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1

Temperature Determines Symbiont Abundance in a Multipartite Bark Beetle-fungus Ectosymbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report evidence that temperature plays a key role in determining the relative abundance of two mutualistic\\u000a fungi associated with an economically and ecologically important bark beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. The symbiotic fungi possess different optimal temperature ranges. These differences determine which fungus is vectored by\\u000a dispersing host beetles as temperatures fluctuate over a season. Grosmannia clavigera is

D. L. Six; B. J. Bentz

2007-01-01

2

Global distribution of microbial abundance and biomass in subseafloor sediment  

PubMed Central

The global geographic distribution of subseafloor sedimentary microbes and the cause(s) of that distribution are largely unexplored. Here, we show that total microbial cell abundance in subseafloor sediment varies between sites by ca. five orders of magnitude. This variation is strongly correlated with mean sedimentation rate and distance from land. Based on these correlations, we estimate global subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance to be 2.9?1029 cells [corresponding to 4.1 petagram (Pg) C and ?0.6% of Earth’s total living biomass]. This estimate of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance is roughly equal to previous estimates of total microbial abundance in seawater and total microbial abundance in soil. It is much lower than previous estimates of subseafloor sedimentary microbial abundance. In consequence, we estimate Earth’s total number of microbes and total living biomass to be, respectively, 50–78% and 10–45% lower than previous estimates.

Kallmeyer, Jens; Pockalny, Robert; Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Smith, David C.; D'Hondt, Steven

2012-01-01

3

Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

Newell, P.; King, S.

2009-01-01

4

Disruption of Ant-Aphid Mutualism in Canopy Enhances the Abundance of Beetles on the Forest Floor  

PubMed Central

Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web.

Ma, Keming

2012-01-01

5

Disruption of ant-aphid mutualism in canopy enhances the abundance of beetles on the forest floor.  

PubMed

Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web. PMID:22558156

Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

2012-01-01

6

Abundance and biomass of benthic heterotrophic bacteria in Jiaozhou Bay, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance and biomass of benthic heterotrophic bacteria were investigated for the 4 typical sampling stations in the northern muddy part of Jiaozhou Bay, estuary of the Dagu River, raft culturing and nearby areas of Huangdao in March, June, August and December, 2002. The abundance and biomass range from 0.98×107 to 16.87×107 cells g-1 sediment and 0.45 to 7.08 ?g C g-1 sediment, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that heterotrophic bacterial abundance and biomass are significantly correlated to water temperature ( R=0.79 and 0.83, respectively, P<0.01).

Tian, Shengyan; Zhang, Zhinan; Liu, Xiaoshou; Yu, Zishan

2006-01-01

7

Zooplankton biomass abundance and allometric patterns along an eutrophic gradient at Furnas Reservoir (Minas Gerais Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Zooplankton biomass, abundance and allometric patterns along an eutrophic gradient at Furnas reservoir (Minas Gerais, Brazil). The aim of this study was to describe the zooplankton composition, allometry, abundance and biomass along a trophic gradient at Furnas Reservoir.,Furnas,dam,is located,few,kilometres,downstream,the,mouth,of Sapucaí,River (Minas Gerais, Brazil), being one of the biggest reservoir in Brazilian Southwest (1440 Km, ). Zooplankton,was,sampled,by vertical,hauls,in three,different,campaigns along

8

Hydrodynamic control of mesozooplankton abundance and biomass in northern Svalbard waters (79–81°N)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variation in mesozooplankton biomass, abundance and species composition in relation to oceanography was studied in different climatic regimes (warm Atlantic vs. cold Arctic) in northern Svalbard waters. Relationships between the zooplankton community and various environmental factors (salinity, temperature, sampling depth, bottom depth, sea-ice concentrations, algal biomass and bloom stage) were established using multivariate statistics. Our study demonstrated that

Katarzyna Blachowiak-Samolyk; Janne E. Søreide; Slawek Kwasniewski; Arild Sundfjord; Haakon Hop; Stig Falk-Petersen; Else Nøst Hegseth

2008-01-01

9

Effects of relay-intercropping sorghum with winter wheat, alfalfa, and cotton on lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) abundance and species composition.  

PubMed

Creating conditions that enhance the abundance of resident populations of natural enemies in agroecosystems is considered critical to the efficiency of biological control of insect pests. We conducted a study to determine the potential of relay-intercropping for enhancing the abundance of aphidophagous lady beetles in sorghum. A relay-intercropping system consisting of alfalfa, winter wheat, and cotton as intercrops and sorghum as a main crop was compared with sorghum monoculture plots at two study sites in OK from 2003 to 2006. Lady beetles and aphids were sampled throughout the season using sticky traps and field counts on individual sorghum plants. Results from sticky traps and field counts show that differences in abundance and species composition of lady beetles between intercropped and monoculture sorghum were not statistically different during each year of study. Also, the lady beetle-greenbug ratios in relay-intercropped and monoculture plots were not significantly different. Lack of significant effects of relay-intercropping in our study may have been attributable to the confounding effects of spatial and temporal scale and the low number of aphids and other alternative prey in the intercrops compared with high incidence of corn leaf aphids in sorghum early in the season. PMID:20550789

Phoofolo, Mpho W; Giles, Kristopher L; Elliott, Norman C

2010-06-01

10

Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada.  

PubMed

Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in the guts. These results not only provide evidence of the consumer-resource relations of these beetles but also clarify the relationship between rove beetles, woody debris and fungi. Predominance of yeast-feeding by abundant rove beetles suggests that it may play an important role in their dietary requirements. PMID:24294095

Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Séguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Newton, Alfred F; Thayer, Margaret K

2013-01-01

11

Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada  

PubMed Central

Abstract Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta capsularis Klimaszewski, Atheta klagesi Bernhauer, Oxypoda grandipennis (Casey), Bryophacis smetanai Campbell, Ischnosoma longicorne (Mäklin), Mycetoporus montanus Luze, Tachinus frigidus Erichson, Tachinus fumipennis (Say), Tachinus quebecensis Robert, and Pseudopsis subulata Herman. We found no apparent arthropod fragments within the guts; however, a number of fungi were identified by DNA sequences, including filamentous fungi and budding yeasts [Ascomycota: Candida derodonti Suh & Blackwell (accession number FJ623605), Candida mesenterica (Geiger) Diddens & Lodder (accession number FM178362), Candida railenensis Ramirez and Gonzáles (accession number JX455763), Candida sophie-reginae Ramirez & González (accession number HQ652073), Candida sp. (accession number AY498864), Pichia delftensis Beech (accession number AY923246), Pichia membranifaciens Hansen (accession number JQ26345), Pichia misumaiensis Y. Sasaki and Tak. Yoshida ex Kurtzman 2000 (accession number U73581), Pichia sp. (accession number AM261630), Cladosporium sp. (accession number KF367501), Acremoniumpsammosporum W. Gams (accession number GU566287), Alternaria sp. (accession number GU584946), Aspergillus versicolor Bubak (accession number AJ937750), and Aspergillusamstelodami (L. Mangin) Thom and Church (accession number HQ728257)]. In addition, two species of bacteria [Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Kirchner) Jordan (accession number BA000040) and Serratia marcescens Bizio accession number CP003942] were found in the guts. These results not only provide evidence of the consumer-resource relations of these beetles but also clarify the relationship between rove beetles, woody debris and fungi. Predominance of yeast-feeding by abundant rove beetles suggests that it may play an important role in their dietary requirements.

Klimaszewski, Jan; Morency, Marie-Josee; Labrie, Philippe; Seguin, Armand; Langor, David; Work, Timothy; Bourdon, Caroline; Thiffault, Evelyne; Pare, David; Newton, Alfred F.; Thayer, Margaret K.

2013-01-01

12

Vertical distribution and diel patterns of zooplankton abundance and biomass at Conch Reef, Florida Keys (USA)  

PubMed Central

Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 ± 1949 SD individuals m?3, but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93–96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m?3 and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over reefs.

Heidelberg, Karla B.; O'Neil, Keri L.; Bythell, John C.; Sebens, Kenneth P.

2010-01-01

13

Macroinvertebrate Abundance and Biomass: 2007 Data, BPA-51; Preliminary Report, February 10, 2009..  

SciTech Connect

Four Excel files containing information on the 2007 macroinvertebrate data were initially provided to Statistical Consulting Services (SCS) by EcoAnalysts on 1/27/2009. These data files contained information on abundance and biomass data at the level of taxonomic groups. The data were subsequently reformatted and compiled, and aggregated for analysis by SCS. All descriptions and analyses below relate to this compiled data. Computations were carried out separately for each site over all sample periods. Basic summary information for both the abundance and biomass data is presented in Print Out No.2. The 14 sites varied widely in their minimum, mean, maximum and variance values. The number of observations ranged from 10 to 18. Some large abundance values (abundance > 40,000) were noted for sites KR6 and KR13. A more detailed summary of each site is given in Print Out No.3. Site KR3, for example, had a mean abundance of 6914 with a sample size of 17. The variance was 4591991 and the standard error of the mean was 1643. The skewness value, a measure of symmetry for the frequency distribution, was moderately large at 1.29 indicating an asymmetric distribution. Biomass for KR3 had a mean value of 0.87 g/m{sup 2} with 17 observations. The variance was 0.8872 and the standard error was 0.228 g/m{sup 2}. Skewness for biomass was also high at 1.29. Further examination of the quantiles and frequency plots for abundance and biomass also indicate considerable skewness. The stem and leaf diagram (frequency plot) for abundance in KR3 shows most of the data centered on smaller values with a few very large counts. The distribution for biomass has a similar pattern. Statistical tests for normality are significant for both response variables in KR3, thus, the hypothesis that the data originates from a symmetric normal distribution is rejected. Because sample size estimation and statistical inference assume normally distributed data, a transformation of the data is required prior to further analysis. As was the case for previous years, the natural logarithm was chosen as a transformation to mitigate distributional skewness. Abundance and biomass for the remaining sites were also notably skewed, therefore, these data were also log transformed prior to analysis. Summary information for the transformed data (referred to as L-abun and L-bio for abundance and biomass, respectively) are given in Print Out No.4. For site KR3, the logarithmic transformation reduced skewness value for biomass to -0.66. The distributions of abundance and biomass in the other sites also generally showed improvement as well. Hence, all subsequent statistical analyses reported here will be based on the log transformed data.

Holderman, Charles

2009-02-10

14

Global patterns in sandy beach macrofauna: Species richness, abundance, biomass and body size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global patterns in species richness in sandy beach ecosystems have been poorly understood until comparatively recently, because of the difficulty of compiling high-resolution databases at continental scales. We analyze information from more than 200 sandy beaches around the world, which harbor hundreds of macrofauna species, and explore latitudinal trends in species richness, abundance and biomass. Species richness increases from temperate to tropical sites. Abundance follows contrasting trends depending on the slope of the beach: in gentle slope beaches, it is higher at temperate sites, whereas in steep-slope beaches it is higher at the tropics. Biomass follows identical negative trends for both climatic regions at the whole range of beach slopes, suggesting decreasing rates in carrying capacity of the environment towards reflective beaches. Various morphodynamic variables determine global trends in beach macrofauna. Species richness, abundance and biomass are higher at dissipative than at reflective beaches, whereas a body size follows the reverse pattern. A generalized linear model showed that large tidal range (which determines the vertical dimension of the intertidal habitat), small size of sand particles and flat beach slope (a product of the interaction among wave energy, tidal range and grain size) are correlated with high species richness, suggesting that these parameters represent the most parsimonious variables for modelling patterns in sandy beach macrofauna. Large-scale patterns indicate a scaling of abundance to a body size, suggesting that dissipative beaches harbor communities with highest abundance and species with the smallest body sizes. Additional information for tropical and northern hemisphere sandy beaches (underrepresented in our compilation) is required to decipher more conclusive trends, particularly in abundance, biomass and body size. Further research should integrate meaningful oceanographic variables, such as temperature and primary production, in deciphering latitudinal trends.

Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton

2013-10-01

15

Ground penetrating radar measurements show a spatial relationship between coarse root biomass and soil carbon abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In savanna ecosystems, the dynamics of soil organic carbon are complicated by multiple sources of inputs, created by the coexistance of trees and grasses, and by spatial heterogeneity induced by a patchy vegetation structure. A previous study on the spatial pattern of soil carbon abundance on the Kalahari Transect in Southern Africa found that for savannas with sparse woody cover the semivariogram of soil carbon abundance demonstrates periodicity. It is hypothesized that the periodicity is induced by the patchy spatial distribution of the canopies and root systems of woody plants. We tested this by mapping the abundance of coarse woody roots with ground penetrating radar. Spatial patterns of soil carbon abundance were measured at our research site in a previous study. The site is on the Botswana portion of the Kalahari Transect, and has deep, homogeneous, sandy soil. We ran the ground penetrating radar over three 20 by 20 meter square plots in two perpendicular directions. We filtered the radar images to remove background noise and applied a Hilbert transform to reduce echoes. In each plot, we also dug 20 root biomass sampling pits. Using the sampling pit data, we were able to verify that there is a log-linear relationship (r2 = 0.80) between radar signal return and coarse root biomass in the upper 50 cm of soil. Semivariograms of coarse root biomass inferred from radar returns showed periodicity at similar spatial scales to the periodicity in soil carbon abundance. Our results suggest that the belowground components of woody plants, which may extend well beyond their canopies, exert a stronger influence on soil carbon cycling than the aboveground components, illustrating a key issue with the common practice of dividing arid and semiarid landscapes into "under canopy" and "inter-canopy" components in analyses of soil biogeochemistry. We were able to show that a relationship exists between ground penetrating radar returns and coarse root biomass for dry, sandy soils. However, the large amount of information needed to determine a predictive relationship suggests that ground penetrating radar may be more useful in investigating spatial patterns of root biomass than as a tool for quantifying absolute biomass abundance.

O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Gerlein, C.; Bhattachan, A.

2013-05-01

16

Ground penetrating radar measurements show a spatial relationship between coarse root biomass and soil carbon abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In savanna ecosystems, the dynamics of soil organic carbon are complicated by multiple sources of inputs, created by the coexistance of trees and grasses, and by spatial heterogeneity induced by a patchy vegetation structure. A previous study on the spatial pattern of soil carbon abundance on the Kalahari Transect in Southern Africa found that for savannas with sparse woody cover the semivariogram of soil carbon abundance demonstrates periodicity. It is hypothesized that the periodicity is induced by the patchy spatial distribution of canopies and root systems of woody plants. We tested this by mapping the abundance of coarse woody roots with ground penetrating radar. Spatial patterns of soil carbon abundance were measured at our research site in a previous study. The site is on the Botswana portion of the Kalahari Transect, and has deep, homogeneous, sandy soil. We ran the ground penetrating radar over three 20 by 20 meter square plots in two perpendicular directions. We filtered the radar images to remove background noise and applied a Hilbert transform to reduce echoes. In each plot, we also dug 20 root biomass sampling pits. Using the sampling pit data, we were able to verify that there is a log-linear relationship (r2 = 0.80) between radar signal return and coarse root biomass in the upper 50 cm of soil. Semivariograms of coarse root biomass inferred from radar returns showed periodicity at similar spatial scales to the periodicity in soil carbon abundance. Our results suggest that the belowground components of woody plants, which may extend well beyond their canopies, exert a stronger influence on soil carbon cycling than the aboveground components, illustrating a key issue with the common practice of dividing arid and semiarid landscapes into "under canopy" and "inter-canopy" components in analyses of soil biogeochemistry. We were able to show that a relationship exists between ground penetrating radar returns and coarse root biomass for dry, sandy soils. However, the large amount of information needed to determine a predictive relationship suggests that ground penetrating radar may be more useful in investigating spatial patterns of root biomass than as a tool for quantifying absolute biomass abundance.

O'Donnell, F. C.; Gerlein, C.; Bhattachan, A.; Caylor, K. K.

2012-12-01

17

Diversion dam reduces decomposition, fungal biomass, and macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity: Implications for dam removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam decommissioning projects are rarely accompanied by adequate baseline data needed to test if the effects of dams are reversible. Although the effects of dams on aquatic species have been well-documented, there are few studies that document the effects of dams on ecosystem processes. In this study we examine how in-stream leaf litter processing rates and associated fungal and macroinvertebrate populations are affected by a dam in Fossil Creek, Arizona, which will be decommissioned in 2005. We found significantly faster decomposition rates above the dam accompanied by higher fungal biomass, invertebrate abundances and invertebrate diversity compared to below the dam. We predict that return of full flows will increase decomposition, fungal biomass, and secondary productivity in areas where flow is currently reduced. This study shows how diversion dams can inhibit ecosystem processes and provides data for testing the restoration potential of dam decommissioning on decomposition and decomposer communities.

Muehlbauer, J. D.; Lovett, J. M.; Jones, K. L.; Plichta, J. R.; Patrick, M. M.; Delaney, I. A.; Bennett, S. E.; Norman, P. A.; Flaccus, K. K.; Vlieg, J. A.; Leroy, C. J.; Marks, J. C.

2005-05-01

18

Bacterial abundance, biomass and production during spring blooms in the northern Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate importance of bacterioplankton in the Barents Sea, we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of bacterial abundance, biomass and production in relation to spring-bloom stages. During three cruises in 2003-2005, 12 stations were investigated. Average bacterial abundance (±S.D.) in the photic zone was 3.6±3.0×10 5 cells ml -1, corresponding to 7.1±6.1 mg C m -3. Bacterial production in the photic zone was measured using dual labelling technique with 3H-thymidine and 14C-leucine, resulting in average production rates (±S.D.) of 1.5±1.0 and 6.9±4.8 mg C m -3 d -1, respectively. In spite of low water temperature, the bacterial community was well developed and active. Similarity analysis of stations resulted in four distinct spring-bloom stages, covering pre- early-, late- and post-bloom stages. In the photic zone, bacterial biomass on average corresponded to 6±2% of phytoplankton biomass. Highest integrated bacterial biomass was observed at mid- to late-bloom stages. Average bacterial production equalled 32±6% (±S.E., n=24) of particulate primary production. The bacterial production to primary production ratio tended to increase at late-bloom stages. The observed bacterial activity illustrates the importance of the bacterial pathway for channelling carbon from DOC through the microbial food web back into the classical food web, which previously has not been adequately considered in plankton ecosystem models of the Barents Sea.

Sturluson, Maria; Gissel Nielsen, Torkel; Wassmann, Paul

2008-10-01

19

Heterogeneity of macrozoobenthic assemblages within a Zostera noltii seagrass bed: diversity, abundance, biomass and structuring factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrobenthic fauna community of a 70-km 2Zostera noltii seagrass bed (Arcachon bay, France) was studied by sampling 49 stations systematically. A total of 126 taxa were identified. Cluster Analysis based on ?2 distance showed that in this apparently homogeneous habitat, four distinct macrobenthic communities could be identified. Multiple Discriminant Analysis highlighted the major contribution of the overlying water mass as a forcing variable, and, to a lesser extent, of tidal level and Z. noltii's below-ground parts. Seven stations did not constitute any conspicuous group, and were characterized by a low biomass of leaf (<28 g DW m -2), considered as the lowest value to constitute a Z. noltii community. Less than 24% of the seagrass bed was situated in more oceanic waters and at a quite low tidal level. In this relatively stable environment, the macrofauna community was characterized by a high species richness (mean = 39) and a moderate density and high biomass (12?638 individuals m -2 and 25 g AFDW m -2, respectively). Annelids dominated, particularly the oligochaetes. When physical constraints increased (emersion or brackish water conditions), diversity decreased, abundance and biomass increased. The seagrass bed (55%) was flooded with highly fluctuating waters in term of temperature and salinity, here species richness was low (mean = 27) but abundance and biomass were high (24?384 individuals m -2 and 28 g AFDW m -2, respectively), with a dominance of molluscs. The meadow (7%) was in external waters but at a higher tidal level (2.4 m vs 1.8 m above medium low tide level). This community was characterized by the particularly high density (41?826 individuals m -2) and dominance of oligochaetes (79% of total abundance). Species richness was high (mean = 37) here. A fourth community, extending over 12% of the meadow was dominated by the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae but could not be linked to a specific forcing variable. This study confirmed the almost complete replacement of the native clam Ruditapes decussatus by the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum since its introduction in the 1980s.

Blanchet, Hugues; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Lucas, Aurélien; Chardy, Pierre

2004-09-01

20

Soil Nutrient Content Influences the Abundance of Soil Microbes but Not Plant Biomass at the Small-Scale  

PubMed Central

Small-scale heterogeneity of abiotic and biotic factors is expected to play a crucial role in species coexistence. It is known that plants are able to concentrate their root biomass into areas with high nutrient content and also acquire nutrients via symbiotic microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. At the same time, little is known about the small-scale distribution of soil nutrients, microbes and plant biomass occurring in the same area. We examined small-scale temporal and spatial variation as well as covariation of soil nutrients, microbial biomass (using soil fatty acid biomarker content) and above- and belowground biomass of herbaceous plants in a natural herb-rich boreonemoral spruce forest. The abundance of AM fungi and bacteria decreased during the plant growing season while soil nutrient content rather increased. The abundance of all microbes studied also varied in space and was affected by soil nutrient content. In particular, the abundance of AM fungi was negatively related to soil phosphorus and positively influenced by soil nitrogen content. Neither shoot nor root biomass of herbaceous plants showed any significant relationship with variation in soil nutrient content or the abundance of soil microbes. Our study suggests that plants can compensate for low soil phosphorus concentration via interactions with soil microbes, most probably due to a more efficient symbiosis with AM fungi. This compensation results in relatively constant plant biomass despite variation in soil phosphorous content and in the abundance of AM fungi. Hence, it is crucial to consider both soil nutrient content and the abundance of soil microbes when exploring the mechanisms driving vegetation patterns.

Koorem, Kadri; Gazol, Antonio; Opik, Maarja; Moora, Mari; Saks, Ulle; Uibopuu, Annika; Sober, Virve; Zobel, Martin

2014-01-01

21

Bathymetric patterns of meiofaunal abundance and biomass associated with the Kuril and Ryukyu trenches, western North Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundance and biomass of metazoan meiofauna and their relationships with environmental factors [chloroplastic pigment equivalents (CPE) and sediment characteristics] were studied quantitatively around and within the Kuril Trench (560-7090 m) and the Ryukyu Trench (1290-7150 m), which are located in eutrophic and oligotrophic regions, respectively, of the western North Pacific. Faunal abundance and biomass, as well as the CPE content of sediments, were considerably higher in the Kuril region than in the Ryukyu region. In both cases, CPE tended to decrease with water depth, but relatively high values were found in the deepest areas, suggesting that organic matter has accumulated in both trenches. Meiofaunal abundance and biomass were lower than expected from sediment CPE values at hadal stations below 6000 m. Differences in the density and biomass of meiofauna between these two trenches appeared to reflect differences in overall ocean productivity above them. When the analysis was restricted to each region, however, no association was found between the abundance and biomass of meiofauna and food availability. Furthermore, the factors regulating the bathymetric patterns in these meiofaunal parameters appeared to differ between the two trenches.

Itoh, Makoto; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Kitahashi, Tomo; Kojima, Shigeaki; Katagiri, Hideki; Shimanaga, Motohiro

2011-01-01

22

Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.  

PubMed

Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages) and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal), to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics), species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics. PMID:23460906

Braga, Rodrigo F; Korasaki, Vanesca; Andresen, Ellen; Louzada, Julio

2013-01-01

23

Seasonal vertical distribution, abundance, biomass, and biometrical relationships of ostracods in Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance, biomass, and vertical distribution of ostracods, as well as some biometrical relation- ships, were investigated during a 24h cycle over a period of two days, both in May and September 1995 in Golfo Dulce, on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The sampling was performed according to the tidal cycle, in addition to vertical sampling at depths of

Alvaro Morales-Ramírez; Jens Jakob

24

Bacterial and fungal abundance and biomass in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems along two climatic gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial community composition may be an important determinant of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition rates and nutrient turnover and availability in agricultural soils. Soil samples were collected from six long-term tillage comparison experiments located along two climatic gradients to examine the effects of no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) management on bacterial and fungal abundance and biomass and to examine

S. D Frey; E. T Elliott; K Paustian

1999-01-01

25

Antarctic sympagic meiofauna in winter: Comparing diversity, abundance and biomass between perennially and seasonally ice-covered regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study of Antarctic sympagic meiofauna in pack ice during late winter compares communities between the perennially ice-covered western Weddell Sea and the seasonally ice-covered southern Indian Ocean. Sympagic meiofauna (proto- and metazoans >20?m) and eggs >20?m were studied in terms of diversity, abundance and carbon biomass, and with respect to vertical distribution. Metazoan meiofauna had significantly higher abundance and biomass in the western Weddell Sea (medians: 31.1×10 3 m -2 and 6.53 mg m -2, respectively) than in the southern Indian Ocean (medians: 1.0×10 3 m -2 and 0.06 mg m -2, respectively). Metazoan diversity was also significantly higher in the western Weddell Sea. Furthermore, the two regions differed significantly in terms of meiofauna community composition, as revealed through multivariate analyses. The overall diversity of sympagic meiofauna was high, and integrated abundance and biomass of total meiofauna were also high in both regions (0.6-178.6×10 3 m -2 and 0.02-89.70 mg m -2, respectively), mostly exceeding values reported earlier from the northern Weddell Sea in winter. We attribute the differences in meiofauna communities between the two regions to the older first-year ice and multi-year ice that is present in the western Weddell Sea, but not in the southern Indian Ocean. Our study indicates the significance of perennially ice-covered regions for the establishment of diverse and abundant meiofauna communities. Furthermore, it highlights the potential importance of sympagic meiofauna for the organic matter pool and trophic interactions in sea ice.

Kramer, Maike; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Meiners, Klaus M.; Kiko, Rainer; Scheltz, Annette; Nicolaus, Marcel; Werner, Iris

2011-05-01

26

Influence of seagrass beds and oyster parks on the abundance and biomass patterns of meio- and macrobenthos in tidal flats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Arcachon Bay, on the south-west coast of France, the intertidal area is mainly occupied by sandbanks, oyster parks ( Crassostrea gigas) and mud flats covered with seagrass beds ( Zostera noltii). In order to estimate the relative contribution of meio- and macrofauna to the benthic ecology of these tidal flats, seven stations were studied seasonally for a year. Relationships between faunal density and biomass, and external factors such as sediment structure, benthic chlorophyll and seagrass debris were investigated. A comparison was made between bare sands, oyster beds and vegetated sediment in semi-exposed conditions and in sheltered areas. Using a stepwise method of multiple linear regression it was shown that high densities of macrobenthos are mostly explained by high quantities of plant debris. For meiofauna, together with plant debris, other effective variables are involved: silt content, organic carbon, chlorophyll pigments. On an average, a correlation between macro- and meiofaunal abundances could be found. However, this general pattern is modified by the biogenic structure created by the oysters and seagrass. When compared to the adjacent sandbanks, oysters clearly enhanced meiofaunal abundance (from 1130-4170 individuals 10 cm -2) but depressed macrofaunal densities (from 640-370 individuals 400 cm -2). The organic-rich oyster biodeposits probably favour meiofauna by an increase of the trophic resources but do not favour macroinfauna by inducing low oxygen concentrations. Moreover, it is likely that macrofauna is more sensitive to predation than meiofauna both in sandbanks and in oyster parks. For both meio- and macrofauna the highest incidences (7200 individuals 10 cm -2 and 2470 individuals 400 cm -2, respectively) are recorded in seagrass bed sediments. Zostera induces an enhancement of organic detritus and provides a refuge against predation. In terms of biomass, the macrofauna/meiofauna ratio is 25·1 in sandbanks, 1·5 in oyster parks and 4·2 in seagrass bed sediments. Macrofaunal biomass is more variable both spatially and temporally than meiofauna biomass. It is likely that the macrofauna is more sensitive to external factors such as predation, anoxia, exposure, than the meiofauna. Meiofauna abundance and biomass are more usually a function of food abundance and physical properties of the sediment.

Castel, Jacques; Labourg, Pierre-Jean; Escaravage, Vincent; Auby, Isabelle; Garcia, Maria Elena

1989-01-01

27

Composition, abundance, biomass, and production of macrofauna in a New England estuary: comparisons among eelgrass meadows and other nursery habitats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative suction sampling was used to characterize and compare the species composition, abundance, biomass, and secondary production of macrofauna inhabiting intertidal mudflat and sandflat, eelgrass meadow, and saltmarshpool habitats in the Nauset Marsh complex, Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA). Species richness and abundance were often greatest in eelgrass habitat, as was macroinvertebrate biomass and production. Most striking was the five to fifteen times greater rate of annual macrofaunal production in eelgrass habitat than elsewhere, with values ranging from approximately 23139 g AFDW m super(2) yr super(1). The marsh pool containing widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) supported surprisingly low numbers of macroinvertebrates, probably due to stressfully low dissolved oxygen levels at night during the summer. Two species of macroinvertebrates, blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and to a lesser extent bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), used eelgrass as 'nursery habitat.' Calculations showed that macroinvertebrate production is proportionally much greater than the amount of primary production attributable to eelgrass in the Nauset Marsh system, and that dramatic changes at all trophic levels could be expected if large changes in seagrass abundance should occur. This work further underscores the extraordinarily large impact that seagrass can have on both the structure and function of estuarine ecosystems.

Heck, K. L., Jr.; Able, K. W.; Roman, C. T.; Fahay, M. P.

1995-01-01

28

Spatial-temporal scales of synchrony in marine zooplankton biomass and abundance patterns: A world-wide comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale synchrony in the fluctuations of abundance or biomass of marine fish populations in regions on opposite sides of an ocean basin or in different oceans have been viewed as externally forced by correlated environmental stochasticity (e.g., common external forcing), most often as atmospheric teleconnections of basin-to-global scale atmospheric forcing, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Specific causal mechanisms have been difficult to unequivocally discover, but possible mechanisms include influences on habitat temperatures, productivity operating through bottom-up (trophodynamic) mechanisms or direct climate influence on the fish populations (top-down mechanisms). For small pelagic fishes (sardines and anchovies) in widely separated large marine ecosystems that lack obvious ocean interconnectivity, it has been argued that the teleconnections may be atmospheric, acting on the fishes directly and propagating to the ecosystem from the middle out (wasp-waist species). Zooplankton biomass or abundance time series data from >100 sites world-wide are used to examine the spatial scales of coherent temporal synchrony. If spatially correlated environmental factors (like climate) are important for creating synchrony in fish populations via bottom-up effects (trophic interactions involving fish prey, e.g., zooplankton), then we would expect to observe synchrony in fluctuations of zooplankton biomass/numbers at spatial scales similar to those found for fish species. Zooplankton biomass/abundance have 50% spatial decorrelation scales of ca. 700-1400 km and scales of significant coherence that extend to separation distances of ca. 3000 km. These are also the spatial scales of environmental (sea surface temperature) synchrony from our global analysis. These scales are slightly greater than the 50% decorrelation scales of ca. 150-700 km for recruitment synchrony in Atlantic marine fish and survival and recruitment synchrony of Northeast Pacific salmonids (150-1000 km depending on species). However, the spatial scales of synchrony of annual zooplankton biomass anomalies in the Humboldt Current, California Current and Kuroshio ecosystems of the Pacific are much too small (ca. 2000 km) to be directly causal of the basin-scale (7000-15,000 km) synchrony exhibited by sardine and/or anchovy populations in those ecosystems.

Batchelder, Harold P.; Mackas, David L.; O'Brien, Todd D.

2012-05-01

29

Pest status and control of blister beetles in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, blister beetles have gained importance in species diversity and as pests of food crops in West Africa. Among the 97 species reported, Psalydolytta fusca Oliv, and P. vestita Duf. are economically important beetle species. Beetle abundance is generally associated with the flowering of crops in a region. Regular intensive weeding and early crop establishment are recommended for

R. T. Gahukar

1991-01-01

30

Caridina nilotica in Lake Victoria: abundance, biomass, and diel vertical migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae) in offshore waters of Lake Victoria were investigated with both day and night sampling over a period of two years. Offshore populations are mainly planktonic rather than benthic, and the animals exhibit diel vertical migrations into near-surface waters at night. These changes in diel abundance as well as the size-frequency distribution of the migrating shrimp suggest

John T. Lehman; Godfrey B. Mbahinzireki; Lucas Mwebaza-Ndawula

1996-01-01

31

HIERARCHICAL MODELS IMPROVE ABUNDANCE ESTIMATES: SPAWNING BIOMASS OF HOKI IN COOK STRAIT, NEW ZEALAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often difficult to estimate abundance for a dynamic population, i.e., one that is moving through the survey area or in which birth or mortality rates are high. One approach is to estimate the proportion of animals present during each survey, using a model that estimates the dynamics of the survey proportion of the population. However, this can increase

Shelton J. Harley; Ransom A. Myers; Chris A. Field

2004-01-01

32

Early Cretaceous angiosperms and beetle evolution  

PubMed Central

The Coleoptera (beetles) constitute almost one–fourth of all known life-forms on earth. They are also among the most important pollinators of flowering plants, especially basal angiosperms. Beetle fossils are abundant, almost spanning the entire Early Cretaceous, and thus provide important clues to explore the co-evolutionary processes between beetles and angiosperms. We review the fossil record of some Early Cretaceous polyphagan beetles including Tenebrionoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Curculionoidea, and Chrysomeloidea. Both the fossil record and molecular analyses reveal that these four groups had already diversified during or before the Early Cretaceous, clearly before the initial rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These four beetle groups are important pollinators of basal angiosperms today, suggesting that their ecological association with angiosperms probably formed as early as in the Early Cretaceous. With the description of additional well-preserved fossils and improvements in phylogenetic analyses, our knowledge of Mesozoic beetle–angiosperm mutualisms will greatly increase during the near future.

Wang, Bo; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.

2013-01-01

33

Interannual and seasonal variation of the population structure, abundance, and biomass of the arctic copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of multiyear observations of the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the population structure, abundance, and biomass of the arctic calanoids copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea are presented. The spring season represents the most crucial period for the population’s seasonal dynamics. During the spring, the maximal abundance, biomass, and contribution of C. glacialis to the total zooplankton biomass is observed. The interannual variability of the abundance is closely related to the timing of the spring warming of the upper water column and the respective shifts of the onset of reproduction and the offspring development. The development of a new generation to the overwintering copepodite stage IV is usually completed three to four weeks later in the cold years compared to the warm ones. Our multiyear observations suggest that C. glacialis could be more tolerant of Arctic warming than it is usually believed. The high abundance of the C. glacialis population in the White Sea indicates that this arctic species is able to cope with the seasonal surface warming and should continue to do so, being provided with the cold water “refuge” in the deep sea.

Pertsova, N. M.; Kosobokova, K. N.

2010-08-01

34

Changes in plankton abundance, biomass, and chemical composition under the influence of the cooling system of the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and biomass of phytoplankton and zooplankton proved to noticeably decrease after the water passed through the\\u000a cooling system of the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant: the phytoplankton perished by 38% (65 metric tons per day), and the zooplankton,\\u000a by 55% (6 t\\/day). In the period between 1985 and 1991, the concentration of60Co in the plankton of water intake and

V. P. Guseva; M. Ya. Chebotina

2000-01-01

35

Factors influencing benthic bacterial abundance, biomass, and activity on the northern continental margin and deep basin of the Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a larger project on the deep benthos of the Gulf of Mexico, an extensive data set on benthic bacterial abundance ( n>750), supplemented with cell-size and rate measurements, was acquired from 51 sites across a depth range of 212-3732 m on the northern continental slope and deep basin during the years 2000, 2001, and 2002. Bacterial abundance, determined by epifluorescence microscopy, was examined region-wide as a function of spatial and temporal variables, while subsets of the data were examined for sediment-based chemical or mineralogical correlates according to the availability of collaborative data sets. In the latter case, depth of oxygen penetration helped to explain bacterial depth profiles into the sediment, but only porewater DOC correlated significantly (inversely) with bacterial abundance ( p<0.05, n=24). Other (positive) correlations were detected with TOC, C/N ratios, and % sand when the analysis was restricted to data from the easternmost stations ( p<0.05, n=9-12). Region-wide, neither surface bacterial abundance (3.30-16.8×10 8 bacteria cm -3 in 0-1 cm and 4-5 cm strata) nor depth-integrated abundance (4.84-17.5×10 13 bacteria m -2, 0-15 cm) could be explained by water depth, station location, sampling year, or vertical POC flux. In contrast, depth-integrated bacterial biomass, derived from measured cell sizes of 0.027-0.072 ?m 3, declined significantly with station depth ( p<0.001, n=56). Steeper declines in biomass were observed for the cross-slope transects (when unusual topographic sites and abyssal stations were excluded). The importance of resource changes with depth was supported by the positive relationship observed between bacterial biomass and vertical POC flux, derived from measures of overlying productivity, a relationship that remained significant when depth was held constant (partial correlation analysis, p<0.05, df=50). Whole-sediment incubation experiments under simulated in situ conditions, using 3H-thymidine or 14C-amino acids, yielded low production rates (5-75 ?g C m -2 d -1) and higher respiration rates (76-242 ?g C m -2 d -1), with kinetics suggestive of resource limitation at abyssal depths. Compared to similarly examined deep regions of the open ocean, the semi-enclosed Gulf of Mexico (like the Arabian Sea) harbors in its abyssal sediments a greater biomass of bacteria per unit of vertically delivered POC, likely reflecting the greater input of laterally advected, often unreactive, material from its margins.

Deming, Jody W.; Carpenter, Shelly D.

2008-12-01

36

Microbial community abundance and biomass along a 180° transect in the equatorial Pacific during an El Niño-Southern Oscillation cold phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the French Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Etude du Broutage en Zone Equatoriale program, we investigated the distributions of microorganisms (bacteria and protists <200 ?m) in the upper 120 m of the equatorial Pacific from 8°S to 8°N, along 180°. Population distributions, determined by a combination of flow cytometry, microscopy and spectrofluorometry, were closely related to physical features across the study site. Phytoplankton biomass, ranging from 1.2 to 34.2 ?g C L-1 and averaging 15.5 ?g C L-1, was most enhanced in the divergence zone. Carbon to chlorophyll ratios were also enhanced in the divergence zone and showed distinct latitudinal variations. Heterotrophic biomass, excluding ciliates, was patchy across the area, ranging from 5 to 36 ?g C L-1 and averaging 13 ?g C L-1. Prokaryotic species (Prochlorococcus spp., Synechococcus spp., and heterotrophic bacteria) showed similar patterns of abundance, with the main feature being their distributional asymmetry to the south of the equator. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass were enriched in the convergent zone at 4°-5°N between the South Equatorial Current and the North Equatorial Counter Current. Heterotrophic biomass exceeded phytoplankton biomass in the more nutrient-impoverished waters to the north and in the branch of a tropical instability wave eddy. Microplankton represented only a small portion of the total autotrophic carbon and was comprised mostly of dinoflagellates. Large species dominated the relatively modest diatom biomass. Food web interactions and biogeochemical fluxes in the central equatorial Pacific may be significantly influenced by temporal and spatial variability of the microbial community associated with physical features of the region.

Brown, Susan L.; Landry, Michael R.; Neveux, Jacques; Dupouy, CéCile

2003-12-01

37

Effects of soil tillage and management of crop residues on soil properties: abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms, soil structure and nutrient evolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The living soil is represented by soil biota that interacts with aboveground biota and with the abiotic environment, soil structure, soil reaction, organic matter, nutrient contents, aso. Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is an important issue to conciliate soil quality and agricultural productivity. Earthworms are key actors in soil structure formation through the production of casts and the incorporation of soil organic matter in the soil. Research is still needed about the interactive effects of various tillage and crop residue management practices on earthworm populations and physical and chemical properties of soil. To investigate the impacts of two tillage management systems and two cropping systems on earthworm populations, soil structure evolution and nutrient dynamics, we carried out a three years study in an experimental field. The aims of this experimentation, were to assess the effects of the tillage systems (ploughing versus reduced tillage) and the availability of crop residues (export versus no export) on (i) the abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms, on the soil structure and on the temporal variation of water extractable nutrients and organic carbon. The first results show that tillage management did significantly affect earthworm abundance and biomass. However, crop residue management did not affect abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms. Regarding soil physical properties, the tillage affected the compaction profiles within the top 30cm. The analysis of nutrient and organic carbon dynamics show divergent trends (decrease of calcium and magnesium, increase of hot water extractable carbon and phosphorus…) but no clear effect of the studied factors could be identified. The question of the initial soil variability raised as a crucial point in the discussion.

lemtiri, Aboulkacem

2013-04-01

38

Removal rates of native and exotic dung by dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a fragmented tropical rain forest.  

PubMed

Many studies have evaluated the effect of forest fragmentation on dung beetle assemblage structure. However, few have analyzed how forest fragmentation affects the processes carried out by these insects in tropical forests where their food sources consist mainly of dung produced by native herbivore mammals. With the conversion of forests to pastures, cattle dung has become an exotic alternative and abundant food for dung beetles. This study compares dung removal rates of native (monkey) and exotic (cow) dung in different-sized fragments of tropical rain forests, during the dry and rainy seasons at the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve. Dung removal rates were affected by season, dung type, and the interaction between resource type and season. During the dry season, the removal rates of monkey dung were somewhat similar than during the rainy season, whereas the removal rates of cow dung were much higher during the rainy season. Dung beetle biomass and species richness were almost three times greater in monkey dung than in cow dung. Monkey dung attracted species belonging to the dweller, roller, and tunneler guilds; cow dung attracted mostly tunnelers. Therefore, the use of exotic dung may result in a biased misconception of the rates of dung removal in tropical forest and an underestimation of dung beetle diversity. This study highlights the importance of working with natural tropical forest resources when attempting to identify realistic tendencies concerning processes in natural habitats and those modified by fragmentation and by other human activities. PMID:20388260

Amézquita, Sandra; Favila, Mario E

2010-04-01

39

Sikes Tiger Beetle Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

735 tiger beetle specimens in the post-1980 University of Connecticut Insect Collection are sorted by species and month of collection.Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) 1996-1998 Derek S. Sikes (1999) Connecticut Tiger Beetle Status Survey (Carabidae: Cicindelinae)1996-1998 Conservation status, Taxonomy and Ecology. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. University of Connecticut. Storrs, CT 06269

Ethel Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2009-01-10

40

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in RealPlayer, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Ecducation, Johns H.; Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

41

Calvert Cliffs tiger beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip, viewable in Windows Media Player, introduces students to the rare puritan tiger beetles that live in Maryland's Calvert Cliffs. The two and a half-minute clip addresses the beetle's lifecycle, focusing on its dependence on the area's beachside cliffs. A discussion of the beetle's reproduction and feeding behaviors is accompanied by footage of adult beetles on the shore and of larvae tunneling holes into the cliffs. An entomologist lists the conservation actions that need to be taken to remove the beetle from the state list of endangered species. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Johns Hopkins University. Center for Technology in Education (CTE); Maryland Public Television (MPT)

2004-01-01

42

The Effect of the Landscape Matrix on the Distribution of Dung and Carrion Beetles in a Fragmented Tropical Rain Forest  

PubMed Central

Understanding the response of species to anthropogenic landscape modification is essential to design effective conservation programs. Recently, insects have been used in empirical studies to evaluate the impact of habitat modification and landscape fragmentation on biological diversity because they are often affected rapidly by changes in land use. In this study, the use of the landscape matrix by dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve was analyzed. Fragments of tropical rain forest, forest-pasture edges, pastures, isolated trees, living fences (trees connected with barbed wire) and barbed wire fences were studied both near and far from forest fragments. Forest fragments had the highest abundance values, but pastures had the highest dung and carrion beetle biomass. Habitat specificity was high for the beetles in the most dissimilar habitats. Forest fragments and forest-pasture edges had and shared the highest number of species, but they shared only two species with pastures, barbed wire fences and isolated trees. Only one forest species was found within living fences far from the forest fragments. However, approximately 37% of the forest species were caught within living fences near the forest fragments. Therefore, forest-pasture edges function as hard edges and prevent movement among forest fragments, but living fences seem to act as continuous habitat corridors when connected to forest fragments, allowing forest beetles to move between the fragments. Further studies are necessary to determine the minimum width of living fences necessary to provide good corridors for these beetles and other species.

Diaz, Alfonso; Galante, Eduardo; Favila, Mario E.

2010-01-01

43

The effect of the landscape matrix on the distribution of dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest.  

PubMed

Understanding the response of species to anthropogenic landscape modification is essential to design effective conservation programs. Recently, insects have been used in empirical studies to evaluate the impact of habitat modification and landscape fragmentation on biological diversity because they are often affected rapidly by changes in land use. In this study, the use of the landscape matrix by dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve was analyzed. Fragments of tropical rain forest, forest-pasture edges, pastures, isolated trees, living fences (trees connected with barbed wire) and barbed wire fences were studied both near and far from forest fragments. Forest fragments had the highest abundance values, but pastures had the highest dung and carrion beetle biomass. Habitat specificity was high for the beetles in the most dissimilar habitats. Forest fragments and forest-pasture edges had and shared the highest number of species, but they shared only two species with pastures, barbed wire fences and isolated trees. Only one forest species was found within living fences far from the forest fragments. However, approximately 37% of the forest species were caught within living fences near the forest fragments. Therefore, forest-pasture edges function as hard edges and prevent movement among forest fragments, but living fences seem to act as continuous habitat corridors when connected to forest fragments, allowing forest beetles to move between the fragments. Further studies are necessary to determine the minimum width of living fences necessary to provide good corridors for these beetles and other species. PMID:20673066

Díaz, Alfonso; Galante, Eduardo; Favila, Mario E

2010-01-01

44

Seasonal variations in species composition, abundance, biomass and production rate of tintinnids (Ciliata: Protozoa) along the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary, India: a multivariate approach.  

PubMed

The study is the first documentation of seasonal variations in species composition, abundance and diversity of tintinnid (Ciliata: Protozoa), in relation to water quality parameters along the stretch of the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary (HRE), eastern coastal part of India. A total of 26 species (22 agglomerated and 4 non-agglomerated) belonging to 8 genera has been identified from 8 study sites where Tintinnopsis (17 species) represented the most dominant genera, contributing up to 65 % of total tintinnid community followed by Tintinnidium (2 species), Leprotintinnus (2 species) and Dadayiella, Favella, Metacylis, Eutintinnus and Helicostomella (each with solitary species). The maximum (1,666 ind. l(-1)) and minimum (62 ind. l(-1)) abundance of tintinnids was recorded during post-monsoon and monsoon, respectively. A distinct seasonal dynamics in terms of biomass (0.005-2.465 ?g C l(-1)) and daily production rate (0.04-3.13 ?g C l(-1) day(-1)) was also noticed, accounting highest value during pre-monsoon. Chlorophyll a and nitrate were found to be potential causative factors for the seasonal variations of tintinnids as revealed by a stepwise multiple regression model. The result of ANOVA showed a significant variation between species abundance and months (F = 2.36, P ? 0.05). k-dominance curves were plotted to determine the comparison of tintinnid dominance between the investigated stations. Based on a principal component analysis (PCA), three main groups were delineated with tintinnid ciliates and environmental parameters. The changes in lorica morphology in terms of temperature and salinity, recorded for three dominant species, provided information on the ecological characteristics of the species assemblage in this estuarine system. PMID:24402056

Rakshit, Dibyendu; Biswas, Sejuti Naha; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar Deb; Godhantaraman, Nallamuthu; Satpathy, Kamala Kanta

2014-05-01

45

Bioenergy from Mountain Pine Beetle Timber and Forest Residuals: The Economics Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the large volumes of pine killed in the Interior forests in British Columbia by the mountain pine beetle, many are keen to employ forest biomass as an energy source. To assess the feasibility of a wood biomass-fired power plant in the BC Interior it is necessary to know both how much physical biomass might be available over

Kurt Niquidet; Brad Stennes; G. Cornelis van Kooten

2008-01-01

46

Methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) gene abundance correlates with activity measurements of methanogenic H? /CO? -enriched anaerobic biomass.  

PubMed

Biologically produced methane (CH?) from anaerobic digesters is a renewable alternative to fossil fuels, but digester failure can be a serious problem. Monitoring the microbial community within the digester could provide valuable information about process stability because this technology is dependent upon the metabolic processes of microorganisms. A healthy methanogenic community is critical for digester function and CH? production. Methanogens can be surveyed and monitored using genes and transcripts of mcrA, which encodes the ? subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase - the enzyme that catalyses the final step in methanogenesis. Using clone libraries and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we compared the diversity and abundance of mcrA genes and transcripts in four different methanogenic hydrogen/CO? enrichment cultures to function, as measured by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays using H? /CO? . The mcrA gene copy number significantly correlated with CH? production rates using H? /CO? , while correlations between mcrA transcript number and SMA were not significant. The DNA and cDNA clone libraries from all enrichments were distinctive but community diversity also did not correlate with SMA. Although hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated these enrichments, the results indicate that this methodology should be applicable to monitoring other methanogenic communities in anaerobic digesters. Ultimately, this could lead to the engineering of digester microbial communities to produce more CH? for use as renewable fuel. PMID:24320083

Morris, Rachel; Schauer-Gimenez, Anne; Bhattad, Ujwal; Kearney, Colleen; Struble, Craig A; Zitomer, Daniel; Maki, James S

2014-01-01

47

The economic importance and control of the adult blister beetle Psalydolytta fusca Olivier (Coleoptera: Meloidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psalydolytta fusca is the most serious pest of pearl millet among ten meloid species feeding on millet spikes in The Gambia. It occurs countrywide with distinct ‘hot spot’ areas. The average abundance varies from 0·lb2 to 2·lb4 beetles per millet hill, but maxima of 30 beetles per hill have been recorded. Screen?house experiments showed a destruction capacity per beetle of

Ole Zethner; Alida A. Laurense

1988-01-01

48

The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

Kramer, David C.

1988-01-01

49

Virtual Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3D virtual reality image of the "Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle," or Allomyrina dichotoma (family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Dynastinae). Menu tools can be used to rotate and/or zoom in on the image. The clarity of the image is excellent, but gets slightly blurry when fully zoomed. This is a high quality resource for teaching, especially for topics involving insect morphology. The Cornell University "Beetle Science" home page (http://www.explore.cornell.edu/scene.cfm?scene=Beetle%20Science) has many more excellent resources for teachers and students. QuickTime 5.0 is required to view it, which possibly could limit users with older or public computers.

0002-11-30

50

Beetles in Textiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 1994 article by Victoria Rivers, Professor of Textiles at University of California (Davis), is about the fascinating and exquisite use of beetle parts, especially iridescent beetle wings, in textiles. Many entomologists will not be familiar with this aspect of the use of insects and will find the article delightful. The article explores how beetles have been used in textiles throughout history in India, New Guinea, Thailand, Burma, and Amazonia. The online article is about 6 standard text pages and includes photographs that, when clicked, provide a larger image.

0002-11-30

51

Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009)  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the changes of ground beetle assemblages in the last few decades in the Alps, and different responses to climate change of animal populations living above and below the treeline have not been estimated yet. This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites in Italy, the Paneveggio Regional Park. We compared the ground beetle (Carabidae) populations sampled in 1980 in six stands below and above the treeline (1650–2250 m a.s.l.) with those sampled in the same sites almost 30 years later (2008/9). Quantitative data (species richness and abundance) have been compared by means of several diversity indexes and with a new index, the Index of Rank-abundance Change (IRC). Our work shows that species richness and abundance have changed after almost 30 years as a consequence of local extinctions, uphill increment of abundance and uphill shift of distribution range. The overall species number dropped from 36 to 27, while in the sites above the treeline, species richness and abundance changed more than in the forest sites. Two microtherm characteristic species of the pioneer cushion grass mats, Nebria germari and Trechus dolomitanus, became extinct or showed strong abundance reduction. In Nardetum pastures, several hygrophilic species disappeared, and xerophilic zoophytophagous elements raised their population density. In forest ecosystems, the precipitation reduction caused deep soil texture and watering changes, driving a transformation from Sphagnum-rich (peaty) to humus-rich soil, and as a consequence, soil invertebrate biomass strongly increased and thermophilic carabids enriched the species structure. In three decades, Carabid assemblages changed consistently with the hypothesis that climate change is one of the main factors triggering natural environment modifications. Furthermore, the level of human disturbance could enhance the sensitivity of mountain ecosystems to climate change.

Pizzolotto, Roberto; Gobbi, Mauro; Brandmayr, Pietro

2014-01-01

52

Changes in ground beetle assemblages above and below the treeline of the Dolomites after almost 30 years (1980/2009).  

PubMed

Very little is known about the changes of ground beetle assemblages in the last few decades in the Alps, and different responses to climate change of animal populations living above and below the treeline have not been estimated yet. This study focuses on an altitudinal habitat sequence from subalpine spruce forest to alpine grassland in a low disturbance area of the southeastern Dolomites in Italy, the Paneveggio Regional Park. We compared the ground beetle (Carabidae) populations sampled in 1980 in six stands below and above the treeline (1650-2250 m a.s.l.) with those sampled in the same sites almost 30 years later (2008/9). Quantitative data (species richness and abundance) have been compared by means of several diversity indexes and with a new index, the Index of Rank-abundance Change (IRC). Our work shows that species richness and abundance have changed after almost 30 years as a consequence of local extinctions, uphill increment of abundance and uphill shift of distribution range. The overall species number dropped from 36 to 27, while in the sites above the treeline, species richness and abundance changed more than in the forest sites. Two microtherm characteristic species of the pioneer cushion grass mats, Nebria germari and Trechus dolomitanus, became extinct or showed strong abundance reduction. In Nardetum pastures, several hygrophilic species disappeared, and xerophilic zoophytophagous elements raised their population density. In forest ecosystems, the precipitation reduction caused deep soil texture and watering changes, driving a transformation from Sphagnum-rich (peaty) to humus-rich soil, and as a consequence, soil invertebrate biomass strongly increased and thermophilic carabids enriched the species structure. In three decades, Carabid assemblages changed consistently with the hypothesis that climate change is one of the main factors triggering natural environment modifications. Furthermore, the level of human disturbance could enhance the sensitivity of mountain ecosystems to climate change. PMID:24834326

Pizzolotto, Roberto; Gobbi, Mauro; Brandmayr, Pietro

2014-04-01

53

Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Aggregation Behavior: The Role of Pheromones and Tree Terpenes in Modifying Insect-Plant Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) are considered the most damaging insects affecting conifers in western North America through both economic damage and loss in aesthetic value. However, bark beetles as ecological engineers change the physical state of tree and understory biomass and thus control the availability of vegetation resources for other organisms, such as fungi, birds, and ungulates. The influence of

Russell D. Beam

54

Understanding trait-dependent community disassembly: dung beetles, density functions, and forest fragmentation.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic disturbances such as fragmentation are rapidly altering biodiversity, yet a lack of attention to species traits and abundance patterns has made the results of most studies difficult to generalize. We determined traits of extinction-prone species and present a novel strategy for classifying species according to their population-level response to a gradient of disturbance intensity. We examined the effects of forest fragmentation on dung beetle communities in an archipelago of 33 islands recently created by flooding in Venezuela. Species richness, density, and biomass all declined sharply with decreasing island area and increasing island isolation. Species richness was highly nested, indicating that local extinctions occurred nonrandomly. The most sensitive dung beetle species appeared to require at least 85 ha of forest, more than many large vertebrates. Extinction-prone species were either large-bodied, forest specialists, or uncommon. These explanatory variables were unrelated, suggesting at least 3 underlying causes of extirpation. Large species showed high wing loading (body mass/wing area) and a distinct flight strategy that may increase their area requirements. Although forest specificity made most species sensitive to fragmentation, a few persistent habitat generalists dispersed across the matrix. Density functions classified species into 4 response groups on the basis of their change in density with decreasing species richness. Sensitive and persistent species both declined with increasing fragmentation intensity, but persistent species occurred on more islands, which may be due to their higher baseline densities. Compensatory species increased in abundance following the initial loss of sensitive species, but rapidly declined with increasing fragmentation. Supertramp species (widespread habitat generalists) may be poor competitors but strong dispersers; their abundance peaked following the decline of the other 3 groups. Nevertheless, even the least sensitive species were extirpated or rare on the smallest and most isolated islands. PMID:18616744

Larsen, Trond H; Lopera, Alejandro; Forsyth, Adrian

2008-10-01

55

Differences in coprophilous beetle communities structure in Sierra de Minas (Uruguay): a mosaic landscape.  

PubMed

Coprophilous beetles represent an abundant and rich group with critical importance in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Most coprophagous beetles have a stenotopic distribution in relation to vegetation types. Because of this, they are usually very sensitive to environmental changes and are considered well suited as bioindicator organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze variations in coprophilous beetle assemblages in natural and anthropogenic habitats. Coprophilous beetle communities were sampled monthly for 1 year using pitfall traps baited with cow dung, in native xeric upland forests, 15-years-old plantations of Pinus elliottii and pastures in Sierra de Minas, Lavalleja, Uruguay. A total of 7,436 beetles were caught and identified to species or morphospecies level. The most abundant families were Aphodiidae, Scarabaeidae, and Staphylinidae. Differences in species richness, abundance, Shannon index, evenness, and dominance were detected between habitats. Abundances of most frequent families were significantly higher in both kinds of forests. Species richness and diversity of Aphodiidae and Staphylinidae were higher in forests, while Scarabaeidae showed the highest richness and diversity in pine plantations. Species composition significantly differed between habitats. Uroxys terminalis Waterhouse and Ataenius perforatus Harold typified the assemblages in native forests and pine plantations and also discriminated both communities because of their differential pattern of abundance between habitats. Typifying species in pastures were Onthophagus hirculus, Ateuchus robustus (Harold), and Ataenius platensis Blanchard. Habitat type had a strong effect on the coprophilous beetle community structure and composition. PMID:23950086

González-Vainer, Patricia; Morelli, E; Defeo, O

2012-10-01

56

The incidence and use of Oryctes virus for control of rhinoceros beetle in oil palm plantations in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, has emerged as a serious pest of oil palm since the prohibition of burning as a method for maintaining estate hygiene in the 1990s. The abundance of beetles is surprising given that the Malay peninsula was the site of first discovery of the Oryctes virus, which has been used to effect good as a biological

M. Ramle; M. B. Wahid; K. Norman; T. R. Glare; T. A. Jackson

2005-01-01

57

Pine bark beetle problem in Japan, referring to the discovery of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus lignicolus (Mamiya & Kiyohara)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy loss of pine trees has been occurring for several decades throughout central to southwestern districts of Japan. In spite of beetles abundantly found under bark of dead trees, entomologists were inclined to the assumption that some other agents had already infected healthy trees before beetle attack based on various findings. It has been proved recently that the causative agent

F. Kobayashi

1978-01-01

58

Species richness and regional distribution of myrmecophilous beetles.  

PubMed

Four major hypotheses have been put forward to explain local species richness of commensal or parasitic species. The resource distribution hypothesis predicts that regionally widespread host species are able to support higher local species richness of commensals or parasites. On the other hand, the resource size hypothesis predicts that larger hosts can support more species than smaller hosts, and comparably, the resource abundance hypothesis predicts that hosts that offer more resources are able to support more species. Finally, the resource concentration hypothesis predicts that hosts that occur in high-density patches support higher species richness. In this study, we tested the first three of the above hypotheses with myrmecophilous beetles and their host ants. In addition to species richness of myrmecophilous beetles, we also applied the above hypotheses to explain the distribution of the beetles. Our data are exclusively based on an extensive literature survey. Myrmecophilous beetles live in naturally fragmented environments composed of host ant colonies and they are exclusively dependent on ants. We found that the distribution of the host ants and the colony size of the host ants had a positive effect on both the species richness and the distribution of myrmecophilous beetles. In the same way, we found that myrmecophilous beetle species that are generalists, i.e. have more than one host ant species, and thus have more abundant resources, were more widely distributed than specialist species. Thus, we found support for the hypothesis that resource distribution, resource size and resource abundance have an effect on species richness and on the distribution of species. PMID:12647132

Päivinen, Jussi; Ahlroth, Petri; Kaitala, Veijo; Kotiaho, Janne S; Suhonen, Jukka; Virola, Teija

2003-03-01

59

Converting Riparian Restoration Waste to Energy: Testing Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Woody Biomass as Fuel for Downdraft Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

: In the course of riparian ecological restoration work, tamarisk biomass is often piled and burned, generating air pollution, or shipped to landfills—a costly alternative. Information on processing and utilizing tamarisk biomass is becoming increasingly valuable in light of the spread of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) as a biological control agent. As beetle populations expand, information on the

Michael Boyle; James Diebold; Tillie Walton; Robb Walt; Jamie Nielsen

2011-01-01

60

Converting Riparian Restoration Waste to Energy: Testing Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Woody Biomass as Fuel for Downdraft Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of riparian ecological restoration work, tamarisk biomass is often piled and burned, generating air pollution, or shipped to landfills—a costly alternative. Information on processing and utilizing tamarisk biomass is becoming increasingly valuable in light of the spread of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) as a biological control agent. As beetle populations expand, information on the properties

Michael Boyle; James Diebold; Tillie Walton; Robb Walt; Jamie Nielsen

2011-01-01

61

Pinacate beetle from the Mojave desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The beetle's outer covering helps it survive in the harsh desert environment. These beetles also give off an unpleasant smell to deter predators. Beetles and other insects are eaten in the desert for their water and nutrient content.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

62

Pine Beetle Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

1995-01-01

63

How Do Beetles Reproduce?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every living thing must be able to reproduce and make offspring. Most of us are familiar with how humans and mammals make babies, but do all creatures reproduce in the same way? Do insects, like the beetle, give birth to little insects? Also in: Français | Español

Drnevich, Jenny

2009-07-02

64

Waves and Water Beetles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

Tucker, Vance A.

1971-01-01

65

Contrasting diversity dynamics of phoretic mites and beetles associated with vertebrate carrion.  

PubMed

Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We examined and compared the changes in abundance, species richness and composition of mite and beetle assemblages sampled at kangaroo carcasses in a grassy eucalypt woodland at four different times over a 6-month period. We found that the majority of mites were phoretic, with the mesostigmatid genera Uroseius (Uropodidae), Macrocheles (Macrochelidae) and Parasitus (Parasitidae) the most abundant taxa (excluding astigmatid mites). Abundance and richness patterns of mites and beetles were very different, with mites reaching peak abundance and richness at weeks 6 and 12, and beetles at weeks 1 and 6. Both mites and beetles showed clear successional patterns via changes in species presence and relative abundance. Our study shows that mesostigmatid mite assemblages have a delay in peak abundance and richness relative to beetle assemblages. This suggests that differences in dispersal and reproductive traits of arthropods may contribute to the contrasting diversity dynamics of carrion arthropod communities, and further highlights the role of carrion as a driver of diversity and heterogeneity in ecosystems. PMID:24292438

Barton, Philip S; Weaver, Haylee J; Manning, Adrian D

2014-05-01

66

Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity.  

PubMed

We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness, abundance, composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We evaluated the community aspects (abundance, richness, composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat, rotten fish, pig dung and decaying banana). A total of 1?719 individuals were collected, belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes. The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness. The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits. Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment, all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type. Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities, even small ones, can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae. PMID:23955891

Korasaki, Vanesca; Lopes, José; Gardner Brown, George; Louzada, Julio

2013-06-01

67

Abundance and biomass of the gut-living microorganisms (bacteria, protozoa and fungi) in the irregular sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Spatangoida: Echinodermata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microorganisms associated with the gut contents of the irregular sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant) include non-filamentous and filamentous bacteria, zoosporic fungi and protozoa. The numbers of microorganisms decrease\\u000a through the gut segments, except for the two caeca. In the anoxic anterior caecum, the microbial biomass increases to 5% of\\u000a the total particulate organic carbon (POC) compared to 2% of

M. S. Thorsen

1999-01-01

68

Beetle Devastates Pine Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The warming climate has made conditions suitable for a massive outbreak of mountain pine beetles, which are now infesting the whitebark pine forests in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). The infestation has other ecological consequences such as devastation of forests in the region; loss of a critical food supply for grizzlies and other wildlife; negative impacts on water and watersheds; deterioration of biodiversity; and decline in the aesthetic value of an iconic ecosystem.

Jessie Logan (Retired Research Entomologist;); Wally MacFarlane (GEO/Graphics, Inc.;)

2010-03-25

69

Fallstudie VW Beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Die nachfolgende integrative Fallstudie „What’s Next? Relaunching the VW New Beetle“ behandelt den gesamten Prozess des Marketingmanagements.\\u000a Nach einer detaillierten Fallbeschreibung werden vier Arbeitsaufgaben zu den Bereichen Situationsanalyse, Marketingziele und\\u000a -strategien, Marketinginstrumente sowie zur Managementprasentation gestellt. Fur die Bearbeitung dieser Aufgaben dienen die\\u000a im Anhang der Fallstudie aufgefuhrten Informationen, Grafiken und Tabellen als zusatzliche Hinweise. Abschliesend geben die\\u000a Losungsskizzen zu

Heribert Meffert; Christoph Burmann; Manfred Kirchgeorg

70

Characterising insect diversity on Australia’s remnant native grasslands: ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and beetles (Coleoptera) at Craigieburn Grasslands Reserve, Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants and beetles sampled by pitfall trapping on a large grassland remnant near Melbourne, Victoria, are enumerated and discussed.\\u000a Species richness of both groups differed little between grassy flat areas and more rocky knolls, or between early and late\\u000a summer. Seasonal differences in abundance were found in both taxa: beetles were more abundant in early summer, and ants more\\u000a abundant

L. A. Gibson; T. R. New

2007-01-01

71

Wanted: The Asian Longhorned Beetle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) has earned the title of pest both here and in its home country of China. This beetle is a serious threat to hardwood trees and has no known natural predator in the United States. If the Asian longhorn...

2004-01-01

72

Intraguild Predation and Native Lady Beetle Decline  

PubMed Central

Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild predation by both native and exotic predators may contribute to native coccinellid decline, and that landscape structure interacts with local predator communities to shape the specific outcomes of predator-predator interactions.

Gardiner, Mary M.; O'Neal, Matthew E.; Landis, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

73

Dispersal of the Spruce Beetle, 'Dendroctonus rufipennis', and the Engraver Beetle, 'Ips perturbatus', in Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluor...

R. A. Werner E. H. Holsten

1997-01-01

74

Potential of yellow sticky traps for lady beetle survey in cotton.  

PubMed

A 2-yr study was conducted to investigate the potential of using yellow sticky traps to survey lady beetles in cotton and to quantify seasonal activity patterns. The performance of sticky traps was compared with that of a 2-cycle vacuum sampler. The most common lady beetle species captured by sticky traps and vacuum sampler in cotton were Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville and Scymnus loewii Mulsant. Sticky traps captured significantly more of both species of lady beetles, had greater capture efficiency, and more effectively detected lady beetles compared with the vacuum sampler. These data indicate that the sticky trap can be a valuable tool in monitoring lady beetle populations in cotton. In the second part of this study, a year-round survey of lady beetle populations in the periphery of a cotton farm using sticky traps showed that lady beetles remained active throughout the year in the Texas Rolling Plains, but the activity was influenced by winter severity. Over a 2-yr period, H. convergens, S. loewii, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) comprised 89.6, 8.2, 1.9, and 0.3% of the specimens, respectively. Sticky trap captures were affected by year, trap height, and cropping season. Traps placed at 0.75 m above ground captured significantly more (80%) lady beetles than traps placed at 1.50 m (20%) above ground; traps at 0.75 m above ground also detected the rarer species while the traps at 1.50 m above ground detected only the abundant species. Trap captures were higher during the noncotton season (November to April) compared with the cotton season (May to October). A significant positive correlation between cotton aphid abundance during the growing season and H. convergens abundance during the following noncotton season was also detected, indicating a significant movement of H. convergens from cotton to the periphery of the farm to seek refuge after cotton termination. PMID:12650368

Parajulee, M N; Slosser, J E

2003-02-01

75

The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields  

PubMed Central

The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns.

Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

2013-01-01

76

Combining genetic engineering and traditional breeding to provide elevated resistance in potatoes to Colorado potato beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable deployment of resistant crop varieties is a critical issue for the implementation of bio- technology in crop pest management. Feeding, biomass accumulation, and mortality were evaluated for susceptible, insecticide-resistant, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry 3A-selected Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) larvae fed on: cultivated potato, a Solanum chacoense line expressing leptine glycoalkaloids, a transformed

Susannah G. Cooper; David S. Douches; Edward J. Grafius

2004-01-01

77

Blister beetle poisoning in horses.  

PubMed

Case records of 21 horses with acute illness following ingestion of hay containing dead striped blister beetles (Epicauta spp) were selected for review. Abdominal pain, fever, depression, frequent urination, shock, and, occasionally, synchronous diaphragmatic flutter characterized clinical illness. Hematologic findings included hemoconcentration, neutrophilic leukocytosis, and hypocalcemia. Hematuria and low urine specific gravity were abnormal urinalysis results. Sloughing of the epithelium of the esophageal part of the stomach, hemorrhagic and ulcerative cystitis, enterocolitis, and myocardial necrosis were important post-mortem findings. Signs and lesions in 5 horses experimentally poisoned were similar to those of the natural disease. The findings were regarded as sufficiently characteristic of blister beetle poisoning to be useful in differential diagnosis but were not constant in all cases. Therefore, when blister beetle poisoning is suspected, access of affected horses to hay containing striped blister beetles should be demonstrated. PMID:670055

Schoeb, T R; Panciera, R J

1978-07-01

78

The Army's Remote-Controlled Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Technology Review discusses the new technology of controlling insects using cybernetic implants. It includes several pictures of a beetle with implanted equipment that researchers use to direct the movements of the beetle.

2009-11-30

79

Asian Longhorned Beetle and Its Host Trees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pictorial guide provides basic information for identifying the Asian longhorned beetle, its injury characteristics, and its common host trees. The guide will help users detect the beetle in both urban and forested settings.

2012-01-01

80

Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has changed dramatically. With very large data sets and high throughput sampling, phylogenetic questions can be addressed without prior knowledge of morphological characters. Nevertheless, molecular studies have not lead to the great breakthrough in beetle systematics—yet. Especially the phylogeny of the extremely species rich suborder Polyphaga remains incompletely resolved. Coordinated efforts of molecular workers and of morphologists using innovative techniques may lead to more profound insights in the near future. The final aim is to develop a well-founded phylogeny, which truly reflects the evolution of this immensely species rich group of organisms.

Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

2009-11-01

81

Pollen from Cry1Ac\\/CpTI-transgenic cotton does not affect the pollinating beetle Haptoncus luteolus  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread distribution of transgenic cotton plants, concerns over their potential effects on beneficial insects\\u000a and other non-target pests have been raised. In the present study, the field and laboratory effects of Cry1Ac\\/CpTI transgenic\\u000a cotton pollen on the pollinating beetle Haptoncus luteolus were investigated. Abundance of adult beetles was studied in cotton plots at two sites in Wuhan in

Lizhen Chen; Jinjie Cui; Weihua Ma; Changying Niu; Chaoliang Lei

2011-01-01

82

Longer-term effects of selective thinning on carabid beetles and spiders in the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Within late-successional forests of the Cascade Mountains of southern Oregon, abundances of carabid beetles (Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) from pitfall traps were compared between stands thinned 16-41 years prior and nearby unthinned stands. Species richness of both taxa were moderate for coniferous forests of this region, with 12 carabid beetle species and >120 spider species collected. No differences in total abundance or species richness were found between stand types for carabid beetles, although abundances of four of the six most common species differed significantly. Pterostichus setosus, the most abundant species collected, was significantly more abundant in unthinned stands, while Omus cazieri, P. lama, and Carabus taedatus were more numerous in thinned stands. In contrast, both total spider abundance and species richness were significantly higher in thinned stands. Hunting spiders within the families Lycosidae and Gnaphosidae, and the funnel web-building Dictynidae were captured more often in thinned stands while sheet web spiders within Linyphiidae and Hahniidae were more abundant in unthinned stands. The forest floor within unthinned stands was structurally more diverse than in thinned stands, but this did not lead to greater overall abundance or diversity of either carabid beetles or spiders.

Peck, R.; Niwa, C. G.

2005-01-01

83

Repigmentation of Vitiligo Lesion after Beetle Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles of the order Coleoptera. It is caused by a vesicant fluid, cantharidin, a trepenoid anhydride present in body fluids of the beetles [1]. The lesions are erythematovesicular to start with, but within a day or two they turn necrotic, giving rise to

D. Parsad; R. Saini; R. Nagpal

1998-01-01

84

Cantharidin poisoning due to “Blister beetle” ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cantharidin, the active ingredient of “Spanish Fly”, is contained in a number of insects collectively called blister beetles and is a well known toxin and vesicant. We report on a case of ingestion of Mylabris dicincta (“Blister beetle”) in Zimbabwe by a 4 year old girl. The ingested beetles were probably mistaken for the edible Eulepida mashona. She presented with

D. Tagwireyi; D. E. Ball; P. J. Loga; S. Moyo

2000-01-01

85

DIRECTIONAL CHANGE IN A FLYING BEETLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinoceros beetles of the genus Oryctes turn in flight by a differential change in the stroke angle, or amplitude, of the wings of the two sides. This method of turning has been briefly described (Burton, 1964) and what follows is a fuller account of the turning mechanisms in these beetles. MATERIAL AND METHODS Rhinoceros beetles of the species Oryctes boas

ALEXANDER J. BURTON

86

Use of beetles in forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetles (Coleoptera) have been recognised as providing significant entomological evidence in the medico-legal field, particularly with reference to dry human skeletal remains in the later stages of decomposition.The Dermestidae (skin beetles) and Cleridae (bone beetles) have been found as the most common types infesting exposed human remains and providing evidence in estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMI).

Pankaj Kulshrestha; D. K Satpathy

2001-01-01

87

Guild structure, diversity and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung in South Western Ghats forests  

PubMed Central

The diversity, guild structure and succession of dung beetles associated with Indian elephant dung is described in a deciduous forest site in Western Ghats, a hot spot of diversity in India. Dung beetles were collected using baited pitfall traps and from exposed dung pats in the forest at intervals of 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 21 days. Twenty-one dung beetle species belonging to the 3 major functional guilds were recorded. Abundance of dwellers was high compared to rollers deviating from earlier reports on the high abundance of rollers in the afrotropical regions. Dweller Drepanocerus setosus and tunneler Onthophagus bronzeus were the most abundant species. Dung pats aged 3–5 days attracted the highest abundance of dung beetles. Bray Curtis similarity index indicated low community similarity between different stages of succession. Species richness and abundance of tunnelers increased with dung age and decreasing moisture up to a threshold level, followed by a decrease. Rollers and dwellers did not show any significant relationship with dung moisture content. Further research is needed to estimate the dung beetle community associated with the dung pats of other mega herbivores as well as of elephant dung in other forests of the Western Ghats.

Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K. V.; Vineesh, P. J.

2006-01-01

88

Habitat preferences of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota.  

PubMed

Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills. PMID:23068162

Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark

2012-10-01

89

Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

2011-01-01

90

The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks.  

PubMed

We evaluated the role of beetles infesting broiler chicken rearing facilities as potential reservoirs for Salmonella enterica infections between successive broiler flocks. In addition, their role as potential reservoirs for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was also investigated. Fourteen broiler houses located at 11 different farms were included in the study. The houses were nonrandomly selected on the basis of their salmonella status; nine were persistently contaminated with salmonella whereas five were salmonella negative. For each broiler house, two consecutive broiler flocks (i.e., 28 broiler flocks in all) as well as beetles collected during both rotations of production and in the empty period (after cleaning and disinfection) between these flocks were monitored for the presence of salmonella. Examinations for the presence of campylobacter in the same sample materials were also performed. Beetles sampled during production were positive for salmonella or campylobacter or both. Furthermore, in one house, the occurrence of Salmonella indiana in two consecutive broiler flocks coincided with the presence of S. indiana-contaminated beetles in the empty period between the flocks. The genotype of the identified S. indiana was in all cases identical when analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, our results also suggest that salmonella from beetles may not always be transmitted to the chickens and that beetles living in contaminated houses can remain free of infection. All cases of campylobacter-positive beetle samples were detected in connection with a positive chicken flock; in no case was campylobacter isolated from beetles taken from the empty period between rotations. Four beetle species were identified during this study. Alphitobius diaperinus was found in all houses and was relatively abundant in most. Typhaea stercorea and Ahasverus advena were found in eight and nine houses, respectively, and were abundant in most of these. Carcinops pumilio was found in small numbers in eight houses. No other insect species was identified. These investigations have shown that beetles in broiler houses infrequently are positive for salmonella. However, transmission of S. indiana between two consecutive broiler flocks can coincide with the presence of salmonella-contaminated beetles in the empty period, indicating that the beetles were the reservoir of S. indiana between the two flocks. Concerning campylobacter, the results suggest that beetles do not play a significant role as a reservoir of campylobacter from one rotation to the next. PMID:15077793

Skov, M N; Spencer, A G; Hald, B; Petersen, L; Nauerby, B; Carstensen, B; Madsen, M

2004-01-01

91

Responses of epigeal beetles to the removal of weed cover crops in organic olive orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted in an experimental organically managed olive orchard to test the short-term effects exerted on epigeal coleopteran populations by the removal of the plant cover (RPC) when compared to non-managed natural plant cover (NPC). The changes in abundance and diversity of beetles were analysed in three experimental blocks in which the cover crop was removed during the

Belén COTES; Juan CASTRO; Manuel CÁRDENAS; Mercedes CAMPOS

2009-01-01

92

Copro-necrophagous beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) diversity in an agroecosystem in Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

Scarabaeinae are sensitive to structural habitat changes caused by disturbance. We compared copronecrophagous beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in three differently managed zones within an agroeco-system of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We placed dung and carrion traps once a month from June 2004 through May 2005. The beetle community included 17 species from the genera Canthon, Canthidium, Deltochilum, Pseudocanthon, Malagoniella, Onthophagus, Phanaeus, Copris, Uroxys, Sisyphus and Ateuchus. The secondary vegetation had a higher beetle diversity than the other two zones. Species richness was highest in the Brosimum alicastrum plantation. The pasture had the lowest species diversity and richness, but exhibited the highest abundance of Scarabaeinae in the dry season. The two zones with extensive tree cover were the most diverse. Roller beetles were dominant over burrower species and small-sized species outnumbered large species. Our data show two important issues: beetle species in the pasture extended their activity to the beginning of the dry season, while abundances dropped in the other, unirrigated zones; and the possibility that the Scarabaeinae living in neotropical forests are opportunistic saprophages and have specialized habits for resources other than dung. The B. alicastrum plantation is beneficial to the entire ranch production system because it functions as a dispersion and development area for stenotopic species limited to tree cover. PMID:18457116

Reyes Novelo, Enrique; Delfín-González, Hugo; Angel Morón, Miguel

2007-03-01

93

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

ScienceCinema

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

None

2013-05-29

94

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

SciTech Connect

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

None

2010-01-01

95

Beetle Kill Wall at NREL  

ScienceCinema

When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

96

Are stag beetles fungivorous?  

PubMed

Stag beetle larvae generally feed on decaying wood; however, it was unknown whether they can use wood-rotting fungi alone as food. Here, to clarify this, newly hatched larvae of Dorcus rectus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) were reared for 14 days on artificial diets containing a fixed amount of freeze-dried mycelia of the following fungi: Bjerkandera adusta, Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Fomitopsis pinicola. The mean incremental gain in larval body mass was greatest on diets containing B. adusta, followed by T. versicolor, P. ostreatus, and F. pinicola. The growth rate of body mass correlated positively with mycelial nitrogen content of the different fungi. It also correlated positively with the mycelial content of B. adusta in the diet. Addition of antibiotics to diets with mycelia nearly halved larval growth, indicating that larvae were able to use fungal mycelia as food without the assistance of associated microbes although the microbes positively affected larval growth. Four newly hatched larvae reared on artificial diets containing B. adusta mycelia developed to the second instar in 21-34 days; and one developed to the third (=final) instar. This study provides evidence that fungi may constitute the bulk of the diet of D. rectus larvae. PMID:19607834

Tanahashi, Masahiko; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi

2009-11-01

97

Virtual stag beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3D image of a stage beetle (Family Lucanidae). This movie is also available as a Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) model. The VRML models are more interactive than the QuickTime versions, but special software may need to be downloaded to open them (read the ÃÂHelpÃÂ page for details). Those people using public computers may be limited from fully accessing the resource. Mozilla Firefox users can view the VRML files directly in their browsers by downloading the Cortona extension (http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/download/netscape/). This website is an excellent educational resource for all ages. The Virtual Insects home page (http://www.ento.vt.edu/~sharov/3d/3dinsect.html) has a basic explanation of how virtual reality works, including the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. The "Virtual Images" link takes you to a list of insects that can be viewed as 3D digital reconstructions. The image files would make excellent additions to teaching lectures for introductory classes. Visit the "How to Build Virtual Insects" page to read about how the images were created and how the original models were made more biologically accurate. Also be sure to read the page on how to view the cyber-insects inside a virtual reality "cave".

0002-11-30

98

Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.  

SciTech Connect

For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

2004-05-13

99

The incidence and use of Oryctes virus for control of rhinoceros beetle in oil palm plantations in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, has emerged as a serious pest of oil palm since the prohibition of burning as a method for maintaining estate hygiene in the 1990s. The abundance of beetles is surprising given that the Malay peninsula was the site of first discovery of the Oryctes virus, which has been used to effect good as a biological control agent in other regions. A survey of adult beetles was carried out throughout Malaysia using pheromone traps. Captured beetles were examined for presence of virus using both visual/microscopic examination and PCR detection methods. The survey indicated that Oryctes virus was common in Malaysia among the adult beetles. Viral DNA analysis was carried out after restriction with HindIII enzyme and indicated at least three distinct viral genotypes. Bioassays were used to compare the viral strains and demonstrate that one strain (type B) is the most virulent against both larvae and adults of the beetle. Virus type B has been cultured and released into healthy populations where another strain (type A) forms the natural background. Capture and examination of beetles from the release site and surrounding area has shown that the spread and persistence of the applied virus strain is accompanied by a reduction in palm frond damage. PMID:16039309

Ramle, M; Wahid, M B; Norman, K; Glare, T R; Jackson, T A

2005-05-01

100

Deuterium abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the measurements of deuterium abundances in high redshift quasar absorbers, in the solar system and in the interstellar medium. We present new results that indicate spatial variations of the deuterium abundance in the interstellar medium at the level of ˜50% over scales possibly as small as ˜10 pc, and discuss plausible causes for the origin of these variations.

Lemoine, Martin; Audouze, Jean; Ben Jaffel, Lotfi; Feldman, Paul; Ferlet, Roger; Hébrard, Guillaume; Jenkins, Edward B.; Mallouris, Christoforos; Moos, Warren; Sembach, Kenneth; Sonneborn, George; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; York, Donald G.

1999-07-01

101

Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.  

PubMed

Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH??) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

2013-01-01

102

Incidence of Mountain Pine Beetle Abandoned Galleries in Lodgepole Pine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individual lodgepole pines have lower densities of attack by mountain pine beetles and a higher percentaage of abandoned egg galleries in stands where beetle populations are low rather than high. Most trees contain some galleries having live beetles, as w...

G. D. Amman

1980-01-01

103

Raising Beetles in a Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

Hackett, Erla

104

Rearing Blister Beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The receipt, recently, of several requests for information and assistance in rearing blister beetles (Meloidae) has prompted me to prepare the following account of the rearing method used in my laboratory. In order to make the account as useful as possible to new students. I have included a considerable amount of information on meloid bionomics. Larval phases are designated as

Richard B. Selander

1986-01-01

105

Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic biomass includes agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste (MSW), fiber resulting from grain operations, waste cellulosics (e.g. paper and pulp operations), and energy crops. Taken together, these materials represent one of the most abundant renewable resources on earth. The conversion of even a small portion of this resource to ethanol could substantially reduce current gasoline consumption and dependence

D. J. Schell; J. D. McMillian; G. P. Philippidis

1992-01-01

106

Habitat associations of saproxylic beetles in the southeastern United States: A comparison of forest types, tree species and wood postures.  

SciTech Connect

Saproxylic beetles are highly sensitive to forest management practices that reduce the abundance and variety of dead wood. However, this diverse fauna continues to receive little attention in the southeastern United States even though this region supports some of the most diverse, productive and intensively managed forests in North America. In this replicated three-way factorial experiment, we investigated the habitat associations of saproxylic beetles on the coastal plain of South Carolina. The factors of interest were forest type (upland pine-dominated vs. bottomland hardwood), tree species (Quercus nigra L., Pinustaeda L. and Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and wood posture (standing and downed dead wood, i.e., snags and logs). Wood samples were taken at four positions along each log and snag (lower bole,middle bole, upper bole and crown) _11 months after the trees were killed and placed in rearing bags to collect emerging beetles. Overall, 33,457 specimens from 52 families and _250 species emerged. Based on an analysis of covariance, with surface area and bark coverage as covariates, saproxylic beetle species richness differed significantly between forest types as well as between wood postures. There were no significant interactions. Species richness was significantly higher in the upland pine-dominated stand than the bottomland hardwood forest, possibly due to higher light exposure and temperature in upland forests. Although L. styraciflua yielded more beetle species (152) than either Q. nigra (122) or P. taeda (125), there were no significant differences in species richness among tree species. There were also no relationships evident between relative tree abundance and observed or expected beetle species richness. Significantly more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags. However snags had a distinct fauna including several potential canopy specialists. Our results suggest that conservation practices that retain or create entire snags as opposed to high stumps or logs alone will most greatly benefit saproxylic beetles in southeastern forests.

Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James, L.

2008-09-01

107

Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).  

SciTech Connect

Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and �¢����trap-shy�¢��� species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

2005-01-01

108

Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).  

SciTech Connect

Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and � ����trap-shy�¢��� species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

2005-01-01

109

Ant Foraging Reduces the Abundance of Beneficial and Incidental Arthropods in Citrus Canopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of nonpest arthropods in ant-free or ant-infested (Iridomyrmex rufonigergp. spp.) citrus tree canopies was evaluated monthly in a 2-year study (September 1994–August 1996) in southern New South Wales, Australia. Limb tap samples from ant-free trees yielded a total of 4029 beneficial arthropods (predatory beetles, bugs and mites, lacewings, spiders, parasitic wasps) and 3650 other nonpest arthropods (mainly beetles,

David G. James; Mark M. Stevens; Karen J. O'Malley; Richard J. Faulder

1999-01-01

110

Biomass Utilization and Technology Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, issues related to biomass energy developed in China, on resources, technology, economy, environment, market, policy and regulation etc., are generally summarized. China is an agricultural country with a huge population and abundant biomass resources and facing increasing greatly energy demand and suffering serious environmental pollution. It is estimated that the total amount of biomass resources in 2001

Yuan Zhenhong; Wu Chuangzhi; Ma Longlong; Jiang Jianchun; Chen Dongmei; Zhu Weidong

111

The Beetles of the Virgin Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided in collaboration by researchers at Montana State and Ohio State universities, this database of the Beetles of the Virgin Islands contains records for over 34,000 specimens of 489 beetle species. The database also offers mapping capabilities for identifying beetle collection locations. Query by Island, Family, or Specimen to find details for each species -- including scientific name, number of specimens in the database, islands where this species has been collected, and collecting methods.

1996-01-01

112

USDA Forest Service: Asian Longhorned Beetle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Asian longhorned beetles are an exotic species of insect that have been wreaking havoc on North American trees, particularly maples, alders, birches, elms, horsechestnut, poplars, and willows. This site from the USDA Forest Service had some general information about the beetle (including images), and resources on identifying them and reporting sightings. Check out the "Publications" link for some more extensive tips on identifying the asian longhorned beetle, and controlling its spread.

2008-02-04

113

Pheromone production in bark beetles.  

PubMed

The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary ?-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

2010-10-01

114

The ground beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Kenyir water catchment, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

An assemblage of beetle specimens from family Carabidae (ground beetles) was carried out at Kenyir water catchment as an indicator to measure disturbance. The samplings were conducted from 30th July to 1st August 2007 at limestone forest of Teluk Bewah and the dipterocarp forest of Sungai Cicir. 28 individuals from 13 species were collected from Teluk Bewah whereas 54 individuals from ten species was sampled from Sungai Cicir. The carabids were more specious (Simpson Diversity index: 0.97) and more abundant (Margalef index: 5.35) at Teluk Bewah compared to Sungai Cicir (Simpson Diversity index, 0.72: Margalefindex, 2.22). Light trapping was most efficient assembling 97.56% of ground beetles compared to Malaise trap, pitfall and net sweeping. This is the first record of beetle assemblage at Kenyir water catchment, Malaysia. New records for Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia are Abacetus sp. 1, Abacetus sp. 2, Acupalpus rectifrotis, Aephnidius adelioides, Dischissus notulatus, Dolichoctis sp., Dolichoctis sp. 2, Dolichoctis straitus, Ophinoea bimaculata, Perigona sp., Pheropsophus piciccollis, Pheropsophus occipitalis, Stenolophus quinquepustulatus, Stenolophus smaragdulus, Stenolophus sp., Tachys coracinus, Casnoidea sp., Orthogonius sp. Seven species coded as Cara C, Cara J, Cara M, Cara N, Cara O, Cara R and Cara S were unidentified and are probably new species to be described in another report. There is moderately high diversity (Simpson Diversity index: 0.846) of Carabidae indicating that ecotourism does not affect diversity of ground beetle at Kenyir Lake. PMID:19205267

Abdullah, Fauziah; Sina, Ibnu; Fauzee, Fatmahjihan

2008-11-01

115

Biomass utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources

Coute

1983-01-01

116

Simulate Natural Selection With Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this simulation activity, students experiment with a population of M&M candies or paper dot "beetles" to test how well each color is adapted to survive on a field of colorful wrapping paper or fabric. Students act as predators and see that camouflaged beetles survive predation preferentially. Students reflect on how the activity could be modified to better simulate the process of predation-based natural selection. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "Origin of Species," part of the unit, "Losing Biodiversity," in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

117

Lunar orientation in a beetle.  

PubMed Central

Many animals use the sun's polarization pattern to orientate, but the dung beetle Scarabaeus zambesianus is the only animal so far known to orientate using the million times dimmer polarization pattern of the moonlit sky. We demonstrate the relative roles of the moon and the nocturnal polarized-light pattern for orientation. We find that artificially changing the position of the moon, or hiding the moon's disc from the beetle's field of view, generally did not influence its orientation performance. We thus conclude that the moon does not serve as the primary cue for orientation. The effective cue is the polarization pattern formed around the moon, which is more reliable for orientation. Polarization sensitivity ratios in two photoreceptors in the dorsal eye were found to be 7.7 and 12.9, similar to values recorded in diurnal navigators. These results agree with earlier results suggesting that the detection and analysis of polarized skylight is similar in diurnal and nocturnal insects.

Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus J.; Scholtz, Clarke H.; Warrant, Eric J.

2004-01-01

118

Differential Consumption of Four Aphid Species by Four Lady Beetle Species  

PubMed Central

The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum.

Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

2010-01-01

119

Differential consumption of four aphid species by four lady beetle species.  

PubMed

The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally consumed the most aphids, while P. quatuordecimpunctata consumed the fewest. The exception was P. quatuordecimpunctata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs, and C. trifasciata, which consumed a greater number of M. albifrons nymphs and adults, compared with the other two beetle species. Lady beetles consumed fewer M. albifrons compared with the other three aphid species, likely because of deterrent compounds sequestered by this species from its host plant. In the field, P. quatuordecimpunctata was the most abundant species found on L. polyphyllus and S. tuberosum. PMID:20578952

Finlayson, Christy; Alyokhin, Andrei; Gross, Serena; Porter, Erin

2010-01-01

120

Organic Management of Cucumber Beetles in Watermelon and Muskmelon Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Organic methods for managing striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) and spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata) cucumber beetles were examined in the production of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo) using sticky traps to monitor beetle populations. In 2002, the numbers of trapped striped and total (striped + spotted) cucumber beetles were significantly (P £ 0.05) reduced by the combined use

Gary R. Cline; John D. Sedlacek; Steve L. Hillman; Sharon K. Parker; Anthony F. Silvernail

121

Cantharidin production in a blister beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cantharidin, a potent defensive chemical, is present in all ten life stages of the blister beetleEpicauta funebris. The first five larval stages accumulate cantharidin as they feed and grow in size. When disturbed, they exude cantharidin in a milky oral fluid, not in hemolymph which adult beetles reflexively discharge from leg joints. Two subsequent larval stages and the pupa do

J. E. Carrel; M. H. McCairel; A. J. Slagle; J. P. Doom; J. Brill; J. P. McCormick

1993-01-01

122

SYNTHESIS REPORT ON REARING ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since not all research on Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (ALB) can be conducted in China or at North American sites where it is being eradicated, the ability to mass rear the Asian longhorned beetle is critical to rapid progress on research necessary for exclusion, detection, and eradication of this serious pest. Large numbers of beetles in all life stages are needed

Melody A. Keena; Ann E. Hajek; Thomas L. M. Dubois; David R. Lance

123

Bark Beetle Infestation Investigation: Estimation and Pheromones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity investigates how bark beetles can threaten forests by having learners estimate the number of infected trees from a photo. Learners also think about how pheromones could be used to trap the beetles. The activity is written for a kit that can be checked out of a library, but the kit is not necessary.

Shaw, Maisie; Gomez, Maria

2010-01-01

124

Succession of Ground-Dwelling Beetle Assemblages After Fire in Three Habitat Types in the Andean Forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina  

PubMed Central

Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this was reflected by beetle diversity.

Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.

2010-01-01

125

Anemomenotatic orientation in beetles and scorpions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orientation, by beetles and scorpions, according to wind direction and force are analyzed. Major efforts were made to determine: (1) which physical qualities of the air current influence anemomenotaxis, (2) which physiological mechanism is responsible for such orientation, (3) which sense organs do beetles and scorpions use to perceive wind directions, and (4) what the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in the beetle and scorpion is. Experimental results show that the trichobothria in scorpions perceives wind direction; in the beetle it is perceived by sense organs excited by pendicellus-flagellum joint movements. A compensation mechanism is suggested as the basis for anemomenotactic orientation. It was also suggested that the biological significance of anemomenotaxis in scorpions is space orientation; while in beetles it was found to be part of the appetitive behavior used to search for olfactory sign stimuli.

Linsenmair, K. E.

1972-01-01

126

Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment  

SciTech Connect

Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

Michael Lehman

2008-06-01

127

An alternative sampling technique for cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and diurnal beetle activity on muskmelon.  

PubMed

Field studies were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of yellow sticky traps as an alternative sampling technique for striped, Acalymma vittatum (F.), and spotted, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber, cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the diurnal beetle activity on muskmelon, Cucumis melo L., near Vincennes, IN, in 2003 and 2004. The experimental design included six replications of seven 20-m-long rows each of muskmelon with 1.5 m between rows. On each sampling date, two yellow sticky traps were placed randomly between rows in each replication. One sticky trap was placed vertically with the lower edge even with the top of the canopy, whereas the other trap was placed horizontally, even with the top of the canopy. After traps were placed in the field, number of beetles on plants was counted in situ from 0800 to 1600 hours at 2-h intervals the next day. After 48 h in the field, the number of cucumber beetles adhering on traps was counted. Analyses of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison procedure were used to compare the densities of beetles among sampling times, and regression analyses were applied to correlate the numbers of beetles on traps and the numbers of in situ counts. Results show that both species of cucumber beetles were most active from 1200 to 1400 hours, and 20 beetles on the vertically positioned sticky trap were equivalent to one beetle per plant in the field. The application of the sampling technique and scouting time for cucumber beetle management are discussed. PMID:17598544

Lam, Wai-Ki Frankie

2007-06-01

128

An evaluation of British Columbian beetle-killed hybrid spruce for bioethanol production.  

PubMed

The development of bioconversion technologies for production of fuels, chemicals, and power from renewable resources is currently a high priority for developed nations such as the United States, Canada, and the European Union as a way to improve national energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The widespread implementation of such technologies will require a sustainable supply of biomass from forestry and agriculture. Forests are a major source of feedstocks for biofuels production in Canada. Woody biomass includes residues from logging and forest thinning, and from wood processing and pulp production. More recently, damaged wood caused by beetle infestations has become available on a large scale in Western Canada. This study evaluates beetle-killed British Columbian hybrid spruce (HS) (Picea glauca x P. engelmannii) as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. In the past 30 yr, attack by the beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis and associated fungi has resulted in estimated losses of more than three billion board feet in British Columbia alone. Here we describe the chemical and some physical characteristics of both healthy (HHS) and beetle-killed (BKHS) British Columbian HS and evaluate the technical feasibility of using these feedstocks as a source of biomass for bioethanol production. Untreated HHS and BKHS did not differ significantly in chemical composition except for the moisture content, which was significantly lower in BKHS (approx 10%) compared with HHS (approx 18%). However, the yields of carbohydrates in hydrolyzable and fermentable forms were higher at mild pretreatment conditions (H-Factor <1000) for BKHS compared with HHS. At medium (H-Factor 1000-2000) and severe (H-Factor >2000) pretreatment conditions HHS and BKHS behaved similarly. Organosolv pretreated HHS and BKHS demonstrated good ethanol theoretical yields, approx 70 and 80%, respectively. PMID:18478394

Berlin, Alex; Muñoz, Claudio; Gilkes, Neil; Alamouti, Sepideh Massoumi; Chung, Pablo; Kang, Kyu-Young; Maximenko, Vera; Baeza, Jaime; Freer, Juanita; Mendonça, Regis; Saddler, Jack

2007-04-01

129

Biomass Burning  

Biomass Burning Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title:  Biomass Burning Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry ...

2014-04-25

130

Optimising Bait for Pitfall Trapping of Amazonian Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae)  

PubMed Central

The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology.

Marsh, Charles J.; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M.

2013-01-01

131

Optimising bait for pitfall trapping of Amazonian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).  

PubMed

The accurate sampling of communities is vital to any investigation of ecological processes and biodiversity. Dung beetles have emerged as a widely used focal taxon in environmental studies and can be sampled quickly and inexpensively using baited pitfalls. Although there is now a wealth of available data on dung beetle communities from around the world, there is a lack of standardisation between sampling protocols for accurately sampling dung beetle communities. In particular, bait choice is often led by the idiosyncrasies of the researcher, logistic problems and the dung sources available, which leads to difficulties for inter-study comparisons. In general, human dung is the preferred choice, however, it is often in short supply, which can severely limit sampling effort. By contrast, pigs may produce up to 20 times the volume. We tested the ability of human and pig dung to attract a primary forest dung beetle assemblage, as well as three mixes of the two baits in different proportions. Analyses focussed on the comparability of sampling with pig or human-pig dung mixes with studies that have sampled using human dung. There were no significant differences between richness and abundance sampled by each bait. The assemblages sampled were remarkably consistent across baits, and ordination analyses showed that the assemblages sampled by mixed dung baits were not significantly different from that captured by pure human dung, with the assemblages sampled by 10% and 90% pig mixes structurally most similar to assemblages sampled by human dung. We suggest that a 10:90 human:pig ratio, or similar, is an ideal compromise between sampling efficiency, inter-study comparability and the availability of large quantities of bait for sampling Amazonian dung beetles. Assessing the comparability of assemblage samples collected using different baits represents an important step to facilitating large-scale meta-analyses of dung beetle assemblages collected using non-standard methodology. PMID:24023675

Marsh, Charles J; Louzada, Julio; Beiroz, Wallace; Ewers, Robert M

2013-01-01

132

abundance: High Redshift Cluster Abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

abundance, written in Fortran, provides driver and fitting routines to compute the predicted number of clusters in a ?CDM cosmology that agrees with CMB, SN, BAO, and H0 measurements (up to 2010) at some specified parameter confidence and the mass that would rule out that cosmology at some specified sample confidence. It also computes the expected number of such clusters in the light cone and the Eddington bias factor that must be applied to observed masses.

Mortonson, Michael; Hu, Wayne; Huterer, Dragan

2014-01-01

133

Emergence and Attack Behavior of the Mountain Pine Beetle in Lodgepole Pine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors influencing the behavior of mountain pine beetles infesting lodgepole pine were studied during 1974 and 1975. More and larger beetles emerged from trees having thickest phloem, with the largest beetles usually emerging first. Beetles emerging in 1...

L. A. Rasmussen

1980-01-01

134

Biomass energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present analysis of the development status of biomass energy systems has been conducted by the Energy Research Advisory Board with a view to the prospects for biomass energy use by the year 2000, taking into account the research funds and scientific manpower that should be allocated to biomass production and use investigations. It is projected that the net energy from biomass use could increase approximately four-fold from the current level of 1.1-1.3 Q net by the year 2000, although existing estimates of biomass availability have not included all possible constraints imposed by agriculture, forestry, technology, economics and the environment. Biomass energy potentials are primarily constrained by limits on agricultural and forest production, and by the need to maintain a productive and high quality environment. It is noted that food and other consumer goods also compete for available biomass resources.

135

Reciprocal interactions between the bark beetle-associated yeast Ogataea pini and host plant phytochemistry.  

PubMed

Here we report the first experiments testing reciprocal effects between the bark beetle-associated yeast, Ogataea pini, and phytochemicals present in tree tissues (Pinus ponderosa). We tested two hypotheses: (i) tree phytochemicals mediate O. pini growth and (ii) O. pini affects chemical composition of plant tissues. We tested six monoterpenes on O. pini biomass growth in vitro and found that most monoterpenes inhibited O. pini growth; however mean O. pini biomass increased 21.5% when treated with myrcene and 75.5% when treated with terpinolene, relative to control. Ogataea pini was grown on phloem tissue ex vivo to determine whether O. pini affected phloem chemistry. Monoterpene concentrations declined in phloem over time, but phloem colonized by O. pini had significantly different concentrations of monoterpenes at two periods than phloem with no yeast. After 7 d, when O. pini was present, concentrations of the monoterpene ?-3-carene was 42.9% lower than uncolonized phloem and concentrations of the monoterpene terpinolene was 345.0% higher than uncolonized phloem. After 15 d phloem colonized by O. pini had 505.4% higher concentrations of ?-pinene than uncolonized phloem. These experiments suggest that O. pini responds to phytochemicals present in host tissues and the presence of O. pini might alter the chemical environment of phloem tissues during the early stages of beetle development. The interactions between O. pini and phytochemicals in pine vascular tissues might have consequences for the bark beetle that vectors O. pini, Dendroctonus brevicomis. PMID:21659459

Davis, Thomas S; Hofstetter, Richard W

2011-01-01

136

Experimental Beetle Metapopulations Respond Positively to Dynamic Landscapes and Reduced Connectivity  

PubMed Central

Interactive effects of multiple environmental factors on metapopulation dynamics have received scant attention. We designed a laboratory study to test hypotheses regarding interactive effects of factors affecting the metapopulation dynamics of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Within a four-patch landscape we modified resource level (constant and diminishing), patch connectivity (high and low) and patch configuration (static and dynamic) to conduct a 23 factorial experiment, consisting of 8 metapopulations, each with 3 replicates. For comparison, two control populations consisting of isolated and static subpopulations were provided with resources at constant or diminishing levels. Longitudinal data from 22 tri-weekly counts of beetle abundance were analyzed using Bayesian Poisson generalized linear mixed models to estimate additive and interactive effects of factors affecting abundance. Constant resource levels, low connectivity and dynamic patches yielded greater levels of adult beetle abundance. For a given resource level, frequency of colonization exceeded extinction in landscapes with dynamic patches when connectivity was low, thereby promoting greater patch occupancy. Negative density dependence of pupae on adults occurred and was stronger in landscapes with low connectivity and constant resources; these metapopulations also demonstrated greatest stability. Metapopulations in control landscapes went extinct quickly, denoting lower persistence than comparable landscapes with low connectivity. When landscape carrying capacity was constant, habitat destruction coupled with low connectivity created asynchronous local dynamics and refugia within which cannibalism of pupae was reduced. Increasing connectivity may be counter-productive and habitat destruction/recreation may be beneficial to species in some contexts.

Govindan, Byju N.; Swihart, Robert K.

2012-01-01

137

Survival of the Fittest: Battling Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guided inquiry three-part activity engages learners in thinking about the mechanism of natural selection through data collection and pattern recognition. In this scenario, learners use M&Ms and other simple materials to investigate the mating habits of beetles and whether genetic variations give male beetles advantages against weaker beetles. Learners will collect and calculate data to draw conclusions. The third part of this activity allows learners to model Hardy-Weinberg and selection using an Excel spreadsheet and is recommended for more advanced learners.

Colvard, Mary

2010-01-01

138

Frass analysis of diets of aphidophagous lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Utah alfalfa fields.  

PubMed

Aphidophagous lady beetles enhance their foraging success in natural settings by consuming other types of food in addition to aphids. Frass analysis was used to examine natural diets of female lady beetles in fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in northern Utah. The first (spring) alfalfa crop was censused in 2004 and 2005 to determine the diet of female adults of the introduced Coccinella septempunctata L., and two native species, C. transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Hippodamia convergens Guerin. The proportion of females of the three lady beetle species that fed on pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] and alfalfa weevil larvae [Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), an abundant alternative prey] increased from early to late season during the first crop. A corresponding seasonal decrease occurred in the proportion of females consuming other types of arthropods (e.g., thrips and collembolans) and nonarthropod food (pollen and fungal spores). Overall, frass analysis indicated that the diets of C. septempunctata and the two native species in alfalfa were similar in their inclusion of a broad variety of foods. The study shows that frass analysis can provide a good overview of the diets of lady beetles in natural settings. PMID:20388290

Davidson, L Nicole; Evans, Edward W

2010-04-01

139

Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

2008-08-01

140

Chemical signals synchronize the life cycles of a plant-parasitic nematode and its vector beetle.  

PubMed

The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused severe damage to pine forests in large parts of the world [1-4]. Dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode occurs when the nematode develops into the dispersal fourth larval stage (LIV) upon encountering its insect vector, the Monochamus pine sawyer beetle, inside an infected pine tree [5-9]. Here, we show that LIV formation in B. xylophilus is induced by C16 and C18 fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which are produced abundantly on the body surface of the vector beetle specifically during the late development pupal, emerging adult, and newly eclosed adult stages. The LIV can then enter the tracheal system of the adult beetle for dispersal to a new pine tree. Treatment of B. xylophilus with long-chain FAEEs, or the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, promotes LIV formation, while ?7-dafachronic acid blocks the effects of these chemicals, suggesting a conserved role for the insulin/IGF-1 and DAF-12 pathways in LIV formation. Our work provides a mechanism by which LIV formation in B. xylophilus is specifically coordinated with the life cycle of its vector beetle. Knowledge of the chemical signals that control the LIV developmental decision could be used to interfere with the dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode. PMID:24120638

Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Hao, Haijun; Zhang, Bin; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

2013-10-21

141

Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles.  

PubMed

Introductions of two ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis, into North America for aphid biocontrol have been followed by declines in native species. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) between larvae of these two exotic species and larvae of the two most abundant native coccinellids in eastern Washington State, C. transversoguttata and Hippodamia convergens. In pairings between the two native species in laboratory microcosms containing pea ( Pisum sativum) plants, neither native had a clear advantage over the other in IGP. When the natives were paired with either Harmonia axyridis or C. septempunctata, the natives were more frequently the victims than perpetrators of IGP. In contrast, in pairings between the exotic species, neither had an IGP advantage, although overall rates of IGP between these two species were very high. Adding alternative prey (aphids) to microcosms did not alter the frequency and patterns of relative IGP among the coccinellid species. In observations of encounters between larvae, the introduced H. axyridis frequently survived multiple encounters with the native C. transversoguttata, whereas the native rarely survived a single encounter with H. axyridis. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species face increased IGP following invasion by C. septempunctata and H. axyridis, which may be contributing to the speed with which these exotic ladybird beetles displace the natives following invasion. PMID:15179586

Snyder, William E; Clevenger, Garrett M; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

2004-08-01

142

Olfactory experience modifies semiochemical responses in a bark beetle predator.  

PubMed

A typical feature of forest insect pests is their tendency to undergo large fluctuations in abundance, which can jeopardize the persistence of their predaceous natural enemies. One strategy that these predators may adopt to cope with these fluctuations would be to respond to sensory cues for multiple prey species. Another possible adaptation to temporal variation in the prey community could involve the learning of prey cues and switching behavior. We conducted three experiments to investigate the ability of the generalist bark beetle predator Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) to respond to different prey signals and to investigate the effect of olfactory experience. We first conducted a field choice test and a wind tunnel experiment to examine the kairomonal response of individual predators toward prey pheromone components (frontalin, ipsenol, ipsdienol, sulcatol) along with the pine monoterpene ?-pinene, which is a volatile compound from the host of the prey. We also presented semiochemically naive predators with two prey pheromone components, frontalin and ipsenol, alone or associated with a reward. Our results showed that T. dubius populations are composed of generalists that can respond to a broad range of kairomonal signals. Naive T. dubius also were more attracted to ipsenol following its association with a reward. This work constitutes the first evidence that the behavior of a predatory insect involved in bark beetle population dynamics is influenced by previous olfactory experience, and provides a potential explanation for the pattern of prey switching observed in field studies. PMID:22089822

Costa, Arnaud; Reeve, John D

2011-11-01

143

Dr. Susan Prichard and Pine Beetles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, scientist Dr. Susan Prichard discusses the impact of pine bark beetles on western forests, including information on how climate change, specifically rising temperatures, is exacerbating the problem.

Central, Climate

144

Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower.(From the Biomass Program's home page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/) The Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database allows the user to choose from more than 150 types of biomass samples. The specialized interface then guides the user through choices within the sample (such as "Ash" as a choice in the "Hardwood" sample and displays tables based on choice of composition properties, structure properties, elemental properties, extractive properties, etc. (Specialized Interface)

145

Migration of a Water-beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

LAST night, at about ten o'clock, a beetle flew in through the open window, alighting on a bowl of roses in the centre of the dining table. On being dropped into a finger-bowl he promptly dived and swam merrily, and proved to be a specimen of the ordinary brown water-beetle, to be found in every pond or ditch of water.

Rose Haig Thomas

1895-01-01

146

Mountain Pine beetle disturbance and climate effects on subalpine forest carbon cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems in Western North America have experienced an epidemic outbreak of Mountain Pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), reducing net primary productivity and significantly compromising the potential for these ecosystems to sequester atmospheric carbon. Estimates of lost carbon sequestration and trajectories of future carbon uptake as these forests recover, are uncertain due to lack of fundamental knowledge about the carbon cycle processes that are impacted. Furthermore, the effects of this disturbance are informed by their interplay with important climatic drivers of subalpine carbon uptake such as the availability of snowmelt water. To examine some of these carbon cycle processes, we measured soil respiration rates, the 13C/12C of soil respired CO2, extractable soil carbon, and microbial biomass carbon in a chronosequence of plots consisting of lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) that experienced beetle kill or were girdled (simulating beetle kill). The plots are located in the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux and Fraser Experimental Forests of Colorado. The chronosequence extended from approximately 2002 to 2010. In addition, in 2008 and 2009 we amended and removed spring snow on a subset of girdled and control plots to isolate potential snowpack effects on the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration. Soil respiration, extractable carbon, and microbial biomass carbon were higher in control plot soils compared to soils in plots with girdled or beetle killed trees. These differences were greatest between control soils and soils of more recently girdled and beetle killed trees. Over the growing season, we found the 13C/12C ratio of soil respired CO2 was enriched in plots with girdled trees compared to the control plots past the second year of treatment. Finally, ungirdled plots in 2009 responded to spring snow amendments with increased soil respiration rates and a more depleted signature of ?13C. These effects occurred in early summer during the peak of carbon uptake at the Niwot ridge AmeriFlux site, and were not present in the girdled plots. Our results illustrate that the significant contribution of recently fixed autotrophic carbon from root exudates to soil respiration is lost with girdling and beetle kill in lodgepole pines, and that this loss is especially pronounced in the first several years. Additionally, the remaining primarily heterotrophic component of soil respiration demonstrates less sensitivity to early season snowpack moisture.

Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Bowling, D. R.; Monson, R. K.

2010-12-01

147

Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles  

PubMed Central

The characteristic bitter substances of the Cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. These beetles (e.g., Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (Cuc) B on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. Six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to Cuc B than to Cuc E and less responsive to Cuc D, I, and L. Chloroform extracts of 18 species of Cucurbita were developed on thin-layer chromatograms and exposed to diabroticite beetles. The feeding patterns showed pronounced beetle responses to three general Cuc distribution patterns: Cuc B and D as in Cucurbita andreana and C. ecuadorensis; Cuc E and I as in C. okeechobeensis and C. martinezii; and Cuc E glycoside in C. texana. All the diabroticites responded in exactly the same feeding patterns. The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles.

Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Robert A.; Rhodes, A. M.

1980-01-01

148

Managing Invasive Populations of Asian Longhorned Beetle and Citrus Longhorned Beetle: A Worldwide Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinen- sis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks be- gan in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB

Robert A. Haack; Franck Hérard; Jianghua Sun; Jean J. Turgeon

2010-01-01

149

Manufacture of Prebiotics from Biomass Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass from plant material is the most abundant and widespread renewable raw material for sustainable development, and can be employed as a source of polymeric and oligomeric carbohydrates. When ingested as a part of the diet, some biomass polysaccharides and/or their oligomeric hydrolysis products are selectively fermented in the colon, causing prebiotic effects.

Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Moure, Andrés; Alonso, José Luis; Domínguez, Herminia; Parajó, Juan Carlos

150

Biomass utilization  

SciTech Connect

Forty papers are presented in 6 sections: Biomass utilization - the concept; The raw material and its preparation; The structure and chemical composition of biomass; Conversion methods - biological; Conversion methods - thermochemical; and Engineering and economics in biomass utilization. Ten papers are of particular forestry interest: Forest inventories as the basis for a continuous monitoring of forest biomass resources (Cunia, T.); Aerial photo biomass equation (Kasile, J.); Forest biomass utilization in Greece (Tsoumis, C.); Mass propagation of selected trees for biomass by tissue culture (Venketeswaran, S. et al.); The anatomy, ultrastructure and chemical composition of wood (Coete, W.A.); Some structural characteristics of acid hydrolysis lignins (Papadopoulos, J.); Thermochemical routes to chemicals, fuels and energy from forestry and agricultural residues (Soltes, E.J.); Pyrolysis of wood wastes (Figueiredo, J.L. et al.); Efficient utilization of woody biomass: a cellulose-particleboard-synfuels model (Young, R.A.; Achmadi, S.); and Methanol from wood, a state of the art review (Beenackers, A.A.C.M.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van).

Coute, W.A. (ed.)

1983-01-01

151

New Pest Response Guidelines: Asian Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This New Pest Response Guideline provides guidelines and actions for an Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), eradication program. It is intended for use as a guide when an outbreak of Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) is known to e...

2008-01-01

152

Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution  

PubMed Central

Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of diplogastrid nematodes and their beetle hosts. Instead, frequent host switching is observed. The molecular phylogeny of the Diplogastridae provides a framework for further examinations of the evolution of these associations, for the study of interactions within the ecosystems, and for investigations of diplogastrid genome evolution.

2009-01-01

153

Continuous plankton recorder underestimates zooplankton abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison between monthly mean Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) data and zooplankton data caught during winter and early spring with different sampling devices in the North Sea is presented to estimate the relative error in abundance of CPR measurements. CPR underestimates the abundance of zooplankton by a factor 25 during winter and early spring and by a factor 18 if Oithona spp. is not considered. This has serious implications for estimation of biomass as well as for modelling ecosystem dynamics.

Dippner, Joachim W.; Krause, Michael

2013-02-01

154

Olfactory Cues from Plants Infected by Powdery Mildew Guide Foraging by a Mycophagous Ladybird Beetle  

PubMed Central

Powdery mildews (Erysiphales) are economically important plant pathogens that attack many agricultural crops. Conventional management strategies involving fungicide application face challenges, including the evolution of resistance and concerns over impacts on non-target organisms, that call for investigation of more sustainable alternatives. Mycophagous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feed on powdery mildew and have considerable potential as biological control agents; however, the foraging ecology and behavior of these beetles is not well understood. Here we document the olfactory cues presented by squash plants (Cucurbita moschata) infected by powdery mildew (Podosphaera sp.) and the behavioral responses of twenty-spotted ladybird beetles (Psyllobora vigintimaculata) to these cues. Volatile analyses through gas chromatography revealed a number of volatile compounds characteristic of infected plants, including 3-octanol and its analogues 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone. These compounds are typical “moldy” odorants previously reported in volatiles collected from other fungi. In addition, infected plants exhibited elevated emissions of several compounds also observed in collections from healthy leaves, including linalool and benzyl alcohol, which are reported to have anti-fungal properties. In Y-tube choice assays, P. vigintimaculata beetles displayed a significant preference for the odors of infected plants compared to those of healthy plants. Moreover, beetles exhibited strong attraction to one individual compound, 1-octen-3-ol, which was the most abundant of the characteristic fungal compounds identified. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by mycophagous insects and may facilitate the development of integrated disease-management strategies informed by an understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms.

Tabata, Jun; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.

2011-01-01

155

Microorganisms in the gut of beetles: evidence from molecular cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have regularly cultured yeasts from the gut of certain beetles in our ongoing research. In this study cloned PCR products amplified from the gut contents of certain mushroom-feeding and wood-ingesting beetles in four families (Erotylidae, Tenebrionidae, Ciidae, and Passalidae) were sequenced and compared with culture results. Cultural techniques detected some yeasts present in the gut of the beetles, including

Ning Zhang; Sung-Oui Suh; Meredith Blackwell

2003-01-01

156

Grape Cultivar Feeding Preference of Adult Japanese Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese beetle is a major insect pest of grapes in the eastern United States. An examination of Japanese beetle preference for currently grown grape cultivars would be useful to growers in developing pest control strategies with reduced chemical inputs. The objective of this study was to examine grape cultivar preference of Japanese beetles for commercially available grape cultivars in

Sanjun Gu; Kirk W. Pomper

2008-01-01

157

Blister beetle periorbital dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of periorbital dermatitis and one case of keratoconjunctivitis following contact with blister beetle are presented. In Tanzania and Kenya the commonest blister beetle is known as Nairobi Fly and is of the genus Paederus, Ocular symptoms are common, usually secondary to transfer by the fingers of the toxic chemical involved from elsewhere on the skin. Blister beetle keratoconjunctivitis

T R G Poole

1998-01-01

158

Developing funga l bands for control of Asian longhorned beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An invasive long2horned beetle, A noplophora g labripenn is, was first reported in the northeastern and m idwest2 ern United States and eastern Canada between 1996 and 2004 and has been given the common name A sian longhorned beetle (ALB). This beetle has also been found in several countries in Europe. ALB is difficult to control because larvae are found

Ann Hajek; Thomas Dubois; Jennifer Lund; M ichael Sm ith; Leah Bauer

159

Sequential and concurrent exposure of flour beetles ( Tribolium confusum ) to tapeworms ( Hymenolepis diminuta ) and pesticide (diatomaceous earth).  

PubMed

The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently. PMID:22263651

Shostak, Allen W

2012-06-01

160

Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested forest within managed forest landscapes and practice partial harvest of beetle-killed spruce rather than commercial clear-cutting of infested stands in order to sustain breeding bird populations until natural reforestation occurs. Because breeding densities do not always reflect fitness, assessing impacts of a massive natural disturbance should include measuring impacts of changes in vegetation on both reproductive success and predator-prey dynamics.

Matsuoka, S. M.; Handel, C. M.

2007-01-01

161

Species spectrum of flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) attracted to allyl isothiocyanate-baited traps.  

PubMed

In field tests in Hungary, Slovenia and Bulgaria, in allyl isothiocyanate-baited traps significantly more beetles of Phyllotreta cruciferae, Ph. vittula, Ph. undulata, Ph. nigripes, Ph. nodicornis, Ph. balcanica, Ph. atra, Ph. procera, Ph. ochripes, Ph. diademata and Psylliodes chrysocephalus (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Halticinae) were captured than in unbaited control traps. With the exception of Ph. cruciferae, this is the first report on significant field attraction by allyl isothiocyanate for these species. The species spectrum captured included six important agricultural pests. At all sites a great portion of the catch (ranging from ca 30 to 98%) was Ph. cruciferae, irrespective of the plant culture. The second most abundant species present at most sites was Ph. vittula. The present results are very promising from the point of view of applicability of allyl isothiocyanate in Europe as a bait in cabbage flea beetle traps for detection and monitoring. PMID:18069253

Tótha, Miklós; Csonka, Eva; Bakcsa, Flórián; Benedek, Pál; Szarukán, István; Gomboc, Stanislav; Toshova, Teodora; Subchev, Mitko; Ujváry, István

2007-01-01

162

Species Composition and Community Structure of Dung Beetles Attracted to Dung of Gaur and Elephant in the Moist Forests of South Western Ghats  

PubMed Central

The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats.

Vinod, K.V.; Sabu, Thomas K.

2007-01-01

163

ROOT BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN THE WORLD'S UPLAND FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root biomass based on standard meth...

164

How Habitat Change and Rainfall Affect Dung Beetle Diversity in Caatinga, a Brazilian Semi-Arid Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate how dung beetle communities respond to both environment and rainfall in the Caatinga, a semi-arid ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. The communities were sampled monthly from May 2006 to April 2007 using pitfall traps baited with human feces in two environments denominated “land use area” and “undisturbed area.” Abundance and species richness were compared between the two environments and two seasons (dry and wet season) using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error distribution. Diversity was compared between the two environments (land use area and undisturbed area) and seasons (dry and wet) using the Two-Way ANOVA test. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was performed on the resemblance matrix of Bray-Curtis distances (with 1000 random restarts) to determine whether disturbance affected the abundance and species composition of the dung beetle communities. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine whether rainfall was correlated with abundance and species richness. A total of 1097 specimens belonging to 13 species were collected. The most abundant and frequent species was Dichotomius geminatus Arrow (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). The environment exerted an influence over abundance. Abundance and diversity were affected by season, with an increase in abundance at the beginning of the wet season. The correlation coefficient values were high and significant for abundance and species richness, which were both correlated to rainfall. In conclusion, the restriction of species to some environments demonstrates the need to preserve these areas in order to avoid possible local extinction. Therefore, in extremely seasonable environments, such as the Caatinga, seasonal variation strongly affects dung beetle communities.

Liberal, Carolina Nunes; de Farias, Angela Maria Isidro; Meiado, Marcos Vinicius; Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.; Iannuzzi, Luciana

2011-01-01

165

Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

1993-01-01

166

BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

BeetleBase (http://www.bioinformatics.ksu.edu/BeetleBase/) is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software components developed by the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) project. This strategy not only reduces the time required to develop the database query tools but also makes the data structure of BeetleBase compatible with that of other model organism databases. BeetleBase will be useful to the Tribolium research community for genome annotation as well as comparative genomics. PMID:17090595

Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S R; Brown, Susan J

2007-01-01

167

Beetle (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) facilitation of larval mosquito growth in tree hole habitats is linked to multitrophic microbial interactions.  

PubMed

Container-breeding mosquitoes, such as Aedes triseriatus, ingest biofilms and filter water column microorganisms directly to obtain the bulk of their nutrition. Scirtid beetles often co-occur with A. triseriatus and may facilitate the production of mosquito adults under low-resource conditions. Using molecular genetic techniques and quantitative assays, we observed changes in the dynamics and composition of bacterial and fungal communities present on leaf detritus and in the water column when scirtid beetles co-occur with A. triseriatus. Data from terminal restriction fragment polymorphism analysis indicated scirtid presence alters the structure of fungal communities in the water column but not leaf-associated fungal communities. Similar changes in leaf and water bacterial communities occurred in response to mosquito presence. In addition, we observed increased processing of leaf detritus, higher leaf-associated enzyme activity, higher bacterial productivity, and higher leaf-associated fungal biomass when scirtid beetles were present. Such shifts suggest beetle feeding facilitates mosquito production indirectly through the microbial community rather than directly through an increase in available fine particulate organic matter. PMID:21607876

Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Kaufman, Michael G; Walker, Edward D

2011-10-01

168

Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

1997-09-01

169

Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?  

PubMed Central

Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the need for further research into spatial variation in biodiversity–ecosystem function relationships and how the results of such studies are affected by methodological choices.

Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

2014-01-01

170

Do riparian reserves support dung beetle biodiversity and ecosystem services in oil palm-dominated tropical landscapes?  

PubMed

Agricultural expansion and intensification are major threats to global biodiversity, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. The rapid expansion of oil palm in forested tropical landscapes is of particular concern given their high biodiversity. Identifying management approaches that maintain native species and associated ecological processes within oil palm plantations is therefore a priority. Riparian reserves are strips of forest retained alongside rivers in cultivated areas, primarily for their positive hydrological impact. However, they can also support a range of forest-dependent species or ecosystem services. We surveyed communities of dung beetles and measured dung removal activity in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The species richness, diversity, and functional group richness of dung beetles in riparian reserves were significantly higher than in oil palm, but lower than in adjacent logged forests. The community composition of the riparian reserves was more similar to logged forest than oil palm. Despite the pronounced differences in biodiversity, we did not find significant differences in dung removal rates among land uses. We also found no evidence that riparian reserves enhance dung removal rates within surrounding oil palm. These results contrast previous studies showing positive relationships between dung beetle species richness and dung removal in tropical forests. We found weak but significant positive relationships between riparian reserve width and dung beetle diversity, and between reserve vegetation complexity and dung beetle abundance, suggesting that these features may increase the conservation value of riparian reserves. Synthesis and applications: The similarity between riparian reserves and logged forest demonstrates that retaining riparian reserves increases biodiversity within oil palm landscapes. However, the lack of correlation between dung beetle community characteristics and dung removal highlights the need for further research into spatial variation in biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships and how the results of such studies are affected by methodological choices. PMID:24772282

Gray, Claudia L; Slade, Eleanor M; Mann, Darren J; Lewis, Owen T

2014-04-01

171

Use of Semiochemicals of Secondary Bark Beetles to Disrupt Spruce Beetle Attraction and Survival in Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field experiments using baited multiple-funnel traps and baited felled trees were conducted to test the hypothesis that semiochemicals from secondary species of scolytids could be used to disrupt spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennnis (Kirby)) attraction...

R. A. Werner E. H. Holsten

2002-01-01

172

Application of Bark Beetle Semiochemicals for Quarantine of Bark Beetles in China  

PubMed Central

This article describes the use of bark beetle semiochemicals for quarantine in China. Using traps with two isomeric compounds of ?-pinene, ethanol, trans-verbenol, verbenone, camphene and isononylaldehyde, insects of four families (Scolytidae, Platypodidae, Bostychidae and Cleridae) were trapped, including eight genera of Scolytidae, (Xyleborus, Cryphalus, Polygraphs, Xyloterus, Ips, Dendroctonus, Orthotomicus and Scolytus), totaling 16 species. The present condition of bark beetle quarantine in China is briefly discussed, and the broad research trends are outlined.

Liu, Yong; Dai, Huaguo

2006-01-01

173

A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera).  

PubMed

This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevi?ius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category and data on their distribution in neighbouring countries is presented. Completion of this study provides evidence that the Lithuanian coleopteran fauna has yet to be completely investigated and it is estimated that approximately 28 % of beetle species remain undiscovered in Lithuania. More than 85% of beetle species expected for Lithuania have been found in the following families: Cerylonidae, Geotrupidae, Haliplidae, Kateridae, Lycidae, Lucanidae, Mycetophagidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae. In families with few species such as Alexiidae, Boridae, Byturidae, Dascilidae, Drilidae, Eucinetidae, Lampyridae, Lymexilidae, Megalopodidae, Nemonychidae, Nosodendridae, Noteridae, Orsodacnidae, Pyrochroidae, Pythidae, Psephenidae, Rhysodidae, Sphaeritidae, Sphaeriusidae, Sphindidae, Stenotrahelidae and Trogidae, all possible species have already been discovered. However in some beetle families such as Aderidae, Bothrideridae, Eucnemidae, Laemoploeidae, Mordellidae, Ptiliidae, Scraptidae and Throscidae less than 50% of all possible species are known. At present the beetle species recorded in Lithuania belong to 92 families, with species from 9 other families such as Agyrtidae, Biphylidae, Deradontidae, Mycteridae, Ochodaeidae, Phleophilidae, Phloeostichidae, Prostomidae, Trachypachidae are expected to be found.A bibliography and a index of subfamily and genus levels are provided. The information published in the monograph will serve to further faunistic and distribution research of beetles and will help to avoid confusion in the identificatation of coleopteran fauna of Lithuania. PMID:22461725

Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamut?, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

2011-01-01

174

A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevi?ius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category and data on their distribution in neighbouring countries is presented. Completion of this study provides evidence that the Lithuanian coleopteran fauna has yet to be completely investigated and it is estimated that approximately 28 % of beetle species remain undiscovered in Lithuania. More than 85% of beetle species expected for Lithuania have been found in the following families: Cerylonidae, Geotrupidae, Haliplidae, Kateridae, Lycidae, Lucanidae, Mycetophagidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae. In families with few species such as Alexiidae, Boridae, Byturidae, Dascilidae, Drilidae, Eucinetidae, Lampyridae, Lymexilidae, Megalopodidae, Nemonychidae, Nosodendridae, Noteridae, Orsodacnidae, Pyrochroidae, Pythidae, Psephenidae, Rhysodidae, Sphaeritidae, Sphaeriusidae, Sphindidae, Stenotrahelidae and Trogidae, all possible species have already been discovered. However in some beetle families such as Aderidae, Bothrideridae, Eucnemidae, Laemoploeidae, Mordellidae, Ptiliidae, Scraptidae and Throscidae less than 50% of all possible species are known. At present the beetle species recorded in Lithuania belong to 92 families, with species from 9 other families such as Agyrtidae, Biphylidae, Deradontidae, Mycteridae, Ochodaeidae, Phleophilidae, Phloeostichidae, Prostomidae, Trachypachidae are expected to be found. A bibliography and a index of subfamily and genus levels are provided. The information published in the monograph will serve to further faunistic and distribution research of beetles and will help to avoid confusion in the identificatation of coleopteran fauna of Lithuania.

Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamute, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

2011-01-01

175

Review paper An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give

C. Z. Wu; H. Huang; S. P. Zheng; X. L. Yin

176

An economic analysis of biomass gasification and power generation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With vast territory and abundant biomass resources China appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. In spite of the relatively high cost for controlling secondary pollution by wastewater, BGPG is economically feasible and can give

C. Z Wu; H Huang; S. P Zheng; X. L Yin

2002-01-01

177

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations...

2009-01-01

178

7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section...AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations...

2010-01-01

179

77 FR 40564 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Asian Longhorned Beetle Consumer...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection; Asian Longhorned Beetle Consumer Research Survey...associated with the APHIS Asian longhorned beetle eradication program. DATES...For information on the Asian longhorned beetle consumer research...

2012-07-10

180

77 FR 58469 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. APHIS-2012-0003] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts...interim rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle regulations by adding portions...the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of...

2012-09-21

181

Localized Spatial and Temporal Attack Dynamics of the Mountain Pine Beetle in Lodgepole Pine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Be...

B. J. Bentz J. A. Powell J. A. Logan

1996-01-01

182

Shield Defense of a Larval Tortoise Beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the folivorous tortoise beetle, Plagiometriona clavata, carry shields formed from feces and exuviae above their bodies. We used an ecologically relevant predatory ant, Formica subsericea, in a bioassay to determine if shields functioned as simple barriers, as previous studies indicated, or whether they were chemical defenses. Shields were necessary for larval survival; shield removal rendered larvae vulnerable. Shields

Fredric V. Vencl; Timothy C. Morton; Ralph O. Mumma; Jack C. Schultz

1999-01-01

183

Beetle larvae cooperate to mimic bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life cycles of parasites often involve complex behavioural and morphological adaptations in order to find a host. Here we report a remarkable mode of host-finding by the blister beetle Meloe franciscanus, in which young larvae aggregate together on vegetation to mimic the appearance of a female bee, luring male bees to land on them and collect the aggregation as

John Hafernik; Leslie Saul-Gershenz

2000-01-01

184

RESEARCH ON ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE IN CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An established population of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), was discovered in 2003 in an industrial park in the Greater Toronto Area, on the border between Toronto and Vaughan, Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this presentation was to provide an overview of the research activities undertaken and type of information col- lected since that discovery. This presentation provided

Jean J. Turgeon; Ben Gasman; Michael T. Smith; Peter de Groot; Blair Helson; Dean Thompson; Mamdouh Abou-Zaid; Dave Kreutzweizer

185

Remote sensing and GIS studies on the spatial distribution and management of Japanese beetle adults and grubs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are rapidly developing technologies that offer new opportunities and potentially more effective methods for detecting and monitoring insect pests, as well as understanding their spatial dynamics. These technologies (coupled with traditional trapping) were investigated for their use in managing Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) adults and grubs and studying their spatial distribution and dynamics. Japanese beetle grubs are important root-feeding pests of turfgrass in the Midwest and eastern United States. No non-invasive methods exist to detect grub infestations before unsightly damage has occurred. Studies were conducted to determine whether remote sensing could be used to detect the pre-visible symptoms of simulated and natural grub damage in turfgrass. Simulated grub damage was detected with surface temperature measurements (but not with spectrometer data) before significant visual differences were found. Plots infested with grubs were distinguished from uninfested plots using spectrometer data 10--16 days before significant differences in visual ratings were found. Results using multispectral imagery were mixed. Currently, Japanese beetles are not established in the western United States. There is great concern over their inadvertent transportation into Pacific costal states via cargo transport planes. Beetles may fly onboard cargo planes while they are loaded or unloaded and be accidentally transported to the western states. A study was initiated to evaluate trapping as a method to reliably detect Japanese beetle hotspots near cargo terminals at the Indianapolis International Airport and to assess the spatial variability of the population around the airport. The potential influence of land use on beetle abundance was also assessed, using a GIS. Baited Japanese beetle traps were placed around the perimeter of the airport and emptied daily. Location-dependent variation in trap catch was found. Seasonal average trap catches were highly correlated from year to year, by location. A mark-release-recapture study showed that Japanese beetles frequently flew up to 500m during a day, but could travel up to 700m. Using a GIS, a spatially explicit map of land use and trap location was created. Agricultural land within 500m of the traps was generally positively correlated with trap catch.

Hamilton, Randy M.

186

Effects of Chitin and Contact Insecticide Complexes on Rove Beetles in Commercial Orchards  

PubMed Central

A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility.

Balog, A.; Ferencz, L.; Hartel, T.

2011-01-01

187

Effects of chitin and contact insecticide complexes on rove beetles in commercial orchards.  

PubMed

A five-year research project was performed to explore the potential effects of contact insecticide applications on the change of abundance and species richness of predatory rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in conventionally managed orchards. Twelve blocks of nine orchards were used for this study in Central Europe. High sensitivity atomic force microscopic examination was carried out for chitin structure analyses as well as computer simulation for steric energy calculation between insecticides and chitin. The species richness of rove beetles in orchards was relatively high after insecticide application. Comparing the mean abundance before and after insecticide application, a higher value was observed before spraying with alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a lower value was observed in the cases of diflubenzuron, malathion, lufenuron, and phosalone. The species richness was higher only before chlorpyrifos-methyl application. There was a negative correlation between abundance and stability value of chitin-insecticides, persistence time, and soil absorption coefficients. Positive correlation was observed with lipo- and water solubility. PMID:21870981

Balog, A; Ferencz, L; Hartel, T

2011-01-01

188

Floral Associations of Cyclocephaline Scarab Beetles  

PubMed Central

The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: 1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, 2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and 3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses, host plant shifts, and mutualisms with angiosperms.

Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

2013-01-01

189

Biomass energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book offers a broad, interdisciplinary approach to assessing the factors that are key determinants to the use of biomass energies, stressing their limitations, complexities, uncertainties, links, and consequences. Considers photosynthesis, energy costs of nutrients, problems with monoculture, and the energy analysis of intensive tree plantations. Subjects are examined in terms of environmental and economic impact. Emphasizes the use and

Smil

1983-01-01

190

Aggregation pheromone of driedfruit beetle,Carpophilus hemipterus Wind-tunnel bioassay and identification of two novel tetraene hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

A male-produced aggregation pheromone was demonstrated inCarpophilus hemipterus (L.) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) using a wind-tunnel bioassay. Both sexes responded to the pheromone, but the beetles flew in the wind tunnel only after they had been starved for at least several hours. The attractiveness of the pheromone was greatly enhanced by volatiles from a food source, and combinations of pheromone and food volatiles typically attracted 3-10 times more beetles than either source by itself. A variety of food-related sources of volatiles were effective. These included apple juice; a mixture of baker's yeast plus banana; the pinto bean diet used for rearing this beetle; the chemicals propyl acetate, ethanol; and a mixture of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The pheromonal activity resided with a series of 10 male-specific, unsaturated hydrocarbons of 13, 14, and 15 carbon atoms. These were partially separated by HPLC. No single compound was absolutely required for pheromonal activity to be observed, and various subsets of these compounds were active. The most abundant component was (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-decatetraene. One minor component was (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene. These structures were proven by synthesis. Together, the synthetic compounds were as active in the wind tunnel as the beetle-derived pheromone. PMID:24263709

Bartelt, R J; Dowd, P F; Plattner, R D; Weisleder, D

1990-04-01

191

Cross-scale Drivers of Natural Disturbances Prone to Anthropogenic Amplification: The Dynamics of Bark Beetle Eruptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biome-scale disturbances by eruptive herbivores provide valuable insights into species interactions, ecosystem function, and impacts of global change. We present a conceptual framework using one system as a model, emphasizing interactions across levels of biological hierarchy and spatiotemporal scales. Bark beetles are major natural disturbance agents in western North American forests. However, recent bark beetle population eruptions have exceeded the frequencies, impacts, and ranges documented during the previous 125 years. Extensive host abundance and susceptibility, concentrated beetle density, favorable weather, optimal symbiotic associations, and escape from natural enemies must occur jointly for beetles to surpass a series of thresholds and exert widespread disturbance. Opposing feedbacks determine qualitatively distinct outcomes at junctures at the biochemical through landscape levels. Eruptions occur when key thresholds are surpassed, prior constraints cease to exert influence, and positive feedbacks amplify across scales. These dynamics are bidirectional, as landscape features influence how lower-scale processes are amplified or buffered. Climate change and reduced habitat heterogeneity increase the likelihood that key thresholds will be exceeded, and may cause fundamental regime shifts. Systems in which endogenous feedbacks can dominate after external forces foster the initial breach of thresholds appear particularly sensitive to anthropogenic perturbations.

Kenneth F. Raffa et al (University of Wisconsin;)

2008-06-01

192

Trophic structure stability and extinction dynamics of beetles (Coleoptera) in tropical forest fragments  

PubMed Central

A first analysis of the stability of trophic structure following tropical forest fragmentation was performed in an experimentally fragmented tropical forest landscape in Central Amazonia. A taxonomically and trophically diverse assemblage of 993 species of beetles was sampled from 920 m2 of leaf litter at 46 sites varying in distance from forest edge and fragment area. Beetle density increased significantly towards the forest edge and showed non-linear changes with fragment area, due to the influx of numerous disturbed-area species into 10 ha and 1 ha fragments. There was a marked change in species composition with both decreasing distance from forest edge and decreasing fragment area, but surprisingly this change in composition was not accompanied by a change in species richness. Rarefied species richness did not vary significantly across any of the sites, indicating that local extinctions of deep forest species were balanced by equivalent colonization rates of disturbed-area species. The change in species composition with fragmentation was non-random across trophic groups. Proportions of predator species and xylophage species changed significantly with distance from forest edge, but no area-dependent changes in proportions of species in trophic groups were observed. Trophic structure was also analysed with respect to proportions of abundance in six trophic groups. Proportions of abundance of all trophic groups except xylomycetophages changed markedly with respect to both distance from forest edge and fragment area. Local extinction probabilities calculated for individual beetle species supported theoretical predictions of the differential susceptibility of higher trophic levels to extinction, and of changes in trophic structure following forest fragmentation. To reduce random effects due to sampling error, only abundant species (n = 46) were analysed for extinction probabilities, as defined by absence from samples. Of these common species, 27% had significantly higher probabilities of local extinction following fragmentation. The majority of these species were predators; 42% of all abundant predator species were significantly more likely to be absent from samples in forest fragments than in undisturbed forest. These figures are regarded as minimum estimates for the entire beetle assemblage because rarer species will inevitably have higher extinction probabilities. Absolute loss of biodiversity will affect ecosystem process rates, but the differential loss of species from trophic groups will have an even greater destabilizing effect on food web structure and ecosystem function.

Didham, R. K.

1998-01-01

193

Are bark beetle outbreaks less synchronous than forest Lepidoptera outbreaks?  

PubMed

Comparisons of intraspecific spatial synchrony across multiple epidemic insect species can be useful for generating hypotheses about major determinants of population patterns at larger scales. The present study compares patterns of spatial synchrony in outbreaks of six epidemic bark beetle species in North America and Europe. Spatial synchrony among populations of the Eurasian spruce bark beetle Ips typographus was significantly higher than for the other bark beetle species. The spatial synchrony observed in epidemic bark beetles was also compared with previously published patterns of synchrony in outbreaks of defoliating forest Lepidoptera, revealing a marked difference between these two major insect groups. The bark beetles exhibited a generally lower degree of spatial synchrony than the Lepidoptera, possibly because bark beetles are synchronized by different weather variables that are acting on a smaller scale than those affecting the Lepidoptera, or because inherent differences in their dynamics leads to more cyclic oscillations and more synchronous spatial dynamics in the Lepidoptera. PMID:16151861

Økland, Bjørn; Liebhold, Andrew M; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Erbilgin, Nadir; Krokene, Paal

2005-12-01

194

Numerical Responses of Saproxylic Beetles to Rapid Increases in Dead Wood Availability following Geometrid Moth Outbreaks in Sub-Arctic Mountain Birch Forest.  

PubMed

Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak. PMID:24911056

Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

2014-01-01

195

Numerical Responses of Saproxylic Beetles to Rapid Increases in Dead Wood Availability following Geometrid Moth Outbreaks in Sub-Arctic Mountain Birch Forest  

PubMed Central

Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

2014-01-01

196

Spray aiming in the bombardier beetle: Photographic evidence  

PubMed Central

Bombardier beetles, when physically assaulted, eject a hot quinonoid spray from the tip of the abdomen. Photographic evidence is presented demonstrating that the African bombardier beetle, Stenaptinus insignis, can aim its spray in virtually any direction. It can target its individual legs, and even the individual segments of its legs. Moreover, in aiming at a leg, it takes into account the postural orientation of that leg. The beetle is able even to target sites on its back. It is postulated that the ability to aim helps the beetle mainly in defense against ants.

Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

1999-01-01

197

Allozyme gene diversities in some leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).  

PubMed

Gene diversity at allozyme loci was investigated in the bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata Forster; the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller); the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricus; the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the southern corn rootworm, also called the spotted cucumber beetle, D. undecimpunctata howardi Baker; the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence; and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Six of these species are economically important pests of crops and display adaptive traits that may correlate with genetic diversity. Gene diversity H(E) in bean leaf beetles was 17.7 +/- 4.0% among 32 loci. In western corn rootworms, H(E) = 4.8 +/- 2.0% among 36 loci, and in spotted cucumber beetles, H(E) = 11.9 +/- 2.7% among 39 loci. Diversity among 27 loci was 10.5 +/- 4.3% in the Colorado potato beetle. The data were compared with gene diversity estimates from other leaf beetle species in which heterozygosities varied from 0.3 to 21% and no correlation was detected among heterozygosities, geographic ranges, or population densities. Distributions of single-locus heterozygosities were consistent with selective neutrality of alleles. PMID:10624512

Krafsur, E S

1999-08-01

198

Pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and biomass components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass pyrolysis studies were conducted using both a thermogravimetric analyser and a packed-bed pyrolyser. Each kind of biomass has a characteristic pyrolysis behaviour which is explained based on its individual component characteristics. Studies on isolated biomass components as well as synthetic biomass show that the interactions among the components are not of as much significance as the composition of the

K. Raveendran; Anuradda Ganesh; Kartic C. Khilar

1996-01-01

199

The Leiodid Beetles of Costa Rica  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad in Costa Rica provides this visually pleasing Web site on the Leiodidae, authored by S. P. Beck of Carleton University and A. F. Newton of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. A simple drop down menu allows users to access information on leiodid beetle taxonomy, distribution, life history, biogeography, collection methods, and more. Most sections of this Web site contain straightforward text explanations of each topic, although some sections also include links to textbook-style diagrams, such as in the Illustrated Key to the Leodidae of Costa Rica and in Habitus Figures. In all, this Web site offers a brief and well-presented overview of Costa Rica's leiodid beetles.

Newton, Alfred F.; Peck, Stewart B.

200

Suitability of some southern and western pines as hosts for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).  

PubMed

The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.), is an exotic pest that has become established in North America. Discovered in Ohio in 1992, it has since been found in at least 13 states and parts of Canada. The beetle can cause significant growth loss in pines, and it represents a potential threat to trees in areas where it has not yet become established. To evaluate this threat to native pines, field and laboratory tests were conducted on several common and important southern and western species to determine whether they are acceptable hosts for T. piniperda. Comparisons with Pinus sylvestris L., Scots pine, a preferred natural host for the beetle, were made where possible. Measurements of beetle attack success on southern pine billets showed that Pinus taeda L., Pinus echinata Miller, Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelmann, Pinus palustris Miller, and Pinus virginiana Miller (loblolly, shortleaf, slash, longleaf, and Virginia pine, respectively) and two western pines, Pinus ponderosa Lawson and Pinus contorta Douglas (ponderosa and lodgepole pine, respectively), were acceptable for breeding material, but brood production was highly variable. Among the southern pines, P. taeda and P. echinata were susceptible to shoot feeding by T. piniperda, whereas P. elliottii was highly resistant and P. palustris seemed to be virtually immune. Shoot feeding tests on the western pines were conducted only in the laboratory, but there was moderate-to-good survival of adults feeding on both species. It seems that if T. piniperda is introduced into the south and west it will likely establish and may cause some damage to native pines. P. taeda may be affected more than other southern pines because it is the most abundant species, it is readily attacked for brood production, which can result in moderately large broods, and the beetle survives well during maturation feeding on P. taeda shoots. PMID:15154468

Eager, T A; Berisford, C W; Dalusky, M J; Nielsen, D G; Brewer, J W; Hilty, S J; Haack, R A

2004-04-01

201

Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.  

PubMed

The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

2013-01-01

202

Trophic associations of a dung beetle assemblage (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a woodland savanna of Botswana.  

PubMed

Species richness and abundance of dung beetles were assessed across a range of bait types that acted as surrogates for the food resources available in Chobe National Park, Botswana. These bait types were comprised of the dung of pig (omnivore), cattle (ruminant herbivore dropping fine-fiberd pads), sheep (pellet-dropping ruminant herbivore), and elephant (monogastric, nonruminant herbivore producing coarse-fibered droppings), and chicken livers (carrion). Species richness was similar between traps baited with pig, cattle, and elephant dung but was relatively lower in those baited with sheep dung and carrion. In traps baited with pig dung, abundance was relatively greater than in all other bait types. A cluster analysis of species abundance distributions for the 30 most abundant species identified four different patterns of bait type association at a 60% level of similarity. All but 1 of the 15 species in cluster A were attracted primarily to the dung of omnivores and pad-dropping ruminant herbivores (pig and cattle). All seven species of cluster B were attracted primarily to coarse-fibered, nonruminant herbivore dung (elephant). All four species of cluster C were primarily carrion and pig dung associated, whereas all four species of cluster D were carrion specialists. In conclusion, the most abundant species were attracted to all bait types, but most species were largely specialized to different dung types or carrion, with dung attracting the majority of the fauna in terms of both species richness and abundance. PMID:18419915

Tshikae, B Power; Davis, Adrian L V; Scholtz, Clarke H

2008-04-01

203

Stimulatory beetle volatiles for the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky).  

PubMed

Two male-specific beetle volatiles were found that elicited strong gas chromatographic-electroantennographic responses from both sexes of Asian longhorned beetle adults, Anoplophora glabripennis. The secretion consisted of a approximately 1:1 (v/v) blend of functionalized dialkyl ethers, 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol. These compounds are chemically unusual natural products that are previously unknown from insects. Laboratory olfactometer studies showed that a blend of 10 microg of each synthetic compound on a filter paper strip was significantly attractive to ALB adults. PMID:12132701

Zhang, Aijun; Oliver, James E; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Wang, Baode; Mastro, Vic C

2002-01-01

204

Mountain Pine Beetle Emergence from Lodgepole Pine at Different Elevations Near Fraser, CO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mountain pine beetle emergence was studied at 8760 ft, 9200 ft, and 9900 ft near Fraser, CO. Beetles began emerging at 8760 ft between July 9 and July 14 while no beetles emerged at 9200 ft and only one beetle emerged at 9900 ft during the same period. Be...

J. Tishmack S. A. Mata J. M. Schmid

2005-01-01

205

Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle epidemic.  

PubMed

Forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosa) is rapidly transforming western North American landscapes. The rapid and widespread death of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) will likely have cascading effects on biodiversity. One group particularly prone to such declines associated with MPB are ectomycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic organisms that can depend on pine for their survival, and are critical for stand regeneration. We evaluated the indirect effects of MPB on above- (community composition of epigeous sporocarps) and belowground (hyphal abundance) occurrences of ectomycorrhizal fungi across 11 forest stands. Along a gradient of mortality (0-82% pine killed), macromycete community composition changed; this shift was driven by a decrease in the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Both the proportion of species that were ectomycorrhizal and hyphal length in the soil declined with increased MPB-caused pine mortality; < 10% of sporocarp species were ectomycorrhizal in stands with high pine mortality compared with > 70% in stands without MPB attacks. The rapid range expansion of a native insect results not only in the widespread mortality of an ecologically and economically important pine species, but the effect of MPB may also be exacerbated by the concomitant decline of fungi crucial for recovery of these forests. PMID:24933827

Treu, Roland; Karst, Justine; Randall, Morgan; Pec, Gregory J; Cigan, Paul W; Simard, Suzanne W; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cahill, James F

2014-04-01

206

Sampling saproxylic beetles: lessons from a 10-year monitoring study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sampled saproxylic beetles using trunk window traps in two birch-dominated forests in Finland during 1990–1999. The sampling scheme, 10 traps attached to living fruiting bodies of Fomes fomentarius growing on dead birches, remained unchanged in both forests throughout the study period. Beetles belonging to 32 selected families were identified every year, whereas all species were identified during the last

Petri Martikainen; Lauri Kaila

2004-01-01

207

Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. Application of volatile oils led in most cases to a reduced number of eggs on treated

Sara J Boeke; Cécile Barnaud; Joop JA van Loon; Dansou K Kossou; Arnold van Huis; Marcel Dicke

2004-01-01

208

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF TREES INFESTED BY THE ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, the Asian Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) has infested various species of trees throughout the United States, and it threatens to do billions of dollars worth of damage. This study sought to identify various factors that may affect the selectivity of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) for specific host tree species. Trees studied included the Sugar

Robert Bruce; Deepa Cherla; Pedro Duran; Josephine Li; Tanvi Rastogi; Aaron Sin

209

Reduced Brood Production of Southern Pine Beetles by Diflubenzuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Treating the female southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) with the insect growth regulator di- flubenzuron will decrease the hatch of eggs deposited in the first 2 dm of egg gallery. Treatment of males had no effect. Surface applications of 1 to 10 pg of diflubenzuron per female beetle and exposure to artificial diets with 100 to 1000 pg\\/g

J. W. Van Sambeek

210

The management of fluid and wave resistances by whirligig beetles  

PubMed Central

Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) are semi-aquatic insects with a morphology and propulsion system highly adapted to their life at the air–water interface. When swimming on the water surface, beetles are subject to both fluid resistance and wave resistance. The purpose of this study was to analyse swimming speed, leg kinematics and the capillarity waves produced by whirligig beetles on the water surface in a simple environment. Whirligig beetles of the species Gyrinus substriatus were filmed in a large container, with a high-speed camera. Resistance forces were also estimated. These beetles used three types of leg kinematics, differing in the sequence of leg strokes: two for swimming at low speed and one for swimming at high speed. Four main speed patterns were produced by different combinations of these types of leg kinematics, and the minimum speed for the production of surface waves (23 cm s?1) corresponded to an upper limit when beetles used low-speed leg kinematics. Each type of leg kinematics produced characteristic capillarity waves, even if the beetles moved at a speed below 23 cm s?1. Our results indicate that whirligig beetles use low- and high-speed leg kinematics to avoid maximum drag and swim at speed corresponding to low resistances.

Voise, Jonathan; Casas, Jerome

2010-01-01

211

76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...301 [Docket No. APHIS-2008-0111] Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined...change, an interim rule that amended the pine shoot beetle (PSB) regulations by adding...to prevent the spread of PSB, a pest of pine trees, into noninfested areas of the...

2011-01-10

212

Antennal transcriptome analysis of the chemosensory gene families in the tree killing bark beetles, Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)  

PubMed Central

Background The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, and the North American mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are severe pests of coniferous forests. Both bark beetle species utilize aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass-attacks on host trees, while odorants from host and non-host trees modulate the pheromone response. Thus, the bark beetle olfactory sense is of utmost importance for fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfactory detection has been lacking in bark beetles and is limited in Coleoptera. We assembled antennal transcriptomes from next-generation sequencing of I. typographus and D. ponderosae to identify members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. Results Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific GO terms was highly similar in the two species. Transcripts with terms related to olfactory function were found in both species. Focusing on the chemosensory gene families, we identified 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 6 chemosensory proteins (CSP), 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 43 odorant receptors (OR), 6 gustatory receptors (GR), and 7 ionotropic receptors (IR) in I. typographus; and 31 putative OBPs, 11 CSPs, 3 SNMPs, 49 ORs, 2 GRs, and 15 IRs in D. ponderosae. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the cerambycid beetle, Megacyllene caryae, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The most notable result was found among the ORs, for which large bark beetle-specific expansions were found. However, some clades contained receptors from all four beetle species, indicating a degree of conservation among some coleopteran OR lineages. Putative GRs for carbon dioxide and orthologues for the conserved antennal IRs were included in the identified receptor sets. Conclusions The protein families important for chemoreception have now been identified in three coleopteran species (four species for the ORs). Thus, this study allows for improved evolutionary analyses of coleopteran olfaction. Identification of these proteins in two of the most destructive forest pests, sharing many semiochemicals, is especially important as they might represent novel targets for population control.

2013-01-01

213

Microorganisms in the gut of beetles: evidence from molecular cloning.  

PubMed

We have regularly cultured yeasts from the gut of certain beetles in our ongoing research. In this study cloned PCR products amplified from the gut contents of certain mushroom-feeding and wood-ingesting beetles in four families (Erotylidae, Tenebrionidae, Ciidae, and Passalidae) were sequenced and compared with culture results. Cultural techniques detected some yeasts present in the gut of the beetles, including a Pichia stipitis-like yeast associated with wood-ingesting passalid beetles. Clone sequences similar to several ascomycete yeasts and Malassezia restricta, a fastidious basidiomycetous yeast requiring special growth media, however, were not detected by culturing. Unexpectedly, phylogenetic analysis of additional clone sequences discovered from passalid beetles showed similarity to members of the Parabasalia, protists known from other wood-ingesting insects, termites, and wood roaches. Examination of all gut regions of living passalids, however, failed to reveal parabasalids, and it is possible that they were parasites in the gut tissue present in low numbers. PMID:14726245

Zhang, Ning; Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith

2003-11-01

214

A Beetle Stowaway: Who's Drilling Holes in My Tree?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This BioBulletin Web site takes an in-depth look at the Asian longhorn beetle. The site includes text, videos, photographs, and interviews with key scientists. The Introduction explains the threat this alien species and major hardwood pest poses to U.S. trees. Meet the Beetle examines this large and quite spectacular insect, which is native to Japan, Korea, and the Malaysian Peninsula. Beetle Stalking in Brooklyn and Beyond recounts the first infestations of the Asian longhorn beetle and how teams of scientists responded to the problem. Preventing Potential Ecodisaster looks at a nationwide strategy to eradicate the Asian longhorn beetle before it establishes a permanent foothold in the U.S. An Alien Invasion provides an overview of why exotic/introduced/alien/invader species can make trouble.

215

Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.  

PubMed

Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience. PMID:23977350

Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

2013-01-01

216

RNA Pol II promotes transcription of centromeric satellite DNA in beetles.  

PubMed

Transcripts of centromeric satellite DNAs are known to play a role in heterochromatin formation as well as in establishment of the kinetochore. However, little is known about basic mechanisms of satellite DNA expression within constitutive heterochromatin and its regulation. Here we present comprehensive analysis of transcription of abundant centromeric satellite DNA, PRAT from beetle Palorus ratzeburgii (Coleoptera). This satellite is characterized by preservation and extreme sequence conservation among evolutionarily distant insect species. PRAT is expressed in all three developmental stages: larvae, pupae and adults at similar level. Transcripts are abundant comprising 0.033% of total RNA and are heterogeneous in size ranging from 0.5 kb up to more than 5 kb. Transcription proceeds from both strands but with 10 fold different expression intensity and transcripts are not processed into siRNAs. Most of the transcripts (80%) are not polyadenylated and remain in the nucleus while a small portion is exported to the cytoplasm. Multiple, irregularly distributed transcription initiation sites as well as termination sites have been mapped within the PRAT sequence using primer extension and RLM-RACE. The presence of cap structure as well as poly(A) tails in a portion of the transcripts indicate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription and a putative polymerase II promoter site overlaps the most conserved part of the PRAT sequence. The treatment of larvae with alpha-amanitin decreases the level of PRAT transcripts at concentrations that selectively inhibit pol II activity. In conclusion, stable, RNA polymerase II dependant transcripts of abundant centromeric satellite DNA, not regulated by RNAi, have been identified and characterized. This study offers a basic understanding of expression of highly abundant heterochromatic DNA which in beetle species constitutes up to 50% of the genome. PMID:18270581

Pezer, Zeljka; Ugarkovi?, Durdica

2008-01-01

217

Densities of breeding birds and changes in vegetation in an alaskan boreal forest following a massive disturbance by spruce beetles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined bird and plant communities among forest stands with different levels of spruce mortality following a large outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) in the Copper River Basin, Alaska. Spruce beetles avoided stands with black spruce (Picea mariana) and selectively killed larger diameter white spruce (Picea glauca), thereby altering forest structure and increasing the dominance of black spruce in the region. Alders (Alnus sp.) and crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) were more abundant in areas with heavy spruce mortality, possibly a response to the death of overstory spruce. Grasses and herbaceous plants did not proliferate as has been recorded following outbreaks in more coastal Alaskan forests. Two species closely tied to coniferous habitats, the tree-nesting Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) and the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), a major nest predator, were less abundant in forest stands with high spruce mortality than in low-mortality stands. Understory-nesting birds as a group were more abundant in forest stands with high levels of spruce mortality, although the response of individual bird species to tree mortality was variable. Birds breeding in stands with high spruce mortality likely benefited reproductively from lower squirrel densities and a greater abundance of shrubs to conceal nests from predators.

Matsuoka, S. M.; Handel, C. M.; Ruthrauff, D. R.

2001-01-01

218

Root biomass allocation in the world's upland forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the world's forests play a major role in regulating nutrient and carbon cycles, there is much interest in estimating\\u000a their biomass. Estimates of aboveground biomass based on well-established methods are relatively abundant; estimates of root\\u000a biomass based on standard methods are much less common. The goal of this work was to determine if a reliable method to estimate\\u000a root

Michael A. Cairns; Sandra Brown; Eileen H. Helmer; Greg A. Baumgardner

1997-01-01

219

Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them  

PubMed Central

Summary Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles. Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks.

Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

2008-01-01

220

Influence of die pressure on relaxation characteristics of briquetted biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Briquetting of biomass has been found to be a viable technology for upgrading biomass materials, including agricultural residues, particularly in developing countries where there is abundant biowaste resources. The technology converts the biowaste into forms which are combustible in typical burners. The physical (elongation and voidage) characteristics and, hence, combustion characteristics of the briquettes formed depend on several factors among

C. K. W Ndiema; P. N Manga; C. R Ruttoh

2002-01-01

221

Advanced Thermochemical Biomass Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of advanced biomass gasification systems offers the potential for increasing the industrial use of biomass. An overview of the limitations of thermal gasification systems for producing medium-Btu gas from biomass is presented. The use of an ex...

R. S. Butner D. C. Elliott L. J. Sealock

1986-01-01

222

Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

2009-01-01

223

A novel exo-cellulase from white spotted longhorn beetle (Anoplophora malasiaca).  

PubMed

Wood feeding insects depends heavily on the secretion of a combination of cellulases, mainly endoglucanases and other glucanases such as exoglucanases and xylanases, for efficient digestion of the cellulosic materials. To date, although a high number of endoglucanases have been found in xytophagous insects, little is known about exoglucanases encoded in the genome of these insects. Here we report the identification and isolation of an exoglucanase, designated as AmCel-5B, from the white spotted longhorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca. The optimal condition of enzymatic activity was found to be 50 °C and pH 4.0. Interestingly, this enzyme is not only exhibited exo-?-glucanase activity, but also with obvious endo-?-glucanase activity. Furthermore, this enzyme is unique in that, although it recognizes Avicel, evidenced as an exo-?-glucanase, it cannot recognize oligosaccharides smaller than cellohexaose. This may explain why longhorn beetle can well digest hard "living" wood, which contains primarily rigid long fibers. Although it is known that metal ions can enhance the activity of some cellulases, we further demonstrated that reducing agent could work synergistically with metal ions for significant activity enhancement of AmCel-5B. The discovery and investigation of an insect exoglucanase should lead to a greater understanding of the mechanism for efficient digestion of cellulosic materials by wood feeding insects, as well as facilitate their potential applications in the production of bioenergy and biomaterials from lignocellulosic biomass in the future. PMID:22617190

Chang, Chia-Jung; Wu, Carol P; Lu, Shang-Chieh; Chao, Ann-Lin; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Yu, Su-May; Chao, Yu-Chan

2012-09-01

224

Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use  

SciTech Connect

This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

1992-03-01

225

An overview of hydrogen production from biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production plays a very important role in the development of hydrogen economy. One of the promising hydrogen production approaches is conversion from biomass, which is abundant, clean and renewable. Alternative thermochemical (pyrolysis and gasification) and biological (biophotolysis, water–gas shift reaction and fermentation) processes can be practically applied to produce hydrogen. This paper gives an overview of these technologies for

Meng Ni; Dennis Y. C. Leung; Michael K. H. Leung; K. Sumathy

2006-01-01

226

Dung beetles ignore landmarks for straight-line orientation.  

PubMed

Upon locating a suitable dung pile, ball-rolling dung beetles shape a piece of dung into a ball and roll it away in a straight line. This guarantees that they will not return to the dung pile, where they risk having their ball stolen by other beetles. Dung beetles are known to use celestial compass cues such as the sun, the moon and the pattern of polarised light formed around these light sources to roll their balls of dung along straight paths. Here, we investigate whether terrestrial landmarks have any influence on straight-line orientation in dung beetles. We find that the removal or re-arrangement of landmarks has no effect on the beetle's orientation precision. Celestial compass cues dominate straight-line orientation in dung beetles so strongly that, under heavily overcast conditions or when prevented from seeing the sky, the beetles can no longer orient along straight paths. To our knowledge, this is the only animal with a visual compass system that ignores the extra orientation precision that landmarks can offer. PMID:23076443

Dacke, Marie; Byrne, Marcus; Smolka, Jochen; Warrant, Eric; Baird, Emily

2013-01-01

227

Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Developmental Plasticity in Horned Beetles  

PubMed Central

All developmental plasticity arises through epigenetic mechanisms. In this paper we focus on the nature, origins, and consequences of these mechanisms with a focus on horned beetles, an emerging model system in evolutionary developmental genetics. Specifically, we introduce the biological significance of developmental plasticity and summarize the most important facets of horned beetle biology. We then compare and contrast the epigenetic regulation of plasticity in horned beetles to that of other organisms and discuss how epigenetic mechanisms have facilitated innovation and diversification within and among taxa. We close by highlighting opportunities for future studies on the epigenetic regulation of plastic development in these and other organisms.

Valena, Sophie; Moczek, Armin P.

2012-01-01

228

PN abundances (Ratag+ 1997)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance determinations of about 110 planetary nebulae, which are likely to be in the Galactic Bulge are presented. Plasma diagnostics have been performed by making use of the available forbidden line ratios combined with radio continuum measurements. Chemical abundances of He, O, N, Ne, S, Ar, and Cl are then derived by employing theoretical nebular models as interpolation devices in

M. A. Ratag; S. R. Pottach; M. Dennefeld; J. Menzies

1997-01-01

229

Abundances in Przybylski's star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have derived abundances for 54 elements in the extreme roAp star HD101065. ESO spectra with a resolution of about 80000, and S/N of 200 or more were employed. The adopted model has Teff=6600K, and log(g)=4.2. Because of the increased line opacity and consequent low gas pressure, convection plays no significant role in the temperature structure. Lighter elemental abundances through the iron group scatter about standard abundance distribution (SAD) (solar) values. Iron and nickel are about one order of magnitude deficient while cobalt is enhanced by 1.5dex. Heavier elements, including the lanthanides, generally follow the solar pattern but enhanced by 3 to 4dex. Odd-Z elements are generally less abundant than their even-Z neighbours. With a few exceptions (e.g. Yb), the abundance pattern among the heavy elements is remarkably coherent, and resembles a displaced solar distribution.

Cowley, C. R.; Ryabchikova, T.; Kupka, F.; Bord, D. J.; Mathys, G.; Bidelman, W. P.

2000-09-01

230

Spatiotemporal analysis of predation by carabid beetles (Carabidae) on nematode infected and uninfected slugs in the field.  

PubMed

The dynamics of predation on parasites within prey has received relatively little attention despite the profound effects this is likely to have on both prey and parasite numbers and hence on biological control programmes where parasites are employed. The nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a commercially available biological agent against slugs. Predation on these slugs may, at the same time, result in intraguild predation on slug-parasitic nematodes. This study describes, for the first time, predation by carabid beetles on slugs and their nematode parasites on both spatial and temporal scales, using PCR-based methods. The highest nematode infection levels were found in the slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion silvaticus. Numbers of infected slugs decreased over time and no infected slugs were found four months after nematode application. The density of the most abundant slug, the invasive Arion vulgaris, was positively related to the activity-density of the carabid beetle, Carabus nemoralis. Predation on slugs was density and size related, with highest predation levels also on A. vulgaris. Predation on A. vulgaris decreased significantly in summer when these slugs were larger than one gram. Predation by C. nemoralis on slugs was opportunistic, without any preferences for specific species. Intraguild predation on the nematodes was low, suggesting that carabid beetles such as C. nemoralis probably do not have a significant impact on the success of biological control using P. hermaphrodita. PMID:24349202

Hatteland, Bjørn Arild; Haukeland, Solveig; Roth, Steffen; Brurberg, May Bente; Vaughan, Ian P; Symondson, William O C

2013-01-01

231

A sustainable woody biomass biorefinery.  

PubMed

Woody biomass is renewable only if sustainable production is imposed. An optimum and sustainable biomass stand production rate is found to be one with the incremental growth rate at harvest equal to the average overall growth rate. Utilization of woody biomass leads to a sustainable economy. Woody biomass is comprised of at least four components: extractives, hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. While extractives and hemicellulose are least resistant to chemical and thermal degradation, cellulose is most resistant to chemical, thermal, and biological attack. The difference or heterogeneity in reactivity leads to the recalcitrance of woody biomass at conversion. A selection of processes is presented together as a biorefinery based on incremental sequential deconstruction, fractionation/conversion of woody biomass to achieve efficient separation of major components. A preference is given to a biorefinery absent of pretreatment and detoxification process that produce waste byproducts. While numerous biorefinery approaches are known, a focused review on the integrated studies of water-based biorefinery processes is presented. Hot-water extraction is the first process step to extract value from woody biomass while improving the quality of the remaining solid material. This first step removes extractives and hemicellulose fractions from woody biomass. While extractives and hemicellulose are largely removed in the extraction liquor, cellulose and lignin largely remain in the residual woody structure. Xylo-oligomers, aromatics and acetic acid in the hardwood extract are the major components having the greatest potential value for development. Higher temperature and longer residence time lead to higher mass removal. While high temperature (>200°C) can lead to nearly total dissolution, the amount of sugars present in the extraction liquor decreases rapidly with temperature. Dilute acid hydrolysis of concentrated wood extracts renders the wood extract with monomeric sugars. At higher acid concentration and higher temperature the hydrolysis produced more xylose monomers in a comparatively shorter period of reaction time. Xylose is the most abundant monomeric sugar in the hydrolysate. The other comparatively small amounts of monomeric sugars include arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, mannose and galactose. Acetic acid, formic acid, furfural, HMF and other byproducts are inevitably generated during the acid hydrolysis process. Short reaction time is preferred for the hydrolysis of hot-water wood extracts. Acid hydrolysis presents a perfect opportunity for the removal or separation of aromatic materials from the wood extract/hydrolysate. The hot-water wood extract hydrolysate, after solid-removal, can be purified by Nano-membrane filtration to yield a fermentable sugar stream. Fermentation products such as ethanol can be produced from the sugar stream without a detoxification step. PMID:22306164

Liu, Shijie; Lu, Houfang; Hu, Ruofei; Shupe, Alan; Lin, Lu; Liang, Bin

2012-01-01

232

Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.  

PubMed

The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

2010-01-01

233

The Role of Beetle Marks and Flower Colour on Visitation by Monkey Beetles (Hopliini) in the Greater Cape Floral Region, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims A deviation from the classical beetle pollination syndrome of dull-coloured flowers with an unpleasant scent is found in the Greater Cape Floral Region of South Africa. Here, monkey beetles (Scarabaeidae) visit brightly coloured, odourless flowers with conspicuous dark spots and centres (beetle marks). The role of flower colour and markings in attracting monkey beetles is still poorly understood. Method Artificial model flowers with different marking patterns were used to test the effect of beetle marks on visitation by monkey beetles. To test whether monkey beetles are conditioned to the colour of the local matrix species, model flowers of different colours were placed in populations of three differently coloured species of Iridaceae. Key Results Among all three matrix species the presence of dark markings of some kind (either centres or spots) increased visitation rates but the different matrix species differed in whether the effect was due to a dark centre or to dark spots. Monkey beetles were not conditioned for the colour of the matrix species: model colour was not significant in the Hesperantha vaginata and in the Romulea monadelpha matrices, whereas yellow model flowers were preferred over orange ones in the orange-flowered Sparaxis elegans matrix. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate that beetle marks attract pollinating monkey beetles in the Greater Cape Floral Region. In contrast to plants with the classical beetle pollination syndrome that use floral scent as the most important attractant of pollinating beetles, plants with the monkey beetle pollination syndrome rely on visual signals, and, in some areas at least, monkey beetles favour flowers with dark beetle markings over unmarked flowers.

Van Kleunen, Mark; Nanni, Ingrid; Donaldson, John S.; Manning, John C.

2007-01-01

234

[Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) of the northwestern slope of the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia].  

PubMed

The community structure of dung beetles in the middle and lower river basin of the Gaira river, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is described. Four sites were selected along an altitudinal gradient of 50-940 m for sampling from June to October, 2004. Dung beetles were captured using modified pitfall traps and manual recollections. We captured 7,872 individuals belonging to 29 species, distributed in 15 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae. Canthon and Onthophagus were the most diverse genera, each represented by six species. The sampled sites shared the following species: Onthophagus acuminatus Harold, O. clypeatus Blanchard, O. marginicollis Harold. Bocatoma was the most diverse site with 23 species; whereas Port Mosquito presented the highest abundance, with 3,262 individuals. Seven species represented 89% of all captures: Canthidium sp., Dichotomius sp., Uroxys sp. 1, Uroxys sp. 2, O. marginicollis, O. clypeatus and O. acuminatus. Of the 29 captured species, 17 belonged to the functional group of diggers and 10 were ball-rollers. We did not observe significant among-site differences in community structure. Abiotic factors such as altitude, temperature and humidity cannot explain observed variation in community structure across sites, indicating other variables such as vegetation cover, density of the vegetation and soil type may play a role in the community structure of these insects. PMID:20098915

Martínez, Neis J; García, Héctor; Pulido, Luz A; Ospino, Deibi; Harváez, Juan C

2009-01-01

235

A multilocus perspective on phylogenetic relationships in the Namib darkling beetle genus Onymacris (Tenebrionidae).  

PubMed

Tenebrionid beetles, common constituent faunae of arid ecosystems worldwide, are particularly abundant in Africa's Namib and Kalahari deserts. Within this region, flightless, diurnal members of the tribe Adesmiini are among the more intensively studied of all desert beetles, especially with regard to ecology. Much of this research centers on Onymacris, a psammophilous genus largely endemic to the Namib. Here we present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis conducted for Onymacris, emphasizing relationships among other adesmiines. Our multilocus phylogeny identifies a strongly supported clade containing Onymacris and two other genera, Eustolopus and Physadesmia-an assemblage recovered in earlier morphological analyses. However, Onymacris is not monophyletic; rather, we demonstrate its paraphyly with respect to the genus Physadesmia, identified as the sister taxon to the white-bodied species of Onymacris. In turn, the Physadesmia-'white'Onymacris clade is the sister group to the remaining (black-bodied) Onymacris. Non-monophyly of 'black' versus 'white'Onymacris is corroborated by distribution patterns and nodal age estimates, which suggest separate origins in different dune systems. PMID:23159892

Lamb, Trip; Bond, Jason E

2013-03-01

236

Diversity of Beauveria spp. isolates from pollen beetles Meligethes aeneus in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Pollen beetles Meligethes aeneus were collected in oilseed rape fields at different sites in Switzerland in spring 2004-2005 and 32 isolates of the fungal genus Beauveria occurring as latent infections in the beetles were obtained and molecularly characterized. Three major clades, Beauveria bassiana sensu stricto (Clade A: n=13), Beauveriabrongniartii (Clade B: n=1) and Beauveria Clade C (n=18) were identified among the isolates based on sequences of the ITS region and the 5' end of EF1-?. B. bassiana s.s. was further separated in the two clades, Eu_1 (n=10) and Eu_4 (n=3). The intergenic region Bloc provided best resolution of the individual clades B. bassiana s.s. Eu_1, Eu_4 and B. brongniartii. No specific clade of Beauveria appeared to be associated with adult M. aeneus populations. However, data suggested high relative abundance of Beauveria Clade C among the fungal entomopathogens infecting M. aeneus. Characterization of the isolates by simple sequence repeats (SSR) revealed further genotypic diversity within the clades except B. bassiana s.s. Eu_4 which appeared to be clonal. However, the individual SSR markers were differentially amplifiable from isolates of the different clades. It is therefore important to identify the underlying phylogenetic affinity of Beauveria isolates to interpret results based on SSR markers. The data suggest that not all available SSR markers are suitable for reliable characterization of diversity within Beauveria Clade C. PMID:22008375

Meyling, Nicolai V; Pilz, Christina; Keller, Siegfried; Widmer, Franco; Enkerli, Jürg

2012-01-01

237

Synthetic attractants for the bark beetle parasitoid Coeloides bostrichorum Giraud (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coeloides bostrichorum Giraud parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attack late larval stages of various bark beetle species breeding in spruce. Volatile compounds collected from Norway spruce (Picea abies) infested by Ips typographus L. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the predominant volatile compounds of fresh Norway spruce, while the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes indicates damaged trees. Between one and eight EAD-active oxygenated monoterpenes were used, in amounts reflecting their natural abundance in spruce trees containing bark beetle larvae, to prepare five synthetic baits which were tested in wind tunnel bioassays. Odour samples collected from spruce logs containing the preferred host stage were attractive, while similar samples from uninfested logs failed to elicit any flight activity. However, when a four- or an eight-component synthetic bait was added to volatiles collected from uninfested spruce logs, this combination was as attractive as volatiles collected from infested spruce logs.

Pettersson, Eva M.; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter

2001-02-01

238

Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.

Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

239

Asian Longhorned Beetle Control Program: Environmental Assessment, December 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), is proposing a program for the control of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky). The program is necessary to reduce the potential ...

R. P. Milberg

1996-01-01

240

Asian Longhorned Beetle Program: Environmental Assessment, February 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), is proposing a program to apply prophylactic treatments for the control of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky). The program chan...

M. Stefan

2000-01-01

241

Controlling the Southern Pine Beetle: Small Landowner Perceptions and Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is one of the most serious threats to pine forest health in the South. Once a forest stand is infested, there are few options for immediate elimination and isolation of...

J. J. Molnar J. Schelhas C. Holeski

2003-01-01

242

Anther Cap Retention Prevents Self-pollination by Elaterid Beetles in the South African Orchid Eulophia foliosa  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Pollination by insects that spend long periods visiting many flowers on a plant may impose a higher risk of facilitated self-pollination. Orchids and asclepiads are particularly at risk as their pollen is packaged as pollinia and so can be deposited on self-stigmas en masse. Many orchids and asclepiads have adaptations to limit self-deposition of pollinia, including gradual reconfiguration of pollinaria following removal. Here an unusual mechanism—anther cap retention—that appears to prevent self-pollination in the South African orchid Eulophia foliosa is examined. • Methods Visits to inflorescences in the field were observed and pollinators collected. Visitation rates to transplanted inflorescences were compared between a site where putative pollinators were abundant and a site where they were rare. Anther cap retention times were determined for removed pollinaria and atmospheric vapour pressure deficit was recorded concurrently. Anther cap anatomy was examined using light microscopy. • Key Results Eulophia foliosa is pollinated almost exclusively by Cardiophorus obliquemaculatus (Elateridae) beetles, which remain on the deceptive inflorescences for on average 301 s (n = 18). The anther cap that covers the pollinarium is retained for an average of 512 s (n = 24) after pollinarium removal by beetles. In all populations measured, anther cap dimensions are greater than those of the stigmatic cavity, thus precluding the deposition of self-pollinia until after the anther cap has dropped. An anatomical investigation of this mechanism suggests that differential water loss from regions of the anther cap results in opening of the anther cap flaps. This is supported by observations that as atmospheric vapour pressure deficits increased, the duration of anther cap retention was reduced. • Conclusions Flowers of E. foliosa are specialized for pollination by elaterid beetles. Retention of anther caps for a period exceeding average visit times by beetles to inflorescences appears to prevent facilitated self-pollination in E. foliosa effectively.

PETER, CRAIG I.; JOHNSON, STEVEN D.

2006-01-01

243

Resistance of sweetpotato genotypes to adult Diabrotica beetles.  

PubMed

Production of sweetpotatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), is limited by several insect pests, including Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and new integrated pest management (IPM) techniques for this crop are needed. Host plant resistance is one attractive approach that fits well into IPM programs. A host plant resistance research program typically depends on reliable bioassay procedures to streamline evaluation of germplasm. Thus, a bioassay technique was developed for evaluating sweetpotato germplasm by using adults of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte, and spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber. A single beetle was placed on a piece of sweetpotato peel (periderm and cortex with stele removed) that was embedded periderm-side up in plaster in a petri dish. Feeding and longevity of insects on 30 sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated in two experiments by using this procedure. Adult longevity ranged from 7 to 11 d for starved individuals to 211 d for beetles fed a dry artificial diet. Longevity of banded cucumber beetles that fed on sweetpotato peels ranged from 12 d for the most-resistant genotype to 123 d for SC1149-19, a susceptible control cultivar. Longevity of spotted cucumber beetles was slightly shorter than longevity of banded cucumber beetles. For the most resistant sweetpotato genotypes, both Diabrotica species exhibited a significant delay in initiation of feeding, and more beetles died on these genotypes before they had fed. Both antibiosis and nonpreference (antixenosis) are important mechanisms of resistance in sweetpotato genotypes. This bioassay was consistent with field results, indicating that this technique could be useful for evaluating resistance to Diabrotica spp. in sweetpotato genotypes. PMID:17461084

Jackson, D Michael; Bohac, J R

2007-04-01

244

Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

1996-08-01

245

Mycangia of ambrosia beetles host communities of bacteria.  

PubMed

The research field of animal and plant symbioses is advancing from studying interactions between two species to whole communities of associates. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities supports multiplexed sampling for statistically robust tests of hypotheses about symbiotic associations. We focus on ambrosia beetles, the increasingly damaging insects primarily associated with fungal symbionts, which have also been reported to support bacteria. To analyze the diversity, composition, and specificity of the beetles' prokaryotic associates, we combine global sampling, insect anatomy, 454 sequencing of bacterial rDNA, and multivariate statistics to analyze prokaryotic communities in ambrosia beetle mycangia, organs mostly known for transporting symbiotic fungi. We analyze six beetle species that represent three types of mycangia and include several globally distributed species, some with major economic importance (Dendroctonus frontalis, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus bispinatus-ferrugineus, Xyleborus glabratus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus germanus). Ninety-six beetle mycangia yielded 1,546 bacterial phylotypes. Several phylotypes appear to form the core microbiome of the mycangium. Three Mycoplasma (originally thought restricted to vertebrates), two Burkholderiales, and two Pseudomonadales are repeatedly present worldwide in multiple beetle species. However, no bacterial phylotypes were universally present, suggesting that ambrosia beetles are not obligately dependent on bacterial symbionts. The composition of bacterial communities is structured by the host beetle species more than by the locality of origin, which suggests that more bacteria are vertically transmitted than acquired from the environment. The invasive X. glabratus and the globally distributed X. crassiusculus have unique sets of bacteria, different from species native to North America. We conclude that the mycangium hosts in multiple vertically transmitted bacteria such as Mycoplasma, most of which are likely facultative commensals or parasites. PMID:22546962

Hulcr, J; Rountree, N R; Diamond, S E; Stelinski, L L; Fierer, N; Dunn, R R

2012-10-01

246

Stridulation in the coconut rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coconut rhinoceros beetleOryctes rhinoceros produces different kinds of stridulatory sound under different conditions. Intense stridulations are made quite frequently\\u000a by the male during courtship and mating attempts. Males also produce characteristic stridulations during aggressive encounters\\u000a with other beetles, and distress stridulations, when disturbed manually. Females also stridulate, though less frequently.\\u000a Sexually immature females produce feeble repellence stridulations while courted

A Mini; V K K Prabhu

1990-01-01

247

Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.  

PubMed

Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa. PMID:21553309

Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

2011-08-01

248

Comparing fungal band formulations for Asian longhorned beetle biological control.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted with the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium brunneum to determine the feasibility of using agar-based fungal bands versus two new types of oil-formulated fungal bands for Asian longhorned beetle management. We investigated conidial retention and survival on three types of bands attached to trees in New York and Pennsylvania: standard polyester fiber agar-based bands containing fungal cultures, and two types of bands made by soaking either polyester fiber or jute burlap with oil-conidia suspensions. Fungal band formulation did not affect the number or viability of conidia on bands over the 2-month test period, although percentage conidial viability decreased significantly with time for all band types. In a laboratory experiment testing the effect of the three band formulations on conidial acquisition and beetle survival, traditional agar-based fungal bands delivered the most conidia to adult beetles and killed higher percentages of beetles significantly faster (median survival time of 27d) than the two oil-formulated materials (36-37d). We also tested the effect of band formulation on conidial acquisition by adult beetles kept individually in cages with a single band for 24h, and significantly more conidia (3-7times) were acquired by beetles from agar-based bands compared to the two oil formulations. PMID:23628142

Ugine, Todd A; Jenkins, Nina E; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

2013-07-01

249

Influence of Host Gender on Infection Rate, Density and Distribution of the Parasitic Fungus, Hesperomyces virescens, on the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle, Harmonia axyridis  

PubMed Central

Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) is a parasitic fungus that infects lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) via horizontal transmission between adults at overwintering and feeding sites. The differential behavior of male and female hosts could have profound effects on intensity of infection and positioning of fungus on the host's integument. The influence of host gender on infection rate, density and distribution of this parasite on the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was determined at a feeding site. Adult H. axyridis were sampled from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, trees in northern Mississippi, USA, during summer and early fall 2003–2004. Results indicated that the behavior of male or female beetles on pecan trees had only a limited effect on the intensity of infection. When averaged over the entire season, the percentage of H. axyridis infected with H. virescens was not influenced by host gender. In 2003, a seasonal average of 54 and 39% of males and females, respectively, were infected; whereas in 2004, 36 and 41% of male and female beetles, respectively, were infected. The percentage of males infected with H. virescens was correlated with the number of males captured at the site in 2003; infection rate decreased as male abundance increased. Infection rate did not correlate with female abundance in 2003 or male or female abundance in 2004. Host gender had a considerable effect on the density and distribution of the fungus. Hesperomyces virescens mature thalli were denser on male rather than female beetles. Also, thallus density was often greatest on the elytra, meso- and metathorax, and abdomen of males and elytra of females, than on other body parts, in 2003. In 2003 and 2004, approximately 59 and 97% and 67 and 96% of males and females, respectively, had mature thalli distributed on the elytra. Prevalence of H. virescens thalli on the dorsum of H. axyridis females suggests that mating behavior is important in fungal transmission. However, prevalence of thalli on the dorsum of H. axyridis males suggests that behaviors other than mating contribute to the transmission of H. virescens onto male beetles. Spread of H. virescens ascospores from infected to uninfected H. axyridis adults of different generations, at feeding sites, might be vital to maintaining stable populations of the fungus.

Riddick, E. W.

2006-01-01

250

OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

2013-07-01

251

The function of resilin in beetle wings.  

PubMed Central

This account shows the distribution of elastic elements in hind wings in the scarabaeid Pachnoda marginata and coccinellid Coccinella septempunctata (both Coleoptera). Occurrence of resilin, a rubber-like protein, in some mobile joints together with data on wing unfolding and flight kinematics suggest that resilin in the beetle wing has multiple functions. First, the distribution pattern of resilin in the wing correlates with the particular folding pattern of the wing. Second, our data show that resilin occurs at the places where extra elasticity is needed, for example in wing folds, to prevent material damage during repeated folding and unfolding. Third, resilin provides the wing with elasticity in order to be deformable by aerodynamic forces. This may result in elastic energy storage in the wing.

Haas, F; Gorb, S; Blickhan, R

2000-01-01

252

Evidence for contact sex recognition pheromone of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).  

PubMed

Field observations of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) mating behavior in China suggested that a female-produced contact pheromone was almost certainly involved in sex recognition. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of A. glabripennis adults' whole body cuticular extracts indicates that a series of long-chain hydrocarbons comprise the cuticular waxes of both sexes. Although for the most part the GC profiles are similar for the two sexes, five monounsaturated compounds were consistently more abundant in samples from females than in those from males. These compounds were identified as (Z)-9-tricosene, (Z)-9-pentacosene, (Z)-7-pentacosene, (Z)-9-heptacosene, and (Z)-7-heptacosene in the approximate ratio of 1:2:2:8:1, respectively. Antennal and palpi contact to a polypropylene micro-centrifuge tube coated with a synthetic mixture of the five compounds stimulated copulatory behavior in males. PMID:14504784

Zhang, Aijun; Oliver, James E; Chauhan, Kamal; Zhao, Boguang; Xia, Luqing; Xu, Zhichun

2003-09-01

253

Resource shifts in Malagasy dung beetles: contrasting processes revealed by dissimilar spatial genetic patterns  

PubMed Central

The endemic dung beetle subtribe Helictopleurina has 65 species mostly in wet forests in eastern Madagascar. There are no extant native ungulates in Madagascar, but three Helictopleurus species have shifted to the introduced cattle dung in open habitats in the past 1500 years. Helictopleurus neoamplicollis and Helictopleurus marsyas exhibit very limited cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 haplotype diversity and a single haplotype is present across Madagascar, suggesting that these species shifted to cattle dung in a small region followed by rapid range expansion. In contrast, patterns of molecular diversity in Helictopleurus quadripunctatus indicate a gradual diet shift across most of southern Madagascar, consistent with somewhat broader diet in this species. The three cattle dung-using Helictopleurus species have significantly greater geographical ranges than the forest-dwelling species, apparently because the shift to the currently very abundant new resource relaxed interspecific competition that hinders range expansion in the forest species. Ecology Letters (2008) 11: 1208–1215

Hanski, Ilkka; Wirta, Helena; Nyman, Toshka; Rahagalala, Pierre

2008-01-01

254

New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

1996-01-01

255

Mountain Pine Beetle in Ponderosa Pine: Effects of Phloem Thickness and Egg Gallery Density.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of phloem thickness in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) on mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) were determined in a laboratory study. Brood production, beetle size, sex ratio, and rate of emergence were significantly related to phloem t...

G. D. Amman J. E. Pasek

1986-01-01

256

Mountain Pine Beetle in Ponderosa Pine: Effects of Phloem Thickness and Egg Gallery Density.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae) kills more pine trees in the Western United States than any other insect. During epidemics, the beetle frequently kills over a million trees a year in a single National Forest. Hopkins (1909) observ...

G. D. Amman J. E. Pasek

1986-01-01

257

How-To-Do-It. A Beetle, a Bur, and the Potato: An Introduction to Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the interrelation of the potato beetle, the buffalo-bur, and the potato is used as an introduction to ecology. Methods of controlling the beetle and ecological principles illustrated in the interrelationship are discussed. (JN)

Jantzen, Paul G.

1983-01-01

258

Distribution of Nematodes ( Bursaphelenchus xylophilus ) in the Beetle Monochamus alternatus and its Exiting Transmission Way  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the distribution of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in the beetle of Monochamus alternatus by dissection under a microscope and the nematode transmission way exiting the body of the beetle by its mating and feeding.\\u000a The results showed a small number of nematodes in the beetle tracheae; 87.9% nematodes distributed in the coelom of the beetle;\\u000a numerous

Yan-Xue Lai

259

Artificial diets for rearing the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata  

PubMed Central

Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by control beetles that had been fed on potato leaves. Maximum weights of prepupae, newly emerged adults and day 5 – 9 adults were approximately 78, 80 and 82%, respectively, of the weights for comparable stages of control beetles. Mean percent mortality for 1st instars was two to six times higher for artificial diet-fed CPBs than for leaf-fed beetles. However, since pupal mortality was four times higher for control beetles than for beetles reared on artificial diet, mean percent total mortality (newly hatched through the 9 day old adult) was equivalent for leaf-fed beetles and for later generations of potato and Lettuce+Potato diet-fed CPBs. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels and fluctuations in mature 4th instar larvae and prepupae were similar in controls and experimental groups. Number of hatchlings produced per adult pair per day (fertility) was approximately eight times greater in control beetles than in later generations of artificial diet-fed beetles, primarily because fewer egg masses were laid per day, percent hatch was lower and cannibalism of eggs was higher in these latter groups. Interestingly, the mean percent hatch, although only 68% of the control value, was 1.5 times greater for beetles reared on diet containing lettuce-leaf powder, and a small percentage of potato leaf powder, than on diet containing only potato leaf powder. Percent hatch was equal for beetles fed on diet containing only lettuce-leaf powder and those fed on potato leaves. Finally, it is noteworthy that the quality of eggs, as judged by the ability of the wasp parasitoid, Edovum puttleri, to parasitize and develop in the eggs, was similar for eggs produced by control beetles and for those produced by beetles fed on potato and Lettuce+Potato diets. The diets and rearing system described here will be useful for providing beetles on a year-round basis for experiments designed to evaluate the effects of potential insect control agents, to investigate the mechanism(s) by which insects become resistant to control agents and for other applied and fundamental studies related to the control of this serious pest. The use of lettuce leaf powder in place of most of the potato leaf powder is especially advantageous because of the much reduced cost and greater availability of lettuce as compared to potato leaves.

Gelman, Dale B.; Bell, Robert A.; Liska, Lynda J.; Hu, Jing S.

2001-01-01

260

Energy from Biomass.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

1987-01-01

261

Biomass for Electricity Generation  

EIA Publications

This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

Zia Haq

2002-07-01

262

Method for producing biomass  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to a method for producing biomass from halophilic organisms, in which the halophilic organisms are fermented in a hollow space in a salt dome and said halophilic organisms or components thereof are isolated as biomass.

2009-05-19

263

Woody Biomass-Nebraska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video illustrates the advantages of woody biomass as a renewable, carbon-neutral energy source. Woody biomass is underutilized and often overlooked as a renewable fuel, and it can be harvested sustainably and burned cleanly.

The.gov; Foundation, Pbs

264

An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts.  

PubMed

Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3500 species of ambrosia beetles. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusual in that some are plant pathogens that cause significant damage in naïve natural and cultivated ecosystems, and currently threaten avocado production in the United States, Israel and Australia. Most AFC fusaria produce unusual clavate macroconidia that serve as a putative food source for their insect mutualists. AFC symbionts were abundant in the heads of four Euwallacea spp., which suggests that they are transported within and from the natal gallery in mandibular mycangia. In a four-locus phylogenetic analysis, the AFC was resolved in a strongly supported monophyletic group within the previously described Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). Divergence-time estimates place the origin of the AFC in the early Miocene ?21.2 Mya, which coincides with the hypothesized adaptive radiation of the Xyleborini. Two strongly supported clades within the AFC (Clades A and B) were identified that include nine species lineages associated with ambrosia beetles, eight with Euwallacea spp. and one reportedly with Xyleborus ferrugineus, and two lineages with no known beetle association. More derived lineages within the AFC showed fixation of the clavate (club-shaped) macroconidial trait, while basal lineages showed a mix of clavate and more typical fusiform macroconidia. AFC lineages consisted mostly of genetically identical individuals associated with specific insect hosts in defined geographic locations, with at least three interspecific hybridization events inferred based on discordant placement in individual gene genealogies and detection of recombinant loci. Overall, these data are consistent with a strong evolutionary trend toward obligate symbiosis coupled with secondary contact and interspecific hybridization. PMID:23608321

Kasson, Matthew T; O'Donnell, Kerry; Rooney, Alejandro P; Sink, Stacy; Ploetz, Randy C; Ploetz, Jill N; Konkol, Joshua L; Carrillo, Daniel; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Smith, Jason A; Black, Adam W; Hulcr, Jiri; Bateman, Craig; Stefkova, Kristyna; Campbell, Paul R; Geering, Andrew D W; Dann, Elizabeth K; Eskalen, Akif; Mohotti, Keerthi; Short, Dylan P G; Aoki, Takayuki; Fenstermacher, Kristi A; Davis, Donald D; Geiser, David M

2013-07-01

265

Inexpensive trap for monitoring the green June beetle.  

PubMed

Green June beetle, Cotinis nitida (L.), is an important pest of grapes, peaches, blackberries, blueberries, apples, and pears. Currently, there is no inexpensive, commercially available lure or trap that could serve monitoring green June beetle adults. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize an inexpensive bottle trap baited with isopropanol to attract and capture green June beetle adults. Bottle traps baited with 8 mm diameter cotton wicked dispensers emitted from 9 to 43 ml isopropanol in 48 h and maintained that alcohol at a fairly constant concentration compared with the prototypical bottle trap with large surface evaporation of isopropanol poured into the bottom of the trap. Over 5 d, the isopropanol in the wicked dispensers remained at the same stable concentration of 45-44.5%, whereas isopropanol concentration in the bottom of prototypical traps dropped from 45% to approximately 11% after 24 h and to 0.2% by 48 h. Bottle traps with isopropanol dispensers and cotton wicks of 4, 6, or 8 mm in diameter caught significantly more green June beetles than did prototypical bottle traps with no dispensers. Isopropanol concentrations of 45.5, 66, and 91% attracted more green June beetle adults than the lower concentrations. Significantly more green June beetle adults were attracted to traps with dispensers set at 1.3 m height than those at lower heights, and traps topped with a blue, orange, or white band captured more green June beetle adults than those with bands of other colors. The optimized bottle trap is made from recycled transparent polyethylene terephthalate beverage bottle (710-ml; 24 oz.) with a blue, orange, or white band, baited with an 8 mm cotton wick dispenser of 45.5% isopropanol and hung at a height of 1.3 m. Cost and uses for this trap are discussed. PMID:23356073

Cowell, Brian; Reut, Michal; Johnson, Donn T; Czokajlo, Darek; Kim, Soo-Hoon Samuel; Lewis, Barbara A; Pszczolkowski, Maciej A

2012-12-01

266

Distance and Sex Determine Host Plant Choice by Herbivorous Beetles  

PubMed Central

Background Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? Methodology We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis) when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus) with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. Conclusion Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a slightly damaged plant can help males to localize putative mating partners.

Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin

2013-01-01

267

Interactions between Population Density of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and Herbicide Rate for Suppression of Solanaceous Weeds  

PubMed Central

The presence of volunteer potato Solanum tuberosum L., cutleaf nightshade, S. triflorum N., and hairy nightshade, S. physalifolium Rusby (Solanales: Solanaceae), throughout potato crop rotations can diminish the effectiveness of crop rotations designed to control disease and pest problems associated with growing potatoes. In greenhouse bioassays, larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were placed in population densities of 0, 5, 10, and 40 per potato (cv. Russet Burbank) plant and 0, 5, 10, and 15 per cutleaf nightshade and hairy nightshade plant. Plants were treated with different rates of herbicides including fluroxypyr, prometryn, and mesotrione rates, and the physiological response on the potato plants was assessed by weighing shoot biomass 14 days after treatment. Consistently, across all bioassays, rate response functions were shifted as L. decemlineata density increased, such that less herbicide was required to achieve control. For instance, the herbicide rate needed to achieve 90% reduction in potato biomass was reduced from 62 to 0 g fluroxypyr per hectare and 711 to 0 g prometryn per hectare as L. decemlineata density was increased to 40 larvae per plant. Herbivory at higher L. decemlineata population densities and herbicides above certain rates resulted in large reductions in cutleaf and hairy nightshade biomass. Differences in rate response functions among L. decemlineata population densities indicated that L. decemlineata contributed to weed suppression in combination with herbicides. These data suggest that integrated weed management systems targeting volunteer potato, cutleaf nightshade, and hairy nightshade can be more effective when herbicide applications are combined with herbivory by naturally occurring Colorado potato beetles.

Metzger, Chase; Boydston, Rick; Ferguson, Holly; Williams, Martin M.; Zack, Richard; Walsh, Doug

2008-01-01

268

Interactions between population density of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and herbicide rate for suppression of solanaceous weeds.  

PubMed

The presence of volunteer potato Solanum tuberosum L., cutleaf nightshade, S. triflorum N., and hairy nightshade, S. physalifolium Rusby (Solanales: Solanaceae), throughout potato crop rotations can diminish the effectiveness of crop rotations designed to control disease and pest problems associated with growing potatoes. In greenhouse bioassays, larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were placed in population densities of 0, 5, 10, and 40 per potato (cv. Russet Burbank) plant and 0, 5, 10, and 15 per cutleaf nightshade and hairy nightshade plant. Plants were treated with different rates of herbicides including fluroxypyr, prometryn, and mesotrione rates, and the physiological response on the potato plants was assessed by weighing shoot biomass 14 days after treatment. Consistently, across all bioassays, rate response functions were shifted as L. decemlineata density increased, such that less herbicide was required to achieve control. For instance, the herbicide rate needed to achieve 90% reduction in potato biomass was reduced from 62 to 0 g fluroxypyr per hectare and 711 to 0 g prometryn per hectare as L. decemlineata density was increased to 40 larvae per plant. Herbivory at higher L. decemlineata population densities and herbicides above certain rates resulted in large reductions in cutleaf and hairy nightshade biomass. Differences in rate response functions among L. decemlineata population densities indicated that L. decemlineata contributed to weed suppression in combination with herbicides. These data suggest that integrated weed management systems targeting volunteer potato, cutleaf nightshade, and hairy nightshade can be more effective when herbicide applications are combined with herbivory by naturally occurring Colorado potato beetles. PMID:20298117

Metzger, Chase; Boydston, Rick; Ferguson, Holly; Williams, Martin M; Zack, Richard; Walsh, Doug

2008-01-01

269

Biomass Burning Particles as Potential Ice Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning emissions account for massive amounts of gaseous and particulate matter in the atmosphere. Assessing these emissions and their climatic effects has been the focus of several major field campaigns. It has been shown that smoke particles act as efficient cloud condensation nuclei, which can affect precipitation and indirect radiative forcing. However, to date there have been no measurements aimed at characterizing ice-forming nuclei derived from biomass burning. Such measurements are critical for understanding cloud formation and precipitation processes throughout the troposphere. Measurements to determine the activity of biomass burning particles as ice nuclei are currently being conducted in our laboratory using the Colorado State University continuous flow thermal gradient diffusion chamber (CFDC). This instrument allows for continuous freezing measurements for free-floating particles at controlled temperatures, pressures, and humidities, relevant to both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Further, the CSU laboratory is equipped with a 50 m3 containment vessel to allow for burning of vegetation and sampling of the resulting particles. Size-selective ice nucleation measurements have been conducted at temperatures relevant for homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Preliminary results will be presented for smoke particles generated from a variety of biomass fuel sources. This work seeks to address the dearth of data needed to better understand and model the potential effects of biomass burning particulate matter on cold clouds and climate. Future work will also include pure compounds known to be abundant in biomass burning aerosol and covering a range of solubilities.

Prenni, A. J.; Demott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

2003-12-01

270

The Westwide Pine Beetle Model: A Spatially-Explicit Contagion Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westwide Pine Beetle Model provides a means to project the impact of 3 pine beetle species in FVS simulations of susceptible landscapes. The model simulates the movement of beetles (contagion) between the stands in the landscape, as well as to and from the forests of the \\

Sarah J. Beukema; Julee A. Greenough; Donald C. E. Robinson; Werner A. Kurz; Eric L. Smith; Bov B. Eav

271

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF THE SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE IN THE URBAN SETTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sometimes in the South, southern pine beetles move from forests into urban areas. Therefore, arboriculturists should learn how to recognize and cope with beetle attacks. Information is provided on the beetle's life cycle, habits, and symptoms of attack, and what makes a tree susceptible to attack. The best direct control and prevention practices can then be recommended and used. Outbreaks

D. L. Ham; G. D. Hertel

272

Mass Rearing of the Coconut Palm Rhinoceros Beetle for Release of Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the method used in Fiji for the mass rearing of the coconut palm beetle Oryctes rhinoceros L. An average of 135 beetles are produced per week at a cost of approximately Fijian $0.73 per beetle. Mass rearing from the egg stage is far more economical than field collection.

G. O. Bedford

1976-01-01

273

Chemosensory cues allow male Tenebrio molitor beetles to assess the reproductive status of potential mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of many insect species, including beetles, choose their mates according to their reproductive status. However, the ways in which male beetles evaluate female reproductive status have received little attention. We tested the existence of male mate choice in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by observing mating and courtship behaviour of males given simultaneous access to pairs of females differing

P. Carazo; E. Sanchez; E. Desfilis

2004-01-01

274

Quantitative analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids sequestered from diverse host plants in Longitarsus flea beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Several species of the flea beetles genus Longitarsus are able to sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from their host plants. In five Longitarsus species we compare the concentration of PAs present in their host plants belonging to the Asteraceae or Boraginaceae with\\u000a those found in the beetles. To get an estimate of the intrapopulation variability, three samples of five beetles

Wolf Haberer; Susanne Dobler

1999-01-01

275

76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Forest, Custer, SD--Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project AGENCY: Forest...treat areas newly infested by mountain pine beetles on approximately 325,000 acres...NFS) lands from the ongoing mountain pine beetle epidemic, and to help protect...

2011-08-08

276

77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forest, Custer, South Dakota--Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project AGENCY: Forest...treat areas newly infested by mountain pine beetles on approximately 250,000 acres...NFS) lands from the ongoing mountain pine beetle epidemic, and to help protect...

2012-02-23

277

Recalibrated Tree of Leaf Beetles (Chrysomelidae) Indicates Independent Diversification of Angiosperms and Their Insect Herbivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The great diversity of the ''Phytophaga'' (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles) has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion. Methodology. A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers

Jesús Gómez-Zurita; Toby Hunt; Fatos Kopliku; Alfried P. Vogler

2007-01-01

278

Use of a Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measuring the Material Properties of Beetle Wing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetle wings are very specialized flight organs consisting of the veins and membranes. Therefore it is necessary from a bionic view to investigate the material properties of a beetle wing experimentally. In the present study, we have used a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique to measure the elastic modulus of a beetle wing membrane. Specimens were prepared by carefully cutting

Tailie Jin; Nam Seo Goo; Sung-Choong Woo; Hoon Cheol Park

2009-01-01

279

Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine, the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Say), Ips calligraphus (Germar), Ips latidens (LeConte), Ips knausi Swaine and

José F. Negrón; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

2009-01-01

280

BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

281

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover,

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-01-01

282

Evidence for limited spatial spread in an exotic longhorn beetle, Tetropium fuscum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).  

PubMed

The longhorn beetle Tetropium fuscum F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) has become established in Nova Scotia, Canada, where it coexists with Tetropium cinnamopterum Kirby. The two Tetropium species share a similar ecological niche and use the same volatile cues for mate attraction. Exotic T. fuscum was introduced near Halifax, Nova Scotia, in approximately 1990, but the rate of its spread 20 yr later has not been documented. We report a large-scale, 3-yr study that investigates the distribution of T. fuscum relative to its site of introduction. Traps baited with male-produced pheromone and host volatiles were used to estimate the relative abundance of the two Tetropium species. Adult T. fuscum emerged 1-2 wk earlier than T. cinnamopterum each year between 2008 and 2010. The spatial distribution of T. fuscum was characterized by a sharp decline in abundance in relation to its point of introduction, up to a threshold distance of approximately 80 km beyond which T. fuscum is rare in comparison with native T. cinnamopterum. The restricted range of T. fuscum 20 yr after its introduction may be attributed to limited dispersal of adults or reproductive failures of low-density populations. The distribution of T. fuscum seemed stable between 2008 and 2010. In 1 of 3 yr, the abundance of T. cinnamopterum increased with the distance to the site of introduction of T. fuscum, which suggests competitive interactions between the two Tetropium species. PMID:22299354

Rhainds, Marc; Mackinnon, Wayne E; Porter, Kevin B; Sweeney, Jon D; Silk, Peter J

2011-12-01

283

Distribution and abundance of zooplankton populations in Crater Lake, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake exhibited consistency in species richness and general taxonomic composition, but varied in density and biomass during the period between 1988 and 2000. Collectively, the assemblages included 2 cladoceran taxa and 10 rotifer taxa (excluding rare taxa). Vertical habitat partitioning of the water column to a depth of 200 m was observed for most species with similar food habits and/or feeding mechanisms. No congeneric replacement was observed. The dominant species in the assemblages were variable, switching primarily between periods of dominance of Polyarthra-Keratella cochlearis and Daphnia. The unexpected occurrence and dominance of Asplanchna in 1991 and 1992 resulted in a major change in this typical temporal shift between Polyarthra-K. cochlearis and Daphnia. Following a collapse of the zooplankton biomass in 1993 that was probably caused by predation from Asplanchna, Kellicottia dominated the zooplankton assemblage biomass between 1994 and 1997. The decline in biomass of Kellicottia by 1998 coincided with a dramatic increase in Daphnia biomass. When Daphnia biomass declined by 2000, Keratella biomass increased again. Thus, by 1998 the assemblage returned to the typical shift between Keratella-Polyarthra and Daphnia. Although these observations provided considerable insight about the interannual variability of the zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake, little was discovered about mechanisms behind the variability. When abundant, kokanee salmon may have played an important role in the disappearance of Daphnia in 1990 and 2000 either through predation, inducing diapause, or both. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Larson, G. L.; McIntire, C. D.; Buktenica, M. W.; Girdner, S. F.; Truitt, R. E.

2007-01-01

284

Solar scandium abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the formation of neutral and singly ionized scandium lines in the solar photospheres. Extensive statistical equilibrium calculations were carried out for a model atom, which comprises 92 terms for Sc I and 79 for Sc II. Synthetic line profiles calculated from the level populations according to the NLTE departure coefficients were compared with the observed solar spectral atlas. Abundance determinations using the ODF model lead to a solar Sc abundance of between log ?? = 3.07 and 3.13, depending on the choice of f values.

Zhang, H. W.; Gehren, T.; Zhao, G.

2008-10-01

285

Predation by adult and larval lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on initial contact with lady beetle eggs.  

PubMed

Naïve adults and larvae of the native lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Cycloneda munda (Say), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant), and the exotic lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested for their initial response to eggs of these five lady beetle species and for egg consumption on first contact and after 3 h. Additionally, field-collected O. v-nigrum and H. axyridis adults were tested. C. maculata, H. axyridis, and O. v-nigrum adults responded similarly to all egg species on first contact. Higher numbers of C. munda adults did not eat C. maculata, H. convergens, and O. v-nigrum eggs on first contact compared with numbers that did eat C. munda and H. axyridis eggs. H. convergens adults always ate C. munda eggs but hardly ate H. axyridis eggs on first contact. Results showed that over the 3-h interval, egg predation by those predators feeding on first contact was always higher, except for adults and larvae of C. maculata, than for those that did not feed on first contact. Thus, acceptance of eggs on initial contact does impact egg survival. It is likely that eggs of all native species tested (i.e., C. maculata, C. munda, H. convergens, and O. v-nigrum), but not exotic H. axyridis eggs, are suitable food for C. maculata, H. convergens, and O. v-nigrum, whereas only C. munda eggs serve as suitable food for C. munda. In direct contrast, all egg species tested would likely serve as suitable food for the exotic H. axyridis. PMID:17445374

Cottrell, Ted E

2007-04-01

286

Executive summary of some employment and earning implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their abundant forest and agricultural biomass resources, New England and the Cornbelt are likely to grow considerably in the development of biomass energy systems during the next decade or two. Observations of 189 specific biomass-related operations suggest that substantial employment and earnings could be generated by this activity. Forty thousand or more permanent jobs might be created in

S. E. Bell; R. M. Gove; J. R. Little

1981-01-01

287

Measuring solar abundances  

SciTech Connect

This is the rapporteur paper of Working Group 2 on Measuring Solar Abundances. The working group presented and discussed the different observations and methods for obtaining the elemental and isotopic composition of the Sun, and critically reviewed their results and the accuracies thereof. Furthermore, a few important yet unanswered questions were identified, and the potential of future missions to provide answers was assessed.

Reisenfeld, D. B. (Daniel B.); Von Steiger, R. (Rudolf); Vial, J.-C. (Jean-Claude); Bochsler, P.; Chaussidon, M.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Fleck, B.; Heber, V. S.; Wiens, R. C. (Roger C.)

2001-01-01

288

Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation.  

PubMed

When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom. PMID:23352694

Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

2013-02-18

289

On the origin and evolutionary diversification of beetle horns  

PubMed Central

Many scarab beetles produce rigid projections from the body called horns. The exaggerated sizes of these structures and the staggering diversity of their forms have impressed biologists for centuries. Recent comparative studies using DNA sequence-based phylogenies have begun to reconstruct the historical patterns of beetle horn evolution. At the same time, developmental genetic experiments have begun to elucidate how beetle horns grow and how horn growth is modulated in response to environmental variables, such as nutrition. We bring together these two perspectives to show that they converge on very similar conclusions regarding beetle evolution. Horns do not appear to be difficult structures to gain or lose, and they can diverge both dramatically and rapidly in form. Although much of this work is still preliminary, we use available information to propose a conceptual developmental model for the major trajectories of beetle horn evolution. We illustrate putative mechanisms underlying the evolutionary origin of horns and the evolution of horn location, shape, allometry, and dimorphism.

Emlen, Douglas J.; Corley Lavine, Laura; Ewen-Campen, Ben

2007-01-01

290

Defense by foot adhesion in a beetle (Hemisphaerota cyanea)  

PubMed Central

The beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae; Cassidinae) responds to disturbance by activating a tarsal adhesion mechanism by which it secures a hold on the substrate. Its tarsi are oversized and collectively bear some 60,000 adhesive bristles, each with two terminal pads. While walking, the beetle commits but a small fraction of the bristles to contact with the substrate. But when assaulted, it presses its tarsi flatly down, thereby touching ground with all or nearly all of the bristles. Once so adhered, it can withstand pulling forces of up to 0.8 g (?60 times its body mass) for 2 min, and of higher magnitudes, up to >3 g, for shorter periods. Adhesion is secured by a liquid, most probably an oil. By adhering, the beetle is able to thwart attacking ants, given that it is able to cling more persistently than the ant persists in its assault. One predator, the reduviid Arilus cristatus, is able to feed on the beetle, possibly because by injecting venom it prevents the beetle from maintaining its tarsal hold.

Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

2000-01-01

291

Defense by foot adhesion in a beetle (Hemisphaerota cyanea).  

PubMed

The beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae; Cassidinae) responds to disturbance by activating a tarsal adhesion mechanism by which it secures a hold on the substrate. Its tarsi are oversized and collectively bear some 60,000 adhesive bristles, each with two terminal pads. While walking, the beetle commits but a small fraction of the bristles to contact with the substrate. But when assaulted, it presses its tarsi flatly down, thereby touching ground with all or nearly all of the bristles. Once so adhered, it can withstand pulling forces of up to 0.8 g ( approximately 60 times its body mass) for 2 min, and of higher magnitudes, up to >3 g, for shorter periods. Adhesion is secured by a liquid, most probably an oil. By adhering, the beetle is able to thwart attacking ants, given that it is able to cling more persistently than the ant persists in its assault. One predator, the reduviid Arilus cristatus, is able to feed on the beetle, possibly because by injecting venom it prevents the beetle from maintaining its tarsal hold. PMID:10841556

Eisner, T; Aneshansley, D J

2000-06-01

292

Mountain pine beetle infestation impacted by water availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation pattern and landscape structure intersect to exert strong control over ecohydrological dynamics at the watershed scale. The hydrologic implications of vegetation disturbance (e.g. fire, disease etc.) depend on the spatial pattern and form of environmental change. Here we investigate this intersection at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana with a focus on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic currently affecting the Rocky Mountains. We calibrated QuickBird remote sensing imagery with a leaf-level spectral library of local vegetation. We used this spectral library to determine optimal vegetation indices for differentiating stages of beetle infestation within the 37 km2 TCEF watershed. These indices formed the basis of a three-component mixing model to quantify the extent and magnitude of beetle infestation across the TCEF watershed. We compared disturbance patterns to spatially distributed topography and vegetation variables derived from a LiDAR-based digital elevation model (DEM) of TCEF. We determined that certain landscape characteristics (low vegetation density, south facing slopes, steep slopes, locations with small contributing areas, and locations with lower values of the topographic wetness index (TWI)) were significantly more likely to exhibit the effects of beetle infestation. Our efforts to monitor vegetation mortality across space and time provide a context for assessing landscape susceptibility to initial mountain pine beetle infestation via feedbacks between biodiversity and hydrological patterns and further research into understanding how outbreak (i.e. landscape scale infestation) patterns may affect watershed ecohydrology via altered water and biogeochemical cycles.

Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B.; Emanuel, R.

2012-04-01

293

Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities  

PubMed Central

Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space controls relative species abundance in communities. Here, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of butterfly species in island communities is significantly related to the relative biomasses of their host plants but not to the geographic distance between communities. In the studied communities, the biomass of particular host plant species positively affected the abundance of the butterfly species that used them, and consequently, influenced the relative abundance of the butterfly communities. This indicated that the niche space of butterflies (i.e., the amount of resources) strongly influences butterfly biodiversity patterns. We present this field evidence of the niche-apportionment model that propose that the relative amount of niche space explains the pattern of the relative abundance of the species in communities.

Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado

2007-01-01

294

Factors influencing flight capacity of the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

PubMed

The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most damaging pest of mature pine (Pinaceae) in western North America. Although mountain pine beetles have an obligate dispersal phase during which adults must locate a new host for brood production, dispersal is a poorly understood aspect of its ecology. This flight mill study was designed to test the effects of beetle size, sex, and age on flight capacity. Energy use during flight was assessed through measurements of weight before and after flight and fat content of flown versus control beetles. The mean flight distance achieved by mountain pine beetles varied between 2.12 and 5.95 km over the 23-h bioassay, but the longest total flight of an individual beetle was >24 km. Beetle preflight weight influenced flight initiation, flight distance, and duration. Bigger beetles are more likely to fly and once in flight fly longer and farther than smaller beetles. There was no direct effect of beetle sex on flight capacity. Flight capacity of beetles declined with age postemergence. Although individual flight capacity was variable, flight velocity was relatively constant between 1.55 and 1.93 km/h. Lipids are used to power flight in mountain pine beetles, as lipid content was lower in beetles flown on the flight mills compared with beetles that did not fly. Flight distance was negatively correlated with beetle postflight lipid content. The baseline flight capacity data revealed in this study have implications for understanding the population dynamics of this eruptive forest pest. PMID:24367930

Evenden, M L; Whitehouse, C M; Sykes, J

2014-02-01

295

Species composition, seasonal activity, and semiochemical response of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in northeastern Ohio.  

PubMed

In 2007, we surveyed the alien and endemic scolytine (bark and ambrosia beetles) fauna of northeastern Ohio, and for the most abundant species, we characterized their seasonal activity and response to three semiochemical baits. In total ,5,339 scolytine beetles represented by 47 species and 29 genera were caught in Lindgren funnel traps. Three species constituted 57% of the total catch, including Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), Tomicus piniperda (L.), and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratzeburg). Of the total captured, 32% of the species and approximately 60% of the individuals were exotic, suggesting that exotic species numerically dominate the scolytine fauna in some urban areas. More native and exotic species were caught in traps baited with ethanol alone than in traps baited with other lures. However, significantly more individuals, especially of T. piniperda, D. autographus, Gnathotrichus materiarius (Fitch), and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), and species were caught in traps baited with ethanol plus alpha-pinene than in traps baited with ethanol alone or the exotic Ips lure. This suggests that among these baits, the ethanol plus alpha-pinene baits may be useful in maximizing scolytine beetle catches of these species within this region. Species diversity and richness for both native and exotic beetles was greatest in traps baited with ethanol alone. The period of peak trap capture varied depending upon species: X. germanus was most abundant in traps in mid-May and early-August; T. piniperda in mid-May; D. autographus in early June, mid-July, and mid-September; Anisandrus sayi Hopkins and G. materiarius in mid-May, mid-July, and early September; and I. grandicollis in early April, mid-July, and late September. PMID:20857727

Gandhi, Kamal J K; Cognato, Anthony I; Lightle, Danielle M; Mosley, Bryson J; Nielsen, David G; Herms, Daniel A

2010-08-01

296

Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability  

SciTech Connect

If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

2013-01-01

297

SPAWNING BIOMASS OFTHE NORTHERN ANCHOVY IN 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spawning biomass estimate of the northern anchovy in 1988 is 1,009,000 MT. The estimate was made with the stock synthesis (SS) model, which uses time series of abundance data and age compo- sition data, anchovy landings from the United States and Mexico, and sea-surface temperature. New data incorporated in the 1988 estimate were an egg production index derived from

NANCY C. H. LO; RICHARD D. METHOT

1989-01-01

298

[The succession of sarcophagus beetles on carrion and its application in forensic medicine].  

PubMed

Sarcophagus beetles, which can not be replaced by Diptera, play a pivotal role not only in estimating PMI of dry human skeletal remains in the later stages decomposition of carcasses, but also the corruption, destruction, decomposition and posture changes of carcasses. This article explicates the succession of sarcophagus beetles on carrion and its influencing factors, and introduces the application and prospects of sarcophagus beetles in forensic entomology. Although few researches focus on sarcophagus beetles at present, it is believed that more and more forensic scientists will pay attention to sarcophagus beetles' application in forensic identification. PMID:20225624

Peng, Qian-Yi; Ye, Lu-Si; Ma, Li-Ping; Cai, Ji-Feng

2009-12-01

299

Helioseismic Constraints on Photospheric Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent analyses of solar photospheric abundances suggest that the oxygen abundance in the solar atmosphere needs to be revised downwards. We investigate if solar models constructed with lower oxygen and other heavy element abundances are consistent with helioseismic results. We find that lowered abundances along with the current OPAL opacity tables are not consistent with seismic data. A significant upward

S. Basu; H. M. Antia

2004-01-01

300

Bacterial abundance and production in the western Black Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unusual stability and vertical extent of the oxic-anoxic interface of the central Black Sea water column facilitate studying microbially mediated redox processes. Bacterial abundance, cell volume, 3H-thymidine and -leucine incorporation were measured in the Black Sea during May-June 2001. Sampling was conducted along a shelf-gyre transect, and was focused at the suboxic-anoxic interface at the deep stations. Bacterial variables (abundance, incorporation rates, biomass, production, and specific growth rates) were significantly higher on the northwest shelf compared to the Southwestern Gyre, and were generally intermediate at shelf-break stations. Mean bacterial abundances ranged from 1.4 to 2.9×10 9 cells l -1 in the mixed layer along the shelf-gyre transect, while isotope incorporation rates ranged from 7 to 74 pM-TdR h -1 and 60 to 209 pM-Leu h -1. Bacterial biomass ranged from 6.7 to 13.5 ?g C l -1, bacterial production rates ranged from 2.3 to 7.7 ?g C l -1 d -1, and specific growth rates ranged from 0.2 to 1.5 d -1. In the Southwestern Gyre, surface bacterial production was equivalent to about 50% of 14C-primary production. In the oxycline layer, mean bacterial abundance (0.38×10 9 cells l -1), leucine incorporation (4.1 pM-Leu h -1), and bacterial production (0.15 ?g C l -1 d -1) were significantly greater compared to the suboxic and anoxic layers, while cell volume and biomass increased with depth. Large filamentous bacteria (>10 ?m in length) were present below the suboxic boundary, and comprised up to 10% of the total bacterial abundance and up to 53% of the total bacterial biomass. Approximately 60% of the surface primary production was consumed above the suboxic-anoxic interface.

Morgan, Jessica A.; Quinby, Helen L.; Ducklow, Hugh W.

2006-08-01

301

Rainfastness of insecticides used to control Japanese beetle in blueberries.  

PubMed

Field-based bioassays were used to determine the relative impact of rainfall on the relative toxicity of four insecticides, phosmet, carbaryl, zeta-cypermethrin, or imidacloprid, from different chemical classes on adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman, in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. Bioassays were set up 24 h after spraying occurred and Japanese beetle condition was scored as alive, knockdown or immobile 1, 24, and 48 h after bioassay setup. All insecticides were significantly more toxic than the untreated control and zeta-cypermethrin consistently had the greatest toxic effect against the Japanese beetles. All insecticides experienced a decrease in efficacy after simulated rainfall onto treated blueberry shoots, although the efficacy of zeta-cypermethrin was the least affected by rainfall. This study will help blueberry growers make informed decisions on when reapplications of insecticides are needed in the field with the aim of improving integrated pest management (IPM). PMID:23156165

Hulbert, Daniel; Reeb, Pablo; Isaacs, Rufus; Vandervoort, Christine; Erhardt, Susan; Wise, John C

2012-10-01

302

The original colours of fossil beetles  

PubMed Central

Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

McNamara, Maria E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Orr, Patrick J.; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

2012-01-01

303

Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles  

PubMed Central

Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-?-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray-parenchyma cells in the wood xylem. Furthermore, the detection of xylanolytic enzymes exclusively in larvae (which feed on fungus colonized wood) and not in adults (which feed only on fungi) indicates that only larvae (pre-) digest plant cell wall structures. This implies that in X. saxesenii and likely also in many other ambrosia beetles, adults and larvae do not compete for the same food within their nests - in contrast, larvae increase colony fitness by facilitating enzymatic wood degradation and fungus cultivation.

2012-01-01

304

Polyols and polyurethanes from the liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Polyurethanes (PUs), produced from the condensation polymerizations between polyols and isocyanates, are one of the most versatile polymer families. Currently, both polyols and isocyanates are largely petroleum derived. Recently, there have been extensive research interests in developing bio-based polyols and PUs from renewable resources. As the world's most abundant renewable biomass, lignocellulosic biomass is rich in hydroxyl groups and has potential as a feedstock to produce bio-based polyols and PUs. Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted to liquid polyols for PU applications through acid- or base-catalyzed atmospheric liquefaction processes using polyhydric alcohols as liquefaction solvents. Biomass liquefaction-derived polyols can be used to prepare various PU products, such as foams, films and adhesives. The properties of biomass liquefaction-derived polyols and PUs depend on various factors, such as feedstock characteristics, liquefaction conditions, and PU formulations. PMID:24357542

Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Li, Yebo

2014-01-01

305

Thermophilic biogasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect

Secondary sewage effluent- and fresh-water-grown water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes), Coastal Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), and a hyacinth-grass-municipal solid waste-sludge (biomass-waste) blend were used as test feeds to develop a fast thermophilic biomass- digestion process. For the pure biomass feeds thermophilic digestion has no apparent advantage over mesophilic digestion, but the reverse is true for the biomass-waste blend. Alkaline pretreatment of the feed improved thermophilic digester performance substantially. For a given plant feed load, the reactor volume, culture-heating requirements, and CH4 production rate for thermophilic digestion of the pretreated biomass-waste feed were 18,46, and 135% of those for conventional mesophilic digestion. For a biomass-waste feed the respective volatile solids reduction and energy recovery efficiencies were 46 and 49% for thermophilic and 36 and 43% for mesophilic digestions.

Ghosh, S.; Klass, D.L.; Edwards, V.H.; Christopher, R.W.

1980-01-01

306

Complex pendulum biomass sensor  

DOEpatents

A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

2007-12-25

307

Biomass Processing Photolibrary  

DOE Data Explorer

Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

308

Competitive release leads to range expansion and rampant speciation in malagasy dung beetles.  

PubMed

Competition is often thought to promote ecological diversification and thereby to facilitate the coexistence of competitors during evolutionary radiations. At large spatial scales, species may also coexist by having allopatric distributions, which raises the question about the role of range expansion in the proliferation of species during radiations. Here, we integrate a well-sampled (50 out of 74 species) and timed phylogeny of Nanos and Apotolamprus dung beetles (Canthonini) in Madagascar with data on species' geographical ranges, abundances, and body sizes. There is an overall decline in lineage accumulation through time since the colonization of northern Madagascar in the mid Miocene (24-13 Ma). A clade of 24 extant Nanos species (clade L) originating 6.0 Ma exhibits an increase in speciation rate, which is associated with a significant increase in body size and strikingly allopatric distributions of the species. Large body size typically confers a competitive advantage in dung beetles, which is here reflected by strong numerical dominance of clade L species in local communities. We suggest that the "key innovation" of large body size has allowed range expansion due to competitive release, which has created extensive opportunities for allopatric speciation and differentiation along environmental gradients. Most theories to explain diversification patterns in Madagascar rely on allopatric modes of speciation, but they fail to explain how ancestral species became widespread in the first place. The mechanism proposed here, involving range expansion following competitive release via a "key innovation", may have operated in other Malagasy taxa with large numbers of species with small geographic ranges. [biodiversity hotspot; competition; Madagascar; microendemism; radiation.]. PMID:24578226

Miraldo, Andreia; Hanski, Ilkka A

2014-07-01

309

Peripheral modulation of pheromone response by inhibitory host compound in a beetle.  

PubMed

We identified several compounds, by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), that were antennally active in the bark beetle Ips typographus and also abundant in beetle-attacked spruce trees. One of them, 1,8-cineole (Ci), strongly inhibited the attraction to pheromone in the field. Single-sensillum recordings (SSRs) previously showed olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on I. typographus antennae selectively responding to Ci. All Ci neurons were found within sensilla co-inhabited by a pheromone neuron responding to cis-verbenol (cV); however, in other sensilla, the cV neuron was paired with a neuron not responding to any test odorant. We hypothesized that the colocalization of ORNs had a functional and ecological relevance. We show by SSR that Ci inhibited spontaneous activity of the cV neuron only in sensilla in which the Ci neuron was also present. Using mixtures of cV and Ci, we further show that responses to low doses (1-10 ng) of cV were significantly reduced when the colocalized Ci neuron simultaneously responded to high doses (1-10 ?g) of Ci. This indicated that the response of the Ci neuron, rather than ligand-receptor interactions in the cV neuron, caused the inhibition. Moreover, cV neurons paired with Ci neurons were more sensitive to cV alone than the ones paired with the non-responding ORN. Our observations question the traditional view that ORNs within a sensillum function as independent units. The colocalization of ORNs might sharpen adaptive responses to blends of semiochemicals with different ecological significance in the olfactory landscape. PMID:20833926

Andersson, Martin N; Larsson, Mattias C; Blazenec, Miroslav; Jakus, Rastislav; Zhang, Qing-He; Schlyter, Fredrik

2010-10-01

310

Maize Benefits the Predatory Beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg), to Provide Potential to Enhance Biological Control for Aphids in Cotton  

PubMed Central

Background Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. Methodology The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008–2010. Principal Finding Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The ?13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C3- to a C4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C4 resources within one week. Approximately 80–100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C4-based resource in September. Conclusion/Significance Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton.

Ouyang, Fang; Men, Xingyuan; Yang, Bing; Su, Jianwei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

2012-01-01

311

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus to volatiles from host pines and conspecifics.  

PubMed

The bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus is endemic to northwestern Mexico where it kills immature pines?beetle-derived oxygenated monoterpenes fenchyl alcohol, myrtenal, cis-verbenol, trans-verbenol, verbenone, and myrtenol. These monoterpenes were quantified from pre-emerged D. rhizophagus adults forced to attack host tissue in the laboratory, and from individuals dissected from naturally-attacked hosts at different stages of colonization. In both bioassays, myrtenol and trans-verbenol were the most abundant volatiles, and trans-verbenol was the only one produced in significantly greater quantities by females than males in a naturally-colonized host. Two field experiments were performed to evaluate behavioral responses of D. rhizophagus to antennally-active monoterpenes. Results show that 3-carene was significantly attractive either alone or in a ternary (1:1:1) combination with ?-pinene and ?-pinene, whereas neither ?-pinene nor ?-pinene alone were attractive. None of the beetle-associated oxygenated monoterpenes enhanced the attractiveness of the ternary mixture of monoterpenes, while verbenone either alone or combined with the other five oxygenated terpenes reduced D. rhizophagus attraction to the ternary mixture. The results suggest that attraction of D. rhizophagus to the host tree P. arizonica is mediated especially by 3-carene. There was no conclusive evidence for an aggregation or sex attractant pheromone. PMID:22544334

Cano-Ramírez, Claudia; Armendáriz-Toledano, Francisco; Macías-Sámano, Jorge E; Sullivan, Brian T; Zúñiga, Gerardo

2012-05-01

312

Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment using AFEX.  

PubMed

Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely. PMID:19768616

Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E

2009-01-01

313

Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment Using AFEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule, its susceptibility to hydrolysis is restricted due to the rigid lignin and hemicellulose protection surrounding the cellulose micro fibrils. Therefore, an effective pretreatment is necessary to liberate the cellulose from the lignin-hemicellulose seal and also reduce cellulosic crystallinity. Some of the available pretreatment techniques include acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), alkaline wet oxidation, and hot water pretreatment. Besides reducing lignocellulosic recalcitrance, an ideal pretreatment must also minimize formation of degradation products that inhibit subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. AFEX is an important pretreatment technology that utilizes both physical (high temperature and pressure) and chemical (ammonia) processes to achieve effective pretreatment. Besides increasing the surface accessibility for hydrolysis, AFEX promotes cellulose decrystallization and partial hemicellulose depolymerization and reduces the lignin recalcitrance in the treated biomass. Theoretical glucose yield upon optimal enzymatic hydrolysis on AFEX-treated corn stover is approximately 98%. Furthermore, AFEX offers several unique advantages over other pretreatments, which include near complete recovery of the pretreatment chemical (ammonia), nutrient addition for microbial growth through the remaining ammonia on pretreated biomass, and not requiring a washing step during the process which facilitates high solid loading hydrolysis. This chapter provides a detailed practical procedure to perform AFEX, design the reactor, determine the mass balances, and conduct the process safely.

Balan, Venkatesh; Bals, Bryan; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Marshall, Derek; Dale, Bruce E.

314

[Sampling optimization for tropical invertebrates: an example using dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Venezuela].  

PubMed

The development of efficient sampling protocols is an essential prerequisite to evaluate and identify priority conservation areas. There are f ew protocols for fauna inventory and monitoring in wide geographical scales for the tropics, where the complexity of communities and high biodiversity levels, make the implementation of efficient protocols more difficult. We proposed here a simple strategy to optimize the capture of dung beetles, applied to sampling with baited traps and generalizable to other sampling methods. We analyzed data from eight transects sampled between 2006-2008 withthe aim to develop an uniform sampling design, that allows to confidently estimate species richness, abundance and composition at wide geographical scales. We examined four characteristics of any sampling design that affect the effectiveness of the sampling effort: the number of traps, sampling duration, type and proportion of bait, and spatial arrangement of the traps along transects. We used species accumulation curves, rank-abundance plots, indicator species analysis, and multivariate correlograms. We captured 40 337 individuals (115 species/morphospecies of 23 genera). Most species were attracted by both dung and carrion, but two thirds had greater relative abundance in traps baited with human dung. Different aspects of the sampling design influenced each diversity attribute in different ways. To obtain reliable richness estimates, the number of traps was the most important aspect. Accurate abundance estimates were obtained when the sampling period was increased, while the spatial arrangement of traps was determinant to capture the species composition pattern. An optimum sampling strategy for accurate estimates of richness, abundance and diversity should: (1) set 50-70 traps to maximize the number of species detected, (2) get samples during 48-72 hours and set trap groups along the transect to reliably estimate species abundance, (3) set traps in groups of at least 10 traps to suitably record the local species composition, and (4) separate trap groups by a distance greater than 5-10km to avoid spatial autocorrelation. For the evaluation of other sampling protocols we recommend to, first, identify the elements of sampling design that could affect the sampled effort (the number of traps, sampling duration, type and proportion of bait) and their spatial distribution (spatial arrangement of the traps) and then, to evaluate how they affect richness, abundance and species composition estimates. PMID:23894965

Ferrer-Paris, José Rafael; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

2013-03-01

315

Microorganism Mediated Reproductive Isolation in Flour Beetles (Genus Tribolium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive isolation is induced by microorganisms in diverse geographic strains of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The incompatibility between populations is due to nongenetic cytoplasmically inherited factors. Males of infected strains produce no progeny when crossed with females of noninfected strains; however, they produce ``normal'' numbers of progeny when crossed with infected females. Males from noninfected strains show

Michael J. Wade; Lori Stevens

1985-01-01

316

Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel

Jeong-Hyeon Choi; Teiya Kijimoto; Emilie Snell-Rood; Hongseok Tae; Youngik Yang; Armin P Moczek; Justen Andrews

2010-01-01

317

Population Dynamics of the Black Tinder Fungus Beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

LIK M. 2005. Population dynamics of the black tinder fungus beetle Bolitophagus reticulatus. Folia biol. (Kraków) 53 (Suppl.): 171-177. The aim of the study was to describe seasonal changes in numbers and settlement of basidiocarps of tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius (L. ex Fr.) Kick) by the coleopteran Bolitophagus reticulatus L. in relation to the weight and the stage of decomposition

Monika Lik

2005-01-01

318

Cucurbitacins: A Role in Cucumber Beetle Steroid Nutrition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditional role of cucurbitacins as phytosteroid supplements, cholesterol precursors, or ecdysteroid antagonists in the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, was investigated in two ways: by comparing larval survival and growth rate on cucurbitacin-rich and cucurbitacin-poor squash cultivars of Cucurbita pepo and by manipulating the presence of cholesterol, phytosteroids, and cucurbitacins in an artificial diet and examining the effects

Fathi T. Halaweish; Douglas W. Tallamy; Eva Santana

1999-01-01

319

Genetic variation in paternal investment in a seed beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of many species invest resources in their offspring. For paternal investment to evolve, it must exhibit heritable variation. Using a standard half-sibling quantitative genetic design, we investigated whether genetic variation in male ejaculate size, a trait that affects female fecundity and copulation duration, are present in the seed beetleCallosobruchus maculatus. Ejaculate size was estimated as the amount of weight

UDO M. SAVALLI; CHARLES W. FOX

1998-01-01

320

Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the blister beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meloid beetles are well characterised by both morphological and biological features. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphological characters assumed the repeated parallel evolution of complex biological novelties. In this work relationships among several taxa of the four subfamilies and almost all tribes representing meloid diversity are examined by using mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear (ITS2) DNA sequences, in 25 genera (using

Marco A. Bologna; Marco Oliverio; Monica Pitzalis; Paolo Mariottini

2008-01-01

321

Striped Blister Beetle, Epicauta vittata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Meloidae)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Fabricius), is a native species. It has been collected from all eastern states west to, and including, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas and Oklahoma. In Canada it is known from Quebec and Ontario. Populations from the southeastern coastal plain including Florida, southern Georgia and eastern South Carolina differ in appearance from beetles found elsewhere and are called the 'lemniscate race,' but

John L. Capinera

322

Faunistics of Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The present biogeographic distribution of tiger beetle fauna is an attempt to register all modern taxa from Pakistan. It includes 55 taxa under 14 genera and 11 subgenera. Three species, Cylindera (Eriodera) albopunctata (Chaudoir 1852), Cicindela viridilabris (Chaudoir 1852) and Neocollyris (Neocollyris) redtenbacheri (Horn 1894) are recorded from Pakistan for the first time.

Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Jurgen, Wiesner; Matin, Muhammad Abdul; Zia, Ahmed; Sultan, Amir; Naz, Falak

2010-01-01

323

On the structure and mechanical properties of beetle shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rose chafer beetle shells are composites of chitin fibres and proteinaceous matrix in an orthogonal plywood-like laminate. Fibre layers are connected by unique inter and intra-ply cross-links that afford a novel solution to shear and crack-propagation resistance.

H. R. Hepburn; A. Ball

1973-01-01

324

Conservation, innovation, and the evolution of horned beetle diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beetle horns represent an evolutionary novelty exhibiting remarkable diversity above and below the species level. Here, we show that four typical appendage patterning genes, extradenticle (exd), homothorax (hth), dachshund (dac), and Distal-less (Dll) are expressed in the context of the development of sexually dimorphic thoracic horns in three Onthophagus species. At least two of these genes, Dll and hth, exhibited

Armin P. Moczek; Debra Rose; William Sewell; Bethany R. Kesselring

2006-01-01

325

POTENTIAL NORTHERN DISTRIBUTION OF ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE IN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis) is endemic to the Oriental and eastern Paleartic regions. The insect was recently introduced into North America and now infests the urban forests of Long Island, Chicago, New Jersey, and Toronto. Most North American insects from this family (Cerambycidae) normally infest dead and dying material and usually are considered beneficial because they hasten

D. B. Roden; R. A. Haack; M. A Keena; D. W. McKenney; F. D. Beall; P. M. Roden

326

Beyond the Asian Longhorned Beetle and Emerald Ash Borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are exotic forest insects that have had severe impacts on host tree species where they have become established in North America in recent years. Several other exotic forest arthropods have also appeared recently in North America, but have gained less notoriety. Although their potential impacts are less, the

Robert K. Lawrence

327

"Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are naturally more eye-catching…

Kan, Da

2004-01-01

328

Genetically improved potatoes: protection from damage by Colorado potato beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russet Burbank potato plants have been genetically improved to resist insect attack and damage by Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) by the insertion of a cryIIIA gene encoding the insect control protein of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. A modified gene that dramatically improved plant expression of this protein was utilized. Its expression in Russet Burbank potato plants resulted in

Frederick J. Perlak; Terry B. Stone; Yvonne M. Muskopf; Lisa J. Petersen; Gregory B. Parker; Sylvia A. McPherson; Jeff Wyman; Stephen Love; Gary Reed; Duane Biever; David A. Fischhoff

1993-01-01

329

Down and Dirty with Dung Beetles: Innovating Teaching and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lecturer at the University of Queensland has developed an excellent model to give students an authentic, hands-on experience of ecological research. The first-year university students have been learning about biodiversity as they carry out the task of beetle identification. This partnership gives the students a chance to contribute to an…

Kelk, Joee

2009-01-01

330

Impacts of Bark Beetle Outbreaks on Forest Carbon Stocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bark beetle outbreaks kill millions of trees in western North America and impact multiple forest ecosystem processes. Carbon cycling is affected by initial reductions in stand productivity and high rates of decomposition of dead material. Carbon stored in trees is released to the atmosphere following mortality from beetle attack, thereby affecting atmospheric carbon dioxide and future climate change. Despite the large areas of outbreaks, little has been quantified about affected carbon stocks. In this study, we utilize detailed plot measurements within outbreaks, national forest inventories, and aerial survey information to estimate the amount of carbon associated with trees killed by mountain pine beetle infestations. Using diameter measurements of live and dead trees together with allometric equations, we establish the amount of carbon in killed trees as well as the fraction of carbon affected within a stand. We assess variability in carbon in killed trees within individual outbreaks in the western United States as well as among outbreaks. We also report on methods to combine a Westwide forest inventory with aerial surveys of dead trees together with the field measurements to assess landscape and regional scale effects of bark beetle outbreaks on forest carbon in the western United States.

Hicke, J. A.; Meddens, A. J.; Pfeifer, E.

2008-12-01

331

A deficiency of the homeotic complex of the beetle Tribolium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Drosophila, the establishment of regional commitments along most of the anterior/posterior axis of the developing embryo depends on two clusters of homeotic genes: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and the bithorax complex (BX-C). The red flour beetle has a single complex (HOM-C) representing the homologues of the ANT-C and BX-C in juxtaposition. Beetles trans-heterozygous for two particular HOM-C mutations spontaneously generate a large deficiency, presumably by an exchange within the common region of two overlapping inversions. Genetic and molecular results indicate that this deficiency spans at least the interval between the Deformed and abdominal-A homologues. In deficiency homozygous embryos, all gnathal, thoracic and abdominal segments develop antennal appendages, suggesting that a gene(s) has been deleted that acts to distinguish trunk from head. There is no evidence that beetles have a homologue of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu of similar genomic location and function. On the basis of the genetic tractability, convenient genome size and organization of Tribolium, and its relatively long phylogenetic divergence from Drosophila (>300 million years), we have integrated developmental genetic and molecular analyses of the HOM-C. We isolated about 70 mutations in the complex representing at least six complementation groups. The homeotic phenotypes of adults and lethal embryos lead us to believe that these beetle genes are homologous with the Drosophila genes indicated in Fig. 1 (see text).

Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1991-01-01

332

Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles  

PubMed Central

Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.

Johansson, L. Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T.; Hedenstrom, Anders

2012-01-01

333

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,

Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin

2008-01-01

334

An old adaptive radiation of forest dung beetles in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive radiations of mammals have contributed to the exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism in Madagascar. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the endemic dung beetle tribe Helictopleurini (Scarabaeidae) and its relationship to the widely distributed Oniticellini and Onthophagini. Helictopleurini species are dependent on mammals for their resources. We date the single origin of the tribe at 37

Helena Wirta; Luisa Orsini; Ilkka Hanski

2008-01-01

335

Drought induces spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks across northwestern Colorado.  

PubMed

This study examines influences of climate variability on spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak across northwestern Colorado during the period 1650 2011 CE. Periods of broad-scale outbreak reconstructed using documentary records and tree rings were dated to 1843-1860, 1882-1889, 1931-1957, and 2004-2010. Periods of outbreak were compared with seasonal temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and indices of ocean-atmosphere oscillation that include the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Classification trees showed that outbreaks can be predicted most successfully from above average annual AMO values and above average summer VPD values, indicators of drought across Colorado. Notably, we find that spruce beetle outbreaks appear to be predicted best by interannual to multidecadal variability in drought, not by temperature alone. This finding may imply that spruce beetle outbreaks are triggered by decreases in host tree defenses, which are hypothesized to occur with drought stress. Given the persistence of the AMO, the shift to a positive AMO phase in the late 1990s is likely to promote continued spruce beetle disturbance. PMID:24933812

Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Eisenhart, Karen S; Jarvis, Daniel; Kulakowski, Dominik

2014-04-01

336

Flare Plasma Iron Abundance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

2008-01-01

337

Effect of pyriproxyfen and photoperiod on free amino acid concentrations and proteins in the hemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).  

PubMed

A North Dakota strain of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), was reared under both short- (8L:16D) and long-day (17L:7D) conditions. Age-related and pyriproxyfen- (JHA-) induced changes in hemolymph free amino acids and proteins were examined. Under a short-day photoperiod, the total free amino acid concentration in the hemolymph increased gradually up to 20 days of adult life, but the long-day beetles showed marked increases during the first 10 days and then decreased afterwards. Proline, glutamine and valine were the most abundant free amino acids in both sexes of beetles held under either short- or long-day photoregims. JHA treatment of diapausing adults, held under either short- or long-day conditions after treatment, terminated diapause as indicated by re-emergence from the vermiculite, feeding, mating, changes in free amino acid levels, the disappearance of diapause protein 1 and appearance of vitellogenin in the hemolymph. Furthermore, most of the JHA-treated females held under long-day conditions also matured oocytes and oviposited, but those held under short-day conditions did not. PMID:10878261

Yi; Adams

2000-10-01

338

Potential effects on grassland birds of converting marginal cropland to switchgrass biomass production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat loss is a major reason for the decline of grassland birds in North America. Five habitats (pastures, hayfields, rowcrop fields, small-grain fields, Conservation Reserve Program fields) compose most of the habitat used by grassland birds in the Midwest United States. Growing and harvesting switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a biomass fuel would create another habitat for grassland birds. Bird abundance information from studies conducted in Iowa and adjacent states and land-use data for the Rathbun Lake Watershed in southern Iowa were used in a Geographic Information System to model the potential effects on bird abundances of converting rowcrop fields to biomass production. Abundances of bird species that are management priorities increased in both biomass scenarios. Common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) abundance in the watershed also increased greatly in both scenarios. Other species (e.g., homed lark [Eremophila alpestris], killdeer [Charadrius vociferous]) were more abundant in the existing land use than in the biomass scenarios, and conversion of fields from rowcrop to biomass production could be detrimental to these species. In general, biomass fields will provide habitat for grassland birds that are management priorities, but future monitoring of birds in such fields is needed as conversion of rowcrop fields to biomass production continues. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Murray, L. D.; Best, L. B.; Jacobsen, T. J.; Braster, M. L.

2003-01-01

339

Interactions between the Encelia leaf beetle and its host plant, Encelia farinosa: The influence of acidic fog on insect growth and plant chemistry.  

PubMed

The impact of acidic deposition on interactions between the plant Encelia farinosa and the herbivorous beetle Trirhabda geminata (Chrysomelidae) was determined under greenhouse conditions. Acidic fogs (pH 2.75) did not significantly affect the overall foliar concentrations of water or soluble protein as compared with control fogs (pH 5.6). Nonetheless, E. farinosa foliage was altered by exposure to three 3-h acidic fogs such that growth and biomass gain by T. geminata increased by more than 30% as compared to beetles feeding on control-fogged plants. Thus, previous indications that changes in soluble proteins or water content were responsible for increased biomass gain and growth of T. geminata cannot be substantiated by this study. Additionally, changes in the plant defensive chemistry were not responsible for increased herbivore growth, as farinosin, encecalin, and euparin foliar concentrations did not vary significantly between fog treatments. Significant increases in CO2 assimilation rates of E. farinosa exposed to acidic fogs were documented at 3, 7, and 21 days following treatment, suggesting that carbohydrate-based products of increased plant metabolism may have played a role (e.g. soluble carbohydrates). However, the key factors responsible for increasing herbivore performance on acidic-fogged E. farinosa remain largely unknown. PMID:15093465

Redak, R A; Trumble, J T; Paine, T D

1997-01-01

340

A review on the development and commercialization of biomass gasification technologies in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the fast economic growth, the energy demand in China has increased two-fold in the past three decades. Various energy resources have been exploited and utilized and biomass is one of the energy resources that is abundant and has been widely used in China for a long time. Biomass gasification is an efficient and advanced technology for extracting the energy

Dennis Y. C. Leung; X. L. Yin; C. Z. Wu

2004-01-01

341

Flash pyrolysis of biomass particles in fluidized bed for bio-oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass utilization could relieve the pressure caused by conventional energy shortage and environmental pollution. Advantage should be taken of the abundant biomass in China as clean energy source to substitute for traditional fossil fuels. At present, flash pyrolysis appears to be an efficient method to produce high yields of liquids that could either be directly used as fuel or converted

Shurong Wang; Mengxiang Fang; Chunjiang Yu; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

2005-01-01

342

Some employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their abundant forest and agricultural biomass resources, New England and the Cornbelt are likely to grow considerably in the development of biomass energy systems during the next decade or two. Forty thousand or more permanent jobs might be created in New England's wood energy industry by the end of the century. If alcohol-fuel use continues to grow, even

W. Stevenson; S. E. Bell; L. M. Blair; R. M. Gove; J. R. Little

1981-01-01

343

Biomass Gasification in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the challenges of increasing energy demand, renewable energy plays a significant role in energy strategy nowadays in China. Bioenergy as carbon free energy, is considered one of the most promising renewable energy sources that can supply heat and electricity. The paper introduces characteristics of biomass and related equipment expounds on the direction of research of biomass

Weijuan Lan; Guanyi Chen; Wenchao Ma; Beibei Yan; Weiyi Li

2011-01-01

344

Biomass Research Program  

ScienceCinema

INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

2013-05-28

345

Combustion properties of biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of biomass relevant to combustion are briefly reviewed. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable, especially with respect to inorganic constituents important to the critical problems of fouling and slagging. Alkali and alkaline earth metals, in combination with other fuel elements such as silica and sulfur, and facilitated by the presence of chlorine, are responsible for many

B. M Jenkins; L. L Baxter; T. R Miles

1998-01-01

346

Biomass Research Program  

SciTech Connect

INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

2011-01-01

347

Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.  

PubMed

The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects. PMID:21731659

Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

2011-01-01

348

Juvenile Hormone Regulates Extreme Mandible Growth in Male Stag Beetles  

PubMed Central

The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J.; Miura, Toru

2011-01-01

349

Constraining Solar Abundances Using Helioseismology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent analyses of solar photospheric abundances suggest that the oxygen abundance in the solar atmosphere needs to be revised downward. In this study, we investigate the consequence of this revision on helioseismic analyses of the depth of the solar convection zone and the helium abundance in the solar envelope and find no significant effect. We also find that the revised

Sarbani Basu; H. M. Antia

2004-01-01

350

The genome of the mustard leaf beetle encodes two active xylanases originally acquired from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer.  

PubMed

The primary plant cell wall comprises the most abundant polysaccharides on the Earth and represents a rich source of energy for organisms which have evolved the ability to digest them. Enzymes able to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides are widely distributed in micro-organisms but are generally absent in animals, although their presence in insects, especially phytophagous beetles from the superfamilies Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea, has recently begun to be appreciated. The observed patchy distribution of endogenous genes encoding these enzymes in animals has raised questions about their evolutionary origins. Recent evidence suggests that endogenous plant cell wall degrading enzymes-encoding genes have been acquired by animals through a mechanism known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). HGT describes how genetic material is moved by means other than vertical inheritance from a parent to an offspring. Here, we provide evidence that the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae, possesses in its genome genes encoding active xylanases from the glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11). We also provide evidence that these genes were originally acquired by P. cochleariae from a species of gammaproteobacteria through HGT. This represents the first example of the presence of genes from the GH11 family in animals. PMID:23698014

Pauchet, Yannick; Heckel, David G

2013-07-22

351

Global Patterns and Predictions of Seafloor Biomass Using Random Forests  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive seafloor biomass and abundance database has been constructed from 24 oceanographic institutions worldwide within the Census of Marine Life (CoML) field projects. The machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, was employed to model and predict seafloor standing stocks from surface primary production, water-column integrated and export particulate organic matter (POM), seafloor relief, and bottom water properties. The predictive models explain 63% to 88% of stock variance among the major size groups. Individual and composite maps of predicted global seafloor biomass and abundance are generated for bacteria, meiofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna (invertebrates and fishes). Patterns of benthic standing stocks were positive functions of surface primary production and delivery of the particulate organic carbon (POC) flux to the seafloor. At a regional scale, the census maps illustrate that integrated biomass is highest at the poles, on continental margins associated with coastal upwelling and with broad zones associated with equatorial divergence. Lowest values are consistently encountered on the central abyssal plains of major ocean basins The shift of biomass dominance groups with depth is shown to be affected by the decrease in average body size rather than abundance, presumably due to decrease in quantity and quality of food supply. This biomass census and associated maps are vital components of mechanistic deep-sea food web models and global carbon cycling, and as such provide fundamental information that can be incorporated into evidence-based management.

Wei, Chih-Lin; Rowe, Gilbert T.; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas; Caley, M. Julian; Soliman, Yousria; Huettmann, Falk; Qu, Fangyuan; Yu, Zishan; Pitcher, C. Roland; Haedrich, Richard L.; Wicksten, Mary K.; Rex, Michael A.; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Sharma, Jyotsna; Danovaro, Roberto; MacDonald, Ian R.; Nunnally, Clifton C.; Deming, Jody W.; Montagna, Paul; Levesque, Melanie; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Ingole, Baban S.; Bett, Brian J.; Billett, David S. M.; Yool, Andrew; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Iken, Katrin; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2010-01-01

352

Variable responses by southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to the pheromone component endo-brevicomin: influence of enantiomeric composition, release rate, and proximity to infestations.  

PubMed

The male-produced bicyclic acetal endo-brevicomin is a component of the pheromone blend that mediates colonization of host pines by the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. Efforts to identify its behavioral function have been complicated by contrasting reports that it either enhances or reduces attraction of flying beetles. Our studies failed to support the hypothesis that this published variability is due to differences in release rate and/or the enantiomeric composition [i.e., the beetle-produced (+)-enantiomer vs. the racemate] of the endo-brevicomin used in the experiments. In trapping trials within active D. frontalis infestations, racemic and (+)-endo-brevicomin did not differ from each other in behavioral effects when tested at seven different release rates ranging from 0.005 to 3 mg/d. At the highest release rates, racemic and (+)-endo-brevicomin similarly reduced catches in traps baited with an attractant (frontalin and turpentine), but neither enhanced catches at any release rate. Furthermore, the activity of racemic endo-brevicomin baits depended on trap proximity to D. frontalis infestations. Addition of these baits to attractant-baited traps located inside active infestations reduced catches, but they enhanced catches at traps located either 100 or 200 m outside these infestations. The contrasting responses may reflect differences in host-seeking strategies by either aggregated or dispersing D. frontalis, and may be elicited by differing abundance of natural sources of semiochemicals or differing responsiveness of beetles inside vs. outside of infestations. We suspect that much of the published variability in D. frontalis responses to endo-brevicomin is attributable to differing proximity of experimental field sites to infestations. PMID:21465266

Sullivan, Brian T; Dalusky, Mark J; Mori, Kenji; Brownie, Cavell

2011-04-01

353

Helioseismic Constraints on Photospheric Abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent analyses of solar photospheric abundances suggest that the oxygen abundance in the solar atmosphere needs to be revised downwards. We investigate if solar models constructed with lower oxygen and other heavy element abundances are consistent with helioseismic results. We find that lowered abundances along with the current OPAL opacity tables are not consistent with seismic data. A significant upward revision of the opacity tables is required to make solar models with lower heavy element abundances that are consistent with seismic constraints. This work is supported by a grant from the NSF.

Basu, S.; Antia, H. M.

2004-05-01

354

Constraining Solar Abundances Using Helioseismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent analyses of solar photospheric abundances suggest that the oxygen abundance in the solar atmosphere needs to be revised downward. In this study, we investigate the consequence of this revision on helioseismic analyses of the depth of the solar convection zone and the helium abundance in the solar envelope and find no significant effect. We also find that the revised abundances along with the current OPAL opacity tables are not consistent with seismic data. A significant upward revision of the opacity tables is required to make solar models with lower oxygen abundance consistent with seismic observations.

Basu, Sarbani; Antia, H. M.

2004-05-01

355

Challenges and Opportunities for Producing Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is the lifeline of global economy. Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and increased concerns over environmental pollution accelerated the need to look for renewable and environmentally sustainable energy sources. In this context, ethanol derived from biomass is advocated as a prominent contributor to offer a potential means to meet our energy needs. Being abundant and outside the human food chain

D. Kareemulla; Sudha Tyagi; Jaya Rawat; P. V. C. Rao; N. V. Choudary

2008-01-01

356

Combining proteomics and transcriptome sequencing to identify active plant-cell-wall-degrading enzymes in a leaf beetle  

PubMed Central

Background The primary plant cell wall is a complex mixture of polysaccharides and proteins encasing living plant cells. Among these polysaccharides, cellulose is the most abundant and useful biopolymer present on earth. These polysaccharides also represent a rich source of energy for organisms which have evolved the ability to degrade them. A growing body of evidence suggests that phytophagous beetles, mainly species from the superfamilies Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea, possess endogenous genes encoding complex and diverse families of so-called plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). The presence of these genes in phytophagous beetles may have been a key element in their success as herbivores. Here, we combined a proteomics approach and transcriptome sequencing to identify PCWDEs present in larval gut contents of the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Results Using a two-dimensional proteomics approach, we recovered 11 protein bands, isolated using activity assays targeting cellulose-, pectin- and xylan-degrading enzymes. After mass spectrometry analyses, a total of 13 proteins putatively responsible for degrading plant cell wall polysaccharides were identified; these proteins belong to three glycoside hydrolase (GH) families: GH11 (xylanases), GH28 (polygalacturonases or pectinases), and GH45 (?-1,4-glucanases or cellulases). Additionally, highly stable and proteolysis-resistant host plant-derived proteins from various pathogenesis-related protein (PRs) families as well as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) were also identified from the gut contents proteome. In parallel, transcriptome sequencing revealed the presence of at least 19 putative PCWDE transcripts encoded by the P. cochleariae genome. All of these were specifically expressed in the insect gut rather than the rest of the body, and in adults as well as larvae. The discrepancy observed in the number of putative PCWDEs between transcriptome and proteome analyses could be partially explained by differences in transcriptional level. Conclusions Combining proteome and transcriptome sequencing analyses proved to be a powerful tool for the discovery of active PCWDEs in a non-model species. Our data represent the starting point of an in-depth functional and evolutionary characterization of PCWDE gene families in phytophagous beetles and their contribution to the adaptation of these highly successful herbivores to their host plants.

2012-01-01

357

Cofermentation of Glucose, Xylose, and Cellobiose by the Beetle-Associated Yeast Spathaspora passalidarum  

PubMed Central

Fermentation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars from biomass could resolve food-versus-fuel conflicts inherent in the bioconversion of grains. However, the inability to coferment glucose and xylose is a major challenge to the economical use of lignocellulose as a feedstock. Simultaneous cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose is problematic for most microbes because glucose represses utilization of the other saccharides. Surprisingly, the ascomycetous, beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum, which ferments xylose and cellobiose natively, can also coferment these two sugars in the presence of 30 g/liter glucose. S. passalidarum simultaneously assimilates glucose and xylose aerobically, it simultaneously coferments glucose, cellobiose, and xylose with an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g, and it has a specific ethanol production rate on xylose more than 3 times that of the corresponding rate on glucose. Moreover, an adapted strain of S. passalidarum produced 39 g/liter ethanol with a yield of 0.37 g/g sugars from a hardwood hydrolysate. Metabolome analysis of S. passalidarum before onset and during the fermentations of glucose and xylose showed that the flux of glycolytic intermediates is significantly higher on xylose than on glucose. The high affinity of its xylose reductase activities for NADH and xylose combined with allosteric activation of glycolysis probably accounts in part for its unusual capacities. These features make S. passalidarum very attractive for studying regulatory mechanisms enabling bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials by yeasts.

Long, Tanya M.; Su, Yi-Kai; Headman, Jennifer; Higbee, Alan; Willis, Laura B.

2012-01-01

358

Cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose by the beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum.  

PubMed

Fermentation of cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars from biomass could resolve food-versus-fuel conflicts inherent in the bioconversion of grains. However, the inability to coferment glucose and xylose is a major challenge to the economical use of lignocellulose as a feedstock. Simultaneous cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose is problematic for most microbes because glucose represses utilization of the other saccharides. Surprisingly, the ascomycetous, beetle-associated yeast Spathaspora passalidarum, which ferments xylose and cellobiose natively, can also coferment these two sugars in the presence of 30 g/liter glucose. S. passalidarum simultaneously assimilates glucose and xylose aerobically, it simultaneously coferments glucose, cellobiose, and xylose with an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g, and it has a specific ethanol production rate on xylose more than 3 times that of the corresponding rate on glucose. Moreover, an adapted strain of S. passalidarum produced 39 g/liter ethanol with a yield of 0.37 g/g sugars from a hardwood hydrolysate. Metabolome analysis of S. passalidarum before onset and during the fermentations of glucose and xylose showed that the flux of glycolytic intermediates is significantly higher on xylose than on glucose. The high affinity of its xylose reductase activities for NADH and xylose combined with allosteric activation of glycolysis probably accounts in part for its unusual capacities. These features make S. passalidarum very attractive for studying regulatory mechanisms enabling bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials by yeasts. PMID:22636012

Long, Tanya M; Su, Yi-Kai; Headman, Jennifer; Higbee, Alan; Willis, Laura B; Jeffries, Thomas W

2012-08-01

359

Response of Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), to volatile components of tansy, Tanacetum vulgare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of Colorado potato beetle,Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), to volatile components of tansy,Tanacetum vulgare L., were investigated in order to establish a chemical basis for observed reduction in beetle populations when potatoes,Solanum tuberosum L., were interplanted with tansy. Colorado potato beetles exhibited avoidance behavior to tansy oil, volatiles from intact tansy plants, a “hydrocarbon fraction” of tansy oil, obtained by

Oksana Panasiuk

1984-01-01

360

Induced Terpene Accumulation in Norway Spruce Inhibits Bark Beetle Colonization in a Dose-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

Background Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. Methods To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. Results Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n?=?7) had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m?2) and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m?2 vs. 1.11 m m?2) as trees with low terpene levels (n?=?6). There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ?100 mg terpene g?1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ?200 mg terpene g?1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Hu, Jiang; Christiansen, Erik; Bjorklund, Niklas; Langstrom, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

2011-01-01

361

Ophiostoma ips from Pinewood Nematode Vector, Japanese Pine Sawyer Beetle (Monochamus alternatus), in Korea  

PubMed Central

Japanese pine sawyer beetle (Monochamus alternatus) is an economically important pest in coniferous trees. Ophiostoma ips was isolated from the beetle and identified based on analysis of morphological properties and the ?-tubulin gene sequence. The fungus easily produced perithecia with a long neck on malt extract agar and its ascospores were rectangular shaped. This is first report of Ophiostoma species associated with the pinewood nematode vector beetle in Korea.

Suh, Dong Yeon; Hyun, Min Woo; Kim, Jae Jin; Son, Seung Yeol

2013-01-01

362

Evaluation of cultural practices for potential to control strawberry sap beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).  

PubMed

Strawberry sap beetle, Stelidota geminata (Say) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), adults and larvae feed on and contaminate marketable strawberry (Fragaria L.) fruit. The beetle is a serious pest in the northeastern United States, with growers in multiple states reporting closing fields for picking prematurely due to fruit damage. Three options were evaluated for potential to reduce strawberry sap beetle populations. First, the influence of plant structure on accessibility of fruit in different strawberry cultivars to strawberry sap beetle was assessed by modifying plant structure and exposing caged plants to strawberry sap beetle adults. Severity of damage to berries staked up off the ground was similar to damage to those fruit contacting the soil, showing that adults will damage fruit held off the ground. Second, baited traps were placed at three distances into strawberry fields to determine whether overwintered beetles enter strawberry fields gradually. Adult beetles were first caught in the strawberries approximately equal to 19 d after occurring in traps placed along edges of adjacent wooded areas. The beetles arrived during the same sampling interval in traps at all distances into the fields, indicating that a border spray is unlikely to adequately control strawberry sap beetle. Third, the number of strawberry sap beetle emerging from strawberry for 5 wk after tilling and narrowing of plant rows was compared in plots renovated immediately at the end of harvest and in plots where renovation was delayed by 1 wk. In the 2-yr study, year and not treatment was the primary factor affecting the total number of emerging strawberry sap beetle. Overall, limited potential exists to reduce strawberry sap beetle populations by choosing cultivars with a particular plant structure, applying insecticide as a border spray, or modifying time of field renovation. PMID:18613586

Loughner, Rebecca L; Loeb, Gregory M; Schloemann, Sonia; Demchak, Kathleen

2008-06-01

363

Capella: Structure and Abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. (8) EUVE line ratios indicating low optical depth place limits on the extent to which the X-ray lines are optically, thick. While the brightest lines may be marginally thick, the ASCA spectrum is not of sufficient resolution to determine the optical depth in these lines.

Brickhouse, Nancy S.

1999-01-01

364

Monitoring cucumber beetles in sweetpotato and cucurbits with kairomone-baited traps.  

PubMed

Seven kairomone formulations (Trécé, Inc., Salinas, CA) were evaluated for their effectiveness as attractants for luring three species of cucumber beetles into Pherocon CRW traps (Trécé, Inc.) in cucurbit and sweetpotato fields. The spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber; the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata LeConte; and the striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.), were captured in this study. TRE8276 (TIC mixture: 500 mg of 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene, 500 mg of indole, and 500 mg of trans-cinnamaldeyde) and TRE8336 (500 mg of 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene, 500 mg of trans-cinnamaldeyde, 500 mg of 4-methoxyphenethanol) were the most effective lures for spotted and striped cucumber beetles. None of the kairomone lures was very effective for attracting banded cucumber beetles. Three population peaks of spotted cucumber beetles were observed in cucurbit and sweetpotato fields at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory (Charleston, SC). The efficacy of TRE8276 declined rapidly after 2 wk in the field. An improved design of the Pherocon CRW trap, with a yellow bottom and more-tapered top section, was more effective for capturing cucumber beetles than the original trap design made entirely of clear plastic. Banded cucumber beetles were not captured in sweetpotato fields at inland locations in North Carolina or South Carolina. PMID:15765678

Jackson, D Michael; Sorensen, K A; Sorenson, C E; Story, R N

2005-02-01

365

Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).  

PubMed

Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees. PMID:23448043

Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

2013-02-01

366

Redescription and Life History of Contortylenchus brevicomi, a Parasite of the Southern Pine Beetle Dendroctonus frontalis.  

PubMed

Larval and adult life stages are described for Contortylenchus brevicomi (Massey) Rühm parasitizing a Mississippi population of Dendroctonus frontalis, the southern pine beetle. Fourth-stage larvae and free-living adult females of this species are identified and described for the first time. The life cycle of C. brevicomi can be reconstructed from this study. The adult female nematode lays eggs in a mature beetle. Larval development progresses within the hemocoel until fourth-stage larvae exit the host. Mating occurs in beetle galleries and only females enter an immature beetle host. PMID:19300698

Macguidwin, A E; Smart, G C; Allen, G E

1980-07-01

367

Presence and diversity of Streptomyces in Dendroctonus and sympatric bark beetle galleries across North America.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed several examples of intimate associations between insects and Actinobacteria, including the Southern Pine Beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and the Spruce Beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis. Here, we surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria co-occurring with 10 species of Dendroctonus bark beetles across the United States, using both phylogenetic and community ecology approaches. From these 10 species, and 19 other scolytine beetles that occur in the same trees, we obtained 154 Streptomyces-like isolates and generated 16S sequences from 134 of those. Confirmed 16S sequences of Streptomyces were binned into 36 distinct strains using a threshold of 0.2% sequence divergence. The 16S rDNA phylogeny of all isolates does not correlate with the distribution of strains among beetle species, localities, or parts of the beetles or their galleries. However, we identified three Streptomyces strains occurring repeatedly on Dendroctonus beetles and in their galleries. Identity of these isolates was corroborated using a house-keeping gene sequence (efTu). These strains are not confined to a certain species of beetle, locality, or part of the beetle or their galleries. However, their role as residents in the woodboring insect niche is supported by the repeated association of their 16S and efTu from across the continent, and also having been reported in studies of other subcortical insects. PMID:21249352

Hulcr, Jiri; Adams, Aaron S; Raffa, Kenneth; Hofstetter, Richard W; Klepzig, Kier D; Currie, Cameron R

2011-05-01

368

A red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetraophthalmus) foraging on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca).  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetraophthalmus) and its host plant, common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), share a long evolutionary history. The beetle specializes on the milkweed and feeds on the milkweedÃÂs roots as a larva and its leaves as an adult. The beetles require drying grass stems as oviposition sites, even though the beetle larvae do not consume grass. Recent research has found complex interactions among competition between milkweed and its grass competitors, its herbivores, and its genetic variation. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (85:8) in August of 2004.

Agrawal, Anurag

2010-02-16

369

Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle,Phyllotreta Cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).  

PubMed

Laboratory olfactometer bioassays and field trapping experiments showed that the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), was highly attracted by oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) when flea beetles were on the plant. This attraction was mediated by a flea beetle-produced aggregation pheromone based upon: (1) Oilseed rape damaged mechanically, or byP. cruciferae, or by diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.), did not attractP. cruciferae. (2) Contact with the plants or feeding was required for the production of aggregation pheromone because oilseed rape alone was not attractive when separated from flea beetles by a screen. (3) Equal numbers of males and females were attracted. PMID:24254091

Peng, C; Weiss, M J

1992-06-01

370

The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.  

SciTech Connect

We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

2005-04-01

371

Genetic structure of Kurtzmaniella cleridarum, a cactus flower beetle yeast of the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts: speciation by distance?  

PubMed

We studied 95 isolates of the yeast species Kurtzmaniella cleridarum recovered from nitidulid beetles collected in flowers of cacti of the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona and the Mojave Desert of California. They were characterized on the basis of mating type and ten polymorphic DNA markers in relation to their geographic distribution. Although all loci appeared to be free of strong linkage, the recovered haplotypes represented but a small fraction of possible combinations, indicating that abundant asexual reproduction of local genotypes accounts for much of population growth, even though the yeast is capable of sexual recombination in nature. Much of the genetic differentiation took place at the local level, indicating that gene flow across the various localities is limited. However, a relationship exists between overall genetic differentiation and geography over long distances. We estimated that populations separated by c. 1300 km would share no alleles in common and that such a separation might be enough to favor the onset of speciation. PMID:23865628

Lachance, Marc-André; Perri, Ami M; Farahbakhsh, Amy S; Starmer, William T

2013-11-01

372

Food Preferences of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, a Nuisance Pest in Rubber Tree Plantations  

PubMed Central

Massive invasion of the litter dwelling beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), numbering about 0.5 to 4 million per residential building following summer showers, and their prolonged stay in a state of dormancy, make them an extreme nuisance in rubber tree plantation belts of the Western Ghats in south India. Food preference of post-dormancy adults, larvae and teneral adults stages towards tender, mature and senescent leaves were assessed in three choice and no choice leaf disc tests. All stages have strong preference towards fallen tender leaves and lowest preference towards senescent leaves indicating that leaf age is a major attribute determining food selection and food preference of L. tristis. Ready availability of the preferred, prematurely fallen, tender rubber tree leaves as a food resource is suggested as being responsible for the exceptionally high abundance of L. tristis in rubber tree plantation belts.

Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K.V.

2009-01-01

373

Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subproject is divided into five tasks which cover exploratory research, investigation of process variables, investigation of process improvement options, product characterization, and product upgrading. In the first task, two new concepts for biomass ...

M. Seth R. Djafar G. Yu S. Ergun

1979-01-01

374

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported in the construction of the biogasifier to be used in experiments on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass. Photographs illustrating various stages in the construction are included. (ERA citation 03:014252)

1977-01-01

375

Steam Gasification of Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction of experimental equipment for research on basic parameters involved in the steam gasification of biomass was completed. Modifications were made on the equipment to improve performance. Information obtained from preliminary runs indicated that...

1977-01-01

376

Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to

J Luche; Q Falcoz; T Bastien; J P Leninger; K Arabi; O Aubry; A Khacef; J M Cormier; J Lédé

2012-01-01

377

Considerations for biomass energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several different biomass forms, or feedstocks, contribute to the total potential for biomass energy. A summary of the energy potential of the US biomass resource base is presented along with a survey of existing thermochemical and biochemical processes for converting the feedstocks into usable energy products. Energy requirements, economics, and alternate uses for biomass resources are included in the discussion.

C. C. Carson; C. M. Hart

1980-01-01

378

Abundance of adult saugers across the Wind River watershed, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The abundance of adult saugers Sander canadensis was estimated over 179 km of continuous lotic habitat across a watershed on the western periphery of their natural distribution in Wyoming. Three-pass depletions with raft-mounted electrofishing gear were conducted in 283 pools and runs among 19 representative reaches totaling 51 km during the late summer and fall of 2002. From 2 to 239 saugers were estimated to occur among the 19 reaches of 1.6-3.8 km in length. The estimates were extrapolated to a total population estimate (mean ?? 95% confidence interval) of 4,115 ?? 308 adult saugers over 179 km of lotie habitat. Substantial variation in mean density (range = 1.0-32.5 fish/ha) and mean biomass (range = 0.5-16.8 kg/ha) of adult saugers in pools and runs was observed among the study reaches. Mean density and biomass were highest in river reaches with pools and runs that had maximum depths of more than 1 m, mean daily summer water temperatures exceeding 20??C, and alkalinity exceeding 130 mg/L. No saugers were captured in the 39 pools or runs with maximum water depths of 0.6 m or less. Multiple-regression analysis and the information-theoretic approach were used to identify watershed-scale and instream habitat features accounting for the variation in biomass among the 244 pools and runs across the watershed with maximum depths greater than 0.6 m. Sauger biomass was greater in pools than in runs and increased as mean daily summer water temperature, maximum depth, and mean summer alkalinity increased and as dominant substrate size decreased. This study provides an estimate of adult sauger abundance and identifies habitat features associated with variation in their density and biomass across a watershed, factors important to the management of both populations and habitat. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

Amadio, C. J.; Hubert, W. A.; Johnson, K.; Oberlie, D.; Dufek, D.

2006-01-01

379

Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment  

SciTech Connect

This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

Skelton, J.C.

1981-11-01

380

Northeast Regional Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

Lusk, P.D.

1992-12-01

381

Synchrotron tomography of a boreal forest bark beetle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tomography beamline X27A at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory was used to study the destructive spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby). The x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) instrument is equipped with filtered white x-ray beam with energy of around 18 keV and, alternatively, a monochromatic beam with energy of around 4 to 14 keV and a 1% band pass. The instrument records microtomographic volumes with 108 to 109 voxels and spatial resolution down to about 3- micron voxels. Three-dimensional image reconstruction provides density and spatial information about solid heterogeneous forms. We have demonstrated that CMT images can be used to nondestructively characterize the internal structure of the beetle - symbiont fungal complex as part of an effort to understand the role of these organisms in the devastation of spruce forests throughout south-central Alaska.

Illman, Barbara L.; Dowd, Betsy A.; Holaday, Rene

2002-01-01

382

Staphylinid (rove) beetle dermatitis outbreak in the American southwest?  

PubMed

An outbreak of a blistering disease was reported in a military unit training in the Arizona desert during heavy rain and flooding. In a unit of 249 personnel, 33 presented with dermatologic complaints, and 4 met stringent diagnostic criteria for dermatitis linearis. A fifth patient presented with symptoms and signs of "Nairobi eye." Staphylinid (rove) beetles related to the paederids, which have been responsible for vesicular dermatitis outbreaks in other parts of the world but not previously in the United States, were collected at the site. Reports in the antique scientific literature document paederids in the area after periodic floods. These findings suggest that rove beetle dermatitis should be added to the differential diagnosis of vesicular dermatitis in western North America. PMID:10091495

Claborn, D M; Polo, J M; Olson, P E; Earhart, K C; Sherman, S S

1999-03-01

383

Capella: Structure and Abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

Brickhouse, Nancy S.

1999-01-01

384

Rickettsia associated with male-killing in a buprestid beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many populations of the buprestid leaf-mining beetle, Brachys tessellatus, from central South Carolina, USA, show highly skewed sex ratios, ranging from 1.3 to 6.0 females per male. We have identified a Rickettsia bacterium that is associated with sex ratio distortion (SRD) and selective killing of male embryos in B. tessellatus. Molecular assays of infection by this bacterium are highly associated

Eilleen T. Lawson; Timothy A. Mousseau; Rebecca Klaper; Mark D. Hunter; John H. Werren

2001-01-01

385

Discontinuous ventilation in the rhinoceros beetle Oryctes nasicornis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) are frequently observed with insects, i.e. oxygen take up and carbon dioxide release\\u000a occur interrupted by periods of a few minutes up to many hours.\\u000a \\u000a The paper presents direct and indirect calorimetric experiments on DGCs of the scarabid rhinoceros beetle Oryctes nasicornis. A direct\\/indirect calorimetric experiment is presented. Total and specific heat production rates amount

I. Lamprecht; R. S. Seymour; C. R. White; P. G. D. Matthews; L. Wadsö

2009-01-01

386

Activity of Male Pheromone of Melanesian Rhinoceros Beetle Scapanes australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to investigate the nature and role of the male pheromone emitted by the Dynast beetle Scapanes australis and to develop a mass trapping technique against this major coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. We report the biological data obtained from natural and synthetic pheromone, previously described as an 84:12:4 (w\\/w) mixture of 2-butanol

Didier Rochat; Jean-Paul Morin; Titus Kakul; Laurence Beaudoin-Ollivier; Robert Prior; Michel Renou; Isabelle Malosse; Tanya Stathers; Sebastian Embupa; Samson Laup

2002-01-01

387

Antennal asymmetry and sexual selection in a cerambycid beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerambycid beetles have exaggerated antennae that are usually sexually size-dimorphic. We investigated the relationship between antenna morphology and sexual selection in the speciesStenurella melanura(L.) in which males on average have antennae that are 13% longer than those of females. Males and females aggregate at flowers near oviposition sites for feeding during June–August. We sampled both copulating and single individuals at

ANDERS PAPE MØLLER; CARMEN ZAMORA-MUÑOZ

1997-01-01

388

Spiroplasma lampyridicola sp. nov., from the Firefly Beetle Photuris pennsylvanicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spiroplasma strain PUP-lT was isolated from the gut fluids of a firefly beetle (Photuris pennsylvanicus) collected in Maryland. Cells of the strain were shown by dark-field microscopy to be helical, motile filaments. Ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy revealed filamentous cells bounded by a single cytoplasmic membrane and no evidence of a cell wall. The cells were not sensitive to 500

CLAUZELL STEVENS; AH YIN TANG; EDWARD JENKINS; RICKEY L. GOINS; JOSEPH G. TULLY; DAVID L. ROSE; DAVID L. WILLIAMSON; PATRICIA CARLE; JOSEPH M. BOVE; KEVIN J. HACKETT; FRANK E. FRENCH; JIMMY WEDINCAMP; ROBERTA B. HENEGAR; ROBERT F. WHITCOMB

1997-01-01

389

Phylogenetic Position of Yeastlike Endosymbionts of Anobiid Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Anobiid beetlesStegobium paniceumandLasioderma serricornepossess the intracellular yeastlike sym- bionts Symbiotaphrina buchneri and Symbiotaphrina kochii, respectively, in the mycetome between the foregut and midgut. The nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA-encoding genes of the symbionts were determined for phylogenetic analysis. Five group I introns were found in the small-subunit rRNA-encoding genes ofS. buchneri, butS. kochiilacked introns. The phylogenetic position of

HIROAKI NODA

1996-01-01

390

Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus  

PubMed Central

Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform) to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population-genetic studies of O. taurus and possibly other horned beetles.

2010-01-01

391

Thermal Death Kinetics of Red Flour Beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While developing radio frequency heat treatments for dried fruits and nuts, we used a heating block system developed by Washington State University to identify the most heat-tolerant life stage of red ßour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and to determine its thermal death kinetics. Using a heating rate of 15C\\/min to approximate the rapid heating of radio frequency treatments, the relative

J. A. Johnson; K. A. Valero; S. Wang; J. Tang

2004-01-01

392

Abundance coefficients, a new method for measuring microorganism relative abundance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new method of measuring the relative abundance of microorganisms by using a set of interrelated coefficients, termed 'abundance coefficients' or 'AC', is proposed. These coefficients provide a means of recording abundance for geometric density categories, and each density measurement represents an approximation of the Poisson parameter ??t. The AC is the natural logarithm of a 'characteristic value,' which is a particular number for each geometric density category. The 'characteristic values' are based upon a probabilistic error statement derived from the Poisson formula, and they present evidence for separation of the geometric category boundaries by e = 2.71828. The proposed AC provide a means for recording species abundance in a manner suitable for arithmetic manipulation, for population structure studies, and for the determination of practical limits for defining the presence or absence of a species. Further, these coefficients provide for both intrasample and intersample abundance comparisons. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Forester, R. M.

1977-01-01

393

Physical Contests for Females in the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica  

PubMed Central

We conducted field observations of physical competition for mates, in which a single male attempts to usurp a female from another male, in male Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae). Physical contests for mates were relatively rare, but when they occurred the challenger male was able to successfully takeover females by dislodging the previously paired resident male in only 18% of contests, suggesting that a substantial prior residency advantage exists in this species. Challenger males that were successful in takeover attempts were significantly larger than the resident male. In contrast, no size pattern was found between intruding males and residents in unsuccessful takeover attempts. The frequency of contests for existing pairs was examined throughout the day. Pair frequency was greatest in early morning and in the evening but contest frequency was highest during the middle of the day. Contest frequency was negatively related to beetle density but not related to temperature. Overall, physical contests for mates appear to be an important part of the mating behavior in Japanese beetles. The frequency of the contests relates to the time of day and social conditions and contest outcome is related to prior residency and the size of the intruding male relative to the paired male.

Kruse, Kipp C.; Switzer, Paul V.

2007-01-01

394

The beetle gut: a hyperdiverse source of novel yeasts  

PubMed Central

We isolated over 650 yeasts over a three year period from the gut of a variety of beetles and characterized them on the basis of LSU rDNA sequences and morphological and metabolic traits. Of these, at least 200 were undescribed taxa, a number equivalent to almost 30% of all currently recognized yeast species. A Bayesian analysis of species discovery rates predicts further sampling of previously sampled habitats could easily produce another 100 species. The sampled habitat is, thereby, estimated to contain well over half as many more species as are currently known worldwide. The beetle gut yeasts occur in 45 independent lineages scattered across the yeast phylogenetic tree, often in clusters. The distribution suggests that the some of the yeasts diversified by a process of horizontal transmission in the habitats and subsequent specialization in association with insect hosts. Evidence of specialization comes from consistent associations over time and broad geographical ranges of certain yeast and beetle species. The discovery of high yeast diversity in a previously unexplored habitat is a first step toward investigating the basis of the interactions and their impact in relation to ecology and evolution.

SUH, Sung-Oui; McHUGH, Joseph V.; POLLOCK, David D.; BLACKWELL, Meredith

2010-01-01

395

Environmentally-benign conversion of biomass residues to electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As petroleum resources are finite, it is imperative to use them wisely in energy conversion applications and, at the same time, develop alternative energy sources. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources that can be used to partially replace fossil fuels. Biomass-based fuels can be produced domestically and can reduce dependency on fuel imports. Due to their abundant supply, and given that to an appreciable extent they can be considered carbon-neutral, their use for power generation is of technological interest. However, whereas biomasses can be directly burned in furnaces, such a conventional direct combustion technique is ill-controlled and typically produces considerable amounts of health-hazardous airborne compounds [1,2]. Thus, an alternative technology for biomass utilization is described herein to address increasing energy needs in an environmentally-benign manner. More specifically, a multi-step process/device is presented to accept granulated or pelletized biomass, and generate an easily-identifiable form of energy as a final product. To achieve low emissions of products of incomplete combustion, the biomass is gasified pyrolytically, mixed with air, ignited and, finally, burned in nominally premixed low-emission flames. Combustion is thus indirect, since the biomass is not directly burned, instead its gaseous pyrolyzates are burned upon mixing with air. Thereby, combustion is well-controlled and can be complete. A demonstration device has been constructed to convert the internal energy of plastics into "clean" thermal energy and, eventually to electricity.

Davies, Andrew

396

Northeast regional biomass program. Retrospective, 1983--1993  

SciTech Connect

Ten years ago, when Congress initiated the Regional Biomass Energy Program, biomass fuel use in the Northeast was limited primarily to the forest products industry and residential wood stoves. An enduring form of energy as old as settlement in the region, residential wood-burning now takes its place beside modern biomass combustion systems in schools and other institutions, industrial cogeneration facilities, and utility-scale power plants. Biomass today represents more than 95 percent of all renewable energy consumed in the Northeast: a little more than one-half quadrillion BTUs yearly, or five percent of the region`s total energy demand. Yet given the region`s abundance of overstocked forests, municipal solid waste and processed wood residues, this represents just a fraction of the energy potential the biomass resource has to offer.This report provides an account of the work of the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) over it`s first ten years. The NRBP has undertaken projects to promote the use of biomass energy and technologies.

Savitt, S.; Morgan, S. [eds.] [Citizens Conservation Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

1995-01-01

397

Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels

G. D. Amman; M. W. Stock

1995-01-01

398

Multiscale spatial variation of the bark beetle Ips sexdentatus damage in a pine plantation forest (Landes de Gascogne, Southwestern France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bark beetles are notorious pests of natural and planted forests causing extensive damage. These insects depend on dead or weakened trees but can switch to healthy trees during an outbreak as mass-attacks allow the beetle to overwhelm tree defences. Climatic events like windstorms are known to favour bark beetle outbreaks because they create a large number of breeding sites, i.e.,

J.-P. Rossi; J.-C. Samalens; D. Guyon; I. van Halder; H. Jactel; P. Menassieu; D. Piou

2009-01-01

399

Solar abundances and granulation effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar abundances have undergone a major downward revision in the last decade, reputedly as a result of employing 3D hydrodynamical simulations to model the inhomogeneous structure of the solar photosphere. The very low oxygen abundance advocated by \\citet{asplund04}, A(O)=8.66, together with the downward revision of the carbon and nitrogen abundances, has created serious problems for solar models to explain the helioseismic measurements. In an effort to contribute to the dispute we have re-derived photospheric abundances of several elements independently of previous analysis. We applied a state-of-the art 3D (CO5BOLD) hydrodynamical simulation of the solar granulation as well as different 1D model atmospheres for the line by line spectroscopic abundance determinations. The analysis is based on both standard disc-centre and disc-integrated spectral atlases; for oxygen we acquired in addition spectra at different heliocentric angles. The derived abundances are the result of equivalent width and/or line profile fitting of the available atomic lines. We discuss the different granulation effects on solar abundances and compare our results with previous investigations. According to our investigations hydrodynamical models are important in the solar abundance determination, but are not responsible for the recent downward revision in the literature of the solar metallicity.

Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.

400

Differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, on Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Patterns of host use by herbivore pests can have serious consequences for natural and managed ecosystems but are often poorly understood. Here, we provide the first quantification of large differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and longleaf pine, Pinus palustris P. Mill., and evaluate putative mechanisms for the disparity. Spatially extensive survey data from recent epidemics indicate that, per square kilometre, stands of loblolly versus longleaf pine in four forests (380-1273 km2) sustained 3-18 times more local infestations and 3-116 times more tree mortality. Differences were not attributable to size or age structure of pine stands. Using pheromone-baited traps, we found no differences in the abundance of dispersing D. frontalis or its predator Thanasimus dubius Fabricius between loblolly and longleaf stands. Trapping triggered numerous attacks on trees, but the pine species did not differ in the probability of attack initiation or in the surface area of bark attacked by growing aggregations. We found no evidence for postaggregation mechanisms of discrimination or differential success on the two hosts, suggesting that early colonizers discriminate between host species before a pheromone plume is present. ?? 2007 NRC.

Friedenberg, N. A.; Whited, B. M.; Slone, D. H.; Martinson, S. J.; Ayres, M. P.

2007-01-01

401

Influence of body and genital morphology on relative male fertilization success in oriental beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the frequently large variance in relative male fertilization success when females are mated by more than 1 male has been appreciated for some time, the factors that influence relative paternity are still poorly understood. Recently, experimental evidence that morphology of male genitalia influences fertilization success has been documented in 2 water striders, a dung beetle, and a leaf beetle.

Erik J. Wenninger; Anne L. Averill

2006-01-01

402

Effectiveness of hand removal for small-scale management of Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

Hand removal is often recommended as a method for small-scale control of Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman). In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of daily hand removal for controlling damage by Japanese beetles on grape plants. We also investigated whether the timing of the removal (at 0800, 1400, or 1900 hours, or at all 3 periods) influenced the effectiveness of the technique. We found that hand removal significantly lowered the number of beetles on, and consequently the damage to, grape plants relative to nonremoval controls. Of the single removal treatments, removal of beetles at 1900 hours was most effective, with results similar to removing beetles three times per day. The majority of beetles removed from plants during the experiment were female, a pattern that matches our understanding of aggregation formation behavior in the species, and which may serve to enhance the benefits of hand removal. Hand removal seems to work by decreasing the number of feeding beetles, which in turn reduces the release of aggregation kairomones from the plant, and subsequently decreases the attractiveness of the plant to future beetles. PMID:24665713

Switzer, Paul V; Cumming, Ryan M

2014-02-01

403

Patterns of daily flight activity in onitine dung beetles (Scarabaeinae: Onitini)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different species of African dung beetles emerge from the soil at characteristic times of the day to fly and colonize the freshly-deposited dung of mammalian herbivores. Onitine dung beetles in their natural habitat displayed one of five distinctive daily flight behaviours: dusk crepuscular (Onitis alexis Klug, O. caffer Boheman, O. fulgidus Klug, O. tortuosus Houston, O. vanderkelleni Lansberge, O. westermanni

Stanley Caveney; Clarke H. Scholtz; Peter McIntyre

1995-01-01

404

Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine Forests Part II: Population Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the second of a three-part series of Gen. Tech. Rep. concerning the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests. Part II deals with the taxonomy, biology, and ecology of the beetle. Part II represents much original research by the authors but i...

G. D. Amman W. E. Cole

1983-01-01

405

The bionomics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests: establishing a context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the significant impacts of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) epidemics on the pine forests of western North America, there exists an extensive body of literature devoted to its bionomics. This paper reviews the critical aspects of mountain pine beetle biology and ecology that enable its eruptive population fluctuations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var.

Allan L. Carroll; Les Safranyik

406

Clutch size manipulations in two seed beetles: consequences for progeny fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) lay their eggs on discrete resource patches, such that competition among larvae for food is an important component of their biology. Most seed beetles, including Stator limbatus, lay eggs singly on individual seeds and avoid superparasitism except when seeds are limiting. In contrast, S. beali, a closely related congener, lays eggs in clutches on a single

Chales W. Fox; John D. Martin; Monica S. Thakar; Timothy A. Mousseau

1996-01-01

407

Carabid beetle communities as indicators of conservation potential in upland forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern England, large areas of marginal agricultural upland have been planted with conifers. This paper compares the assemblages of carabid beetles in such forests with those on unplanted grassland and moorland habitats nearby. Afforestation disrupted the characteristic ground beetle communities of these open upland habitats, and carabid species-richness was low in closed-canopy plantations. However, when all stages of the

J. Butterfield; M. L. Luff; M. Baines; M. D. Eyre

1995-01-01

408

Metabolic changes in the African fruit beetle, Pachnoda sinuata, during starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of the fruit beetle Pachnoda sinuata were starved for up to 30 days. The weight of the beetles declined consistently throughout the starvation period. Concentrations of carbohydrates and alanine in flight muscles, fat body and haemolymph decreased rapidly after onset of starvation, while the concentration of proline remained high. Whereas the lipid concentrations in the haemolymph did not change

Lutz Auerswald; Gerd Gäde

2000-01-01

409

Effects of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and silk clipping in field corn.  

PubMed

Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) is an emerging silk-feeding insect found in fields in the lower Corn Belt and Midsouthern United States. Studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate how silk clipping in corn affects pollination and yield parameters. Manually clipping silks once daily had modest effects on yield parameters. Sustained clipping by either manually clipping silks three times per day or by caging Japanese beetles onto ears affected total kernel weight if it occurred during early silking (R1 growth stage). Manually clipping silks three times per day for the first 5 d of silking affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Caged beetles fed on silks and, depending on the number of beetles caged per ear, reduced the number of kernels per ear. Caging eight beetles per ear significantly reduced total kernel weight compared with noninfested ears. Drought stress before anthesis appeared to magnify the impact of silk clipping by Japanese beetles. There was evidence of some compensation for reduced pollination by increasing the size of pollinated kernels within the ear. Our results showed that it requires sustained silk clipping during the first week of silking to have substantial impacts on pollination and yield parameters, at least under good growing conditions. Some states recommend treating for Japanese beetle when three Japanese beetles per ear are found, silks are clipped to < 13 mm, and pollination is < 50% complete, and that recommendation appears to be adequate. PMID:24224246

Steckel, Sandy; Stewart, S D; Tindall, K V

2013-10-01

410

Contrasting Responses of Southern House Spiders and Raccoons to Blister Beetle Prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female southern house spiders, Kukulcania hibernalis, readily consumed blister beetles, Lytta polita, regardless of cantharidin content when field-tested late in January and again three weeks later in February 1997. In contrast, free-ranging raccoons, Procyon lotor, initially ate many L. polita, particularly female beetles that contained only one third as much cantharidin as males, but when retested the raccoons ate only

James E. Carrel

1999-01-01

411

Identification of cantharidin in false blister beetles (Coleoptera, Oedemeridae) from florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cantharidin, a potent vesicant and antifeedant, is identified for the first time in two oedemerid beetles from the western hemisphere. Amounts of the substance per beetle were found to range from 2 to 7 µg inHeliocis repanda and from 15 to 35 µg inOxycopis thoracica. Females had two to three times more cantharidin than males of the same species. Cantharidin

James E. Carrel; James P. Doom; John P. McCormick

1986-01-01

412

Effects of carbaryl on the aminotransferases in the mid gut of blister beetle, Mylabris pustulata (Thunb)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity levels of aminotransferases such as alanine aminotransferases (AlAT), aspartate aminotransferases (AAT), isoleucine aminotranferases (IlAT), leucine aminotransferases (LAT), valine aminotrasferases (VAT) were measured in the mid gut of the blister beetle; Mylabris pustulata (Thunb) exposed to sublethal doses of carbaryl. The insecticide markedly inhibited the activity levels of all aminotransferases exposed for either short or prolonged treatments. The beetles

D. Bharathi

2008-01-01

413

BLISTER BEETLE DERMATOSIS. A REPORT OF 43 CASES IN A MILITARY UNIT IN ERITREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To present our experience of an outbreak of blister beetle dermatosis in a military unit. Methods: An outbreak of a blistering disease was reported in a Jordanian military unit participating in the United Nations mission in Eritrea. The unit was stationed in the Gash - Barka Eritrean province at the western border of the country. Blister beetles of the

Mamoun Al-Basheer; Munther Hijazi; Taisir Dama

2002-01-01

414

Further evidence for the role of Cantharidin in the mating behaviour of blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cantharidin is produced by blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and smaller oedemerid beetles (Coleopetra: Oedemeridae) and is found in hemolymph and various tissues. The function of cantharidin in the courtship behaviour of meloids had never been fully established. Our studies show a correlation between density of cuticular pores and cantharidin titre of the scape and pedicel segments of male specimens of

Mahmood Reza Nikbakhtzadeh; Claudia Hemp; Babak Ebrahimi

2007-01-01