435

Barium Abundances in Cepheids  

E-print Network

We derived the barium atmospheric abundances for a large sample of Cepheids, comprising 270 stars. The sample covers a large range of galactocentric distances, from about 4 to 15 kpc, so that it is appropriated to investigate the existence of radial barium abundance gradients in the galactic disc. In fact, this is the first time that such a comprehensive analysis of the distribution of barium abundances in the galactic disc is carried out. As a result, we conclude that the Ba abundance distribution can be characterized by a zero gradient. This result is compared with derived gradients for other elements, and some reasons are briefly discussed for the independence of the barium abundances upon galactocentric distances.

Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Luck, R E; Kovtyukh, V V; Maciel, W J

2012-01-01

436

Distribution and abundance of zooplankton populations in Crater Lake, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake exhibited consistency in species richness and general taxonomic composition, but varied in density and biomass during the period between 1988 and 2000. Collectively, the assemblages included 2 cladoceran taxa and 10 rotifer taxa (excluding rare taxa). Vertical habitat partitioning of the water column to a depth of 200 m was observed for most species with similar food habits and/or feeding mechanisms. No congeneric replacement was observed. The dominant species in the assemblages were variable, switching primarily between periods of dominance of Polyarthra-Keratella cochlearis and Daphnia. The unexpected occurrence and dominance of Asplanchna in 1991 and 1992 resulted in a major change in this typical temporal shift between Polyarthra-K. cochlearis and Daphnia. Following a collapse of the zooplankton biomass in 1993 that was probably caused by predation from Asplanchna, Kellicottia dominated the zooplankton assemblage biomass between 1994 and 1997. The decline in biomass of Kellicottia by 1998 coincided with a dramatic increase in Daphnia biomass. When Daphnia biomass declined by 2000, Keratella biomass increased again. Thus, by 1998 the assemblage returned to the typical shift between Keratella-Polyarthra and Daphnia. Although these observations provided considerable insight about the interannual variability of the zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake, little was discovered about mechanisms behind the variability. When abundant, kokanee salmon may have played an important role in the disappearance of Daphnia in 1990 and 2000 either through predation, inducing diapause, or both. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Truitt, R.E.

2007-01-01

437

Global Patterns and Predictions of Seafloor Biomass Using Random Forests  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, was employed to model and predict seafloor standing stocks from surface primary production, water-column integrated and export particulate organic matter (POM), seafloor relief, and bottom water properties. The predictive models explain 63% to 88% of stock variance among the major size groups. Individual and composite maps of predicted global seafloor biomass and abundance are generated for bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna (invertebrates and fishes). Patterns of benthic standing stocks were positive functions of surface primary production and delivery of the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux to the seafloor. At a regional scale, the census maps illustrate that integrated biomass is highest at the poles, on continental margins associated with coastal upwelling and with broad zones associated with equatorial divergence. Lowest values are consistently encountered on the central abyssal plains of major ocean basins The shift of biomass dominance groups with depth is shown to be affected by the decrease in average body size rather than abundance, presumably due to decrease in quantity and quality of food supply. This biomass census and associated maps are vital components of mechanistic deep-sea food web models and global carbon cycling, and as such provide fundamental information that can be incorporated into evidence-based management. PMID:21209928

Wei, Chih-Lin; Rowe, Gilbert T.; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas; Caley, M. Julian; Soliman, Yousria; Huettmann, Falk; Qu, Fangyuan; Yu, Zishan; Pitcher, C. Roland; Haedrich, Richard L.; Wicksten, Mary K.; Rex, Michael A.; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Sharma, Jyotsna; Danovaro, Roberto; MacDonald, Ian R.; Nunnally, Clifton C.; Deming, Jody W.; Montagna, Paul; Lévesque, Mélanie; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Ingole, Baban S.; Bett, Brian J.; Billett, David S. M.; Yool, Andrew; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Iken, Katrin; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2010-01-01

438

Annual cycle of zooplankton abundance and species composition in Izmit Bay (the northeastern Marmara Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monthly abundance, biomass and taxonomic composition of zooplankton of Izmit Bay (the northeastern Marmara Sea) were studied from October 2001 to September 2002. Most species within the zooplankton community displayed a clear pattern of succession throughout the year. Generally copepods and cladocerans were the most abundant groups, while the contribution of meroplankton increased at inner-most stations and dominated the

Melek Isinibilir; Ahmet E. Kideys; Ahmet N. Tarkan; I. Noyan Yilmaz

2008-01-01

439

Larvacean (Chordata, Tunicata) abundance and inferred secondary production off southeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the temporal and vertical variability in larvacean abundance and secondary production on a fixed station off southeast Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2008. Larvacean biomass was derived from length–weight regressions, and growth rates were estimated from an empirical model. We identified eleven larvacean species. Oikopleura longicauda occurred throughout the studied period and was the most abundant species,

Leonardo K. Miyashita; Rubens M. Lopes

2011-01-01

440

Hydropyrolysis of biomass  

SciTech Connect

The pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass was investigated. Experimental runs using the biomass (Poplar wood sawdust) were performed using a tubular reactor of dimensions 1 inch inside diameter and 8 feet long heated at a temperature of 800 C and pressures between 450 and 750 psig. At low heat-up rate the reaction precedes in two steps. First pyrolysis takes place at temperatures of 300 to 400 c and subsequent hydropyrolysis takes place at 700 C and above. This is also confirmed by pressurized thermogravimetric analysis (PTGA). Under conditions of rapid heat-up at higher temperatures and higher hydrogen pressure gasification and hydrogasification of biomass is especially effective in producing carbon monoxide and methane. An overall conversion of 88 to 90 wt % of biomass was obtained. This value is in agreement with the previous work of flash pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of biomass for rapid heat-up and short residence time. Initial rates of biomass conversion indicate that the rate increases significantly with increase in hydrogen pressure. At 800 C and 755 psig the initial rate of biomass conversion to gases is 0.92 1/min.

Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.

1992-01-01